WorldWideScience

Sample records for undergoing anticoagulation therapy

  1. Thromboembolic risk in 16 274 atrial fibrillation patients undergoing direct current cardioversion with and without oral anticoagulant therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Lock; Jepsen, Rikke Malene H G; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring

    2015-01-01

    -time DC cardioversion for atrial fibrillation between 2000 and 2008. Use of oral anticoagulant therapy within 90 days prior and 360 days after DC cardioversion was obtained from the Danish Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. The risk of thromboembolism was estimated by calculating incidence rates......AIMS: To study the risk of thromboembolism in a nationwide cohort of atrial fibrillation patients undergoing direct current (DC) cardioversion with or without oral anticoagulant coverage. METHODS AND RESULTS: A retrospective study of 16 274 patients in Denmark discharged from hospital after a first...... and by multivariable adjusted Cox proportional-hazard models. During the initial 30 days following discharge, the thromboembolic incidence rate was 10.33 per 100 patient-years for the no prior oral anticoagulant therapy group [n = 5084 (31.2%)], as compared with 4.00 per 100 patient-years for the prior oral...

  2. Measurement of warfarin in the oral fluid of patients undergoing anticoagulant oral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Ghimenti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients on warfarin therapy undergo invasive and expensive checks for the coagulability of their blood. No information on coagulation levels is currently available between two controls. METHODOLOGY: A method was developed to determine warfarin in oral fluid by HPLC and fluorimetric detection. The chromatographic separation was performed at room temperature on a C-18 reversed-phase column, 65% PBS and 35% methanol mobile phase, flow rate 0.7 mL/min, injection volume 25 µL, excitation wavelength 310 nm, emission wavelength 400 nm. FINDINGS: The method was free from interference and matrix effect, linear in the range 0.2-100 ng/mL, with a detection limit of 0.2 ng/mL. Its coefficient of variation was <3% for intra-day measurements and <5% for inter-day measurements. The average concentration of warfarin in the oral fluid of 50 patients was 2.5±1.6 ng/mL (range 0.8-7.6 ng/mL. Dosage was not correlated to INR (r = -0.03, p = 0.85 but positively correlated to warfarin concentration in the oral fluid (r = 0.39, p = 0.006. The correlation between warfarin concentration and pH in the oral fluid (r = 0.37, p = 0.009 confirmed the importance of pH in regulating the drug transfer from blood. A correlation between warfarin concentration in the oral fluid and INR was only found in samples with pH values ≥7.2 (r = 0.84, p = 0.004. CONCLUSIONS: Warfarin diffuses from blood to oral fluid. The method allows to measure its concentration in this matrix and to analyze correlations with INR and other parameters.

  3. The mythology of anticoagulation therapy interruption for dental surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    Continuous anticoagulation therapy is used to prevent heart attacks, strokes, and other embolic complications. When patients receiving anticoagulation therapy undergo dental surgery, a decision must be made about whether to continue anticoagulation therapy and risk bleeding complications or briefly interrupt anticoagulation therapy and increase the risk of developing embolic complications. Results from decades of studies of thousands of dental patients receiving anticoagulation therapy reveal that bleeding complications requiring more than local measures for hemostasis have been rare and never fatal. However, embolic complications (some of which were fatal and others possibly permanently debilitating) sometimes have occurred in patients whose anticoagulation therapy was interrupted for dental procedures. Although there is now virtually universal consensus among national medical and dental groups and other experts that anticoagulation therapy should not be interrupted for most dental surgery, there are still some arguments made supporting anticoagulation therapy interruption. An analysis of these arguments shows them to be based on a collection of myths and half-truths rather than on logical scientific conclusions. The time has come to stop anticoagulation therapy interruption for dental procedures. Copyright © 2018 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of clopidogrel with or without aspirin in patients taking oral anticoagulant therapy and undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: an open-label, randomised, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewilde, Willem J. M.; Oirbans, Tom; Verheugt, Freek W. A.; Kelder, Johannes C.; de Smet, Bart J. G. L.; Herrman, Jean-Paul; Adriaenssens, Tom; Vrolix, Mathias; Heestermans, Antonius A. C. M.; Vis, Marije M.; Tijsen, Jan G. P.; van 't Hof, Arnoud W.; ten Berg, Jurriën M.; Schölzel, B. E.; van den Branden, B. J.; Plokker, H. W. M.; Bosschaert, M. A.; Slagboom, T.; Vos, J.; Brueren, B. R. G.; Breet, N. J.; Sheikjoesoef, K.; Aarnoudse, W.; Rasoul, S.; van Mieghem, C.; Vandendriessche, T.; Cornelis, K.

    2013-01-01

    If percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is required in patients taking oral anticoagulants, antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel is indicated, but such triple therapy increases the risk of serious bleeding. We investigated the safety and efficacy of clopidogrel alone compared with

  5. Citrate Anticoagulation during Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Davide; Panicali, Laura; Facchini, Maria Grazia; Mancini, Elena

    2017-01-01

    During extracorporeal dialysis, some anticoagulation strategy is necessary to prevent the coagulation of blood. Heparin has historically been used as an anticoagulant because of its efficacy combined with low cost. However, a variable incidence of hemorrhagic complications (5-30%) has been documented in patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) with heparin as an anticoagulant. Citrate has anticoagulation properties secondary to its ability to chelate calcium, which is necessary for the coagulation cascade. Citrate may thus be used in a regional anticoagulation (RCA), limited to the extracorporeal circuit of CRRT, to avoid systemic anticoagulation. Recent meta-analysis confirmed the advantage of RCA over heparin in terms of incidence of bleeding during CRRT. Moreover, an increase in filter lifespan is documented, with a secondary advantage in reaching the prescribed dialysis dose. In our experience, we could confirm this positive effect. In fact, with a progressive increase in the proportion of CRRT with citrate as RCA, we obtained a reduction in the number of filters used for every 72 h of treatment (from 2.4 in 2011 to 1.3 in 2015), and most importantly, a reduction in the difference between the prescribed and delivered dialysis doses (from 22 to 7%). Citrate has an intense effect on the acid-base balance as well, if fully metabolized through the Krebs cycle, due to the production of bicarbonate. Even more severely ill patients, such as those with liver dysfunction, may be treated with RCA without severe complications, because modern machines for CRRT are equipped with simple systems that are able to manage the citrate infusion and control the calcium levels, with minimal risks of metabolic derangements. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Dual antiplatelet therapy versus oral anticoagulation plus dual antiplatelet therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation and low-to-moderate thromboembolic risk undergoing coronary stenting: design of the MUSICA-2 randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambola, Antonia; Montoro, J Bruno; Del Blanco, Bruno García; Llavero, Nadia; Barrabés, José A; Alfonso, Fernando; Bueno, Héctor; Cequier, Angel; Serra, Antonio; Zueco, Javier; Sabaté, Manel; Rodríguez-Leor, Oriol; García-Dorado, David

    2013-10-01

    Oral anticoagulation (OAC) is the recommended therapy for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) because it reduces the risk of stroke and other thromboembolic events. Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) is required after percutaneous coronary intervention and stenting (PCI-S). In patients with AF requiring PCI-S, the association of DAPT and OAC carries an increased risk of bleeding, whereas OAC therapy or DAPT alone may not protect against the risk of developing new ischemic or thromboembolic events. The MUSICA-2 study will test the hypothesis that DAPT compared with triple therapy (TT) in patients with nonvalvular AF at low-to-moderate risk of stroke (CHADS2 score ≤2) after PCI-S reduces the risk of bleeding and is not inferior to TT for preventing thromboembolic complications. The MUSICA-2 is a multicenter, open-label randomized trial that will compare TT with DAPT in patients with AF and CHADS2 score ≤2 undergoing PCI-S. The primary end point is the incidence of stroke or any systemic embolism or major adverse cardiac events: death, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, or target vessel revascularization at 1 year of PCI-S. The secondary end point is the combination of any cardiovascular event with major or minor bleeding at 1 year of PCI-S. The calculated sample size is 304 patients. The MUSICA-2 will attempt to determine the most effective and safe treatment in patients with nonvalvular AF and CHADS2 score ≤2 after PCI-S. Restricting TT for AF patients at high risk for stroke may reduce the incidence of bleeding without increasing the risk of thromboembolic complications. © 2013.

  7. Evidence-Based Management of Anticoagulant Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, Sam; Witt, Daniel M.; Vandvik, Per Olav; Fish, Jason; Kovacs, Michael J.; Svensson, Peter J.; Veenstra, David L.; Crowther, Mark; Guyatt, Gordon H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: High-quality anticoagulation management is required to keep these narrow therapeutic index medications as effective and safe as possible. This article focuses on the common important management questions for which, at a minimum, low-quality published evidence is available to guide best practices. Methods: The methods of this guideline follow those described in Methodology for the Development of Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis Guidelines: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines in this supplement. Results: Most practical clinical questions regarding the management of anticoagulation, both oral and parenteral, have not been adequately addressed by randomized trials. We found sufficient evidence for summaries of recommendations for 23 questions, of which only two are strong rather than weak recommendations. Strong recommendations include targeting an international normalized ratio of 2.0 to 3.0 for patients on vitamin K antagonist therapy (Grade 1B) and not routinely using pharmacogenetic testing for guiding doses of vitamin K antagonist (Grade 1B). Weak recommendations deal with such issues as loading doses, initiation overlap, monitoring frequency, vitamin K supplementation, patient self-management, weight and renal function adjustment of doses, dosing decision support, drug interactions to avoid, and prevention and management of bleeding complications. We also address anticoagulation management services and intensive patient education. Conclusions: We offer guidance for many common anticoagulation-related management problems. Most anticoagulation management questions have not been adequately studied. PMID:22315259

  8. Subdural hematoma and oral anticoagulant therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wintzen, A. R.; Tijssen, J. G.

    1982-01-01

    In a retrospective study of the period 1959 to 1978, the role of anticoagulant therapy (ACT) in the development of subdural hematoma (SH) was investigated. Of 212 cases, 46 were receiving ACT, a proportion highly in excess of the frequency of ACT in the general population of the Leiden area. In this

  9. Managing direct oral anticoagulants in patients undergoing dentoalveolar surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, J P; Woolcombe, S A; Patel, R K; Obisesan, O; Roberts, L N; Bryant, C; Arya, R

    2017-02-24

    Our objective was to describe our experience of managing a cohort of adult patients prescribed direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) undergoing dentoalveolar procedures between November 2012 and May 2016. Prior to conducting a procedure a formal assessment was made of each patient's anticoagulation treatment. A specific plan was then formulated, balancing the risk of bleeding with the risk of thrombosis. Patients received a telephone consultation one week following treatment to assess any post-operative bleeding. Eighty-two patients underwent 111 oral surgical procedures, the majority of which were dental extractions. In the case of 35 (32%) procedures, advice was given to omit the DOAC, either before or after treatment. There was no bleeding following the majority of procedures. Persistent bleeding followed 15 (13.5%) procedures, of which 7 (6.3%) procedures required specific intervention. The majority of patients prescribed DOACs can undergo dentoalveolar procedures safely. Important considerations when planning treatment are: (i) when the patient usually takes their dose of DOAC, (ii) the time the procedure is performed and, (iii) when the DOAC is taken post-procedure. In our experience, if these factors are considered carefully, omission of DOAC doses is unlikely to be required for most patients.

  10. Effects of computer-assisted oral anticoagulant therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rune Skovgaard; Corell, Pernille; Madsen, Poul

    2012-01-01

    : Patients randomized to computer-assisted anticoagulation and the CoaguChek® system reached the therapeutic target range after 8 days compared to 14 days by prescriptions from physicians (p = 0.04). Time spent in the therapeutic target range did not differ between groups. The median INR value measured...... prescribed by physicians, and the total time spent within the therapeutic target range was similar. Thus computer-assisted oral anticoagulant therapy may reduce the cost of anticoagulation therapy without lowering the quality. INR values measured by CoaguChek® were reliable compared to measurements......UNLABELLED: BACKGROUND: Computer-assistance and self-monitoring lower the cost and may improve the quality of anticoagulation therapy. The main purpose of this clinical investigation was to use computer-assisted oral anticoagulant therapy to improve the time to reach and the time spent within...

  11. Antiplatelet and anticoagulation regimen in patients with mechanical valve undergoing PCI - State-of-the-art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajanana, Deepakraj; Rogers, Toby; Iantorno, Micaela; Buchanan, Kyle D; Ben-Dor, Itsik; Pichard, Augusto D; Satler, Lowell F; Torguson, Rebecca; Okubagzi, Petros G; Waksman, Ron

    2018-04-02

    A common clinical dilemma regarding treatment of patients with a mechanical valve is the need for concomitant antiplatelet therapy for a variety of reasons, referred to as triple therapy. Triple therapy is when a patient is prescribed aspirin, a P2Y12 antagonist, and an oral anticoagulant. Based on the totality of the available evidence, best practice in 2017 for patients with mechanical valves undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is unclear. Furthermore, the optimal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy after PCI is evolving. With better valve designs that are less thrombogenic, the thromboembolic risks can be reduced at a lower international normalized ratio target, thus decreasing the bleeding risk. This review will offer an in-depth survey of current guidelines, current evidence, suggested approach for PCI in this cohort, and future studies regarding mechanical valve patients undergoing PCI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Self-management of oral anticoagulant therapy in two centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Hanna; Grove, E; Larsen, Torben Bjerregaard

    of Cardiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus; 3Department of Cardiology, Aalborg Hospital & Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark haana_86@hotmail.com Objectives: Patient-self-management (PSM) of oral anticoagulant therapy with vitamin K antagonists have...

  13. Standardisation of the Laboratory Control of Anticoagulant Therapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-09-11

    Sep 11, 1974 ... Anticoagulant therapy with the coumarin group of drugs has been used in clinical practice for more than a quarter of a century. The most widely used form of laboratory control of the treatment is the Quick one-stage prothrom·- bin time. I. This simple test proved to be satisfactory in most cases, but discrepant ...

  14. Local hemostatic measures in anticoagulated patients undergoing oral surgery: a systematized literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Wildson Gurgel Costa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To conduct a systematized review of the literature about the main local hemostatic measures to control postoperative bleeding in anticoagulated patients. METHODS: A systematized review of literature was performed in the electronic database Medline (PubMed without restriction of the publication date. The eligibility criteria were studies involving maintenance of the anticoagulant therapy, prospective studies, retrospective studies, randomized clinical trials, controlled clinical studies, comparative studies, multicentric studies or case-control studies. Studies discontinuing anticoagulant therapy, case reports, literature reviews, in vitro studies, animal experiments and articles written in language not compatible with the search strategy adopted in this work were excluded. RESULTS: Twenty-four articles that met the adopted eligibility criteria were selected, enrolling 3891 subjects under anticoagulant therapy. A total of 171 cases of hemorrhage was observed. Tranexamic acid was the main local hemostatic measure used to controlling of postoperative bleeding. CONCLUSION: The local hemostatic measures proved to be effective according to previously published studies. Nevertheless, further clinical studies should be conducted to confirm this effectiveness.

  15. Renal Infarction during Anticoagulant Therapy after Living Donor Liver Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Onda

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Liver transplant recipients are at risk for complications of vascular thrombosis. The reconstructed hepatic artery and portal vein thrombosis potentially result in hepatic failure and graft loss. Renal infarction is a rare clinical condition, but in severe cases, it may lead to renal failure. We herein report a case of renal infarction after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT during anticoagulant therapy. Case Presentation: A 60-year-old woman with end-stage liver disease due to primary biliary cholangitis underwent LDLT with splenectomy. Postoperatively, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroid were used for initial immunosuppression therapy. On postoperative day (POD 5, enhanced computed tomography (CT revealed splenic vein thrombosis, and anticoagulant therapy with heparin followed by warfarin was given. Follow-up enhanced CT on POD 20 incidentally demonstrated right renal infarction. The patient’s renal function was unchanged and the arterial flow was good, and the splenic vein thrombosis resolved. At 4 months postoperatively, warfarin was discontinued, but she developed recurrent splenic vein thrombosis 11 months later, and warfarin was resumed. As of 40 months after transplantation, she discontinued warfarin and remains well without recurrence of splenic vein thrombosis or renal infarction. Conclusion: Renal infarction is a rare complication of LDLT. In this case, renal infarction was incidentally diagnosed during anticoagulant therapy and was successfully treated.

  16. Diagnostic imaging of severe rectus sheath hematoma complicating anticoagulant therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, A.; Bui, P.; Boccaccini, H.; Bresler, L.; Claudon, M.; Boissel, P.; Regent, D.

    1995-01-01

    CT were performed in thirteen patients (12 women, 1 man) aged from 53 to 90 (mean age, 74) with severe RSH. Five patients also underwent ultrasound examination and three MR examination. Nine patients (69%) were receiving subcutaneous injection of heparin, three (23%) oral anticoagulant therapy and one continuous IV infusion of heparin. Clinical diagnosis was reached in 6 cases. Excessive activity of anticoagulant therapy was noted in 4 cases. The location of the RSH, their densities and their signals were analysed. All the RSH were mostly developed in the lower third of the abdominal wall, had a large spreading into the Retzius space and compressed the bladder and/or the bowels. RSH were all hyperdense and in 8 cases (61%) a fluid-fluid level due to the hematocrit effect was noted. In one case, a retroperitoneal hematoma was discovered. The extension of the RSH was well delineated with MRI. The RSH showed itself with heterogeneous signal intensities with areas of high-signal-intensity on T1-weighted images. Fluid-fluid levels and a concentric ring sign were also noted. Older women with subcutaneous injection of heparin are especially prone to RSH even though there is no overall excessive activity of anticoagulant therapy. Clinical and biological diagnosis may be difficult. CT scan is the exam of choice to reach a precise and acute diagnosis of RSH. (authors). 34 refs., 8 figs

  17. Electroconvulsive therapy and anticoagulation after pulmonary embolism: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Lazaro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is considered the most effective treatment for catatonia regardless its underlying condition. The rigid fixed posture and immobility observed in catatonia may lead to several clinical complications, of which, pulmonary embolism (PE is one of the most severe. The rapid improvement of the psychiatric condition in catatonia-related PE is essential, since immobility favors the occurrence of new thromboembolic events and further complications. In that scenario, ECT should be considered, based on a risk-benefit analysis, aiming at the faster resolution of the catatonia. Methods Case report and literature review. Results A 66-years-old woman admitted to the psychiatric ward with catatonia due to a depressive episode presented bilateral PE. Clinically stable, but still severely depressed after a trial of antidepressants, she was treated with ECT in the course of full anticoagulation with enoxaparin. After five ECT sessions, her mood was significantly better and she was walking and eating spontaneously. She did not present complications related either to PE or to anticoagulation. After the eighth ECT session, she evolved with hypomania, which was managed with oral medication adjustments. The patient was completely euthymic at discharge. Conclusion The case we presented provides further evidence to the anecdotal case reports on the safety of ECT in the course of concomitant full anticoagulant therapy after PE, and illustrates how, with the proper precautions, the benefits of ECT in such condition might outweigh its risks.

  18. APPLICATIONS OF PHARMACOGENETIC TESTING FOR PERSONALIZATION OF THERAPY WITH ORAL ANTICOAGULANTS IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Sychev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical significance of the patient genetic characteristics in the individual pharmacological response to oral anticoagulants is considered. Possible tactics of warfarin dosing and new oral anticoagulants choice on the basis of pharmacogenetic testing as well as indications for this approach in clinical practice are discussed. It should increase efficacy and safety of anticoagulant therapy.

  19. Assessment of bleeding during minor oral surgical procedures and extraction in patients on anticoagulant therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Jimson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The risk of postoperative hemorrhage from oral surgical procedures has been a concern in the treatment of patients who are receiving long-term anticoagulation therapy. A study undertaken in our institution to address questions about the amount and severity of bleeding associated with minor outpatient oral surgery procedures by assessing bleeding in patients who did not alter their anticoagulant regimen. Subjects and Methods: Eighty-three patients receiving long-term anticoagulant therapy visited Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery from May 2010 to October 2011 for extractions and minor oral surgical procedures. Each patient was required to undergo preoperative assessment of prothrombin time (PT and measurement of the international normalized ratio. Fifty-six patients with preoperative PT values within the therapeutic range 3-4 were included in the study. The patients′ age ranged between 30 and 75 years. Application of surgispon was done following the procedure. Extraction of teeth performed with minimal trauma to the surrounding tissues, the socket margins sutured, and sutures removed after 5 days. Results: There was no significant incidence of prolonged or excessive hemorrhage and wound infection and the healing process was normal.

  20. Adherence to oral anticoagulant therapy in secondary stroke prevention – impact of the novel oral anticoagulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luger S

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sebastian Luger,1 Carina Hohmann,2 Daniela Niemann,1 Peter Kraft,3 Ignaz Gunreben,3 Tobias Neumann-Haefelin,2 Christoph Kleinschnitz,3 Helmuth Steinmetz,1 Christian Foerch,1 Waltraud Pfeilschifter1 1Department of Neurology, University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, 2Department of Neurology, Klinikum Fulda gAG, Fulda, 3Department of Neurology, University Hospital Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany Background: Oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT potently prevents strokes in patients with atrial fibrillation. Vitamin K antagonists (VKA have been the standard of care for long-term OAT for decades, but non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOAC have recently been approved for this indication, and raised many questions, among them their influence on medication adherence. We assessed adherence to VKA and NOAC in secondary stroke prevention. Methods: All patients treated from October 2011 to September 2012 for ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack with a subsequent indication for OAT, at three academic hospitals were entered into a prospective registry, and baseline data and antithrombotic treatment at discharge were recorded. At the 1-year follow-up, we assessed the adherence to different OAT strategies and patients’ adherence to their respective OAT. We noted OAT changes, reasons to change treatment, and factors that influence persistence to the prescribed OAT. Results: In patients discharged on OAT, we achieved a fatality corrected response rate of 73.3% (n=209. A total of 92% of these patients received OAT at the 1-year follow-up. We observed good adherence to both VKA and NOAC (VKA, 80.9%; NOAC, 74.8%; P=0.243 with a statistically nonsignificant tendency toward a weaker adherence to dabigatran. Disability at 1-year follow-up was an independent predictor of lower adherence to any OAT after multivariate analysis, whereas the choice of OAT did not have a relevant influence. Conclusion: One-year adherence to OAT after stroke is strong (>90% and patients

  1. Anticoagulated patient's perception of their illness, their beliefs about the anticoagulant therapy prescribed and the relationship with adherence: impact of novel oral anticoagulant therapy - study protocol for The Switching Study: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auyeung, Vivian; Patel, Jignesh P; Abdou, John K; Vadher, Bipin; Bonner, Lynda; Brown, Alison; Roberts, Lara N; Patel, Raj K; Arya, Roopen

    2016-01-01

    Anticoagulant therapy is prescribed for millions of patients worldwide for the prevention and treatment of both arterial and venous thrombosis. Historically, only vitamin K antagonists have been available for clinicians to prescribe. The anticoagulation landscape is changing. The recent availability of the novel oral anticoagulants overcome many of the disadvantages associated with vitamin K antagonists. However the lack of formal monitoring and clinic follow-up is a concern for clinicians, as medication adherence is being assumed, which is known to decline in patients prescribed medications for chronic conditions. The switching study is a programme of work investigating the association between medication adherence and patient's beliefs about anticoagulation therapy (warfarin and subsequently novel oral anticoagulants), together with beliefs about their illness and anticoagulation related quality of life. The anticoagulation database at King's College Hospital will be interrogated and two groups of patients will be identified; those with a time in therapeutic range on warfarin of ≥75 % and those beliefs about medications compared. Those patients in the time in therapeutic range beliefs about medications, re-evaluated on the novel agent. The results from these sub-studies, will inform a clinical pathway to support patients on these novel agents, which will be evaluated in an independent group of patients. The results from the switching study will be used to develop a clinical pathway to support patient's prescribed novel oral anticoagulant therapy long-term.

  2. Control of anticoagulant therapy and quality of life of patients with atrial fibrillation (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shvarts Y.G.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The review presents the published data on the relevance of the problem of thromboembolic complications in atrial fibrillation, the peculiarities of anticoagulant therapy for this disease. The relationship of clinical characteristics of patients with anticoagulant dose adjustment algorithms has been described. The problem of ethical issues of out of clinical trials patients and the dynamics of their quality of life against the background of long-term use of anticoagulant have been considered.

  3. Atrial Fibrillation in Embolic Stroke: Anticoagulant Therapy at UNTH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The decision to commence anticoagulation in a patient with embolic stroke and atrial fibrillation (AF) is often a difficult one for many clinicians. The result can have significant impact on the patient. This study was therefore undertaken to review the use of anticoagulation in embolic stroke in the setting of atrial ...

  4. Anticoagulant therapy and its impact on dental patients: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thean, D; Alberghini, M

    2016-06-01

    Several new oral anticoagulants have been studied in the past decade, and have now started to enter the market. These drugs are reported to be as effective as, or more effective than, warfarin. In Australia, the Therapeutic Goods Administration has approved dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban. The use of these newer anticoagulants is likely to increase in time, and it is important for dentists to have a sound understanding of the mechanisms of action, reversal strategies, and management guidelines for patients taking oral anticoagulants. This article discusses the process of coagulation, available anticoagulants and their monitoring and reversal, and provides clinical advice on the management of patients on anticoagulants who require dental treatment. © 2016 Australian Dental Association.

  5. Recurrent venous thromboembolism and abnormal uterine bleeding with anticoagulant and hormone therapy use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinelli, Ida; Lensing, Anthonie W. A.; Middeldorp, Saskia; Levi, Marcel; Beyer-Westendorf, Jan; van Bellen, Bonno; Bounameaux, Henri; Brighton, Timothy A.; Cohen, Alexander T.; Trajanovic, Mila; Gebel, Martin; Lam, Phuong; Wells, Philip S.; Prins, Martin H.

    2016-01-01

    Women receiving vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) require adequate contraception because of the potential for fetal complications. It is unknown whether the use of hormonal therapy, especially those containing estrogens, is associated with recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) during anticoagulation.

  6. Net clinical benefit of combination anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy versus anticoagulation alone in atrial fibrillation patients: Results from the amadeus trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lane, Deirdre; Kamphuisen, Pieter; Minini, Pascal; De Peuter, Olaf R.; Buller, Harry R.; Lip, Gregory Y. H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: To compare the effect of combination anticoagulant and antiplatelet (AP) therapy with anticoagulation alone on stroke and bleeding risk in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients and examine predictors of clinically relevant bleeding. Methods: Post-hoc analysis of 4576 AF patients [mean (SD)

  7. Benefit of Anticoagulation Therapy in Hyperthyroidism-Related Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Pak-Hei; Hai, Jojo; Yeung, Chun-Yip; Lip, Gregory Y H; Lam, Karen Siu-Ling; Tse, Hung-Fat; Siu, Chung-Wah

    2015-08-01

    Existing data on the risk of ischemic stroke in hyperthyroidism-related atrial fibrillation (AF) and the impact of long-term anticoagulation in these patients, particularly those with self-limiting AF, remain inconclusive. Risk of stroke in hyperthyroidism-related AF is the same as nonhyperthyroid counterparts. This was a single-center observational study of 9727 Chinese patients with nonvalvular AF from July 1997 to December 2011. Patients with AF diagnosed concomitantly with hyperthyroidism were identified. Primary and secondary endpoints were defined as hospitalization with ischemic stroke and intracranial hemorrhage in the first 2 years. Patient characteristics, duration of AF, and choice of antithrombotic therapy were recorded. Self-limiting AF was defined as hyperthyroidism and AF at diagnosis. For stroke prevention, 136 and 243 patients (21.1% and 37.9%) were prescribed warfarin and aspirin, respectively, whereas the remaining patients (41.0%) received no therapy. Ischemic stroke occurred in 50 patients (7.8%), and no patient developed hemorrhagic stroke. Patients with CHA2 DS2 -VASc of 0 did not develop stroke. Warfarin effectively reduced the incidence of stroke compared with aspirin or no therapy in patients with CHA2 DS2 -VASc ≥1 and non-self-limiting AF, but not in those with self-limiting AF or CHA2 DS2 -VASc of 0. Presence of hyperthyroidism did not confer additional risk of ischemic stroke compared with nonhyperthyroid AF. Patients with hyperthyroidism-related AF are at high risk of stroke (3.9% per year). Warfarin confers stroke prevention in patients with CHA2 DS2 -VASc ≥1 and non-self-limiting AF. Overall stroke risk was lower in hyperthyroid non-self-limiting AF patients compared with nonhyperthyroid counterparts. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Anticoagulation therapy a risk factor for the development of chronic subdural hematoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aspegren, Oskar P.; Åstrand, Ramona; Lundgren, Maria I.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a common disease among the elderly and with increasing incidence we have chosen to focus on associations between development and recurrence of CSDH and anticoagulation and/or antiplatelet agent therapy.......Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a common disease among the elderly and with increasing incidence we have chosen to focus on associations between development and recurrence of CSDH and anticoagulation and/or antiplatelet agent therapy....

  9. Will NOACs become the new standard of care in anticoagulation therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergene Oktay

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation is the most common cardiac arrhythmia in the general population, with a prevalence of 1–3%, which increases with age, reaching 15% in elderly people. Prophylaxis of ischemic stroke with warfarin was the gold standard of medical management for many years. On the other hand heparin and warfarin was the main pharmacologic agents for the prophylaxis/treatment of venous thromboembolism. In the last 5 years warfarin is getting replaced by non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants at least partly. In this article it is attempted to foresee whether new oral anticoagulants will become the new standard of care in anticoagulation therapy.

  10. Nonoclusive thrombosis of mechanical mitral valve prosthesis caused by inadequate treatment of anticoagulant therapy resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Branislava

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Oral anticoagulants have been used in the prevention of thromboembolic complications for over six decades. A rare, but possible problem in the application of these medications could be resistance to them. Case report. We presented a patient with nonocclusive thrombosis of the mechanical mitral prosthesis due to inadequately treated resistance to peroral anticoagulant therapy. Resistance to oral anticoagulant medications was proven by an increased dosage of warfarin up to 20 mg and, after that, acenokumarol to 15 mg over ten days which did not lead to an increase in the international normalized ratio (INR value over 1.2. On the basis of information that she did not take food rich in vitamin K or medications which could reduce effects of oral anticoagulants, and that she did not have additional illnesses and conditions that could cause an inadequate response to anticoagulant therapy, it was circumstantially concluded that this was a hereditary form of resistance. Because of the existing mechanical prosthetics on the mitral position, low molecular heparin has been introduced into the therapy. The patient reduced it on her own initiative, leading to nonocclusive valvular thrombosis. Conclusion. When associated complications like absolute arrhithmia does not exist, the finding of resistance to oral anticoagulant agents is an indication for the replacement of a mechanical prosthetic with a biological one which has been done in this patients.

  11. Vitamin K and stability of oral anticoagulant therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rombouts, Eva Karolien

    2011-01-01

    One of the causes of unstable anticoagulation is a variable vitamin K intake. The main objective of this thesis was to test the hypothesis that the INR is particularly sensitive to changes in vitamin K intake when vitamin K status is low, and that patients with a low vitamin K intake would therefore

  12. Haemorrhage in the labyrinth caused by anticoagulant therapy: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callonnec, F.; Gerardin, E.; Thiebot, J.; Marie, J.P.; Andrieu Guitrancourt, J.; Marsot-Dupuch, K.

    1999-01-01

    We report a patient who experienced a severe vertiginous episode with bilateral tinnitus and progressive right-sided hearing loss. She had Marfan's disease and was on anticoagulant treatment. The fluid in the labyrinth gave higher signal than cerebrospinal fluid on T1-weighted images, suggesting haemorrhage. The radiological follow-up is discussed. (orig.)

  13. Haemorrhage in the labyrinth caused by anticoagulant therapy: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callonnec, F; Gerardin, E; Thiebot, J [Department of Radiology, Rouen University Hospital, 1 rue de Germont, F-76031 Rouen cedex (France); Marie, J P; Andrieu Guitrancourt, J [Department of Otolaryngology, Rouen University Hospital (France); Marsot-Dupuch, K [Department of Radiology, St. Antoine, Paris University Hospital (France)

    1999-06-01

    We report a patient who experienced a severe vertiginous episode with bilateral tinnitus and progressive right-sided hearing loss. She had Marfan`s disease and was on anticoagulant treatment. The fluid in the labyrinth gave higher signal than cerebrospinal fluid on T1-weighted images, suggesting haemorrhage. The radiological follow-up is discussed. (orig.) With 2 figs., 11 refs.

  14. Healthcare resources and needs in anticoagulant therapy for patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. SAMOA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, V; Egocheaga-Cabello, M I; Gállego-Culleré, J; Ignacio-García, E; Manzano-Espinosa, L; Martín-Martínez, A; Mateo-Arranz, J; Polo-García, J; Vargas-Ortega, D

    2017-05-01

    To determine, in the various medical specialties, the healthcare process for anticoagulated patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, to determine the available and necessary resources and to identify potential areas of improvement in the care of these patients. We performed a cross-sectional survey of primary care and specialised physicians involved in the care of anticoagulated patients. The questionnaires referred to the healthcare process, the indication and prescription of anticoagulant therapy and the barriers and deficiencies present for these patients. A total of 893 physicians participated in the study, 437 of whom worked in primary care and 456 of whom were specialists (mostly cardiologists). Forty-two percent of the family doctors indicated that they assessed and prescribed anticoagulant therapy, and 66% performed the regular follow-up of these patients. In both healthcare settings, the physicians noted the lack of standardised protocols. There was also a lack of quality control in the treatment. The role of primary care in managing anticoagulated patients has grown compared with previous reports. The responses of the participating physicians suggest marked gaps in the standardisation of the healthcare process and several areas for improvement in these patients' follow-up. The promotion of training in direct-acting anticoagulant drugs remains pivotal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  15. D-dimer: a useful tool in gauging optimal duration of oral anticoagulant therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Silingardi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY Optimal duration of oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT in idiopathic venous thromboembolism (VTE is unknown. Indefinite OAT carries an unacceptable risk of major bleeding and prospective studies have demonstrated that OAT is no longer protective after its withdrawal. How to identify the patients at risk for recurrence? D-dimer is a marker of thrombin activity. Early prospective studies showed that elevated D-dimer levels after anticoagulation had a highly predictive value for a recurrent episode. Does D-dimer assay have a role in gauging the appropriate duration of anticoagulant therapy? The PROLONG study tries to answer this question. METHOD D-dimer assay was performed one month after stopping anticoagulation. Patiens with normal D-dimer levels did not resume anticoagulation while patients with elevated D-dimer levels were randomized to discontinue or resume anticoagulation. Study end-points was the composite of recurrent VTE and major bleeding during an average follow-up of 1.4 years. RESULTS The rate of recurrence is significantly higher in patients with elevated D-dimer levels who discontinued anticoagulation. Resuming anticoagulation in this cohort of patients markedly reduces recurrent events without increasing major bleeding. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS PROLONG study is provocative, because D-dimer assay is simple, thus not requiring dedicated laboratory facilities. D-dimer test has otherwise high sensitivity but low specificity in VTE diagnosis. Aspecifically elevated D-dimer levels are available in the elderly and the majority of patients included in the study were > 65 years old, thus introducing a possible selection bias. Nonetheless the results of the study are useful for the clinician. Prolongation of vitamin K antagonists in patients with elevated D-dimer levels one month after discontinuation of OAT for a first unprovoked episode of VTE results in a favourable risk-benefit relationship. Probably this

  16. Economic evaluation of strategies for restarting anticoagulation therapy after a first event of unprovoked venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, M; Ensor, J; Moore, D; Fitzmaurice, D; Jowett, S

    2017-08-01

    Essentials Correct duration of treatment after a first unprovoked venous thromboembolism (VTE) is unknown. We assessed when restarting anticoagulation was worthwhile based on patient risk of recurrent VTE. When the risk over a one-year period is 17.5%, restarting is cost-effective. However, sensitivity analyses indicate large uncertainty in the estimates. Background Following at least 3 months of anticoagulation therapy after a first unprovoked venous thromboembolism (VTE), there is uncertainty about the duration of therapy. Further anticoagulation therapy reduces the risk of having a potentially fatal recurrent VTE but at the expense of a higher risk of bleeding, which can also be fatal. Objective An economic evaluation sought to estimate the long-term cost-effectiveness of using a decision rule for restarting anticoagulation therapy vs. no extension of therapy in patients based on their risk of a further unprovoked VTE. Methods A Markov patient-level simulation model was developed, which adopted a lifetime time horizon with monthly time cycles and was from a UK National Health Service (NHS)/Personal Social Services (PSS) perspective. Results Base-case model results suggest that treating patients with a predicted 1 year VTE risk of 17.5% or higher may be cost-effective if decision makers are willing to pay up to £20 000 per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained. However, probabilistic sensitivity analysis shows that the model was highly sensitive to overall parameter uncertainty and caution is warranted in selecting the optimal decision rule on cost-effectiveness grounds. Univariate sensitivity analyses indicate variables such as anticoagulation therapy disutility and mortality risks were very influential in driving model results. Conclusion This represents the first economic model to consider the use of a decision rule for restarting therapy for unprovoked VTE patients. Better data are required to predict long-term bleeding risks during therapy in this

  17. Practice points in gynecardiology: Abnormal uterine bleeding in premenopausal women taking oral anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Angela H E M; Euler, Mia von; Bongers, Marlies Y; Rolden, Herbert J A; Grutters, Janneke P C; Ulrich, Lian; Schenck-Gustafsson, Karin

    2015-12-01

    A growing number of premenopausal women are currently using antithrombotic and/or (dual) antiplatelet therapy for various cardiovascular indications. These may induce or exacerbate abnormal uterine bleeding and more awareness and knowledge among prescribers is required. Heavy and irregular menstrual bleeding is common in women in their forties and may have a variety of underlying causes that require different treatment options. Thus using anticoagulants in premenopausal women demands specific expertise and close collaboration between cardiovascular physicians and gynecologists. In this article we summarize the scope of the problem and provide practical recommendations for the care for young women taking anticoagulants and/or (dual) antiplatelet therapy. We also recommend that more safety data on uterine bleeding with novel anticoagulants in premenopausal women should be obtained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cost evaluation of two methods of post tooth extraction hemostasis in patients on anticoagulant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zusman, S P; Lustig, J P; Bin Nun, G

    1993-06-01

    The classical management of patients on oral anticoagulant therapy included hospitalisation, cessation of the anticoagulant agent, and extraction of teeth when the prothrombine levels rise. This method was substituted in the High Risk Dental Clinic at Barzilai Medical Center in Ashkelon by use of a tissue sealant (Tisseel) which does not need hospitalisation nor cessation of the anticoagulant therapy. In comparing the last 23 sessions employing the former method to the first 23 sessions using the new method there were significant differences in the cost effectiveness for the health system, provider, insurer and patient. Despite the fact that from the health system point of view the new method is much more cost effective, there is no financial incentive for the provider (hospital) nor awareness on the part of the insurer (General Sick Fund) to embrace it and 'market' it.

  19. Atrial fibrillation and stroke prevention practices in patients with candidacy for anticoagulation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, I.; Ahmad, S.; Hayat, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stroke secondary to Atrial Fibrillation is usually due to thrombi formed in the left atrium and left atrial appendage embolizing to cause ischemic stroke. Therefore, in patients with Atrial Fibrillation, antithrombotic therapy is recommended to prevent stroke. Vitamin K antagonist therapy is most widely used antithrombotic therapy for patients with valvular and non valvular AF. Aspirin is recommended only in low risk patients. This study was conducted to determine the stroke prevention practices in local patients with atrial fibrillation who were candidates for anticoagulation therapy. Method: This was descriptive cross sectional study conducted at Cardiovascular Department Lady Reading Hospital Peshawar and Cardiology Department Hayatabad Medical Complex Peshawar. Sampling technique was non probability consecutive. Patients visiting OPD of respective hospitals with EKG evidence of AF and having CHADES VASC score 2 or more or having mitral stenosis and AF were included in the study. Patients with additional indications for anticoagulation were excluded from the study. Results: A total of 205 patients with atrial fibrillation were studied. Mean age was 60.7±14.7 years. Male were 55.6 percentage (n=114) while 44.4 percentage (n=91) were female. Of these 149 (72.7 percentage) were candidates for anticoagulation based on CHA2DS2 VASc score of 2 and more or mitral stenosis with AF. Only 27.5 percentage (n=41) patients were adequately treated with anticoagulant therapy using VKA or novel oral anticoagulant drugs. Majority of them were getting dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT). Conclusion: Most patients with AF and high risk characteristics for thromboembolism are not receiving proper stroke prevention therapies. (author)

  20. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and adjusted observational results of use of clopidogrel, aspirin, and oral anticoagulants in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Ascenzo, Fabrizio; Taha, Salma; Moretti, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The optimal antiaggregant therapy after coronary stenting in patients receiving oral anticoagulants (OACs) is currently debated. MEDLINE and Cochrane Library were searched for studies reporting outcomes of patients who underwent PCI and who were on triple therapy (TT) or dual-antiplatelet therapy...

  1. Recurrent venous thromboembolism and abnormal uterine bleeding with anticoagulant and hormone therapy use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Ida; Lensing, Anthonie W A; Middeldorp, Saskia; Levi, Marcel; Beyer-Westendorf, Jan; van Bellen, Bonno; Bounameaux, Henri; Brighton, Timothy A; Cohen, Alexander T; Trajanovic, Mila; Gebel, Martin; Lam, Phuong; Wells, Philip S; Prins, Martin H

    2016-03-17

    Women receiving vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) require adequate contraception because of the potential for fetal complications. It is unknown whether the use of hormonal therapy, especially those containing estrogens, is associated with recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) during anticoagulation. Despite the absence of data, World Health Organization guidelines state that use of estrogen-containing contraceptives confers an "unacceptable health risk" during established anticoagulation for VTE. We compared the incidences of recurrent VTE and abnormal uterine bleeding with and without concomitant hormonal therapy in women aged abnormal uterine bleeding. In total, 1888 women were included. VTE incidence densities on and off hormonal therapy were 3.7%/year and 4.7%/year (adjusted HR, 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23-1.39), respectively, and were 3.7%/year and 3.8%/year, respectively, for estrogen-containing and progestin-only therapy. The adjusted HR for all abnormal uterine bleeding (on vs off hormonal therapy) was 1.02 (95% CI, 0.66-1.57). Abnormal uterine bleeding occurred more frequently with rivaroxaban than with enoxaparin/VKA (HR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.57-2.89). Hormonal therapy was not associated with an increased risk of recurrent VTE in women receiving therapeutic anticoagulation. The observed increased risk of abnormal uterine bleeding with rivaroxaban needs further exploration. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  2. Risks and benefits of citrate anticoagulation for continuous renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shum, H P; Yan, W W; Chan, T M

    2015-04-01

    Heparin, despite its significant side-effects, is the most commonly used anticoagulant for continuous renal replacement therapy in critical care setting. In recent years, citrate has gained much popularity by improving continuous renal replacement therapy circuit survival and decreasing blood transfusion requirements. However, its complex metabolic consequences warrant modification in the design of the citrate-based continuous renal replacement therapy protocol. With thorough understanding of the therapeutic mechanism of citrate, a simple and practicable protocol can be devised. Citrate-based continuous renal replacement therapy can be safely and widely used in the clinical setting with appropriate clinical staff training.

  3. Performance of the HEMORR(2)HAGES, ATRIA, and HAS-BLED Bleeding Risk-Prediction Scores in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Undergoing Anticoagulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apostolakis, Stavros; Lane, Deirdre A.; Guo, Yutao; Buller, Harry; Lip, Gregory Y. H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to compare the predictive performance of bleeding risk-estimation tools in a cohort of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing anticoagulation. Background Three bleeding risk-prediction schemes have been derived for and validated in patients with

  4. Is Endoscopic Therapy Safe for Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Anticoagulated Patients With Supratherapeutic International Normalized Ratios?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Choong Nam; Chung, Hyun Soo; Park, Jun Chul; Shin, Sung Kwan; Lee, Sang Kil; Lee, Yong Chan; Kim, Ha Yan; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    The management of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) in anticoagulated patients with supratherapeutic international normalized ratios (INRs) presents a challenge. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the safety of endoscopic therapy for UGIB in anticoagulated patients with supratherapeutic INR in terms of rebleeding and therapeutic outcomes. One hundred ninety-two anticoagulated patients who underwent endoscopic treatment for UGIB were enrolled in the study. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on the occurrence of rebleeding within 30 days of the initial therapeutic endoscopy: no-rebleeding group (n = 168) and rebleeding group (n = 24). The overall rebleeding rate was 12.5%. Bleeding from gastric cancer and bleeding at the duodenum were significantly related to rebleeding in a univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis determined that presenting symptoms other than melena (hematemesis, hematochezia, or others) (odds ratio, 3.93; 95% confidence interval, 1.44-10.76) and bleeding from gastric cancer (odds ratio, 6.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-29.25) were significant factors predictive of rebleeding. Supratherapeutic INR at the time of endoscopic therapy was not significantly associated with rebleeding in either univariate or multivariate analysis. Significant differences in bleeding-related mortality, additional intervention to control bleeding, length of hospital stay, and transfusion requirements were revealed between the rebleeding and no-rebleeding groups. There were no significant differences in therapeutic outcomes between patients with INR within the therapeutic range and those with supratherapeutic INR. Supratherapeutic INR at the time of endoscopic therapy did not change rebleeding and therapeutic outcomes. Thus, we should consider endoscopic therapy for UGIB in anticoagulated patients, irrespective of INR at the time of endoscopic therapy.

  5. Using Artificial Intelligence to Reduce the Risk of Nonadherence in Patients on Anticoagulation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labovitz, Daniel L; Shafner, Laura; Reyes Gil, Morayma; Virmani, Deepti; Hanina, Adam

    2017-05-01

    This study evaluated the use of an artificial intelligence platform on mobile devices in measuring and increasing medication adherence in stroke patients on anticoagulation therapy. The introduction of direct oral anticoagulants, while reducing the need for monitoring, have also placed pressure on patients to self-manage. Suboptimal adherence goes undetected as routine laboratory tests are not reliable indicators of adherence, placing patients at increased risk of stroke and bleeding. A randomized, parallel-group, 12-week study was conducted in adults (n=28) with recently diagnosed ischemic stroke receiving any anticoagulation. Patients were randomized to daily monitoring by the artificial intelligence platform (intervention) or to no daily monitoring (control). The artificial intelligence application visually identified the patient, the medication, and the confirmed ingestion. Adherence was measured by pill counts and plasma sampling in both groups. For all patients (n=28), mean (SD) age was 57 years (13.2 years) and 53.6% were women. Mean (SD) cumulative adherence based on the artificial intelligence platform was 90.5% (7.5%). Plasma drug concentration levels indicated that adherence was 100% (15 of 15) and 50% (6 of 12) in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Patients, some with little experience using a smartphone, successfully used the technology and demonstrated a 50% improvement in adherence based on plasma drug concentration levels. For patients receiving direct oral anticoagulants, absolute improvement increased to 67%. Real-time monitoring has the potential to increase adherence and change behavior, particularly in patients on direct oral anticoagulant therapy. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02599259. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Outcome after discontinuing anticoagulant therapy in women with venous thromboembolism during hormonal use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Molina, Ángeles; Trujillo-Santos, Javier; Pesavento, Raffaele; Rosa, Vladimir; Falgá, Conxita; Tolosa, Carles; Mazzolai, Lucia; Sampériz, Ángel; Duce, Rita; Monreal, Manuel

    2017-03-01

    Whether women developing venous thromboembolism (VTE) while using hormonal therapy should be classified as having "unprovoked" or "provoked" VTE is controversial. We used the RIETE (Registro Informatizado Enfermedad TromboEmbólica) database to compare the rate of symptomatic VTE recurrences after discontinuing anticoagulation in 3 subgroups of women aged ≤50years without cancer, pregnancy or puerperium: (1) those with hormonal therapy and no additional risk factors (hormonal users only); (2) those with unprovoked VTE; and (3) those with additional risk factors, with or without hormonal therapy. As of March 2016, 1513 women had been followed-up for at least one month after discontinuing anticoagulation. Of these, 654 (43%) were hormonal users only, 390 (26%) had unprovoked VTE and 469 (31%) had transient risk factors with or without hormonal therapy. After discontinuing anticoagulation, the rate of VTE recurrences in women with hormonal use only (2.44 per 100 patient-years; 95% CI: 1.53-3.69) was significantly lower than in those with unprovoked VTE (6.03; 95% CI: 3.97-8.77) and similar to those with transient risk factors (2.58; 95% CI: 1.50-4.13). Interestingly, the rate of VTE recurrences presenting as pulmonary embolism in women with hormonal use only (0.55 per 100 patient-years; 95% CI: 0.18-1.29) was similar to those with transient risk factors (0.46; 95% CI: 0.09-1.33) and 4-fold lower than in women with unprovoked VTE (2.23; 95% CI: 1.07-4.10). After discontinuing anticoagulation, the rate of VTE recurrences in hormonal users only was significantly lower than in women with unprovoked VTE and similar to the rate in women with additional risk factors. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Success of Self-Testing for Anticoagulation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cetin Songur

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The optimal therapeutic range for INR of the patient who were on warfarin therapy is narrow. There are various methods of INR monitoring to adjust the appropriate dosage of warfarin therapy. This study aims to test the reliability of POC (Point of care devices used for INR(International normalized ratio monitoring. Material and Method: Forty six  patients who were on warfarin therapy for any reasons were enrolled for this study. Their INR  were divided into 3 groups according to their laboratory INR results. Grup 1 had INR results lower than 2, group 2 had INR levels of 2 to 3.5, group 3 had INR levels of higher than 3.5 INR of the patients were remeasured with the POC device.  Results: The ages of the patients were between 24 to 84. Twenty six patients were male and 20 were female. The mean INR level of laboratory measurements was 1.26 in group 1 whereas it was 1.45 for POC device measurements. There were not statistically significant difference between two devices for group 1 (p=0.15. In group 2 the mean INR levels were measured by laboratory instrument and POC device were 2.74 and 3.51 respectively (p=0,01. In group 3 mean INR levels were measured by laboratory instrument and POC device were 4.27 and 5.25 respectively (p=0.01. Discussion: We suppose it is rational to adjust warfarin dosage by specialists using laboratory results in order to prevent hemorrhagic and thromboembolic complications.

  8. Impact of anticoagulation therapy on valve haemodynamic deterioration following transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Trigo, María; Muñoz-García, Antonio J; Latib, Azeem; Auffret, Vincent; Wijeysundera, Harindra C; Nombela-Franco, Luis; Gutierrez, Enrique; Cheema, Asim N; Serra, Vicenç; Amat-Santos, Ignacio J; Kefer, Joelle; Benitez, Luis Miguel; Leclercq, Florence; Mangieri, Antonio; Le Breton, Hervé; Jiménez-Quevedo, Pilar; Garcia Del Blanco, Bruno; Dager, Antonio; Abdul-Jawad Altisent, Omar; Puri, Rishi; Pibarot, Philippe; Rodés-Cabau, Josep

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the changes in transvalvular gradients and the incidence of valve haemodynamic deterioration (VHD) following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), according to use of anticoagulation therapy. This multicentre study included 2466 patients (46% men; mean age 81±7 years) who underwent TAVR with echocardiography performed at 12-month follow-up. Anticoagulation therapy was used in 707 patients (28.7%) following TAVR (AC group). A total of 663 patients received vitamin K antagonists, and 44 patients received direct oral anticoagulants. A propensity score matching analysis was performed to adjust for intergroup (AC vs non-AC post-TAVR) differences. A total of 622 patients per group were included in the propensity-matched analysis. VHD was defined as a ≥10 mm Hg increase in the mean transprosthetic gradient at follow-up (vs hospital discharge). The mean clinical follow-up was 29±18 months. The mean transvalvular gradient significantly increased at follow-up in the non-AC group within the global cohort (P=0.003), whereas it remained stable over time in the AC group (P=0.323). The incidence of VHD was significantly lower in the AC group (0.6%) compared with the non-AC group (3.7%, P<0.001), and these significant differences remained within the propensity-matched populations (0.6% vs 3.9% in the AC and non-AC groups, respectively, P<0.001). The occurrence of VHD did not associate with an increased risk of all-cause death (P=0.468), cardiovascular death (P=0.539) or stroke (P=0.170) at follow-up. The lack of anticoagulation therapy post-TAVR was associated with significant increments in transvalvular gradients and a greater risk of VHD. VHD was subclinical in most cases and did not associate with major adverse clinical events. Future randomised trials are needed to determine if systematic anticoagulation therapy post-TAVR would reduce the incidence of VHD. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article

  9. Safety of percutaneous nephrolithotomy in patients on chronic anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Baltar, C; Pérez-Fentes, D; Sánchez-García, J F; García-Freire, C

    2018-01-22

    In developed countries, the incidence of cardiovascular disease is increasing, therefore, anticoagulant and antiplatelet drugs are a widespread treatment nowadays. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) is the first-line treatment for large or complex stones (> 2 cm) and remains an alternative for the smaller ones. The objective of this study is to analyze whether PNL surgery is a safe procedure in patients under a treatment discontinuation protocol for anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapies. We retrospectively studied 301 patients who underwent PNL in our hospital between 2008 and 2016 and identified 46 patients on chronic antiplatelet or anticoagulation treatment. With respect to PNL outcomes, the stone-free rate was similar (78 vs 74%, p = 0.762) in both groups, without any significant differences in the overall postoperative complications (17 vs 26%, p = 0.203). The incidence of hemorrhagic complications was similar between groups (12 vs 9%, p = 0.492), as demonstrated by the mean drop in hemoglobin (Hb), which was comparable in both cohorts (2.2 ± 1.3 vs 2.0 ± 1.4 p = 0.270) and the blood transfusion rate (14% in group A and 8% in group B, p = 0.205). No thromboembolic events were found within the year after the PNL procedure. PNL is a safe and effective intervention in patients under a treatment discontinuation protocol for anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapies. Although our study demonstrates the feasibility of this protocol, new scientific evidence aims to stratify the thromboembolic and bleeding risk of each patient to individualize the perioperative management thereafter.

  10. Feasibility Study of a Mobile Health Intervention for Older Adults on Oral Anticoagulation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Ah Lee PhD, RN

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral anticoagulation treatment (OAT such as warfarin therapy is recommended for older adults with atrial fibrillation, heart failure, or who are at risk for venous thromboembolism. Despite its proven benefits, older adults report both dissatisfaction with OAT and reduced quality of life that can potentially lead to low adherence to OAT and decreased treatment efficacy. Objective: To test the feasibility of Mobile Applications for Seniors to enhance Safe anticoagulation therapy (MASS, a mobile-based health technology intervention designed to promote independence and self-care. Method s: This pilot study used a single-arm experimental pre–post design to test the feasibility of a 3-month intervention using MASS in 18 older adults (male: n = 14; White: n = 9; Hispanic: n = 7; Other: n = 2; M age = 67. MASS was available in English or Spanish. Participants completed surveys about their OAT knowledge, attitudes, quality of life with OAT, and adherence at baseline and at a 3-month follow-up. Satisfaction with the MASS intervention was also assessed at follow-up. Results: Anticoagulation knowledge significantly improved from baseline to follow-up ( M base = 12.5 ± 5.51, M follow-up = 14.78 ± 3.93, p = .007. Other outcomes were not different, pre- and post-tests. Participants reported they were generally satisfied with MASS, its ease of use and its usefulness. Conclusion: The results showed use of MASS improved older adults’ knowledge of OAT. Using mHealth apps may enhance self-care among older adults with chronic conditions who are also taking oral anticoagulants.

  11. The practical management of bleedings during treatment with direct oral anticoagulants: the emergency reversal therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Masotti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bleeding represents the most feared complication of the new oral anticoagulants, direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs, as well as all the antithrombotic therapies. During the acute phase of bleeding in patients taking anticoagulants, restoration of an effective hemostasis represents the cornerstone of practical management. While vitamin K antagonists are effectively and promptly reversed by specific antidotes such as prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs, fresh frozen plasma or vitamin K, it is still not clear how to manage the urgent reversal of DOACs during life-threatening or major bleedings due to the lack of specific antidotes. However, in vitro and ex vivo studies have suggested some potential strategies to reverse DOACs in clinical practice, other than general support measures that are always recommended. Activated charcoal could be used in subjects with DOAC-related bleedings presenting to the emergency department within two hours of the last oral intake. Non-activated or activated PCCs (FEIBA and recombinant activated Factor VII (raFVII seem to be the optimal strategy for urgent reversal of dabigatran, while non-activated PCCs seem to have efficacy in reversing rivaroxaban. Due to its low plasma protein binding, dabigatran could be also dialyzed in urgent cases. Clinically relevant non-major bleedings and minor bleedings should be treated with general and local measures, respectively, and, when necessary, with dose delay or drug withdrawal. In this article, the Authors describe the practical approach to bleedings occurring during DOACs treatment.

  12. The optimal duration of anticoagulant therapy after unprovoked venous thromboembolism - still a challenging issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmi, Giovanna; Di Pasquale, Giuseppe; Pesavento, Raffaele

    2017-03-01

    As about 50 % of patients with unprovoked venous thromboembolism (VTE) will develop new episodes after discontinuing therapy, indefinite treatment is suggested in patients with low or moderate bleeding risk. Baseline and post-baseline factors can help clinicians to identify patients at high risk of recurrence, who require extended treatment. Residual vein obstruction and D-dimer assay have been shown to be suitable methods for assessing the risk of VTE recurrences after a first unprovoked VTE. In treatment for VTE the use of direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) is growing instead of the standard adjusted dose of vitamin K antagonists. The DOAC safety profile has recently been strengthened with systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Idarucizumab is only approved for the reversal of dabigatran etexilate; intravenous antidotes for factor Xa inhibitors are under development. Their advent is of great interest. In the extended treatment of VTE sulodexide has been demonstrated to significantly decrease the risk of recurrences with an excellent safety profile. Aspirin is substantially less effective than oral anticoagulants in preventing recurrences but could play a role among patients who decided to stop anticoagulants. In conclusion, for the secondary prevention of VTE several options are available, without a recognised best choice regarding the treatment duration and the choice of drugs. An individual strategy taking into account risk of recurrence, bleeding risk, therapeutic options, and patient preferences is appropriate.

  13. Triple Antithrombotic Therapy after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI in Patients with Indication for Oral Anticoagulation: Data from a Single Center Registry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid L Staudacher

    Full Text Available Antithrombotic therapy consisting of a dual anti-platelet therapy (DAPT and oral anti-coagulation (OAC with a vitamin k antagonist is often referred to as triple therapy. This combined anticoagulation is applied in patients undergoing coronary artery stent implantation while also having an indication for OAC. Triple therapy increases the risk for bleeding events compared to either DAPT or OAC alone and thereby might be associated with adverse outcomes. Clinical data on the frequency of bleeding events in patients on triple therapy from clinical trials derives from pre-selected patients and may differ from the real world patients. We report data on patient characteristics and bleeding incidence of patients dismissed on triple therapy from a single university hospital. Within the time span from January 2000 to December 2012, we identified a total of 213 patients undergoing PCI who were prescribed a triple therapy for at least 4 weeks (representing 0.86% of all patients treated. The usage of triple therapy significantly increased over the observed time period. The average CHA2DS2-VASc Score was 3.1 ± 1.1 with an average HAS-BLED score of 2.5 ± 0.86 representing a high-risk group for thromboembolic events as well as considerable risk for bleeding events. An on-treatment bleeding incidence of 9.4% was detected, with gastrointestinal and airway bleeding being the most frequent (5.1% and 1.4%, respectively. This is consistent with data from clinical trials and confirms the high risk of bleeding in patients on DAPT plus OAC. 29.0% of all patients receiving triple therapy had an indication for OAC other than non-valvular atrial fibrillation. This substantial patient group is underrepresented by clinical trials and needs further attention.

  14. Optimizing the use of oral anticoagulant therapy for atrial fibrilation in primary care: a pharmacist-led intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virdee, Mandeep S; Stewart, Derek

    2017-02-01

    Background Updated evidence-based guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation (AF) necessitate patient review, particularly with respect to oral anticoagulants, to ensure maximum health gain around stroke prophylaxis. Objective To quantify the level of anticoagulation utilisation in patients with a CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc ≥1/≥2 (male/female) according to evidence-based guidelines and to assess the impact of a pharmacist-led intervention to optimise therapy. Setting Fifteen general medical practices in Liverpool, North-West England with a practice population of 99,129. Method GRASP-AF software was employed to interrogate patient electronic medical records to identify and risk stratify AF patients (using CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc). A pharmacist then reviewed the medical records of those of patients not anticoagulated and with a CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc ≥1/≥2 (male/female). Recommendations were discussed with a general practitioner (GP) and those patients in whom the need for anticoagulation was agreed were invited for a consultation with either the pharmacist or GP and therapy optimised where appropriate. The GPs were responsible for managing those patients referred for diagnosis confirmation or further specialist opinion. Main outcome measure Proportion of patients eligible/not eligible for anticoagulation; proportions in whom anticoagulants initiated, refused, antiplatelets discontinued. Results Five hundred and twenty-three patients (31% of patients identified with AF and a CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc ≥1/≥2 (male/female)) were not receiving an anticoagulant (26 subsequently died or left the practice leaving 497). Three hundred and eighty-two (77%) pharmacist recommendations to a GP were agreed without modification. Following outcomes of diagnostic investigations and specialist referrals, 202 (41%) patients were candidates for anticoagulation, 251 (51%) were not eligible for anticoagulation, 103 (21%) were anticoagulated (56 warfarin, 47 DOAC). Conclusion A pharmacist

  15. Quality of life in cancer patients undergoing anticoagulant treatment with LMWH for venous thromboembolism: the QUAVITEC study on behalf of the Groupe Francophone Thrombose et Cancer (GFTC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farge, Dominique; Cajfinger, Francis; Falvo, Nicolas; Berremili, Toufek; Couturaud, Francis; Bensaoula, Okba; Védrine, Lionel; Bensalha, Hocine; Bonnet, Isabelle; Péré-Vergé, Denis; Coudurier, Marie; Li, Veronique; Rafii, Hanadi; Benzidia, Ilham; Connors, Jean M; Resche-Rigon, Matthieu

    2018-06-05

    Clinical guidelines recommend at least 3-months low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) treatment for established venous thromboembolism (VTE) in cancer patients. However, no study has analyzed the impact of 3-6 months of LMWH therapy on quality-of-life (QoL) in cancer patients. Among 400 cancer patients included at M0, 88.8% received long-term LMWH. Using a random-effects linear regression model with time as covariate, QoL scores in the MOS SF-36 (Global HRQoL, 1.3-fold per month [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81-1.79], p < 0.0001) and EORTC QLQ-C30 (global health status/qol, 2.25-fold per month [95% CI 1.63-2.88]; p < 0.0001) questionnaires significantly improved over the 6-month study period in patients treated with LMWH, while VEINES-QOL scores did not change. In the MOS SF-36 and EORTC QLQ-C30, the following factors were associated with change in QoL: symptomatic VTE, cancer dissemination and histological type. Factors pertaining to reduced mobility were also identified as significant predictors of QoL outcomes, including being bedridden in the MOS SF-36 and ECOG score ≥ 2 in the EORTC QLQ-C30. Presence of acute infection and not undergoing anti-angiogenic therapy were additional factors associated with QoL improvement in the EORTC QLQ-C30. QUAVITEC, a prospective, longitudinal, multicenter study, recruited all consecutive eligible adult cancer patients with objectively confirmed VTE between February 2011 and 2012. Patients were asked to answer three QoL questionnaires at anticoagulant treatment initiation (M0) and at 3 (M3) and 6 (M6)-month follow-ups. QUAVITEC is the first study to show that QoL was improved in cancer patients receiving long-term LMWH treatment for established VTE.

  16. Impact of Anticoagulation in Elderly Patients With Pulmonary Embolism That Undergo IVC Filter Placement: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falatko, John M; Dalal, Bhavinkumar; Qu, Lihua

    2017-12-01

    Anticoagulation is the primary treatment for pulmonary embolism (PE). Inferior vena cava (IVC) filters are an adjunctive intervention to prevent recurrent pulmonary embolism. Long-term outcomes in elderly patients with contraindications to anticoagulation after IVC filter placement for prevention of recurrent pulmonary embolism have yet to be assessed. Patients ≥60years of age, that had an IVC filter placed between 1 January, 2008 and 2 February, 2013, with a primary diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, were included. Patients that died during index hospitalisation, were discharged to hospice, or had active malignancy were excluded. The primary endpoint was overall survival. Patients were divided depending on whether they were treated with an approved anticoagulant for VTE or had no anticoagulant. Of the 152 patients identified, 55 were not anti-coagulated after IVC filter placement. The incidence of death was 0.4 per 1000 filter days and 0.7 per 1000 filter days in the anti-coagulated and untreated groups respectively (p-value=0.06). After statistical correction for co-morbid conditions, the effect of anticoagulation was not significant (HR 0.82 CI 0.49-1.37, p-value 0.46). Age was a significant confounder that was associated with death. Increased BMI was protective. Indications for IVC filter placement were numerous, but similar between the two groups. Treatment with an approved anticoagulant is recommended after IVC filter placement for prevention of recurrent PE, however its effect may be attenuated by advanced age. In elderly patients that have undergone IVC filter placement for prevention of recurrent PE, survival may be more dependent on age and co-morbid conditions than exposure to anticoagulation. Copyright © 2017 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Monitoring of anticoagulant therapy in heart disease: considerations for the current assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroumand, Mohammadali; Goodarzynejad, Hamidreza

    2010-01-01

    Clinicians should be aware of new developments to familiarize themselves with pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of new anticoagulant agents to appropriately and safely use them. For the moment, cardiologists and other clinicians also require to master currently available drugs, realizing the mechanism of action, side effects, and laboratory monitoring to measure their anticoagulant effects. Warfarin and heparin have narrow therapeutic window with high inter- and intra-patient variability, thereby the use of either drug needs careful laboratory monitoring and dose adjustment to ensure proper antithrombotic protection while minimizing the bleeding risk. The prothrombin time (PT) and the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) are laboratory tests commonly used to monitor warfarin and heparin, respectively. These two tests depend highly on the combination of reagent and instrument utilized. Results for a single specimen tested in different laboratories are variable; this is mostly attributable to the specific reagents and to a much lesser degree to the instrument used. The PT stands alone as the single coagulation test that has undergone the most extensive attempt at assay standardization. The international normalized ratio (INR) was introduced to "normalize" all PT reagents to a World Health Organization (WHO) reference thromboplastin preparation standard, such that a PT measured anywhere in the world would result in an INR value similar to that which would have been achieved had the WHO reference thromboplastin been utilized. However, INRs are reproducible between laboratories for only those patients who are stably anticoagulated with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) (i.e., at least 6 weeks of VKA therapy), and are not reliable or reproducible between laboratories for patients for whom VKA therapy has recently been started or any other clinical conditions associated with a prolonged PT such as liver disease, disseminated intravascular coagulation

  18. Self-management of oral anticoagulant therapy for mechanical heart valve patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas D; Attermann, Jørn; Pilegaard, Hans K

    2001-01-01

    .4%–2.9%) for the control group. Conclusion: Self-management of OAT is a feasible and safe concept for selected patients with mechanical heart valve prostheses also on a long-term basis. It provides at least as good and most likely better quality of anticoagulant therapy than conventional management assessed by time within......Objective: Self-management of oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT) has shown good results on a short-term basis. We hypothesize that self-management of OAT provides a better quality of treatment than conventional management also on a long-term basis. The aim of this study was to assess the quality...... of conventionally managed heart valve patients (control group) was used as reference. Results: The median observation time was 1175 days (range: 174–1428 days). The self-managed patients were within therapeutic INR target range for a mean of 78.0% (range: 36.1%–93.9%) of the time compared with 61.0% (range 37...

  19. Efficacy and Safety of Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants versus Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants in Patients Undergoing Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Santarpia

    Full Text Available Use of the non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs is endorsed by current guidelines for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF. However efficacy and safety of NOACs in patients undergoing catheter ablation (RFCA of AF has not been well established yet.To perform a meta-analysis of all studies comparing NOACs and vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (VKAs in patients undergoing RFCA.Studies were searched for in PubMed and Google Scholar databases.Studies were considered eligible if: they evaluated the clinical impact of NOACs versus VKAs; they specifically analyzed the use of anticoagulants during periprocedural phase of RFCA; they reported clinical outcome data.25 studies were selected, including 9881 cases. The summary measure used was the risk ratio (RR with 95% confidence interval (CI. The random-effects or the fixed effect model were used to synthesize results from the selected studies.There was no significant difference in thromboembolic complications (RR 1.39; p=0.13. Bleeding complications were significantly lower in the NOACs-treated arm as compared to VKAs (RR=0.67, p<0.001. Interestingly, a larger number of thromboembolic events was found in the VKAs-treated arm in those studies where VKAs had been interrupted during the periprocedural phase (RR=0.68; p=ns. In this same subgroup a significantly higher incidence of both minor (RR=0.54; p=0.002 and major bleeding (RR=0.41; p=0.01 events was recorded. Conversely, the incidence of thromboembolic events in the VKAs-treated arm was significantly lower in those studies with uninterrupted periprocedural anticoagulation treatment (RR=1.89; p=0.02.As with every meta-analysis, no patients-level data were available.The use of NOACs in patients undergoing RFCA is safe, given the lower incidence of bleedings observed with NOACs. On the other side, periprocedural interruption of VKAs and bridging with heparin is associated with a higher bleeding rate with no

  20. Upsetting the apple cart: a community anticoagulation clinic survey of life event factors that undermine safe therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmundson, Sarah; Stuenkel, Diane L; Connolly, Phyllis M

    2005-09-01

    Anticoagulation therapy is a life-enhancing therapy for patients who are at risk for embolic events secondary to atrial fibrillation, valve replacement, and other comorbidities. Clinicians are motivated to decrease the amount of time that patients are either under- or over-anticoagulated, common conditions that decrease patient safety at either extreme. The primary purpose of this descriptive study was to examine the relationship between personal life event factors as measured by Norbeck's Life Events Questionnaire, core demographics such as age and income, and anticoagulation regulation. Although many factors affect anticoagulation therapy, the precise impact of life events, positive or negative, is unknown. The salient findings of this study (n = 202) showed a small, though statistically significant, inverse relationship (r = -0.184, P < .01) between negative life events and decreased time within therapeutic international normalized ratio. Total Life Event scores showed a statistically significant inverse relationship (r = -0.159, P < .05) to international normalized ratio time within therapeutic level. Lower income was inversely associated with higher negative Life Event scores (r = -0.192, P < .01). The findings demonstrate the need for strategies that address the potential impact of life events in conjunction with coexisting screening measures used in anticoagulation clinics. Implications for this study are limited by lack of methodology documenting concurrent social support factors and limitations of the research tool to reflect life event issues specific to outpatient seniors.

  1. Injuries and outcomes associated with traumatic falls in the elderly population on oral anticoagulant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltz, Melissa M; Podany, Abigail B; Hollenbeak, Christopher S; Armen, Scott B

    2015-09-01

    Fall risk for older adults is a multi-factorial public health problem as 90% of geriatric injuries are caused by traumatic falls. The CDC estimated 33% of adults >65 years incurred a fall in 2011, with 30% resulting in moderate injury. While much has been written about overall risk to trauma patients on oral anticoagulant (OAC) therapy, less has been reported on outcomes in the elderly trauma population. We used data from the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) to identify the types of injury and complications incurred, length of stay, and mortality associated with OACs in elderly patients sustaining a fall. Using standard NTDB practices, data were collected on elderly patients (≥65 years) on OACs with diagnosis of fall as the primary mechanism of injury from 2007 to 2010. Univariate analysis was used to determine patient variables influencing risk of fall on OACs. Odds ratios were calculated for types of injury sustained and post-trauma complications. Logistic regression was used to determine mortality associated with type of injury incurred. Of 118,467 elderly patients sampled, OAC use was observed in 444. Predisposing risk factors for fall on OACs were >1 comorbidity (p3 complications (p<0.0001); the most significant being ARDS and ARF (p<0.0001). The mortality rate on OACs was 16%. Injuries to the GI tract, liver, spleen, and kidney (p<0.0002) were more likely to occur. However, if patients suffered a mortality, the most significant injuries were skull fractures and intracranial haemorrhage (p<0.0001). Risks of anticoagulation in elderly trauma patients are complex. While OAC use is a predictor of 30-day mortality after fall, the injuries sustained are markedly different between the elderly who die and those who do not. As a result there is a greater need for healthcare providers to identify preventable and non-preventable risks factors indicative of falls in the anti-coagulated elderly patient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative study of anticoagulation versus saline flushes in continuous renal replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagarik Amit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic heparinization during continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT is associated with disadvantage of risk of bleeding. This study analyses the efficacy of frequent saline flushes compared with heparin anticoagulation to maintain filter life. From January 2004 to November 2007, 65 critically ill patients with acute renal failure underwent CRRT. Continuous venovenous hemodialfiltration (CVVHDF was performed using Diapact Braun CRRT machine. 1.7% P.D. fluid was used as dialysate. 0.9% NS with addition of 10% Ca Gluconate, Magnesium Sulphate, Soda bicarbonate and Potassium Chloride added sequentially in separate units were used for replacement, carefully monitoring their levels. Anticoagulation of extracorporeal circuit was achieved with unfractionated heparin (250-500 units alternate hour in 35 patients targeting aPTT of 45-55 seconds. No anticoagulation was used in 30 patients with baseline APTT > 55 seconds and extracorporeal circuit was maintained with saline flushes at 30 min interval. 65 pa-tients including 42 males. Co-morbidities were comparable in both groups. HMARF was signifi-cantly more common in heparin group while Sepsis was comparable in both the groups. CRRT parameters were similar in both groups. Average filter life in heparin group was 26 ± 6.4 hours while it was 24.5 ± 6.36 hours in heparin free group ( P=NS. Patients receiving heparin had 16 bleeding episodes (0.45/patient while only four bleeding episodes occurred in heparin free group (0.13/patient, P< 0.05. Mortality was 71% in heparin group and 67% in heparin free group. Frequent saline flushes is an effective mode of maintainance of extracorporeal circuit in CRRT when aPTT is already on the higher side, with significantly decreased bleeding episodes.

  3. Characteristics of Symptomatic Intracranial Hemorrhage in Patients Receiving Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulant Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisanao Akiyama

    Full Text Available The first non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (NOAC introduced to the market in Japan was dabigatran in March 2011, and three more NOACs, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban, have since become available. Randomized controlled trials of NOACs have revealed that intracranial hemorrhage (ICH occurs less frequently with NOACs compared with warfarin. However, the absolute incidence of ICH associated with NOACs has increased with greater use of these anticoagulants, and we wanted to explore the incidence, clinical characteristics, and treatment course of patients with NOACs-associated ICH.We retrospectively analyzed the characteristics of symptomatic ICH patients receiving NOACs between March 2011 and September 2014.ICH occurred in 6 patients (5 men, 1 woman; mean ± SD age, 72.8 ± 3.2 years. Mean time to onset was 146.2 ± 111.5 days after starting NOACs. Five patients received rivaroxaban and 1 patient received apixaban. None received dabigatran or edoxaban. Notably, no hematoma expansion was observed within 24 h of onset in the absence of infusion of fresh frozen plasma, activated prothrombin complex concentrate, recombinant activated factor VIIa or hemodialysis. When NOAC therapy was initiated, mean HAS-BLED and PANWARDS scores were 1.5 ± 0.5 and 39.5 ± 7.7, respectively. Mean systolic blood pressure was 137.8 ± 15.9 mmHg within 1 month before spontaneous ICH onset.Six symptomatic ICHs occurred early in NOAC therapy but hematoma volume was small and did not expand in the absence of infusion of reversal agents or hemodialysis. The occurrence of ICH during NOAC therapy is possible even when there is acceptable mean systolic blood pressure control (137.8 ± 15.9 mmHg and HAS-BLED score ≤ 2. Even stricter blood pressure lowering and control within the acceptable range may be advisable to prevent ICH during NOAC therapy.

  4. Effect of regional citrate anticoagulation on critical patients with continuous renal replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Li You

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the efficacy and safety of regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA in continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT for critical patients. Methods: A total of 83 critical patients need CRRT in the intensive care units of our hospital from July 2012 to June 2016 were recruited in the study, and the patients were divided into two groups randomly, the patients in observation group received the RCA treatment, and the patients in control group received traditional low molecular heparin anticoagulation. The difference of safety indicators, biochemical indicators, extracorporeal circulation blood coagulation condition and complications in patients were determined between two groups. Results: Compared with control group, the patients in observation group had an elevated level of iCa2+, the level of chloride ion reduced, the use time of filter increased, the bleeding cases reduced, the concentrations of urea nitrogen, creatinine TNF-α , IL-1β, IL-8 and NO were all significantly downregulated, the data have a significant difference (P < 0.05. Conclusions: RCA is a safe and effective method for CRRT in patients with a high risk of bleeding.

  5. External Beam Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer Patients on Anticoagulation Therapy: How Significant is the Bleeding Toxicity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Kevin S.; Jani, Ashesh B.; Liauw, Stanley L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize the bleeding toxicity associated with external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer patients receiving anticoagulation (AC) therapy. Methods and Materials: The study cohort consisted of 568 patients with adenocarcinoma of the prostate who were treated with definitive external beam radiotherapy. Of these men, 79 were receiving AC therapy with either warfarin or clopidogrel. All patients were treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy or intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Bleeding complications were recorded during treatment and subsequent follow-up visits. Results: With a median follow-up of 48 months, the 4-year actuarial risk of Grade 3 or worse bleeding toxicity was 15.5% for those receiving AC therapy compared with 3.6% among those not receiving AC (p < .0001). On multivariate analysis, AC therapy was the only significant factor associated with Grade 3 or worse bleeding (p < .0001). For patients taking AC therapy, the crude rate of bleeding was 39.2%. Multivariate analysis within the AC group demonstrated that a higher radiotherapy dose (p = .0408), intensity-modulated radiotherapy (p = 0.0136), and previous transurethral resection of the prostate (p = .0001) were associated with Grade 2 or worse bleeding toxicity. Androgen deprivation therapy was protective against bleeding, with borderline significance (p = 0.0599). Dose-volume histogram analysis revealed that Grade 3 or worse bleeding was minimized if the percentage of the rectum receiving ≥70 Gy was <10% or the rectum receiving ≥50 Gy was <50%. Conclusion: Patients taking AC therapy have a substantial risk of bleeding toxicity from external beam radiotherapy. In this setting, dose escalation or intensity-modulated radiotherapy should be used judiciously. With adherence to strict dose-volume histogram criteria and minimizing hotspots, the risk of severe bleeding might be reduced.

  6. Anticoagulation Bridge Therapy in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation: Recent Updates Providing a Rebalance of Risk and Benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwood, Candice L; Korkis, Bianca; Grande, Domenico; Hanni, Claudia; Morin, Amy; Moser, Lynette R

    2017-06-01

    In 2011 we reviewed clinical updates and controversies surrounding anticoagulation bridge therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Since then, options for oral anticoagulation have expanded with the addition of four direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) agents available in the United States. Nonetheless, vitamin K antagonist (VKA) therapy continues to be the treatment of choice for patients who are poor candidates for a DOAC and for whom bridge therapy remains a therapeutic dilemma. This literature review identifies evidence and guideline and consensus statements from the last 5 years to provide updated recommendations and insight into bridge therapy for patients using a VKA for AF. Since our last review, at least four major international guidelines have been updated plus a new consensus document addressing bridge therapy was released. Prospective trials and one randomized controlled trial have provided guidance for perioperative bridge therapy. The clinical trial data showed that bridging with heparin is associated with a significant bleeding risk compared with not bridging; furthermore, data suggested that actual perioperative thromboembolic risk may be lower than previously estimated. Notably, patients at high risk for stroke have not been adequately represented. These findings highlight the importance of assessing thrombosis and bleeding risk before making bridging decisions. Thrombosis and bleeding risk tools have emerged to facilitate this assessment and have been incorporated into guideline recommendations. Results from ongoing trials are expected to provide more guidance on safe and effective perioperative management approaches for patients at high risk for stroke. © 2017 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  7. Acute deep venous thrombosis of lower extremity: anatomical distribution, comparison of anticoagulation, thrombolysis and interventional therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang; Naijun; Che Guoping; Gu Jianping; Lou Wensheng; He Xu; Chen Liang; Su Haobo; Song Jinhua; Wang Tao; Xu Ke

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the anatomical distribution of acute deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremity, and compare different therapeutic methods including anticoagulation alone, thrombolysis through dorsal vein and interventional therapy. Methods: The clinical data, venography and therapies of 204 acute DVT patients were retrospectively studied According to the distribution, DVT were classified into three types including peripheral, central and mixed types. According to the difference of the therapeutic method, each type of DVT was divided into three groups, Group A (37 patients) anticoagulation alone: Group B (55 patients) thrombolysis through dorsal vein: and Group C (112 patients) interventional therapy. The results of different kind of treatment method in each type of DVT were evaluated before the patients were discharged and the Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Results: There were 132 patients with DVT in the left lower extremity, 62 in right lower extremity, and 10 in both extremities.. The complication of pulmonary embolism (PE) occurred in 4, 5 and 2 cases respectively, and the morbidity was 3.0%, 8.1% and 20.0% (χ 2 =6.494, P=0.039) respectively. There was significant statistical difference among them. There were 23 cases of peripheral type of DVT, 48 central type and 133 mixed type. The complication of PE were observed in 2, 5 and 4 cases respectively in each type. The morbidity was 8.7%, 10.4% and 3.0% respectively (χ 2 =4.350, P=0.114). There were no statistical significance among them. In the 23 cases of peripheral type DVTs, 2 of 5 in group A and 11 of 18 in group B had excellent therapeutic response. In the 48 cases of central type of DVTs, 1 of 10 in group A, 2 of 5 in in group B and 26 of 33 in group C had excellent therapeutic response. There were statistically significant differences among groups A, B and C (χ 2 =16.157, P=0.000). In the 133 cases of mixed type DVTs, 1 of 22 in group A, 10 of 32 in group B and 65

  8. A survey of anticoagulation practice among German speaking microsurgeons – Perioperative management of anticoagulant therapy in free flap surgery [Erhebung über die antikoagulatorische Praxis unter deutschsprachigen Mikrochirurgen – Perioperatives Management der antikoagulatorischen Therapie bei freien Lappentransplantaten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokuszies, Andreas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: Anticoagulation is a crucial element in microsurgery. Although various clinical studies and international surveys have revealed that anticoagulation strategies can vary and result in similar outcomes, anticoagulative regimen are far away from standardization. In Germany and german speaking countries standardized anticoagulation protocols concerning free flap surgery do not exist so far. Methods: To evaluate the current practice of clinics in Germany, Austria and Switzerland with specialization in microsurgery we performed a questionnaire surveying the perioperative regimen of anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy in free flap surgery. The microsurgeons were interrogated on several anticoagulant, rheologic and antiplatelet medications, their dosage and perioperative frequency of application pre-, intra- and postoperative.Results: The questionnaire revealed that the used antithrombotic and perioperative regimens varied from department to department presumably based on the personal experience of the surgeon. Multiple approaches are used with a wide range of anticoagulants used either alone or in combination, with different intervals of application and different dosages. Conclusion: Therefore consensus meetings should be held in future leading to conduct prospective multicenter studies with formulation of standardized anticoagulative and perioperative protocols in microsurgery reducing flap failure to other than pharmacologic reasons.[german] Hintergrund: Die Antikoagulation stellt ein zentrales Element in der Mikrochirurgie dar. Zahlreiche klinische Studien und internationale Erhebungen zu antikoagulatorischen Strategien weisen eine grosse Varianz bei vergleichbaren Resultaten nach, entbehren jedoch einer Standardisierung. Auch in Deutschland und deutschsprachigen Ländern fehlen bislang standardisierte Regime zur Antikoagulation in der Mikrochirurgie.Methodik: Zur Erhebung der antikoagulatorischen Praxis unter

  9. Health related quality of life of patients undergoing oral anticoagulation therapy Calidad de vida relacionada a la salud de pacientes que usan anticoagulación oral Qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde de pacientes em uso de anticoagulação oral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inaiara Scalçone Almeida Corbi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This is a descriptive cross-sectional study, which aimed to analyze the health related quality of life (HRQoL and its relationship with gender, age, duration and indication for the use of oral anticoagulants. A total of 178 patients were interviewed and the HRQoL was assessed through eight domains of the SF-36. The descriptive statistics used were, the Student's t, ANOVA and Tukey's tests for the comparison of the means between the groups. The indication for use was predominantly the metallic prosthetic heart valve (50% with warfarin the most widely prescribed anticoagulant (83.3%. The means of the domains of the SF-36 ranged from 82 (Social aspects to 54.8 (Physical aspects. Women, elderly, patients diagnosed with atrial fibrillation and with less than one year of medication use, presented a worse HRQoL evaluation. The results obtained can guide nursing actions, in that they indicate possible associations between the HRQoL and the sociodemographic and clinical variables of the patients.Se trata de un estudio descriptivo, de tipo corte transversal, que tuvo como objetivo analizar la calidad de vida relacionada a la salud (CVRS y su relación con sexo, edad, tiempo e indicación de uso de anticoagulantes orales. Fueron entrevistados 178 pacientes y la CVRS fue evaluada por los ocho dominios del SF-36. Fue utilizada estadística descriptiva, las pruebas: t Student, ANOVA y Tukey, para comparación de los promedios entre los grupos. La indicación para el uso fue predominantemente la prótesis cardíaca metálica (50% y la warfarina el anticoagulante más prescrito (83,3%. Los promedios de los dominios del SF-36 variaron de 82 (Aspectos sociales a 54,8 (Aspectos físicos. Mujeres, ancianos, y pacientes con diagnóstico de fibrilación atrial y con menos de un año de uso del medicamento, presentaron peor evaluación de la CVRS. Los resultados obtenidos pueden orientar acciones de enfermería, en la medida en que indican posibles asociaciones entre

  10. Era of liver transplantation: combined anatomic splenectomy and anticoagulant therapy in prevention of portal vein thrombosis after splenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongwei, Chen; Zhang, Liang; Maoping, Li; Yong, Zhang; Chengyou, Du; Dewei, Li

    2015-01-01

    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a common complication following splenectomy in patients with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension, which also brings difficulties to future possible liver transplantation. This paper retrospectively analyzes the preventive effect of combined anatomic splenectomy and early anticoagulant therapy on post-splenectomy portal vein thrombosis in patients with portal hypertension. We retrospectively analyzed 136 patients who underwent splenectomy at our hospital between January 2010 and December 2013 due to liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Patient conditions, such as coagulation function, splenic and portal vein thrombosis, intra-abdominal hemorrhage, pancreatic leakage and intra-abdominal infections, are observed postoperatively. Despite the presence of liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension in patients, early postoperative anticoagulant therapy has no significant impact on coagulation function and intra-abdominal hemorrhage of these patients (p > 0.05). Anatomic splenectomy can reduce the occurrence of complications such as postoperative bleeding, pancreatic leakage and intra-abdominal infections (p splenectomy and early postoperative anticoagulant therapy can reduce post-splenectomy portal vein thrombosis in patients with portal hypertension, and is conducive to the future liver transplantation therapy may be needed by the patients.

  11. Anticoagulant therapy for venous thromboembolism detected by Doppler ultrasound in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer receiving bevacizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suenaga M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitsukuni Suenaga, Nobuyuki Mizunuma, Eiji Shinozaki, Satoshi Matsusaka, Masato Ozaka, Mariko Ogura, Keisho Chin, Toshiharu Yamaguchi Department of Gastroenterology, Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo, Japan Background: Doppler ultrasound imaging is useful for management of venous thromboembolism associated with a subclavicular implantable central venous access system in patients receiving bevacizumab (Bev. We investigated the efficacy and safety of our anticoagulant regimen based on Doppler findings.Methods: Patients aged ≤75 years with metastatic colorectal cancer, no history of thromboembolism, and no prior use of Bev received chemotherapy plus Bev. Doppler ultrasound imaging of the deep venous system to detect thrombosis was performed after the first course of Bev and repeated after the third course in patients with asymptomatic thrombosis. Indications for anticoagulant therapy in patients with asymptomatic thrombosis were as follows: enlarging thrombus (E, thrombus >40 mm in diameter (S, thrombus involving the superior vena cava (C, and decreased blood flow (V.Results: Among 79 patients enrolled in this study, asymptomatic thrombosis was detected in 56 patients (70.9% by Doppler ultrasound imaging after the first course of Bev and there was no thrombus in 23 patients (29.1%. Of these 56 patients, 11 (19.6% received anticoagulant therapy with warfarin, including eight after the first course and three after follow-up imaging. S + V was observed in four of 11 patients (36.4%, as well as V in two (18.2%, S + V + C in one (9.1%, E + S + V in one (9.1%, E + C in one (9.1%, E in one (9.1%, and C in one (9.1%. All patients resumed chemotherapy, including seven who resumed Bev. Improvement or stabilization of thrombi was achieved in ten patients (90.9%. Only one patient had symptomatic thromboembolism. Mild bleeding due to anticoagulant therapy occurred in six patients (54.5%, but there were no treatment

  12. OPTIONS FOR USE OF APPROPRIATE ANTICOAGULANT THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH THERMAL INJURY WITH A HIGH RISK OF THROMBOEMBOLIC COMPLICATIONS DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATED WITH RECURRENT INTESTINAL BLEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Borisov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Patients with major thermal injury require anticoagulant therapy during almost the whole period of the burn disease, forcing the physician to balance constantly between the risk of possible bleeding associated with surgical treatment and the risk of thrombosis development in patients demonstrating a number of factors predisposing to the development of VTС. We report a clinical case of appropriate anticoagulant therapy using the new oral anticoagulants in a patient with a high risk of VTС development and recurrent bleeding from the tumor of the ascending colon. 

  13. Clinical effect of Fuzheng quyu therapy in patients undergoing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical effect of Fuzheng quyu therapy in patients undergoing radiotherapy after cervical carcinoma surgery. ... The clinical effects and the incidence of adverse events were compared between the groups. Results: The plasma prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time improved after treatment in the study ...

  14. Quality of anticoagulation therapy in neurological patients in a tertiary care hospital in north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Singh

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: It may be concluded that stable therapeutic INR is difficult to maintain in neurological patients. Optimal modification of diet, drug and dose of oral anticoagulant may help in stabilization of INR.

  15. Impact of Triple Therapy in Elderly Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Sambola

    Full Text Available Selecting an ideal antithrombotic therapy for elderly patients with atrial fibrillation (AF undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI can be challenging since they have a higher thromboembolic and bleeding risk than younger patients. The current study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of triple therapy (TT: oral anticoagulation plus dual antiplatelet therapy: aspirin plus clopidogrel in patients ≥75 years of age with atrial fibrillation (AF undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI.A prospective multicenter study was conducted from 2003 to 2012 at 6 Spanish teaching hospitals. A cohort study of consecutive patients with AF undergoing PCI and treated with TT or dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT was analyzed. All outcomes were evaluated at 1-year of follow-up.Five hundred and eighty-five patients, 289 (49% of whom were ≥75 years of age (79.6±3.4 years; 33% women were identified. TT was prescribed in 55.9% of patients at discharge who had a higher thromboembolic risk (CHA2DS2VASc score: 4.23±1.51 vs 3.76±1.40, p = 0.007 and a higher bleeding risk (HAS-BLED ≥3: 88.6% vs 79.2%, p = 0.02 than those on DAPT. Therefore, patients on TT had a lower rate of thromboembolism than those on DAPT (0.6% vs 6.9%, p = 0.004; HR 0.08, 95% CI: 0.01-0.70, p = 0.004. Major bleeding events occurred more frequently in patients on TT than in those on DAPT (11.7% vs 2.4%, p = 0.002; HR 5.2, 95% CI: 1.53-17.57, p = 0.008. The overall mortality rate was similar in both treatment groups (11.9% vs 13.9%, p = 0.38; however, after adjustment for confounding variables, TT was associated with a reduced mortality rate (HR 0.33, 95% CI: 0.12-0.86, p = 0.02.In elderly patients with AF undergoing PCI, the use of TT compared to DAPT was associated with reduced thromboembolism and mortality rates, although a higher rate of major bleeding.

  16. Evaluation of radiophoby phenomenon among patients undergoing radioisotope therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepien, M.; Stepien, A.; Pawlus, J.; Wasilewska-Radwanska, M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of study was to evaluate the radiophoby symptoms among 81 patients with different type hyperthyroidism undergoing 1-131 (450-600 MBq) treatment. The state anxiety as well as the trait anxiety levels using Spielberger's scale have been evaluated. Its values were 1 - 6 points (average 3) and 3 - 7 points (average 6) respectively for state anxiety and trait one. These results indicated that radioisotope therapy causes increase of patient's anxiety level. (author)

  17. General Anaesthesia Protocols for Patients Undergoing Electroconvulsive Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Aravind; Lal, Chandar; Al-Sinawi, Hamed

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to review general anaesthesia protocols for patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) at a tertiary care hospital in Oman, particularly with regards to clinical profile, potential drug interactions and patient outcomes. Methods This retrospective study took place at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Muscat, Oman. The electronic medical records of patients undergoing ECT at SQUH between January 2010 and December 2014 were reviewed for demographic characteristics and therapy details. Results A total of 504 modified ECT sessions were performed on 57 patients during the study period. All of the patients underwent a uniform general anaesthetic regimen consisting of propofol and succinylcholine; however, they received different doses between sessions, as determined by the treating anaesthesiologist. Variations in drug doses between sessions in the same patient could not be attributed to any particular factor. Self-limiting tachycardia and hypertension were periprocedural complications noted among all patients. One patient developed aspiration pneumonitis (1.8%). Conclusion All patients undergoing ECT received a general anaesthetic regimen including propofol and succinylcholine. However, the interplay of anaesthetic drugs with ECT efficacy could not be established due to a lack of comprehensive data, particularly with respect to seizure duration. In addition, the impact of concurrent antipsychotic therapy on anaesthetic dose and subsequent complications could not be determined. PMID:28417028

  18. Is stopping of anticoagulant therapy really required in a minor dental surgery? - How about in an endodontic microsurgery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Wook Cho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, oral anticoagulants are commonly prescribed to numerous patients for preventing cardiovascular accident such as thromboembolism. An important side effect of anticoagulant is anti-hemostasis. In a major surgery, the oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT regimen must be changed before the surgery for proper post-operative bleeding control. However, in a minor dental surgery and endodontic surgery, the necessity for changing or discontinuing the OAT is open to debate. In this study, risks of the consequences were weighed and analyzed. In patients who stop the OAT, the occurrence of thromboembolic complication is rare but the result is fatal. In patients who continuing the OAT, post-operative bleeding can be controlled well with the local hemostatic measures. In the endodontic surgery, there are almost no studies about this issue. The intra-operative bleeding control is particularly important in the endodontic surgery because of its delicate and sensitive procedures such as inspection of resected root surface using dental microscope and retrograde filling. Further studies are necessary about this issue in the viewpoint of endodontic surgery.

  19. Symptoms of depression and anxiety predict mortality in patients undergoing oral anticoagulation: Results from the thrombEVAL study program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michal, Matthias; Prochaska, Jürgen H; Keller, Karsten; Göbel, Sebastian; Coldewey, Meike; Ullmann, Alexander; Schulz, Andreas; Lamparter, Heidrun; Münzel, Thomas; Reiner, Iris; Beutel, Manfred E; Wild, Philipp S

    2015-01-01

    Depression and anxiety are highly prevalent in cardiovascular patients. Therefore, we examined whether the 4-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-4, measuring symptoms of depression and anxiety) predicts all-cause mortality in outpatients with long-term oral anticoagulation (OAC). The sample comprised n=1384 outpatients from a regular medical care setting receiving long-term OAC with vitamin K antagonists. At baseline, symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed with the PHQ-4 and the past medical history was taken. The outcome was all-cause mortality in the 24 month observation period. The median follow-up time was 13.3 months. N=191 patients from n=1384 died (death rate 13.8%). Each point increase in the PHQ-4 score was associated with a 10% increase in mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.10, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.05-1.16) after adjustment for age, sex, high school graduation, partnership, smoking, obesity, frailty according to the Barthel Index, Charlson Comorbidity Index and CHA2DS2-VASc score. The depression component (PHQ-2) increased mortality by 22% and anxiety (GAD-2) by 11% respectively. Neither medical history of any mental disorder, nor intake of antidepressants, anxiolytics or hypnotics predicted excess mortality. Elevated symptoms of depression and, to a lesser degree, symptoms of anxiety are independently associated with all-cause mortality in OAC outpatients. The PHQ-4 questionnaire provides valuable prognostic information. These findings emphasize the need for implementing regular screening procedures and the development and evaluation of appropriate psychosocial treatment approaches for OAC patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Review of economics and cost-effectiveness analyses of anticoagulant therapy for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schéele, Birgitta; Fernandez, Maria; Hogue, Susan Lynn; Kwong, Winghan Jacqueline

    2013-05-01

    To summarize the available evidence on the issues in health economics related to oral anticoagulation for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF) in the US. A literature review was performed using PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, as well as the websites of professional organizations. The search was conducted according to a prespecified protocol, limiting articles to those published in English from 2001 to October 2012 and focused on the economics associated with AF and AF-related stroke in the US. Data from 27 studies were extracted and included in the review. Strokes in patients with AF are more debilitating and have higher recurrence rates and mortality compared with strokes unrelated to AF. However, data describing the long-term cost of AF-related stroke and stroke subtypes remain limited. The costs of major gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and intracranial bleeding related to warfarin are significant, whereas the costs of the more frequent minor GI bleeding are relatively low. Overall, the cost-effectiveness of warfarin versus aspirin or no treatment in patients with at least 1 risk factor for stroke is well established. Economic evaluations based on results from randomized controlled clinical trials generally found that new anticoagulants were a cost-effective alternative to warfarin for stroke prevention in AF. However, these cost-effectiveness results are highly sensitive to how well optimal international normalized ratio control is maintained (within target of 2.0-3.0) for warfarin and the time horizon used for analysis. Time in therapeutic range for warfarin in routine clinical practice was lower than in clinical trials, as shown by previous studies. This review identified several areas of uncertainty regarding the economic benefit of anticoagulants. The generalizability of cost-effectiveness results of anticoagulant therapy in AF based on clinical trial data must be confirmed by comparative effectiveness

  1. Major cerebral events in Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis: is anticoagulant therapy safe?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Snygg-Martin, Ulrika; Olaison, Lars

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the impact of anticoagulation on major cerebral events in patients with left-sided Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis (IE). METHODS: A prospective cohort study; the use of anticoagulation and the relation to major cerebral events was evaluated separately at onset...... of admission and during hospitalization. RESULTS: Overall, 70 out of 175 patients (40%; 95% CI: 33-47%) experienced major cerebral events during the course of the disease, cerebral ischaemic stroke occured in 59 patients (34%; 95% CI: 27-41%), cerebral infection in 23 patients (14%; 95% CI: 9...

  2. Opportunistic microorganisms in patients undergoing antibiotic therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Maria Rodrigues Querido

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial therapy may cause changes in the resident oral microbiota, with the increase of opportunistic pathogens. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of Candida, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae in the oral cavity of fifty patients undergoing antibiotic therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis and systemically healthy controls. Oral rinsing and subgingival samples were obtained, plated in Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol, mannitol agar and MacConkey agar, and incubated for 48 h at 37ºC. Candida spp. and coagulase-positive staphylococci were identified by phenotypic tests, C. dubliniensis, by multiplex PCR, and coagulase-negative staphylococci, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp., by the API systems. The number of Candida spp. was significantly higher in tuberculosis patients, and C. albicans was the most prevalent specie. No significant differences in the prevalence of other microorganisms were observed. In conclusion, the antimicrobial therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis induced significant increase only in the amounts of Candida spp.

  3. Relation of psychological distress to the international normalized ratio in patients with venous thromboembolism with and without oral anticoagulant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Känel, R; Vökt, F; Biasiutti, F Demarmels; Stauber, S; Wuillemin, W A; Lukas, P S

    2012-08-01

    Psychological distress might affect the international normalized ratio (INR), but effects might vary depending on oral anticoagulant (OAC) therapy. To investigate the association of psychological distress with INR and clotting factors of the extrinsic pathway in patients with and without OAC therapy. We studied 190 patients with a previous venous thromboembolism (VTE); 148 had discontinued OAC therapy and 42 had ongoing OAC therapy. To assess psychological distress, all patients completed validated questionnaires to measure symptoms of depression, anxiety, worrying, anger and hostility. INR, fibrinogen, factor (F)II:C, FV:C, FVII:C and FX:C were measured as part of outpatient thrombophilia work-up. In VTE patients without OAC therapy, the odds of a reduced INR (therapy, INR was unrelated to a negative affect; however, lower FVII:C related to anxiety and worrying as well as lower FX:C related to anger and hostility were observed in patients with OAC therapy compared with those without OAC therapy. Psychological distress was associated with a reduced INR in VTE patients without OAC therapy. The direction of the association between psychological distress and activity in some clotting factors of the extrinsic coagulation pathway might differ depending on whether VTE patients are under OAC therapy or not. © 2012 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  4. Influence of fatty acids on the binding of warfarin and phenprocoumon to human serum albumin with relation to anticoagulant therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorum, H; Honoré, B

    1996-01-01

    of palmitic, stearic, oleic or linoleic acids with energetic couplings for co-binding of one molecule of each of the fatty acids and one molecule of warfarin of 0.9, 1.1, 0.7 and 0.6 kJ mol-1, respectively. The affinity of phenprocoumon was only increased slightly on addition of palmitate with an energetic...... of warfarin but not of phenprocoumon was correlated to the increasing plasma fatty acid concentration. Anticoagulant therapy with phenprocoumon may thus be less sensitive than warfarin to changes in the fatty acid concentration of plasma. Udgivelsesdato: 1996-Aug...

  5. [New oral anticoagulant drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovits, Alejandro; Aizman, Andrés; Zúñiga, Pamela; Pereira, Jaime; Mezzano, Diego

    2011-10-01

    Thromboembolic disease (TED) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The hallmark of oral long-term anticoagulant therapy has been the use of vitamin K antagonists, whose anticoagulant effect is exerted inhibiting vitamin K epoxide reductase. Warfarin and acenocoumarol are the most commonly used. In the last five years several new drugs for long term anticoagulation have been developed, which can inhibit single clotting factors with the purpose of improving drug therapeutic range and, ideally, minimizing bleeding risks. This review addresses the state of the art on the clinical use of inhibitors of activated factor X and thrombin.

  6. Combined anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy for high-risk patients with atrial fibrillation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, D A; Raichand, S; Moore, D; Connock, M; Fry-Smith, A; Fitzmaurice, D A

    2013-07-01

    Previous research suggests uncertainty whether or not there is any additional benefit in adding antiplatelet therapy (APT) to anticoagulation therapy (ACT) in patients with high-risk atrial fibrillation (AF) in terms of reduction in vascular events, including stroke. The existing guidelines acknowledge an increased risk of bleeding associated with such a strategy; however, there is no consensus on the treatment pathway. To determine, by undertaking a systematic review, if the addition of APT to ACT is beneficial compared with ACT alone in patients with AF who are considered to be at high risk of thromboembolic events (TEs). Data sources included bibliographic databases {the Cochrane Library [Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL)], MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Clinical Research Network Portfolio, Current Controlled Trials (CCT) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP)}, reference lists from identified systematic reviews and relevant studies, and contact with clinical experts. Searches were from inception to September 2010 and did not use language restrictions or study design filters. Studies of any design were included to evaluate clinical effectiveness, including randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised comparisons, cohort studies, case series or registries, longitudinal studies, systematic reviews and meta-analyses, and conference abstracts published after 2008. Inclusion criteria consisted of a population with AF, at high-risk of TEs, aged ≥ 18 years, on combined ACT and APT compared with others on ACT alone or ACT plus placebo. Inclusion decisions, assessment of study quality and data extraction were undertaken using methods to minimise bias. Fifty-three publications were included, reporting five RCTs (11 publications), 18 non-randomised comparisons (24 publications) and 18

  7. Both antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy may favorably affect outcome in patients with advanced heart failure. A retrospective analysis of the PRIME-II trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, RA; Hillege, HL; Tjeerdsma, G; Verheugt, FWA; van Veldhuisen, DJ

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Current guidelines of chronic heart failure (CHF) do not recommend the use of oral anticoagulants (OAC) or antiptatelet therapy (APT). We performed a post-hoc analysis to evaluate the effect of the use of anti-thrombotic therapy with APT and OAC. Patients and methods: We examined 427

  8. Both antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy may favorably affect outcome in patients with advanced heart failure. A retrospective analysis of the PRIME-II trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, R.A. de; Hillege, H.L.; Tjeerdsma, G.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Veldhuisen, D.J. van

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Current guidelines of chronic heart failure (CHF) do not recommend the use of oral anticoagulants (OAC) or antiplatelet therapy (APT). We performed a post-hoc analysis to evaluate the effect of the use of anti-thrombotic therapy with APT and OAC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We examined 427

  9. Sexuality in gynecological patients undergoing radiation therapy treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    The gynecology patient undergoing radiation therapy treatments may experience physiological and psychological problems related to sexuality. The needs of this group must be met by the radiation oncology staff by their being informed, interested, and experienced in dealing with sexual problems created by radiation therapy treatments. Opportunities to obtain information and for discussion about how the disease and its treatments will affect sexual functioning must be provided for the patient and partner. It is important to remember that the ability to seek and preserve gratifying sexual function is of great importance to almost all women, regardless of age. The patient may feel much personal distress related to the disease, the treatments, and how they affect the way she feels as a sexual human being. Opportunities must be provided to share the feelings created by the treatment process and trained therapists should be available when intensive sexual counseling is needed

  10. Impact of valvular heart disease on oral anticoagulant therapy in non-valvular atrial fibrillation: results from the RAMSES study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başaran, Özcan; Dogan, Volkan; Beton, Osman; Tekinalp, Mehmet; Aykan, Ahmet Çağrı; Kalaycıoğlu, Ezgi; Bolat, Ismail; Taşar, Onur; Şafak, Özgen; Kalçık, Macit; Yaman, Mehmet; İnci, Sinan; Altıntaş, Bernas; Kalkan, Sedat; Kırma, Cevat; Biteker, Murat

    2017-02-01

    The definition of non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) is controversial. We aimed to assess the impact of valvular heart disease on stroke prevention strategies in NVAF patients. The RAMSES study was a multicenter and cross-sectional study conducted on NVAF patients (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02344901). The study population was divided into patients with significant valvular disease (SVD) and non-significant valvular disease (NSVD), whether they had at least one moderate valvular disease or not. Patients with a mechanical prosthetic valve and mitral stenosis were excluded. Baseline characteristics and oral anticoagulant (OAC) therapies were compared. In 5987 patients with NVAF, there were 3929 (66%) NSVD and 2058 (34%) SVD patients. The predominant valvular disease was mitral regurgitation (58.1%), followed by aortic regurgitation (24.1%) and aortic stenosis (17.8%). Patients with SVD had higher CHA 2 DS 2 VASc [3.0 (2.0; 4.0) vs. 4.0 (2.0; 5.0), p valvular heart disease with the predominance of mitral regurgitation. Patients with SVD were at greater risk of stroke and bleeding compared to patients with NSVD. Although patients with mitral regurgitation should be given more aggressive anticoagulant therapy due to their higher risk of stroke, they are undertreated compared to patients with aortic valve diseases.

  11. Self management of oral anticoagulant therapy in children with congenital heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas D; Attermann, Jørn; Hjortdal, Vibeke E.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The concept of self – management of oral anticoagulation has been shown to entail better quality of treatment than conventional management when assessed in selected adults. We have extended the concept of self – management to include children with congenital cardiac disease......, hypothesizing self-management of oral anticoagulation is also possible in this subset of patients. Our aim was to assess the quality of self-management. Methods: We trained 14 children aged from 2.2 to 15.6 years, with a mean age of 9.7 years, and their parents, in domiciliary analysis of the International...... observed over a mean of 547 days, with a range from 214 to 953 days. The patients were within the therapeutic targetted range of the International Normalized Ratio for a median of 65.5% of the time, with a range from 17.6 % to 90.4 %. None of the patients experienced thromboembolic or bleeding...

  12. Non-invasive anesthesia for children undergoing proton radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owusu-Agyemang, Pascal; Grosshans, David; Arunkumar, Radha; Rebello, Elizabeth; Popovich, Shannon; Zavala, Acsa; Williams, Cynthia; Ruiz, Javier; Hernandez, Mike; Mahajan, Anita; Porche, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    Background: Proton therapy is a newer modality of radiotherapy during which anesthesiologists face specific challenges related to the setup and duration of treatment sessions. Purpose: Describe our anesthesia practice for children treated in a standalone proton therapy center, and report on complications encountered during anesthesia. Materials and methods: A retrospective review of anesthetic records for patients ⩽18 years of age treated with proton therapy at our institution between January 2006 and April 2013 was performed. Results: A total of 9328 anesthetics were administered to 340 children with a median age of 3.6 years (range, 0.4–14.2). The median daily anesthesia time was 47 min (range, 15–79). The average time between start of anesthesia to the start of radiotherapy was 7.2 min (range, 1–83 min). All patients received Total Intravenous Anesthesia (TIVA) with spontaneous ventilation, with 96.7% receiving supplemental oxygen by non-invasive methods. None required daily endotracheal intubation. Two episodes of bradycardia, and one episode each of; seizure, laryngospasm and bronchospasm were identified for a cumulative incidence of 0.05%. Conclusions: In this large series of children undergoing proton therapy at a freestanding center, TIVA without daily endotracheal intubation provided a safe, efficient, and less invasive option of anesthetic care

  13. [Comparison of quality and hemorragic risk of oral anticoagulant therapy using acenocoumarol versus warfarin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva Berini, Elvira; Galán Alvarez, Pilar; Pacheco Onrubia, Ana María

    2008-06-21

    Long half life oral anticoagulants have shown a higher anticoagulation stability and a lower hemorragic risk than those of a short half life. We have compared therapeutic stability and hemorragic risk of acenocoumarol versus warfarin in 2 groups of patients on preventive anticoagulation because of atrial fibrilation (international normalised ratio [INR]: 2-3). Data on 120 patients treated with acenocoumarol and 120 on warfarin treatment who had started and continued treatment in our hospital for a minimum of a year was collected. The percentage of visits within the intended range of INR (2 to 3) was 65.5% with warfarin and 63.4% with acenocoumarol. Thirty percent of patients on warfarin had 75% or more of their controls within range, while for those treated with acenocoumarol this percentage was 22.5%. In the acenocoumarol group, 0.3 visits/patient/year presented an INR > or = 6 versus 0.07 in the warfarin group (p = 0.003). Patients treated with acenocoumarol show a higher risk of presenting with an INR > or = 6, but no statistically significant differences are observed in therapeutic stability.

  14. The future of anticoagulation clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macik, B Gail

    2003-01-01

    Anticoagulation therapy is the foundation of treatment for thromboembolic disorders; and coumarin derivatives (warfarin in the United States) are the only orally administered anticoagulant medications currently available. Due to the expense and relative difficulties associated with this route of administration, parenteral drugs are not used routinely for long-term therapy, leaving warfarin as the anticoagulant of choice in the outpatient setting. The management of warfarin is problematic, however, due the nuances of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profile and the requirement for frequent monitoring of blood levels. Although management by anticoagulation clinics is considered the gold standard for warfarin therapy, management by an anticoagulation clinic may not be the optimal option from a clinician's view and, in many cases, may not be an option at all. Anticoagulation clinics may impinge on the doctor-patient relationship. Difficulties of communication and reimbursement are not ameliorated by a specialty clinic. Innovations in warfarin management, including patient self-management and computerized dosing programs, are alternatives for improved care that are available with or without input by an anticoagulation service. New oral drugs on the horizon do not require the same intensity of monitoring and do not present the same pharmacodynamic problems associated with warfarin. Warfarin will become obsolete in the foreseeable future. If anticoagulation clinics continue, they must re-define their role as the major part of the workload, warfarin management, disappears. To adapt, clinics must strengthen and enhance their role as coordinators and educators, and less so, managers of anticoagulation therapy.

  15. Discrepancies between Patients' Preferences and Educational Programs on Oral Anticoagulant Therapy: A Survey in Community Pharmacies and Hospital Consultations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Macquart de Terline

    Full Text Available Oral anticoagulation therapy is increasingly used for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic complications in various clinical situations. Nowadays, education programs for patients treated with anticoagulants constitute an integrated component of their management. However, such programs are usually based on the healthcare providers' perceptions of what patients should know, rather than on patients' preferences.To investigate patients' viewpoints on educational needs and preferred modalities of information delivery.We conducted an observational study based on a self-administered questionnaire. To explore several profiles of patients, the study was designed for enrolling patients in two settings: during outpatient consultations in a cardiology department (Saint Antoine Hospital, Paris, France and in community pharmacies throughout France.Of the 371 patients who completed the questionnaire, 187 (50.4% were recruited during an outpatient consultation and 184 (49.6% were recruited in community pharmacies. 84.1% of patients were receiving a vitamin K antagonist and 15.6% a direct oral anticoagulant. Patients ranked 16 of 21 (76.2% questionnaire items on information about their treatment as important or essential; information on adverse effects of treatment was the highest ranked domain (mean score 2.38, 95% CI 2.30-2.46. Pharmacists (1.69, 1.58-1.80, nurses (1.05, 0.95-1.16, and patient associations (0.36, 0.29-0.44, along with group sessions (0.85, 0.75-0.95, the internet (0.77, 0.67-0.88, and delivery of material at the patient's home (1.26, 1.14-1.38, were ranked poorly in terms of delivering educational material.This study revealed substantial discrepancies between patient preferences and current educational programs. These findings should be useful for tailoring future educational programs that are better adapted to patients, with a potential associated enhancement of their effectiveness.

  16. Cost-effectiveness of pharmacogenetics-guided warfarin therapy vs. alternative anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink, J; Pirmohamed, M; Lane, S; Hughes, D A

    2014-02-01

    Pharmacogenetics-guided warfarin dosing is an alternative to standard clinical algorithms and new oral anticoagulants for patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. However, clinical evidence for pharmacogenetics-guided warfarin dosing is limited to intermediary outcomes, and consequently, there is a lack of information on the cost-effectiveness of anticoagulation treatment options. A clinical trial simulation of S-warfarin was used to predict times within therapeutic range for different dosing algorithms. Relative risks of clinical events, obtained from a meta-analysis of trials linking times within therapeutic range with outcomes, served as inputs to an economic analysis. Neither dabigatran nor rivaroxaban were cost-effective options. Along the cost-effectiveness frontier, in relation to clinically dosed warfarin, pharmacogenetics-guided warfarin and apixaban had incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of £13,226 and £20,671 per quality-adjusted life year gained, respectively. On the basis of our simulations, apixaban appears to be the most cost-effective treatment.

  17. Systemic scleroderma diagnosed after undergoing radiation therapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Tetsuo; Kakei, Masae

    1994-01-01

    A case of systemic scleroderma in which the symptoms became prominent after undergoing radiation therapy for breast cancer is reported. A 68-year-old woman, who had undergone a radical mastectomy for breast carcinoma at the age of 63 and thereafter received radiotherapy at 65, 66 and 67 years of age, visited our clinic complaining of skin sclerosis and Raynaud's phenomenon which she had noticed since the age of 65. The physical examination revealed not only postirradiation fibrosis and pigmentation, but also edematous sclerosis and the pigmentation of her extremities, as well as short frenulum of the tongue and digital pitting scars. She demonstrated serum anti-topoisomerase I antibodies, esophageal dysfunction and lung fibrosis. The histopathology of the forearm skin showed edema of the upper dermis as well as increased and homogenized collagen bundles in the middle and lower dermis. Since similar cases have been reported, it is considerable that radiation therapy may have thus worsened the lesions of scleroderma in this patient as well. (author)

  18. Systemic scleroderma diagnosed after undergoing radiation therapy for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Tetsuo; Kakei, Masae (Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1994-10-01

    A case of systemic scleroderma in which the symptoms became prominent after undergoing radiation therapy for breast cancer is reported. A 68-year-old woman, who had undergone a radical mastectomy for breast carcinoma at the age of 63 and thereafter received radiotherapy at 65, 66 and 67 years of age, visited our clinic complaining of skin sclerosis and Raynaud's phenomenon which she had noticed since the age of 65. The physical examination revealed not only postirradiation fibrosis and pigmentation, but also edematous sclerosis and the pigmentation of her extremities, as well as short frenulum of the tongue and digital pitting scars. She demonstrated serum anti-topoisomerase I antibodies, esophageal dysfunction and lung fibrosis. The histopathology of the forearm skin showed edema of the upper dermis as well as increased and homogenized collagen bundles in the middle and lower dermis. Since similar cases have been reported, it is considerable that radiation therapy may have thus worsened the lesions of scleroderma in this patient as well. (author).

  19. Treatment Adherence as a New Choice Factor for Optimization of Oral Anticoagulation Therapy in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation and Hemostatic Gene Polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Skirdenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate treatment adherence and prevalence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 gene mutations in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF and provide rationale of choice for oral anticoagulation therapy.Material and methods. Treatment adherence was evaluated in 137 AF patients (aged 35-85 years with quantitative estimation of drug therapy adherence along with compliance to medical support and lifestyle modifications. Among them 82 patients underwent polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 gene polymorphisms.Results. Patients receiving anticoagulation therapy are characterized by lower level of adherence compared to patients without anticoagulants (65.2±19.3% vs 68.5±19.1%; Wald-Wolfowitz; p<0.05. Considering all studied parameters men are less adherent than women (54.7±18.6% vs 60.6±16.7%; Kolmogorov-Smirnov; p<0.05. Patients receiving new oral anticoagulants (NOAC have better compliance compared with patients of warfarin group. Mutations in CYP2C9 gene were detected in 32.9%, VKORC1 – in 68.3%, and their combination – in 21.9% of study participants. Warfarin therapy may be potentially dangerous in such patients due to low adherence.Conclusion. Considering high prevalence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 gene mutations treatment adherence should be estimated to optimize choice of anticoagulation therapy. NOAC treatment should be considered in patients with low adherence for prevention of thromboembolic complications.

  20. Secondary prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism after initial oral anticoagulation therapy in patients with unprovoked venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lindsay; Yeoh, Su Ern; Ramli, Ahmad

    2017-12-15

    Currently, little evidence is available on the length and type of anticoagulation used for extended treatment for prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with unprovoked VTE who have completed initial oral anticoagulation therapy. To compare the efficacy and safety of available oral therapeutic options (aspirin, warfarin, direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs)) for extended thromboprophylaxis in adults with a first unprovoked VTE, to prevent VTE recurrence after completion of an acceptable initial oral anticoagulant treatment period, as defined in individual studies. For this review, the Cochrane Vascular Information Specialist (CIS) searched the Specialised Register (March 2017) as well as the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 2). We also searched trials registries (March 2017) and reference lists of relevant articles. We included randomised controlled trials in which patients with a first, symptomatic, objectively confirmed, unprovoked VTE, who had been initially treated with anticoagulants, were randomised to extended prophylaxis (vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), antiplatelet agents, or DOACs) versus no prophylaxis or placebo. We also included trials that compared one type of extended prophylaxis versus another type of extended prophylaxis. Two review authors independently selected studies, assessed quality, and extracted data. We resolved disagreements by discussion. Six studies with a combined total of 3436 participants met the inclusion criteria. Five studies compared extended prophylaxis versus placebo: three compared warfarin versus placebo, and two compared aspirin versus placebo. One study compared one type of extended prophylaxis (rivaroxaban) versus another type of extended prophylaxis (aspirin). For extended prophylaxis versus placebo, we downgraded the quality of the evidence for recurrent VTE and all-cause mortality to moderate owing to concerns arising from risks of selection and performance bias

  1. Bridging Anticoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clinical centers in the United States, Canada, and Brazil. A more detailed description of the study is ... Your Personal Message Send Message Share on Social Media Bridging Anticoagulation The BRIDGE Study Investigators Circulation. 2012; ...

  2. Anticoagulant Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte

    Although sewer rat control is carried out in more than 80 % of all Danish municipalities, with usage of large amounts of anticoagulant rodenticides, knowledge on anticoagulant resistance among rats living in the sewers is limited. As rat problems in urban areas are believed to be related to sewer...... problems (70-90 % in UK and DK) unawareness of resistance amongst these populations of Brown rats may constitute a future control problem and knowledge on this issue has become crucial. Rats were captured in sewers from seven different locations in the suburban area of Copenhagen. Locations was chosen...... to represent different sewer rat management strategies i) no anticoagulants for approx. 20 years ii) no anticoagulants for the last 5 years and iii) continuous control for many years. Animals were tested for resistance to bromadiolone by Blood-Clotting Response test, as bromadiolone is the most frequently used...

  3. Risk of bleeding and stroke with oral anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation in Taiwan: a nationwide cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chun Chen

    Full Text Available Data on the use of oral anticoagulation (OAC and antiplatelet therapy and the risk of bleeding and stroke amongst Asian patients with atrial fibrillation (AF are limited. We investigated the risks of bleeding and stroke with use of oral anticoagulation (OAC and antiplatelet therapy as mono- or combination therapy, in patients with AF from a Chinese nationwide cohort study.We studied a cohort of 10384 patients (57.2% men, age 67.8 ± 13.2 yrs between 1999 and 2010 from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Records of prescriptions were obtained during follow-up. The main outcome was a recurrent stroke during the follow-up period. Time-dependent Cox proportional hazards models were used for this analysis.We documented 1009 events for bleeding, as well as 224 hemorrhagic stroke and 1642 ischemic stroke events during a median 3.2 (interquartile range, 1.05-6.54 years' follow-up. Compared with warfarin users, patients with antiplatelet therapy had a lower risk of bleeding (adjusted relative risk [RR], 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.49-0.71, p<0.001 whilst combination therapy had a non-statistically significant higher bleeding risk (RR, 1.33, 95%, 0.91-1.94, p = 0.20. Patients on antiplatelet monotherapy had a similar risk for ischemic stroke compared with OAC (RR 1.05, 95% CI, 0.89-1.25, p = 0.50, whilst those on combination therapy had a significantly higher risk (RR 1.90, 95% CI, 1.34-2.70, p<0.001.In a national representative cohort, antiplatelet therapy had no significant difference in ischemic stroke risk to warfarin. For bleeding, aspirin had a lower risk compared to warfarin. This may reflect poor anticoagulation control, highlighting important missed opportunities for improved stroke prevention, especially in countries where anticoagulation management is suboptimal.

  4. Technology-assisted self-testing and management of oral anticoagulation therapy: a qualitative patient-focused study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuljis, Jasna; Money, Arthur G; Perry, Mark; Barnett, Julie; Young, Terry

    2017-09-01

    Oral anticoagulation therapy requires regular blood testing to ensure therapeutic levels are maintained and excessive bleeding/clotting is avoided. Technology-assisted self-testing and management is seen as one of the key areas in which quality of care can be improved whilst reducing costs. Nevertheless, levels of patient engagement in self-testing and management remain low. To date, little research emphasis has been placed on understanding the patients' perspectives for low engagement. The typical approach adopted by healthcare providers is to provide patient education programmes, with the expectation that individual patients will change their behaviour and adopt new self-care strategies. However, if levels of patient engagement are to be increased, healthcare providers must also develop a better understanding of how their clinical service provision is perceived by patients and make adaptations. To explore patient views, needs and expectations of an anticoagulation service and the self-testing and management services provided. Interviews were conducted with 17 patients who currently engage in international normalised ratio (INR) self-testing and management. Thematic coding and analysis were carried out on the interview transcripts. Four high-level themes emerged from interviews: (i) role of clinic, (ii) motivations for self-testing, (iii) managing INR and (iv) trust. The clinic was seen as adding value in terms of specifying testing frequency, dosage profiles and calibrating equipment. Prompt communication from clinic to patient was also valued, although more personalised/real-time communication would help avoid feelings of isolation. Patients felt more in control as self-tester/managers and often took decisions about treatment adjustments themselves. However, some also manipulated their own test results to avoid 'unnecessary' interventions. More personalised/real-time communication, pragmatic and collaborative patient-clinician partnerships and recognition of

  5. Maternal malaria induces a procoagulant and antifibrinolytic state that is embryotoxic but responsive to anticoagulant therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W Avery

    Full Text Available Low birth weight and fetal loss are commonly attributed to malaria in endemic areas, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie these poor birth outcomes are incompletely understood. Increasing evidence suggests that dysregulated hemostasis is important in malaria pathogenesis, but its role in placental malaria (PM, characterized by intervillous sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum, proinflammatory responses, and excessive fibrin deposition is not known. To address this question, markers of coagulation and fibrinolysis were assessed in placentae from malaria-exposed primigravid women. PM was associated with significantly elevated placental monocyte and proinflammatory marker levels, enhanced perivillous fibrin deposition, and increased markers of activated coagulation and suppressed fibrinolysis in placental plasma. Submicroscopic PM was not proinflammatory but tended to be procoagulant and antifibrinolytic. Birth weight trended downward in association with placental parasitemia and high fibrin score. To directly assess the importance of coagulation in malaria-induced compromise of pregnancy, Plasmodium chabaudi AS-infected pregnant C57BL/6 mice were treated with the anticoagulant, low molecular weight heparin. Treatment rescued pregnancy at midgestation, with substantially decreased rates of active abortion and reduced placental and embryonic hemorrhage and necrosis relative to untreated animals. Together, the results suggest that dysregulated hemostasis may represent a novel therapeutic target in malaria-compromised pregnancies.

  6. Antiplatelet therapy in STEMI undergoing primary PCI, when, which one and how long.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baralis, Giorgio; Rossini, Roberta; Musumeci, Giuseppe

    2018-02-19

    Reperfusion therapy for patients presenting with an acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) involves primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) and concomitant dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with combination of a P2Y12 inhibitor and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). Decision regarding DAPT can be challenging clinically in the modern era with the evolution of newer stents, more potent antiplatelet agents and novel anticoagulant drugs in addition to an older patient population with multiple comorbidities. This review outlines the currently available antiplatelet treatments, and their place within the therapeutic timeline of a patient presenting with STEMI.

  7. Regional citrate anticoagulation for continuous renal replacement therapy in severe burns-a retrospective analysis of a protocol-guided approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille, Jochen; Sablotzki, Armin; Malcharek, Michael; Raff, Thomas; Mogk, Martin; Parentin, Torsten

    2014-12-01

    For critically ill patients, the use of regional citrate anticoagulation as part of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) has become increasingly common in recent years. However, there are scarce data on the use of this technique in patients with burns. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness, feasibility and complications of regional citrate anticoagulation for CRRT in burn patients, as well as the effects on coagulation and the electrolyte and acid-base balance. This retrospective study included all patients who received renal replacement therapy with citrate anticoagulation to treat acute kidney injury (AKI) between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2009 at the burn unit of St. Georg Hospital GmbH in Leipzig. During the examination period, 18 patients were treated using CRRT with regional citrate anticoagulation (CVVHDF in the pre-dilution mode). The median patient age was 64 years (49.5; 71), with a median TBSA of 42.5% (33.25; 52.5) and a median ABSI score of 10 (9; 10). The CRRT was initiated on a median of 6 days (4; 8.75) after admission to the hospital and continued for a median duration of 7 days (5; 8). The median dialysis dose was 38.2mlkgBW(-1)h(-1) (31.8; 42.1). The median effective filter operation time was 67h (46; 72). No relevant disorders associated with acid-base balance, electrolytes or coagulation occurred, and there were no bleeding complications. In terms of bleeding risk and electrolyte and acid-base balance, regional citrate anticoagulation may be considered to be an effective, safe and user-friendly procedure for patients with severe burns and AKI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  8. The impact of pre-injury anticoagulation therapy in the older adult patient experiencing a traumatic brain injury: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karen; Weeks, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this systematic review is to synthesize the best available evidence on the impact of pre-injury anticoagulation therapy in the older adult patient who experiences a traumatic brain injury. Trauma in the elderly remains one of the most challenging problems for healthcare providers in the 21 century. The most recent United States (U.S.) census estimates that by the year 2020 more than 52 million Americans will be age 65 years or older, and one million of those will live to be over 100 years of age. In the older adult population, classified as age 65 years or greater, the two leading causes of injury were reported as motor vehicle crashes (MVC) and falls. We have become increasingly aware of the unique physiologic changes in this population that make them more susceptible to succumb to traumatic injuries than their younger counterparts. This is especially true in the anticoagulated patient with a traumatic brain injury.Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is defined as an injury occurring when an external force traumatizes the brain. It may also be known as an intracranial or head injury. TBI is classified depending on the mechanism of injury (blunt or penetrating), severity, and location of the assault. Damage to the brain, skull, and/or scalp transpires. TBI is the leading cause of death and disability in the U.S, and persons of all ages, races, ethnicities, and incomes are affected. In the past five to ten years, trauma services have recorded an increase in major trauma admissions of patients age 65 years and older. In review of the literature to date, it is recognized that outcomes following moderate to severe TBI in older adults are poor, with high rates of significant disability and mortality reported. A recent Australian study reported that 28% of older adults died in the hospital following a TBI and in Finland adults aged 75 years and older had the highest rates of TBI related hospitalizations and death. According to a systematic review of European

  9. [Ultrasound dynamics lysis apex thrombus as an objective criterion of effectiveness of anticoagulation therapy in venous thrombosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, R E; Suchkov, I A; Pshennikov, A S; Agapov, A B

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of anticoagulant therapy (ACT) for the treatment of patients with deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremities. The study considered ultrasonic characteristics of lysis of the proximal part of thrombus: localization and nature of venous thrombosis, the length and diameter of the proximal floating part of the thrombus, and duration of the venous thrombosis. Depending on the ACT options patients were divided into 3 groups: Group 1 (18 patients) received rivaroxaban, group 2 (19 patients) received enoxaparin sodium with subsequent transition to warfarin, and 3 group (19 patietns) received enoxaparin sodium, followed by administration of rivaroxaban. Treatment with rivaroxaban was preferable over standard ACT with enoxaparin/warfarin with regards to the lysis of thrombus when duration of thrombosis did not exceed 10 days. In 10.5% of patients who received warfarin flotation of thrombi remained for 14 days; the length of the floating part of the thrombi did not exceed 3 cm. Such circumstances and inability to reach a therapeutic INR value required cava filter placement. Treatment with enoxaparin sodium followed by the administration of rivaroxaban was found to be the most efficient ACT regimen as there was no negative dynamics of ultrasound characteristics of lysis of thrombi at any duration of the disease.

  10. Gigantic retroperitoneal hematoma as a complication of anticoagulation therapy with heparin in therapeutic doses: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daliakopoulos Stavros I

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage is a distinct clinical entity that can present as a rare life-threatening event characterized by sudden onset of bleeding into the retroperitoneal space, occurring in association with bleeding disorders, intratumoral bleeding, or ruptures of any retroperitoneal organ or aneurysm. The spontaneous form is the most infrequent retroperitoneal hemorrhage, causing significant morbidity and representing a diagnostic challenge. Case presentation We report the case of a patient with coronary artery disease who presented with transient ischemic attack, in whom anticoagulant therapy with heparin precipitated a massive spontaneous atraumatic retroperitoneal hemorrhage (with international normalized ratio 2.4, which was treated conservatively. Conclusion Delay in diagnosis is potentially fatal and high clinical suspicion remains crucial. Finally, it is a matter of controversy whether retroperitoneal hematomas should be surgically evacuated or conservatively treated and the final decision should be made after taking into consideration patient's general condition and the possibility of permanent femoral or sciatic neuropathy due to compression syndrome.

  11. Practice points in gynecardiology: Abnormal uterine bleeding in premenopausal women taking oral anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, A.H.E.M.; Euler, M.; Bongers, M.Y.; Rolden, H.J.A.; Grutters, J.P.C.; Ulrich, L.; Schenck-Gustafsson, K.

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of premenopausal women are currently using antithrombotic and/or (dual) antiplatelet therapy for various cardiovascular indications. These may induce or exacerbate abnormal uterine bleeding and more awareness and knowledge among prescribers is required. Heavy and irregular menstrual

  12. Antiplatelet therapy is not a safer alternative to oral anticoagulants, even in older hospital-discharged patients with atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Bo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Although oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT is recommended for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF, it is widely underused among older patients, who are frequently prescribed antiplatelet therapy (APT instead. We assessed mortality and incidence of ischemic and hemorrhagic events according to prescription of OAT or APT in older medical in-patients with AF discharged from hospital. Stroke and bleeding risk were evaluated using the CHA2DS2-VASC (Congestive heart failure/ left ventricular dysfunction, Hypertension, Aged ≥75 years, Diabetes Mellitus, Stroke/transient ischemic attack/systemic embolism, Vascular Disease, Aged 65-74 years, Sex Category and HAS-BLED (Hypertension, Abnormal renal/liver function, Stroke, Bleeding history or predisposition, Labile international normalized ratio, Elderly, Drugs/alcohol concomitantly scores. Comorbidity, cognitive status and functional autonomy were assessed using standardized scales. Association of OAT and APT with overall mortality, ischemic stroke and bleeding events was evaluated through multivariate analysis and propensity score matching. During a mean follow-up period of 11 months 384 of the 962 patients discharged (mean age 82.9±6.6 years, 59.1% female died (39.9%, 66 had an ischemic stroke and 49 experienced a major bleeding event. Compared with APT, OAT was associated with reduced overall mortality after multivariate analysis [odds ratio (OR 0.62, confidence interval (CI: 0.46-0.83] and after propensity score matched analysis (OR 0.65, CI: 0.52-0.82, P=0.0004, with a not significant reduced incidence of total and fatal ischemic stroke, and without increase in total, intracranial, major and fatal bleedings. In a sample of older AF patients with poor health status, OAT was associated with reduced mortality, without evidence of a significant increase in major or fatal bleedings.

  13. Spontaneous healing of cervical pseudoaneurysm in vertebral artery dissection under anticoagulant therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, A.; Neff, W.; Schwartz, A.

    1998-01-01

    We report a 41-year-old woman with embolic stroke of the mid-pons attributed to embolism from vertebral artery dissection. Angiography revealed an occluded artery on one side and an incidental pseudoaneurysm of the midcervical portion of the vertebral artery on the other. After 3 months of warfarin therapy control angiography showed complete occlusion of the pseudoaneurysm. We discuss therapeutic choices and review the literature. (orig.)

  14. Spontaneous healing of cervical pseudoaneurysm in vertebral artery dissection under anticoagulant therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, A.; Neff, W.; Schwartz, A. [Department of Neurology, Klinikum Mannheim, Medical Faculty, University of Heidelberg, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1, D-68132 Mannheim (Germany)

    1998-04-01

    We report a 41-year-old woman with embolic stroke of the mid-pons attributed to embolism from vertebral artery dissection. Angiography revealed an occluded artery on one side and an incidental pseudoaneurysm of the midcervical portion of the vertebral artery on the other. After 3 months of warfarin therapy control angiography showed complete occlusion of the pseudoaneurysm. We discuss therapeutic choices and review the literature. (orig.) With 4 figs., 8 refs.

  15. Trends in initiation of direct oral anticoagulant therapies for atrial fibrillation in a national population-based cross-sectional study in the French health insurance databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huiart, Laetitia; Ferdynus, Cyril; Renoux, Christel; Beaugrand, Amélie; Lafarge, Sophie; Bruneau, Léa; Suissa, Samy; Maillard, Olivier; Ranouil, Xavier

    2018-01-01

    Objective Unlike several other national health agencies, French health authorities recommended that the newer direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) agents only be prescribed as second choice for the treatment of newly diagnosed non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF), with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) remaining the first choice. We investigated the patterns of use of DOACs versus VKA in the treatment of NVAF in France over the first 5 years of DOAC availability. We also identified the changes in patient characteristics of those who initiated DOAC treatment over this time period. Methods Based on the French National Health Administrative Database, we constituted a population-based cohort of all patients who were newly treated for NVAF between January 2011 and December 2015. Trends in drug use were described as the percentage of patients initiating each drug at the time of treatment initiation. A multivariate analysis using logistic regression model was performed to identify independent sociodemographic and clinical predictors of initial anticoagulant choice. Results The cohort comprised 814 446 patients who had received a new anticoagulant treatment for NVAF. The proportion of patients using DOACs as initial anticoagulant therapy reached 54% 3 months after the Health Ministry approved the reimbursement of dabigatran for NVAF, and 61% by the end of 2015, versus VKA use. In the multivariate analysis, we found that DOAC initiators were younger and healthier overall than VKA initiators, and this tendency was reinforced over the 2011–2014 period. DOACs were more frequently prescribed by cardiologists in 2012 and after (adjusted OR in 2012: 2.47; 95% CI 2.40 to 2.54). Conclusion Despite recommendations from health authorities, DOACs have been rapidly and massively adopted as initial therapy for NVAF in France. Observational studies should account for the fact that patients selected to initiate DOAC treatment are healthier overall, as failure to do so may bias the risk

  16. The clinical course of symptomatic deep vein thrombosis after 3 months of anticoagulant therapy using fondaparinux/edoxaban or fondaparinux/vitamin K antagonist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu K

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Kazuhiro Shimizu, Takuo Iiduka, Shuji Sato, Hajime Kiyokawa, Takahiro Nakagami, Hiroshi Mikamo, Masayo Kawazoe, Mao Takahashi, Mahito Noro Department of Internal Medicine, Toho University Sakura Medical Center, Sakura City, Chiba, Japan Background: For the management of venous thromboembolism (VTE, providing anticoagulant therapy within the therapeutic range has been a major challenge, as conventional therapy with unfractionated heparin (UFH and vitamin K antagonist (VKA requires frequent laboratory monitoring and dose adjustment. Recently, fondaparinux and edoxaban are being used as beneficial alternatives to UFH and VKA.Methods: We evaluated the clinical course of symptomatic deep vein thrombosis (DVT in patients who received the 3-month anticoagulation therapy with fondaparinux/edoxaban (Group A; n=40 in comparison with the findings from our previous experience of patients who received the fondaparinux/VKA combination (Group B; n=33.Results: In both Groups A and B, serum D-dimer was significantly improved after treatment (p<0.001. The thrombus volume assessed by quantitative ultrasound thrombosis (QUT score was significantly reduced in both groups (p<0.001. There was no difference in the proportion of patients who were normalized (ie, disappearance of DVT between the groups, although Group A had significantly more patients who were normalized or improved (ie, disappearance and reduction of DVT (p<0.001. No bleeding event was observed in either group. However, in one patient in Group B, worsening of DVT and development of symptomatic PE were observed.Conclusion: Fondaparinux/edoxaban therapy is as effective as fondaparinux/VKA. This treatment has the possible advantage in thrombus regression. This would be a beneficial therapeutic option for both patients and physicians. Keywords: venous thromboembolism, deep vein thrombosis, anticoagulant therapy, quantitative ultrasound thrombosis score, FXa inhibitors

  17. Perioperative antithrombotic therapy in patients undergoing endoscopic urologic surgery: where do we stand with current literature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naspro, Richard; Lerner, Lori B; Rossini, Roberta; Manica, Michele; Woo, Henry H; Calopedos, Ross J; Cracco, Cecilia M; Scoffone, Cesare M; Herrmann, Thomas R; de la Rosette, Jean J; Cornu, Jean-Nicolas; DA Pozzo, Luigi F

    2018-04-01

    The number of patients on chronic anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy requiring endoscopic urological surgery is increasing worldwide. Therefore, there is a strong demand to standardize the perioperative treatment of this cohort of patients, both from a surgical and cardiological point of view, balancing the risks of bleeding versus thrombosis, and the important possible clinical and medical legal repercussions therein. Although literature is scarce and the quality of evidence quite low, in line with other surgical specialties, guidelines and recommendations for the management of urological patients have begun to emerge. The aim of this review is to analyze current available literature and evidence on the most common endoscopic procedures performed in this high-risk group of patients, focusing on the perioperative management. In particular, to analyze the most frequently performed endoscopic procedures for the treatment of benign prostate enlargement (transurethral resection of the prostate, Thulium, Holmium and greenlight laser prostatectomy), bladder cancer (transurethral resection of the bladder), upper urinary tract urothelial cancer, and nephrolithiasis. Despite the lack of randomized studies, regardless of individual patient considerations, studies would support continuation of acetylsalicylic acid, which is recommended by cardiologists, in patients with intermediate/high risk of coronary thrombosis. In contrast, multiple studies found that bridging with light weight molecular weight heparin can potentially lead to more bleeding than continuation of the anticoagulant(s) and antiplatelet therapy, and caution with bridging is advised. All urologists should familiarize themselves with emerging guidelines and recommendations, and always be prepared to discuss specific cases or scenarios in a dedicated multidisciplinary team.

  18. Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants versus warfarin for the prevention of spontaneous echo-contrast and thrombus in patients with atrial fibrillation or flutter undergoing cardioversion: A trans-esophageal echocardiography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun Gi; Choi, Jong-Il; Kim, Mi-Na; Cho, Dong-Hyuk; Oh, Suk-Kyu; Kook, Hyungdon; Park, Hee-Soon; Lee, Kwang No; Baek, Yong-Soo; Roh, Seung-Young; Shim, Jaemin; Park, Seong-Mi; Shim, Wan Joo; Kim, Young-Hoon

    2018-01-01

    Spontaneous echo-contrast (SEC) and thrombus observed in trans-esophageal echocardiography (TEE) is known as a strong surrogate marker for future risk of ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) or atrial flutter (AFL). The efficacy of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC) compared to warfarin to prevent SEC or thrombus in patients with AF or AFL is currently unknown. AF or AFL patients who underwent direct current cardioversion (DCCV) and pre-DCCV TEE evaluation from January 2014 to October 2016 in a single center were analyzed. The prevalence of SEC and thrombus were compared between patients who received NOAC and those who took warfarin. NOAC included direct thrombin inhibitor and factor Xa inhibitors. Among 1,050 patients who were considered for DCCV, 424 patients anticoagulated with warfarin or NOAC underwent TEE prior to DCCV. Eighty patients who were anticoagulated for less than 21 days were excluded. Finally, 344 patients were included for the analysis (180 warfarin users vs. 164 NOAC users). No significant difference in the prevalence of SEC (44.4% vs. 43.9%; p = 0.919), dense SEC (13.9% vs. 15.2%; p = 0.722), or thrombus (2.2% vs. 4.3%; p = 0.281) was observed between the warfarin group and the NOAC group. In multivariate analysis, there was no association between NOAC and risk of SEC (odds ratio [OR]: 1.4, 95% CI: 0.796-2.297, p = 0.265) or thrombus (OR: 3.4, 95% CI: 0.726-16.039, p = 0.120). In conclusion, effectiveness of NOAC is comparable to warfarin in preventing SEC and thrombus in patients with AF or AFL undergoing DCCV. However, numerical increase in the prevalence of thrombus in NOAC group warrants further evaluation.

  19. Oral Complications and Management Strategies for Patients Undergoing Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    With cancer survival rate climbing up over the past three decades, quality of life for cancer patients has become an issue of major concern. Oral health plays an important part in one's overall quality of life. However, oral health status can be severely hampered by side effects of cancer therapies including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Moreover, prevention and treatment of these complications are often overlooked in clinical practice. The present paper aims at drawing health care professionals' attention to oral complications associated with cancer therapy by giving a comprehensive review. Brief comments on contemporary cancer therapies will be given first, followed by detailed description of oral complications associated with cancer therapy. Finally, a summary of preventive strategies and treatment options for common oral complications including oral mucositis, oral infections, xerostomia, and dysgeusia will be given. PMID:24511293

  20. Non anti-coagulant factors associated with filter life in continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT): a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, Matthew; Winson, Elizabeth; Roodenburg, Owen; McNeil, John

    2017-02-20

    Optimising filter life and performance efficiency in continuous renal replacement therapy has been a focus of considerable recent research. Larger high quality studies have predominantly focussed on optimal anticoagulation however CRRT is complex and filter life is also affected by vascular access, circuit and management factors. We performed a systematic search of the literature to identify and quantify the effect of vascular access, circuit and patient factors that affect filter life and presented the results as a meta-analysis. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed by searching Pubmed (MEDLINE) and Ovid EMBASE libraries from inception to 29 th February 2016 for all studies with a comparator or independent variable relating to CRRT circuits and reporting filter life. Included studies documented filter life in hours with a comparator other than anti-coagulation intervention. All studies comparing anticoagulation interventions were searched for regression or hazard models pertaining to other sources of variation in filter life. Eight hundred nineteen abstracts were identified of which 364 were selected for full text analysis. 24 presented data on patient modifiers of circuit life, 14 on vascular access modifiers and 34 on circuit related factors. Risk of bias was high and findings are hypothesis generating. Ranking of vascular access site by filter longevity favours: tunnelled semi-permanent catheters, femoral, internal jugular and subclavian last. There is inconsistency in the difference reported between femoral and jugular catheters. Amongst published literature, modality of CRRT consistently favoured continuous veno-venous haemodiafiltration (CVVHD-F) with an associated 44% lower failure rate compared to CVVH. There was a trend favouring higher blood flow rates. There is insufficient data to determine advantages of haemofilter membranes. Patient factors associated with a statistically significant worsening of filter life included mechanical

  1. Use of Percutaneous Aspiration Thrombectomy vs. Anticoagulation Therapy to Treat Acute Iliofemoral Venous Thrombosis: 1-year Follow-up Results of a Randomised, Clinical Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cakir, Volkan, E-mail: drvolkancakir@gmail.com [Katip Celebi University, Ataturk Training and Research Hospital, Department of Radiology, Division of İnterventional Radiology (Turkey); Gulcu, Aytac, E-mail: aytac.gulcu@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylul University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Akay, Emrah, E-mail: emrahakay@hotmail.com [Sakarya University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Capar, Ahmet E., E-mail: ahmetergina@gmail.com [Dokuz Eylul University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Gencpinar, Tugra, E-mail: tugra01@hotmail.com [Dokuz Eylul University Hospital, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery (Turkey); Kucuk, Banu, E-mail: banu.kucuk@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylul University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Karabay, Ozalp, E-mail: ozalp.karabay@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylul University Hospital, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery (Turkey); Goktay, A. Yigit, E-mail: yigit.goktay@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylul University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

    2014-08-15

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of percutaneous aspiration thrombectomy (PAT) followed by standard anticoagulant therapy, with anticoagulation therapy alone, for the treatment of acute proximal lower extremity deep vein thrombosis.MethodsIn this randomised, prospective study, 42 patients with acute proximal iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis documented via Doppler ultrasound examination, were separated into an interventional treatment group (16 males, 5 females, average age 51 years) and a medical treatment group (13 males, 8 females, average age 59 years). In the interventional group, PAT with large-lumen 9-F diameter catheterisation was applied, after initiation of standard anticoagulant therapy. Balloon angioplasty (n 19) and stent implementation (n: 14) were used to treat patients with residual stenosis (>50 %) after PAT. Prophylactic IVC filters were placed in two patients. The thrombus clearance status of the venous system was evaluated by venography. In both the medical and interventional groups, venous patency rates and clinical symptom scores were evaluated at months 1, 3, and 12 after treatment.ResultsDeep venous systems became totally cleared of thrombi in 12 patients treated with PAT. The venous patency rates in month 12 were 57.1 and 4.76 % in the interventional and medical treatment groups, respectively. A statistically significant improvement was observed in clinical symptom scores of the interventional group (PAT) with or without stenting (4.23 ± 0.51 before treatment; 0.81 ± 0.92 at month 12) compared with the medical treatment group (4.00 ± 0.63 before treatment; 2.43 ± 0.67 at month 12). During follow-up, four patients in the medical treatment and one in the interventional group developed pulmonary embolisms.ConclusionsFor treatment of acute deep vein thrombosis, PAT with or without stenting is superior to anticoagulant therapy alone in terms of both ensuring venous patency and improving clinical

  2. A Case of Pulmonary Tumor Thrombotic Microangiopathy Diagnosed by Transbronchial Lung Biopsy and Treated with Chemotherapy and Long-Term Oxygen and Anticoagulation Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Kitamura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 41-year-old woman, who underwent breast resection for cancer of the right breast and adjuvant chemotherapy 2 years ago, was admitted to our hospital due to shortness of breath upon exertion. High-resolution computed tomography of the chest showed small nodular opacities in the peribronchiolar area in both lungs, as well as mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy. A transbronchial lung biopsy revealed breast cancer metastasis and pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy (PTTM. Treatment of PTTM is rarely reported due to the difficulty of antemortem diagnosis; however, the patient was effectively treated with chemotherapy and oxygen and anticoagulation therapies for 3 months.

  3. Nursing problems of patients undergoing venous-venous ECMO therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Krupa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ECMO (Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation is an extracorporeal gas exchange method that, despite many, carries the risk of many complications. ECMO is a modern intensive care method which in many cases is the last resort for the patient. Care and supervision are provided by a multidisciplinary team of specialists: physicians, perfusionists, nurses. The aim of the article was to present ECMO nursing care and the principles of care and care during and after ECMO therapy

  4. Additional effective dose by patients undergoing NAI-131 capsules therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlic, M.; Jovanovic, M.; Spasic Jokic, V.; Cuknic, O.; Ilic, Z.; Vranjes Djuric, S. [VINCA - Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (Yugoslavia)

    2006-07-01

    Capsules or solutions containing Na{sup 131}I are indicated for the therapy of some thyroid carcinomas such as functioning metastatic papillary or follicular carcinoma of the thyroid; and for the treatment of hyperthyroidism (diffuse toxic goiter and single or multiple toxic nodular goiter). The recommended dosage ranges of Na{sup 131}I capsules or solution for the therapy of the average patient (70 kg) are: (3.7-5.55) GBq for ablation of normal thyroid tissue; (3.7-7.4) GBq for subsequent treatments; a (148-370) MBq for hyperthyroidism. The purpose of this paper is to calculate effective dose as a result of iodine-131 capsules remaining in stomach before absorption starts. This result can determine the disadvantage of capsule versus solution containing sodium iodine-131 (Na{sup 131}I) in radionuclide therapy application from radiation protection point of view. The Monte Carlo code MCNP4b was used to model transport of gamma and beta particles emitted by radionuclide {sup 131}I treated as a point source at the bottom of stomach. Absorbed energy per unit transformation in stomach and surrounding organs has been calculated. (authors)

  5. Factors affecting the lung perfused blood volume in patients with intrapulmonary clots after anti-coagulation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Munemasa, E-mail: radokada@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Masuda, Yu [4th Grade of 6-year Medicine Doctor Program, Department of Medicine, Yamaguchi University Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Nakashima, Yoshiteru [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi Grand Medical Center, Oosaki 77, Hofu, Yamaguchi 747-8511 (Japan); Nomura, Takafumi; Nakao, Sei [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Suga, Kazuyoshi [Department of Radiology, St Hills Hospital, Imamurakita 3-7-18, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-0155 (Japan); Kido, Shoji [Computer-aided Diagnosis and Biomedical Imaging Research Biomedical Engineering, Applied Medical Engineering Science Graduate School of Medicine, Yamaguchi University, Tokiwadai 2-16-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8611 (Japan); Matsunaga, Naofumi [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Dual-energy CT can provide morphological and functional lung images in the same examination. • The subsequent dual-energy CT demonstrates the increased whole lung perfused blood volume (V{sub 120}) despite the residual intrapulmonary clots after treatment in one examination. • The increased whole lung perfusion (V{sub 120}) and a decreased low perfusion volume (V{sub 5}) result in the improvement in the low perfusion rate (%V{sub 5}) in the patients with acute pulmonary embolism after treatment. - Abstract: Objectives: Factors affecting the improvement in the lung perfused blood volume (LPBV) were evaluated based on the presence of intrapulmonary clots (IPCs) after anti-coagulation therapy using 64-slice dual-energy CT. Materials and methods: 96 patients exhibiting venous thromboembolism underwent initial and repeated LPBV examinations between December 2008 and July 2014. Fifteen patients were excluded due to pulmonary comorbidities, and a total of 81 patients were included in this study. Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) was diagnosed in 46 of the patients (56.7%). LPBV images were three-dimensionally reconstructed with two threshold ranges: 1–120 HU (V{sub 120}) and 1–5 HU (V{sub 5}), and the relative value of V{sub 5} per V{sub 120} expressed as %V{sub 5}. These values were subsequently compared with indicators of the severity of PE, such as the D-dimer level, heart rate and CT measurements. This study was approved by the local ethics committee. Results: In patients with IPCs, the D-dimer, V{sub 5} and %V{sub 5}values were significantly larger (p ≤ 0.01) in the initial LPBV, although these differences disappeared in subsequent LPBV after treatment. The right ventricular (RV) diameter, RV/left ventricular (RV/LV) diameter ratio and %V{sub 5} values were also significantly reduced, whereas the V{sub 5} value did not significantly decrease (p = 0.07), but V{sub 120} value significantly increased (p < 0.001) after treatment. However, in

  6. Effect of Genotype-Guided Warfarin Dosing on Clinical Events and Anticoagulation Control Among Patients Undergoing Hip or Knee Arthroplasty: The GIFT Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Brian F; Bass, Anne R; Lin, Hannah; Woller, Scott C; Stevens, Scott M; Al-Hammadi, Noor; Li, Juan; Rodríguez, Tomás; Miller, J Philip; McMillin, Gwendolyn A; Pendleton, Robert C; Jaffer, Amir K; King, Cristi R; Whipple, Brandi DeVore; Porche-Sorbet, Rhonda; Napoli, Lynnae; Merritt, Kerri; Thompson, Anna M; Hyun, Gina; Anderson, Jeffrey L; Hollomon, Wesley; Barrack, Robert L; Nunley, Ryan M; Moskowitz, Gerard; Dávila-Román, Victor; Eby, Charles S

    2017-09-26

    Warfarin use accounts for more medication-related emergency department visits among older patients than any other drug. Whether genotype-guided warfarin dosing can prevent these adverse events is unknown. To determine whether genotype-guided dosing improves the safety of warfarin initiation. The randomized clinical Genetic Informatics Trial (GIFT) of Warfarin to Prevent Deep Vein Thrombosis included patients aged 65 years or older initiating warfarin for elective hip or knee arthroplasty and was conducted at 6 US medical centers. Enrollment began in April 2011 and follow-up concluded in October 2016. Patients were genotyped for the following polymorphisms: VKORC1-1639G>A, CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3, and CYP4F2 V433M. In a 2 × 2 factorial design, patients were randomized to genotype-guided (n = 831) or clinically guided (n = 819) warfarin dosing on days 1 through 11 of therapy and to a target international normalized ratio (INR) of either 1.8 or 2.5. The recommended doses of warfarin were open label, but the patients and clinicians were blinded to study group assignment. The primary end point was the composite of major bleeding, INR of 4 or greater, venous thromboembolism, or death. Patients underwent a screening lower-extremity duplex ultrasound approximately 1 month after arthroplasty. Among 1650 randomized patients (mean age, 72.1 years [SD, 5.4 years]; 63.6% women; 91.0% white), 1597 (96.8%) received at least 1 dose of warfarin therapy and completed the trial (n = 808 in genotype-guided group vs n = 789 in clinically guided group). A total of 87 patients (10.8%) in the genotype-guided group vs 116 patients (14.7%) in the clinically guided warfarin dosing group met at least 1 of the end points (absolute difference, 3.9% [95% CI, 0.7%-7.2%], P = .02; relative rate [RR], 0.73 [95% CI, 0.56-0.95]). The numbers of individual events in the genotype-guided group vs the clinically guided group were 2 vs 8 for major bleeding (RR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0

  7. Citrate Anticoagulation for CRRT in Children: Comparison with Heparin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Nicole Fernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional anticoagulation with citrate is an alternative to heparin in continuous renal replacement therapies, which may prolong circuit lifetime and decrease hemorrhagic complications. A retrospective comparative cohort study based on a prospective observational registry was conducted including critically ill children undergoing CRRT. Efficacy, measured as circuit survival, and secondary effects of heparin and citrate were compared. 12 patients on CRRT with citrate anticoagulation and 24 patients with heparin anticoagulation were analyzed. Median citrate dose was 2.6 mmol/L. Median calcium dose was 0.16 mEq/kg/h. Median heparin dose was 15 UI/kg/h. Median circuit survival was 48 hours with citrate and 31 hours with heparin (P=0.028. 66.6% of patients treated with citrate developed mild metabolic alkalosis, which was directly related to citrate dose. There were no cases of citrate intoxication: median total calcium/ionic calcium index (CaT/I of 2.16 and a maximum CaT/I of 2.33, without metabolic acidosis. In the citrate group, 45.5% of patients developed hypochloremia and 27.3% hypomagnesemia. In the heparin group, 27.8% developed hypophosphatemia. Three patients were moved from heparin to citrate to control postoperatory bleeding. In conclusion citrate is a safe and effective anticoagulation method for CRRT in children and it achieves longer circuit survival than heparin.

  8. Vocal changes in patients undergoing radiation therapy for glottic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, S.; Harrison, L.B.; Solomon, B.; Sessions, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    A prospective evaluation of vocal changes in patients receiving radiation therapy for T1 and T2 (AJC) glottic carcinoma was undertaken in January 1987. Vocal analysis was performed prior to radiotherapy and at specific intervals throughout the radiation treatment program. The voicing ratio was extrapolated from a sustained vowel phonation using the Visipitch interfaced with the IBM-PC. Preliminary observations suggested three distinct patterns of vocal behavior: 1. reduced voicing ratio with precipitous improvement within the course of treatment, 2. high initial voicing ratio with reduction secondary to radiation induced edema, with rapid improvement in the voicing component after the edema subsided, and 3. fluctuating voicing ratio during and following treatment. Enrollment of new patients and a 2-year follow-up of current patients was undertaken

  9. Treatment of Hepatitis C in Patients Undergoing Immunosuppressive Drug Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kohtaro Ooka; Joseph K.Lim

    2016-01-01

    With 185 million people chronically infected globally,hepatitis C is a leading bloodborne infection.All-oral regimens of direct acting agents have superior efficacy compared to the historical interferon-based regimens and are significantly more tolerable.However,trials of both types of regimens have often excluded patients on immunosuppressive medications for reasons other than organ transplantation.Yet,these patients-most often suffering from malignancy or autoimmune diseases-could stand to benefit from these treatments.In this study,we systematically review the literature on the treatment of hepatitis C in these neglected populations.Research on patients with organ transplants is more robust and this literature is reviewed here non-systematically.Our systematic review produced 2273 unique works,of which 56 met our inclusion criteria and were used in our review.The quality of data was low;only 3 of the 56 studies were randomized controlled trials.Sustained virologic response was reported sporadically.Interferon-containing regimens achieved this end-point at rates comparable to that in immunocompetent individuals.Severe adverse effects and death were rare.Data on all-oral regimens were sparse,but in the most robust study,rates of sustained virologic response were again comparable to immunocompetent individuals (40/41).Efficacy and safety of interferoncontaining regimens and all-oral regimens were similar to rates in immunocompetent individuals;however,there were few interventional trials.The large number of case reports and case series makes conclusions vulnerable to publication bias.While firm conclusions are challenging,given the dearth of high-quality studies,our results demonstrate that antiviral therapy can be safe and effective.The advent of all-oral regimens offers patients and clinicians greatly increased chances of cure and fewer side effects.Preliminary data reveal that these regimens may confer such benefits in immunosuppressed individuals as well

  10. Does plasmin have anticoagulant activity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Hoover-Plow

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Jane Hoover-PlowJoseph J Jacobs Center for Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, Departments of Cardiovascular Medicine and Molecular Cardiology, Lerner Research Institute Cleveland Clinic, Ohio, USAAbstract: The coagulation and fibrinolytic pathways regulate hemostasis and thrombosis, and an imbalance in these pathways may result in pathologic hemophilia or thrombosis. The plasminogen system is the primary proteolytic pathway for fibrinolysis, but also has important proteolytic functions in cell migration, extracellular matrix degradation, metalloproteinase activation, and hormone processing. Several studies have demonstrated plasmin cleavage and inactivation of several coagulation factors, suggesting plasmin may be not only be the primary fibrinolytic enzyme, but may have anticoagulant properties as well. The objective of this review is to examine both in vitro and in vivo evidence for plasmin inactivation of coagulation, and to consider whether plasmin may act as a physiological regulator of coagulation. While several studies have demonstrated strong evidence for plasmin cleavage and inactivation of coagulation factors FV, FVIII, FIX, and FX in vitro, in vivo evidence is lacking for a physiologic role for plasmin as an anticoagulant. However, inactivation of coagulation factors by plasmin may be useful as a localized anticoagulant therapy or as a combined thrombolytic and anticoagulant therapy.Keywords: thrombosis, anticoagulant, cardiovascular disease, plasminogen’s protease, blood

  11. Short-Term Anticoagulant Therapy and Thrombus Location Are Independent Risk Factors for Delayed Recanalization of Deep Vein Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanlin; Fu, Qining; Zhao, Yu; Mu, Shaoyu; Liu, Liping

    2016-01-21

    Prompt recanalization of the vein containing the thrombus is an important goal during the initial treatment of DVT, and risk factors for delayed recanalization in patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the lower extremities need to be determined. A total of 174 patients with DVT in lower extremities were recruited from June 2014 to March 2015 at our hospital. Duplex ultrasound scanning was conducted for all patients at 1 and 6 months after baseline evaluation. We divided the patients into recanalization and non-recanalization groups and analyzed risk factors for delayed recanalization. The univariate analysis revealed that an oral anticoagulant time of less than 3 months and venous thrombus location were risk factors for delayed recanalization (P0.05). The multivariate analysis showed that patients with an anticoagulant time of less than 3 months had a lower incidence of recanalization than those with an anticoagulant time of more than 3 months (OR=2.358, Pvenous thrombus location are independent risk factors for delayed recanalization of DVT in the lower extremities.

  12. Age-related prevalence of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and anticoagulation therapy use in a urolithiasis population and their effect on outcomes: the Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society Ureteroscopy Global Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daels, F Pedro J; Gaizauskas, Andrius; Rioja, Jorge; Varshney, Anil K; Erkan, Erkan; Ozgok, Yasar; Melekos, Michael; de la Rosette, Jean J M C H

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the prevalence of risk factors for urological stone surgery and their possible influence on outcome and complications following ureteroscopy (URS). The Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society Ureteroscopy Global Study collected prospective data on consecutive patients with urinary stones treated with URS at centers around the world for 1 year. The prevalence of common comorbidities and anticoagulation therapy and their relationship with complications and age were examined. Of 11,719 patients, 2,989 patients (25.8%) had cardiovascular disease, including 22.6% with hypertension, and 1,266 patients (10.9%) had diabetes mellitus. Approximately six percent of patients were receiving oral anticoagulation therapy, including aspirin (3.7%) and clopidogrel (0.8%). The prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus and the proportion of patients receiving anticoagulant medication and/or antidiabetes treatment increased with age. Elderly were more likely to develop a postoperative complication when they had diabetes, a cardiovascular disease or received anticoagulation therapy. Post-operative bleeding was higher in patients receiving anticoagulants than those not receiving them (1.1 vs. 0.4%; p < 0.01). Patients with risk factors for stone formation had more complications than those without (4.9 vs. 3.0%, p < 0.001). This is the first study confirming in a global population that URS can effectively and safely be performed in a population with high comorbidity. The risk of a complication was highest among elderly patients presenting with comorbidities.

  13. Cardiac examination in children with Laron syndrome undergoing mecasermin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, Nurdan; Yıldız, Metin; Güven, Ayla; Yıldırım, Ayse

    2018-06-27

    Laron syndrome (LS), which can be defined as primary growth hormone resistance or insensitivity, is a rare genetic disease inherited by an autosomal recessive trait. Although it is undistinguishable from growth hormone deficiency, LS has high levels of growth hormone, but insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) cannot be synthesized. Mecasermin treatment is the only option for the patients who suffer from LS. This study aims to research cardiac findings of children with LS, who receive treatment with mecasermin. The study enrolled five children four males and one female, 4 M/1 F with LS, two of whom were siblings with a mean age of 6.3±2.1 years, a body weight of 13.36±4.74 kg, a height of 88±8.7 cm, and a body mass index (BMI) of 16.47±3.35. Their demographic data were obtained from their family and files. The children received mecasermin via subcutaneous injection at 0.04-0.12 μg/kg doses twice per day. The duration of mecasermin treatment was 8-53 months. All of them were examined clinically by electrocardiogram and echocardiogram. Their cardiac examinations were normal, except for one case, who had systolic murmur at cardiac auscultation. Arrhythmia was not observed on their electrocardiograms. The echocardiograms did not show a significant congenital cardiac anomaly. Their cardiac measure and functions were within normal ranges. The echocardiogram of the child with the murmur showed mitral and tricuspid insufficiency. The Doppler images showed pulmonary hypertension findings. These findings were proven by angiography. The vasoreactivity test results of that patient were negative. No reason could be found for the observed pulmonary hypertension. We diagnosed this finding as a primary pulmonary hypertension and Bosentan therapy was started. In this study, we showed that cardiac findings were consistent with previous studies. To the best of our knowledge, the observed pulmonary hypertension in children with LS, who received treatment with or without mecasermin

  14. Antithrombotic therapy in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: should we change our practice after the PIONEER AF-PCI and RE-DUAL PCI trials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerschmied, D; Brachmann, J; Darius, H; Frey, N; Katus, H A; Rottbauer, W; Schäfer, A; Thiele, H; Bode, C; Zeymer, Uwe

    2018-04-20

    The number of patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is increasing. Since these patients have a CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score of 1 or higher, they should be treated with oral anticoagulation to prevent stroke. However, combination therapy with oral anticoagulation for prevention of embolic stroke and dual platelet inhibition for prevention of coronary thrombosis significantly increases bleeding complications. The optimal combination, intensity and duration of antithrombotic combination therapy is still not known. In the rather small randomized WOEST trial, the combination of a vitamin K antagonist (VKA) and clopidogrel decreased bleeding compared to the conventional triple therapy with VKA, clopidogrel and aspirin. In the PIONEER AF-PCI trial, two rivaroxaban-based treatment regimens significantly reduced bleeding complications compared to conventional triple therapy without increasing embolic or ischemic complications following PCI. Dual therapy with rivaroxaban and clopidogrel appeared to provide an optimal risk-benefit ratio. In the RE-DUAL PCI trial, dual therapy with dabigatran also reduced bleeding complications compared to conventional triple therapy. With respect to the composite efficacy end point of thromboembolic events (myocardial infarction, stroke, or systemic embolism), death, or unplanned revascularization dabigatran-based dual therapy was non-inferior to VKA-based triple therapy. The upcoming trials AUGUSTUS with apixaban and ENTRUST-PCI with edoxaban will further examine the use of NOACs in this setting. While recent guidelines recommend NOAC-based dual therapy in only a subset of patients (those who are at increased risk of bleeding), the available data now suggest that this should be the preferred choice for the majority of patients. Adding aspirin to this primary choice for up to 4 weeks in patients at especially high ischemic risk would likely prevent atherothrombotic events, but this needs further

  15. Survival comparison of the Ross procedure and mechanical valve replacement with optimal self-management anticoagulation therapy: propensity-matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhles, M Mostafa; Körtke, Heinrich; Stierle, Ulrich; Wagner, Otto; Charitos, Efstratios I; Bogers, Ad J J C; Gummert, Jan; Sievers, Hans-Hinrich; Takkenberg, Johanna J M

    2011-01-04

    It is suggested that in young adults the Ross procedure results in better late patient survival compared with mechanical prosthesis implantation. We performed a propensity score-matched study that assessed late survival in young adult patients after a Ross procedure versus that after mechanical aortic valve replacement with optimal self-management anticoagulation therapy. We selected 918 Ross patients and 406 mechanical valve patients 18 to 60 years of age without dissection, aneurysm, or mitral valve replacement who survived an elective procedure (1994 to 2008). With the use of propensity score matching, late survival was compared between the 2 groups. Two hundred fifty-three patients with a mechanical valve (mean follow-up, 6.3 years) could be propensity matched to a Ross patient (mean follow-up, 5.1 years). Mean age of the matched cohort was 47.3 years in the Ross procedure group and 48.0 years in the mechanical valve group (P=0.17); the ratio of male to female patients was 3.2 in the Ross procedure group and 2.7 in the mechanical valve group (P=0.46). Linearized all-cause mortality rate was 0.53% per patient-year in the Ross procedure group compared with 0.30% per patient-year in the mechanical valve group (matched hazard ratio, 1.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.58 to 5.91; P=0.32). Late survival was comparable to that of the general German population. In comparable patients, there is no late survival difference in the first postoperative decade between the Ross procedure and mechanical aortic valve implantation with optimal anticoagulation self-management. Survival in these selected young adult patients closely resembles that of the general population, possibly as a result of highly specialized anticoagulation self-management, better timing of surgery, and improved patient selection in recent years.

  16. Determinants of the over-anticoagulation response during warfarin initiation therapy in Asian patients based on population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Minami; Takahashi, Harumi; Lee, Ming Ta Michael; Wen, Ming-Shien; Lee, Tsong-Hai; Chuang, Hui-Ping; Luo, Chen-Hui; Arima, Aki; Onozuka, Akiko; Nagai, Rui; Shiomi, Mari; Mihara, Kiyoshi; Morita, Takashi; Chen, Yuan-Tsong

    2014-01-01

    To clarify pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) factors associated with the over-anticoagulation response in Asians during warfarin induction therapy, population PK-PD analyses were conducted in an attempt to predict the time-courses of the plasma S-warfarin concentration, Cp(S), and coagulation and anti-coagulation (INR) responses. In 99 Chinese patients we analyzed the relationships between dose and Cp(S) to estimate the clearance of S-warfarin, CL(S), and that between Cp(S) and the normal prothrombin concentration (NPT) as a coagulation marker for estimation of IC50. We also analyzed the non-linear relationship between NPT inhibition and the increase in INR to derive the non-linear index λ. Population analyses accurately predicted the time-courses of Cp(S), NPT and INR. Multivariate analysis showed that CYP2C9*3 mutation and body surface area were predictors of CL(S), that VKORC1 and CYP4F2 polymorphisms were predictors of IC50, and that baseline NPT was a predictor of λ. CL(S) and λ were significantly lower in patients with INR≥4 than in those with INR<4 (190 mL/h vs 265 mL/h, P<0.01 and 3.2 vs 3.7, P<0.01, respectively). Finally, logistic regression analysis revealed that CL(S), ALT and hypertension contributed significantly to INR≥4. All these results indicate that factors associated with the reduced metabolic activity of warfarin represented by CL(S), might be critical determinants of the over-anticoagulation response during warfarin initiation in Asians. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02065388.

  17. Determinants of the over-anticoagulation response during warfarin initiation therapy in Asian patients based on population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minami Ohara

    Full Text Available To clarify pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD factors associated with the over-anticoagulation response in Asians during warfarin induction therapy, population PK-PD analyses were conducted in an attempt to predict the time-courses of the plasma S-warfarin concentration, Cp(S, and coagulation and anti-coagulation (INR responses. In 99 Chinese patients we analyzed the relationships between dose and Cp(S to estimate the clearance of S-warfarin, CL(S, and that between Cp(S and the normal prothrombin concentration (NPT as a coagulation marker for estimation of IC50. We also analyzed the non-linear relationship between NPT inhibition and the increase in INR to derive the non-linear index λ. Population analyses accurately predicted the time-courses of Cp(S, NPT and INR. Multivariate analysis showed that CYP2C9*3 mutation and body surface area were predictors of CL(S, that VKORC1 and CYP4F2 polymorphisms were predictors of IC50, and that baseline NPT was a predictor of λ. CL(S and λ were significantly lower in patients with INR≥4 than in those with INR<4 (190 mL/h vs 265 mL/h, P<0.01 and 3.2 vs 3.7, P<0.01, respectively. Finally, logistic regression analysis revealed that CL(S, ALT and hypertension contributed significantly to INR≥4. All these results indicate that factors associated with the reduced metabolic activity of warfarin represented by CL(S, might be critical determinants of the over-anticoagulation response during warfarin initiation in Asians.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02065388.

  18. Does tadalafil prevent erectile dysfunction in patients undergoing radiation therapy for prostate cancer?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Incrocci (Luca)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractA recently published paper addressed the interesting topic of prevention of erectile dysfunction (ED) with tadalafil, a phosphodiesterase-type 5 inhibitor (PDE5i) in patients undergoing radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer. [1]Tadalafil 5 mg or placebo was

  19. Attitudes and preferences on the use of mobile health technology and health games for self-management: interviews with older adults on anticoagulation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Ah; Nguyen, Annie Lu; Berg, Jill; Amin, Alpesh; Bachman, Mark; Guo, Yuqing; Evangelista, Lorraine

    2014-07-23

    Older adults are at substantial risk for cardiovascular disorders that may require anticoagulation therapy. Those on warfarin therapy report dissatisfaction and reduced quality of life (QOL) resulting from the treatment. Advances in the area of mobile health (mHealth) technology have resulted in the design and development of new patient-centric models for the provision of personalized health care services to improve care delivery. However, there is a paucity of research examining the effectiveness of mHealth tools on knowledge, attitudes, and patient satisfaction with treatment, as well as self-management, adherence to therapy, and QOL in older adults with chronic illness conditions requiring long-term warfarin therapy. The objective of the study was to explore the attitudes and preferences of older adults on warfarin therapy regarding the use of mHealth technology and health games to gain skills for self-management. We conducted group and individual interviews with patients (60 years or older) on warfarin therapy at two anticoagulation clinics affiliated with an academic medical center. We held 4 group and 2 individual interviews, resulting in 11 patient participants and 2 family caregiver participants. We used structured questions on three topic areas including medication self-management strategies, mHealth technology use, and health games for exercise. We demonstrated some commercial health apps related to medication management, vitamin K content of food, and a videogame for balance exercise. Discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Common themes were drawn using content analysis. The participants reported awareness of the importance of staying on schedule with warfarin therapy. They also acknowledged that negative experiences of friends or family members who were taking warfarin influenced their desire to keep on schedule with warfarin therapy. In addition, the participants expressed that the use of mHealth technology may be helpful for medication

  20. Association between Oral Anticoagulation Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Association between Oral Anticoagulation Knowledge, Anticoagulation Control, and Demographic Characteristics of Patients Attending an Anticoagulation Clinic in Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Prospective Evaluation.

  1. Animal-Assisted Therapy for Patients Undergoing Treatment at NIH Clinical Center | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Therapy Dogs Animal-Assisted Therapy for Patients Undergoing Treatment at NIH ... is unlike any other." A self-described "huge animal lover," she coordinates 14 teams of trained and ...

  2. Timing of oral anticoagulant therapy in acute ischemic stroke with atrial fibrillation: study protocol for a registry-based randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åsberg, Signild; Hijazi, Ziad; Norrving, Bo; Terént, Andreas; Öhagen, Patrik; Oldgren, Jonas

    2017-12-02

    Oral anticoagulation therapy is recommended for the prevention of recurrent ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Current guidelines do not provide evidence-based recommendations on optimal time-point to start anticoagulation therapy after an acute ischemic stroke. Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) may offer advantages compared to warfarin because of faster and more predictable onset of action and potentially a lower risk of intracerebral haemorrhage also in the acute phase after an ischemic stroke. The TIMING study aims to establish the efficacy and safety of early vs delayed initiation of NOACs in patients with acute ischemic stroke and AF. The TIMING study is a national, investigator-led, registry-based, multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled study. The Swedish Stroke Register is used for enrolment, randomisation and follow-up of 3000 patients, who are randomised (1:1) within 72 h from ischemic stroke onset to either early (≤ 4 days) or delayed (≥ 5-10 days) start of NOAC therapy. The primary outcome is the composite of recurrent ischemic stroke, symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage, or all-cause mortality within 90 days after randomisation. Secondary outcomes include: individual components of the primary outcome at 90 and 365 days; major haemorrhagic events; functional outcome by the modified Rankin Scale at 90 days; and health economics. In an optional biomarker sub-study, blood samples will be collected after randomisation from approximately half of the patients for central analysis of cardiovascular biomarkers after study completion. The study is funded by the Swedish Medical Research Council. Enrolment of patients started in April 2017. The TIMING study addresses the ongoing clinical dilemma of when to start NOAC after an acute ischemic stroke in patients with AF. By the inclusion of a randomisation module within the Swedish Stroke Register, the advantages of a prospective randomised study design

  3. Lupus anticoagulants and antiphospholipid antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood clots - lupus anticoagulants; DVT - anticoagulants ... Most often, lupus anticoagulants and aPL are found in people with diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Lupus anticoagulants and ...

  4. Anticoagulation period in idiopathic venous thromboembolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farraj, Rami S.

    2004-01-01

    The period of anticoagulation of a first episode of idiopathic venous thromboembolism has been 6 months. It is unclear if such patients would benefit from longer treatment, as there appears to be an increased risk of recurrence after anticoagulation is stopped. In a randomized prospective study of 64 patients admitted to King Hussein Medical city, Amman, Jordan, who developed a first episode of venous thromboembolism, 32 patients were given warfarin for 24-months, while 32 patients stopped anticoagulation after completion of 6-months of therapy. Our goal was to determine the effects of extended anticoagulation on rates of recurrence of symptomatic venous thromboembolism and bleeding. The patients were followed for 12-months after stopping anticoagulation. After 24-months, 7 of the 32 patients (21%) who had standard anticoagulation for 6-months had a recurrent episode of thromboembolism compared to one of the 32 patients who received anticoagulation for 24 months (3%). Extended warfarin therapy for 24-months has resulted in an absolute risk reduction of 0.1% (p<0.05). This translates into 8 patients having to be treated for 24-months to avoid one recurrence without increasing the risk of major bleeding. Two patients in each group (6%) had major nonfatal bleeding, all 4 bleeding episodes occurring within the first 3-months of anticoagulation. After 36-months of follow up, the recurrence rate of extended warfarin therapy was only 3 patients (9%), which is a 43% relative reduction in recurrence of thromboembolism compared to standard therapy for 6-months. Patients with first episodes of idiopathic venous thromboembolism have an increased risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism and should be treated with oral anticoagulants for longer than 6-months, probably 24-months. (author)

  5. Pancreatite aguda devida a hematoma intramural do duodeno por uso de anticoagulante Acute pancreatitis due to intramural hematoma of the duodenum by use of anticoagulant therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer FARHOUD

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Racional - A hemorragia intramural espontânea do duodeno causada por complicações da terapêutica anticoagulante é rara e seu tratamento controverso. Objetivo -- Apresentar a experiência advinda do tratamento de doente com essa condição clínica. Relato do caso - Expõe-se o caso de uma mulher de 71 anos de idade, que há 3 meses fazia uso de anticoagulante oral para tratamento de trombose venosa profunda dos membros inferiores. Apresentou-se com cefaléia e dores abdominais intensas no andar superior do abdome, associadas a náuseas e vômitos. Os exames laboratoriais e de imagem comprovaram o diagnóstico de surto agudo de pancreatite, decorrente de hematoma intramural de duodeno. Os valores de protrombina (49,7 s e o sangramento de tecidos moles cervicais e urinário, sugeriam complicação da terapêutica anticoagulante. Resultados - A terapêutica conservadora foi efetiva, tendo a doente recebido alta, assintomática, no 10º dia de internação. Conclusão - É recomendado o emprego do anticoagulante em doses menores nos doentes de risco e adequado controle dos parâmetros da coagulação. Acredita-se ser ideal a conduta conservadora e recomenda-se a cirurgia somente nos casos que evoluem com complicações.Background - Spontaneous intramural hemorrhage of the duodenum due to anticoagulant therapy is rare and the treatment is controversial. Objective - To present the acquired knowledge with the treatment of these disease. Case report - A 71-year-old women receiving for a 3 month period an anticoagulant therapy presented cervical bleeding of soft tissues and symptoms of acute pancreatitis and high small bowel obstruction. Early noninvasive diagnosis by computed tomographic scan was possible and conservative therapy proved successful in complete resolution of the pancreatitis and obstructive symptoms, with resumption of oral intake in the fourth day of treatment. The frequency of bleeding in high risk patients during warfarin therapy

  6. Erectile Dysfunction Among HIV Patients Undergoing Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy: Dyslipidemia as a Main Risk Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Romero‐Velez, MD

    2014-04-01

    Conclusions: ED is highly prevalent in HIV patients. Dyslipidemia should be considered as a risk factor for ED in HIV patients. Romero‐Velez G, Lisker‐Cervantes A, Villeda‐Sandoval CI, Sotomayor de Zavaleta M, Olvera‐Posada D, Sierra‐Madero JG, Arreguin‐Camacho LO, and Castillejos‐Molina RA. Erectile dysfunction among HIV patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy: Dyslipidemia as a main risk factor. Sex Med 2014;2:24–30.

  7. Long-term fate of left atrial thrombi and incidence of cerebral embolism under continuous anticoagulation therapy; MR-tomographische Evaluation der Inzidenz zerebraler Embolien bei Patienten mit Vorhofflimmern und linksatrialen Thromben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strach, K.; Meyer, C.; Hackenbroch, M.; Schild, H.; Sommer, T. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Bonn (Germany); Tiemann, K. [Medizinische Universitaetsklinik und Poliklinik II, Bonn (Germany); Haase, J. [Klinik Rotes Kreuz, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Pizulli, L. [Petruskrankenhaus, Bonn (Germany); Omran, H. [St. Marien-Hospital, Bonn (Germany)

    2005-12-15

    Purpose: Patients (pts.) with atrial fibrillation (AF) and atrial thrombi are known to have an increased risk for cerebral embolism. However, little is known about the clinical course of atrial thrombi and the incidence of cerebral embolism in those patients during anticoagulation therapy. The high sensitivity of MR imaging (MRI) including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) suggests that this technique could provide an improved estimate of cerebral embolism associated with the presence of left atrial thrombi. The aims of this prospective study were to evaluate (1) the prevalence of clinically silent and apparent cerebral embolism in pts. with newly diagnosed AF and atrial thrombi using MRI/DWI, (2) the long-term fate of atrial thrombi under continued anticoagulation therapy and (3) the incidence of cerebral embolism during a follow-up period of 12 months with continuous anticoagulation therapy. Materials and methods: The study group consisted of 32 pts. with (1) newly diagnosed AF and evidence of left atrial (LA) thrombi detected by TEE and (2) a new start of anticoagulation therapy [International Normalized Ratio (INR) 2.0-3.0]. 19 pts. with (1) newly diagnosed AF and no evidence of atrial thrombi and (2) an equivalent anticoagulation regimen served as the control group. In both groups (a) MRI/DWI studies of the brain (weeks 0, 4, 8, 12, 20, 28, 36, 44, and 52), (b) transesophageal echocardiographic studies (TEE) for assessment of LA-Thrombi (weeks 0 and 52) and (c) clinical neurological assessments (weeks 0, 20 and 52) were performed. Results: In the study group (AF and LA-Thrombi) 11 out of 32 pts. (34%) displayed signs of acute (n=8) or chronic (n=3) cerebral embolism in the initial MRI studies. In 4 out of 32 pts.(13%), MRI/DWI depicted new or additional cerebral emboli (n=12) during the follow-up period despite continuous anticoagulation therapy. 2 (n=2/4; 50%) of these patients had clinically apparent neurological deficits. In the control group 1 out of 19 pts

  8. Oral Anticoagulation in Patients With Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Arman; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Greenberger, Norton J; Giugliano, Robert P

    2018-05-15

    Patients with liver disease are at increased risks of both thrombotic and bleeding complications. Many have atrial fibrillation (AF) or venous thromboembolism (VTE) necessitating oral anticoagulant agents (OACs). Recent evidence has contradicted the assumption that patients with liver disease are "auto-anticoagulated" and thus protected from thrombotic events. Warfarin and non-vitamin K-antagonist OACs have been shown to reduce thrombotic events safely in patients with either AF or VTE. However, patients with liver disease have largely been excluded from trials of OACs. Because all currently approved OACs undergo metabolism in the liver, hepatic dysfunction may cause increased bleeding. Thus, the optimal anticoagulation strategy for patients with AF or VTE who have liver disease remains unclear. This review discusses pharmacokinetic and clinical studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of OACs in patients with liver disease and provides a practical, clinically oriented approach to the management of OAC therapy in this population. Copyright © 2018 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Antibody production in response to staphylococcal MS-1 phage cocktail in patients undergoing phage therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Żaczek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the humoral immune response (through the release of IgG, IgA, and IgM antiphage antibodies to a staphylococcal phage cocktail in patients undergoing experimental phage therapy at the Phage Therapy Unit, Medical Center of the Ludwik Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy in Wrocław, Poland. We also evaluated whether occurring antiphage antibodies had neutralizing properties towards applied phages (K rate. Among 20 examined patients receiving the MS-1 phage cocktail orally and/or locally, the majority did not show a noticeably higher level of antiphage antibodies in their sera during phage administration. Even in those individual cases with an increased immune response, mostly by induction of IgG and IgM, the presence of antiphage antibodies did not translate into unsatisfactory clinical results of phage therapy. On the other hand, a negative outcome of the treatment occurred in some patients who showed relatively weak production of antiphage antibodies before and during treatment. This may imply that possible induction of antiphage antibodies is not an obstacle to the implementation of phage therapy and support our assumption that the outcome of the phage treatment does not primarily depend on the appearance of antiphage antibodies in sera of patients during therapy. These conclusions are in line with our previous findings. The confirmation of this thesis is of great interest as regards the efficacy of phage therapy in humans.

  10. Antibody Production in Response to Staphylococcal MS-1 Phage Cocktail in Patients Undergoing Phage Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żaczek, Maciej; Łusiak-Szelachowska, Marzanna; Jończyk-Matysiak, Ewa; Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Międzybrodzki, Ryszard; Owczarek, Barbara; Kopciuch, Agnieszka; Fortuna, Wojciech; Rogóż, Paweł; Górski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the humoral immune response (through the release of IgG, IgA, and IgM antiphage antibodies) to a staphylococcal phage cocktail in patients undergoing experimental phage therapy at the Phage Therapy Unit, Medical Center of the Ludwik Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy in Wrocław, Poland. We also evaluated whether occurring antiphage antibodies had neutralizing properties toward applied phages (K rate). Among 20 examined patients receiving the MS-1 phage cocktail orally and/or locally, the majority did not show a noticeably higher level of antiphage antibodies in their sera during phage administration. Even in those individual cases with an increased immune response, mostly by induction of IgG and IgM, the presence of antiphage antibodies did not translate into unsatisfactory clinical results of phage therapy. On the other hand, a negative outcome of the treatment occurred in some patients who showed relatively weak production of antiphage antibodies before and during treatment. This may imply that possible induction of antiphage antibodies is not an obstacle to the implementation of phage therapy and support our assumption that the outcome of the phage treatment does not primarily depend on the appearance of antiphage antibodies in sera of patients during therapy. These conclusions are in line with our previous findings. The confirmation of this thesis is of great interest as regards the efficacy of phage therapy in humans.

  11. Perioperative Endocrine Therapy for Patients with Cushing's Syndrome Undergoing Retroperitoneal Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Cui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the efficacy and safety of perioperative endocrine therapy (PET for patients with Cushing’s syndrome (CS undergoing retroperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy (RLA. Methods. The novel, simplified PET modality of 82 patients who underwent RLA procedures for CS were studied. Clinical manifestations were observed for all patients on days 1 and 5 postoperatively, and clinical data, such as blood pressure (BP, levels of serum cortisol, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH, blood glucose, and electrolytes, were acquired and analyzed. Results. Supraphysiological doses of glucocorticoid were administered during the perioperative period, and the dosage was reduced gradually. In all 82 cases, the RLAs were performed successfully without any perioperative complication, such as steroid withdrawal symptoms. The patient’s symptoms and signs were improved quickly and safely during the hospital days. The serum cortisol and potassium levels were rather stable on days 1 and 5 postoperatively, and most were within the normal range. The clinical manifestations, serum levels of cortisol, ACTH, and potassium in most patients restored to normal gradually after several months (mean, 6.7 ± 1.2 months, except for one patient undergoing bilateral adrenalectomy. Conclusions. This perioperative endocrine therapy for patients with Cushing’s syndrome (mainly for adrenocortical adenoma undergoing retro-laparoscopic adrenalectomy is both effective and safe.

  12. Bleeding in patients using new anticoagulants or antiplatelet agents: Risk factors and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levi, M.M.; Eerenberg, E.; Löwenberg, E.; Kamphuisen, P.W.

    2010-01-01

    The most important adverse effect of antithrombotic treatment is the occurrence of bleeding. in case of serious or even life-threatening bleeding in a patient who uses anticoagulant agents or when patient on anticoagulants needs to undergo an urgent invasive procedure, anticoagulant treatment can be

  13. TRial of an Educational intervention on patients' knowledge of Atrial fibrillation and anticoagulant therapy, INR control, and outcome of Treatment with warfarin (TREAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattison Helen M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atrial fibrillation (AF patients with a high risk of stroke are recommended anticoagulation with warfarin. However, the benefit of warfarin is dependent upon time spent within the target therapeutic range (TTR of their international normalised ratio (INR (2.0 to 3.0. AF patients possess limited knowledge of their disease and warfarin treatment and this can impact on INR control. Education can improve patients' understanding of warfarin therapy and factors which affect INR control. Methods/Design Randomised controlled trial of an intensive educational intervention will consist of group sessions (between 2-8 patients containing standardised information about the risks and benefits associated with OAC therapy, lifestyle interactions and the importance of monitoring and control of their International Normalised Ratio (INR. Information will be presented within an 'expert-patient' focussed DVD, revised educational booklet and patient worksheets. 200 warfarin-naïve patients who are eligible for warfarin will be randomised to either the intervention or usual care groups. All patients must have ECG-documented AF and be eligible for warfarin (according to the NICE AF guidelines. Exclusion criteria include: aged Discussion More data is needed on the clinical benefit of educational intervention with AF patients receiving warfarin. Trial registration ISRCTN93952605

  14. Triple antithrombotic therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing coronary artery stenting: hovering among bleeding risk, thromboembolic events, and stent thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menozzi Mila

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dual antiplatelet treatment with aspirin and clopidogrel is the antithrombotic treatment recommended after an acute coronary syndrome and/or coronary artery stenting. The evidence for optimal antiplatelet therapy for patients, in whom long-term treatment oral anticoagulation is mandatory, is however scarce. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the various antithrombotic strategies adopted in this population, we reviewed the available evidence on the management of patients receiving oral anticoagulation, such as a vitamin-k-antagonists, referred for coronary artery stenting. Atrial fibrillation is the most frequent indication for oral anticoagulation. The need of starting antiplatelet therapy in this clinical scenario raises concerns about the combination to choose: triple therapy with warfarin, aspirin, and a thienopyridine being the most frequent and advised. The safety of this regimen appeared suboptimal because of an increased risk in hemorrhagic complications. On the other hand, the combination of oral anticoagulation and an antiplatelet agent is suboptimal in preventing thromboembolic events and stent thrombosis; dual antiplatelet therapy may be considered only when a high hemorrhagic risk and low thromboembolic risk are perceived. Indeed, the need for prolonged multiple-drug antithrombotic therapy increases the bleeding risks when drug eluting stents are used. Since current evidence derives mainly from small, single-center and retrospective studies, large-scale prospective multicenter studies are urgently needed.

  15. Magnesium sulfate therapy affects attention and working memory in patients undergoing preterm labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghia, N; Spong, C Y; Starbuck, V N; Scialli, A R; Ghidini, A

    2000-10-01

    Patients commonly consent to undergoing invasive procedures while receiving magnesium sulfate therapy. This study evaluated the effects of magnesium sulfate on attention, comprehension, and memory in patients undergoing preterm labor. Consenting patients were studied while receiving(study) and not receiving (control) intravenous magnesium sulfate tocolysis for preterm labor. Excluded were patients with possible preeclampsia, imminent delivery, sedative administration, or prior mental illness. Patient comprehension was assessed with the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination. Level of attention and working memory were evaluated with the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test. Verbal learning, short-term memory, and recognition were determined with the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test. Gross mental-neurologic deficits were evaluated with the Mini-Mental Status Examination. The tests were administered by the same examiner. Control testing was performed >24 hours after intravenous magnesium sulfate was discontinued. Magnesium levels were obtained at the time of testing. The primary outcome measure was the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test score because of its ability to elicit subtle differences in attention capacity. Statistical analysis included the paired t test and the McNemar test. Fifteen patients completed the study. Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test scores were significantly higher (ie, more errors were made) during magnesium sulfate therapy than periods without therapy (14 +/- 8 vs 7 +/- 7; P term memory (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test) or gross mental-neurologic deficits between the 2 groups (all P >.1). Magnesium sulfate therapy appears to have an effect on attention and working memory but not on long-term memory or comprehension. The significant differences in Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test scores reveal deficits in information-processing ability in patients on a regimen of magnesium sulfate therapy.

  16. What Aspects of Personal Care Are Most Important to Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, Kimberley A.; Feldman-Stewart, Deb; Groome, Patti A.; Brundage, Michael D.; McArdle, Siobhan; Wallace, David; Peng, Yingwei; Mackillop, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The overall quality of patient care is a function of the quality of both its technical and its nontechnical components. The purpose of this study was to identify the elements of nontechnical (personal) care that are most important to patients undergoing radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the literature and interviewed patients and health professionals to identify elements of personal care pertinent to patients undergoing radiation therapy for prostate cancer. We identified 143 individual elements relating to 10 aspects of personal care. Patients undergoing radical radiation therapy for prostate cancer completed a self-administered questionnaire in which they rated the importance of each element. The overall importance of each element was measured by the percentage of respondents who rated it as “very important.” The importance of each aspect of personal care was measured by the mean importance of its elements. Results: One hundred eight patients completed the questionnaire. The percentage of patients who rated each element “very important” ranged from 7% to 95% (mean 61%). The mean importance rating of the elements of each aspect of care varied significantly: “perceived competence of caregivers,” 80%; “empathy and respectfulness of caregivers,” 67%; “adequacy of information sharing,” 67%; “patient centeredness,” 59%; “accessibility of caregivers,” 57%; “continuity of care,” 51%; “privacy,” 51%; “convenience,” 45%; “comprehensiveness of services,” 44%; and “treatment environment,” 30% (P<.0001). Neither age nor education was associated with importance ratings, but the patient's health status was associated with the rating of some elements of care. Conclusions: Many different elements of personal care are important to patients undergoing radiation therapy for prostate cancer, but the 3 aspects of care that most believe are most important are these: the perceived

  17. What Aspects of Personal Care Are Most Important to Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, Kimberley A. [Cancer Care and Epidemiology, Queen' s Cancer Research Institute, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Department of Public Health Sciences, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Feldman-Stewart, Deb [Cancer Care and Epidemiology, Queen' s Cancer Research Institute, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Department of Oncology, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Groome, Patti A. [Cancer Care and Epidemiology, Queen' s Cancer Research Institute, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Department of Public Health Sciences, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Brundage, Michael D. [Cancer Care and Epidemiology, Queen' s Cancer Research Institute, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Department of Public Health Sciences, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Department of Oncology, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Cancer Centre of Southeastern Ontario, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); McArdle, Siobhan [Cancer Centre of Southeastern Ontario, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Wallace, David [Cancer Care and Epidemiology, Queen' s Cancer Research Institute, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Department of Public Health Sciences, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Peng, Yingwei [Cancer Care and Epidemiology, Queen' s Cancer Research Institute, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Department of Public Health Sciences, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Mackillop, William J., E-mail: William.mackillop@krcc.on.ca [Cancer Care and Epidemiology, Queen' s Cancer Research Institute, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Department of Public Health Sciences, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Department of Oncology, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Cancer Centre of Southeastern Ontario, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-02-01

    Purpose/Objective: The overall quality of patient care is a function of the quality of both its technical and its nontechnical components. The purpose of this study was to identify the elements of nontechnical (personal) care that are most important to patients undergoing radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the literature and interviewed patients and health professionals to identify elements of personal care pertinent to patients undergoing radiation therapy for prostate cancer. We identified 143 individual elements relating to 10 aspects of personal care. Patients undergoing radical radiation therapy for prostate cancer completed a self-administered questionnaire in which they rated the importance of each element. The overall importance of each element was measured by the percentage of respondents who rated it as “very important.” The importance of each aspect of personal care was measured by the mean importance of its elements. Results: One hundred eight patients completed the questionnaire. The percentage of patients who rated each element “very important” ranged from 7% to 95% (mean 61%). The mean importance rating of the elements of each aspect of care varied significantly: “perceived competence of caregivers,” 80%; “empathy and respectfulness of caregivers,” 67%; “adequacy of information sharing,” 67%; “patient centeredness,” 59%; “accessibility of caregivers,” 57%; “continuity of care,” 51%; “privacy,” 51%; “convenience,” 45%; “comprehensiveness of services,” 44%; and “treatment environment,” 30% (P<.0001). Neither age nor education was associated with importance ratings, but the patient's health status was associated with the rating of some elements of care. Conclusions: Many different elements of personal care are important to patients undergoing radiation therapy for prostate cancer, but the 3 aspects of care that most believe are most important are these: the

  18. Effect of live music therapy for patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walworth, Darcy D

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to identify the effects of live music therapy interventions compared with preferred recorded music for patients undergoing MRI scans. To date, there has not been a published study involving the use of live music therapy during MRI scans. The current study investigated the differences between teenage through adult patients receiving live music therapy intervention during outpatient MRI scans versus the standard protocol of care listening to recorded music (N = 88). Subjects ranged in age from 15 to 93 years old. Results indicated subjects who received the live music therapy protocol reported significantly better perception of the MRI procedure (p music therapy protocol had fewer scans repeated due to movement. Of the repeated images, 26% occurred in the live music group and 73% occurred in the recorded music group. Subjects receiving live music therapy also requested less breaks from the scan. Two percent of the live music subjects requested a break and 17.6% of the control patients requested breaks. When comparing the same type of scan between groups, subjects receiving the live music protocol required less time to complete the scans. For lumbar scans without contrast (N = 14, n = 7, n = 7), live music subjects spent an average of 4.63 less min per scan for a total of 32 less min for 7 subjects. For brain scans (N = 8, n = 4, n = 4), live music subjects spent an average of 5.8 less min per scan for a total of 23 less min for 4 subjects. Results of the current study supports the use of live music therapy intervention for teenage and adult patients undergoing MRI scans to reduce patient anxiety and improve patient perception of the scan experience. Additionally, live music therapy has the potential to shorten the length of time required for patients to complete MRI scans due to decreased patient movements and fewer breaks requested during the scans. The cost savings impact of reduced procedure time can positively impact the

  19. Music Therapy as Procedural Support for Young Children Undergoing Immunizations: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinger, Olivia Swedberg

    2016-01-01

    Children undergoing routine immunizations frequently experience severe distress, which may be improved through music therapy as procedural support. The purpose of this study was to examine effects of live, cognitive-behavioral music therapy during immunizations on (a) the behaviors of children, their parents, and their nurses; and (b) parental perceptions. Participants were children between the ages of 4 and 6 years (N = 58) who underwent immunizations, their parents (N = 62), and the nurses who administered the procedure (N = 19). Parent/child dyads were randomly assigned to receive music therapy (n = 29) or standard care (n = 29) during their immunization. Afterward, each parent rated their child's level of pain and the distress their child experienced compared to previous medical experiences. All procedures were videotaped and later viewed by trained observers, who classified child, parent, and nurse behaviors using the categories of the Child-Adult Medical Procedure Interaction Scale-Revised (CAMPIS-R). Significant differences between the music therapy and control groups were found in rates of child coping and distress behaviors and parent distress-promoting behaviors. Parents of children who received music therapy reported that their child's level of distress was less than during previous medical experiences, whereas parents of children in the control group reported that their child's level of distress was greater. No significant differences between groups were found in parents' ratings of children's pain or in rates of nurse behavior. Live, cognitive-behavioral music therapy has potential benefits for young children and their parents during immunizations. © the American Music Therapy Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Recommendations for physical and occupational therapy practice from the perspective of clients undergoing therapy for breast cancer-related impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattanzi, Jill B; Giuliano, Susan; Meehan, Caitlin; Sander, Beth; Wootten, Rachel; Zimmerman, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Evidence points to the efficacy of physical and occupational therapy intervention for the management of impairments and functional limitations related to the treatment of breast cancer. However, few studies give voice to the women participating in the physical rehabilitation programs intended to ameliorate their deficits. The purpose of this qualitative investigation was to explore the experience of physical rehabilitation as well as to identify recommendations for physical and occupational therapy practice from the perspective of the client undergoing therapy for breast cancer-related impairments. A phenomenological design was chosen and included a purposive sample of women (n = 10) undergoing physical rehabilitation for impairments related to breast cancer treatment. Data included semistructured interviews and artifact examination. Ten semistructured interviews were conducted at a setting of the participants' choice. Data collection continued until saturation was reached. Data analysis was cyclical and ongoing and involved all six researchers in analyzing and triangulating all pieces of data. Member checks and a peer review were conducted to confirm relevance and validity. Five themes emerged: 1) challenges with obtaining referrals, 2) challenges with patient education, 3) improvements in functional impairments, 4) emotional support, and 5) benefits of a specialized clinic environment. Consideration of the five themes led to four recommendations for physical and occupational therapist practice from the perspective of the client: 1) advocate for presurgical therapy consultations, 2) be competent in the management of all impairments and functional limitations associated with breast cancer treatment, 3) be aware of the emotional support the therapist has the capacity to provide or not provide, and 4) as much as possible, create an inviting, nonclinical environment.

  1. Metabolic syndrome in patients with prostate cancer undergoing intermittent androgen-deprivation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Mohammadali Mohammadzadeh; Rezaei, Mohammadhadi Mohammadzadeh; Ghoreifi, Alireza; Kerigh, Behzad Feyzzadeh

    2016-01-01

    The presence of metabolic syndrome in men with prostate cancer (PCa) undergoing androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT), especially intermittent type, has not been completely evaluated. The aim of this study is to evaluate metabolic syndrome in men with PCa undergoing intermittent ADT. In this longitudinal study, we studied the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in 190 patients who were undergoing intermittent ADT. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. All metabolic parameters, including lipid profile, blood glucose, blood pressures, and waist circumferences of the patients were measured six and 12 months after treatment. Mean age of the patients was 67.5 ± 6.74 years. The incidence of metabolic syndrome after six and 12 months was 6.8% and 14.7%, respectively. Analysis of various components of the metabolic syndrome revealed that patients had significantly higher overall prevalence of hyperglycemia, abdominal obesity, and hypertriglyceridemia in their six- and 12-month followups, but blood pressure has not been changed in the same period except for diastolic blood pressure after six months. Although there was an increased risk of metabolic syndrome in patients receiving intermittent ADT, it was lower than other studies that treated the same patients with continuous ADT. Also it seems that intermittent ADT has less metabolic complications than continuous ADT and could be used as a safe alternative in patients with advanced and metastatic PCa.

  2. [Secondary osteoporosis induced by anticoagulants?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riess, H; Loew, A; Himmelreich, G

    2001-07-01

    Generalized osteoporosis is a result of different causes and pathogenic mechanisms, which often combine forces to become clinically relevant. Among the different exogenic factors, drugs play an important role, frequently in connection with other factors such as immobilization or pregnancy. It has been suggested that anticoagulation therapy with heparins or coumarins may induce osteoporotic changes or enhance the development of osteoporosis for other reasons. According to in vitro experiments, preclinical trials, and clinical investigations, it seems reasonable to assume that heparins induce increased bone loss in a time- and dose-related manner. Low-molecular-weight heparins most likely have less effect on bone turnover when compared to unfractionated heparin. Oral anticoagulation therapy with vitamin K-antagonists is believed to have a weak effect on induction of osteoporosis, but clinical studies are contradictory. In spite of the fact that a relevant effect of these drugs on the induction of osteoporosis is questionable, it must be taken into consideration that anticoagulant drugs may enhance the negative effects on bone density of other risk factors capable of inducing osteoporosis such as immobilization, pregnancy, or endocrinological disorders.

  3. Delphi-RAND consensus of the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine on the controversies in anticoagulant therapy and prophylaxis in medical diseases. INTROMBIN Project (Uncertainty in thromboprophylaxis in internal medicine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Ruiz, F; Medrano, F J; Navarro-Puerto, M A; Rodríguez-Torres, P; Romero-Alonso, A; Santos-Lozano, J M; Alonso-Ortiz Del Rio, C; Varela-Aguilar, J M; Calderón, E J; Marín-León, I

    2018-05-21

    The aim of this study was to determine the opinion of internists on the management of anticoagulation and thromboembolism prophylaxis in complex clinical scenarios in which the risk-benefit ratio of surgery is narrow and to develop a consensus document on the use of drugs anticoagulant therapy in this patient group. To this end, we identified by consensus the clinical areas of greatest uncertainty, a survey was created with 20 scenarios laid out in 40 clinical questions, and we reviewed the specific literature. The survey was distributed among the internists of the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine (SEMI) and was completed by 290 of its members. The consensus process was implemented by changing the Delphi-RAND appropriateness method in an anonymous, double-round process that enabled an expert panel to identify the areas of agreement and uncertainty. In our case, we also added the survey results to the panel, a methodological innovation that helps provide additional information on the standard clinical practice. The result of the process is a set of 19 recommendations formulated by SEMI experts, which helps establish guidelines for action on anticoagulant therapy in complex scenarios (high risk or active haemorrhage, short life expectancy, coexistence of antiplatelet therapy or comorbidities such as kidney disease and liver disease), which are not uncommon in standard clinical practice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  4. Postoperative thoracic hemorrhage after right upper lobectomy with thoracic wall resection during rivaroxaban anticoagulant therapy for deep leg vein thrombosis: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiji Kuwata

    Full Text Available Introduction: Postoperative pulmonary embolism (PE is the one of the most important complications after thoracic surgery. This complicatin after the surgery is often treated by new anticoaglant drug, such as rivaroxaban, which dose not need to the monitoring of blood coaglation system. We experienced postoperative bleeding case during anticoaglant therapy using rivaroxaban. Presentation of case: The patient underwent a right upper lobectomy with lung and chest wall resection for lung cancer. On postoperative day (POD 10, we started to use rivaroxaban to treat the deep vein thrombosis (DVT. Four days after starting the rivaroxaban treatment, severe surgical site hemorrhage occurred, which led to the need for the infusion of concentrated red cells (CRC. After stopping the rivaroxaban, the thoracic bleeding ceased. Because the event occurred so long after the surgery, and because the bleeding stopped after withdrawal of treatment, we believe that rivaroxaban induced the thoracic bleeding. Conclusion: Some reports in the field of orthopedics (Turpie et al., 2009 have noted that rivarxaban is effective to prevent postoperative DVT. However, there were few reports that invied the attention to postoperative bleeding be induced by rivarxaban. Thus, we describe this case in order to alert clinicians to the potential bleeding risks associated with the admistration of rivaroxaban postoperatively. Keywords: Revaroxaban, Anticoagulant, Surgical site bleeding

  5. Practicability of patient self-testing of oral anticoagulant therapy by the international normalized ratio (INR) using a portable whole blood monitor. A pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenkam, J M; Knudsen, L; Kimose, H H; Grønnesby, H; Attermann, J; Andersen, N T; Pilegaard, H K

    1997-01-01

    The prophylactic efficacy of long-term oral anticoagulant treatment (OAT) has been demonstrated in a number of clinical conditions with increased tendency to thromboembolism, and the number of individuals subjected to OAT in the industrialised world has increased substantially in recent years. Since this therapy requires considerable resources from both the health care system and the patients, the feasibility of patients' self-monitoring and self-management of OAT has been investigated (1,2,3). The anticipated advantages of this approach include improved convenience and compliance for the patient, who may increase his apprehension for managing the treatment. In addition, self-testing allows for more frequent control compared to the conventional out-patient approach. Importantly, a prerequisite for conceiving a safe and operational concept for patient self-management (PSM) is the availability of a portable INR monitoring system with an accuracy, precision, reproducibility, and long-term reliability comparable to standard coagulometric equipment. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of a commercially available INR-monitor. CoaguChek, for patient self-testing, through a step-wise investigation of the performance characteristics of the equipment in the laboratory, in command of the patient, and during self-testing and self-adjustment of treatment at home. Laboratory INR values were used as reference.

  6. Delay in onset of metabolic alkalosis during regional citrate anti-coagulation in continous renal replacement therapy with calcium-free replacement solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    See Kay

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional citrate anti-coagulation for continuous renal replacement therapy chelates calcium to produce the anti- coagulation effect. We hypothesise that a calcium-free replacement solution will require less citrate and produce fewer metabolic side effects. Fifty patients, in a Medical Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary teaching hospital (25 in each group, received continuous venovenous hemofiltration using either calcium-containing or calcium-free replacement solutions. Both groups had no significant differences in filter life, metabolic alkalosis, hypernatremia, hypocalcemia, and hypercalcemia. However, patients using calcium-containing solution developed metabolic alkalosis earlier, compared to patients using calcium-free solution (mean 24.6 hours,CI 0.8-48.4 vs. 37.2 hours, CI 9.4-65, P = 0.020. When calcium-containing replacement solution was used, more citrate was required (mean 280ml/h, CI 227.2-332.8 vs. 265ml/h, CI 203.4-326.6, P = 0.069, but less calcium was infused (mean 21.2 ml/h, CI 1.2-21.2 vs 51.6ml/h, CI 26.8-76.4, P ≤ 0.0001.

  7. A Case of Acute Budd-Chiari Syndrome Complicating Primary Antiphospholipid Syndrome Presenting as Acute Abdomen and Responding to Tight Anticoagulant Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naofumi Chinen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 34-year-old woman with primary antiphospholipid syndrome was admitted to the Gastroenterology Department of our hospital with fever, acute abdomen, watery diarrhea, and extremely high levels of inflammatory parameters. She had a history of left lower limb deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism and was taking warfarin potassium. Acute gastroenteritis was suspected and an antibiotic was administered, but symptoms progressed. Abdominal ultrasonography showed occlusion of the left hepatic vein and the middle hepatic vein and her D-dimer level was high. Accordingly, Budd-Chiari syndrome was diagnosed and high-dose intravenous infusion of heparin was initiated. Her abdominal symptoms improved and the levels of inflammatory parameters and D-dimer decreased rapidly. It is known that antiphospholipid syndrome can be complicated by Budd-Chiari syndrome that usually occurs as subacute or chronic onset, but acute onset is rare. It is difficult to diagnose acute Budd-Chiari syndrome complicating antiphospholipid syndrome and this complication generally has a poor outcome. However, the present case can get early diagnosis and successful treatment with tight anticoagulant therapy.

  8. Effects of music therapy under general anesthesia in patients undergoing abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahloul, Mohamed; Mhamdi, Salah; Nakhli, Mohamed Said; Sfeyhi, Ahmed Nadhir; Azzaza, Mohamed; Chaouch, Ajmi; Naija, Walid

    2017-12-01

    Music therapy, an innovative approach that has proven effectiveness in many medical conditions, seems beneficial also in managing surgical patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate its effects, under general anesthesia, on perioperative patient satisfaction, stress, pain, and awareness. This is a prospective, randomized, double-blind study conducted in the operating theatre of visceral surgery at Sahloul Teaching Hospital over a period of 4 months. Patients aged more than 18 undergoing a scheduled surgery under general anesthesia were included. Patients undergoing urgent surgery or presenting hearing or cognitive disorders were excluded. Before induction, patients wore headphones linked to an MP3 player. They were randomly allocated into 2 groups: Group M (with music during surgery) and group C (without music). Hemodynamic parameters, quality of arousal, pain experienced, patient's satisfaction, and awareness incidence during anesthesia were recorded. One hundred and forty patients were included and allocated into 2 groups that were comparable in demographic characteristics, surgical intervention type and anesthesia duration. Comparison of these two groups regarding the hemodynamic profile found more stability in group M for systolic arterial blood pressure. A calm recovery was more often noted in group M (77.1% versus 44%, p Music therapy is a non-pharmacological, inexpensive, and non-invasive technique that can significantly enhance patient satisfaction and decrease patients' embarrassing experiences related to perioperative stress, pain, and awareness.

  9. Positron emission tomography in patients with aggressive fibromatosis/desmoid tumours undergoing therapy with imatinib

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasper, Bernd; Hohenberger, Peter [University of Heidelberg, Sarcoma Unit, ITM - Interdisciplinary Tumor Center Mannheim, Mannheim University Medical Center, Mannheim (Germany); Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Antonia; Strauss, Ludwig G. [German Cancer Research Center, Clinical Cooperation Unit Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    We used {sup 18}F-FDG PET to evaluate the FDG uptake in patients with aggressive fibromatosis (AF, also known as desmoid tumours) undergoing therapy with imatinib (imatinib mesylate, Glivec). The pilot study included nine patients with progressive AF receiving oral treatment with imatinib at a daily dose of 800 mg. Patients were examined using PET prior to the start of therapy and during imatinib treatment. Restaging according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) was performed in parallel using CT and/or MRI and served as reference. The clinical outcomes in nine evaluable patients were as follows: seven patients with stable disease, and two patients with progressive disease. A 27% decrease in the median average standardized uptake value (SUV) of the sequential PET examinations was demonstrated in all evaluable patients with three patients (33%) showing a decrease in SUV of more than 40% (48%, 52% and 54%, respectively); no patient showed a substantial increase in SUV. To our knowledge, this is the first series of AF patients undergoing treatment with imatinib and monitored using sequential PET imaging, that allows detection of SUV changes after imatinib induction, thus helping to decide whether treatment should be continued or not. (orig.)

  10. Antiplatelet Therapy for Stable Coronary Artery Disease in Atrial Fibrillation Patients Taking an Oral Anticoagulant A Nationwide Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamberts, M.; Gislason, G. H.; Lip, G. Y. H.

    2014-01-01

    therapy to vitamin K antagonist (VKA) in atrial fibrillation patents with stable coronary artery disease. Methods and Results Atrial fibrillation patients with stable coronary artery disease (defined as 12 months from an acute coronary event) between 2002 and 2011 were identified. The subsequent risk...... of cardiovascular events and serious bleeding events (those that required hospitalization) was examined with adjusted Cox regression models according to ongoing antithrombotic therapy. A total of 8700 patients were included (mean age, 74.2 years; 38% women). During a mean follow-up of 3.3 years, crude incidence...

  11. Ribavirin-induced anemia in hepatitis C virus patients undergoing combination therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheeja M Krishnan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The current standard of care for hepatitis C virus (HCV infection - combination therapy with pegylated interferon and ribavirin - elicits sustained responses in only ∼50% of the patients treated. No alternatives exist for patients who do not respond to combination therapy. Addition of ribavirin substantially improves response rates to interferon and lowers relapse rates following the cessation of therapy, suggesting that increasing ribavirin exposure may further improve treatment response. A key limitation, however, is the toxic side-effect of ribavirin, hemolytic anemia, which often necessitates a reduction of ribavirin dosage and compromises treatment response. Maximizing treatment response thus requires striking a balance between the antiviral and hemolytic activities of ribavirin. Current models of viral kinetics describe the enhancement of treatment response due to ribavirin. Ribavirin-induced anemia, however, remains poorly understood and precludes rational optimization of combination therapy. Here, we develop a new mathematical model of the population dynamics of erythrocytes that quantitatively describes ribavirin-induced anemia in HCV patients. Based on the assumption that ribavirin accumulation decreases erythrocyte lifespan in a dose-dependent manner, model predictions capture several independent experimental observations of the accumulation of ribavirin in erythrocytes and the resulting decline of hemoglobin in HCV patients undergoing combination therapy, estimate the reduced erythrocyte lifespan during therapy, and describe inter-patient variations in the severity of ribavirin-induced anemia. Further, model predictions estimate the threshold ribavirin exposure beyond which anemia becomes intolerable and suggest guidelines for the usage of growth hormones, such as erythropoietin, that stimulate erythrocyte production and avert the reduction of ribavirin dosage, thereby improving treatment response. Our model thus facilitates, in

  12. Dietary Vitamin K intake and anticoagulation control during the initiation phase of warfarin therapy: A prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of varying levels of dietary vitamin K intake on therapeutic International Normalized Ratio (INR) values among patients starting warfarin therapy has not been well studied. We performed a prospective cohort study among 282 patients to explore the independent associations between usual in...

  13. Serum Testosterone Levels in Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone Agonist Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morote, Juan; Comas, Inma; Planas, Jacques; Maldonado, Xavier; Celma, Ana; Placer, José; Ferrer, Roser; Carles, Joan; Regis, Lucas

    2018-04-01

    Serum testosterone measurement is recommended to assess the efficacy of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and to diagnose castration resistance in patients with prostate cancer (PCa). Currently, the accepted castrate level of serum testosterone is 50 ng/dL. Liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC MSMS) is the appropriate method to measure testosterone, especially at low levels. However, worldwide, chemiluminescent assays (CLIAs) are used in clinical laboratories, despite their lack of accuracy and reproducibility, because they are automatable, fast, sensitive, and inexpensive. We compared serum testosterone levels measured using LC MSMS and CLIAs in 126 patients with PCa undergoing luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist therapy. The median serum testosterone level was 14.0 ng/dL (range, 2.0-67.0 ng/dL) with LC MSMS and 31.9 ng/dL (range, 10.0-91.6 ng/dL) with CLIA (P  50 ng/dL in 3 patients (2.4%). These ranges were found in 34 (27%), 72 (57.1%), and 20 (15.9%) patients when testosterone was measured using CLIA (P < .001). The castrate level of serum testosterone using LC MSMS and CLIA was 39.8 ng/dL (95% confidence interval [CI], 37.1-43.4 ng/dL) and 66.5 ng/dL (95% CI, 62.3-71.2 ng/dL), respectively. We found that CLIA overestimated the testosterone levels in PCa patients undergoing LHRH agonist therapy. Thus, the castration level was incorrectly considered inadequate with CLIA in almost 15% of patients. The true castration level of serum testosterone using an appropriate method is < 50 ng/dL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Exposure Risks Among Children Undergoing Radiation Therapy: Considerations in the Era of Image Guided Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, Clayton B.; Thompson, Holly M.; Benedict, Stanley H.; Seibert, J. Anthony; Wong, Kenneth; Vaughan, Andrew T.; Chen, Allen M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent improvements in toxicity profiles of pediatric oncology patients are attributable, in part, to advances in the field of radiation oncology such as intensity modulated radiation (IMRT) and proton therapy (IMPT). While IMRT and IMPT deliver highly conformal dose to targeted volumes, they commonly demand the addition of 2- or 3-dimensional imaging for precise positioning—a technique known as image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). In this manuscript we address strategies to further minimize exposure risk in children by reducing effective IGRT dose. Portal X rays and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) are commonly used to verify patient position during IGRT and, because their relative radiation exposure is far less than the radiation absorbed from therapeutic treatment beams, their sometimes significant contribution to cumulative risk can be easily overlooked. Optimizing the conformality of IMRT/IMPT while simultaneously ignoring IGRT dose may result in organs at risk being exposed to a greater proportion of radiation from IGRT than from therapeutic beams. Over a treatment course, cumulative central-axis CBCT effective dose can approach or supersede the amount of radiation absorbed from a single treatment fraction, a theoretical increase of 3% to 5% in mutagenic risk. In select scenarios, this may result in the underprediction of acute and late toxicity risk (such as azoospermia, ovarian dysfunction, or increased lifetime mutagenic risk) in radiation-sensitive organs and patients. Although dependent on variables such as patient age, gender, weight, body habitus, anatomic location, and dose-toxicity thresholds, modifying IGRT use and acquisition parameters such as frequency, imaging modality, beam energy, current, voltage, rotational degree, collimation, field size, reconstruction algorithm, and documentation can reduce exposure, avoid unnecessary toxicity, and achieve doses as low as reasonably achievable, promoting a culture and practice of “gentle IGRT.”

  15. Prevalence of complementary and alternative therapy use by cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Grace V; Aherne, Noel J; Horsley, Patrick J; Benjamin, Linus C; McLachlan, Craig S; McKay, Michael J; Shakespeare, Thomas P

    2014-12-01

    The use of complementary and alternative therapies (CAT) in oncology patients is increasing in incidence, with calls to routinely screen for their use. We introduced a screening tool as part of clinical care to identify CAT use. We evaluated all patients who attended the radiation oncology outpatient clinic between December 2011 and July 2012, who had filled out the CAT screening tool, and evaluated types of CAT use, reasons for use and predictors of CAT usage. A total of 639 patients completed the CAT screening tool, which was 75% of eligible patients. There were 464 (72.6%) men and 175 (27.4%) women, with a mean age of 69.9 years (range 27-94 years). Prostate cancer was the predominant diagnosis (53.1%), followed by breast cancer (17.5%) and skin cancer (14.7%). Of these, 530 patients (82.9%) had used at least one therapy. Of the 530 patients using CAT, the most quoted reasons for use were to improve quality of life (42.6%), to boost the immune system and general health (33.6%), to increase energy levels (32.6%) and to live longer (28.9%). Of the 530 users, only 112 patients (21.1%) took CAT to help cure their cancer. Women were significantly more likely to use CAT, as were patients with breast cancer. The use of CAT in patients with cancer is prevalent and more frequent in our population than in other published studies. Few patients use CAT to improve their cancer cure, but rather use CAT for other reasons. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Exposure Risks Among Children Undergoing Radiation Therapy: Considerations in the Era of Image Guided Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, Clayton B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University California Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, Sacramento, California (United States); Thompson, Holly M. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, California (United States); Benedict, Stanley H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University California Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, Sacramento, California (United States); Seibert, J. Anthony [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, California (United States); Wong, Kenneth [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Vaughan, Andrew T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University California Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, Sacramento, California (United States); Chen, Allen M., E-mail: allenmchen@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Recent improvements in toxicity profiles of pediatric oncology patients are attributable, in part, to advances in the field of radiation oncology such as intensity modulated radiation (IMRT) and proton therapy (IMPT). While IMRT and IMPT deliver highly conformal dose to targeted volumes, they commonly demand the addition of 2- or 3-dimensional imaging for precise positioning—a technique known as image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). In this manuscript we address strategies to further minimize exposure risk in children by reducing effective IGRT dose. Portal X rays and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) are commonly used to verify patient position during IGRT and, because their relative radiation exposure is far less than the radiation absorbed from therapeutic treatment beams, their sometimes significant contribution to cumulative risk can be easily overlooked. Optimizing the conformality of IMRT/IMPT while simultaneously ignoring IGRT dose may result in organs at risk being exposed to a greater proportion of radiation from IGRT than from therapeutic beams. Over a treatment course, cumulative central-axis CBCT effective dose can approach or supersede the amount of radiation absorbed from a single treatment fraction, a theoretical increase of 3% to 5% in mutagenic risk. In select scenarios, this may result in the underprediction of acute and late toxicity risk (such as azoospermia, ovarian dysfunction, or increased lifetime mutagenic risk) in radiation-sensitive organs and patients. Although dependent on variables such as patient age, gender, weight, body habitus, anatomic location, and dose-toxicity thresholds, modifying IGRT use and acquisition parameters such as frequency, imaging modality, beam energy, current, voltage, rotational degree, collimation, field size, reconstruction algorithm, and documentation can reduce exposure, avoid unnecessary toxicity, and achieve doses as low as reasonably achievable, promoting a culture and practice of “gentle IGRT.”.

  17. Intermittent vs. Continuous Anticoagulation theRapy in patiEnts with Atrial Fibrillation (iCARE-AF): a randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrakis, Stavros; Stoner, Julie A; Kardokus, Joel; Garabelli, Paul J; Po, Sunny S; Lazzara, Ralph

    2017-01-01

    We hypothesized that intermittent anticoagulation based on daily rhythm monitoring using the novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) is feasible and safe among patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF). Patients with paroxysmal AF and ≥1 risk factors for stroke were randomized to either intermittent or continuous anticoagulation. Those in the intermittent group were instructed to transmit a daily ECG using an iPhone-based rhythm monitoring device. If AF was detected, patients received one of the NOACs for 48 h-1 week. Patients who failed to transmit an ECG for three consecutive days or more than 7 days total were crossed over to continuous anticoagulation. Patients in the continuous group received one of the NOACs. Fifty-eight patients were randomized to either intermittent (n = 29) or continuous anticoagulation (n = 29). Over a median follow-up of 20 months, 20 patients in the intermittent group failed to submit a daily ECG at least once (median three failed submissions). Four patients (14 %) crossed over to continuous anticoagulation due to failure to submit an ECG for three consecutive days. One stroke (continuous group) occurred during the study. Major bleeding occurred in two patients in the continuous and one patient in the intermittent group, after crossing over to continuous anticoagulation. In a prespecified per-protocol analysis, gastrointestinal bleeding was more frequent in the continuous group (16 vs. 0 %; p = 0.047). Intermittent anticoagulation based on daily rhythm monitoring is feasible and may decrease bleeding in low-risk patients with paroxysmal AF. A larger trial, adequately powered to detect clinical outcomes, is warranted.

  18. New oral anticoagulant-induced bleeding: clinical presentation and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levy, Jerrold H.; Levi, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Bleeding is a significant complication of anticoagulant therapy. With the emergence of new oral anticoagulants (NOACs; ie, direct factor IIa or Xa inhibitors), this risk is further compounded by the lack of validated reversal strategies for these agents. Emerging postmarketing evidence suggests that

  19. Football training in men with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uth, Jacob; Hornstrup, Therese; Christensen, Jesper F

    2016-01-01

    ) and density, BTMs and postural balance. RESULTS: In the last part of the 12 weeks, FTG performed 194 ± 41 accelerations and 296 ± 65 decelerations at >0.6 m/s/s and covered a distance of 905 ± 297 m at speeds >6 km/h and 2646 ± 705 m per training session. Analysis of baseline-to-12-week change scores showed......PURPOSE: To investigate the activity profile of football training and its short-term effects on bone mass, bone turnover markers (BTMs) and postural balance in men with prostate cancer (PCa) undergoing androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). METHODS: This was a randomised 12-week study in which men...

  20. [Anti-rheumatic therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis undergoing hemodialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Yuji

    2011-01-01

    Hemodialysis (HD) patients have been increasing recently. Some rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients need hemodialysis (HD), though the proportion is not high. At present, such patients are almost treated with corticosteroids and/or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs alone, even if they have a high disease activity that would require disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) therapy, partly because the safety of DMARDs in RA patients with end-stage renal disease has not been confirmed. Their joint destruction would be inevitable and lead to impaired activities of daily living. As there are no guidelines for the use of DMARDs in HD patients, here I reviewed the previous reports about the treatment of DMARDs including biologics for patients with RA undergoing HD.

  1. Combined administration of antibiotics and direct oral anticoagulants: a renewed indication for laboratory monitoring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Favaloro, Emmanuel J; Mattiuzzi, Camilla

    2014-10-01

    The recent development and marketing of novel direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) represents a paradigm shift in the management of patients requiring long-term anticoagulation. The advantages of these compounds over traditional therapy with vitamin K antagonists include a reportedly lower risk of severe hemorrhages and the limited need for laboratory measurements. However, there are several scenarios in which testing should be applied. The potential for drug-to-drug interaction is one plausible but currently underrecognized indication for laboratory assessment of the anticoagulant effect of DOACs. In particular, substantial concern has been raised during Phase I studies regarding the potential interaction of these drugs with some antibiotics, especially those that interplay with permeability glycoprotein (P-gp) and cytochrome 3A4 (CYP3A4). A specific electronic search on clinical trials published so far confirms that clarithromycin and rifampicin significantly impair the bioavailability of dabigatran, whereas clarithromycin, erythromycin, fluconazole, and ketoconazole alter the metabolism of rivaroxaban in vivo. Because of their more recent development, no published data were found for apixaban and edoxaban, or for potential interactions of DOACs with other and widely used antibiotics. It is noteworthy, however, that an online resource based on Food and Drug Administration and social media information, reports several hemorrhagic and thrombotic events in patients simultaneously taking dabigatran and some commonly used antibiotics such as amoxicillin, cephalosporin, and metronidazole. According to these reports, the administration of antibiotics in patients undergoing therapy with DOACs would seem to require accurate evaluation as to whether dose adjustments (personalized or antibiotic class driven) of the anticoagulant drug may be advisable. This might be facilitated by direct laboratory assessments of their anticoagulant effect ex vivo. Thieme Medical Publishers

  2. Acquired absolute vitamin K deficiency in a patient undergoing warfarin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Hiroaki; Toru, Hifumi; Bunya, Naofumi; Kiriu, Nobuaki; Kato, Hiroshi; Koido, Yuichi; Yasuhiro, Kuroda

    2014-06-01

    We report a case of absolute vitamin K deficiency (VKD) diagnosed by measuring serum VK levels in an elderly woman undergoing warfarin therapy. A 78-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of dyspnea and sore throat diagnosed as pharyngitis 1 week before admission. On admission, the sore throat had exacerbated and dyspnea developed. She had history of atrial fibrillation, for which warfarin 1.5 mg/d was started approximately 10 years prior and her international normalized ratio (INR) had been maintained at an acceptable therapeutic level. Blood results revealed unmeasurable INR and abnormally prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). She was diagnosed with adenoiditis and warfarin-related coagulopathy and administered intravenous VK (20 mg) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP; 4 U), which improved INR and APTT. Since the coagulopathy responded to intravenous VK administration, the patient was clinically diagnosed with warfarin-related relative VKD. Approximately 1 month later, she returned with complaints of sore throat. Blood results indicated abnormal INR (7.22) and APTT (N80.0 s). She was diagnosed with recurrent adenoiditis and VK deficient coagulopathy. The patient’s serum VK levels were low (VK1 level, 0.13 ng/mL; VK2 levels, 0.85 ng/mL). Initial treatment of VK (20 mg) and FFP followed by intravenous VK (20 mg/d) for 6 days, her symptoms dissipated. Warfarin was suspected to have caused absolute VKD. Severe coagulopathy in patients undergoing warfarin therapy is primarily caused by, relative VKD. However, the possibility of warfarin-related absolute VKD should be suspected when INRis not sufficiently improved by intravenous VK administration.

  3. Effectiveness of massage therapy on post-operative outcomes among patients undergoing cardiac surgery: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ramesh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD are increasing rapidly in developing countries. Most patients with CVD do not respond to medical treatment and have to undergo cardiac surgery. This highly stressful experience results in increased levels of anxiety for patients. The objective of this review was to evaluate the efficacy of massage therapy on postoperative outcomes among patients undergoing cardiac surgery. A comprehensive literature search was made on PubMed-Medline, CINAHL, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science and the Cochrane library databases for original research articles published between 2000 and 2015. Original articles that reported the efficacy of massage therapy in patients undergoing cardiac surgery were included. The Cochrane data extraction form was used to extract data. A total of 297 studies were identified in the literature search. However, only seven studies were eligible for analysis. Of the seven studies, six studies demonstrated the effects of massage therapy on improving post-operative outcomes of patients, while one study found no evidence of improvement. Although the methods varied considerably, most of the studies included in this review reported positive results. Therefore, there is some evidence that massage therapy can lead to positive postoperative outcomes. Evidence of the effectiveness of massage therapy in patients undergoing cardiac surgery remains inconclusive. Additional research is needed to provide a strong evidence base for the use of massage therapy to improve post-operative outcomes and recovery among cardiac surgery patients

  4. The Active Metabolite of Warfarin (3'-Hydroxywarfarin) and Correlation with INR, Warfarin and Drug Weekly Dosage in Patients under Oral Anticoagulant Therapy: A Pharmacogenetics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmati, Donato; Burini, Francesco; Talarico, Anna; Fabbri, Matteo; Bertocco, Cesare; Vigliano, Marco; Moratelli, Stefano; Cuneo, Antonio; Serino, Maria Luisa; Avato, Francesco Maria; Tisato, Veronica; Gaudio, Rosa Maria

    2016-01-01

    Warfarin oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT) requires regular and frequent drug adjustment monitored by INR. Interindividual variability, drug and diet interferences, and genetics (VKORC1 and CYP2C9) make the maintenance/reaching of stable INR a not so easy task. HPLC assessment of warfarin/enantiomers was suggested as a valid monitoring-tool along with INR, but definite results are still lacking. We evaluated possible correlations between INR, warfarin/3'-hydroxywarfarin, and drug weekly dosage aimed at searching novel alternatives to OAT monitoring. VKORC1/CYP2C9 pharmacogenetics investigation was performed to account for the known influence on warfarin homeostasis. 133 OAT patients were recruited and assessed for warfarin/3'-hydroxywarfarin serum levels (HPLC), INR, and VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotypes. A subgroup of 52 patients were monitored in detail (5 consecutive controls; c0-c4) till the target INR was reached. Correlation analyses were performed in both groups. In the whole OAT group both warfarin and 3'-hydroxywarfarin correlate with INR at comparable degree (r2 = 0.0388 and 0.0362 respectively). Conversely, warfarin weekly dosage better correlates with warfarin than with 3'-hydroxywarfarin (r2 = 0.0975 and r2 = 0.0381 respectively), but considering together warfarin plus 3'-hydroxywarfarin the correlation strongly increased (r2 = 0.1114; ppharmacogenetics studies confirmed that patients carrying the VKORC1 variant-allele required lower warfarin maintenance dosage and that the combination of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 yielded a warfarin responsive index (WRI) inversely related to the number variant alleles. Our results overall suggest that 3'-hydroxywarfarin monitoring could be of great advantage in INR monitoring respect to classical warfarin assessment showing significant contribution also in multivariate analysis. Therefore, additional active metabolites should be recognized and investigated as novel useful indicators.

  5. Predictors of renal function recovery among patients undergoing renal replacement therapy following orthotopic liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, Maria Claudia Cruz; Souza, Nádia Karina Guimarães de; Ammirati, Adriano Luiz; Matsui, Thais Nemoto; Carneiro, Fabiana Dias; Ramos, Ana Claudia Mallet de Souza; Iizuca, Ilson Jorge; Coelho, Maria Paula Vilela; Afonso, Rogério Carballo; Ferraz-Neto, Ben-Hur; Almeida, Marcio Dias de; Durão, Marcelino; Batista, Marcelo Costa; Monte, Julio Cesar; Pereira, Virgílio Gonçalves; Santos, Oscar Pavão Dos; Santos, Bento Cardoso Dos

    2017-01-01

    Renal dysfunction frequently occurs during the periods preceding and following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), and in many cases, renal replacement therapy (RRT) is required. Information regarding the duration of RRT and the rate of kidney function recovery after OLT is crucial for transplant program management. We evaluated a sample of 155 stable patients undergoing post-intensive care hemodialysis (HD) from a patient population of 908 adults who underwent OLT. We investigated the average time to renal function recovery (duration of RRT required) and determined the risk factors for remaining on dialysis > 90 days after OLT. Log-rank tests were used for univariate analysis, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify factors associated with the risk of remaining on HD. The results of our analysis showed that of the 155 patients, 28% had pre-OLT diabetes mellitus, 21% had pre-OLT hypertension, and 40% had viral hepatitis. Among the patients, the median MELD (Model for End-Stage Liver Disease) score was 27 (interquartile range [IQR] 22-35). When they were listed for liver transplantation, 32% of the patients had serum creatinine (Scr) levels > 1.5 mg/dL or were on HD, and 50% had serum creatinine (Scr) levels > 1.5 mg/dL or were on HD at the time of OLT. Of the transplanted patients, 25% underwent pre-OLT intermittent HD, and 14% and 41% underwent continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) pre-OLT and post-OLT, respectively. At 90 days post-OLT, 118 (76%) patients had been taken off dialysis, and 16 (10%) patients had died while undergoing HD. The median recovery time of these post-OLT patients was 33 (IQR 27-39) days. In the multivariate analysis, fulminant hepatic failure as the cause of liver disease (prenal function after OLT, and those who were diagnosed with fulminant hepatic failure, had no pre-OLT hypertension, received a lower transfused volume of intraoperative FFP and did not undergo pre-OLT intermittent HD had a higher probability

  6. Evaluating the efficacy of citrate anticoagulation during CRRT in cardiac patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Караськов

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Systemic anticoagulation during renal replacement therapy in cardiac patients increases the risk of postoperative complications. Citrate anticoagulation is a promising alternative. The objective of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of citrate anticoagulation and its influence on the parameters of hemostasis and complications.

  7. Risk of gastrointestinal bleeding during anticoagulant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanas-Gimeno, Aitor; Lanas, Angel

    2017-06-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) is a major problem in patients on oral anticoagulation therapy. This issue has become even more pressing since the introduction of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in 2009. Areas covered: Here we review current evidence related to GIB associated with oral anticoagulants, focusing on randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, and post-marketing observational studies. Dabigatran 150 mg twice daily and rivaroxaban 20 mg once daily increase the risk of GIB compared to warfarin. The risk increase with edoxaban is dose-dependent, while apixaban shows apparently, no increased risk. We summarize what is known about GIB risk factors for individual anticoagulants, the location of GIB in patients taking these compounds, and prevention strategies that lower the risk of GIB. Expert opinion: Recently there has been an important shift in the clinical presentation of GIB. Specifically, upper GIB has decreased with the decreased incidence of peptic ulcers due to the broad use of proton pump inhibitors and the decreased prevalence of H. pylori infections. In contrast, the incidence of lower GIB has increased, due in part to colonic diverticular bleeding and angiodysplasia in the elderly. In this population, the addition of oral anticoagulation therapy, especially DOACs, seems to increase the risk of lower GIB.

  8. Anticoagulant and Antiplatelet Prescribing Patterns for Patients with Atrial Fibrillation after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Erin A; Ackman, Margaret L; Graham, Michelle M; Koshman, Sheri L; Boswell, Rosaleen M; Barry, Arden R

    2016-01-01

    Current guidelines recommend triple antithrombotic therapy (TAT), defined as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), clopidogrel, and warfarin, for patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation who have undergone percutaneous coronary intervention with stent implantation. The choice of anticoagulant/antiplatelet therapy in this population is ambiguous and complex, and prescribing patterns are not well documented. To characterize local prescribing patterns for anticoagulant/antiplatelet therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. A chart review was conducted at a single quaternary cardiology centre. Patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation were identified via medical records, and those who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention were identified using a local clinical patient registry. Adult inpatients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and a CHADS2 score (based on congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥ 75 years, diabetes mellitus, prior stroke) of 1 or higher who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention from 2011 to 2013 were included. Patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery or transcatheter aortic valve replacement, those with mechanical devices requiring anticoagulation, and those with an allergy to any component of TAT were excluded. Seventy patients were included. The median age was 75 years, and 52 (74%) were men. At discharge, 30 (43%) were receiving TAT and 27 (39%) were receiving dual antiplatelet therapy (clopidogrel and ASA). No patients received the combination of warfarin and clopidogrel. Among those who received TAT, 90% (19 of 21) who received a bare metal stent had a recommended duration of 1 month, and 75% (6 of 8) who received a drug-eluting stent had a recommended duration of 1 year. Direct-acting oral anticoagulants with 2 antiplatelet drugs were prescribed for 9% (6 of 70) of the patients, and 10% (7 of 70) received ticagrelor and ASA with or without warfarin. Overall, the

  9. Prediction of infarct volume in patients undergoing reperfusion therapy by Tc-99m antimyosin SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, T.; Leinbach, R.C.; Khaw, B.A.; Gold, H.K.; Strauss, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    The predictability of infarct volume by Tc-99m antimyosin SPECT was evaluated within 24 hours of chest pain and this was compared to the length of akinesis (AK) from the pre-discharge left ventriculogram (LVgram). Ten patients (pts) with acute myocardial infarction who underwent streptokinase thrombolytic therapy (success 8, failure 2) were subjects of this investigation. None had previous infarction. Average reperfusion time was within 4.5 hours and 20mCi of Tc-99m antimyosin was given intravenously within 8 hours after chest pain; SPECT imaging was performed within 18 hours after injection. Infarct volume was calculated from SPECT and expressed as grams of myocardial infarction (GMI). Ten days later, a 30 0 RAO contrast LVgram was recorded and the length of AK (corrected for magnification) was measured along the LV border at the end-diastolic phase and expressed as cm of AK. GMI and AK were measured independently without knowledge of each other. Results are given. The data demonstrate a good correlation of GMI and AK. Infarct volume can be measured by antimyosin SPECT within 24 hours of chest pain and predict residual LV dysfunction in pts undergoing reperfusion therapy

  10. Downregulation of telomerase maintenance-related ACD expression in patients undergoing immunosuppresive therapy following kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowska, Agnieszka; Strzalka-Mrozik, Barbara; Owczarek, Aleksander; Gola, Joanna; Mazurek, Urszula; Grzeszczak, Wladyslaw; Gumprecht, Janusz

    2015-12-01

    Chronic administration of immunosuppressants has been associated with long-term consequences, including a higher risk of neoplasm development. The processes regulating telomere function exert a major influence on human cancer biology. The present study aimed to assess the effect of immunosuppressive therapy on the expression of genes associated with telomere maintenance and protection in patients following renal transplantation. A total of 51 patients that had undergone kidney transplantation and 54 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. The 51 transplant patients received a three-drug immunosuppressive regimen consisting of cyclosporine A, prednisone and mycophenolate mofetil. In stage 1 of the study, the expression profiles of 123 transcripts, which represented 70 genes, were assessed in peripheral mononuclear blood cells using an oligonucleotide microarray technique in 8 transplant recipients and 4 healthy control subjects. Among the analyzed transcripts, the expression levels of 4 differed significantly between the studied groups; however, only the ACD (adrenocortical dysplasia homolog) gene, encoding the telomere-binding protein POT1-interacting protein 1 (TPP1), was sufficiently specific for telomere homeostasis. The expression of ACD was downregulated in transplant recipients (fold change, 2.11; P=0.006). In stage 2 of the study, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of ACD , DKC1 and hTERT mRNA was conducted for all transplant patients and control subjects. The results confirmed the downregulation of the ACD gene in patients that had received immunosuppressive therapy (P=0.002). The results of the present study indicate that the downregulation of ACD gene transcription, and thus TPP1 protein expression, may enhance the capacity for cell immortalization, despite normal levels of other key telomere maintenance factors, in patients undergoing immunosuppressive therapy. Furthermore, the results indicate that TPP1 has

  11. Multivariate relationships between international normalized ratio and vitamin K-dependent coagulation-derived parameters in normal healthy donors and oral anticoagulant therapy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golanski Jacek

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives International Normalized Ratio (INR is a world-wide routinely used factor in the monitoring of oral anticoagulation treatment (OAT. However, it was reported that other factors, e. g. factor II, may even better reflect therapeutic efficacy of OAT and, therefore, may be potentialy useful for OAT monitoring. The primary purpose of this study was to characterize the associations of INR with other vitamin K-dependent plasma proteins in a heterogenous group of individuals, including healthy donors, patients on OAT and patients not receiving OAT. The study aimed also at establishing the influence of co-morbid conditions (incl. accompanying diseases and co-medications (incl. different intensity of OAT on INR. Design and Methods Two hundred and three subjects were involved in the study. Of these, 35 were normal healthy donors (group I, 73 were patients on medication different than OAT (group II and 95 were patients on stable oral anticoagulant (acenocoumarol therapy lasting for at least half a year prior to the study. The values of INR and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT ratio, as well as activities of FII, FVII, FX, protein C, and concentration of prothrombin F1+2 fragments and fibrinogen were obtained for all subjects. In statistical evaluation, the uni- and multivariate analyses were employed and the regression equations describing the obtained associations were estimated. Results Of the studied parameters, three (factors II, VII and X appeared as very strong modulators of INR, protein C and prothrombin fragments F1+2 had moderate influence, whereas both APTT ratio and fibrinogen had no significant impact on INR variability. Due to collinearity and low tolerance of independent variables included in the multiple regression models, we routinely employed a ridge multiple regression model which compromises the minimal number of independent variables with the maximal overall determination coefficient. The best

  12. B cell repertoires in HLA-sensitized kidney transplant candidates undergoing desensitization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beausang, John F; Fan, H Christina; Sit, Rene; Hutchins, Maria U; Jirage, Kshama; Curtis, Rachael; Hutchins, Edward; Quake, Stephen R; Yabu, Julie M

    2017-01-13

    Kidney transplantation is the most effective treatment for end-stage renal disease. Sensitization refers to pre-existing antibodies against human leukocyte antigen (HLA) protein and remains a major barrier to successful transplantation. Despite implementation of desensitization strategies, many candidates fail to respond. Our objective was to determine whether measuring B cell repertoires could differentiate candidates that respond to desensitization therapy. We developed an assay based on high-throughput DNA sequencing of the variable domain of the heavy chain of immunoglobulin genes to measure changes in B cell repertoires in 19 highly HLA-sensitized kidney transplant candidates undergoing desensitization and 7 controls with low to moderate HLA sensitization levels. Responders to desensitization had a decrease of 5% points or greater in cumulated calculated panel reactive antibody (cPRA) levels, and non-responders had no decrease in cPRA. Dominant B cell clones were not observed in highly sensitized candidates, suggesting that the B cells responsible for sensitization are either not present in peripheral blood or present at comparable levels to other circulating B cells. Candidates that responded to desensitization therapy had pre-treatment repertoires composed of a larger fraction of class-switched (IgG and IgA) isotypes compared to non-responding candidates. After B cell depleting therapy, the proportion of switched isotypes increased and the mutation frequencies of the remaining non-switched isotypes (IgM and IgD) increased in both responders and non-responders, perhaps representing a shift in the repertoire towards memory B cells or plasmablasts. Conversely, after transplantation, non-switched isotypes with fewer mutations increased, suggesting a shift in the repertoire towards naïve B cells. Relative abundance of different B cell isotypes is strongly perturbed by desensitization therapy and transplantation, potentially reflecting changes in the relative

  13. Outcomes of implementation of enhanced goal directed therapy in high-risk patients undergoing abdominal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Advanced monitoring targeting haemodynamic and oxygenation variables can improve outcomes of surgery in high-risk patients. We aimed to assess the impact of goal directed therapy (GDT targeting cardiac index (CI and oxygen extraction ratio (O 2 ER on outcomes of high-risk patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Methods: In a prospective randomised trial, forty patients (American Society of Anaesthesiologists II and III undergoing major abdominal surgeries were randomised into two groups. In-Group A mean arterial pressure ≥ 65 mmHg, central venous pressure ≥ 8-10 mmHg, urine output ≥ 0.5 mL/kg/h and central venous oxygen saturation ≥ 70% were targeted intra-operatively and 12 h postoperatively. In-Group-B (enhanced GDT, in addition to the monitoring in-Group-A, CI ≥ 2.5 L/min/m 2 and O 2 ER ≤ 27% were targeted. The end-points were lactate levels and base deficit during and after surgery. The secondary end points were length of Intensive Care Unit (ICU and hospital stay and postoperative complications. Wilcoxon Mann Whitney and Chi-square tests were used for statistical assessment. Results: Lactate levels postoperatively at 4 and 8 h were lower in-Group-B (P < 0.05. The mean base deficit at 3, 4, 5 and 6 h intra-operatively and postoperatively after 4, 8 and 12 h were lower in-Group-B (P < 0.05. There were no significant differences in ICU stay (2.10 ± 1.52 vs. 2.90 ± 2.51 days or hospital stay (10.85 + 4.39 vs. 13.35 + 6.77 days between Group A and B. Conclusions: Implementation of enhanced GDT targeting CI and OER was associated with improved tissue oxygenation.

  14. Hematometra secondary to anticoagulant rodenticide toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padgett, S.L.; Stokes, J.E.; Tucker, R.L.; Wheaton, L.G.

    1998-01-01

    An adult, intact female Australian shepherd presented for frank vaginal bleeding of unknown duration. The only coagulation profile abnormality upon presentation was mild prolongation of the partial thromboplastin time (PTT). The uterus was removed at surgery and contained a large amount of coagulated blood. Clotting profiles were markedly abnormal48 hours postoperatively. Serum analysis was positive for brodifacoum, an anticoagulant rodenticide. Preoperative coagulation was most likely normalized by vitamin K-1 therapy administered prior to presentation. The only manifestation of anticoagulant rodenticide was hematometra. Rodenticide intoxication should be considered in the differential diagnosis list of hematometra or metrorrhagia

  15. The use of a biologic topical haemostatic agent (TachoSil(®)) for the prevention of postoperative bleeding in patients on antithrombotic therapy undergoing thyroid surgery: A randomised controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdas, Enrico; Medas, Fabio; Podda, Francesco; Furcas, Silvia; Pisano, Giuseppe; Nicolosi, Angelo; Calò, Pietro Giorgio

    2015-08-01

    Anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents are well-known risk factors for post-operative bleeding. The aim of this prospective, randomized pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a topical haemostatic agent, namely TachoSil, for the prevention of postoperative bleeding in patients on antithrombotic therapy undergoing thyroidectomy. Perioperative management and some distinctive aspects of cervical haematomas were also discussed. Between January 2012 and May 2014, all patients taking vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) or acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) scheduled for total thyroidectomy were enrolled and randomly allocated to group 1 (standard haemostasis) and group 2 (standard haemostasis + TachoSil). Antithrombotic drugs were always suspended prior to surgery and, when indicated, replaced by bridging anticoagulation with low-molecular-weight heparin. The primary endpoint was the incidence of postoperative cervical haematomas. A total of 70 patients were included in the study, representing 8.5% (70/820) of all patients who underwent thyroidectomies in the same period. The overall rate of post-operative cervical haematoma was 7.1% (5/70) and reached 14.8% (4/27) in patients on VKA therapy. All but one occurred more than 24 h after surgery (32nd hour, 8th, 10th, and 13th days). Group 1 (37 patients) and group 2 (33 patients) were well-matched according to clinical and demographic features. Postoperative haematoma was observed in 2/37 patients (5.4%) recruited in the Group 1 and 3/33 patients (9.1%) recruited in the Group 2 (P = 0.661). Patients taking antithrombotic drugs represent a major problem in thyroid surgery. The incidence of bleeding after thyroidectomy is significantly high and the use of TachoSil do not seem effective in preventing its occurrence. However, larger multicenter study is needed to confirm these results. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Anticoagulation knowledge in patients with atrial fibrillation: An Australian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obamiro, Kehinde O; Chalmers, Leanne; Lee, Kenneth; Bereznicki, Bonnie J; Bereznicki, Luke R E

    2018-03-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most commonly diagnosed arrhythmia in clinical practice, and is associated with a significant medical and economic burden. Anticoagulants reduce the risk of stroke and systemic embolism by approximately two-thirds compared with no therapy. Knowledge regarding anticoagulant therapy can influence treatment outcomes in patients with AF. To measure the level of anticoagulation knowledge in patients with AF taking oral anticoagulants (OACs), investigate the association between patient-related factors and anticoagulation knowledge, and compare these results in patients taking warfarin and direct-acting oral anticoagulant (DOACs). Participants were recruited for an online survey via Facebook. Survey components included the Anticoagulation Knowledge Tool, the Perception of Anticoagulant Treatment Questionnaires (assessing treatment expectations, convenience and satisfaction), a modified Cancer Information Overload scale and the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. Treatment groups were compared and predictors of OAC knowledge were identified. Participants taking warfarin had a higher knowledge score compared with those taking DOACs (n = 386, 73% ± 13% vs 66% ± 14%, Pcounselling sessions to help identify and resolve knowledge deficits. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Rationale and design of ASSAF-K (A study of the safety and efficacy of anticoagulant therapy in the treatment of atrial fibrillation in Kanagawa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Hatori, MD, PhD

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: The results of the study are expected to serve as the basis for providing clinical practice guidance to healthcare institutions in Japan, with the ultimate goals of better characterizing the appropriate use of OACs and providing clinical decision support to physicians to facilitate the design of appropriate therapeutic strategies and the selection of anticoagulants for the management of AF.

  18. The Active Metabolite of Warfarin (3'-Hydroxywarfarin) and Correlation with INR, Warfarin and Drug Weekly Dosage in Patients under Oral Anticoagulant Therapy: A Pharmacogenetics Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talarico, Anna; Fabbri, Matteo; Bertocco, Cesare; Vigliano, Marco; Moratelli, Stefano; Cuneo, Antonio; Serino, Maria Luisa; Avato, Francesco Maria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Warfarin oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT) requires regular and frequent drug adjustment monitored by INR. Interindividual variability, drug and diet interferences, and genetics (VKORC1 and CYP2C9) make the maintenance/reaching of stable INR a not so easy task. HPLC assessment of warfarin/enantiomers was suggested as a valid monitoring-tool along with INR, but definite results are still lacking. We evaluated possible correlations between INR, warfarin/3’-hydroxywarfarin, and drug weekly dosage aimed at searching novel alternatives to OAT monitoring. VKORC1/CYP2C9 pharmacogenetics investigation was performed to account for the known influence on warfarin homeostasis. Methods 133 OAT patients were recruited and assessed for warfarin/3’-hydroxywarfarin serum levels (HPLC), INR, and VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotypes. A subgroup of 52 patients were monitored in detail (5 consecutive controls; c0-c4) till the target INR was reached. Correlation analyses were performed in both groups Results In the whole OAT group both warfarin and 3’-hydroxywarfarin correlate with INR at comparable degree (r2 = 0.0388 and 0.0362 respectively). Conversely, warfarin weekly dosage better correlates with warfarin than with 3’-hydroxywarfarin (r2 = 0.0975 and r2 = 0.0381 respectively), but considering together warfarin plus 3’-hydroxywarfarin the correlation strongly increased (r2 = 0.1114; pwarfarin (r2 = 0.2157 and r2 = 0.0549; p = 0.0005 and p = 0.0944 respectively) seeming less affected by drug adjustments in the subgroup of 52 patients who started OAT. The multivariate analyses aimed at estimating the true contribution of 3’-hydroxywarfarin on INR value ascribed it the unique significant value (p = 0.0021) in spite of warfarin who lost association. The pharmacogenetics studies confirmed that patients carrying the VKORC1 variant-allele required lower warfarin maintenance dosage and that the combination of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 yielded a warfarin responsive index (WRI

  19. Do ictal EEG characteristics predict treatment outcomes in schizophrenic patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Gulnihal Gokce; Zincir, Selma; Gulec, Huseyin; Eksioglu, Sevgin; Semiz, Umit Basar; Kurtulmus, Yasemin Sipka

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between features of electroencephalography (EEG), including seizure time, energy threshold level and post-ictal suppression time, and clinical variables, including treatment outcomes and side-effects, among schizophrenia inpatients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). This is a naturalistic follow-up study on schizophrenia patients, diagnosed using DSM-IV-TR criteria, treated by a psychosis inpatient service. All participants completed the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale, the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) and a Data Collection Form. Assessments were made before treatment, during ECT and after treatment. Statistically significant improvements in both clinical and cognitive outcome were noted after ECT in all patients. Predictors of improvement were sought by evaluating electrophysiological variables measured at three time points (after the third, fifth and seventh ECT sessions). Logistic regression analysis showed that clinical outcome/improvement did not differ by seizure duration, threshold energy level or post-ictal suppression time. We found that ictal EEG parameters measured at several ECT sessions did not predict clinical recovery/outcomes. This may be because our centre defensively engages in "very specific patient selection" when ECT is contemplated. ECT does not cause short-term cognitive functional impairment and indeed improves cognition, because symptoms of the schizophrenic episode are alleviated.

  20. Clinical Assessment of Intraventricular Blood Transport in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Lorenzo; Martinez-Legazpi, P.; Benito, Y.; Perez Del Villar, C.; Gonzalez-Mansilla, A.; Barrio, A.; Yotti, R.; Kahn, A. M.; Shadden, S. C.; Fernandez-Aviles, F.; Bermejo, J.; Del Alamo, J. C.

    2015-11-01

    In the healthy heart, left ventricular (LV) filling generates flow patterns which have been proposed to optimize blood transport by coupling diastole and systole phases. We present a novel image-based method to assess how flow patterns influence LV blood transport in patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Solving the advection equation with time-varying inflow boundary conditions allows to track the transport of blood entering the LV in the different filling waves, as well as the transport barriers which couple filling and ejection. The velocity fields were obtained using echocardiographic color Doppler velocimetry, which provides two-dimensional time-resolved flow maps in the apical long axis three-chamber view of the LV. We analyze flow transport in a group of patients with CRT devices as well as in healthy volunteers. In the patients under CRT, the device programming was varied to analyze flow transport under different values of the atrioventricular (AV) conduction delay and to model tachycardia. This analysis illustrates how CRT influences the transit of blood inside the LV, contributes to conserving kinetic energy and favors the generation of hemodynamic forces that accelerate blood in the direction of the LV outflow tract.

  1. Different nutritional-state indicators of HIV-positive individuals undergoing antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Geraix

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at learning about the nutritional profile of HIV-positive individuals undergoing antiretroviral therapy and at comparing the performance of nutritional-state indicators. A transversal study was performed on 94 patients attending the Tropical Diseases Outpatient Hospital of Botucatu Medical School (FMB - UNESP. The body mass index (BMI and the classification by Papini-Berto (PB were used to evaluate nutritional state, aiming at detecting malnutrition and obesity. The waist-to-hips ratio (W/HR and waist circumference (WC were adopted for identification of abdominal obesity and lipodystrophy. According to BMI, most of the individuals were eutrophic, followed by 30.9% overweight and 6.4% malnourished. By using the PB classification, the frequency of malnourished increased (22.3%. The analysis of the PB classification in relation to BMI indicated that the former presented high sensitivity and good specificity for malnutrition diagnosis, namely 100% and 83%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 7.44% according to WC, and a higher prevalence (38.3% was observed when taking W/HR into account. There was significant positive association between nutritional diagnosis according to PB and T CD4+ lymphocyte. The results support the use of PB classification for malnutrition detection as well as that of BMI and W/HR for overweight and fat redistribution.

  2. Management benefits and safety of computed tomography in patients undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy: experience of a single centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jepson, S.L.; Harvey, C.; Entwisle, J.J.; Peek, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the benefits and logistical safety of computed tomography (CT) imaging in patients undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy in a single institution. Materials and methods: Over a period of 25 months, 134 patients (80 neonates, 19 children, and 35 adults) underwent ECMO therapy at this institution. The imaging of these patients was reviewed to identify patients who had undergone CT imaging whilst on ECMO. Patient notes were retrospectively reviewed. CT findings and subsequent decisions were analysed to assess the benefit of CT imaging. Complications arising due to the logistics of performing the scan were analysed to assess the safety of performing CT in ECMO patients. Results: Of 134 patients, 14 (10%) had a total of 15 CT examinations whilst undergoing ECMO therapy. Indications for CT included new neurology, increased respiratory demand, and increasing requirement for high ECMO flows. There were no major complications and two minor complications associated with the logistics of performing a CT examination on an ECMO patient. Significant findings resulted from 73.3% (11/15) of the CT examinations, and in all 15 examinations information was provided that was used in making further management decisions, including, in some cases, withdrawal of ECMO therapy. Conclusion: With an experienced team, CT imaging of patients on ECMO can be performed safely. CT provides valuable information for subsequent management of patients undergoing ECMO therapy.

  3. Effect of intensive vs conventional insulin therapy on perioperative nutritional substrates metabolism in patients undergoing gastrectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han-Cheng Liu; Yan-Bing Zhou; Dong Chen; Zhao-Jian Niu; Yang Yu

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effect of intensive vs conventional insulin therapy on perioperative nutritional substrates metabolism in patients undergoing radical distal gastrectomy.METHODS:Within 24 h of intensive care unit management,patients with gastric cancer were enrolled after written informed consent and randomized to the intensive insulin therapy (IIT) group to keep glucose levels from 4.4 to 6.1 mmol/L or the conventional insulin therapy (CIT) group to keep levels less than 10 mmol/L.Resting energy expenditure (REE),respiratory quotient (RQ),resting energy expenditure per kilogram (REE/kg),and the lipid oxidation rate were monitored by the indirect calorimeter of calcium citrate malate nutrition metabolism investigation system.The changes in body composition were analyzed by multi-frequency bioimpedance analysis.Blood fasting glucose and insulin concentration were measured for assessment of Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance.RESULTS:Sixty patients were enrolled.Compared with preoperative baseline,postoperative REE increased by over 22.15% and 11.07%; REE/kg rose up to 27.22 ± 1.33 kcal/kg and 24.72 ± 1.43 kcal/kg; RQ decreased to 0.759 ± 0.034 and 0.791 ± 0.037; the lipid oxidation ratio was up to 78.25% ± 17.74% and 67.13% ± 12.76% supported by parenteral nutrition solutions from 37.56% ± 11.64% at the baseline; the level of Ln-HOMA-IR went up dramatically (P < 0.05,respectively) on postoperative days 1 and 3 in the IIT group.Meanwhile the concentration of total protein,albumin and triglyceride declined significantly on postoperative days 1 and 3 compared with pre-operative levels (P < 0.05,respectively).Compared with the CIT group,IIT reduced the REE/kg level (27.22 ± 1.33 kcal/kg vs 29.97 ± 1.47 kcal/kg,P =0.008; 24.72 ± 1.43 kcal/kg vs 25.66 ± 1.63 kcal/kg,P =0.013); and decreased the Ln-HOMA-IR score (P =0.019,0.028) on postoperative days 1 and 3; IIT decreased the level of CRP on postoperative days 1 and 3 (P

  4. Influence of radiation dose on positive surgical margins in women undergoing breast conservation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiBiase, Steven J.; Komarnicky, Lydia T.; Heron, Dwight E.; Schwartz, Gordon F.; Mansfield, Carl M.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Positive surgical margins adversely influence local tumor control in breast conservation therapy (BCT). However, reports have conflicted regarding whether an increased radiation dose can overcome this poor prognostic factor. In this study, we evaluated the influence of an increased radiation dose on tumor control in women with positive surgical margins undergoing BCT. Methods and Materials: Between 1978 and 1994, 733 women with pathologic Stage I-II breast cancer and known surgical margin status were treated at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital with BCT. Of these 733 patients, 641 women had a minimal tumor bed dose of 60 Gy and had documentation of their margin status; 509 had negative surgical margins, and 132 had positive surgical margins before definitive radiotherapy. Complete gross excision of the tumor and axillary lymph node sampling was obtained in all patients. The median radiation dose to the primary site was 65.0 Gy (range 60-76). Of the women with positive margins (n=132), the influence of higher doses of radiotherapy was evaluated. The median follow-up time was 52 months. Results: The local tumor control rate for patients with negative margins at 5 and 10 years was 94% and 88%, respectively, compared with 85% and 67%, respectively, for those women with positive margins (p=0.001). The disease-free survival rate for the negative margin group at 5 and 10 years was 91% and 82%, respectively, compared with 76% and 71%, respectively, for the positive margin group (p = 0.001). The overall survival rate of women with negative margins at 5 and 10 years was 95% and 90%, respectively. By comparison, for women with positive surgical margins, the overall survival rate at 5 and 10 years was 86% and 79%, respectively (p=0.008). A comparison of the positive and negative margin groups revealed that an increased radiation dose (whether entered as a dichotomous or a continuous variable) >65.0 Gy did not improve local tumor control (p=0.776). On Cox

  5. Erectile Dysfunction Among HIV Patients Undergoing Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy: Dyslipidemia as a Main Risk Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Velez, Gustavo; Lisker-Cervantes, Andrés; Villeda-Sandoval, Christian I; Sotomayor de Zavaleta, Mariano; Olvera-Posada, Daniel; Sierra-Madero, Juan Gerardo; Arreguin-Camacho, Lucrecia O; Castillejos-Molina, Ricardo A

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence and risk factors of erectile dysfunction (ED) in HIV patients from the HIV clinic of a tertiary referral center in Mexico City. Design Prevalence was obtained from cross-sectional studies, and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), a standardized method, was used to assess ED. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in the HIV clinic. Participants completed the IIEF to allow ED assessment. Information on demographics, clinical and HIV-related variables was retrieved from their medical records. Results One hundred and nine patients were included, with a mean age of 39.9 ± 8.8 years. ED was present in 65.1% of the individuals. Patients had been diagnosed with HIV for a mean of 92.7 ± 70.3 months and had undergone a mean 56.4 ± 45.5 months of HAART. The only variable associated with ED in the univariate analysis was dyslipidemia, and this association was also found in the multivariate analysis (P = 0.01). Conclusions ED is highly prevalent in HIV patients. Dyslipidemia should be considered as a risk factor for ED in HIV patients. Romero-Velez G, Lisker-Cervantes A, Villeda-Sandoval CI, Sotomayor de Zavaleta M, Olvera-Posada D, Sierra-Madero JG, Arreguin-Camacho LO, and Castillejos-Molina RA. Erectile dysfunction among HIV patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy: Dyslipidemia as a main risk factor. Sex Med 2014;2:24–30. PMID:25356298

  6. Clinical and biochemical outcomes of men undergoing radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, David; Weiss, Jeffrey P.; Safdieh, Joseph; Weiner, Joseph; Rotman, Marvin; Schwartz, David [Veterans Affairs, New York Harbor Healthcare System, Brooklyn (United States); Rineer, Justin [University of Florida Health Cancer Center at Orlando Health, Orlando (United States)

    2015-03-15

    We analyzed outcomes of patients with prostate cancer undergoing either radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) +/- salvage radiation or definitive radiation therapy (RT) +/- androgen deprivation. From 2003-2010 there were 251 patients who underwent RRP and 469 patients who received RT (> or =7,560 cGy) for prostate cancer. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed with the log-rank test to compare biochemical control (bCR), distant metastatic-free survival (DMPFS), and prostate cancer-specific survival (PCSS) between the two groups. The median follow-up was 70 months and 61.3% of the men were African American. For low risk disease the 6-year bCR were 90.3% for RT and 85.6% for RRP (p = 0.23) and the 6-year post-salvage bCR were 90.3% vs. 90.9%, respectively (p = 0.84). For intermediate risk disease the 6-year bCR were 82.6% for RT and 59.7% for RRP (p < 0.001) and 82.6% vs. 74.0%, respectively, after including those salvaged with RT (p = 0.06). For high risk disease, the 6-year bCR were 67.4% for RT and 41.3% for RRP (p < 0.001) and after including those salvaged with RT was 67.4% vs. 43.1%, respectively (p < 0.001). However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in regards to DMPFS or PCSS. Treatment approaches utilizing RRP +/- salvage radiation or RT +/- androgen deprivation yielded equivalent DMPFS and PCSS outcomes. Biochemical control rates, using their respective definitions, appeared equivalent or better in those who received treatment with RT.

  7. Cognitive training to improve memory in individuals undergoing electroconvulsive therapy: Negative findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jimmy; Wang, Yuanjia; Feng, Tianshu; Prudic, Joan

    2017-09-01

    Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) remains the most effective treatment for severe depression, some patients report persistent memory problems following ECT that impact their quality of life and their willingness to consent to further ECT. While cognitive training has been shown to improve memory performance in various conditions, this approach has never been applied to help patients regain their memory after ECT. In a double-blind study, we tested the efficacy of a new cognitive training program called Memory Training for ECT (Mem-ECT), specifically designed to target anterograde and retrograde memory that can be compromised following ECT. Fifty-nine patients with treatment-resistant depression scheduled to undergo ultra-brief right unilateral ECT were randomly assigned to either: (a) Mem-ECT, (b) active control comprised of nonspecific mental stimulation, or (c) treatment as usual. Participants were evaluated within one week prior to the start of ECT and then again within 2 weeks following the last ECT session. All three groups improved in global function, quality of life, depression, and self-reported memory abilities without significant group differences. While there was a decline in verbal delayed recall and mental status, there was no decline in general retrograde memory or autobiographical memory in any of the groups, with no significant memory or clinical benefit for the Mem-ECT or active control conditions compared to treatment as usual. While we report negative findings, these results continue to promote the much needed discussion on developing effective strategies to minimize the adverse memory side effects of ECT, in hopes it will make ECT a better and more easily tolerated treatment for patients with severe depression who need this therapeutic option. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Viral hepatitis screening in transgender patients undergoing gender identity hormonal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangla, Neeraj; Mamun, Rifat; Weisberg, Ilan S

    2017-11-01

    Viral hepatitis is a global health issue and can lead to cirrhosis, liver failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Guidelines for viral hepatitis screening in the transgender population do not exist. Transgender patients may be at higher risk for contracting viral hepatitis due to socioeconomic and behavioral factors. The aim of this study was to measure the quality of screening, prevalence, and susceptibility of viral hepatitis, and to identify barriers to screening in transgender patients undergoing gender identity hormonal therapy. LGBTQ-friendly clinic visits from transgender patients older than 18 years in New York City from 2012 to 2015 were reviewed. Approximately 13% of patients were screened for any viral hepatitis on initial consultation. Screening rates for hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis A virus (HAV) at any point were 27, 22, and 20%. HAV screening was performed in 28% of the female to male (FtM) patients and 16% of male to female (MtF) (P0.05). Prevalence of HCV, HBV, and HIV in FtM was 0, 0, and 0.44% and that in MtF was 1.78, 0.89, and 1.78%, respectively. Percentage of patients immune to hepatitis A in FtM and MtF subgroups were 55 and 47% (P>0.05). Percentage of patients immune to HBV in FtM and MtF subgroups were 54 and 48% (P>0.05). This study indicates a significant lack of hepatitis screening in the transgender population and a concerning proportion of patients susceptible to disease.

  9. Prevalence of mood disorders and utility of the PRIME-MD in patients undergoing radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leopold, Kenneth A.; Ahles, Tim A.; Walch, Susan; Amdur, Robert J.; Mott, Leila A.; Wiegand-Packard, Linda; Oxman, Thomas E.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To validate a short, structured interview procedure that allows practicing oncologists to quickly and reliably identify mood disorders in their patients, and to estimate the prevalence and types of mood disorders in a radiation therapy patient setting, noting relationships between mood disorders and patient characteristics. Methods: Consecutive, eligible adult patients from the practices of two radiation oncologists were administered the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD) by the treating physician. A subset of these patients was also evaluated with the SCID, administered by trained mental health care personnel. Agreement between the two instruments was examined using the kappa statistic. Prevalence of mood disorders was determined from the PRIME-MD. The significance of relationships between patient characteristics and mood disorders was examined by chi-square and ANOVA analysis, and subsequently by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: One hundred twenty-two patients were studied. Fifty-three of these were administered the SCID. Agreement between the two instruments was very good (kappa = 0.70). A diagnosis of a depressive or anxiety disorder by the PRIME-MD was made in 59 of the 122 patients (48%, 95% confidence interval = 39%, 58%). Multivariate analysis showed that a diagnosis of a depressive mood disorder was significantly related to pain intensity and prior history of depression. Conclusion: We have demonstrated the validity and feasibility of the PRIME-MD administered by oncologists in making diagnoses of mood disorders. The prevalence of mood disorders in our set of patients undergoing a course of RT was nearly 50%. Future studies should describe the natural history of these disorders, and determine optimal intervention strategies

  10. Clinical and biochemical outcomes of men undergoing radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, David; Weiss, Jeffrey P.; Safdieh, Joseph; Weiner, Joseph; Rotman, Marvin; Schwartz, David; Rineer, Justin

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed outcomes of patients with prostate cancer undergoing either radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) +/- salvage radiation or definitive radiation therapy (RT) +/- androgen deprivation. From 2003-2010 there were 251 patients who underwent RRP and 469 patients who received RT (> or =7,560 cGy) for prostate cancer. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed with the log-rank test to compare biochemical control (bCR), distant metastatic-free survival (DMPFS), and prostate cancer-specific survival (PCSS) between the two groups. The median follow-up was 70 months and 61.3% of the men were African American. For low risk disease the 6-year bCR were 90.3% for RT and 85.6% for RRP (p = 0.23) and the 6-year post-salvage bCR were 90.3% vs. 90.9%, respectively (p = 0.84). For intermediate risk disease the 6-year bCR were 82.6% for RT and 59.7% for RRP (p < 0.001) and 82.6% vs. 74.0%, respectively, after including those salvaged with RT (p = 0.06). For high risk disease, the 6-year bCR were 67.4% for RT and 41.3% for RRP (p < 0.001) and after including those salvaged with RT was 67.4% vs. 43.1%, respectively (p < 0.001). However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in regards to DMPFS or PCSS. Treatment approaches utilizing RRP +/- salvage radiation or RT +/- androgen deprivation yielded equivalent DMPFS and PCSS outcomes. Biochemical control rates, using their respective definitions, appeared equivalent or better in those who received treatment with RT.

  11. Experiences of undergoing Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for procrastination: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rozental

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Internet interventions constitute a promising and cost-effective treatment alternative for a wide range of psychiatric disorders and somatic conditions. Several clinical trials have provided evidence for its efficacy and effectiveness, and recent research also indicate that it can be helpful in the treatment of conditions that are debilitating, but do not necessarily warrant more immediate care, for instance, procrastination, a self-regulatory failure that is associated with decreased well-being and mental health. However, providing treatment interventions for procrastination via the Internet is a novel approach, making it unclear how the participants themselves perceive their experiences. The current study thus investigated participants' own apprehension of undergoing Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for procrastination by distributing open-ended questions at the post-treatment assessment, for instance, “What did you think about the readability of the texts”, “How valuable do you believe that this treatment has been for you?”, and “The thing that I am most displeased with (and how it could be improved is …”. In total, 75 participants (50% responded, and the material was examined using thematic analysis. The results indicate that there exist both positive and negative aspects of the treatment program. Many participants increased their self-efficacy and were able to gain momentum on many tasks and assignments that had been deferred in their everyday life. Meanwhile, several participants lacked motivation to complete the exercises, had too many conflicting commitments, and were unable to keep up with the tight treatment schedule. Hence, the results suggest that Internet interventions for procrastination could profit from individual tailoring, shorter and more manageable modules, and that the content need to be adapted to the reading comprehension and motivational level of the participant.

  12. Influence of novel oral anticoagulants on anticoagulation care management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzic, Andrej; Kos, Mitja

    2017-09-01

    Anticoagulation treatment was recently improved by the introduction of novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs). Using a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods, this study explores the effects of the introduction of NOACs on anticoagulation care in Slovenia. Face-to-face interviews with key stakeholders revealed evolvement and challenges of anticoagulation care from different perspectives. Obtained information was further explored through the analysis of nationwide data of drug prescriptions and realization of health care services. Simplified management of anticoagulation treatment with NOACs and their high penetration expanded the capacity of anticoagulation clinics, and consequentially the treated population increased by more than 50 % in the last 5 years. The main challenge concerned the expenditures for medicines, which increased approximately 10 times in just a few years. At the same time, the anticoagulation clinics and their core organisation were not affected, which is not expected to change, since they are vital in delivering high-quality care.

  13. Comparing exercise responses to aerobic plus resistance training between postmenopausal breast cancer survivors undergoing aromatase inhibitor therapy and healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Thais R S de; Winters-Stone, Kerri M; Viezel, Juliana; Rossi, Fabricio E; Aro, Bruna L; Trindade, Ana Carolina A C; Codogno, Jamile S; Freitas Junior, Ismael F

    2018-04-12

    The aim of this study was to explore whether postmenopausal breast cancer survivors undergoing aromatase inhibitor therapy differ from healthy postmenopausal women in their response to the same aerobic + resistance training. The participants were separated into two groups: postmenopausal breast cancer survivors undergoing aromatase inhibitor therapy for an average of 20 months (18 women) and healthy postmenopausal women (24 women). We assessed aerobic capacity (predicted maximum oxygen uptake (VO 2 max) and maximum running velocity test (Vmax)) through a walking test, upper and lower body muscle strength using an estimated one-repetition maximum test, and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and at three, six, and nine months, respectively. The exercise program was performed three times/week over nine months and consisted of 40 min of machine-based strength training (seated cable row, bench press, leg extension, leg press, and leg curl, as well as bridge, abdominal, and standard plank exercises) followed by 30 min of treadmill walking. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures was used to compare the groups over time. Postmenopausal breast cancer survivors undergoing aromatase inhibitor therapy and healthy postmenopausal women presented similar improvements in estimated lower body strength, predicted VO 2max and V max , and body fat mass. For maximal upper body strength, there was a significant group x time interaction after six months of training (p = 0.01). The healthy postmenopausal women presented a significant increase in upper body strength after six months, while postmenopausal breast cancer survivors undergoing aromatase inhibitor therapy demonstrated an improvement only at nine months of training. The breast cancer survivors undergoing aromatase inhibitor therapy presented increased lean mass while healthy postmenopausal women maintained values over time (Breast cancer: 33.7 ± 3.9(Pre) vs. 34.1

  14. Survey of Botulinum Toxin Injections in Anticoagulated Patients: Korean Physiatrists' Preference in Controlling Anticoagulation Profile Prior to Intramuscular Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yongjun; Park, Geun-Young; Park, Jihye; Choi, Asayeon; Kim, Soo Yeon; Boulias, Chris; Phadke, Chetan P; Ismail, Farooq; Im, Sun

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate Korean physiatrists' practice of performing intramuscular botulinum toxin injection in anticoagulated patients and to assess their preference in controlling the bleeding risk before injection. As part of an international collaboration survey study, a questionnaire survey was administered to 100 Korean physiatrists. Physiatrists were asked about their level of experience with botulinum toxin injection, the safe international normalized ratio range in anticoagulated patients undergoing injection, their tendency for injecting into deep muscles, and their experience of bleeding complications. International normalized ratio injection by 41% of the respondents. Thirty-six respondents replied that the international normalized ratio should be lowered to sub-therapeutic levels before injection, and 18% of the respondents reported that anticoagulants should be intentionally withheld and discontinued prior to injection. In addition, 20%-30% of the respondents answered that they were uncertain whether they should perform the injection regardless of the international normalized ratio values. About 69% of the respondents replied that they did have any standardized protocols for performing botulinum toxin injection in patients using anticoagulants. Only 1 physiatrist replied that he had encountered a case of compartment syndrome. In accordance with the lack of consensus in performing intramuscular botulinum toxin injection in anticoagulated patients, our survey shows a wide range of practices among many Korean physiatrists; they tend to avoid botulinum toxin injection in anticoagulated patients and are uncertain about how to approach these patients. The results of this study emphasize the need for formulating a proper international consensus on botulinum toxin injection management in anticoagulated patients.

  15. Hemorrhagic stroke and oral anticoagulants: What is to be done?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Domashenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic stroke (HS is associated with high mortality and disability rates. Due to the introduction of the current guidelines for the prevention of systemic thromboembolic events in patients with atrial fibrillations and to an increase in the number of older patients, there has been a rise in the incidence of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH associated with the use of oral anticoagulants. The paper discusses medical treatment in patients with HS during therapy with vitamin K antagonists (warfarin and novel oral anticoagulants (dabigatran. rivaroxaban, apixaban, as well as an anticoagulant resumption policy after prior ICH in patients at high risk for thromboembolic events.

  16. Use of antifibrinolytic mouthwash solution in anticoagulated oral surgery patients

    OpenAIRE

    Dimova, Cena; Evrosimovska, Biljana; Papakoca, Kiro; Georgiev, Zlatko; Angelovska, Bistra; Ristoska, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Introduction:The ordinary treatment of anticoagulated patients includes the interruption of anticoagulant therapy for oral surgery interventions to prevent hemorrhage. However, this practice may logically increase the risk of a potentially life-threatening thromboembolism, so this issue is still controversial. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antifibrinolitic mouthwash solution (tranexamic acid) as a local haemostatic modality after oral surgery interventions. Methods:To realize the a...

  17. Prediction of the risk of bleeding during anticoagulant treatment for venous thromboembolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijer, P. M.; Hutten, B. A.; Prins, M. H.; Büller, H. R.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To construct and validate the bleeding risk prediction score, which is based on variables identified in the literature that can be easily obtained before the institution of anticoagulant therapy, in a large independent cohort of patients who were treated with anticoagulant therapy for

  18. Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy in High Risk Patients Undergoing Panniculectomy: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-16

    Complications Wounds; Negative Pressure Wound Therapy; Wound Healing Delayed; Incisional; Panniculectomy; Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy; Incisional Vac; Wound Vac; Obese; Renal Failure; Kidney Transplant; Complications; Wound Healing Complication

  19. A prospective study of quality of life in breast cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canhua Xiao, PhD, RN

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Radiation therapy did not worsen QOL in breast cancer patients. However, pre-radiation therapy patient characteristics including BMI and perceived stress may be used to identify women who may experience decreased physical and mental function during and up to 1 year after radiation therapy.

  20. Antiplatelet and Anticoagulant Drugs in Interventional Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altenburg, Alexander; Haage, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    In treating peripheral arterial disease, a profound knowledge of antiplatelet and anticoagulative drug therapy is helpful to assure a positive clinical outcome and to anticipate and avoid complications. Side effects and drug interactions may have fatal consequences for the patient, so interventionalists should be aware of these risks and able to control them. Aspirin remains the first-line agent for antiplatelet monotherapy, with clopidogrel added where dual antiplatelet therapy is required. In case of suspected antiplatelet drug resistance, the dose of clopidogrel may be doubled; prasugrel or ticagrelor may be used alternatively. Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (abciximab or eptifibatide) may help in cases of hypercoagulability or acute embolic complications. Desmopressin, tranexamic acid, or platelet infusions may be used to decrease antiplatelet drug effects in case of bleeding. Intraprocedurally, anticoagulant therapy treatment with unfractionated heparin (UFH) still is the means of choice, although low molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) are suitable, particularly for postinterventional treatment. Adaption of LMWH dose is often required in renal insufficiency, which is frequently found in elderly patients. Protamine sulphate is an effective antagonist for UFH; however, this effect is less for LMWH. Newer antithrombotic drugs, such as direct thrombin inhibitors or factor X inhibitors, have limited importance in periprocedural treatment, with the exception of treating patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). Nevertheless, knowing pharmacologic properties of the newer drugs facilitate correct bridging of patients treated with such drugs. This article provides a comprehensive overview of antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs for use before, during, and after interventional radiological procedures.

  1. Long-term causes of death in patients with infective endocarditis who undergo medical therapy only or surgical treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lauge; Oestergaard, Louise Bruun; Lauridsen, Trine Kiilerich

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: It is known that patients surviving infective endocarditis have a poor long-term prognosis; however, few studies have addressed the long-term causes of death in patients surviving the initial hospitalization. METHODS: Using Danish administrative registries, we identified patients...... admitted to a hospital with 1st time infective endocarditis in the period from January 1996 to December 2014, who were alive at the time of discharge. The study population was categorized into (i) patients undergoing medical therapy only and (ii) patients undergoing surgical and medical treatment. We...... examined the cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes of death. Using the Cox analysis, we investigated the associated risk of dying from a specific prespecified cause of death (heart failure, infective endocarditis and stroke) within the surgery group when compared with the medically treated group...

  2. Effects of recreational soccer in men with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uth, Jacob; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Christensen, Jesper Frank

    2013-01-01

    (FC) Prostate' study is a randomized trial comparing the effects of soccer training with standard treatment approaches on body composition, cardiovascular function, physical function parameters, glucose tolerance, bone health, and patient-reported outcomes in men undergoing ADT for prostate cancer....

  3. Chronic kidney disease and anticoagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sciascia, Savino; Radin, Massimo; Schreiber, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Anticoagulation in patients with impaired kidney function can be challenging since drugs' pharmacokinetics and bioavailability are altered in this setting. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) treated with conventional anticoagulant agents [vitamin K antagonist (VKA), low-molecular weight...... are eliminated via the kidneys pose additional challenges. More recently, two classes of direct oral anticoagulant agents (DOACs) have been investigated for the prevention and management of venous thromboembolic events: the direct factor Xa inhibitors rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban, and the direct thrombin...

  4. Feasibility of a pedometer-based walking program for survivors of breast and head and neck cancer undergoing radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaheri, Pantea Amin; Nekolaichuk, Cheryl; Haennel, Robert; Parliament, Matthew B; McNeely, Margaret L

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study assessed the feasibility and acceptability of a pedometer-based walking program for people with breast cancer and head and neck cancer (HNC) undergoing radiation therapy treatment. Participants were given a pedometer and prescribed a home-based walking program that included an individualized weekly step-count goal during the 3- to 5-week course of radiation therapy. Feasibility was determined by calculating recruitment rate, completion rate, and rate of adherence. Secondary outcomes included 6-minute walk test (6MWT) distance, step count, physical activity level, and psychological outcomes of depression, happiness, self-esteem, and sleep quality. A total of 21 participants were recruited. All participants completed the study; adherence to prescribed step counts was 91% at follow-up. Analysis found a significant improvement in happiness, as measured by the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (mean difference 0.3, p=0.003), and a borderline significant improvement in 6MWT distance (mean difference 35 m, p=0.008). This pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of a pedometer-based walking program for survivors of breast cancer and HNC undergoing radiation therapy.

  5. A systematic review of dental disease in patients undergoing cancer therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, Catherine H. L.; Napnas, Joel J.; Hodgson, Brian D.; Stokman, Monique A.; Mathers-Stauffer, Vickie; Elting, Linda S.; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.; Brennan, Michael T.

    This purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the literature and update our current understanding of the impact of present cancer therapies on the dental apparatus (teeth and periodontium) since the 1989 NIH Development Consensus Conference on the Oral Complications of Cancer Therapies. A

  6. Effectiveness of ketamine as an adjuvant to opioid-based therapy in decreasing pain associated with opioid tolerance in adults undergoing orthopedic surgery: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Marsha; Bonanno, Laura; Kuhn, William

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this systematic review is to examine the best available evidence on the clinical effectiveness of ketamine as an adjuvant to opioid-based therapy versus opioid-based therapy alone in decreasing perioperative pain associated with opioid tolerance in adult patients, aged 18-70 years, undergoing orthopedic surgical procedures.The following question guides the systematic review: does the administration of ketamine as an adjuvant to opioid-based therapy, compared to opioid-based therapy alone, improve perioperative pain relief in opioid-tolerant adult patients undergoing orthopedic surgical procedures?

  7. Pathology consultation on anticoagulation monitoring: factor X-related assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wool, Geoffrey D; Lu, Chuanyi M

    2013-11-01

    To review various anticoagulation therapies and related laboratory monitoring issues, with a focus on factor X-related chromogenic assays. A case-based approach is used to review pertinent published literatures and product inserts of anticoagulation drugs and to look back on clinical use of factor X-related chromogenic assays. The number of anticoagulants available to clinicians has increased greatly in the past decade. Whether and how these anticoagulants should be monitored are areas of uncertainty for clinicians, which can lead to misuse of laboratory assays and suboptimal patient management. Factor X-related assays are of particular concern because of the similar and often confusing test names. Based on a common clinical case scenario and literature review regarding anticoagulant monitoring, an up-to-date discussion and review of the various factor X-related assays are provided, focusing on the differences in test designs and clinical utilities between the chromogenic anti-Xa and chromogenic factor X activity assays. Anticoagulation therapy and related laboratory monitoring are rapidly evolving areas of clinical practices. A good knowledge of relevant laboratory assays and their clinical applications is necessary to help optimize patient care.

  8. New anticoagulants for the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J McRae

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Simon J McRae, Jeffrey S GinsbergDepartment of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, CanadaAbstract: Anticoagulant therapy is effective at preventing the development of venous thromboembolism in high-risk patients, and reduces morbidity and mortality in individuals with established thromboembolic disease. Vitamin K antagonists and heparins are currently the most commonly used anticoagulant drugs, but they have practical limitations. Therefore, new antithrombotic agents with predictable dose-responses (thereby decreasing the need for monitoring without compromising efficacy or safety, ideally available in an oral formulation and with a rapidly reversible anticoagulant effect, are needed. New drugs fulfilling some of the above criteria have been developed and have proven to be effective agents for the treatment and prevention of venous thromboembolism.Keywords: venous thromboembolism, anticoagulants, antithrombotic

  9. Fall risk and anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation in the elderly: A delicate balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerty, Tracy; Rich, Michael W

    2017-01-01

    Guidelines for managing atrial fibrillation recommend systemic anticoagulation for almost all patients age 65 and older, but in practice up to 50% of older patients do not receive maintenance anticoagulation therapy. The most common reason physicians cite for withholding anticoagulation in older patients with atrial fibrillation is a perception of a high risk of falling and associated bleeding, especially intracranial hemorrhage. Copyright © 2017 Cleveland Clinic.

  10. Serum oxidized low-density lipoprotein level as a marker of oxidative stress in patients undergoing hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Kudret; Kilci, Hakan; Aksan, Gökhan; Çetinkal, Gökhan; Yıldız, Süleyman Sezai; Kocaman Türk, Füsun; Bingöl, Gülsüm

    2017-09-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), in which 100% oxygen is inhaled under hyperbaric pressure, may create OS. Therefore, the aim of this research was to measure the serum oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) level in patients undergoing HBOT. Twenty-nine patients who underwent HBOT to treat various diseases were enrolled in this study. The serum oxLDL level was measured at the beginning of the first and after the 10th therapy session. There was no significant difference between the oxLDL level of patients before and after HBOT (4.96±0.1 vs. 4.94±0.1 U/mL; p=0.36). HBOT seems to be safe in terms of oxLDL production up to 10 sessions. However, further large-scale studies investigating longer duration of HBOT treatment are required to understand the role of OS.

  11. Decision Regret in Men Undergoing Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steer, Anna N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, North Coast Cancer Institute, Coffs Harbour (Australia); Aherne, Noel J., E-mail: noel.aherne@ncahs.health.nsw.gov.au [Department of Radiation Oncology, North Coast Cancer Institute, Coffs Harbour (Australia); Rural Clinical School Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Coffs Harbour (Australia); Gorzynska, Karen; Hoffman, Matthew; Last, Andrew; Hill, Jacques [Department of Radiation Oncology, North Coast Cancer Institute, Coffs Harbour (Australia); Shakespeare, Thomas P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, North Coast Cancer Institute, Coffs Harbour (Australia); Rural Clinical School Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Coffs Harbour (Australia)

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: Decision regret (DR) is a negative emotion associated with medical treatment decisions, and it is an important patient-centered outcome after therapy for localized prostate cancer. DR has been found to occur in up to 53% of patients treated for localized prostate cancer, and it may vary depending on treatment modality. DR after modern dose-escalated radiation therapy (DE-RT) has not been investigated previously, to our knowledge. Our primary aim was to evaluate DR in a cohort of patients treated with DE-RT. Methods and Materials: We surveyed 257 consecutive patients with localized prostate cancer who had previously received DE-RT, by means of a validated questionnaire. Results: There were 220 responses (85.6% response rate). Image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy was given in 85.0% of patients and 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy in 15.0%. Doses received included 73.8 Gy (34.5% patients), 74 Gy (53.6%), and 76 Gy (10.9%). Neoadjuvant androgen deprivation (AD) was given in 51.8% of patients and both neoadjuvant and adjuvant AD in 34.5%. The median follow-up time was 23 months (range, 12-67 months). In all, 3.8% of patients expressed DR for their choice of treatment. When asked whether they would choose DE-RT or AD again, only 0.5% probably or definitely would not choose DE-RT again, compared with 8.4% for AD (P<.01). Conclusion: Few patients treated with modern DE-RT express DR, with regret appearing to be lower than in previously published reports of patients treated with radical prostatectomy or older radiation therapy techniques. Patients experienced more regret with the AD component of treatment than with the radiation therapy component, with implications for informed consent. Further research should investigate regret associated with individual components of modern therapy, including AD, radiation therapy and surgery.

  12. Decision Regret in Men Undergoing Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steer, Anna N.; Aherne, Noel J.; Gorzynska, Karen; Hoffman, Matthew; Last, Andrew; Hill, Jacques; Shakespeare, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Decision regret (DR) is a negative emotion associated with medical treatment decisions, and it is an important patient-centered outcome after therapy for localized prostate cancer. DR has been found to occur in up to 53% of patients treated for localized prostate cancer, and it may vary depending on treatment modality. DR after modern dose-escalated radiation therapy (DE-RT) has not been investigated previously, to our knowledge. Our primary aim was to evaluate DR in a cohort of patients treated with DE-RT. Methods and Materials: We surveyed 257 consecutive patients with localized prostate cancer who had previously received DE-RT, by means of a validated questionnaire. Results: There were 220 responses (85.6% response rate). Image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy was given in 85.0% of patients and 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy in 15.0%. Doses received included 73.8 Gy (34.5% patients), 74 Gy (53.6%), and 76 Gy (10.9%). Neoadjuvant androgen deprivation (AD) was given in 51.8% of patients and both neoadjuvant and adjuvant AD in 34.5%. The median follow-up time was 23 months (range, 12-67 months). In all, 3.8% of patients expressed DR for their choice of treatment. When asked whether they would choose DE-RT or AD again, only 0.5% probably or definitely would not choose DE-RT again, compared with 8.4% for AD (P<.01). Conclusion: Few patients treated with modern DE-RT express DR, with regret appearing to be lower than in previously published reports of patients treated with radical prostatectomy or older radiation therapy techniques. Patients experienced more regret with the AD component of treatment than with the radiation therapy component, with implications for informed consent. Further research should investigate regret associated with individual components of modern therapy, including AD, radiation therapy and surgery

  13. Decision regret in men undergoing dose-escalated radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, Anna N; Aherne, Noel J; Gorzynska, Karen; Hoffman, Matthew; Last, Andrew; Hill, Jacques; Shakespeare, Thomas P

    2013-07-15

    Decision regret (DR) is a negative emotion associated with medical treatment decisions, and it is an important patient-centered outcome after therapy for localized prostate cancer. DR has been found to occur in up to 53% of patients treated for localized prostate cancer, and it may vary depending on treatment modality. DR after modern dose-escalated radiation therapy (DE-RT) has not been investigated previously, to our knowledge. Our primary aim was to evaluate DR in a cohort of patients treated with DE-RT. We surveyed 257 consecutive patients with localized prostate cancer who had previously received DE-RT, by means of a validated questionnaire. There were 220 responses (85.6% response rate). Image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy was given in 85.0% of patients and 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy in 15.0%. Doses received included 73.8 Gy (34.5% patients), 74 Gy (53.6%), and 76 Gy (10.9%). Neoadjuvant androgen deprivation (AD) was given in 51.8% of patients and both neoadjuvant and adjuvant AD in 34.5%. The median follow-up time was 23 months (range, 12-67 months). In all, 3.8% of patients expressed DR for their choice of treatment. When asked whether they would choose DE-RT or AD again, only 0.5% probably or definitely would not choose DE-RT again, compared with 8.4% for AD (P<.01). Few patients treated with modern DE-RT express DR, with regret appearing to be lower than in previously published reports of patients treated with radical prostatectomy or older radiation therapy techniques. Patients experienced more regret with the AD component of treatment than with the radiation therapy component, with implications for informed consent. Further research should investigate regret associated with individual components of modern therapy, including AD, radiation therapy and surgery. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Otitis media in Brazilian human immunodeficiency virus infected children undergoing antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miziara, I D; Weber, R; Araújo Filho, B Cunha; Pinheiro Neto, C Diógenes

    2007-11-01

    To assess changes in the prevalence of otitis media, associated with the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy, in Brazilian human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected children. Division of otorhinolaryngology, Hospital das Clínicas, Sao Paulo University Medical School, Brazil. A cohort of 459 HIV-infected children aged below 13 years. The prevalence of otitis media and the serum cluster of differentiation four glycoprotein T lymphocyte count were compared for children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (with protease inhibitors) and those receiving standard antiretroviral therapy (without protease inhibitors). Otitis media was present in 33.1 per cent of the children. Children aged from zero years to five years 11 months receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy had a higher prevalence of acute otitis media (p=0.02) and a lower prevalence of chronic otitis media (p=0.02). Children who were receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy had a mean serum cluster of differentiation four glycoprotein T lymphocyte count greater than that of those who were receiving standard antiretroviral therapy (pBrazilian HIV-infected children was associated with a lower prevalence of chronic otitis media.

  15. Clinical profile of newborns undergoing physical therapy in a neonatal intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Ferreira Biazus

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: In neonatal therapy units, physical therapy is directed toward integral baby care. Objective: To describe the profile of newborns (NBs hospitalized in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU. Methods: Retrospective documentary study with data collection from medical records from July 2011 to July 2013. The sample consisted of NBs who performed motor and respiratory therapy. Data were grouped into five categories according to birth weight (≤ 1000g, 1001-1500g, 1501-2000g, 2001-2500g, ≥ 2501g. Results: total of 1,884 newborns were admitted to the NICU within the stipulated period, 168 (13.9% underwent physical therapy. Of the 168 NBs who underwent physical therapy, 137 were born in the hospital (81.5% and 31 were transferred there (18.5%; 17 of these babies died during the neonatal hospital stay (10.1%. All newborns of the extremely low birth weight group (≤ 1000g required mechanical ventilation, 72.7% non-invasive ventilation and 16.6% high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. The occurrence of pneumothorax in the extremely low birth weight group was 13.8% and 16% in the group with birth weight 1001-1500g. Conclusion: Infants with low birth weight (<2500g constituted the profile of NBs who underwent physical therapy, which was directly related to higher incidence of death and pneumothorax, as well as increased use of mechanical and non-invasive ventilation.

  16. A Pilot Study Exploring the Plasma Potassium Variation in Dogs Undergoing Steroid Therapy and Its Clinical Importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltar, Marina; Costa, Alexandra; Carreira, L Miguel

    2016-06-01

    In most situations in veterinary medicine, glucocorticoids are the drugs of choice used, that is, to reduce the inflammatory response or limit an inappropriate immune response. Their use in long-term therapy may cause side effects that may weaken the patient. The aim of the study was to evaluate possible variations in the plasma potassium concentrations and their clinical relevance in dogs undergoing steroid therapy with methylprednisolone in anti-inflammatory doses. The study used a sample of 21 dogs (n = 21) presented for consultation, with a clinical condition requiring a corticosteroid therapeutic protocol with an anti-inflammatory dose of methylprednisolone. All the individuals were submitted to a corticosteroid therapeutic protocol administered orally during 18 days. During this period, 3 time points were considered: T0 (the day the prescription was first given), T1 (3 days later), and T2 (8 days later). Blood samples were collected from a peripheral vein to measure plasma potassium concentrations in T0, T1, and T2. Corticosteroid therapy on an outpatient basis statistically significantly decreased plasma potassium levels, especially between T1 and T2 (P = .03). The plasma potassium levels decreased in 12.5% of the males, compared with a decrease of 23.1% in the females. No statistically significant relationships were observe between the decreased plasma potassium levels and age, clinical condition, and patient׳s body weight. However, we found a statistically significant association between decreased plasma potassium levels and sex. The study results may justify the need for the systematic prescription of potassium supplements in patients undergoing steroid therapy, similar to what already occurs in human medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Serological and nutritional outcome of infants born to HIV positive mothers undergoing option B + therapy in Guédiawaye].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptiste, Diouf Jean; Djibril, Diallo; Assane, Sylla; Ngagne, Mbaye; Baly, Ouattara; Ousmane, Ndiaye

    2016-01-01

    As part of its Plan to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV, Senegal has adopted, since 2012, WHO's B + option, which consists of systematic triple therapy for HIV-positive pregnant women associated with breastfeeding and antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis for their infants. Our study aims to analyze the risks of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and the nutritional outcome of infants undergoing B + option. We conducted a descriptive, retrospective study at the King Baudouin health center in Guédiaway from 1 September 2012 to 30 April 2015. All infants whose mothers were on triple therapy, undergoing protected breastfeeding, ARV prophylaxis and serological test at 14th months were included in the study. The parameters studied were mother's age and serological profile, father's serological status, the sharing of the status within the couple, infant nourishing, infant ARV prophylaxis, nutritional status at 6 and 12 months and serological status of the infant at 14 months. Out of the 126 infants undergoing PMTCT program, 42 or 33.33% of infants following the B + guidelines were included in the study. The age of mothers ranged from 15 to 42 years, with an average age of 31 years. The majority of mothers (88.1%) carried type 1 virus and 11.9% carried type 2 virus; 20 couples (47.62%) were sero-concordant, 14 were serodifferent, while the serological status was unknown or not investigated in 8 fathers (19.05%). A significant difference between fathers' serological profile and the sharing status (p option is an effective strategy to reduce the MTCT rate. However, early malnutrition in children requires nutritional support for breastfeeding mothers as well as a good psychosocial support.

  18. Direct oral anticoagulants: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco Moreno, Ana Isabel; Martín Díaz, Rosa María; García Navarro, María José

    2017-12-30

    Vitamin K antagonists were the only choice for chronic oral anticoagulation for more than half a century. Over the past few years, direct oral anticoagulants have emerged, including one direct thrombin inhibitor (dabigatran etexilate) and three factor Xa inhibitors (apixaban, edoxaban and rivaroxaban). In randomised controlled trials comparing direct oral anticoagulants with traditional vitamin K antagonists, the direct oral anticoagulants all showed a favourable benefit-risk balance in their safety and efficacy profile, in prevention of thromboembolic events in patients with atrial fibrillation and in the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism and acute coronary syndrome. In 2008, dabigatran was the first direct oral anticoagulant approved by the European Medicine Agency. Subsequently, rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban were also authorised. This article reviews the evidence related to the use of these drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. The study of patient controlled analgesia undergoing interventional therapy for gynecology and obstetrics ailment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    She Shouzhang

    2006-01-01

    Uterine artery embolism is widely used for interventional therapy of gynecology and obstetrics ailment, but immediate incidence of pain occurs in 90% to 100% after uterine artery embolism and postoperative incidence of pain takes place from 80% to 90%. Patient controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) could be adopted to treat pain with obviously outweighed effects over the traditional drug regimen or patient intravenous analgesia during the period of interventional therapy of uterine artery embolization. PCEA possesses good effect of analgesia and less adverse reaction and furthermore could eliminate or lessen the sufferings of patient and thus improve rehabilitation quality. Adding droperidol (0.005%) into the preparation of PCEA could decrease adverse effect incidence of nausea and vomiting; so it deserves recommendation for extending application in clinical interventional therapy. (authors)

  20. Reversing anticoagulant effects of novel oral anticoagulants: role of ciraparantag, andexanet alfa, and idarucizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu TY

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Tiffany Y Hu,1 Vaibhav R Vaidya,2 Samuel J Asirvatham2,31Mayo Medical School, 2Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, 3Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USAAbstract: Novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs are increasingly used in clinical practice, but lack of commercially available reversal agents is a major barrier for mainstream use of these therapies. Specific antidotes to NOACs are under development. Idarucizumab (aDabi-Fab, BI 655075 is a novel humanized mouse monoclonal antibody that binds dabigatran and reverses its anticoagulant effect. In a recent Phase III study (Reversal Effects of Idarucizumab on Active Dabigatran, a 5 g intravenous infusion of idarucizumab resulted in the normalization of dilute thrombin time in 98% and 93% of the two groups studied, with normalization of ecarin-clotting time in 89% and 88% patients. Two other antidotes, andexanet alfa (PRT064445 and ciraparantag (PER977 are also under development for reversal of NOACs. In this review, we discuss commonly encountered management issues with NOACs such as periprocedural management, laboratory monitoring of anticoagulation, and management of bleeding. We review currently available data regarding specific antidotes to NOACs with respect to pharmacology and clinical trials.Keywords: novel oral anticoagulant, dabigatran, idarucizumab, reversal

  1. Musculoskeletal Complications and Bone Metastases in Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Estrogen Deprivation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    tissue (MAT) in estrogen deficient mice. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong link between obesity and increased breast cancer...the accrual of MAT is dramatically accelerated with obesity , estrogen deprivation, glucocorticoid use, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy...Tucson, AZ 2005 – 2006 Graduate Research Assistant, McKnight Brain Institute, Neural Systems, Memory and Aging (NSMA), Department of Psychology

  2. Relaxation Training and Postoperative Music Therapy for Adolescents Undergoing Spinal Fusion Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kirsten; Adamek, Mary; Kleiber, Charmaine

    2017-02-01

    Spinal fusion for idiopathic scoliosis is one of the most painful surgeries experienced by adolescents. Music therapy, utilizing music-assisted relaxation with controlled breathing and imagery, is a promising intervention for reducing pain and anxiety for these patients. It can be challenging to teach new coping strategies to post-operative patients who are already in pain. This study evaluated the effects of introducing music-assisted relaxation training to adolescents before surgery. Outcome measures were self-reported pain and anxiety, recorded on 0-10 numeric rating scale, and observed behavioral indicators of pain and relaxation. The training intervention was a 12-minute video about music-assisted relaxation with opportunities to practice before surgery. Forty-four participants between the ages of 10 and 19 were enrolled. Participants were randomly assigned to the experimental group that watched the video at the preoperative visit or to the control group that did not watch the video. All subjects received a music therapy session with a board certified music therapist on post-operative day 2 while out of bed for the first time. Pain and anxiety were significantly reduced from immediately pre-therapy to post-therapy (paired t-test; p). Copyright © 2016 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Abnormal uterine bleeding in women receiving direct oral anticoagulants for the treatment of venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Richard; Marcoux, Violaine; Tagalakis, Vicky

    2017-08-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common complication of anticoagulant therapy in premenopausal women affected with acute venous thromboembolism. AUB impacts quality of life, and can lead to premature cessation of anticoagulation. There is increasing data to suggest that the direct oral anticoagulants when used for the treatment of venous thromboembolism differ in their menstrual bleeding profile. This article aims to review the existing literature regarding the association between AUB and the direct oral anticoagulants and make practical recommendations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Adherence to a new oral anticoagulant treatment prescription: dabigatran etexilate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Bellamy

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available L Bellamy1, N Rosencher1, BI Eriksson21Anaesthesiology Department, Hôpital Cochin (AP-HP, René Descartes University, Paris 75014 France; 2Orthopaedic Department, University Hospital Sahlgrenska/Ostra, Gothenburg, SwedenAbstract: The recent development of new oral anticoagulants, of which dabigatran etexilate is currently at the most advanced stage of development, is the greatest advance in the provision of convenient anticoagulation therapy for many years. A new oral anticoagulation treatment, dabigatran etexilate, is already on the market in Europe. The main interest probably will be to improve the prescription and the adherence to an effective thromboprophylaxis in medical conditions such as atrial fibrillation without bleeding side effects, without the need for monitoring coagulation, and without drug and food interactions such as vitamin K anticoagulant (VKA treatment. Dabigatran is particularly interesting for extended thromboprophylaxis after major orthopedic surgery in order to avoid daily injection for a month. However, oral long-term treatments such as VKA are not systematically associated with a higher compliance level than injected treatments such as low-molecular-weight heparins. Indeed, adherence to an oral treatment, instead of the usual daily injection in major orthopedic surgery, is complex, and based not only on the frequency of dosing but also on patient motivation, understanding, and socio-economic status. New oral anticoagulants may be useful in this way but education and detection of risk factors of nonadherence to treatment are still essential.Keywords: oral anticoagulant, adherence, compliance, education, dabigatran

  5. Treatment Changes among Users of Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants in Atrial Fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Maja Hellfritzsch; Husted, Steen Elkjær; Grove, Erik Lerkevang

    2017-01-01

    Patients with atrial fibrillation discontinuing anticoagulant therapy are left unprotected against ischaemic stroke. Further, switching between oral anticoagulants may be associated with a transiently increased risk of bleeding or thromboembolism. However, there is a paucity of real-life data on ...

  6. Management of Periprocedural Anticoagulation: A Survey of Contemporary Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaker, Greg C; Theriot, Paul; Binder, Lea G; Dobesh, Paul P; Cuker, Adam; Doherty, John U

    2016-07-12

    Interruption of oral anticoagulation (AC) for surgery or an invasive procedure is a complicated process. Practice guidelines provide only general recommendations, and care of such patients occurs across multiple specialties. The availability of direct oral anticoagulants further complicates decision making and guidance here is limited. To evaluate current practice patterns in the United States for bridging AC, a survey was developed by the American College of Cardiology Anticoagulation Work Group. The goal of the survey was to assess how general and subspecialty cardiologists, internists, gastroenterologists, and orthopedic surgeons currently manage patients who receive AC and undergo surgery or an invasive procedure. The survey was completed by 945 physicians involved in the periprocedural management of AC. The results provide a template for educational and research projects geared toward the development of clinical pathways and point-of-care tools to improve this area of health care. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Breast cancer: a study of the psychosocial issues faced by women undergoing radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnie, C. [Hamilton Regional Cancer Centre, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2000-09-30

    The purpose of this study was to determine the psychosocial issues faced by post lumpectomy women with early stage breast cancer undergoing radical radiation to the affected breast. Twenty-five women in their second to fifth week of treatment were given the survey to determine these issues. Responses were then grouped by age category and results compiled. Regardless of age, a majority of women felt that they and their spouses had become closer since their diagnosis and described their spouses as being supportive. Scheduling appointment times around childcare was important for some women. Almost half of the women experienced a change in employment status as a result of their diagnosis. Appointment times and work schedules were important for some women still working. In all age groups, women experienced fatigue at least sometimes. (author)

  8. Breast cancer: a study of the psychosocial issues faced by women undergoing radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnie, C.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the psychosocial issues faced by post lumpectomy women with early stage breast cancer undergoing radical radiation to the affected breast. Twenty-five women in their second to fifth week of treatment were given the survey to determine these issues. Responses were then grouped by age category and results compiled. Regardless of age, a majority of women felt that they and their spouses had become closer since their diagnosis and described their spouses as being supportive. Scheduling appointment times around childcare was important for some women. Almost half of the women experienced a change in employment status as a result of their diagnosis. Appointment times and work schedules were important for some women still working. In all age groups, women experienced fatigue at least sometimes. (author)

  9. Serum alpha-fetoprotein response can predict prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, W.-Y. [Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China); Chiou, Y.-Y., E-mail: yychiou@vghtpe.gov.tw [Department of Radiology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China); Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hung, H.-H. [Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China); Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Su, C.-W., E-mail: cwsu2@vghtpe.gov.tw [Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China); Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chou, Y.-H. [Department of Radiology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China); Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, J.-C. [Institute of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research and Education, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China); Huo, T.-I. [Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China); Institute of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Y.-H. [Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China); Institute of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, W.-C. [Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China)

    2012-05-15

    Aims: To evaluate the clinical inference of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) response in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients undergoing percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Materials and methods: Three hundred and thirteen previously untreated HCC patients were enrolled in the study. The optimal AFP response was defined as >20% decrease from baseline after 1 month of RFA for those with a baseline AFP level of {>=}100 ng/ml. The impact of AFP response on prognosis was analysed and prognostic factors were assessed. Results: After a median follow-up of 26.7 {+-} 19.1 months, 49 patients died and 264 patients were alive. The cumulative 5 year survival rates were 75.3 and 57.4% in patients with an initial AFP of <100 ng/ml and {>=}100 ng/ml, respectively (p = 0.003). In the 58 patients with a baseline AFP of {>=}100 ng/ml and initial completed tumour necrosis after RFA, the cumulative 5 year survival rates were 62.4 and 25.7% in optimal and non-optimal AFP responders, respectively (p = 0.001). By multivariate analysis, the prothrombin time international normalized ratio >1.1 (p = 0.009), non-optimal AFP response (p = 0.023), and creatinine >1.5 mg/dl (p = 0.021) were independent risk factors predictive of poor overall survival. Besides, the cumulative 5 year recurrence rates were 83.4 and 100% in optimal and non-optimal AFP responders, respectively (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated platelet count {<=}10{sup 5}/mm{sup 3} (p = 0.048), tumour size >2 cm (p = 0.027), and non-optimal AFP response (p < 0.001) were independent risk factors associated with tumour recurrence after RFA. Conclusions: Serum AFP response may be a useful marker for predicting prognosis in HCC patients undergoing RFA.

  10. Effect of intravenous fluid therapy on postoperative vomiting in children undergoing tonsillectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgueta, M F; Echevarría, G C; De la Fuente, N; Cabrera, F; Valderrama, A; Cabezón, R; Muñoz, H R; Cortinez, L I

    2013-04-01

    Postoperative vomiting (POV) is one of the most frequent complications of tonsillectomy in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiemetic effect of super-hydration with lactated Ringer's solution in children undergoing elective otorhinolaryngological surgery. One hundred ASA I-II children, aged 1-12 yr, undergoing elective tonsillectomy, with or without adenoidectomy, under general anaesthesia were studied. Induction and maintenance of anaesthesia were standardized with fentanyl, mivacurium, and sevoflurane in N(2)O/O(2). Subjects were assigned to one of the two groups: 10 ml kg(-1) h(-1) lactated Ringer's solution or 30 ml kg(-1) h(-1) lactated Ringer's solution. A multivariable logistic regression was used for assessing the effects of super-hydration on POV (defined as the presence of retching, vomiting, or both). A value of P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. During the first 24 h postoperative, the incidence of POV decreased from 82% to 62% (relative reduction of 24%, P=0.026). In the adjusted logistic regression model, subjects in the 10 ml kg(-1) h(-1) group had an odds ratio of POV that was 2.92 (95% confidence interval: 1.14, 7.51) for POV compared with subjects in the 30 ml kg(-1) h(-1) group. Intraoperative administration of 30 ml kg(-1) h(-1) lactated Ringer's solution significantly reduced the incidence of POV during the first 24 h postoperative. Our results support the use of super-hydration during tonsillectomy, as an alternative way to decrease the risk of POV in children.

  11. Management of constipation in palliative care patients undergoing opioid therapy: is polyethylene glycol an option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirz, Stefan; Klaschik, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed the efficacy of laxative use for treatment of constipation in patients receiving opioid therapy, with special attention to polyethylene glycol 3350/electrolyte solution (PEG-ES). Computerized data from 206 patients were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Subgroups were analyzed using confirmatory statistics. Constipation occurred in 42.7 percent of patients. Laxatives were administered to 74.3 percent of these patients using a standardized step scheme, with good results in 78.4 percent. As a therapy for constipation, the combined administration of PEG-ES, sodium picosulphate, and liquid paraffin proved most effective, although statistical analysis yielded no significance. Early use of PEG-ES using a step scheme holds promise for treatment of opioid-related constipation in palliative care patients, although further investigation is warranted.

  12. Adjuvant hormone therapy in patients undergoing high-intensity focused ultrasound therapy for locally advanced prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Neimark

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency and safety of using the luteinizing hormone releasing hormone leuprorelin with the Atrigel delivery system in doses of 7.5, 22.5, and 45 mg as an adjuvant regimen in high- and moderate-risk cancer patients who have received high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU therapy.Subjects and methods. Moderate- and high-risk locally advanced prostate cancer (PC patients treated with HIFU (n = 28 and HIFU in combination with hormone therapy during 6 months (n = 31 were examined.Results. The investigation has shown that leuprorelin acetate monotherapy used within 6 months after HIFU therapy can achieve the highest reduction in prostate-specific antigen levels and positively affect the symptoms of the disease. HIFU in combination with androgen deprivation substantially diminishes the clinical manifestations of the disease and improves quality of life in HIFU-treated patients with PC, by reducing the degree of infravesical obstruction (according to uroflowmetric findings and IPSS scores, and causes a decrease in prostate volume as compared to those who have undergone HIFU only. Treatment with leuprorelin having the Atrigel delivery system has demonstrated the low incidence of adverse reactions and good tolerability.

  13. Growth and Survival of Bagged Lucilia sericata Maggots in Wounds of Patients Undergoing Maggot Debridement Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Čičková, Helena; Čambal, Marek; Kozánek, Milan; Takáč, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Maggot debridement therapy (MDT) is an established method of debridement of nonhealing wounds. Despite intense clinical research about its efficacy and effects of substances produced by the larvae, growth and development of maggots in the wounds remain largely unexplored. In the present study, the bags with larvae (n = 52), which had been used to debride traumatic, ischemic, diabetic and venous ulcers, were collected and examined. Survival, length, width and larval instar of the maggots withi...

  14. Design of Tangible Games for Children Undergoing Occupational and Physical Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Delden , Robby ,; Aarts , Pauline; Dijk , Betsy ,

    2012-01-01

    Part 6: Serious Games (Health and Social); International audience; Games can offer an entertaining alternative to repetitive tasks. In this paper, we propose the use of tangible interactive games for the repetitive training of upper limbs in the therapy of children with Cerebral Palsy (CP). We obtained promising results. The total of four created games succeeded in triggering all the to-be-trained movements properly and in a motivating and entertaining way. A physical quiz game was especially...

  15. Cause or effect of arteriogenesis: compositional alterations of microparticles from CAD patients undergoing external counterpulsation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kaabi, Ali; Traupe, Tobias; Stutz, Monika; Buchs, Natasha; Heller, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a clinical study on patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) showed that external counterpulsation therapy (ECP) at high (300 mmHg) but not at low inflation pressure (80 mmHg) promoted coronary collateral growth, most likely due to shear stress-induced arteriogenesis. The exact molecular mechanisms behind shear stress-induced arteriogenesis are still obscure. We therefore characterized plasma levels of circulating microparticles (MPs) from these CAD patients because of their ambivalent nature as a known cardiovascular risk factor and as a promoter of neovascularization in the case of platelet-derived MPs. MPs positive for Annexin V and CD31CD41 were increased, albeit statistically significant (Pcollateral flow index (CFI), a measure for collateral growth. MPs from the high inflation pressure group had a more sustained pro-angiogenic effect than the ones from the low inflation pressure group, with the exception of one patient showing also an increased CFI after treatment. A total of 1005 proteins were identified by a label-free proteomics approach from MPs of three patients of each group applying stringent acceptance criteria. Based on semi-quantitative protein abundance measurements, MPs after ECP therapy contained more cellular proteins and increased CD31, corroborating the increase in MPs. Furthermore, we show that MP-associated factors of the innate immune system were decreased, many membrane-associated signaling proteins, and the known arteriogenesis stimulating protein transforming growth factor beta-1 were increased after ECP therapy. In conclusion, our data show that ECP therapy increases platelet-derived MPs in patients with CAD and that the change in protein cargo of MPs is likely in favor of a pro angiogenic/arteriogenic property. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00414297.

  16. Musculoskeletal Complications and Bone Metastases in Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Estrogen Deprivation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Laura E. Wright, Ph.D. 5e. TASK NUMBER E-Mail: laewrig@iu.edu 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) AND ADDRESS(ES...8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Indiana University School of Medicine 980 West Walnut Street R3 Room C132 Indianapolis, IN 46202 9...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Between 25-50% of women treated with endocrine therapies develop musculoskeletal toxicities that result in

  17. Comparing new anticoagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, James M

    2012-12-01

    For years, the pharmaceutical industry has been trying to find a safe and effective drug to replace warfarin. Although warfarin is an effective anticoagulant, its pharmacology, adverse effects, and risk profiles dictate that patients taking this medication must be monitored judiciously. The US Food and Drug Administration has approved two drugs for commercial use, dabigatran and rivaroxaban, that will compete directly with warfarin for use in specific indications. Because of direct marketing to patients, physicians are being asked to comment on these new medications. This brief review illustrates the data available for the two new drugs when compared to warfarin for the specified indications. For some patients, these drugs may be highly beneficial and offer an excellent alternative to warfarin. For others, warfarin may still be the preferred drug.

  18. Clinical treatment planning for subjects undergoing boron neutron capture therapy at Harvard-MIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamenhof, R.G.; Palmer, M.R.; Buse, P.M.

    2001-01-01

    Treatment planning is a crucial component of the Harvard-MIT boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) clinical trials. Treatment planning can be divided into five stages: (1) pre-planning, based on CT and MRI scans obtained when the subject arrives at the hospital and on assumed boron-10 distribution parameters; (2) subject set-up, or simulation, in the MITR-II medical therapy room to determine the boundary conditions for possible set-up configurations; (3) re-planning, following the subject simulation; (4) final localization of the subject in the medical therapy room for BNCT; and (5) final post facto recalculation of the doses delivered based on firm knowledge of the blood boron-10 concentration profiles and the neutron flux histories from precise online monitoring. The computer-assisted treatment planning is done using a specially written BNCT treatment planning code called MacNCTPLAN. The code uses the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Monte Carlo n-particle radiation transport code MCNPv.4b as the dose calculation engine and advanced anatomical model simulation based on an automatic evaluation of CT scan data. Results are displayed as isodose contours and dose-volume histograms, the latter correlated precisely with corresponding anatomical CT or MRI image planes. Examples of typical treatment planning scenarios will be presented. (author)

  19. Impact of triple antithrombotic therapy in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention in real-world practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Yan; Wang, Xiao; Fan, Jing-Yao; Nie, Shao-Ping; Raposeiras-Roubín, Sergio; Abu-Assi, Emad; Henriques, Jose P. Simao; D'Ascenzo, Fabrizio; Saucedo, Jorge; González-Juanatey, José R.; Wilton, Stephen B.; Kikkert, Wouter J.; Nuñez-Gil, Iván; Ariza-Sole, Albert; Song, Xian-Tao; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Liebetrau, Christoph; Kawaji, Tetsuma; Moretti, Claudio; Huczek, Zenon; Fujii, Toshiharu; Correia, Luis Cl; Kawashiri, Masa-Aki; Kedev, Sasko

    2017-01-01

    The optimal antithrombotic regimen for patients on oral anticoagulation (OAC) after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains debated. This study sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of OAC plus clopidogrel with or without aspirin in a real-world

  20. Preoperative low level laser therapy in dogs undergoing tibial plateau levelling osteotomy: A blinded, prospective, randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogatko, Cleo P; Baltzer, Wendy I; Tennant, Rachel

    2017-01-16

    To evaluate the influence of preoperative low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on therapeutic outcomes of dogs undergoing tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO). Healthy dogs undergoing TPLO were randomly assigned to receive either a single preoperative LLLT treatment (800-900 nm dual wavelength, 6 W, 3.5 J/cm 2 , 100 cm 2 area) or a sham treatment. Lameness assessment and response to manipulation, as well as force plate analysis, were performed preoperatively, then again at 24 hours, two weeks, and eight weeks postoperatively. Radiographic signs of healing of the osteo-tomy were assessed at eight weeks postoperatively. Twenty-seven dogs (27 stifles) were included and no major complications occurred. At eight weeks postoperatively, a significant difference in peak vertical force analysis was noted between the LLLT (39.6% ± 4.7%) and sham groups (28.9% ± 2.6%), (p dogs in the LLLT group (6.6 ± 1.6 years) was greater than that for the sham group (4.5 ± 2.0, p dogs (5/8) had healed at the eight-week time point than in the sham group (3/12) despite the age difference (p = 0.11) Clinical significance: The results of this study demonstrate that improved peak vertical force could be related to the preoperative use of LLLT for dogs undergoing TPLO at eight weeks postoperatively. The use of LLLT may improve postoperative return to function following canine osteotomies and its use is recommended.

  1. Increased risk of breast cancer in splenectomized patients undergoing radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Chung T.; Bogart, Jeffrey A.; Adams, James F.; Sagerman, Robert H.; Numann, Patricia J.; Tassiopoulos, Apostolos; Duggan, David B.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Second malignancies have been reported among patients who were treated by radiation therapy or chemotherapy alone or in combination. Studies have implied an increased risk of breast cancer in women who received radiotherapy as part of their treatment for Hodgkin's disease. This review was performed to determine if there is an association between splenectomy and subsequent breast cancer. Methods and Materials: One hundred and thirty-six female patients with histologically proven Hodgkin's disease were seen in the Division of Radiation Oncology between 1962 and 1985. All patients received mantle or mediastinal irradiation as part of their therapy. The risk of breast cancer was assessed and multiple linear regression analysis was performed on the following variables: patient age, stage, dose and extent of radiation field, time after completing radiation therapy, splenectomy, and chemotheraphy. Results: Breast cancer was observed in 11 of 74 splenectomized patients and in none of 62 patients not splenectomized. The mean follow-up was 13 years in splenectomized patients and 16 years, 7 months in nonsplenectomized patients. Nine patients developed invasive breast cancer and two developed ductal carcinoma in situ. Splenectomy was the only variable independently associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (p < 0.005) in multiple linear regression analysis; age, latency, and splenectomy considered together were also associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Our data show an increased risk of breast cancer in splenectomized patients who had treatment for Hodgkin's disease. A multiinstitutional survey may better define the influence of splenectomy relative to developing breast cancer in patients treated for Hodgkin's disease. The risk of breast cancer should be considered when recommending staging laparotomy, and we recommend close follow-up examination including routine mammograms for female patients successfully treated for

  2. Update on fertility preservation in young women undergoing breast cancer and ovarian cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertini, Matteo; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S; Partridge, Ann H

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the article is to review the available options for fertility preservation in patients with breast and ovarian cancer, and the special issues faced by BRCA mutation carriers. Future fertility is an important consideration for many young patients with cancer. There are both experimental and standard available strategies for patients with breast and ovarian cancer to preserve fertility, and each has potential advantages and disadvantages. Embryo cryopreservation is widely available with a highly successful track record. Improvements in laboratory techniques have led to oocyte cryopreservation recently being recategorized as nonexperimental. Conservative gynecologic surgery is a standard consideration for patients with stage I ovarian cancer who desire future fertility. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation as well as ovarian suppression with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogs during chemotherapy are considered experimental methods at this time, although recent data suggest both safety and efficacy for the use of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogs in women receiving (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Special issues should be considered for women with BRCA mutations because of the need to undergo preventive surgery at young age. Multidisciplinary teams and well functioning relationships between the oncology and reproductive units are crucial to manage the fertility issues of young women with cancer.

  3. Evaluation of radiation safety from patients with thyroid disease undergoing iodine-131 therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, K.-Y.; Li, X.F.; Liu, J.-Z.; Li, S.-J.; Hu, G.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Objective: By calculating the dose equivalent of patients with thyroid disease who had received iodine-131 therapy, based on the China national criteria, we evaluate the radiation safety of the individuals other than the patients who had turned into a specific 'radiant source'. Methods: 152 outpatients and inpatients, with iodine-131 therapy had been investigated and followed-up. There were 162 treatments which included patients with hyperthyroidism (HT)-124, 35 thyroid cancers (TC), 2 toxic thyroid adenomas and 1 nontoxic nodular goiter. In addition, we had achieved the practical measures and contact instance with household members and the general public, including 37 HT (contact with 37 adults and 8 infants) and 3 TC. According to the personal condition of the patients and the time of exposure to individuals other than patients, and to calculate the exposure dose (mSv) to the individuals with formulae. Results: Based on the national criteria the total dose equivalent to the individuals other than patients may not exceed 5 mSv. For most patients, including 124 HT, 2 toxic thyroid adenomas and 16 times treatment of TC, the exposure doses to the individuals were not likely to exceed 5 mSv, but the others, including 19 treatments of TC and 1 nontoxic nodular goiter, the exposure doses were higher than 5 mSv. There was no difference between the part of HT and TC of inpatients when compared with outpatients (P>0.05, respectively). We found that occupancy factor during the preequilibrium period play an important role on the exposure doses to the individuals, especially TC patients. With the dose equivalent to the same HT patient, practical measures for accumulating doses is higher and more practical than the simplistic formula calculating ones (P 0.05). Conclusions: Most of the outpatients with iodine- 131 therapy were safe to the individuals surrounding them within 1 meter, but the part of TC patients needed to be treated in the hospital and took a dose

  4. Cumulus cell mitochondrial activity in relation to body mass index in women undergoing assisted reproductive therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria K. Gorshinova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Most studies have considered the negative influence of obesity on fertility in both genders. In the present study, we assessed mitochondrial activity expressed as the mitochondrial potential index (MPI in cumulus cells from obese women and women with a normal body mass index (BMI during assisted reproductive therapy. The results revealed a significant reduction of MPI with increased body mass. The lower MPI levels in cumulus cells from obese women may reflect mitochondrial dysfunction caused by oxidative stress, which can affect the cumulus-oocyte complex and have an impact on oocyte development.

  5. Clinical outcome of critically ill, not fully recompensated, patients undergoing MitraClip therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolph, Volker; Huntgeburth, Michael; von Bardeleben, Ralph Stephan

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: As periprocedural risk is low, MitraClip implantation is often performed in critically ill, not fully recompensated patients, who are in NYHA functional class IV at the time of the procedure, to accelerate convalescence. We herein sought to evaluate the procedural and 30-day outcome.......3%. CONCLUSION: MitraClip therapy is feasible and safe even in critically ill, not fully recompensated patients and leads to symptomatic improvement in over two-thirds of these patients; however, it is associated with an elevated 30-day mortality....

  6. Features of transfusion therapy in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Balashov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The indications for transfusion of blood components support after stem cell transplantation (SCT usually do not differ form other clinical situations, but the rules for such therapy have a number of features. One of them is the possibility of inconsistence of AB0 group between donor and recipient of hematopoietic stem cells, which is not only fraught with the development of various alloimmune complications, but also fundamentally changes the standards for the selection of blood components for transfusion. A major problem after HSCT is a secondary immunodeficiency, which is important to consider for ensuring prevention of transfusion-transmitted infections (eg, CMV, as well as to carry out activities aimed for the prevention of transfusion- associated graft-versus-host disease. HSCT is a medical technology today, the effectiveness of which is often dependent on the accuracy and integrity of its implementation. So, serious attitude to various supportive therapy, including transfusions of blood components is an important component which determines the success of the treatment.

  7. Growth and Survival of Bagged Lucilia sericata Maggots in Wounds of Patients Undergoing Maggot Debridement Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Čičková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Maggot debridement therapy (MDT is an established method of debridement of nonhealing wounds. Despite intense clinical research about its efficacy and effects of substances produced by the larvae, growth and development of maggots in the wounds remain largely unexplored. In the present study, the bags with larvae (n=52, which had been used to debride traumatic, ischemic, diabetic and venous ulcers, were collected and examined. Survival, length, width and larval instar of the maggots within each bag were recorded and analyzed with respect to the wound type and duration of the treatment. Survival of maggots after a 48-h cycle of MDT ranged between 63.6 and 82.7%. Maggots in venous ulcers had on average 9–19% higher mortality than maggots within traumatic, ischemic, and diabetic ulcers. Length of larvae after 48 h cycle of MDT reached on average 7.09–9.68 mm, and average width varied between 1.77 and 2.26 mm. Larvae in venous ulcers were significantly smaller after 48 h, but not after 72 h treatment compared to the other wound types. Further studies should be aimed to identify other patient-associated factors which might influence growth and survival of the larvae during maggot debridement therapy.

  8. Growth and Survival of Bagged Lucilia sericata Maggots in Wounds of Patients Undergoing Maggot Debridement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cičková, Helena; Cambal, Marek; Kozánek, Milan; Takáč, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Maggot debridement therapy (MDT) is an established method of debridement of nonhealing wounds. Despite intense clinical research about its efficacy and effects of substances produced by the larvae, growth and development of maggots in the wounds remain largely unexplored. In the present study, the bags with larvae (n = 52), which had been used to debride traumatic, ischemic, diabetic and venous ulcers, were collected and examined. Survival, length, width and larval instar of the maggots within each bag were recorded and analyzed with respect to the wound type and duration of the treatment. Survival of maggots after a 48-h cycle of MDT ranged between 63.6 and 82.7%. Maggots in venous ulcers had on average 9-19% higher mortality than maggots within traumatic, ischemic, and diabetic ulcers. Length of larvae after 48 h cycle of MDT reached on average 7.09-9.68 mm, and average width varied between 1.77 and 2.26 mm. Larvae in venous ulcers were significantly smaller after 48 h, but not after 72 h treatment compared to the other wound types. Further studies should be aimed to identify other patient-associated factors which might influence growth and survival of the larvae during maggot debridement therapy.

  9. Inpatient cardiac rehabilitation programs' exercise therapy for patients undergoing cardiac surgery: National Korean Questionnaire Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yong Gon; Jang, Mi Ja; Park, Won Hah; Hong, Kyung Pyo; Sung, Jidong

    2017-02-01

    Inpatient cardiac rehabilitation (ICR) has been commonly conducted after cardiac surgery in many countries, and has been reported a lots of results. However, until now, there is inadequacy of data on the status of ICR in Korea. This study described the current status of exercise therapy in ICR that is performed after cardiac surgery in Korean hospitals. Questionnaires modified by previous studies were sent to the departments of thoracic surgery of 10 hospitals in Korea. Nine replies (response rate 90%) were received. Eight nurses and one physiotherapist completed the questionnaire. Most of the education on wards after cardiac surgery was conducted by nurses. On postoperative day 1, four sites performed sitting on the edge of bed, sit to stand, up to chair, and walking in the ward. Only one site performed that exercise on postoperative day 2. One activity (stairs up and down) was performed on different days at only two sites. Patients received education preoperatively and predischarge for preventing complications and reducing muscle weakness through physical inactivity. The results of the study demonstrate that there are small variations in the general care provided by nurses after cardiac surgery. Based on the results of this research, we recommended that exercise therapy programs have to conduct by exercise specialists like exercise physiologists or physiotherapists for patients in hospitalization period.

  10. Features of transfusion therapy in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Balashov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The indications for transfusion of blood components support after stem cell transplantation (SCT usually do not differ form other clinical situations, but the rules for such therapy have a number of features. One of them is the possibility of inconsistence of AB0 group between donor and recipient of hematopoietic stem cells, which is not only fraught with the development of various alloimmune complications, but also fundamentally changes the standards for the selection of blood components for transfusion. A major problem after HSCT is a secondary immunodeficiency, which is important to consider for ensuring prevention of transfusion-transmitted infections (eg, CMV, as well as to carry out activities aimed for the prevention of transfusion- associated graft-versus-host disease. HSCT is a medical technology today, the effectiveness of which is often dependent on the accuracy and integrity of its implementation. So, serious attitude to various supportive therapy, including transfusions of blood components is an important component which determines the success of the treatment.

  11. Fertility counseling and preservation practices in youth with lupus and vasculitis undergoing gonadotoxic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahata, Leena; Sivaraman, Vidya; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2016-11-01

    To assess fertility counseling and preservation practices among children, adolescents, and young adults with rheumatic diseases undergoing cyclophosphamide (CTX) treatment. Retrospective chart review (2006-2016). Academic pediatric center. Male and female patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, Wegener's granulomatosis/granulomatosis with polyangiitis, or other vaculitides, receiving CTX treatment. None. Documentation of fertility counseling and fertility preservation. A total of 58 subjects met the inclusion criteria; 5 were excluded due to incomplete records, thus N = 53. Of these 75% were female (N = 40). Median age was 14 years at diagnosis and 15 years at first CTX treatment. A total of 51% of subjects (69% of males and 45% of females) had no documentation about potential fertility loss before CTX treatment. Among females where fertility counseling was documented, the only fertility preservation option discussed was leuprolide acetate (LA), which was pursued in all of these cases. Of 13 males (77% postpubertal), 3 were offered sperm banking, of whom 2 declined and the other attempted after treatment began and was azoospermic. Of 53 patients, 1 was referred to a fertility specialist. Mean cumulative CTX dose was 9.2 g in males and 8 g in females. Based on these findings, increasing awareness about infertility risk, fertility preservation options, and referral to fertility specialists is needed among pediatric rheumatologists. Prospective studies are needed to assess fertility outcomes in this patient population (including effectiveness of LA with regard to pregnancy rates [PRs]), as well as barriers/facilitators to fertility counseling and fertility preservation. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Model of iodine metabolism in a T3-thyrotoxic patient undergoing I-131 therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahuja, S.; Price, R.; Brill, A.B.; Dobyns, B.M.; Berman, M.

    Data on radioactivity in the thyroid, urine, serum, butanol-extractable iodine (BEI) and chromatographic fractionations of BEI, obtained during four I-131 therapeutic treatments of a T 3 -thyrotoxic patient, have been analyzed and simulated with the help of a 7-compartment model. Good fits to most of the data can be obtained with both the dose-independent and dose-dependent models. A model with 3 or 4 compartments, which provides adequate fits to iodine kinetic data in most euthyroid and hyperthyroid patients is not satisfactory in the case of this patient. Thus, to represent iodine metabolism during T 3 -thyrotoxicosis therapy, we find that it is necessary to provide for separate biochemical pathways for the BEI components as well as the butanol-insoluble compounds released by the thyroid gland

  13. The use of play therapy in the preparation of children undergoing MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressdee, D; May, L; Eastman, E; Grier, D

    1997-12-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has become an important technique in the evaluation of a wide range of congenital and acquired conditions in children. The ability to image in multiple anatomic planes without the use of ionizing radiation has particular advantages. However scan times can be long, and the narrow bore and noise generated by most units make the procedure very intimidating to the young child. The use of surface coils may exacerbate this, often necessitating recourse to sedation or anaesthesia. We describe a technique involving play therapy which we have found useful in the preparation of young children for MR imaging and which has reduced the number of non-diagnostic scans and the need for sedation or anaesthesia.

  14. Football training improves lean body mass in men with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uth, J; Hornstrup, Therese; Schmidt, Jakob Friis

    2014-01-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) remains a cornerstone in the management of patients with prostate cancer (PCa) despite adverse effects on body composition and functional parameters. We compared the effects of football training with standard care in PCa patients managed with ADT (> 6 months......). Fifty-seven men aged 67 (range: 43-74) were randomly assigned to a football group (FG, n = 29) or a usual care control group (CON, n = 28). The primary outcome was change in lean body mass (LBM) assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning. Secondary outcomes included changes in knee.......7%; 95%CI 1.3-0.0; P = 0.06), but these changes were not significantly different from CON. In conclusion, football training over 12 weeks improved LBM and muscle strength compared with usual care in men with prostate cancer receiving ADT....

  15. Recurrent Aspiration in a Patient With Gastric Band Undergoing Electroconvulsive Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubit, Elana B; Fetterman, Tammy Cohen; Ying, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    We report a case of a 33-year-old woman with depression and suicidal ideation, treated successfully with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in the past. Since her previous course of ECT, she underwent gastric banding, a bariatric surgical procedure associated with increased risk of gastric regurgitation. Despite increasingly stringent measures to minimize the risk of regurgitation and aspiration during ECT, she had several episodes of regurgitation, the last of which precipitated an acute illness consistent with aspiration pneumonitis. We took additional precautions after each event, until she had no further episodes of regurgitation. We discuss the risk posed by the gastric band, the measures we implemented to minimize that risk, and our recommendations for assessment and management of post-gastric banding patients who present for ECT.

  16. Anticoagulant therapy and outcomes in patients with prior or acute heart failure and acute coronary syndromes: Insights from the APixaban for PRevention of Acute ISchemic Events 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornel, Jan H; Lopes, Renato D; James, Stefan; Stevens, Susanna R; Neely, Megan L; Liaw, Danny; Miller, Julie; Mohan, Puneet; Amerena, John; Raev, Dimitar; Huo, Yong; Urina-Triana, Miguel; Gallegos Cazorla, Alex; Vinereanu, Dragos; Fridrich, Viliam; Harrington, Robert A; Wallentin, Lars; Alexander, John H

    2015-04-01

    Clinical outcomes and the effects of oral anticoagulants among patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and either a history of or acute heart failure (HF) are largely unknown. We aimed to assess the relationship between prior HF or acute HF complicating an index ACS event and subsequent clinical outcomes and the efficacy and safety of apixaban compared with placebo in these populations. High-risk patients were randomly assigned post-ACS to apixaban 5.0 mg or placebo twice daily. Median follow-up was 8 (4-12) months. The primary outcome was cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. The main safety outcome was thrombolysis in myocardial infarction major bleeding. Heart failure was reported in 2,995 patients (41%), either as prior HF (2,076 [28%]) or acute HF (2,028 [27%]). Patients with HF had a very high baseline risk and were more often managed medically. Heart failure was associated with a higher rate of the primary outcome (prior HF: adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.73, 95% CI 1.42-2.10, P acute HF: adjusted HR 1.65, 95% CI 1.35-2.01, P acute HF: adjusted HR 2.52, 95% CI 1.82-3.50). Patients with acute HF also had significantly higher rates of thrombolysis in myocardial infarction major bleeding (prior HF: adjusted HR 1.22, 95% CI 0.65-2.27, P = .54, acute HF: adjusted HR 1.78, 95% CI 1.03-3.08, P = .04). There was no statistical evidence of a differential effect of apixaban on clinical events or bleeding in patients with or without prior HF; however, among patients with acute HF, there were numerically fewer events with apixaban than placebo (14.8 vs 19.3, HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.57-1.01, interaction P = .13), a trend that was not seen in patients with prior HF or no HF. In high-risk patients post-ACS, both prior and acute HFs are associated with an increased risk of subsequent clinical events. Apixaban did not significantly reduce clinical events and increased bleeding in patients with and without HF; however, there was a tendency toward fewer clinical

  17. Fatal consequences of synergistic anticoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen P

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs are increasingly being preferred by clinicians (and patients because they have a wide therapeutic window and therefore do not require monitoring of anticoagulant effect. Herein, we describe the unfortunate case of a patient who had fatal consequences as a result of switching from warfarin to rivaroxaban. Case Summary: A 90-year-old Caucasian woman, with atrial fibrillation on chronic anticoagulation with warfarin, was admitted to the hospital for pneumonia. She was treated with levofloxacin. In the same admission, her warfarin was switched to rivaroxaban. On Day 3 after the switch, her INR was found to be 6, and she developed a cervical epidural hematoma from C2 to C7. She ultimately developed respiratory arrest, was put on comfort care and died. Discussion: Rivaroxaban and warfarin are known to have a synergistic anticoagulant effect, usually seen shortly after switching. Antibiotics also increase the effects of warfarin by the inhibition of metabolizing isoenzymes. It is hypothesized that these two effects led to the fatal cervical spinal hematoma. Conclusion: The convenience of a wide therapeutic window and no requirement of laboratory monitoring makes the NOACs a desirable option for anticoagulation. However, there is lack of data and recommendations on how to transition patients from Warfarin to NOACs or even how to transition from one NOAC to another. Care should be taken to ensure continuous monitoring of anticoagulation when stopping, interrupting or switching between NOACS to avoid the possibility of fatal bleeding and strokes.

  18. Evaluation of the door-to-needle time in patients undergoing fibrinolytic therapy after acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jehangir, W.; Daood, M.S.; Khan, M.

    2009-01-01

    Early thrombolysis with fibrinolytic therapy has reduced mortality following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with the major effect coming from early achievement of infarct-related artery potency. This study was carried out to determine the door-to-needle time in patients undergoing fibrinolytic therapy after acute myocardial infarction and to identify factors associated with a prolonged door-to-needle time. This was a cross sectional study in which patients who were thrombolysed for AMI with streptokinase at Punjab Institute of Cardiology, Lahore, from December 12, 2008 to February 18, 2009 were included. All patients admitted with AMI, who were candidates for fibrinolysis, were included. The time of infarction and time of arrival in hospital was determined with ECG changes and asking from patient and/or relatives. The reasons for delay of arrival were asked from patient and accompanying attendants where possible. A door-to-needle time of <30 min could be achieved in 110 of our 201 patients (54.72%). Mean door-to-needle time was 55.13 (+-71.04) minutes. A door-to-needle time of less than 30 minutes in 54.72% is comparable to most contemporary studies however there is a need to look into factors associated with delay. (author)

  19. Usefulness of Sodium Bicarbonate for the Prevention of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Pau; Sanz, Jorge; García-Orts, Ana; Reina, Samuel; Jiménez, Sonia; Osca, Joaquín; Cano, Oscar; Andrés, Ana; Sancho-Tello, María José; Martínez, Luis

    2017-11-01

    The use of contrast media during cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices implantation is associated with the risk of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible beneficial role of periprocedural intravenous volume expansion with isotonic saline and sodium bicarbonate solution in patients who undergo CRT implantation. Eligible patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive hydration plus one-sixth molar sodium bicarbonate (study group) or not (control group). Primary end point was CIN incidence. Secondary end points were (1) a combined end point of death, heart transplantation, or hospitalization for heart failure at 12 months, (2) incidence of death, and (3) the need for renal replacement therapy at 12 months. Final analysis was performed with 93 patients. In the hydration group CIN incidence was significantly reduced related to control group (0% vs 11%, p = 0.02). There was a trend to reduce the combined end point in hydration group (12.5% vs 22%, p = 0.14). Finally, CIN incidence was related to a higher 12 months mortality (25% vs 7%, p = 0.03). In conclusion, CIN incidence was 11% in a nonselected population of patients receiving a CRT device. CIN appearance could be reduced by using a hydration protocol based on sodium bicarbonate and isotonic saline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Scoring system predictive of survival for patients undergoing stereotactic body radiation therapy for liver tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kress Marie-Adele S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT is an emerging treatment option for liver tumors. This study evaluated outcomes after SBRT to identify prognostic variables and to develop a novel scoring system predictive of survival. Methods The medical records of 52 patients with a total of 85 liver lesions treated with SBRT from 2003 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-four patients had 1 lesion; 27 had 2 or more. Thirteen lesions were primary tumors; 72 were metastases. Fiducials were placed in all patients prior to SBRT. The median prescribed dose was 30 Gy (range, 16 – 50 Gy in a median of 3 fractions (range, 1–5. Results With median follow-up of 11.3 months, median overall survival (OS was 12.5 months, and 1 year OS was 50.8%. In 42 patients with radiographic follow up, 1 year local control was 74.8%. On univariate analysis, number of lesions (p = 0.0243 and active extralesional disease (p  Conclusions SBRT offers a safe and feasible treatment option for liver tumors. A prognostic scoring system based on the number of liver lesions, activity of extralesional disease, and KPS predicts survival following SBRT and can be used as a guide for prospective validation and ultimately for treatment decision-making.

  1. Self-rated health by HIV-infected individuals undergoing antiretroviral therapy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Borges de Souza Junior

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, a survey was applied to a probabilistically selected sample of 1,245 HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy in Brazil. In this work, the analysis was focused on self-rated health. The analysis was conducted according to sex, age, socioeconomic variables, and clinical and treatment-related patient characteristics. Through stepwise logistic regression procedures, the main predictors of good perception of health status were established. Results showed that 65% self-rated health state as good or excellent, 81% do have no or slight difficulty in following treatment, but 34% men and 47% women reported intense or extreme degree of anxiety/worry feelings. Educational level, work situation, presence of side effects and AIDS-related symptoms were the main predictors of good self-perception of health. Problems related to animus status, involving worry and anxiety about the future are still barriers that must be overcome to improve quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS.

  2. Nursing care for patients with placenta previa undergoing interventional therapy in the second trimester of pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Suzhao; Lu Aijin; Wang Xuezhen

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the nursing care for patients with placenta previa,who receive uterine arterial catheterization and embolization in the second trimester of pregnancy. Methods: By using superselective catheterization with Seldinger technique, bilateral uterine artery angiography and embolization were performed in 16 patients with placenta previa in the second trimester of pregnancy. Two to four hours after the procedure, rivanol intra-amniotic injection was employed to induce the abortion. Close perioperative observation and careful nursing were carried out. Results: The fetus with its subsidiary tissue was delivered in a mean time of 4.5 hours after the operation in 15 cases. No postpartum hemorrhage occurred. Induced abortion failed in one case with 26 weeks pregnancy because of a scar uterus and cervical dystocia. Hysterotomy was performed 6 days later, blood loss during the operation was about 100 ml. No nursing care related complications occurred in all 16 patients. Conclusion: Uterine arterial embolization is very helpful in making the induced abortion for the treatment of bleeding placenta previa in the second trimester of pregnancy. Strengthening of perioperative care can improve successful rate of interventional therapy and prevent the occurrence of complication. (authors)

  3. Longitudinal Liver Stiffness Assessment in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Undergoing Antiviral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Stella M.; Foucher, Juliette; Combis, Jean-Marc; Métivier, Sophie; Brunetto, Maurizia; Capron, Dominique; Bourlière, Marc; Bronowicki, Jean-Pierre; Dao, Thong; Maynard-Muet, Marianne; Lucidarme, Damien; Merrouche, Wassil; Forns, Xavier; de Lédinghen, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Liver stiffness (LS) measurement by means of transient elastography (TE) is accurate to predict fibrosis stage. The effect of antiviral treatment and virologic response on LS was assessed and compared with untreated patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Methods TE was performed at baseline, and at weeks 24, 48, and 72 in 515 patients with CHC. Results 323 treated (62.7%) and 192 untreated patients (37.3%) were assessed. LS experienced a significant decline in treated patients and remained stable in untreated patients at the end of study (P<0.0001). The decline was significant for patients with baseline LS ≥ 7.1 kPa (P<0.0001 and P 0.03, for LS ≥9.5 and ≥7.1 kPa vs lower values, respectively). Sustained virological responders and relapsers had a significant LS improvement whereas a trend was observed in nonresponders (mean percent change −16%, −10% and −2%, for SVR, RR and NR, respectively, P 0.03 for SVR vs NR). In multivariate analysis, high baseline LS (P<0.0001) and ALT levels, antiviral therapy and non-1 genotype were independent predictors of LS improvement. Conclusions LS decreases during and after antiviral treatment in patients with CHC. The decrease is significant in sustained responders and relapsers (particularly in those with high baseline LS) and suggests an improvement in liver damage. PMID:23082200

  4. Longitudinal liver stiffness assessment in patients with chronic hepatitis C undergoing antiviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella M Martinez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIMS: Liver stiffness (LS measurement by means of transient elastography (TE is accurate to predict fibrosis stage. The effect of antiviral treatment and virologic response on LS was assessed and compared with untreated patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC. METHODS: TE was performed at baseline, and at weeks 24, 48, and 72 in 515 patients with CHC. RESULTS: 323 treated (62.7% and 192 untreated patients (37.3% were assessed. LS experienced a significant decline in treated patients and remained stable in untreated patients at the end of study (P<0.0001. The decline was significant for patients with baseline LS ≥ 7.1 kPa (P<0.0001 and P 0.03, for LS ≥ 9.5 and ≥ 7.1 kPa vs lower values, respectively. Sustained virological responders and relapsers had a significant LS improvement whereas a trend was observed in nonresponders (mean percent change -16%, -10% and -2%, for SVR, RR and NR, respectively, P 0.03 for SVR vs NR. In multivariate analysis, high baseline LS (P<0.0001 and ALT levels, antiviral therapy and non-1 genotype were independent predictors of LS improvement. CONCLUSIONS: LS decreases during and after antiviral treatment in patients with CHC. The decrease is significant in sustained responders and relapsers (particularly in those with high baseline LS and suggests an improvement in liver damage.

  5. Relationship between heparin anticoagulation and clinical outcomes in coronary stent intervention: observations from the ESPRIT trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolleson, Thaddeus R; O'Shea, J Conor; Bittl, John A; Hillegass, William B; Williams, Kathryn A; Levine, Glenn; Harrington, Robert A; Tcheng, James E

    2003-02-05

    We evaluated the relationship between the degree of heparin anticoagulation and clinical efficacy and bleeding in patients undergoing contemporary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent implantation. Despite universal acceptance of heparin anticoagulation as a standard of care in PCI, considerable controversy still exists regarding the appropriate dosing of heparin. The study population (n = 2,064) comprised all patients enrolled in the Enhanced Suppression of the Platelet IIb/IIIa Receptor with Integrilin Therapy (ESPRIT) trial. The index activated clotting time (ACT) was defined as the ACT measured after the last heparin dose and before first device activation and was correlated with outcome and bleeding events. No association was observed between decreasing ACT levels and the rate of ischemic events in the treatment or placebo arms. The incidence of the primary composite end point (death, myocardial infarction, urgent target vessel revascularization, and thrombotic bailout glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor therapy at 48 h) was actually lowest in the lowest ACT tertile for both the placebo (10.0%) and treatment groups (6.1%). When analyzed by tertile, major bleeding rates did not increase in the lowest ACT tertile in patients given placebo (0.6%) versus those receiving eptifibatide (0.7%). Major bleeding rates increased as the ACT increased in the eptifibatide-treated patients. Ischemic end points in patients undergoing contemporary PCI with stent placement do not increase by decreasing ACT levels, at least to a level of 200 s. Bleeding events do increase with increasing ACT levels and are enhanced with eptifibatide treatment. An ACT of 200 to 250 s is reasonable in terms of efficacy and safety with the use of contemporary technology and pharmacotherapy.

  6. DMF-T index in patients undergoing radiation therapy with LINAC X-ray radiation for head and neck cancer at Department of Radiotherapy, Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sabrina

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy for head and neck cancer frequently caused severe salivary gland dysfunction. The salivary gland dysfunction possibly decreased the protective function of saliva and caused dental caries. The purpose of this study was to obtain an illustration about DMF-T index in patient undergoing radiation therapy with LINAC X-ray radiation for head and neck cancer at Department of Radiotherapy, Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital in January-February 2007. The study was a simple descriptive. The study was conducted on 7 males and 9 females undergoing radiation therapy with LINAC X-ray radiation for head and neck cancer. The ages of patient are between 37 years and 77 years. The severity of caries was measured by DMF-T index. DMF-T index in 16 patient undergoing radiation therapy with LINAC X-ray radiation for head and neck cancer at Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital is 10.6 as the result of this study. The conclusion of this study showed that the DMF-T index in 16 patient undergoing radiation therapy with LINAC X-ray radiation for head and neck cancer at Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital had very high grade based on WHO classification, which the value was over 6.6.

  7. Cognitive-Behavioral-Based Physical Therapy for Patients With Chronic Pain Undergoing Lumbar Spine Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Kristin R; Devin, Clinton J; Vanston, Susan W; Koyama, Tatsuki; Phillips, Sharon E; George, Steven Z; McGirt, Matthew J; Spengler, Dan M; Aaronson, Oran S; Cheng, Joseph S; Wegener, Stephen T

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral-based physical therapy (CBPT) program for improving outcomes in patients after lumbar spine surgery. A randomized controlled trial was conducted on 86 adults undergoing a laminectomy with or without arthrodesis for a lumbar degenerative condition. Patients were screened preoperatively for high fear of movement using the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia. Randomization to either CBPT or an education program occurred at 6 weeks after surgery. Assessments were completed pretreatment, posttreatment and at 3-month follow-up. The primary outcomes were pain and disability measured by the Brief Pain Inventory and Oswestry Disability Index. Secondary outcomes included general health (SF-12) and performance-based tests (5-Chair Stand, Timed Up and Go, 10-Meter Walk). Multivariable linear regression analyses found that CBPT participants had significantly greater decreases in pain and disability and increases in general health and physical performance compared with the education group at the 3-month follow-up. Results suggest a targeted CBPT program may result in significant and clinically meaningful improvement in postoperative outcomes. CBPT has the potential to be an evidence-based program that clinicians can recommend for patients at risk for poor recovery after spine surgery. This study investigated a targeted cognitive-behavioral-based physical therapy program for patients after lumbar spine surgery. Findings lend support to the hypothesis that incorporating cognitive-behavioral strategies into postoperative physical therapy may address psychosocial risk factors and improve pain, disability, general health, and physical performance outcomes. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A urinary test procedure for identification of cannabidiol in patients undergoing medical therapy with marijuana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wertlake PT

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Paul T Wertlake, Michael D Henson Pacific Toxicology Laboratories, Chatsworth, CA, USA Abstract: Marijuana is classified by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA as Schedule I, drugs having no accepted medical value. Twenty-three states and the District of Columbia have legalized medical marijuana. This conflict inhibits physicians from prescribing marijuana and the systematic study of marijuana in medical care. This study concerns the use of the clinical laboratory as a resource for physicians recommending cannabidiol (CBD to patients, or for patients using medical marijuana. Marijuana containing delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC is psychoactive. CBD is not psychoactive. CBD is reported to have medical benefit for seizure control, neurologic disorders including multiple sclerosis, neuropathic pain and pain associated with cancer. Use of opiates leads to increasing dosage over time that may cause respiratory depression. The Medical Board of California has termed this a serious public health crisis of addiction, overdose, and death. Is it feasible that CBD might alleviate persistent, severe pain and therefore diminished opiate use? Further study is needed to determine medical effectiveness of CBD including the effect on concurrent opiate therapy due to competition for receptor sites. This study is the application of a gas chromatography mass spectrometry procedure adapted for use in our laboratory, to detect CBD in urine. The intended use is as a tool for physicians to assess that marijuana being used by a patient is of a composition likely to be medically effective. A law ensuring physicians freedom from federal prosecution would provide confidence essential to formal study of medical uses of marijuana and treatment of clinical problems. Detection of CBD in a urine sample would be a convenient test for such confirmation. Keywords: laboratory test, assay, medical management 

  9. A urinary test procedure for identification of cannabidiol in patients undergoing medical therapy with marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertlake, Paul T; Henson, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is classified by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) as Schedule I, drugs having no accepted medical value. Twenty-three states and the District of Columbia have legalized medical marijuana. This conflict inhibits physicians from prescribing marijuana and the systematic study of marijuana in medical care. This study concerns the use of the clinical laboratory as a resource for physicians recommending cannabidiol (CBD) to patients, or for patients using medical marijuana. Marijuana containing delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is psychoactive. CBD is not psychoactive. CBD is reported to have medical benefit for seizure control, neurologic disorders including multiple sclerosis, neuropathic pain and pain associated with cancer. Use of opiates leads to increasing dosage over time that may cause respiratory depression. The Medical Board of California has termed this a serious public health crisis of addiction, overdose, and death. Is it feasible that CBD might alleviate persistent, severe pain and therefore diminished opiate use? Further study is needed to determine medical effectiveness of CBD including the effect on concurrent opiate therapy due to competition for receptor sites. This study is the application of a gas chromatography mass spectrometry procedure adapted for use in our laboratory, to detect CBD in urine. The intended use is as a tool for physicians to assess that marijuana being used by a patient is of a composition likely to be medically effective. A law ensuring physicians freedom from federal prosecution would provide confidence essential to formal study of medical uses of marijuana and treatment of clinical problems. Detection of CBD in a urine sample would be a convenient test for such confirmation.

  10. Short-term Androgen-Deprivation Therapy Improves Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality in Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Dose-Escalated External Beam Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zumsteg, Zachary S.; Spratt, Daniel E.; Pei, Xin; Yamada, Yoshiya; Kalikstein, Abraham; Kuk, Deborah; Zhang, Zhigang; Zelefsky, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated the benefit of short-term androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) in patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer (PC) receiving dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The present retrospective study comprised 710 intermediate-risk PC patients receiving external beam radiation therapy with doses of ≥81 Gy at a single institution from 1992 to 2005, including 357 patients receiving neoadjuvant and concurrent ADT. Prostate-specific antigen recurrence-free survival (PSA-RFS) and distant metastasis (DM) were compared using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards models. PC-specific mortality (PCSM) was assessed using competing-risks analysis. Results: The median follow-up was 7.9 years. Despite being more likely to have higher PSA levels, Gleason score 4 + 3 = 7, multiple National Comprehensive Cancer Network intermediate-risk factors, and older age (P≤.001 for all comparisons), patients receiving ADT had improved PSA-RFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.598; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.435-0.841; P=.003), DM (HR, 0.424; 95% CI, 0.219-0.819; P=.011), and PCSM (HR, 0.380; 95% CI, 0.157-0.921; P=.032) on univariate analysis. Using multivariate analysis, ADT was an even stronger predictor of improved PSA-RFS (adjusted HR [AHR], 0.516; 95% CI, 0.360-0.739; P<.001), DM (AHR, 0.347; 95% CI, 0.176-0.685; P=.002), and PCSM (AHR, 0.297; 95% CI, 0.128-0.685; P=.004). Gleason score 4 + 3 = 7 and ≥50% positive biopsy cores were other independent predictors of PCSM. Conclusions: Short-term ADT improves PSA-RFS, DM, and PCSM in patients with intermediate-risk PC undergoing dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy

  11. Chemoradiation Therapy for Potentially Resectable Gastric Cancer: Clinical Outcomes Among Patients Who Do Not Undergo Planned Surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Michelle M.; Mansfield, Paul F.; Das, Prajnan; Janjan, Nora A.; Badgwell, Brian D.; Phan, Alexandria T.; Delclos, Marc E.; Maru, Dipen; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Crane, Christopher H.; Krishnan, Sunil

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: We retrospectively analyzed treatment outcomes among resectable gastric cancer patients treated preoperatively with chemoradiation therapy (CRT) but rendered ineligible for planned surgery because of clinical deterioration or development of overt metastatic disease. Methods and Materials: Between 1996 and 2004, 39 patients with potentially resectable gastric cancer received preoperative CRT but failed to undergo surgery. At baseline clinical staging, 33 (85%) patients had T3-T4 disease, and 27 (69%) patients had nodal involvement. Most patients received 45 Gy of radiotherapy with concurrent 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy. Twenty-one patients underwent induction chemotherapy before CRT. Actuarial times to local control (LC), distant control (DC), and overall survival (OS) were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The cause for surgical ineligibility was development of metastatic disease (28 patients, 72%; predominantly peritoneal, 18 patients), poor performance status (5 patients, 13%), patient/physician preference (4 patients, 10%), and treatment-related death (2 patients, 5%). With a median follow-up of 8 months (range, 1-95 months), actuarial 1-year LC, DC, and OS were 46%, 12%, and 36%, respectively. Median LC and OS were 11.0 and 10.1 months, respectively. Conclusions: Patients with potentially resectable gastric cancer treated with preoperative CRT are found to be ineligible for surgery principally because of peritoneal progression. Patients who are unable to undergo planned surgery have outcomes comparable to that of patients with advanced gastric cancer treated with chemotherapy alone. CRT provides durable LC for the majority of the remaining life of these patients

  12. Recent developments in separation of low molecular weight heparin anticoagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Radosław; Gadzała-Kopciuch, Renata; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2017-10-05

    The general function of anticoagulants is to prevent blood clotting and growing of the existing clots in blood vessels. In recent years, there has been a significant improvement in developing methods of prevention as well as pharmacologic and surgical treatment of thrombosis. For over the last two decades, low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) have found their application in the antithrombotic diseases treatment. These types of drugs are widely used in clinical therapy. Despite the biological and medical importance of LMWHs, they have not been completely characterized in terms of their chemical structure. Due to both, the structural complexity of these anticoagulants and the presence of impurities, their structural characterization requires the employment of advanced analytical techniques. Since separation techniques play the key role in these endeavors, this review will focus on the presentation of recent developments in the separation of LMWH anticoagulants. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC) in the treatment of venous thromboembolism

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Werth; Jan Beyer-Westendorf

    2015-01-01

    In case of venous thromboembolism (VTE) e ective anticoagulation is needed. The introduction of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) for VTE therapy o ers new treatment options and, in general, simpli es VTE therapy compared to the concept of LMWH/ VKA. At the same time, NOACs may help to improve the clinical outcome of patients with VTE as trial results consistently indicated the reduction in major bleeding complications. There are several reasons to use NOAC in special p...

  14. Substantial differences in initiation of oral anticoagulant therapy and clinical outcome among non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients treated in inpatient and outpatient settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Anders Pretzmann; Hansen, Morten Lock; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring

    2016-01-01

    with a CHADS2 ≥ 2 was 42.1, 63.0, and 32.4%, respectively. Initiation of OAC therapy was only modestly influenced by CHADS2 and HAS-BLED scores, regardless of the healthcare setting. The rate of TE was 4.30 [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.21-4.40] per 100 person-years for inpatients, 2.28 (95% CI 2...

  15. An Excel-Based System to Manage Radiation Safety for the Family of Patients Undergoing 131I Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, Palmer G

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop spreadsheet workbooks that assist in the radiation safety counseling of 131 I therapy patients and their families, providing individualized guidelines that avoid imposing overly conservative restrictions on family members and others. Methods: The mathematic model included biphasic patient radionuclide retention. The extrathyroidal component was a cylindric volume with a diameter corresponding to the patient's size and included patient self-absorption, whereas the thyroidal component was a point source whose transmission was reduced by self-absorption. A separate model in which the thyroid, extrathyroid, and bladder compartments fed serially from one to the next was developed to depict the radionuclide levels within the patient and to estimate the activity entering the environment at each urination. Results: The system was organized into a set of 4 workbooks: the first to be used with ablation patients prepared using thyrogen, the second with ablation patients prepared by deprivation, the third with hyperthyroid patients, and the fourth with the unusual hyperthyroid patient who finds the restrictions to be oppressive and returns 5-10 d after administration for a measurement and reassessment. The workbooks evaluated the radiation field strength external to the patient and indicated restrictions based on selected dose limits. To assist physicians in suggesting contamination precautions, the workbooks also evaluated the radioactivity present within the patient and the estimated discharge into the environment as a function of time. Conclusion: The workbooks that were developed assist the radiation safety counselor in individualizing radiation protection procedures for the family of patients undergoing 131 I therapy. The workbook system avoids overly conservative assumptions while permitting selection of appropriate dose limits for each individual. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  16. Spiritual well-being and quality of life in Iranian women with breast cancer undergoing radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Najmeh; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Zamani, Ahmadreza; Bahrami, Fatemeh; Emami, Hamid; Loghmani, Amir

    2013-05-01

    Psychological distress and morbidity are common consequences of diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and associated with poor quality of life (QOL). Spiritual well-being is an important aspect of QOL, but little is known about the spiritual well-being and its relationship with QOL in patients of different cultures such as Iranian Muslim patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of QOL and spirituality among patients with breast cancer undergoing radiation therapy. This was a cross-sectional study which was conducted in the Breast Cancer Research Center of St. S. Al-Shohada Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. Spiritual well-being was measured using the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being Scale (FACIT-Sp12). The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life (EORTC QLQ-C30) and its supplementary breast cancer questionnaire (QLQ-BR23) were used to assess the quality of life of patients. Descriptive analysis, Pearson's correlation, and multiple regression analysis were performed for statistical assessment. In all, 68 patients fulfilled the study's inclusion criteria and were interviewed. The mean global QOL was 41.42 (SD = 18.02), and the mean spiritual well-being was 28.41 (SD = 6.95). There was a significant positive correlation between general QOL and total spiritual well-being scores. Also, spiritual well-being, social functioning, pain, and arm symptoms were significant predictors of global QOL. The results of this study provide evidence that breast cancer survivors in Iran experience a poor quality of life across a broad spectrum of health domains, particularly social, emotional, and spiritual, indicating that psychosocial-spiritual support should be considered in caring for patients with breast cancer.

  17. New oral anticoagulants: key messages for clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Giorgi-Pierfranceschi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available New oral anticoagulants are an effective and safe alternative to vitamin K antagonists in many fields of clinical practice. The use of the direct inhibitors of activated Factor II (dabigatran and activated Factor X (apixaban and rivaroxaban, both in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF and those with acute venous thromboembolism (VTE, is of great interest for internal medicine physicians. This paper aims to give practical guidance on management (starting therapy, follow up and bleeding complications of patients treated with dabigatran, rivaroxaban or apixaban for NVAF or acute VTE providing practical tables concerning the phases of therapy, management of complications, drug interaction and dose adjustment if renal impairment occurs.

  18. Interventional Spine and Pain Procedures in Patients on Antiplatelet and Anticoagulant Medications (Second Edition): Guidelines From the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, the European Society of Regional Anaesthesia and Pain Therapy, the American Academy of Pain Medicine, the International Neuromodulation Society, the North American Neuromodulation Society, and the World Institute of Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narouze, Samer; Benzon, Honorio T; Provenzano, David; Buvanendran, Asokumar; De Andres, José; Deer, Timothy; Rauck, Richard; Huntoon, Marc A

    2018-04-01

    The American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (ASRA) 2012 survey of meeting attendees showed that existing ASRA anticoagulation guidelines for regional anesthesia were insufficient for their needs. Those surveyed agreed that procedure-specific and patient-specific factors required separate guidelines for pain and spine procedures. In response, a guidelines committee was formed. After preliminary review of published complications reports and studies, the committee stratified interventional spine and pain procedures according to potential bleeding risk: low-, intermediate-, and high-risk procedures. The ASRA regional anesthesia anticoagulation guidelines were largely deemed appropriate for the low- and intermediate-risk categories, but the high-risk category required further investigation. The first guidelines specific to interventional spine and pain procedures were published in 2015. Recent reviews evaluating bleeding complications in patients undergoing specific interventional pain procedures, the development of new regional anesthesia and acute pain guidelines, and the development of new anticoagulants and antiplatelet medications necessitate complementary updated guidelines. The authors desired coordination with the authors of the recently updated regional and acute pain anticoagulation guidelines. The latest evidence was sought through extensive database search strategies and the recommendations were evidence based when available and pharmacology driven otherwise. We could not provide strength and grading of these recommendations because there are not enough well-designed large studies concerning interventional pain procedures to support such grading. Although the guidelines could not always be based on randomized studies or on large numbers of patients from pooled databases, it is hoped that they will provide sound recommendations and the evidentiary basis for such recommendations. This publication is intended as a living document to be updated

  19. Effects of Healing Touch and Relaxation Therapy on Adult Patients Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant: A Feasibility Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Der-Fa; Hart, Laura K; Lutgendorf, Susan K; Oh, Hyunkyoung; Silverman, Margarida

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell transplant (SCT), considered the current standard of care for adults with advanced cancers, can lead to substantial deconditioning and diminished well-being. Attending to life quality of SCT recipients is now viewed as essential. The objective of this study was to identify the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of healing touch (HT) and relaxation therapy (RT) with patients undergoing SCT. A randomized prospective design compared 13 SCT patients who received HT daily while hospitalized to 13 similar SCT patients who received daily RT. The clinical outcomes of the 2 groups were also compared with retrospective clinical data of 20 patients who received SCT during the same year. The mean age of participants was 57 years, with 54% receiving autologous and 46% receiving allogeneic transplants. All patients assigned to the HT group completed the protocol. Only 60% of the relaxation group completed the intervention. Both interventions produced improvement in psychosocial measures and a shorter hospital length of stay (LOS) than the historical group. Differential results for LOS were related to the type of transplant received. The LOS differences were not statistically significant but could be clinically significant. Healing touch was a better tolerated modality by this population. Future research is needed to validate the LOS advantage of the HT and RT interventions, explore the differences in effect found with different transplant types, and identify patients who can tolerate RT. The LOS reduction could result in decreased cost. Second, mood and function improvements support quality of life during SCT treatment.

  20. Overall response rates to radiation therapy for patients with painful uncomplicated bone metastases undergoing initial treatment and retreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedard, Gillian; Hoskin, Peter; Chow, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Radiation therapy has been shown to successfully palliate bone metastases. A number of systematic reviews and large clinical trials have reported response rates for initial treatment and retreatment. Objective: To determine overall response rates of patients with painful uncomplicated bone metastases undergoing initial treatment and retreatment. Methods: Intent-to-treat and evaluable patient statistics from a systematic review of palliative radiotherapy trials for initial treatment of bone metastases and a randomized clinical trial of retreatment were pooled and analyzed to determine the overall response rates for patients receiving initial treatment and retreatment. Results: In the intent-to-treat calculation, 71–73% of patients had an overall response to radiation treatment and in the evaluable patient population; 85–87% of patients did so. Response rates varied slightly whether patients underwent single or multiple fractions in initial treatment or retreatment. Conclusions: Single and multiple fraction radiation treatment yielded very similar overall response rates. Patients treated with a single fraction for both initial and repeat radiation experience almost identical overall response to those patients treated with multiple fraction treatment. It is therefore recommended that patients with uncomplicated painful bone metastases be treated with a single 8 Gy fraction of radiation at both the initial treatment and retreatment

  1. G-autonomy of EEG recordings of psychotic patients undergoing the primitive expression form of dance therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventouras, E.-C.; Lardi, I.; Dimitriou, S.; Margariti, A.; Chondraki, P.; Kalatzis, I.; Economou, N.-T.; Tsekou, H.; Paparrigopoulos, T.; Ktonas, P. Y.

    2015-09-01

    Primitive expression (PE) is a form of dance therapy (DT) that involves an interaction of ethologically and socially based forms which are supplied for re-enactment. Brain connectivity has been measured in electroencephalographic (EEG) data of patients with schizophrenia undergoing PE DT, using the correlation coefficient and mutual information. These parameters do not measure the existence or absence of directionality in the connectivity. The present study investigates the use of the G-autonomy measure of EEG electrode voltages of the same group of schizophrenic patients. G-autonomy is a measure of the “autonomy” of a system. It indicates the degree by which prediction of the system's future evolution is enhanced by taking into account its own past states, in comparison to predictions based on past states of a set of external variables. In the present research, “own” past states refer to voltage values in the time series recorded at a specific electrode and “external” variables refer to the voltage values recorded at other electrodes. Indication is provided for an acute effect of early-stage PE DT expressed by the augmentation of G-autonomy in the delta rhythm and an acute effect of late- stage PE DT expressed by the reduction of G-autonomy in the theta and alpha rhythms.

  2. [A case of Poncet's disease (tuberculous rheumatism) in a patient with chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Yusuke; Fujita, Yoshiro; Kawai, Ryosuke; Danbara, Atsushi; Ueno, Yukio; Ito, Yasuhiko

    2003-10-01

    A 78-year-old man who was undergoing hemodialysis therapy was admitted to our hospital because of sore throat, remittent cervical lymphadenopathy, and polyarthritis over the preceding 4 weeks. On admission, he had bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy. He complained of arthralgia associated with tenderness, warmth and swelling of both elbows, left side wrist and left shoulder joint. The C-reactive protein level on admission was 15.3 mg/dl. Rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibodies, tuberculin skin test and blood culture were negative. Joint fluid was not aspirated. Radiographs of the joints did not reveal any abnormalities. Acid-fast bacilli were demonstrated in the smear of the cervical lymph node with a fluorochrome rhodamine-auramine stain. Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA was identified by polymerase chain reaction. We found the presence of caseating granuloma on the biopsy specimens and M.tuberculosis was detected from culture. At that point, we diagnosed this patient as having tuberculous lymphadenitis. His general symptoms resolved rapidly after starting with a three-drug regimen consisting of isoniazid, rifampin and pyrazinamide. His polyarthritis also improved dramatically. Finally we considered that his polyarthritis was tuberculous rheumatism, also called Poncet's disease. Poncet's disease is characterized by sterile polyarthritis during active tuberculosis infection. It is considered a reactive arthritis, which is a different entity from tuberculous arthritis. Although this is a rare disease, we should be aware of it in hemodialysis patient clinics, because the incidence of tuberculosis infection has been reported to be increasing in patients with end-stage renal failure.

  3. Restoration of the orbital aesthetic subunit with the thoracodorsal artery system of flaps in patients undergoing radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanowski, Eric J P; Casper, Keith A; Eisbruch, Avraham; Heth, Jason A; Marentette, Lawrence J; Prince, Mark E; Moyer, Jeffrey S; Chepeha, Douglas B

    2013-10-01

    Objectives To demonstrate the advantages of the thoracodorsal artery scapular tip autogenous transplant (Tdast) for patients requiring restoration of the orbital aesthetic subunit. Design Prospective case series. Setting Tertiary center. Participants Ten patients (M:F,6:4) with a mean age of 56 years (range, 21 to 78 years) underwent restoration of the orbital aesthetic subunit and radiation therapy between 2001 and 2008. Main Outcome Measures The two reconstructive advantages of the thoracodorsal artery system of flaps for orbital reconstruction are a long pedicle and the suitability of the scapula tip to meet the three-dimensional requirements of the orbit. Patients were assessed 1 year or more after treatment for cosmetic outcome, work status, and socialization. Results Eight of 10 patients benefited from the three-dimensional nature of the scapula tip bone and 7 of 10 avoided vein grafting. Four of five evaluable patients reported "frequently" socializing outside their home. Four of five evaluable patients working before undergoing their treatment were able to return to work posttreatment. Seven of nine patients with postoperative photographs had minimal or no facial contour deformity. Conclusions The Tdast can restore orbital contour without osteotomy, and the thoracodorsal artery system of flaps has a long vascular pedicle that reduces vein grafting. Patients have an acceptable cosmetic result and return to preoperative work status and socialization.

  4. Trend of Prevalence of Atrial Fibrillation and use of Oral Anticoagulation Therapy in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation in South Korea (2002–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Kyoung Son

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study examined the annual prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF and its associated comorbidities, as well as the prevalence of warfarin therapy in South Korean patients with AF. Methods: The National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort database was searched for subjects aged ≥30 years diagnosed with AF from 2002–2013. The prevalence of AF was analyzed by sex and age, as was the current status of warfarin therapy in AF patients according to CHA2DS2-VASc score and comorbidities. Results: The age-standardized prevalence of AF in men and women was 0.15% and 0.14%, respectively, in 2002, increasing to 0.54% and 0.39%, respectively, in 2013. In 2013, the prevalence of AF in men and women aged 30–39 years was 0.08% and 0.03%, respectively, increasing to 2.35% and 1.71%, respectively, in those in aged ≥60 years. During 2002–2013, the prevalence of AF in men significantly increased among subjects aged ≥30 years and increased in women aged ≥60 years. The age-standardized prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus among AF patients were markedly increased during 2002–2013. Of these AF patients, 86.1% had a CHA2DS2-VASc score of ≥2; however, only 39.1% of these were receiving warfarin. Conclusions: The age-standardized prevalence of AF increased 2.89-fold over the 12-year study period. The total number of patients with AF in South Korea has been drastically increasing, due to not only aging society but also increasing age-specific prevalence of AF, especially in middle-aged and elderly individuals. The rate of warfarin therapy increased slightly over the study period but remains low.

  5. Therapeutic strategies after coronary stenting in chronically anticoagulated patients: the MUSICA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambola, A; Ferreira-González, I; Angel, J; Alfonso, F; Maristany, J; Rodríguez, O; Bueno, H; López-Minguez, J R; Zueco, J; Fernández-Avilés, F; San Román, A; Prendergast, B; Mainar, V; García-Dorado, D; Tornos, P

    2009-09-01

    To identify the therapeutic regimens used at discharge in patients receiving oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT) who undergo stenting percutaneous coronary intervention and stent implantation (PCI-S), and to assess the safety and efficacy associated with different therapeutic regimens according to thromboembolic risk. A prospective multicentre registry. In hospital, after discharge and follow-up by telephone call. 405 patients (328 male/77 female; mean (SD) age 71 (9) years) receiving OAT who underwent PCI-S between November 2003 and June 2006 from nine catheterisation laboratories of tertiary care teaching hospitals in Spain and one in the United Kingdom were included. Three therapeutic regimens were identified at discharge: triple therapy (TT) -- that is, any anticoagulant (AC) plus double antiplatelet therapy (DAT; 278 patients (68.6%); AC and a single antiplatelet (AC+AT; 46 (11.4%)) and DAT only (81 (20%)). At 6 months, patients receiving TT showed the greatest rate of bleeding events. No patients receiving DAT at low thromboembolic risk presented a bleeding event (14.8% receiving TT, 11.8% receiving AC+AT and 0% receiving DAT, p = 0.033) or cardiovascular event (6.7% receiving TT, 0% receiving AC+AT and 0% receiving DAT, p = 0.126). The combination of AC+AT showed the worst rate of adverse events in the whole cohort, especially in patients at moderate-high thromboembolic risk. In patients receiving OAT, TT was the most commonly used regimen after PCI-S. DAT was associated with the lowest rate of bleeding events and a similar efficacy to TT in patients at low thromboembolic risk. TT should probably be restricted to patients at moderate-high thromboembolic risk.

  6. The 2018 European Heart Rhythm Association Practical Guide on the use of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants in patients with atrial fibrillation: executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffel, Jan; Verhamme, Peter; Potpara, Tatjana S; Albaladejo, Pierre; Antz, Matthias; Desteghe, Lien; Georg Haeusler, Karl; Oldgren, Jonas; Reinecke, Holger; Roldan-Schilling, Vanessa; Rowell, Nigel; Sinnaeve, Peter; Collins, Ronan; Camm, A John; Heidbüchel, Hein

    2018-03-19

    The current manuscript is the Executive Summary of the second update to the original Practical Guide, published in 2013. Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are an alternative for vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) to prevent stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), and have emerged as the preferred choice, particularly in patients newly started on anticoagulation. Both physicians and patients are becoming more accustomed to the use of these drugs in clinical practice. However, many unresolved questions on how to optimally use these agents in specific clinical situations remain. The European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) set out to co-ordinate a unified way of informing physicians on the use of the different NOACs. A writing group identified 20 topics of concrete clinical scenarios for which practical answers were formulated, based on available evidence. The 20 topics are (i) eligibility for NOACs; (ii) practical start-up and follow-up scheme for patients on NOACs; (iii) ensuring adherence to prescribed oral anticoagulant intake; (iv) switching between anticoagulant regimens; (v) pharmacokinetics and drug-drug interactions of NOACs; (vi) NOACs in patients with chronic kidney or advanced liver disease; (vii) how to measure the anticoagulant effect of NOACs; (viii) NOAC plasma level measurement: rare indications, precautions, and potential pitfalls; (ix) how to deal with dosing errors; (x) what to do if there is a (suspected) overdose without bleeding, or a clotting test is indicating a potential risk of bleeding; (xi) management of bleeding under NOAC therapy; (xii) patients undergoing a planned invasive procedure, surgery or ablation; (xiii) patients requiring an urgent surgical intervention; (xiv) patients with AF and coronary artery disease; (xv) avoiding confusion with NOAC dosing across indications; (xvi) cardioversion in a NOAC-treated patient; (xvii) AF patients presenting with acute stroke while on NOACs; (xviii) NOACs in special

  7. Evaluation of resistance training to improve muscular strength and body composition in cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilha, Camila S; Marinello, Poliana Camila; Galvão, Daniel A; Newton, Robert U; Borges, Fernando H; Frajacomo, Fernando; Deminice, Rafael

    2017-06-01

    Muscle atrophy and strength decline are two of the most prominent characteristics in cancer patients undergoing cancer therapy, leading to decreased functional ability and reduced quality of life. Therefore, the aim is to systematically review research evidence of the effects of resistance exercise (RE) on lower-limb muscular strength, lean body mass (LBM), and body fat (BF) in cancer patients undertaking neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy. This research was conducted using the following online database: Clinical Trial Register, Cochrane Trial Register, PubMed, SPORT Discus, and SciELO, from September 2014 until May 2015. We used the following keywords in various combinations with a systematic search: "Cancer therapy," "Wasting muscle," "Muscle loss," "Muscle function," "Neoadjuvant therapy," "Adjuvant thera-py," "Resistance Training," "Weight training," and "Exercise." After selection of 272 full-text articles, 14 publications were included in this meta-analysis. Resistance exercise (RE) during neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy increased lower-limb muscular strength (mean: 26.22 kg, 95% CI [16.01, 36.43], heterogeneity: P = body mass (LBM) increased (mean 0.8 kg, 95% CI [0.7, 0.9], heterogeneity: P = 0.99, I 2  = 0%, P body fat (BF) (mean: -1.3 kg, 95% CI [-1.5, 1.1], heterogeneity: P = 0.93, I 2  = 0%, P cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy regardless of the kind of treatment. RE increases muscle strength, maintains LBM, and reduces BF in cancer patients undergoing adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapies. Cancer patients and survivors should consider undertaking RE as an effective countermeasure for treatment-related adverse effects to the musculoskeletal system.

  8. Femoral neuropathy due to retroperitoneal bleeding. A red herring in medicine complicates anticoagulant therapy and influences the Russian Communist Revolution (Crown Prince Alexis, Rasputin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willbanks, O L; Willbanks, S E

    1983-02-01

    Femoral neuropathy occurs when occult retroperitoneal bleeding impinges on the appropriate nerve roots. The syndrome involves the acute onset of groin and thigh pain with characteristic flexion and external rotation of the hip. It may mimic other conditions such as acute arterial occlusion. Thorough knowledge of the anatomy of the femoral nerve explains the clinical features and leads the clinician to suspect the occurrence of this syndrome. Three cases have been reviewed that exhibited this condition as a result of retroperitoneal bleeding, a complication of systemic heparin therapy. The hemophilia that afflicted Alexis, the Crown Prince of Russia and son of Tsar Nicholas and Tsarina Alexandra, resulted in this clinical syndrome. The consequences enabled the sinister starets, Gregory Rasputin, to become intimately involved with the royal family, influencing the response of the Tsar to the political events in Russia, thereby playing an important role in setting the stage for the 1917 Russian communist revolution.

  9. Could Some Geriatric Characteristics Hinder the Prescription of Anticoagulants in Atrial Fibrillation in the Elderly?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paule Denoël

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported underprescription of anticoagulants in atrial fibrillation (AF. We conducted an observational study on 142 out of a total of 995 consecutive ≥75 years old patients presenting AF (14% when admitted in an emergency unit of a general hospital, in search of geriatric characteristics that might be associated with the underprescription of anticoagulation therapy (mostly antivitamin K at the time of the study. The following data was collected from patients presenting AF: medical history including treatment and comorbidities, CHADS2 score, ISAR scale (frailty, Lawton’s scale (ADL, GDS scale (mood status, MUST (nutrition, and blood analysis (INR, kidney function, and albumin. Among those patients for who anticoagulation treatment was recommended (73%, only 61% were treated with it. In the group with anticoagulation therapy, the following characteristics were observed more often than in the group without such therapy: a recent (≤6 months hospitalization and medical treatment including digoxin or based on >3 different drugs. Neither the value of the CHADS2 score, nor the geriatric characteristics could be correlated with the presence or the absence of an anticoagulation therapy. More research is thus required to identify and clarify the relative importance of patient-, physician-, and health care system-related hurdles for the prescription of oral anticoagulation therapy in older patients with AF.

  10. Prospective Evaluation of Dual-Energy Imaging in Patients Undergoing Image Guided Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer: Initial Clinical Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherertz, Tracy; Hoggarth, Mark; Luce, Jason; Block, Alec M.; Nagda, Suneel; Harkenrider, Matthew M.; Emami, Bahman; Roeske, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: A prospective feasibility study was conducted to investigate the utility of dual-energy (DE) imaging compared to conventional x-ray imaging for patients undergoing kV-based image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) for lung cancer. Methods and Materials: An institutional review board-approved feasibility study enrolled patients with lung cancer undergoing IGRT and was initiated in September 2011. During daily setup, 2 sequential respiration-gated x-ray images were obtained using an on-board imager. Imaging was composed of 1 standard x-ray image at 120 kVp (1 mAs) and a second image obtained at 60 kVp (4 mAs). Weighted logarithmic subtraction of the 2 images was performed offline to create a soft tissue-selective DE image. Conventional and DE images were evaluated by measuring relative contrast and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) and also by comparing spatial localization, using both approaches. Imaging dose was assessed using a calibrated ion chamber. Results: To date, 10 patients with stage IA to IIIA lung cancer were enrolled and 57 DE images were analyzed. DE subtraction resulted in complete suppression of overlying bone in all 57 DE images, with an average improvement in relative contrast of 4.7 ± 3.3 over that of 120 kVp x-ray images (P<.0002). The improvement in relative contrast with DE imaging was seen for both smaller (gross tumor volume [GTV] ≤5 cc) and larger tumors (GTV >5 cc), with average relative contrast improvement ratios of 3.4 ± 4.1 and 5.4 ± 3.6, respectively. Moreover, the GTV was reliably localized in 95% of the DE images versus 74% of the single energy (SE images, (P=.004). Mean skin dose per DE image set was 0.44 ± 0.03 mGy versus 0.43 ± 0.03 mGy, using conventional kV imaging parameters. Conclusions: Initial results of this feasibility study suggest that DE thoracic imaging may enhance tumor localization in lung cancer patients receiving kV-based IGRT without increasing imaging dose

  11. Is proBNP a Reliable Marker for the Evaluation of Fluid Load in Patients Undergoing Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seher Erdogan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Pro-B type natriuretic peptide (proBNP has been defined as a volume marker in hemodialysis patients. In the present study we aimed to evaluate the role of serum proBNP levels to indicate fluid load in patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT due to overhydration. Material and Method: Patients who were admitted to a tertiary 7-bed pediatric intensive care unit and underwent CRRT due to overhydration were included in the study. Results: The study was conducted with 15 girls (53.6% and 13 boys (46.4%. The mean age was 61.46±56.13 months (range, 2-183 months; the mean CRRT administration time was 20.8±14.9 hours (range, 5-60 hours; and the mean percentage of fluid extracted from the body was 8.43 ± 4.51% (range, 2.5-20%. CRRT was administered to 12 patients because of fluid overload (42.9% and to 12 (57.1% because of fluid load accompanied by uremia.. There was a statistically significant difference between body weight, urea, and creatinine levels of patients before and after treatment (p= 0.001. The mean proBNP level was 23.306 ± 13.943 pg/mL immediately before CRRT and the mean proBNP after CRRT was 22.178 ± 15.473 pg/mL. There was no statistically significant difference between the initial and final proBNP levels (p= 0.756. With the exception of serum sodium levels, there was no correlation between the final proBNP levels and body weight, urea, and creatinine (p>0.05. Similarly, there was also no correlation between initial proBNP levels and fluid load (p= 0.602 or between the percentage of extracted fluid and final proBNP levels (p= 0.155. Discussion: There was no significant correlation between the fluid load and initial proBNP levels or with the extracted fluid percentage and final proBNP levels in patients undergoing CRRT because of fluid overload.In conclusion, no appropriate marker was determined to evaluate cumulative fluid load and the extracted liquid volume.

  12. Adverse effects of anticoagulation treatment: clinically significant upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Skok

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the last years, the use of oral anticoagulant treatment has increased dramatically, principally for the prevention of venous thrombosis and thrombembolic events. This treatment is demanding, especially among the elderly with concommitant diseases and different medication. Aim of the study to evaluate the rate of serious complications, clinically significant hemorrhage from upper gastointestinal tract in patients treated with oral antiocoagulants in a prospective cohort study.Patients and methods: Included were patients admitted to our institution between January 1, 1994 and December 31, 2003 due to gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Emergency endoscopy and laboratory testing was performed in all patients.Results: 6416 patients were investigated: 2452 women (38.2 % and 3964 men (61.8 %, mean age 59.1 years, SD 17.2. Among our patients, 55 % were aged over 60 years. In 86.4 % of patients the source of bleeding was confirmed in the upper gastrointestinal tract. In the last week prior to bleeding, 20.4 % (1309/6416 of all patients were regularly taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, anticoagulant therapy or antiplatelet agents in single daily doses at least. 6.3 % of patients (82/1309 with abundant hemorrhage from upper gastrointestinal tract were using oral anticoagulant therapy and had INR > 5 at admission, 25.6 % of them had INR > 10. The mortality of patients using oral anticoagulants and INR > 5 was 17.1 %.Conclusions: Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a serious complication of different medications, particularly in elderly patients. Safe use of anticoagulant therapy is based on careful selection of patients and correct intake of the prescribed drugs.

  13. Practical recommendations for the choice of anticoagulants in the management of patients with atrial fibrillation on ibrutinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Khai Li; Rowan, Gail; Seymour, John F; Burbury, Kate; Carney, Dennis; Tam, Constantine S

    2017-12-01

    The management of AF represents a major challenge in patients with CLL, especially in elderly patients with multiple comorbidities who are representative of the majority of patients with CLL. This is especially complex in the case of ibrutinib. Many anticoagulants have potential for pharmacological interaction with ibrutinib, and ibrutinib itself has antiplatelet properties. Use of ibrutinib therapy in these patients mandates review and revision of the need for anticoagulation and best anticoagulant to use. Herein, we review the current knowledge of the metabolism of common anticoagulants and how they may interact with ibrutinib.

  14. Serum Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Change After Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation Therapy Is Associated With Postoperative Pulmonary Complications in Esophageal Cancer Patients Undergoing Combined Modality Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Shao-Lun; Hsu, Feng-Ming; Tsai, Chiao-Ling; Wu, Jian-Kuan [Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lee, Jang-Ming; Huang, Pei-Ming [Department of Surgery, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Chih-Hung [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Koong, Albert C.; Chang, Daniel T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Chia-Hsien Cheng, Jason, E-mail: jasoncheng@ntu.edu.tw [Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Oncology, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2015-12-01

    Purpose: Our aim was to investigate the association of clinical factors, dosimetric parameters, and biomarkers with postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) in patients with locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) treated by neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) under strict pulmonary dose constraints and esophagectomy. Methods and Materials: We prospectively enrolled 112 patients undergoing trimodality treatment (including radiation therapy [40 Gy], concurrent taxane-/5-fluorouracil-based regimens, and radical esophagectomy) for ESCC. A PPC was defined as pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome within 30 days after surgery. Serum samples were collected before and within 1 month after CCRT. The association of serum biomarkers with PPCs was detected by proximity ligation assay (PLA) and verified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Associations of clinical factors, lung dosimetric parameters, and biomarkers with PPC were tested statistically. Results: Thirty-three patients (29.5%) had PPCs. None of the dosimetric parameters was associated with PPCs. Preoperative functional vital capacity (FVC) was significantly associated with PPCs (P=.004). Of the 15 PLA-screened biomarkers, posttreatment transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) was borderline significantly associated with PPCs (P=.087). Patients with PPCs had significantly larger pre-CCRT to post-CCRT decrease in serum TGF-β1 concentration (−11,310 vs −5332 pg/mL, P=.005) and higher pre-CCRT to post-CCRT percent decline in serum TGF-β1 concentration (−37.4% vs −25.0%, P=.009) than patients without PPCs. On multivariate analysis, preoperative FVC (P=.003) and decrease in TGF-β1 >7040 pg/mL (P=.014) were independent factors associated with PPCs. Conclusions: Preoperative FVC and decrease in serum TGF-β1 level after dose-limited CCRT to the lung are associated with the development of PPCs.

  15. Direct Oral Anticoagulants and Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, Hannah; Arachchillage, Deepa R. J.; Beyer-Westendorf, Jan; Middeldorp, Saskia; Kadir, Rezan A.

    2016-01-01

    Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) provide an effective, safe, and convenient therapeutic alternative to warfarin and other vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), and are now established for a wide range of indications. The use of DOACs in women merits special consideration due to two main situations: first,

  16. Risk of bleeding in patients undergoing percutaneous endoscopic gastrotrostomy (PEG tube insertion under antiplatelet therapy: a systematic review with a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo J. Lucendo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Patients undergoing percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG tube placement often are under antiplatelet therapy with a potential thromboembolic risk if these medications are discontinued. This systematic review aims to assess if maintaining aspirin and/or clopidogrel treatment increases the risk of bleeding following PEG placement. Methods: A systematic search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and SCOPUS databases was developed for studies investigating the risk of bleeding in patients on antiplatelet therapy undergoing PEG tube insertion. Summary estimates, including 95 % confidence intervals (CI, were calculated. A fixed or random effects model was used depending on heterogeneity (I². Publication bias risks were assessed by means of funnel plot analysis. Results: Eleven studies with a total of 6,233 patients (among whom 3,665 were undergoing antiplatelet treatment, met the inclusion criteria and were included in the quantitative summary. Any PEG tube placement-related bleeding was found in 2.67 % (95 % CI 1.66 %, 3.91 % of the entire population and in 2.7 % (95 % CI 1.5 %, 4.1 % of patients not receiving antiplatelet therapy. Pooled relative risk (RR for bleeding in patients under aspirin, when compared to controls, was 1.43 (95 % CI 0.89, 2.29; I² = 0 %; pooled RR for clopidogrel was 1.21 (95 % CI 0.48, 3.04; I² = 0 % and for dual antiplatelet therapy, 2.13; (95 % CI 0.77, 5.91; I² = 47 %. No significant publication bias was evident for the different medications analyzed. Conclusion: Antiplatelet therapy was safe among patients undergoing PEG tube insertion. Future prospective and randomized studies with larger sample sizes are required to confirm the results of this study.

  17. Body mass index is inversely associated with mortality in patients with acute kidney injury undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoungnae Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many epidemiologic studies have reported on the controversial concept of the obesity paradox. The presence of acute kidney injury (AKI can accelerate energy-consuming processes, particularly in patients requiring continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT. Thus, we aimed to investigate whether obesity can provide a survival benefit in this highly catabolic condition. Methods: We conducted an observational study in 212 patients who had undergone CRRT owing to various causes of AKI between 2010 and 2014. The study end point was defined as death that occurred within 30 days after the initiation of CRRT. Results: Patients were categorized into three groups according to tertiles of body mass index (BMI. During ≥30 days after the initiation of CRRT, 39 patients (57.4% in the highest tertile died, as compared with 58 patients (78.4% in the lowest tertile (P = 0.02. In a multivariable analysis adjusted for cofounding factors, the highest tertile of BMI was significantly associated with a decreased risk of death (hazard ratio [HR], 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37–0.87; P = 0.01. This significant association remained unaltered for 60-day (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.43–0.94; P = 0.03 and 90-day mortality (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.44–0.97; P = 0.03. Conclusion: This study showed that a higher BMI confer a survival benefit over a lower BMI in AKI patients undergoing CRRT.

  18. Principal component analysis identifies patterns of cytokine expression in non-small cell lung cancer patients undergoing definitive radiation therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susannah G Ellsworth

    Full Text Available Radiation treatment (RT stimulates the release of many immunohumoral factors, complicating the identification of clinically significant cytokine expression patterns. This study used principal component analysis (PCA to analyze cytokines in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients undergoing RT and explore differences in changes after hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT and conventionally fractionated RT (CFRT without or with chemotherapy.The dataset included 141 NSCLC patients treated on prospective clinical protocols; PCA was based on the 128 patients who had complete CK values at baseline and during treatment. Patients underwent SBRT (n = 16, CFRT (n = 18, or CFRT (n = 107 with concurrent chemotherapy (ChRT. Levels of 30 cytokines were measured from prospectively collected platelet-poor plasma samples at baseline, during RT, and after RT. PCA was used to study variations in cytokine levels in patients at each time point.Median patient age was 66, and 22.7% of patients were female. PCA showed that sCD40l, fractalkine/C3, IP10, VEGF, IL-1a, IL-10, and GMCSF were responsible for most variability in baseline cytokine levels. During treatment, sCD40l, IP10, MIP-1b, fractalkine, IFN-r, and VEGF accounted for most changes in cytokine levels. In SBRT patients, the most important players were sCD40l, IP10, and MIP-1b, whereas fractalkine exhibited greater variability in CFRT alone patients. ChRT patients exhibited variability in IFN-γ and VEGF in addition to IP10, MIP-1b, and sCD40l.PCA can identify potentially significant patterns of cytokine expression after fractionated RT. Our PCA showed that inflammatory cytokines dominate post-treatment cytokine profiles, and the changes differ after SBRT versus CFRT, with vs without chemotherapy. Further studies are planned to validate these findings and determine the clinical significance of the cytokine profiles identified by PCA.

  19. Antibody levels to tetanus, diphtheria, measles and varicella in patients with primary immunodeficiency undergoing intravenous immunoglobulin therapy: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Fernanda Aimée; Gonzalez, Isabela Garrido da Silva; Simão, Raquel Maria; de Moraes Pinto, Maria Isabel; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz Tavares

    2014-06-21

    Patients with antibody deficiencies depend on the presence of a variety of antibody specificities in intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) to ensure continued protection against pathogens. Few studies have examined levels of antibodies to specific pathogens in IVIG preparations and little is known about the specific antibody levels in patients under regular IVIG treatment. The current study determined the range of antibodies to tetanus, diphtheria, measles and varicella in IVIG products and the levels of these antibodies in patients undergoing IVIG treatment. We selected 21 patients with primary antibody deficiencies who were receiving regular therapy with IVIG. Over a period of one year, we collected four blood samples from each patient (every 3 months), immediately before immunoglobulin infusion. We also collected samples from the IVIG preparation the patients received the month prior to blood collection. Antibody levels to tetanus, diphtheria, measles and varicella virus were measured in plasma and IVIG samples. Total IgG levels were determined in plasma samples. Antibody levels to tetanus, diphtheria, varicella virus and measles showed considerable variation in different IVIG lots, but they were similar when compared between commercial preparations. All patients presented with protective levels of antibodies specific for tetanus, measles and varicella. Some patients had suboptimal diphtheria antibody levels. There was a significant correlation between serum and IVIG antibodies to all pathogens, except tetanus. There was a significant correlation between diphtheria and varicella antibodies with total IgG levels, but there was no significant correlation with antibodies to tetanus or measles. The study confirmed the variation in specific antibody levels between batches of the same brand of IVIG. Apart from the most common infections to which these patients are susceptible, health care providers must be aware of other vaccine preventable diseases, which still exist

  20. Preoperative physical therapy treatment did not influence postoperative pain and disability outcomes in patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopy: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia C

    2016-07-01

    contrast, age, pain intensity, disability, and pain-associated psychological factors did not differ between pre-op PT treatment groups (P>0.05. Subacromial bursectomies were more commonly performed in patients having pre-op PT treatment (P<0.05. Pre-op PT treatment did not influence length of post-op PT treatment and did not affect 3-month and 6-month pain intensity and disability outcomes. Differences in distribution of pre-op PT for males and females and subacromial bursectomy did not influence 3-month or 6-month postsurgical outcomes. Conclusion: Receiving pre-op PT treatment did not influence post-op PT treatment or pain and disability outcomes at 3 months and 6 months. This prospective cohort study provides no evidence of benefit for pre-op PT on post-op PT treatment or postsurgical outcomes. Females or patients receiving certain surgical procedures are more likely to undergo pre-op PT treatment. However, these differences did not influence postoperative outcomes in this cohort. Keywords: preoperative physical therapy, postoperative pain, postoperative disability, shoulder arthroscopy

  1. Aspirin in the Management of Patients with Prostate Cancer Undergoing Radiotherapy: Friend or Foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascan, Bianca; Marignol, Laure

    2018-04-01

    Aspirin has cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2)-mediated anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant properties that may confer a positive effect in preventing and limiting the progression of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer has been shown to have poor treatment outcomes due to therapeutic resistance; therefore, COX2 inhibition caused by aspirin could represent an opportunity to augment current therapies. This is particularly of interest to patients undergoing radiation therapy (RT) where inflammation is a common side-effect. This review discusses the evidence for the potential role of aspirin in the management of patients with prostate cancer undergoing RT. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  2. Standards of care issues with anticoagulation in real-world populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Current guidelines recommend anticoagulants for reducing the risk of stroke in appropriate patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) and for the acute treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and the prevention of recurrent VTE. Warfarin is the standard of care for both NVAF and VTE, yet International Normalized Ratio (INR) control remains suboptimal, even in the clinical trial setting. Maintaining INR within the recommended therapeutic range is associated with better outcomes in these distinct populations. In VTE, high rates of recurrence have been reported during the first few weeks of treatment, emphasizing the importance of surveillance during this time and of early optimization of anticoagulation therapy. The NVAF population tends to have more comorbidities and requires longer-term therapy. It is important to keep in mind that real-world patient populations are more complex than those in controlled studies. Patients with multiple comorbidities are particularly challenging, and physicians may focus on clinically urgent issues rather than anticoagulation optimization. Despite the many complexities associated with the use of warfarin, it remains a mainstay of anticoagulation therapy. Aligning financial incentives and improving care coordination are important factors in moving toward better outcomes for patients who need anticoagulation therapy. The increased focus on value-based care and evolving approaches to patient treatment could lead more physicians and payers to consider alternatives to warfarin, including the use of novel oral anticoagulants.

  3. Factors associated with cancer-related fatigue in breast cancer patients undergoing endocrine therapy in an urban setting: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Xu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatigue is prevalent in breast cancer survivors and has profound effects on daily life. The interference of fatigue with endocrine therapy may be difficult to separate. This study investigates the prevalence and severity of fatigue and identifies the demographic, clinical, and lifestyle factors associated with cancer-related fatigue (CRF in breast cancer patients undergoing endocrine therapy in an urban area. Methods Women with stage I-IIIA breast cancer were recruited and asked to participate (n = 371 in the study. The 315 women who responded to the questionnaire (84.9%, 54 (17.1% had completed endocrine therapy and 261 (82.9% were still undergoing endocrine therapy. The patients had been diagnosed at an average of 31 months prior to recruitment (range, 7 to 60 months; the average age was 48 (range, 33 to 72 years. The 11-point scale and Visual Analog Scale (VAS were employed to quantify the level of fatigue experienced by the patients. Logistic regression analyses and a trend test method were performed to evaluate factors associated with CRF. Results Among the 315 patients, 189 (60% had experienced or were experiencing CRF during endocrine therapy. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with CRF, including BMI (body mass index, clinical stage, menopausal status, duration of endocrine therapy, physical activity, and diet. Factors unrelated to CRF were age, marital status, treatment, endocrine therapy drugs, alcohol intake, and smoking. The trend test method revealed an association between physical activity and dietary level and the intensity of CRF. Conclusions The present findings suggest that fatigue is an important problem in the majority of breast cancer patients during endocrine therapy. We found that BMI, clinical stage, menopausal status, duration of endocrine therapy, physical activity, and diet are associated with fatigue. Future research should focus on the impact factors of CRF

  4. Cross-sectional imaging to evaluate the extent of regional nodal disease in breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant systemic therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Tara L., E-mail: anderson.tara@mayo.edu [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN, 55905 (United States); Glazebrook, Katrina N., E-mail: glazebrook.katrina@mayo.edu [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN, 55905 (United States); Murphy, Brittany L., E-mail: murphy.brittany@mayo.edu [Mayo Clinic, Department of Surgery, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN, 55905 (United States); Viers, Lyndsay D., E-mail: viers.lyndsay@mayo.edu [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN, 55905 (United States); Hieken, Tina J, E-mail: hieken.tina@mayo.edu [Mayo Clinic, Department of Surgery, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN, 55905 (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Purpose: Cross-sectional imaging often is performed in breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant systemic therapy (NST) and may identify level III axillary and extra-axillary nodal disease. Our aim was to investigate associations of radiologic nodal staging with pathological N (pN) stage at operation and to explore how this might aid surgical and radiotherapy treatment planning. Materials and methods: With IRB approval, we reviewed pre-treatment breast MRI, PET/CT, and CT imaging and clinicopathologic data on 348 breast cancer patients with imaging available for review undergoing NST followed by operation at our institution 1/2008-9/2013. We defined abnormal lymph node findings on MRI, CT, and PET/CT to include cortical thickening, FDG-avidity and loss of fatty hilum. Patients were assigned a radiologic nodal (rN) stage based on imaging findings. Statistical analysis was performed using JMP 10.1 software Results: Pre-NST imaging included axillary ultrasound in 338 patients (97%), breast MRI in 305 (88%) and PET/CT or CT in 215 (62%). 213 patients (61%) were biopsy-proven axillary lymph node-positive (LN+) pre-treatment. cT stage was T1 in 9%, T2 in 49%, T3 in 29%, T4 in 12%; median tumor size was 4 cm. Pre-treatment rN stage across all the patients was rN0 in 86 (25%), rN1 in 173 (50%), and rN3 in 89 (26%). rN3 disease included level III axillary, supraclavicular and suspicious internal mammary lymph nodes in 47 (53%), 32 (37%) and 45 (52%), respectively. Of patients LN+ at diagnosis, 78 (37%) were rN3. After NST, 162 patients (47%) were node-positive at operation with a median (mean) of 3 (5.9 ± 0.4) positive lymph nodes including 128 of 213 (60%) LN+ at diagnosis. Pre-NST rN stage correlated with the likelihood and extent of axillary disease at operation, p = 0.002. Fifty four of 89 rN3 patients (61%) were node-positive at operation with a median (mean) of 5 (8 ± 1) positive nodes. rN3 patients had larger nodal metastases (median 9 vs 6 mm) and more

  5. Cross-sectional imaging to evaluate the extent of regional nodal disease in breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant systemic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Tara L.; Glazebrook, Katrina N.; Murphy, Brittany L.; Viers, Lyndsay D.; Hieken, Tina J

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Cross-sectional imaging often is performed in breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant systemic therapy (NST) and may identify level III axillary and extra-axillary nodal disease. Our aim was to investigate associations of radiologic nodal staging with pathological N (pN) stage at operation and to explore how this might aid surgical and radiotherapy treatment planning. Materials and methods: With IRB approval, we reviewed pre-treatment breast MRI, PET/CT, and CT imaging and clinicopathologic data on 348 breast cancer patients with imaging available for review undergoing NST followed by operation at our institution 1/2008-9/2013. We defined abnormal lymph node findings on MRI, CT, and PET/CT to include cortical thickening, FDG-avidity and loss of fatty hilum. Patients were assigned a radiologic nodal (rN) stage based on imaging findings. Statistical analysis was performed using JMP 10.1 software Results: Pre-NST imaging included axillary ultrasound in 338 patients (97%), breast MRI in 305 (88%) and PET/CT or CT in 215 (62%). 213 patients (61%) were biopsy-proven axillary lymph node-positive (LN+) pre-treatment. cT stage was T1 in 9%, T2 in 49%, T3 in 29%, T4 in 12%; median tumor size was 4 cm. Pre-treatment rN stage across all the patients was rN0 in 86 (25%), rN1 in 173 (50%), and rN3 in 89 (26%). rN3 disease included level III axillary, supraclavicular and suspicious internal mammary lymph nodes in 47 (53%), 32 (37%) and 45 (52%), respectively. Of patients LN+ at diagnosis, 78 (37%) were rN3. After NST, 162 patients (47%) were node-positive at operation with a median (mean) of 3 (5.9 ± 0.4) positive lymph nodes including 128 of 213 (60%) LN+ at diagnosis. Pre-NST rN stage correlated with the likelihood and extent of axillary disease at operation, p = 0.002. Fifty four of 89 rN3 patients (61%) were node-positive at operation with a median (mean) of 5 (8 ± 1) positive nodes. rN3 patients had larger nodal metastases (median 9 vs 6 mm) and more

  6. Anticoagulant rodenticides and wildlife: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brink, Nico W.; Elliott, John E.; Shore, Richard F.; Rattner, Barnett A.; van den Brink, Nico W.; Elliott, John E.; Shore, Richard F.; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2018-01-01

    Rodents have interacted with people since the beginning of systematic food storage by humans in the early Neolithic era. Such interactions have had adverse outcomes such as threats to human health, spoiling and consumption of food sources, damage to human infrastructure and detrimental effects on indigenous island wildlife (through inadvertent anthropogenic assisted introductions). These socio/economic and environmental impacts illustrate the clear need to control populations of commensal rodents. Different methods have been applied historically but the main means of control in the last decades is through the application of rodenticides, mainly anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) that inhibit blood clotting. The so-called First Generation Anticoagulant Rodenticides (FGARs) proved highly effective but rodents increasingly developed resistance. This led to a demand for more effective alternative compounds and paved the way to the development of Second Generation Anticoagulant Rodenticides (SGARs). These were more acutely toxic and persistent, making them more effective but also increasing the risks of exposure of non-target species and secondary poisoning of predatory species. SGARs often fail the environmental thresholds of different regulatory frameworks because of these negative side-effects, but their use is still permitted because of the overwhelming societal needs for rodent control and the lack of effective alternatives. This book provides a state-of-the-art overview of the scientific advancements in assessment of environmental exposure, effects and risks of currently used ARs. This is discussed in relation to the societal needs for rodent control, including risk mitigation and development of alternatives.

  7. Monitoring Oral Anticoagulant Therapy: Measuring Coagulant Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Attermann, Jorn

    substudy we investigated the fundamental assumptions of the INR system. We found that the data from the comparison of three thromboplastin preparations (CRM 149S, Nycotest and Hepato Quick) were consistent with these assumptions and concluded that the INR system is valid for these thromboplastins...

  8. Managing reversal of direct oral anticoagulants in emergency situations Anticoagulation Education Task Force White Paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ageno, Walter; Büller, Harry R.; Falanga, Anna; Hacke, Werner; Hendriks, Jeroen; Lobban, Trudie; Merino, Jose; Milojevic, Ivan S.; Moya, Francisco; van der Worp, H. Bart; Randall, Gary; Tsioufis, Konstantinos; Verhamme, Peter; Camm, A. John

    2016-01-01

    Anticoagulation is the cornerstone of prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the mechanisms by which anticoagulants confer therapeutic benefit also increase the risk of bleeding. As such, reversal strategies

  9. A retrospective study to determine if there is a gender-related difference in weight loss in non-small cell lung cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, L.; Hodson, I.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if male non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients undergoing radiation therapy experience greater weight loss than female patients. A secondary objective was to demonstrate that a specific gender could be targeted earlier during treatment for nutritional consultations. Weight and nutritional consultation data were retrospectively collected from 40 patient charts. The sample had an equal number of males and females with similar patient characteristics. It was found that, on average, males lost more weight than females during radiation therapy and at follow-up. An independent samples t-test showed that the difference was statistically significant. Men had more weight loss than women during radiation therapy, suggesting men are at a greater risk for nutritional problems. Furthermore, more men that women experienced their maximum weight loss before receiving a nutritional consultation. Thus, males with NSCLC should be targeted earlier for dietary consultations to help maintain their weight. (author)

  10. Coagulation management in patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robba, Chiara; Bertuetti, Rita; Rasulo, Frank; Bertuccio, Alessando; Matta, Basil

    2017-10-01

    Management of coagulation in neurosurgical procedures is challenging. In this contest, it is imperative to avoid further intracranial bleeding. Perioperative bleeding can be associated with a number of factors, including anticoagulant drugs and coagulation status but is also linked to the characteristic and the site of the intracranial disorder. The aim of this review will be to focus primarily on the new evidence regarding the management of coagulation in patients undergoing craniotomy for neurosurgical procedures. Antihemostatic and anticoagulant drugs have shown to be associated with perioperative bleeding. On the other hand, an increased risk of venous thromboembolism and hypercoagulative state after elective and emergency neurosurgery, in particular after brain tumor surgery, has been described in several patients. To balance the risk between thrombosis and bleeding, it is important to be familiar with the perioperative changes in coagulation and with the recent management guidelines for anticoagulated patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures, in particular for those taking new direct anticoagulants. We have considered the current clinical trials and literature regarding both safety and efficacy of deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis in the neurosurgical population. These were mainly trials concerning both elective surgical and intensive care patients with a poor grade intracranial bleed or multiple traumas with an associated severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Coagulation management remains a major issue in patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures. However, in this field of research, literature quality is poor and further studies are necessary to identify the best strategies to minimize risks in this group of patients.

  11. Dental consultation in patients planned for/undergoing/post radiation therapy for head and neck cancers: a questionnaire-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainali, Apeksha; Sumanth, K N; Ongole, Ravikiran; Denny, Ceena

    2011-01-01

    Mouth and pharyngeal cancers account for approximately 6% of cancers worldwide. Radiotherapy is one of the means of treatment of head and neck cancer. Consultation with a dental team experienced in caring for patients undergoing treatment for head and neck cancer will improve the quality of life of such patients. To evaluate the attitude of oncologists toward dental consultation to patients planning for/prior to/undergoing/post radiation therapy for head and neck cancers and to evaluate the number of radiation oncologists who encounter oral complaints and consider worth referring to a dentist. A questionnaire-based study was carried out following mailing of covering letter and self-administered questionnaire comprising 11 items, to 25 radiation oncology centers selected in India based on convenient sampling. Out of the 25 centers, we received response from 20 centers with 60 completely filled questionnaires. Five centers did not respond for further correspondences. The study indicated a need for awareness and education among radiation oncologists regarding dental consultation in patients planned/undergoing /post radiation therapy for head and neck cancer.

  12. Direct oral anticoagulants and venous thromboembolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Franchini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Venous thromboembolism (VTE, consisting of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is a major clinical concern associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The cornerstone of management of VTE is anticoagulation, and traditional anticoagulants include parenteral heparins and oral vitamin K antagonists. Recently, new oral anticoagulant drugs have been developed and licensed, including direct factor Xa inhibitors (e.g. rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban and thrombin inhibitors (e.g. dabigatran etexilate. This narrative review focusses on the characteristics of these direct anticoagulants and the main results of published clinical studies on their use in the prevention and treatment of VTE.

  13. Secondary poisoning of owls by anticoagulant rodenticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, Vivian M.; Pank, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    Anticoagulants-compounds that prevent clotting of the blood-are extensively used for control of small mammal pests. The potential secondary hazards of 6 anticoagulant rodenticides to birds of prey were examined in this study. Whole rats or mice were killed with each anticoagulant and were fed to 1-3 species of owls. Owls died of hemorrhaging after feeding on rats killed with bromadiolone, brodifacoum, or diphacinone; sublethal hemorrhaging occurred in owls fed rats killed with difenacoum. These results demonstrate potential secondary hazards of 4 anticoagulants to avian predators. No abnormalities were observed in owls fed rats killed with fumarin and chlorophacinone

  14. Old and new oral anticoagulants for secondary stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Sacquegna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin K antagonists, such as warfarin, used in oral anticoagulation therapy currently represent the standard drugs for the primary and secondary prevention of stroke in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF, with a relative risk reduction close to 70%. Newer oral anticoagulants, such as direct thrombin inhibitors (i.e., dabigatran and direct factor Xa inhibitors (i.e., apixaban and rivaroxaban have been recently compared with warfarin in large randomized trials for stroke prevention in AF. The new oral anticoagulants showed, compared with warfarin, no statistically significant difference in the rate of stroke or systemic embolism in secondary prevention (patients with previous transient ischemic attack or stroke subgroups. With regard to safety, the risk of intracranial bleeding was reduced with new anticoagulants compared with warfarin. Indirect treatment comparisons of clinical trials on secondary prevention cohorts showed no significant difference in efficacy among apixaban, rivaroxaban, and dabigatran; but dabigatran 110 mg was associated with less intracranial bleedings than rivaroxaban.

  15. Association of β-Blocker Therapy With Risks of Adverse Cardiovascular Events and Deaths in Patients With Ischemic Heart Disease Undergoing Noncardiac Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Charlotte; Mérie, Charlotte; Jørgensen, Mads Wissenberg

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Clinical guidelines have been criticized for encouraging the use of β-blockers in noncardiac surgery despite weak evidence. Relevant clinical trials have been small and have not convincingly demonstrated an effect of β-blockers on hard end points (ie, perioperative myocardial infarction......, ischemic stroke, cardiovascular death, and all-cause death). OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of β-blocker treatment with major cardiovascular adverse events (MACE) and all-cause mortality in patients with ischemic heart disease undergoing noncardiac surgery. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, AND EXPOSURE...... to calculate the 30-day risks of MACE (ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, or cardiovascular death) and all-cause mortality associated with β-blocker therapy. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Thirty-day risk of MACE and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Of 28,263 patients with ischemic heart disease undergoing...

  16. Direct oral anticoagulants and digestive bleeding: therapeutic management and preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, David; Boustière, Christian; Ferrari, Emile; Albaladejo, Pierre; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel; Benamouzig, Robert

    2017-06-01

    The use of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) was an important step forward in the management of atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolism (VTE). The DOACs, anti-IIa for dabigatran and anti-Xa for rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban, all have a rapid onset of action and a short half life. There is no need for routine hemostasis testing for treatment monitoring of a DOAC. Compared with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), DOACs may increase the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding (relative risk 1.25). Withholding the DOAC treatment, evaluating the time of the last intake and estimating the patient's renal function are the first steps in the management of gastrointestinal bleeding. For patients without impaired renal function, achieving low coagulation takes around 24 h after the last intake of a DOAC. The use of DOAC antagonists will be helpful in controlling bleeding in the most severe and urgent situations. Idarucizumab is available for clinical use for dabigatran and andexanet is currently being reviewed by drug agencies for rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban. It is important to assess the bleeding risk associated with the planned procedure, and the patient's renal function before withholding DOAC therapy for a scheduled intervention. It is mandatory to strengthen the local hemostasis strategies in DOAC-treated patients undergoing a therapeutic endoscopic procedure. Resuming or not resuming anticoagulation with a DOAC after bleeding or a risky procedure depends on the thrombotic and bleeding risk as well as the procedure involved. This discussion should always involve the cardiologist and decisions should be taken by a pluridisciplinary team.

  17. Disparities in staging prostate magnetic resonance imaging utilization for nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients undergoing definitive radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayobami Ajayi, BA

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: In this urban, academic center cohort, older patients across all risk groups and black or nonprivate insurance patients in the low risk group were less likely to undergo staging prostate MRI scans. Further research should investigate these differences to ensure equitable utilization across all demographic groups considering the burden of prostate cancer disparities.

  18. The Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy versus Psychoeducation in the Management of Depression among Patients Undergoing Haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Saraireh, Faris A; Aloush, Sami M; Al Azzam, Manar; Al Bashtawy, Mohammed

    2018-01-25

    The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to compare the effectiveness of psychoeducation versus cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in the management of depression among renal dialysis patients. A sample of 130 dialysis patients participated in the study and they were assigned at random to one of two therapies: psychoeducation (N = 65) or CBT (N = 65). Hamilton depression rating scale was completed by the participants in both groups prior to the therapies and after completion. Both therapies were effective in the management of depression, although psychoeducation was superior. Psychoeducation is recommended over CBT in the management of depression among renal dialysis patients.

  19. Spontaneous pharyngo-laryngeal hematoma and anticoagulation. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleny CASASOLA-GIRÓN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Objective: Spontaneous pharyngeal-laryngeal hematoma shows the importance of a complete ENT examination in the face of symptoms of banal appearance and a correct history that, in the case reported, unveiled the therapeutic use of anticoagulants. Case description: A 55 year old woman comes to emergency because of unexplained dysphagia. The inspection shows the presence of a hematoma in the pharyngeal-laryngeal region that, after the anticoagulant therapy was reversed, evolved favorably with conservative treatment. Discussion: In this case, apart from medical management performed by the hematology department, we focus our therapeutic approach in the protection of the airway and the prevention of a possible massive bleeding. Determining which patients require endotracheal intubation or tracheostomy and hemostatic surgery is the key to treatment. Conclusions: The anticoagulant therapy involves several complications that ENT specialists must consider in the face of clinical symptoms of dysphagia, dysphonia, dyspnea or signs of bleeding and they must know the possibilities of performance depending on the severity of each case.

  20. Oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senoo, Keitaro; Lane, Deirdre A; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2014-09-01

    The availability of 4 non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs), that is, dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban, has changed the landscape of stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation. This review article provides an overview of the 4 phase III studies that have compared these NOACs, examining major outcomes of efficacy and safety. A range of practical questions relating to the NOACs have emerged, including topics such as patient selection, treating patients with renal impairment, treating elderly patients, and combining anticoagulant therapy with antiplatelet drugs. We also address the interaction of various patient characteristics with the treatments and suggest the features can assist the physician in the choice of a particular NOAC for a particular patient(s). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Antithrombotic Therapy in Patients with Prosthetic Heart Valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed HA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with mechanical valve prostheses require a lifelong anticoagulant treatment. The combined use of Warfarin and low-dose aspirin appears to reduce the risk of valve thrombosis and systemic embolism at a low risk of bleeding. The management of women with prosthetic heart valves during pregnancy poses a particular challenge, as there are no available controlled clinical trials to provide guidelines for effective antithrombotic therapy. Oral anticoagulants, such as Warfarin, cause foetal embryopathy; unfractionated heparin and low-molecular-weight heparin have been reported to be ineffective in preventing thromboembolic complications.This article discusses the available data and the most recent guidelines in the antithrombotic management of patients with prosthetic valves, and antithrombotic therapy in various clinical situations such as pregnant women with prosthetic heart valves, and patients with prosthetic heart valves undergoing noncardiac surgery.

  2. Anticoagulant activity of ginger ( Zingiber officinale Rosc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Herbal medicines with anticoagulant therapeutic claims could serve as veritable sources of new oral anticoagulant drugs with possible wider safety margins than the currently available ones. Objectives: This work was aimed at evaluating a Ginger Rhizome Methanolic Extract in vivo in rats for its potential ...

  3. Anticoagulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rounds Seminar Series & Daily Conferences Fellowships and Residencies School of Perfusion Technology Education Resources Library & Learning Resource Center CME Resources THI Journal THI Cardiac Society Register for the Cardiac Society ...

  4. Predictive and prognostic value of circulating nucleosomes and serum biomarkers in patients with metastasized colorectal cancer undergoing Selective Internal Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmueller, Yvonne Nadine; Nagel, Dorothea; Hoffmann, Ralf-Thorsten; Tatsch, Klaus; Jakobs, Tobias; Stieber, Petra; Holdenrieder, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT) is a new and effective locoregional anticancer therapy for colorectal cancer patients with liver metastases. Markers for prediction of therapy response and prognosis are needed for the individual management of those patients undergoing SIRT. Blood samples were prospectively and consecutively taken from 49 colorectal cancer patients with extensive hepatic metastases before, three, six, 24 and 48 h after SIRT to analyze the concentrations of nucleosomes and further laboratory parameters, and to compare them with the response to therapy regularly determined 3 months after therapy and with overall survival. Circulating nucleosomes, cytokeratin-19 fragments (CYFRA 21-1), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), C-reactive protein (CRP) and various liver markers increased already 24 h after SIRT. Pretherapeutical levels of CYFRA 21-1, CEA, cancer antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9), asparate-aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as well as 24 h values of nucleosomes were significantly higher in patients suffering from disease progression (N = 35) than in non-progressive patients (N = 14). Concerning overall survival, CEA, CA 19-9, CYFRA 21-1, CRP, LDH, AST, choline esterase (CHE), gamma-glutamyl-transferase, alkaline phosphatase, and amylase (all 0 h, 24 h) and nucleosomes (24 h) were found to be prognostic relevant markers in univariate analyses. In multivariate Cox-Regression analysis, the best prognostic model was obtained for the combination of CRP and AST. When 24 h values were additionally included, nucleosomes (24 h) further improved the existing model. Panels of biochemical markers are helpful to stratify pretherapeutically colorectal cancer patients for SIR-therapy and to early estimate the response to SIR-therapy

  5. An opioid-based pain control program for head and neck cancer patients undergoing chemoradiation therapy achieves a high completion rate of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kengo; Matsuura, Kazuto; Zenda, Sadamoto

    2011-01-01

    Appropriate supportive care is essential for intensive chemoradiation therapy (CRT), and pain management is an important supportive care for CRT for head and neck cancer. We developed an opioid-based pain control program for head and neck cancer patients undergoing CRT, and assessed its efficacy and safety. 110 head and neck cancer patients undergoing platinum-based concomitant CRT were enrolled from 10 cancer centers or university hospitals. Their pain caused by CRT was managed with a four-step opioid-based pain control program, and adverse events and usage of opioid were analyzed. 101 suitable cases of 110 patients were analyzed. 53% of cases suffered grade 3-4 mucositis. The rate of completion of radiotherapy was 99% and the rate of unplanned breaks in radiotherapy was 13%. The usage rate of opioid was 83% and the rate of compliance with the pain control program was 92%. The median maximum quantity of morphine used per day was 35 mg. No patient had to stop the opioid program or radiotherapy due to adverse effects of opioids. An opioid-based pain control program for head and neck cancer patients undergoing CRT achieves a high completion rate of radiation. (author)

  6. Can we withdraw anticoagulation in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome after seroconvertion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciascia, S; Coloma-Bazán, E; Radin, M; Bertolaccini, M L; López-Pedrera, C; Espinosa, Gerard; Meroni, P L; Cervera, R; Cuadrado, M J

    2017-11-01

    The current mainstay of treatment in patients with thrombotic antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is long-term anticoagulation, mainly with Vitamin K antagonist agents. Some recently available studies have created new ground for discussion about the possible discontinuation of anticoagulation therapy in patients with a history of thrombotic APS in whom antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) are not detected any longer (i.e. aPL seroconversion). We report the main points discussed at the last CORA Meeting regarding the issue whether or not anticoagulation can be stopped after aPL seroconversion. In particular, we systematically reviewed the available evidence investigating the clinical outcome of APS patients with aPL seroconversion in whom anticoagulation was stopped when compared to those in whom therapy was continued regardless the aPL profile. Furthermore, the molecular basis for the aPL pathogenicity, the available evidence of non-criteria aPL and their association with thrombosis are addressed. To date, available evidence is still limited to support the indication to stop oral anticoagulation therapy in patients with a previous diagnosis of thrombotic APS who subsequently developed a negative aPL profile. The identification of the whole risk profile for cardiovascular manifestations and possibly of a second level aPL testing in selected patients with aPL might support the eventual clinical decision but further investigation is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Complications in skin grafts when continuing antithrombotic therapy prior to cutaneous surgery requiring skin grafting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarjis, Reem Dina; Jørgensen, Lone; Finnerup, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The risk of postoperative bleeding and wound healing complications in skin grafts among anticoagulated patients undergoing cutaneous surgery has not been firmly established. The objective was to examine the literature and assess the risk of postoperative bleeding or wound healing...... complications in skin grafts among anticoagulated patients, compared with patients who discontinue or patients who are not receiving antithrombotic therapy prior to cutaneous surgery requiring skin grafting. A systematic review examining the effect of antithrombotic therapy on cutaneous surgery was performed...... studies were of prospective and retrospective design. Most of the reviewed studies suggest that the use of antithrombotic therapy can increase the risk of bleeding complications in skin grafts. These complications are only wound threatening and not life threatening. Therefore, this is of concern mostly...

  8. Normal Tissue Complication Probability Analysis of Acute Gastrointestinal Toxicity in Cervical Cancer Patients Undergoing Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Cisplatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, Daniel R.; Song, William Y.; Moiseenko, Vitali; Rose, Brent S.; Yashar, Catheryn M.; Mundt, Arno J.; Mell, Loren K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that increased bowel radiation dose is associated with acute gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity in cervical cancer patients undergoing concurrent chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), using a previously derived normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model. Methods: Fifty patients with Stage I–III cervical cancer undergoing IMRT and concurrent weekly cisplatin were analyzed. Acute GI toxicity was graded using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale, excluding upper GI events. A logistic model was used to test correlations between acute GI toxicity and bowel dosimetric parameters. The primary objective was to test the association between Grade ≥2 GI toxicity and the volume of bowel receiving ≥45 Gy (V 45 ) using the logistic model. Results: Twenty-three patients (46%) had Grade ≥2 GI toxicity. The mean (SD) V 45 was 143 mL (99). The mean V 45 values for patients with and without Grade ≥2 GI toxicity were 176 vs. 115 mL, respectively. Twenty patients (40%) had V 45 >150 mL. The proportion of patients with Grade ≥2 GI toxicity with and without V 45 >150 mL was 65% vs. 33% (p = 0.03). Logistic model parameter estimates V50 and γ were 161 mL (95% confidence interval [CI] 60–399) and 0.31 (95% CI 0.04–0.63), respectively. On multivariable logistic regression, increased V 45 was associated with an increased odds of Grade ≥2 GI toxicity (odds ratio 2.19 per 100 mL, 95% CI 1.04–4.63, p = 0.04). Conclusions: Our results support the hypothesis that increasing bowel V 45 is correlated with increased GI toxicity in cervical cancer patients undergoing IMRT and concurrent cisplatin. Reducing bowel V 45 could reduce the risk of Grade ≥2 GI toxicity by approximately 50% per 100 mL of bowel spared.

  9. Determinants of anxiety in patients with advanced somatic disease: differences and similarities between patients undergoing renal replacement therapies and patients suffering from cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiszewska, Justyna; Lichodziejewska-Niemierko, Monika; Gołębiewska, Justyna; Majkowicz, Mikołaj; Rutkowski, Bolesław

    2013-10-01

    Anxiety is the most frequent emotional reaction to the chronic somatic disease. However, little is known about anxiety and coping strategies in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing renal replacement therapies (RRTs). The purpose of the study was to assess the intensity and determinants of anxiety in patients treated with different RRTs in comparison with end-stage breast cancer patients and healthy controls. The study involved (1) ESRD patients undergoing different RRTs: 32 renal transplant recipients, 31 maintenance haemodialysis and 21 chronic peritoneal dialysis patients, (2) women with end-stage breast cancer (n = 25) and (3) healthy persons (n = 55). We used State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Scale of Personal Religiousness, Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale, Rotterdam Symptom Checklist with reference to medical history. The data thus obtained were analysed using the analysis of variance, the Tukey's HSD post hoc test and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Both ESRD and breast cancer patients revealed higher level of anxiety state and trait than healthy controls; however, there was no statistically significant difference found between both findings. There was a tendency towards higher levels of anxiety state in breast cancer patients when compared to ESRD patients undergoing the RRT treatment and for both groups non-constructive coping strategies correlated with the levels of anxiety state. With ESRD patients undergoing RRTs, the intensity of anxiety state did not depend on the mode of treatment but on the correlation between the levels of anxiety and the general quality of their life, psychological condition and social activity. In patients with advanced somatic disease (ESRD and end-stage breast cancer), non-constructive strategies of coping with the disease require further evaluation and possibly psychological support.

  10. Assessment of the Incidence of Posttreatment Endodontic Flare-ups in Patients undergoing Single-sitting Root Canal Therapies: A Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyank, Harsh; Devi, T M Chaitra; Goel, Pallavi; Sahu, Nivedita; Nihalani, Shweta; Shandilya, Ashutosh

    2016-10-01

    Endodontic therapy is one of the commonly used procedures for treating the teeth affected by various pathologies. One of the major problems for endodontists despite the advancements in the root canal procedures is the posttreatment endodontic flare-ups. Much debate exists regarding the completion of endodontic therapy in a single sitting or multiple sittings. Hence, we assessed the incidence of endodontic flare-ups in patients undergoing single-sitting root canal therapies. The present study included 200 patients who underwent single-sitting endodontic therapy. Clinical details and conditions of each and every tooth of every patient were recorded before and after the completion of endodontic therapy. Irrigation during the root canal procedures was done by 2.5% NaOCl solution in most of the cases while others were irrigated with various combinations of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and cycloheximide (CHX) solutions. Follow-up records and readings of the patents were noted and were subjected to statistical analysis. Four groups were formed which divided the patients equally on the basis of their age. Out of 50 patients in the age group of 21 to 30 years, only 4 showed posttreatment endodontic flare-ups, while no endodontic flare-up was recorded in patients with age group of 31 to 50 years. Only two male and four females showed flare-ups postoperatively. A nonsignificant correlation was obtained when flare-up cases were compared on the basis of type of irrigation solution used during canal preparation. Single-sitting endodontic therapy appears to be a successful procedure with good prognosis and minimal posttreatment flare-up results, even in patients with periapical pathologies. Single-sitting root canal procedures can be successfully carried in patients with vital or nonvital pulp tissues and also in patients with periapical lesions.

  11. Clinical and CT evaluation of hepatic reserve function in patients with cirrhosis and liver cancer undergoing interventional therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changxue; Tu Rong

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the value of clinical and CT assessment of hepatic reserve function in patients with cirrhosis and liver cancer undergoing transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). Methods: Sixty consecutive patients with cirrhosis and primary liver cancer treated using TACE were studied prospectively. The hepatic reserve function was evaluated using Child-Pugh classification and modified Child-Pugh classification before and after TACE respectively. The modified Child-Pugh classification was an integration of Child-Pugh classification, morphological evaluation of the cirrhotic liver and measurement of tumor-free liver volume by CT. Agreement rates of the two methods for assessing the hepatic reserve function peri-operatively and the survival time were calculated. Results: The agreement rates of Child-Pugh classification and modified Child-Pugh classification for assessing the postoperative hepatic reserve function were 55.6% and 83.3% respectively in well-compensated cases (P 2 =11.2, 8.7, 13.5, P<0.001) shorter than that of patients in modified Child-Pugh classes A (71 months), B (46 months) and C (7.6 months). Conclusion: Modified Child-Pugh classification is better than Child-Pugh classification for assessing the hepatic reserve function in patients with cirrhosis and liver cancer undergoing TACE. (authors)

  12. Oral Therapy, Microbiological Findings, and Comorbidity Influence the Outcome of Prosthetic Joint Infections Undergoing 2-Stage Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascione, Tiziana; Pagliano, Pasquale; Balato, Giovanni; Mariconda, Massimo; Rotondo, Renato; Esposito, Silvano

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate potential predictive factors of an unfavorable outcome in patients with prosthetic joint infection (PJI) undergoing 2-stage exchange. Patients with PJI undergoing 2-stage exchange and observed over a 5-year period (2009-2013) were included. Cure was defined by the disappearance of infection after a 96-week follow-up period. Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U test, the Fisher exact test, and the multivariate analysis. One-hundred twenty-two patients with PJI were included (median age, 69 years [range, 36-80 years]; 48% males, 47 hip PJI, and 75 knee PJI). Known comorbidities related to an increased risk of infection were reported in 43 patients (35%). Microbiological definition was obtained in 101 (83%) patients, and Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 44 (36%) patients. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were isolated in 41 (34%) patients. A favorable outcome was obtained in 102 of 122 patients (84%). After univariate analysis, bacterial growth from operative specimens (P = .007), growth of Gram-positive bacteria (P rate can be reduced with appropriate treatment choices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Target specific oral anticoagulants in the management of thromboembolic disease in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddula, Surekha; Ansell, Jack

    2013-08-01

    The elderly population represents a population at highest risk of thromboembolism, but also the most vulnerable to hemorrhage. In the community setting there is a general tendency to under- treat this patient group. Specific consideration must be taken with elderly patients because they have reduced renal function, co-morbidities and risk of falls, altered pharmacodynamics, and challenges with adherence. Vitamin K antagonists, most often warfarin, have been the first line choice of therapy for long-term anticoagulation and enjoyed an unopposed position in the market for the last 70 years. Recently several new oral anticoagulants have been developed and found to be equally effective as warfarin in phase III studies and may provide an optimal treatment option in the elderly population. In this review we explore the target-specific oral anticoagulants and the pharmacological differences between them with a focus on the elderly population in whom these new drugs would constitute a possible alternative to warfarin therapy.

  14. The impact of available anti-glaucoma therapy on the volume and age profile of patients undergoing glaucoma filtration surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keane, P A

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate whether new classes of glaucoma medication have influenced glaucoma filtration surgery over a 20-year period in the southeast region of Ireland. METHODS: All patients undergoing glaucoma filtration surgery between January 1986 and December 2005 in Waterford Regional Hospital were identified. The following data were recorded for each patient: age; sex; and type of filtration procedure. RESULTS: Over the 20-year study period two consultant ophthalmic surgeons performed a total of 760 glaucoma filtration procedures on patients aged over 20 years. The annual average number of glaucoma surgeries declined steadily, defined by availability of different topical anti-glaucoma medications, from an average of 23.75 surgeries per surgeon per year in the subperiod 1986-1995, to 21 in 1996, 20 in 1997, and 12.69 surgeries per surgeon per year in 1998-2005, these differences being statistically significant (general linear model, P<0.001). The age profile of patients did not change significantly over the course of the study period. CONCLUSIONS: The volume of patients requiring glaucoma filtration surgery under the care of two consultant ophthalmic surgeons decreased over the 20-year study period, an era in which three classes of anti-glaucoma medications were made available. However, an increase in the age profile of patients undergoing glaucoma filtration surgery during the same period was not observed. Further study is required to resolve whether introduction of the new topical anti-glaucoma medications has led to a real reduction in the demand for glaucoma filtration surgery, or has just led to the deferral of such a demand.

  15. Resistance Exercise and Inflammation in Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Adjuvant Radiation Therapy: Mediation Analysis From a Randomized, Controlled Intervention Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Martina E.; Meynköhn, Anna; Habermann, Nina; Wiskemann, Joachim; Oelmann, Jan; Hof, Holger; Wessels, Sabine; Klassen, Oliver; Debus, Jürgen; Potthoff, Karin; Steindorf, Karen; Ulrich, Cornelia M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the mediating role of inflammatory parameters in the development of fatigue, pain, and potentially related depressive symptoms during radiation therapy for breast cancer and its mitigation by resistance exercise. Methods and Materials: Breast cancer patients scheduled for adjuvant radiation therapy were randomized to 12-week progressive resistance exercise training (EX) or a relaxation control group. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) were measured in serum samples collected before, at the end, and 6 weeks after radiation therapy from 103 chemotherapy-naïve participants. Fatigue was assessed with the multidimensional Fatigue Assessment Questionnaire, pain with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30, and depressive symptoms with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Analysis of covariance models, partial correlations, Freedman-Schatzkin tests, and R"2 effect-size measures for mediation were calculated. Results: The analysis of covariance models revealed a significant intervention effect on IL-6 (P=.010) and the IL-6/IL-1ra ratio (P=.018), characterized by a marked increase during radiation therapy among controls, but no significant change in EX. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist did not change significantly in either group (P=.88). Increased IL-6 and IL-6/IL-1ra levels at the end of radiation therapy were significantly associated with increased physical fatigue and pain 6 weeks after radiation. We observed significant partial mediation by IL-6 and IL-6/IL-1ra of the effect of resistance exercise on physical fatigue (Freedman-Schatzkin P=.023 and P<.001) and pain (both P<.001). Hereby IL-6 and IL-6/IL-1ra mediated between 15% and 24% of the variance of physical fatigue and pain explained by the intervention. Conclusions: This randomized, controlled trial showed a significantly increased proinflammatory cytokine level after adjuvant radiation therapy in breast

  16. Resistance Exercise and Inflammation in Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Adjuvant Radiation Therapy: Mediation Analysis From a Randomized, Controlled Intervention Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Martina E., E-mail: m.schmidt@dkfz.de [Division of Preventive Oncology, National Center for Tumor Diseases and German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Meynköhn, Anna; Habermann, Nina [Division of Preventive Oncology, National Center for Tumor Diseases and German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Wiskemann, Joachim [Division of Medical Oncology, National Center for Tumor Diseases and University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany); Oelmann, Jan; Hof, Holger; Wessels, Sabine [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Center for Tumor Diseases and University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany); Klassen, Oliver [Division of Preventive Oncology, National Center for Tumor Diseases and German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Debus, Jürgen; Potthoff, Karin [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Center for Tumor Diseases and University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany); Steindorf, Karen; Ulrich, Cornelia M. [Division of Preventive Oncology, National Center for Tumor Diseases and German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-02-01

    Purpose: To explore the mediating role of inflammatory parameters in the development of fatigue, pain, and potentially related depressive symptoms during radiation therapy for breast cancer and its mitigation by resistance exercise. Methods and Materials: Breast cancer patients scheduled for adjuvant radiation therapy were randomized to 12-week progressive resistance exercise training (EX) or a relaxation control group. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) were measured in serum samples collected before, at the end, and 6 weeks after radiation therapy from 103 chemotherapy-naïve participants. Fatigue was assessed with the multidimensional Fatigue Assessment Questionnaire, pain with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30, and depressive symptoms with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Analysis of covariance models, partial correlations, Freedman-Schatzkin tests, and R{sup 2} effect-size measures for mediation were calculated. Results: The analysis of covariance models revealed a significant intervention effect on IL-6 (P=.010) and the IL-6/IL-1ra ratio (P=.018), characterized by a marked increase during radiation therapy among controls, but no significant change in EX. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist did not change significantly in either group (P=.88). Increased IL-6 and IL-6/IL-1ra levels at the end of radiation therapy were significantly associated with increased physical fatigue and pain 6 weeks after radiation. We observed significant partial mediation by IL-6 and IL-6/IL-1ra of the effect of resistance exercise on physical fatigue (Freedman-Schatzkin P=.023 and P<.001) and pain (both P<.001). Hereby IL-6 and IL-6/IL-1ra mediated between 15% and 24% of the variance of physical fatigue and pain explained by the intervention. Conclusions: This randomized, controlled trial showed a significantly increased proinflammatory cytokine level after adjuvant radiation therapy in breast

  17. Impact of INR monitoring, reversal agent use, heparin bridging, and anticoagulant interruption on rebleeding and thromboembolism in acute gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyoshi Nagata

    Full Text Available Anticoagulant management of acute gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB during the pre-endoscopic period has not been fully addressed in American, European, or Asian guidelines. This study sought to evaluate the risks of rebleeding and thromboembolism in anticoagulated patients with acute GIB.Baseline, endoscopy, and outcome data were reviewed for 314 patients with acute GIB: 157 anticoagulant users and 157 age-, sex-, and important risk-matched non-users. Data were also compared between direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs and warfarin users.Between anticoagulant users and non-users, of whom 70% underwent early endoscopy, no endoscopy-related adverse events or significant differences were found in the rate of endoscopic therapy need, transfusion need, rebleeding, or thromboembolism. Rebleeding was associated with shock, comorbidities, low platelet count and albumin level, and low-dose aspirin use but not HAS-BLED score, any endoscopic results, heparin bridge, or international normalized ratio (INR ≥ 2.5. Risks for thromboembolism were INR ≥ 2.5, difference in onset and pre-endoscopic INR, reversal agent use, and anticoagulant interruption but not CHA2DS2-VASc score, any endoscopic results, or heparin bridge. In patients without reversal agent use, heparin bridge, or anticoagulant interruption, there was only one rebleeding event and no thromboembolic events. Warfarin users had a significantly higher transfusion need than DOACs users.Endoscopy appears to be safe for anticoagulant users with acute GIB compared with non-users. Patient background factors were associated with rebleeding, whereas anticoagulant management factors (e.g. INR correction, reversal agent use, and drug interruption were associated with thromboembolism. Early intervention without reversal agent use, heparin bridge, or anticoagulant interruption may be warranted for acute GIB.

  18. Effective management of venous thromboembolism in the community: non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel R

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Raj Patel Department of Haematological Medicine, King's Thrombosis Centre, King's College Hospital, London, UK Abstract: Anticoagulation therapy is essential for the effective treatment and secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE. For many years, anticoagulation for acute VTE was limited to the use of initial parenteral heparin, overlapping with and followed by a vitamin K antagonist. Although highly effective, this regimen has several limitations and is particularly challenging when given in an ambulatory setting. Current treatment pathways for most patients with deep-vein thrombosis typically involve initial hospital or community-based ambulatory care with subsequent follow-up in a secondary care setting. With the introduction of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs into routine clinical practice, it is now possible for the initial acute management of patients with deep-vein thrombosis to be undertaken by primary care. As hospital admissions associated with VTE become shorter, primary care will play an increasingly important role in the long-term management of these patients. Although the NOACs can potentially simplify patient management and improve clinical outcomes, primary care physicians may be less familiar with these new treatments compared with traditional therapy. To assist primary care physicians in further understanding the role of the NOACs, this article outlines the main differences between NOACs and traditional anticoagulation therapy and discusses the benefit–risk profile of the different NOACs in the treatment and secondary prevention of recurrent VTE. Key considerations for the use of NOACs in the primary care setting are highlighted, including dose transition, risk assessment and follow-up, duration of anticoagulant therapy, how to minimize bleeding risks, and the importance of patient education and counseling. Keywords: venous thromboembolism, oral anticoagulant, prevention, treatment, primary

  19. The effect of the amiodarone-warfarin interaction on anticoagulation quality in a single, high-quality anticoagulation center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ryan D; Riggs, Kyle W; Ege, Ed J; Petroski, Gregory F; Koerber, Scott M; Flaker, Greg

    2016-03-01

    Clinical trials have reported a low time in therapeutic range (TTR) in patients with atrial fibrillation treated with both warfarin andamiodarone. These trials included centers and countries with both high and low TTRs. What is the impact of amiodarone on the TTR in a single, high-quality anticoagulation clinic? TTR was assessed in amiodarone and nonamiodarone-treated patients from a University anticoagulation clinic. Baseline characteristics between patients ever-taking or never-taking amiodarone were similar, except more amiodarone patients were smokers (19.5 vs. 6.1%, P = 0.0031). The TTR calculated from 8901international normalized ratios (INRs) in 249 nonamiodarone patients with a mean follow-up of 34 ± 20 months (mean INR 36 ± 18) was 66 ± 16.6% compared with 61.3 ± 16.2% (P = 0.111) from 1455 INRs in 41 amiodarone-treated patients with a mean follow-up of 28 ± 20 months (mean INR 35 ± 22). Factors associated with a low TTR were male sex (P = 0.0013), smoker (P = 0.0048), and amiodarone use (P = 0.0374). A second on-treatment analysis, in which the TTR was calculated only during amiodarone therapy, resulted in similar findings; however, amiodarone did not emerge as a predictor of a low TTR. In 11 patients, the TTR prior to amiodarone (54.5 ± 22.2%) was not significantly different in the first 3 months (54.6 ± 33.4%) or after 3 months (67.2 ± 33.7%) of amiodarone. In a single high-quality anticoagulation center, anticoagulation quality, as measured by the TTR, can be comparable in amiodarone and nonamiodarone-treated patients.

  20. Quantification of serial changes in cerebral blood volume and metabolism in patients with recurrent glioblastoma undergoing antiangiogenic therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadlbauer, Andreas, E-mail: andi@nmr.at [Institute of Medical Radiology, University Clinic of St. Pölten, Propst Führer-Straße 4, A-3100 St. Pölten (Austria); Department of Neurosurgery, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, D-91054 Erlangen (Germany); Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Medical University Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, A-1097 Vienna (Austria); Pichler, Petra [First Department of Internal Medicine, University Clinic of St. Pölten, Propst Führer-Straße 4, A-3100 St. Poelten (Austria); Karl, Marianne [Institute of Medical Radiology, University Clinic of St. Pölten, Propst Führer-Straße 4, A-3100 St. Pölten (Austria); Brandner, Sebastian [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, D-91054 Erlangen (Germany); Lerch, Claudia [Institute of Medical Radiology, University Clinic of St. Pölten, Propst Führer-Straße 4, A-3100 St. Pölten (Austria); Renner, Bertold [Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen (Germany); Heinz, Gertraud [Institute of Medical Radiology, University Clinic of St. Pölten, Propst Führer-Straße 4, A-3100 St. Pölten (Austria)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Antiangiogenic therapy can lead to a decreased in CBV in normal brain tissue. • Responding and pseudoresponding lesions to AAT showed a similar CBV decrease. • Cho and NAA allowed for a distinction of responding and pseudoresponding lesions. • Cr ratios are not suited for evaluation of antiangiogenic therapy response. • Responders to AAT may have an increased risk for remote progression of the GBM. - Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the usefulness of quantitative advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods for assessment of antiangiogenic therapy (AAT) response in recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Methods: Eighteen patients with recurrent GBM received bevacizumab and 18 patients served as control group. Baseline MRI and two follow-up examinations were acquired every 3–5 months using dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast (DSC) perfusion MRI and {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopic imaging ({sup 1}H-MRSI). Maps of absolute cerebral blood volume (aCBV) were coregistered with choline (Cho) and N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) concentrations and compared to usually used relative parameters as well as controls. Results: Perfusion significantly decreased in responding and pseudoresponding GBMs but also in normal appearing brain after AAT onset. Cho and NAA concentrations were superior to Cr-ratios in lesion differentiation and showed a clear gap between responding and pseudoresponding lesions. Responders to AAT exceptionally frequently (6 out of 8 patients) showed remote GBM progression. Conclusions: Quantification of CBV reveals changes in normal brain perfusion due to AAT, which were not described so far. DSC perfusion MRI seems not to be suitable for differentiation between response and pseudoresponse to AAT. However, absolute quantification of brain metabolites may allow for distinction due to a clear gap at 6–9 months after therapy onset.

  1. SU-E-J-122: Detecting Treatment-Induced Metabolic Abnormalities in Craniopharyngioma Patients Undergoing Surgery and Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, C; Shulkin, B; Li, Y; LI, X; Merchant, T [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Indelicato, D [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Boop, F [Semmes-Murphey Neurologic and Spine Institute, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To identify treatment-induced defects in the brain of children with craniopharyngioma receiving surgery and proton therapy using fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET). Methods: Forty seven patients were enrolled on a clinical trial for craniopharyngioma with serial imaging and functional evaluations. Proton therapy was delivered using the double-scattered beams with a prescribed dose of 54 Cobalt Gray Equivalent. FDG tracer uptake in each of 63 anatomical regions was computed after warping PET images to a 3D reference template in Talairach coordinates. Regional uptake was deemed significantly low or high if exceeding two standard deviations of normal population from the mean. For establishing the normal ranges, 132 children aged 1–20 years with noncentral nervous system related diseases and normal-appearing cerebral PET scans were analyzed. Age- and gender-dependent regional uptake models were developed by linear regression and confidence intervals were calculated. Results: Most common PET abnormality before proton therapy was significantly low uptake in the frontal lobe, the occipital lobe (particularly in cuneus), the medial and ventral temporal lobe, cingulate gyrus, caudate nuclei, and thalamus. They were related to injury from surgical corridors, tumor mass effect, insertion of a ventricular catheter, and the placement of an Ommaya reservoir. Surprisingly a significantly high uptake was observed in temporal gyri and the parietal lobe. In 13 patients who already completed 18-month PET scans, metabolic abnormalities improved in 11 patients from baseline. One patient had persistent abnormalities. Only one revealed new uptake abnormalities in thalamus, brainstem, cerebellum, and insula. Conclusion: Postoperative FDG PET of craniopharyngioma patients revealed metabolic abnormalities in specific regions of the brain. Proton therapy did not appear to exacerbate these surgery- and tumor-induced defects. In patients with persistent and

  2. SU-E-J-122: Detecting Treatment-Induced Metabolic Abnormalities in Craniopharyngioma Patients Undergoing Surgery and Proton Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, C; Shulkin, B; Li, Y; LI, X; Merchant, T; Indelicato, D; Boop, F

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To identify treatment-induced defects in the brain of children with craniopharyngioma receiving surgery and proton therapy using fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET). Methods: Forty seven patients were enrolled on a clinical trial for craniopharyngioma with serial imaging and functional evaluations. Proton therapy was delivered using the double-scattered beams with a prescribed dose of 54 Cobalt Gray Equivalent. FDG tracer uptake in each of 63 anatomical regions was computed after warping PET images to a 3D reference template in Talairach coordinates. Regional uptake was deemed significantly low or high if exceeding two standard deviations of normal population from the mean. For establishing the normal ranges, 132 children aged 1–20 years with noncentral nervous system related diseases and normal-appearing cerebral PET scans were analyzed. Age- and gender-dependent regional uptake models were developed by linear regression and confidence intervals were calculated. Results: Most common PET abnormality before proton therapy was significantly low uptake in the frontal lobe, the occipital lobe (particularly in cuneus), the medial and ventral temporal lobe, cingulate gyrus, caudate nuclei, and thalamus. They were related to injury from surgical corridors, tumor mass effect, insertion of a ventricular catheter, and the placement of an Ommaya reservoir. Surprisingly a significantly high uptake was observed in temporal gyri and the parietal lobe. In 13 patients who already completed 18-month PET scans, metabolic abnormalities improved in 11 patients from baseline. One patient had persistent abnormalities. Only one revealed new uptake abnormalities in thalamus, brainstem, cerebellum, and insula. Conclusion: Postoperative FDG PET of craniopharyngioma patients revealed metabolic abnormalities in specific regions of the brain. Proton therapy did not appear to exacerbate these surgery- and tumor-induced defects. In patients with persistent and

  3. Emotion recognition in early Parkinson's disease patients undergoing deep brain stimulation or dopaminergic therapy: a comparison to healthy participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey G. McIntosh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is traditionally regarded as a neurodegenerative movement disorder, however, nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration is also thought to disrupt non-motor loops connecting basal ganglia to areas in frontal cortex involved in cognition and emotion processing. PD patients are impaired on tests of emotion recognition, but it is difficult to disentangle this deficit from the more general cognitive dysfunction that frequently accompanies disease progression. Testing for emotion recognition deficits early in the disease course, prior to cognitive decline, better assesses the sensitivity of these non-motor corticobasal ganglia-thalamocortical loops involved in emotion processing to early degenerative change in basal ganglia circuits. In addition, contrasting this with a group of healthy aging individuals demonstrates changes in emotion processing specific to the degeneration of basal ganglia circuitry in PD. Early PD patients (EPD were recruited from a randomized clinical trial testing the safety and tolerability of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS in early-staged PD. EPD patients were previously randomized to receive optimal drug therapy only (ODT, or drug therapy plus STN-DBS (ODT+DBS. Matched healthy elderly controls (HEC and young controls (HYC also participated in this study. Participants completed two control tasks and three emotion recognition tests that varied in stimulus domain. EPD patients were impaired on all emotion recognition tasks compared to HEC. Neither therapy type (ODT or ODT+DBS nor therapy state (ON/OFF altered emotion recognition performance in this study. Finally, HEC were impaired on vocal emotion recognition relative to HYC, suggesting a decline related to healthy aging. This study supports the existence of impaired emotion recognition early in the PD course, implicating an early disruption of fronto-striatal loops mediating emotional function.

  4. Feasibility of a Mobile Application to Enhance Swallowing Therapy for Patients Undergoing Radiation-Based Treatment for Head and Neck Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starmer, Heather M; Abrams, Rina; Webster, Kimberly; Kizner, Jennifer; Beadle, Beth; Holsinger, F Christopher; Quon, Harry; Richmon, Jeremy

    2018-04-01

    Dysphagia following treatment for head and neck cancer is one of the most significant morbidities impacting quality of life. Despite the value of prophylactic exercises to mitigate the impact of radiation on long-term swallowing function, adherence to treatment is limited. The purpose of this investigation was to explore the feasibility of a mobile health application to support patient adherence to swallowing therapy during radiation-based treatment. 36 patients undergoing radiation therapy were provided with the Vibrent™ mobile application as an adjunct to standard swallowing therapy. The application included exercise videos, written instructions, reminders, exercise logging, and educational content. 80% of participants used the app during treatment and logged an average of 102 exercise sessions over the course of treatment. 25% of participants logged at least two exercise sessions per day over the 7-week treatment period, and 53% recorded at least one session per day. Exit interviews regarding the patient experience with the Vibrent™ mobile application were largely positive, but also provided actionable strategies to improve future versions of the application. The Vibrent™ mobile application appears to be a tool that can be feasibly integrated into existing patient care practices and may assist patients in adhering to treatment recommendations and facilitate communication between patients and providers between encounters.

  5. Nomogram Prediction of Survival and Recurrence in Patients With Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer Undergoing Curative Resection Followed by Adjuvant Chemoradiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Changhoon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyubo, E-mail: kyubokim@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chie, Eui Kyu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Ho [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jin-Young; Kim, Sun Whe [Department of Surgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sae-Won; Oh, Do-Youn; Im, Seock-Ah; Kim, Tae-You; Bang, Yung-Jue [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Sung W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To develop nomograms for predicting the overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) in patients with extrahepatic bile duct cancer undergoing adjuvant chemoradiation therapy after curative resection. Methods and Materials: From January 1995 through August 2006, a total of 166 consecutive patients underwent curative resection followed by adjuvant chemoradiation therapy. Multivariate analysis using Cox proportional hazards regression was performed, and this Cox model was used as the basis for the nomograms of OS and RFS. We calculated concordance indices of the constructed nomograms and American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system. Results: The OS rate at 2 years and 5 years was 60.8% and 42.5%, respectively, and the RFS rate at 2 years and 5 years was 52.5% and 38.2%, respectively. The model containing age, sex, tumor location, histologic differentiation, perineural invasion, and lymph node involvement was selected for nomograms. The bootstrap-corrected concordance index of the nomogram for OS and RFS was 0.63 and 0.62, respectively, and that of AJCC staging for OS and RFS was 0.50 and 0.52, respectively. Conclusions: We developed nomograms that predicted survival and recurrence better than AJCC staging. With caution, clinicians may use these nomograms as an adjunct to or substitute for AJCC staging for predicting an individual's prognosis and offering tailored adjuvant therapy.

  6. Isolation and characterization of anticoagulant compound from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GIS

    2013-10-02

    Oct 2, 2013 ... The structural characterization of anticoagulant GAG was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared ... for pharmaceutical use are currently not available. However ... methods and sold live in the market for human consump- tion.

  7. Cellular Profile and Expression of Immunologic Markers in Chronic Apical Periodontitis from HIV-infected Patients Undergoing Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Túlio Gustavo Veiga; Pires, Fabio Ramoa; Armada, Luciana; Gonçalves, Lucio Souza

    2016-06-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the inflammatory cell profile (CD3-, CD4-, CD8-, CD20-, and CD68-positive cells) and the expression of immunologic markers (tumor necrosis factor α, interferon-γ, interleukin-6, and interleukin-18) in chronic apical periodontitis are the same between non-HIV-infected patients and HIV-infected patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Thirty-four surgically excised chronic apical periodontitis lesions were sampled from 34 patients (17 HIV-infected and 17 non-HIV-infected). The lesions were extracted from teeth with no previous endodontic treatment. All HIV-infected patients were undergoing HAART. The specimens were submitted to histopathologic and immunohistochemical analyses by using an optical microscope. Immunoexpression was graded into 2 levels, focal to weak and moderate to strong. The χ(2), Fisher exact, and Mann-Whitney tests were used to analyze all significant differences between groups. Periapical cysts represented 70.6% and 52.9% of the lesions in the HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected groups, respectively; however, no statistically significant difference was observed (P = .481). There were no statistically significant differences between groups for the inflammatory cell profile and for any of the immunologic markers (P > .05). There are no statistically significant differences of the cellular profile and expression of immunologic markers in chronic apical periodontitis between non-HIV-infected patients and HIV-infected patients undergoing HAART. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of preoperative aspirin and clopidogrel therapy on perioperative blood loss and blood transfusion requirements in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae Kwang; Choi, Yong Seon; Oh, Young Jun; Bang, Sou Ouk; Yoo, Kyung Jong; Kwak, Young Lan

    2007-07-01

    Preoperative exposure to clopidogrel and aspirin significantly increases postoperative bleeding in patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Off-pump coronary bypass grafting has been proposed as an alternative technique to attenuate postoperative bleeding associated with clopidogrel. This study aimed to determine the effects of aspirin and clopidogrel therapy on perioperative blood loss and blood transfusion requirements in off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. One hundred six patients scheduled for off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting were divided into three groups: aspirin and clopidogrel discontinued more than 6 days before surgery (group 1, n = 35), aspirin and clopidogrel continued until 3 to 5 days before surgery (group 2, n = 51), and both medications continued within 2 days of surgery (group 3, n = 20). Thromboelastographic tracings were analyzed before induction of anesthesia. Routine coagulation profiles were measured before and after surgery. A cell salvage device was used during surgery and salvaged blood was reinfused. Chest tube drainage and blood transfusion requirement were recorded postoperatively. Patient characteristics, operative data, and thromboelastographic tracings were similar among the groups. There were significant decreases in hematocrit level and platelet count and prolongation in prothrombin time postoperatively in all groups without any intergroup differences. The amounts of perioperative blood loss and blood transfusion required were all similar among the groups. Preoperative clopidogrel and aspirin exposure even within 2 days of surgery does not increase perioperative blood loss and blood transfusion requirements in patients undergoing elective off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.

  9. Dental management for head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy: comprehensive patient based planning--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, Paola; Quek, Samuel; Cohen, Harold V

    2009-01-01

    Medical management of the head and neck cancer patient (HNCP) most often will include radiation therapy to the head and neck region. HNCPs with malignant disease require judicious dental treatment planning prior to radiation therapy (RT) and/or chemotherapy. RT can result in a multitude of adverse effects, both reversible and irreversible. We report a case of a patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the throat above the larynx (supraglottic), who did not adhere to dental treatment recommendations for both pre- and post radiation dental management. The focus of this case report is to create awareness within the clinician that, in addition to evaluating the patient for the disease related issues that may affect the oral cavity and dentition, a total management plan should include factors beyond the structural oral problems related to the cancer. Final treatment plans for the HNCP should include medical assessment of past dental history, oral hygiene, potential compliance, or lack of, to dental care recommendations, the emotional state of the patient, socio-economic status of the patient (lifestyle, cost of care), future quality of life, the medical and/or life prognosis of the patient.

  10. Studies on blood levels of hormones in patients undergoing surgery and radiation therapy for cervical cancer, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Motofumi

    1984-01-01

    Blood levels of LH, FSH, prolactin (PRL), progesterone (Prog), estrone (E 1 ), estradiol (E 2 ), testosterone (T), and cortisol (Cor) were determined in 5 patients treated with radiation therapy following surgical transposition of the ovaries (group A) and in 9 patients treated with surgical transposition alone (group B). Although disturbance in ovarian function was transiently observed during and after X-ray irradiation in the group A, blood levels of hormones returned to normal at 5-7 months after the completion of treatment. Cyclic changes in blood hormones were observed in 4 patients. These results indicated that ovarian function is fully conserved after X-ray irradiation. No remarkable changes in blood hormones were observed in the group B, suggesting that there is no effect of surgical procedure on ovarian function. However, because one patient receiving anticancer agents had transient disturbance in ovarian function, caution is necessary in the selection of anticancer agents. Surgical transposition of the ovaries is therefore considered to be a very simple, reasonable procedure when radiation therapy is required in patients with Ib or more advanced stages cervical cancer. (Namekawa, K.)

  11. Dose {sup 131}I radioactivity interfere with thyroglobulin measurement in patients undergoing radioactive iodine therapy with recombinant human TSH?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, So Hyun; Bang, Ji In; Lee, Ho Young; Kim, Sang Eun [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) is widely used in radioactive iodine therapy (RIT) to avoid side effects caused by hypothyroidism during the therapy. Owing to RIT with rhTSH, serum thyroglobulin (Tg) is measured with high 131I concentrations. It is of concern that the relatively high energy of 131I could interfere with Tg measurement using the immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). We investigated the effect of 131I administration on Tg measurement with IRMA after RIT. A total of 67 patients with thyroid cancer were analysed retrospectively. All patients had undergone rhTSH stimulation for RIT. The patients’ sera were sampled 2 days after 131I administration and divided into two portions: for Tg measurements on days 2 and 32 after 131I administration. The count per minute (CPM) of whole serum (200 μl) was also measured at each time point. Student’s paired t-test and Pearson’s correlation analyses were performed for statistical analysis. Serum Tg levels were significantly concordant between days 2 and 32, irrespective of the serum CPM. Subgroup analysis was performed by classification based on the 131I dose. No difference was noted between the results of the two groups. IRMA using 125I did not show interference from 131I in the serum of patients stimulated by rhTSH.

  12. Influence of reminder therapy for controlling bacterial plaque in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Igor Felipe Pereira; de Andrade Vieira, Walbert; de Macedo Bernardino, Ítalo; Costa, Pedro Augusto; Lima, Anderson Paulo Barbosa; Pithon, Matheus Melo; Paranhos, Luiz Renato

    2018-04-17

    To assess the scientific evidence regarding the influence of reminder therapy on plaque index, gingival index, and white spots in patients subjected to orthodontic treatment. Randomized clinical trials were searched in the electronic databases LILACS, PubMed, SciELO, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase, LIVIVO, and Cochrane Library. The databases OpenThesis and OpenGrey were used to capture the "gray literature," preventing selection and publication biases. The risk of bias was assessed by the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist for Randomized Controlled Trials tool. The software Review Manager was used for the meta-analysis. The heterogeneity among studies was assessed through the I 2 statistic. A summary of the overall strength of evidence available was assessed using the Grades of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation tool. A total of 332 records were found, from which only 7 articles met the inclusion criteria and were subjected to analysis. Reminder therapy showed improved scores for the plaque index (standardized mean difference = -1.22; 95% confidence interval = -2.03 to -0.42; P = .003) and the gingival index (standardized mean difference = 1.49; 95% confidence interval = -2.61 to 0.37; P = .009). Moreover, there was lower occurrence of white spots (relative risk = 0.53; 95% confidence interval = 0.38 to 0.74; P plaque and gingival indices as well as to the lower occurrence of white spots in patients subjected to orthodontic treatment.

  13. Patient education using virtual reality increases knowledge and positive experience for breast cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Yobelli A; Cumming, Steven; Wang, Wei; Stuart, Kirsty; Thwaites, David I; Lewis, Sarah J

    2018-03-13

    Improved access to technology in the radiation therapy (RT) workforce education has resulted in opportunities for innovative patient education methods. This study investigated the impact of a newly developed education tool using the Virtual Environment for Radiotherapy Training (VERT) system on patients' RT knowledge and anxiety. Breast cancer patients were recruited into a control group (CG) (n = 18) who underwent the standard pre-RT education package at a targeted cancer therapy centre, followed by a VERT group (VG) (n = 19). VG patients attended a VERT-based education session detailing RT immobilisation, planning and treatment. All patients completed questionnaires at four time points throughout their treatment, with survey sub-sections on RT knowledge, experience and anxiety. For both groups, anxiety levels were highest at time point 1(T1 after initial radiation oncologist consultation) (CG, 41.2; VG, 43.1), with a gradual decrease observed thereafter at time points before simulation, at the beginning of treatment and at the end of treatment (p > 0.05). The VG's RT knowledge scores were statistically significantly higher than those of the CG scores at all time points following VERT education (p education programs in improving RT knowledge and perhaps decreasing patient anxiety. Continued efforts are required to improve patients' accessibility to VERT in Australia, and to better understand the effect of VERT's unique educational features on patients' emotional and physical needs throughout their RT.

  14. Randomized controlled trial of a cognitive-behavioral therapy plus hypnosis intervention to control fatigue in patients undergoing radiotherapy for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Guy H; David, Daniel; Kangas, Maria; Green, Sheryl; Sucala, Madalina; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Hallquist, Michael N; Schnur, Julie B

    2014-02-20

    The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy plus hypnosis (CBTH) to control fatigue in patients with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy. We hypothesized that patients in the CBTH group receiving radiotherapy would have lower levels of fatigue than patients in an attention control group. Patients (n = 200) were randomly assigned to either the CBTH (n = 100; mean age, 55.59 years) or attention control (n = 100; mean age, 55.97 years) group. Fatigue was measured at four time points (baseline, end of radiotherapy, 4 weeks, and 6 months after radiotherapy). Fatigue was measured using the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT) -Fatigue subscale and Visual Analog Scales (VASs; Fatigue and Muscle Weakness). The CBTH group had significantly lower levels of fatigue (FACIT) at the end of radiotherapy (z, 6.73; P < .001), 4-week follow-up (z, 6.98; P < .001), and 6-month follow-up (z, 7.99; P < .001) assessments. Fatigue VAS scores were significantly lower in the CBTH group at the end of treatment (z, 5.81; P < .001) and at the 6-month follow-up (z, 4.56; P < .001), but not at the 4-week follow-up (P < .07). Muscle Weakness VAS scores were significantly lower in the CBTH group at the end of treatment (z, 9.30; P < .001) and at the 6-month follow-up (z, 3.10; P < .02), but not at the 4-week follow-up (P < .13). The results support CBTH as an evidence-based intervention to control fatigue in patients undergoing radiotherapy for breast cancer. CBTH is noninvasive, has no adverse effects, and its beneficial effects persist long after the last intervention session. CBTH seems to be a candidate for future dissemination and implementation.

  15. Nebulized anticoagulants limit pulmonary coagulopathy, but not inflammation, in a model of experimental lung injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstra, Jorrit J; Vlaar, Alexander P; Cornet, Alexander D; Dixon, Barry; Roelofs, Joris J; Choi, Goda; van der Poll, Tom; Levi, Marcel; Schultz, Marcus J

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary coagulopathy may contribute to an adverse outcome in lung injury. We assessed the effects of local anticoagulant therapy on bronchoalveolar and systemic haemostasis in a rat model of endotoxemia-induced lung injury. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were intravenously

  16. Recommendations for the anticoagulation of pregnant patients with mechanical heart valves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schapkaitz, Elise; Jacobson, Barry Frank; Manga, Pravin; Chitsike, Rufaro Saeed; Benade, Estee; Haas, Sylvia; Buller, Harry R.

    2015-01-01

    The management of pregnant patients with mechanical heart valves remains challenging because there are no large randomised studies to provide guidelines for effective anticoagulant therapy. Both vitamin K antagonists and heparins may be associated with maternal and foetal adverse events. The

  17. Home management of oral anticoagulation via telemedicine versus conventional hospital-based treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henry; Lauterlein, Jens-Jacob; Sørensen, Patricia D

    2011-01-01

    We have developed an expert computer system for the control of oral anticoagulation therapy, accessible by the patients via their own computer. To investigate if the weekly measurement and dosing of international normalized ratio (INR) at home using the online Internet-based system was superior t...

  18. Model of iodine metabolism in a T3-thyrotoxic patient undergoing I-131 therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahuja, S.; Price, R.; Brill, A. B.; Dobyns, B. M.; Berman, M.

    1975-06-01

    Data on radioactivity in the thyroid, urine, serum, butanol-extractable iodine (BEI) and chromatographic fractionations of BEI, obtained during four I-131 therapeutic treatments of a T3-thyrotoxic patient, have been analyzed and simulated with the help of a 7-compartment model. Good fits to most of the data can be obtained with both the dose-independent and dose-dependent models. A model with 3 or 4 compartments, which provides adequate fits to iodine kinetic data in most euthyroid and hyperthyroid patients is not satisfactory in the case of this patient. Thus, to represent iodine metabolism during T3-thyrotoxicosis therapy, we find that it is necessary to provide for separate biochemical pathways for the BEI components as well as the butanol-insoluble compounds released by the thyroid gland. (auth)

  19. Muscle function, physical performance and body composition changes in men with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas W Storer; Renee Miciek; Thomas G Travison

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common visceral malignancy in men with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) the preferred therapy to suppress testosterone production and hence tumor growth.Despite its effectiveness in lowering testosterone,ADT is associated with side effects including loss of muscle mass,diminished muscle strength,decrements in physical performance,earlier fatigue and declining quality of life.This review reports a survey of the literature with a focus on changes in muscle strength,physical function and body composition,due to short-term and long-term ADT.Studies in these areas are sparse,especially well-controlled,prospective randomized trials.Cross-sectional and longitudinal data (up to 2 years) for men with PCa treated with ADT as well as patients with PCa not receiving ADT and age-matched healthy men are presented when available.Based on limited longitudinal data,the adverse effects of ADT on muscle function,physical performance and body composition occur shortly after the onset of ADT andtend to persist and worsen over time.Exercise training is a safe and effective intervention for mitigating these changes and initial guidelines for exercise program design for men with PCa have been published by the American College of Sports Medicine.Disparities in study duration,typos of studies and other patient-specific variables such as time since diagnosis,cancer stage and comorbidities may all affect an understanding of the influence of ADT on health,physical performance and mortality.

  20. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for sleep disturbance in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hung-Yuan; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Wang, Hsi-Hao; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Lee, Yue-Joe; Peng, Yu-Sen; Wu, Kwan-Dun; Tsai, Tun-Jun

    2008-08-01

    Greater than 50% of dialysis patients experience sleep disturbances. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective for treating chronic insomnia, but its effectiveness has never been reported in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and its association with cytokines is unknown. We investigated the effectiveness of CBT in PD patients by assessing changes in sleep quality and inflammatory cytokines. Randomized control study with parallel-group design. 24 PD patients with insomnia in a tertiary medical center without active medical and psychiatric illness were enrolled. The intervention group (N = 13) received CBT from a psychiatrist for 4 weeks and sleep hygiene education, whereas the control group (N = 11) received only sleep hygiene education. Primary outcomes were changes in the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Fatigue Severity Scale scores, and secondary outcomes were changes in serum interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-1beta, IL-18, and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels during the 4-week trial. Median percentages of change in global Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores were -14.3 (interquartile range, -35.7 to - 6.3) and -1.7 (interquartile range, -7.6 to 7.8) in the intervention and control groups, respectively (P = 0.3). Median percentages of change in global Fatigue Severity Scale scores were -12.1 (interquartile range, -59.8 to -1.5) and -10.5 (interquartile range, -14.3 to 30.4) in the intervention and control groups, respectively (P = 0.04). Serum IL-1beta level decreased in the intervention group, but increased in the control group (P = 0.04). There were no significant differences in changes in other cytokines. This study had a small number of participants and short observation period, and some participants concurrently used hypnotics. CBT may be effective for improving the quality of sleep and decreasing fatigue and inflammatory cytokine levels. CBT can be an effective nonpharmacological therapy for PD patients with sleep disturbances.

  1. Traumatic events involving elderly patients treated with anticoagulants for atrial fibrillation: the downside of stroke prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Riccardi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A group of oral anticoagulant-treated patients affected by permanent atrial fibrillation was evaluated after their access to the emergency room as a result of a traumatic accident. In these patients, the re-evaluation of their risk of thromboembolism and bleeding was performed together with the evaluation of their risk of falling and institutionalization. Results show that the emergency department identifies a cohort of very elderly frail patients, who should be carefully reconsidered for anticoagulant therapy after a traumatic event.

  2. Acute management of stroke patients taking non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants Addressing Real-world Anticoagulant Management Issues in Stroke (ARAMIS) Registry: Design and rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Ying; Hernandez, Adrian F; Harding, Tina; Fonarow, Gregg C; Bhatt, Deepak L; Suter, Robert E; Khan, Yosef; Schwamm, Lee H; Peterson, Eric D

    2016-12-01

    Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs, dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban) have been increasingly used as alternatives to warfarin for stroke prophylaxis in patients with atrial fibrillation. Yet there is substantial lack of information on how patients on NOACs are currently treated when they have an acute ischemic stroke and the best strategies for treating intracerebral hemorrhage for those on chronic anticoagulation with warfarin or a NOAC. These are critical unmet needs for real world clinical decision making in these emergent patients. The ARAMIS Registry is a multicenter cohort study of acute stroke patients who were taking chronic anticoagulation therapy prior to admission and are admitted with either an acute ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage. Built upon the existing infrastructure of American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Get With the Guidelines Stroke, the ARAMIS Registry will enroll a total of approximately 10,000 patients (5000 with acute ischemic stroke who are taking a NOAC and 5000 with anticoagulation-related intracerebral hemorrhage who are on warfarin or a NOAC). The primary goals of the ARAMIS Registry are to provide a comprehensive picture of current treatment patterns and outcomes of acute ischemic stroke patients on NOACs, as well as anticoagulation-related intracerebral hemorrhage in patients on either warfarin or NOACs. Beyond characterizing the index hospitalization, up to 2500 patients (1250 ischemic stroke and 1250 intracerebral hemorrhage) who survive to discharge will be enrolled in an optional follow-up sub-study and interviewed at 3 and 6 months after discharge to assess longitudinal medication use, downstream care, functional status, and patient-reported outcomes. The ARAMIS Registry will document the current state of management of NOAC treated patients with acute ischemic stroke as well as contemporary care and outcome of anticoagulation-related intracerebral hemorrhage. These

  3. Tympanic membrane bleeding complications during hyperbaric oxygen treatment in patients with or without antiplatelet and anticoagulant drug treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijen, Valerie A.; Westerweel, Peter E.; van Ooij, Pieter Jan A. M.; van Hulst, Rob A.

    2016-01-01

    Middle ear barotrauma (MEBt) is a frequently occurring complication of hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT). High-grade MEBt may involve tympanic membrane (TM) haemorrhaging. Although many patients undergoing HBOT use antiplatelet or anticoagulant drugs, it is unknown whether these drugs increase the

  4. Simplified response monitoring criteria for multiple myeloma in patients undergoing therapy with novel agents using computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schabel, Christoph; Horger, Marius; Kum, Sara [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Eberhard-Karls-University Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Weisel, Katja [Department of Internal Medicine II – Hematology & Oncology, Eberhard-Karls-University Tuebingen, Otfried-Müller-Str. 5, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Fritz, Jan [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 N Wolfe St., Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Ioanoviciu, Sorin D. [Department of Internal Medicine, Clinical Municipal Hospital Timisoara, Gheorghe Dima Str. 5, 300079 Timisoara (Romania); Bier, Georg, E-mail: georg.bier@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Neuroradiology, Eberhard-Karls-University Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A simplified method for response monitoring of multiple myeloma is proposed. • Medullary bone lesions of all limbs were included and analysed. • Diameters of ≥2 medullary bone lesions are sufficient for therapy monitoring. - Abstract: Introduction: Multiple myeloma is a malignant hematological disorder of the mature B-cell lymphocytes originating in the bone marrow. While therapy monitoring is still mainly based on laboratory biomarkers, the additional use of imaging has been advocated due to inaccuracies of serological biomarkers or in a-secretory myelomas. Non-enhanced CT and MRI have similar sensitivities for lesions in yellow marrow-rich bone marrow cavities with a favourable risk and cost-effectiveness profile of CT. Nevertheless, these methods are still limited by frequently high numbers of medullary lesions and its time consumption for proper evaluation. Objective: To establish simplified response criteria by correlating size and CT attenuation changes of medullary multiple myeloma lesions in the appendicular skeleton with the course of lytic bone lesions in the entire skeleton. Furthermore to evaluate these criteria with respect to established hematological myeloma-specific parameters for the prediction of treatment response to bortezomib or lenalidomide. Materials and methods: Non-enhanced reduced-dose whole-body CT examinations of 78 consecutive patients (43 male, 35 female, mean age 63.69 ± 9.2 years) with stage III multiple myeloma were retrospectively re-evaluated. On per patient basis, size and mean CT attenuation of 2–4 representative lesions in the limbs were measured at baseline and at a follow-up after a mean of 8 months. Results were compared with the course of lytical bone lesions as well with that of specific hematological biomarkers. Myeloma response was assessed according to the International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) uniform response criteria. Testing for correlation between response of medullary lesions (Resp

  5. The effects of laughter therapy on mood state and self-esteem in cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Hee; Kook, Jeong Ran; Kwon, Moonjung; Son, Myeong Ha; Ahn, Seung Do; Kim, Yeon Hee

    2015-04-01

    To investigate whether laughter therapy lowers total mood disturbance scores and improves self-esteem scores in patients with cancer. Randomized controlled trial in a radio-oncology outpatient setting. Sixty-two patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to the experimental group (n=33) or the wait list control group (n=29). Three laughter therapy sessions lasting 60 minutes each. Mood state and self-esteem. The intention-to-treat analysis revealed a significant main effect of group: Experimental group participants reported a 14.12-point reduction in total mood disturbance, while the wait list control group showed a 1.21-point reduction (p=0.001). The per-protocol analysis showed a significant main effect of group: The experimental group reported a 18.86-point decrease in total mood disturbance, while controls showed a 0.19-point reduction (plaughter therapy can improve mood state and self-esteem and can be a beneficial, noninvasive intervention for patients with cancer in clinical settings.

  6. The German Aortic Valve Registry (GARY): a nationwide registry for patients undergoing invasive therapy for severe aortic valve stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, A; Hamm, C; Figulla, H R; Cremer, J; Kuck, K H; Lange, R; Zahn, R; Sack, S; Schuler, G C; Walther, T; Beyersdorf, F; Böhm, M; Heusch, G; Funkat, A K; Meinertz, T; Neumann, T; Papoutsis, K; Schneider, S; Welz, A; Mohr, F W

    2012-07-01

    Background The increasing prevalence of severe aortic valve defects correlates with the increase of life expectancy. For decades, surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR), under the use of extracorporeal circulation, has been the gold standard for treatment of severe aortic valve diseases. In Germany ~12,000 patients receive isolated aortic valve surgery per year. For some time, percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty has been used as a palliative therapeutic option for very few patients. Currently, alternatives for the established surgical procedures such as transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) have become available, but there are only limited data from randomized studies or low-volume registries concerning long-time outcome. In Germany, the implementation of this new technology into hospital care increased rapidly in the past few years. Therefore, the German Aortic Valve Registry (GARY) was founded in July 2010 including all available therapeutic options and providing data from a large quantity of patients.Methods The GARY is assembled as a complete survey for all invasive therapies in patients with relevant aortic valve diseases. It evaluates the new therapeutic options and compares them to surgical AVR. The model for data acquisition is based on three data sources: source I, the mandatory German database for external performance measurement; source II, a specific registry dataset; and source III, a follow-up data sheet (generated by phone interview). Various procedures will be compared concerning observed complications, mortality, and quality of life up to 5 years after the initial procedure. Furthermore, the registry will enable a compilation of evidence-based indication criteria and, in addition, also a comparison of all approved operative procedures, such as Ross or David procedures, and the use of different mechanical or biological aortic valve prostheses.Results Since the launch of data acquisition in July 2010, almost all institutions performing

  7. Survey of Michigan dentists and radiation oncologists on oral care of patients undergoing head and neck radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Yoshita; Bahlhorn, Hannah; Zafar, Saniya; Zwetchkenbaum, Samuel; Eisbruch, Avraham; Murdoch-Kinch, Carol Anne

    2012-07-01

    Oral complications of radiation therapy for head and neck cancer (HNC) are associated with a significant decline in oral health-related quality of life (OHQOL). The dentist, working with the radiation oncologist and the rest of the health care team, plays an important role in the prevention and management of these complications, but patients do not always receive care consistent with current guidelines. This study investigated barriers to recommended care. There is variability in knowledge and practice among dentists and radiation oncologists regarding the dental management of patients treated with head and neck radiotherapy (HNRT), and inadequate communication and collaboration between members of the patient's health care team contribute to inconsistencies in application of clinical care guidelines. There is on interest and need for continuing dental (CDE) and medical education (CME) on this topic. A questionnaire was developed to assess dentists' knowledge and practice of dental management of HNC patients and their interest in CDE on this topic. All members of the Michigan Dental Association (MDA) with email addresses were asked to complete the survey online, and a random sample of MDA members without email addresses was invited to complete a paper version of the same survey. All Michigan members of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) were invited to complete an online version of the survey modified for radiation oncologists. The response rate for dentists was 47.9% and radiation oncologists was 22.3%. Of the dentists who responded, 81% reported that a major barrier to providing dental treatment before radiotherapy was a lack of time between initial dental consultation and the start of radiation; inadequate communication between health care providers was blamed most frequently for this. Ten percent of the dentists and 25% of the radiation oncologists reported that they did not treat HNC patients because they lacked adequate training, and 55% of

  8. Surface electromyographic patterns of masticatory, neck, and trunk muscles in temporomandibular joint dysfunction patients undergoing anterior repositioning splint therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecco, Simona; Tetè, Stefano; D'Attilio, Michele; Perillo, Letizia; Festa, Felice

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity of neck, trunk, and masticatory muscles in subjects with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) internal derangement treated with anterior mandibular repositioning splints. sEMG activities of the muscles in 34 adult subjects (22 females and 12 males; mean age 30.4 years) with TMJ internal derangement were compared with a control group of 34 untreated adults (20 females and 14 males; mean age 31.8 years). sEMG activities of seven muscles (anterior and posterior temporalis, masseter, posterior cervicals, sternocleidomastoid, and upper and lower trapezius) were studied bilaterally, with the mandible in the rest position and during maximal voluntary clenching (MVC), at the beginning of therapy (T0) and after 10 weeks of treatment (T1). Paired and Student's t-tests were undertaken to determine differences between the T0 and T1 data and in sEMG activity between the study and control groups. At T0, paired masseter, sternocleidomastoid, and cervical muscles, in addition to the left anterior temporal and right lower trapezius, showed significantly greater sEMG activity (P = 0.0001; P = 0.0001; for left cervical, P = 0.03; for right cervical, P = 0.0001; P = 0.006 and P = 0.007 muscles, respectively) compared with the control group. This decreased over the remaining study period, such that after treatment, sEMG activity revealed no statistically significant difference when compared with the control group. During MVC at T0, paired masseter and anterior and posterior temporalis muscles showed significantly lower sEMG activity (P = 0.03; P = 0.005 and P = 0.04, respectively) compared with the control group. In contrast, at T1 sEMG activity significantly increased (P = 0.02; P = 0.004 and P = 0.04, respectively), but no difference was observed in relation to the control group. Splint therapy in subjects with internal disk derangement seems to affect sEMG activity of the masticatory, neck, and trunk

  9. Clinical effect of a dentifrice containing three kinds of bactericidal ingredients on periodontal disease: a pilot study in patients undergoing supportive periodontal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Daichi; Kinumatsu, Takashi; Yokomizo, Atsushi; Tanaka, Miki; Egawa, Masahiro; Makino-Oi, Asako; Tomita, Sachiyo; Saito, Atsushi

    2018-02-09

    This study aimed to evaluate clinically the effect of a novel dentifrice containing three kinds of bactericidal ingredients on periodontal disease. This was a single-arm, prospective clinical study that enrolled patients with periodontitis undergoing supportive periodontal therapy. Periodontal examination, microbiological testing of saliva samples, and evaluation of inflammatory markers (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α) in gingival crevicular fluid were performed. After 4 weeks of the use of test dentifrice, these parameters were re-evaluated. The use of dentifrice was also subjectively evaluated by clinicians and participants. Among 30 participants, there were significant improvements in the periodontal and microbiological parameters, and the level of interleukin-1β in the gingival crevicular fluid, following the use of the test dentifrice. In clinicians' subjective evaluation of the overall usefulness of the dentifrice, 'mild' and 'moderate' improvement accounted for 83% of the total responses. In the participants' subjective evaluation, the majority indicated their experience of the use as favorable. Within the limitations of this study, it is suggested that the progression of periodontal disease during the supportive periodontal therapy can be prevented by the use of the test dentifrice. Trial registration UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR) 000023175. Date of formal registration: July 14, 2016 ( https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr/ctr_view.cgi?recptno=R000026716 ).

  10. Anticoagulation and high dose liver radiation. A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lightdale, C.J.; Wasser, J.; Coleman, M.; Brower, M.; Tefft, M.; Pasmantier, M.

    1979-01-01

    Two groups of patients were observed for evidence of acute radiation hepatitis during high dose radiation to the liver. The first group of 18 patients with metastatic liver disease received an average of 4,050 rad to the whole liver. Half received anticoagulation with warfarin. One patient on anticoagulation developed evidence of acute radiation hepatitis while 2 patients did so without anticoagulation. Eleven patients with Hodgkin's disease received 4,000 rad to the left lobe of the liver during extended field radiation. Four of these 11 patients were anticoagulated to therapeutic range. Only one of the fully anticoagulated patients showed changes on liver scan consistent with radiation hepatitis whereas three did so without anticoagulation. No serious sequelae from anticoagulation occurred in either group. These preliminary data suggest that anticoagulation may be safely administered with high dose hepatic radiation and that further trials with anticoagulation are warranted

  11. Prospective evaluation of the prevalence and severity of fatigue in patients with prostate cancer undergoing radical external beam radiotherapy and neoadjuvant hormone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Pauline T; Berthelet, Eric; Lee, Junella C; Petersen, Ross; Lim, Jan T W; Gaul, Catherine A; Pai, Howard; Blood, Paul; Ludgate, Charles M

    2006-06-01

    To prospectively evaluate the prevalence and severity of fatigue and its impact on quality of life (QOL) during and after radical external beam radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer. Twenty-eight men with prostate cancer undergoing RT over 6-8 consecutive weeks were prospectively accrued. The Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI), a validated fatigue assessment tool, was administered at five time points: baseline (week 1), middle of RT (week 3-4), end of RT (last week of RT), and follow-up (median 6.5 weeks after RT). The BFI contained nine questions, each using 0-10 ratings to quantify fatigue severity and interference with six QOL domains. The prevalence of moderate-severe fatigue was plotted as a function of time. Mean sum and subscale scores at each time point were compared to baseline scores using Wilcoxon tests. Linear regression analyses were performed to assess associations between fatigue scores and age, tumor and treatment characteristics. The median age was 69 years (range 57-84), Gleason score 7 (range 6-10), and presenting PSA 9.0 ng/mL (range 2.5 ng/mL-103.0 ng/mL). Patients were treated once daily to a median dose of 74 Gy (range 60 Gy-78 Gy) over a median of 37 fractions (range 30-39). Hormone therapy was used in all patients (median duration 12.2 months). The prevalence of moderate-severe present fatigue increased from 7% at baseline to 8% at mid-RT and 32% at RT completion. Compared to baseline (mean score 11.5), fatigue increased significantly mid-RT (mean score 14.6, p = 0.03) and peaked at the end of RT (mean score 23.5, p = 0.001). Fatigue significantly interfered with walking ability, normal work, daily chores, and enjoyment of life only at the end of RT. After RT completion, fatigue improved but remained higher compared to baseline at 6.5 weeks of follow-up (mean score 15.0, p = 0.02). On linear regression analysis, age, Gleason score, PSA, T-stage, hormone therapy duration, RT dose and fractions were not significantly associated with mean fatigue

  12. Triple-class virologic failure in HIV-infected patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy for up to 10 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodwick, Rebecca; Costagliola, Dominique; Reiss, Peter

    2010-01-01

    /r) from 1998 onwards. We also focused on TCVF in patients who started a PI/r-containing regimen after a first-line NNRTI-containing regimen failed. RESULTS: Of 45 937 patients followed up for a median (interquartile range) of 3.0 (1.5-5.0) years, 980 developed TCVF (2.1%). By 5 and 9 years after starting...... ART, an estimated 3.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.1%-3.6%) and 8.6% (95% CI, 7.5%-9.8%) of patients, respectively, had developed TCVF. The incidence of TCVF rose during the first 3 to 4 years on ART but plateaued thereafter. There was no significant difference in the risk of TCVF according...... to whether the initial regimen was NNRTI or PI/r based (P = .11). By 5 years after starting a PI/r regimen as second-line therapy, 46% of patients had developed TCVF. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of virologic failure of the 3 original drug classes is low, but not negligible, and does not appear to diminish over...

  13. Enteral Feeding Tubes in Patients Undergoing Definitive Chemoradiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer: A Critical Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyfman, Shlomo A., E-mail: koyfmas@ccf.org [Departments of Radiation and Solid Tumor Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Adelstein, David J. [Departments of Radiation and Solid Tumor Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Definitive chemoradiation therapy has evolved as the preferred organ preservation strategy in the treatment of locally advanced head-and-neck cancer (LA-HNC). Dry mouth and dysphagia are among the most common and most debilitating treatment-related toxicities that frequently necessitate the placement of enteral feeding tubes (FT) in these patients to help them meet their nutritional requirements. The use of either a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube or a nasogastric tube, the choice of using a prophylactic vs a reactive approach, and the effects of FTs on weight loss, hospitalization, quality of life, and long-term functional outcomes are areas of continued controversy. Considerable variations in practice patterns exist in the United States and abroad. This critical review synthesizes the current data for the use of enteral FTs in this patient population and clarifies the relative advantages of different types of FTs and the timing of their use. Recent developments in the biologic understanding and treatment approaches for LA-HNC appear to be favorably impacting the frequency and severity of treatment-related dysphagia and may reduce the need for enteral tube feeding in the future.

  14. The Prevalence of Cardiac Risk Factors in Men with Localized Prostate Cancer Undergoing Androgen Deprivation Therapy in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot K. Davis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. While androgen deprivation therapy (ADT reduces the risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality in high-risk localized prostate cancer, it adversely affects cardiovascular (CV risk factor profiles in treated men. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 100 consecutive men with intermediate- or high-risk localized prostate cancer referred to the British Columbia Cancer Agency for ADT. Data on CV risk factors and disease were collected and Framingham risk scores were calculated. Results. The median age of the study cohort was 73 years. Established cardiovascular disease was present in 25% of patients. Among patients without established CV disease, calculated Framingham risk was high in 65%, intermediate in 33%, and low in 1%. Baseline hypertension was present in 58% of patients, dyslipidemia in 51%, and diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance in 24%. Hypertension was more prevalent in the study cohort than in an age- and sex-matched population sample (OR 1.74, P=0.006; diabetes had a similar prevalence (OR 0.93, P=0.8. Conclusions. Patients receiving ADT have a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease and risk factors and are more likely to be hypertensive than population controls. Low rates of CV risk screening suggest opportunities for improved primary and secondary prevention of CV disease in this population.

  15. Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy Are at Risk of Financial Toxicity: A Patient-based Prospective Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Joshua D; Patel, Tejash T; Eldredge-Hindy, Harriet; Keith, Scott W; Patel, Tapas; Malatesta, Theresa; DiNome, Jessie; Lowther, Anne; Ferguson, Linda; Wagenborg, Sally; Smyles, John; Babaria, Usha; Stabile, Richard; Gressen, Eric; Rudoler, Shari; Fisher, Scot A

    2018-06-01

    Little is known about the financial burden experienced by patients receiving radiation therapy. Furthermore, currently, no financial toxicity screening tools have been validated for use in radiation oncology. Physician surveys were used to gauge provider understanding of treatment costs and their willingness to adopt the use of financial toxicity screening tools. Post-treatment patient surveys were used to investigate the covariates of treatment-induced financial risk. Of the 210 radiation oncologists who completed our survey, 53% reported being "very concerned" with treatment-related costs negatively affecting their patients, and 80% believed that a financial toxicity screening tool would be useful in practice. An analysis of patient surveys using logistic regression found age and cancer site to be the most important variables associated with financial toxicity. Thirty-four patients (22%) experienced financial toxicity related to treatment. The financial toxicities experienced were loss of job (28%), loss of income (24%), difficulty paying their rent or mortgage (20%), difficulty paying for transportation (15%), and difficulty paying for meals (13%). Financial toxicity is an important measure for patients and providers and is experienced by approximately one quarter of patients. Further studies to improve models to predict financial toxicity and how financial toxicity is related to patient outcomes and quality of life are warranted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Behavioural and physiological outcomes of biofeedback therapy on dental anxiety of children undergoing restorations: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedeepya, P; Nuvvula, S; Kamatham, R; Nirmala, S V S G

    2014-04-01

    To explore the efficacy of biofeedback as possible alternative means of psychological behaviour guidance in children receiving dental restorations. Randomised clinical trial with a cross over design carried out on 40 children (19 boys and 21 girls) to determine the efficacy of biofeedback in reducing the dental anxiety through subjective and objective measures during restorative treatments under cotton roll isolation without administration of local analgesia. Highly anxious children with a minimum of five carious lesions were trained to lower their anxiety using biofeedback in five sessions within a 4-week interval, each session lasting for 45 min. After initial training, children were randomly divided into two groups and restorations were placed in four sequential therapeutic sessions with a 1-week interval and a follow-up visit 3 months later. First group received biofeedback in the second and third sessions; whereas the second group received biofeedback in the first and third sessions. Biofeedback therapy in children led to lower levels of anxiety in the initial appointments when assessed objectively, however the subjective methods of evaluation could not depict any statistically significant difference. Biofeedback can be used in the initial visits for dentally anxious children and the usage of simpler biofeedback machines for these appointments in dental setup is suggested.

  17. The risk of venous thromboembolism with aspirin compared to anticoagulants after hip and knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Janet N; Maselli, Judith; Auerbach, Andrew D; Fang, Margaret C

    2017-07-01

    Recent guidelines include aspirin as an option to prevent venous thromboembolism (VTE) in selected patients undergoing hip or knee replacement surgery. However, the efficacy of aspirin after arthroplasty has not been well-defined, particularly in more contemporary patient populations. We compared rates of post-operative VTE between patients who received aspirin-only versus anticoagulants after hip or knee arthroplasty, using data from a large US-based administrative database. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 231,780 adults who underwent total knee arthroplasty and 110,621 who underwent total hip arthroplasty in 2009-2012 and who received pharmacologic VTE prophylaxis (aspirin or anticoagulant) within the first 7days after surgery. We compared the risk of post-operative VTE between patients receiving aspirin-only vs. anticoagulants, controlling for clinical and hospital characteristics using multivariable logistic regression with propensity score adjustment. Aspirin-only prophylaxis was administered to 7.5% of patients after knee arthroplasty and 8.0% after hip arthroplasty. Post-operative VTE was diagnosed in 2217 (0.96%) patients after knee arthroplasty and 454 (0.41%) after hip arthroplasty. Compared to anticoagulants, aspirin was not associated with a higher risk for post-operative VTE either after knee arthroplasty (adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval [OR] 0.34 [0.24-0.48]) or hip arthroplasty (OR 0.82 [0.45-1.51]). Aspirin was uncommonly administered as the sole prophylactic agent after hip or knee arthroplasty in this study. However, patients who received aspirin-only had similar rates of post-operative VTE compared to patients who received anticoagulants. Further research should focus on distinguishing which patients benefit more from anticoagulants versus aspirin after arthroplasty. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of right ventricular oxidative metabolism by PET in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy undergoing cardiac resynchronisation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuuti, Juhani; Naum, Alexandru; Stolen, Kira Q.; Kalliokoski, Riikka [University of Turku, Turku PET Centre, P.O. Box 52, Turku (Finland); Sundell, Jan [University of Turku, Turku PET Centre, P.O. Box 52, Turku (Finland); University of Turku, Department of Medicine, Turku (Finland); Engblom, Erik; Koistinen, Juhani; Airaksinen, K.E. Juhani [University of Turku, Department of Medicine, Turku (Finland); Ylitalo, Antti [Satakunta Central Hospital, Department of Medicine, Pori (Finland); Nekolla, Stephan G. [Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Munich (Germany); Bax, K.E. Jeroen J. [Leiden University, Department of Cardiology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2004-12-01

    Right ventricular (RV) performance is known to have prognostic value in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) has been found to enhance left ventricular (LV) energetics and metabolic reserve in patients with heart failure. The interplay between the LV and RV may play an important role in CRT response. The purpose of the study was to investigate RV oxidative metabolism, metabolic reserve and the effects of CRT in patients with CHF and left bundle brach block. In addition, the role of the RV in the response to CRT was evaluated. Ten patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy who had undergone implantation of a biventricular pacemaker 8{+-}5 months earlier were studied under two conditions: CRT ON and after CRT had been switched OFF for 24 h. Oxidative metabolism was measured using [{sup 11}C]acetate positron emission tomography (K{sub mono}). The measurements were performed at rest and during dobutamine-induced stress (5 {mu}g/kg per minute). LV performance and interventricular mechanical delay (interventricular asynchrony) were measured using echocardiography. CRT had no effect on RV K{sub mono} at rest (ON: 0.052{+-}0.014, OFF: 0.047{+-}0.018, NS). Dobutamine-induced stress increased RV K{sub mono} significantly under both conditions but oxidative metabolism was more enhanced when CRT was ON (0.076{+-}0.026 vs 0.065{+-}0.027, p=0.003). CRT shortened interventricular delay significantly (45{+-}33 vs 19{+-}35 ms, p=0.05). In five patients the response to CRT was striking (32% increase in mean LV stroke volume, range 18-36%), while in the other five patients no response was observed (mean change +2%, range -6% to +4%). RV K{sub mono} and LV stroke volume response to CRT correlated inversely (r=-0.66, p=0.034). None of the other measured parameters, including all LV parameters and electromechanical parameters, were associated with the response to CRT. In responders, RV K{sub mono} with CRT OFF was significantly lower

  19. Outcome in elderly patients undergoing definitive surgery and radiation therapy for supratentorial glioblastoma multiforme at a tertiary care institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, Dasarahally S.; Suh, John H.; Phan, Jennifer L.; Kupelian, Patrick A.; Cohen, Bruce H.; Barnett, Gene H.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of definitive surgery and radiation in patients aged 70 years and older with supratentorial glioblastoma multiforme. Methods and Materials: We selected elderly patients (≥ 70 years) who had primary treatment for glioblastoma multiforme at our tertiary care institution from 1977 through 1996. The study group (n = 102) included 58 patients treated with definitive radiation, 19 treated with palliative radiation, and 25 who received no radiation. To compare our results with published findings, we grouped our patients according to the applicable prognostic categories developed by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG): RTOG group IV (n = 6), V (n = 70), and VI (n = 26). Patients were retrospectively assigned to prognostic group IV, V, or VI based on age, performance status, extent of surgery, mental status, neurologic function, and radiation dose. Treatment included surgical resection and radiation (n 49), biopsy alone (n = 25), and biopsy followed by radiation (n = 28). Patients were also stratified according to whether they were optimally treated (gross total or subtotal resection with postoperative definitive radiation) or suboptimally treated (biopsy, biopsy + radiation, surgery alone, or surgery + palliative radiation). Patients were considered to have a favorable prognosis (n = 39) if they were optimally treated and had a Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) score of at least 70. Results: The median survival for patients according to RTOG groups IV, V, and VI was 9.2, 6.6, and 3.1 months, respectively (log-rank, p < 0.0004). The median overall survival was 5.3 months. The definitive radiation group (n = 58) had a median survival of 7.3 months compared to 4.5 months in the palliative radiation group (n = 19) and 1.2 months in the biopsy-alone group (p < 0.0001). Optimally treated patients had a median survival of 7.4 months compared to 2.4 months in those suboptimally treated (p < 0.0001). The favorable prognosis group had an

  20. Effect of an interactive voice response system on oral anticoagulant management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oake, Natalie; van Walraven, Carl; Rodger, Marc A; Forster, Alan J

    2009-04-28

    Monitoring oral anticoagulants is logistically challenging for both patients and medical staff. We evaluated the effect of adding an interactive voice response system to computerized decision support for oral anticoagulant management. We developed an interactive voice response system to communicate to patients the results of international normalized ratio testing and their dosage schedules for anticoagulation therapy. The system also reminded patients of upcoming and missed appointments for blood tests. We recruited patients whose anticoagulation control was stable after at least 3 months of warfarin therapy. We prospectively examined clinical data and outcomes for these patients for an intervention period of at least 3 months. We also collected retrospective data for each patient for the 3 months before study enrolment. We recruited 226 patients between Nov. 23, 2006, and Aug. 1, 2007. The mean duration of the intervention period (prospective data collection) was 4.2 months. Anticoagulation control was similar for the periods during and preceding the intervention (mean time within the therapeutic range 80.3%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 77.5% to 83.1% v. 79.9%, 95% CI 77.3% to 82.6%). The interactive voice response system delivered 1211 (77.8%) of 1557 scheduled dosage messages, with no further input required from clinic staff. The most common reason for clinic staff having to deliver the remaining messages (accounting for 143 [9.2%] of all messages) was an international normalized ratio that was excessively high or low, (i.e., 0.5 or more outside the therapeutic range). When given the option, 76.6% of patients (164/214) chose to continue with the interactive voice response system for management of their anticoagulation after the study was completed. The system reduced staff workload for monitoring anticoagulation therapy by 48 min/wk, a 33% reduction from the baseline of 2.4 hours. Interactive voice response systems have a potential role in improving the

  1. Assessing Bleeding Risk in Patients Taking Anticoagulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoeb, Marwa; Fang, Margaret C.

    2013-01-01

    Anticoagulant medications are commonly used for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolism. Although highly effective, they are also associated with significant bleeding risks. Numerous individual clinical factors have been linked to an increased risk of hemorrhage, including older age, anemia, and renal disease. To help quantify hemorrhage risk for individual patients, a number of clinical risk prediction tools have been developed. These risk prediction tools differ in how they were derived and how they identify and weight individual risk factors. At present, their ability to effective predict anticoagulant-associated hemorrhage remains modest. Use of risk prediction tools to estimate bleeding in clinical practice is most influential when applied to patients at the lower spectrum of thromboembolic risk, when the risk of hemorrhage will more strongly affect clinical decisions about anticoagulation. Using risk tools may also help counsel and inform patients about their potential risk for hemorrhage while on anticoagulants, and can identify patients who might benefit from more careful management of anticoagulation. PMID:23479259

  2. Effects of a Group-Mediated Exercise and Dietary Intervention in the Treatment of Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Androgen Deprivation Therapy: Results From the IDEA-P Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focht, Brian C; Lucas, Alexander R; Grainger, Elizabeth; Simpson, Christina; Fairman, Ciaran M; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer M; Buell, Jackie; Monk, J Paul; Mortazavi, Amir; Clinton, Steven K

    2018-04-19

    Although androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) is the foundation of treatment for prostate cancer, the physiological impacts of ADT result in functional decline and enhanced risk of chronic disease and metabolic syndrome. The Individualized Diet and Exercise Adherence Pilot Trial (IDEA-P) is a single-blind, randomized, pilot trial comparing the effects of a group-mediated, cognitive-behavioral (GMCB) exercise and dietary intervention (EX+D) with those of a standard-of-care (SC) control during the treatment of prostate cancer patients undergoing ADT. A total of 32 prostate cancer patients (M age = 66.28, SD = 7.79) undergoing ADT were randomly assigned to the 12-week EX+D intervention (n = 16) or control (n = 16). The primary outcome in IDEA-P was change in mobility performance with secondary outcomes including body composition and muscular strength. Blinded assessment of outcomes were obtained at baseline and at 2- and 3-month follow-ups. Favorable adherence and retention rates were observed, and no serious intervention-related adverse events were documented. Intent-to-treat ANCOVA controlling for baseline value and ADT duration demonstrated that EX+D resulted in significantly greater improvements in mobility performance (p < .02), muscular strength (p < .01), body fat percentage (p < .05), and fat mass (p < .03) at 3-month follow-up, relative to control. Findings from the IDEA-P trial suggest that a GMCB-based EX+D intervention resulted in significant, clinically meaningful improvements in mobility performance, muscular strength, and body composition, relative to controls. Collectively, these results suggest that the EX+D was a safe and well-tolerated intervention for prostate cancer patients on ADT. The utility of implementing this approach in the treatment of prostate cancer patients on ADT should be evaluated in future large-scale efficacy trials. NCT02050906.

  3. Use of thromboelastography to tailor dual-antiplatelet therapy in patients undergoing treatment of intracranial aneurysms with the Pipeline embolization device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTaggart, Ryan A; Choudhri, Omar A; Marcellus, Mary L; Brennan, Tom; Steinberg, Gary K; Dodd, Robert L; Do, Huy M; Marks, Michael P

    2015-06-01

    Platelet function testing is controversial and not well studied in patients with neurovascular disease. To evaluate the performance of thromboelastography (TEG) as a platelet function test in neurovascular patients treated with the Pipeline embolization device (PED). A prospective protocol was instituted for platelet function testing in patients undergoing repair of intracranial aneurysms with the PED. All patients received dual antiplatelet therapy (DAT) and their response to both P2Y12 inhibitors and aspirin was quantified with TEG. Each patient's DAT induction strategy was tailored based on the percentage ADP-induced and percentage arachidonic acid-induced platelet inhibition reported by TEG. Data collected included clinical presentation, aneurysm characteristics, treatment details, and periprocedural events. Patients were followed up clinically and/or angiographically at 30 days, 6 months, and 1 year. Thirty-four PED procedures were performed on 31 patients. TEG results altered the DAT strategy in 35% of patients. Technical success with the Pipeline placement was 100%. Two patients had minor strokes and five had transient ischemic attacks (TIAs). There have been no hemorrhagic complications. No patient had permanent neurologic deficits. Six of eight (75%) of patients with thromboembolic/TIA events were ADP-induced hyporesponders by TEG. Our 6- and 12-month angiographic occlusion rates were 78.9% and 89.5%, respectively. The 19 major branches covered by the PED that were assessed by follow-up imaging have all remained patent. Platelet function testing with TEG altered our DAT induction strategy in a significant number of cases. No hemorrhagic or disabling thromboembolic complications were seen in this series. Future studies should compare methods of platelet function testing and, possibly, no platelet function testing in neurovascular patients undergoing flow diversion and/or stent-assisted treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Published by the BMJ

  4. Effects of recreational soccer in men with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy: study protocol for the ‘FC Prostate’ randomized controlled trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uth, Jacob; Brasso, Klaus; Rørth, Mikael; Krustrup, Peter; Midtgaard, Julie; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Christensen, Jesper Frank; Hornstrup, Therese; Andersen, Lars Juel; Hansen, Peter Riis; Christensen, Karl Bang; Andersen, Lars Louis; Helge, Eva Wulff

    2013-01-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a cornerstone in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. Adverse musculoskeletal and cardiovascular effects of ADT are widely reported and investigations into the potential of exercise to ameliorate the effects of treatment are warranted. The ‘Football Club (FC) Prostate’ study is a randomized trial comparing the effects of soccer training with standard treatment approaches on body composition, cardiovascular function, physical function parameters, glucose tolerance, bone health, and patient-reported outcomes in men undergoing ADT for prostate cancer. Using a single-center randomized controlled design, 80 men with histologically confirmed locally advanced or disseminated prostate cancer undergoing ADT for 6 months or more at The Copenhagen University Hospital will be enrolled on this trial. After baseline assessments eligible participants will be randomly assigned to a soccer training group or a control group receiving usual care. The soccer intervention will consist of 12 weeks of training 2–3 times/week for 45–60 min after which the assessment protocol will be repeated. Soccer training will then continue bi-weekly for an additional 20 weeks at the end of which all measures will be repeated to allow for additional analyses of long-term effects. The primary endpoint is changes in lean body mass from baseline to 12 weeks assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry scan. Secondary endpoints include changes of cardiovascular, metabolic, and physical function parameters, as well as markers of bone metabolism and patient-reported outcomes. The FC Prostate trial will assess the safety and efficacy of a novel soccer-training approach to cancer rehabilitation on a number of clinically important health outcomes in men with advanced prostate cancer during ADT. The results may pave the way for innovative, community-based interventions in the approach to treating prostate cancer. ClinicalTrials.gov: http

  5. Antiplatelet agents and/or anticoagulants are not associated with worse outcome following nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles-Sampaio, Elvira; Maia, Luís; Salgueiro, Paulo; Marcos-Pinto, Ricardo; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário; Pedroto, Isabel

    2016-11-01

    Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding emerges as a major complication of using antiplatelet agents and/or anticoagulants and represents a clinical challenge in patients undergoing these therapies. To characterize patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding related to antithrombotics and their management, and to determine clinical predictors of adverse outcomes. Retrospective cohort of adults who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy after nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding from 2010 to 2012. The outcomes were compared between patients exposed and not exposed to antithrombotics. Five hundred and forty-eight patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (67% men; mean age 66.5 ± 16.4 years) were included, of which 43% received antithrombotics. Most patients had comorbidities. Peptic ulcer was the main diagnosis and endoscopic therapy was performed in 46% of cases. The 30-day mortality rate was 7.7% (n = 42), and 36% were bleeding-related. The recurrence rate was 9% and 14% of patients with initial endoscopic treatment needed endoscopic retreatment. There were no significant differences between the exposed and non-exposed groups in most outcomes. Co-morbidities, hemodynamic instability, high Rockall score, low hemoglobin (7.76 ± 2.72 g/dL) and higher international normalized ratio (1.63 ± 1.13) were associated significantly with mortality in a univariate analysis. Adverse outcomes were not associated with antithrombotic use. The management of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding constitutes a challenge to clinical performance optimization and clinical cooperation.

  6. Is whole brain radiation therapy needed for all patients with newly diagnosed brain metastases undergoing stereotactic radiosurgery?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, John H.; Barnett, Gene H.; Miller, David W.; Kupelian, Patrick A.; Cohen, Bruce H.

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: Since whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) carries risks for long term survivors of brain metastases, some have advocated the use of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) alone for patients with brain metastases. We retrospectively reviewed our results of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) with immediate or delayed WBRT. MATERIALS/METHODS: From March 1990 to December 1996, linear accelerator-based SRS was performed on patients with Karnofsky score ≥ 70 and asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic brain metastases < 4 cm diameter. After excluding those patients with recurrent disease, 87 patients with 106 metastatic lesions (72 pts- single or solitary lesion, 13 pts- 2 lesions, 1 pt- 3 lesions, and 1 pt- 5 lesions) remained for analysis. The use of WBRT was dependent on physician preference but was given to all patients who developed local or regional failure after SRS. Survival was measured from the date of SRS until death or last follow-up using Kaplan-Meier method. Freedom from progression (FFP) was defined as no local or regional brain failure on follow-up radiographs and was measured from the date of SRS. RESULTS: Prognostic variables (age, sex, initial KPS, systemic disease, and extent of surgical resection) were similar for the 40 patients in the immediate WBRT group (iWBRT) and for the 47 patients in the delayed WBRT group (dWBRT). With a median follow-up of 5.8 months, no significant difference in median survival (6.9 months for both groups) was noted. On multivariate analysis, absence of systemic disease (p=0.008) and KPS 90-100 (p=0.001) were the only significant predictors for survival. For the 29 patients with a minimum KPS of 90 and no systemic disease, the median survival was 17.8 months. For those patients with a solitary lesion (no systemic disease), there was a trend for better median survival for the iWBRT group (22.8 months) versus the dWBRT group (9.3 months), p=0.06. FFP data was available on 78 patients (97 lesions). A significant difference was

  7. Diagnosis and therapy of cutaneous radiation syndrome. Individual radiosensitivity assessment in patients undergoing medical exposures presenting severe cutaneous radiation induced lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, Marina; Vallerga, Maria B.; Perez, Maria R.; Portas, Mercedes

    2007-01-01

    Hospital de Quemados del Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Burn Center) is one of the reference hospitals of the Medical Radiological Emergency Response Network of Argentina. In the frame of an agreement between the Burn Center and the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina, a research project for an approach based on diagnosis and therapy of cutaneous radiation induced lesions is in progress. Individual radiosensitivity assessment was conducted in patients included in this research protocol that showed acute and/or late cutaneous reactions with grades 3 and 4 of the Toxicity criteria of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) and the European organization for research and treatment of cancer (EORTC). DNA repair capacity and its kinetics were evaluated in human peripheral blood lymphocytes using alkaline comet assay and micronucleus test. In this paper, two representative cases, in which the research protocol was applied, are presented. Therapeutic response and its correlation with radiosensitivity test results are described. Case 1: female patient undergoing external radiotherapy for invasive ductal breast cancer that presented acute cutaneous radiotoxicity, grade 3 (confluent moist epithelitis, )that led to treatment break. Case 2: male patient undergoing coronary angioplasty (interventional radiology), which developed late cutaneous radiotoxicity, grade 4 (ulceration at the dorsal region). Patients were treated with: topic administration of trolamine and silver sulfadiazine with lidocaine, associated with systemic administration of pentoxiphiline and anti-oxidants. The therapeutic response was evaluated through clinical follow-up, serial photographic record and complementary tests (tele thermography and high frequency ultrasonography). Case 1 response was positive (favorable) with early local recovery and complete remission of signs and symptoms after 5 months. Both MN frequencies and comet assay showed values compatible with normal radiosensitivity

  8. Self-monitoring and self-management of oral anticoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneghan, Carl J; Garcia-Alamino, Josep M; Spencer, Elizabeth A; Ward, Alison M; Perera, Rafael; Bankhead, Clare; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Fitzmaurice, David; Mahtani, Kamal R; Onakpoya, Igho J

    2016-07-05

    The introduction of point-of-care devices for the management of patients on oral anticoagulation allows self-testing by the patient at home. Patients who self-test can either adjust their medication according to a pre-determined dose-INR (international normalized ratio) schedule (self-management), or they can call a clinic to be told the appropriate dose adjustment (self-monitoring). Increasing evidence suggests self-testing of oral anticoagulant therapy is equal to or better than standard monitoring. This is an updated version of the original review published in 2010. To evaluate the effects on thrombotic events, major haemorrhages, and all-cause mortality of self-monitoring or self-management of oral anticoagulant therapy compared to standard monitoring. For this review update, we re-ran the searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), 2015, Issue 6, the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (Ovid, 1946 to June week 4 2015), Embase (Ovid, 1980 to 2015 week 27) on 1 July 2015. We checked bibliographies and contacted manufacturers and authors of relevant studies. We did not apply any language restrictions . Outcomes analysed were thromboembolic events, mortality, major haemorrhage, minor haemorrhage, tests in therapeutic range, frequency of testing, and feasibility of self-monitoring and self-management. Review authors independently extracted data and we used a fixed-effect model with the Mantzel-Haenzel method to calculate the pooled risk ratio (RR) and Peto's method to verify the results for uncommon outcomes. We examined heterogeneity amongst studies with the Chi(2) and I(2) statistics and used GRADE methodology to assess the quality of evidence. We identified 28 randomised trials including 8950 participants (newly incorporated in this update: 10 trials including 4227 participants). The overall quality of the evidence was generally low to moderate. Pooled estimates showed a reduction in thromboembolic events (RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.45 to 0

  9. Reversal of target-specific oral anticoagulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, D.M.; Cuker, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs) provide safe and effective anticoagulation for the prevention and treatment of thrombosis in a variety of clinical settings by interfering with the activity of thrombin (dabigatran) or factor Xa (rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban, betrixaban). Although TSOACs have practical advantages over vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), there are currently no antidotes to reverse their anticoagulant effect. Herein we summarize the available evidence for TSOAC reversal using nonspecific and specific reversal agents. We discuss important limitations of existing evidence, which is derived from studies in human volunteers, animal models and in vitro experiments. Studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of reversal agents on clinical outcomes such as bleeding and mortality in patients with TSOAC-associated bleeding are needed. PMID:24880102

  10. Evaluation of hematuria in anticoagulated patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuttino, J.T.; Clark, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of investigating hematuria in anticoagulated patients the authors examined records of 25 consecutive patients with hematuria who were on an anticoagulation regimen with sodium warfarin (Coumadin) for various thromboembolic disorders. All had undergone intravenous urography (IVU) and 12 had undergone cystoscopy. Potential bleeding sources were discovered in 14 patients by IVU and in seven patients by cystoscopy. Disorders found were renal stones (4), transitional carcinoma (1), lymphoma (1), retroperitoneal hematoma (1), bladder tumors (2), calcified renal mass (1), hemorrhagic cystitis (2), and enlarged prostate (7). In 18 (72%) patients, the findings on IVU and/or cystoscopy were abnormal. Hematuria is a serious symptom that warrants investigation in anticoagulated as well as nonanticoagulated patients

  11. MARINE LEECH ANTICOAGULANT DIVERSITY AND EVOLUTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessler, Michael; Marancik, David; Champagne, Donald; Dove, Alistair; Camus, Alvin; Siddall, Mark E; Kvist, Sebastian

    2018-03-16

    Leeches (Annelida: Hirudinea) possess powerful salivary anticoagulants and, accordingly, are frequently employed in modern, authoritative medicine. Members of the almost exclusively marine family Piscicolidae account for 20% of leech species diversity, and feed on host groups (e.g., sharks) not encountered by their freshwater and terrestrial counterparts. Moreover, some species of Ozobranchidae feed on endangered marine turtles and have been implicated as potential vectors for the tumor-associated turtle herpesvirus. In spite of their ecological importance and unique host associations, there is a distinct paucity of data regarding the salivary transcriptomes of either of these families. Using next generation sequencing, we profiled transcribed, putative anticoagulants and other salivary bioactive compounds that have previously been linked to bloodfeeding from 7 piscicolid species (3 elasmobranch-feeders; 4 non-cartilaginous fish-feeders) and 1 ozobranchid species (2 samples). In total, 149 putative anticoagulants and bioactive loci were discovered in varying constellations throughout the different samples. The putative anticoagulants showed a broad spectrum of described antagonistic pathways, such as inhibition of factor Xa and platelet aggregation, that likely have similar bioactive roles in marine fish and turtles. A transcript with homology to ohanin, originally isolated from king cobras, was found in Cystobranchus vividus but is otherwise unknown from leeches. Estimation of selection pressures for the putative anticoagulants recovered evidence for both positive and purifying selection along several isolated branches in the gene trees and positive selection was also estimated for a few select codons in a variety of marine species. Similarly, phylogenetic analyses of the amino acid sequences for several anticoagulants indicated divergent evolution.

  12. A Pragmatic Evaluation of the National Cancer Institute Physician Data Query (PDQ)®-Based Brief Counseling on Cancer-Related Fatigue among Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauml, Joshua; Xie, Sharon X; Penn, Courtney; Desai, Krupali; Dong, Kimberly W; Bruner, Deborah Watkins; Vapiwala, Neha; Mao, Jun James

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Cancer-Related Fatigue (CRF) negatively affects quality of life among cancer patients. This study seeks to evaluate the outcome and patient receptiveness of a brief counseling program based on National Cancer Institute (NCI) PDQ® information to manage CRF when integrated into Radiation Therapy (RT). Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study among patients undergoing non-palliative RT. Patients with stage I–III tumors and with Karnofsky score 60 or better were given a ten-minute behavioral counseling session during the first two weeks of RT. The Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI) was administered at baseline/end of RT. Results Of 93 patients enrolled, 89% found the counseling useful and practical. By the end of RT, 59% reported increased exercise, 41.6% sought nutrition counseling, 72.7% prioritized daily activities, 74.4% took daytime naps, and 70.5% talked with other cancer patients. Regarding counseling, patients who had received chemotherapy prior to RT had no change in fatigue (−0.2), those who received RT alone had mild increase in fatigue (0.7, p=0.02), and those who received concurrent chemotherapy experienced a substantial increase in fatigue (3.0 to 5.2, p=0.05). Higher baseline fatigue and receipt of chemotherapy were predictive of worsened fatigue in a multivariate model (both p<0.01). Conclusion Our data suggests that brief behavioral counseling based on NCI guidelines is well accepted by patients showing an uptake in many activities to cope with CRF. Those who receive concurrent chemotherapy and with higher baseline fatigue are at risk for worsening fatigue despite of guideline-based therapy. PMID:29479490

  13. Effects of Different Exercise Modalities on Fatigue in Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Androgen Deprivation Therapy: A Year-long Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taaffe, Dennis R; Newton, Robert U; Spry, Nigel; Joseph, David; Chambers, Suzanne K; Gardiner, Robert A; Wall, Brad A; Cormie, Prue; Bolam, Kate A; Galvão, Daniel A

    2017-08-01

    Physical exercise mitigates fatigue during androgen deprivation therapy (ADT); however, the effects of different exercise prescriptions are unknown. To determine the long-term effects of different exercise modes on fatigue in prostate cancer patients undergoing ADT. Between 2009 and 2012, 163 prostate cancer patients aged 43-90 y on ADT were randomised to exercise targeting the musculoskeletal system (impact loading+resistance training; ILRT; n=58), the cardiovascular and muscular systems (aerobic+resistance training; ART; n=54), or to usual care/delayed exercise (DEL; n=51) for 12 mo across university-affiliated exercise clinics in Australia. Supervised ILRT for 12 mo, supervised ART for 6 mo followed by a 6-mo home program, and DEL received a printed booklet on exercise information for 6 mo followed by 6-mo stationary cycling exercise. Fatigue was assessed using the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 36 and vitality using the Short Form-36. Analysis of variance was used to compare outcomes for groups at 6 mo and 12 mo. Fatigue was reduced (p=0.005) in ILRT at 6 mo and 12 mo (∼5 points), and in ART (p=0.005) and DEL (p=0.022) at 12 mo. Similarly, vitality increased for all groups (p≤0.001) at 12 mo (∼4 points). Those with the highest levels of fatigue and lowest vitality improved the most with exercise (p trend fatigue and enhancing vitality during ADT. Patients with the highest levels of fatigue and lowest vitality had the greatest benefits. We compared the effects of different exercise modes on fatigue in men on androgen deprivation therapy. All exercise programs reduced fatigue and enhanced vitality. We conclude that undertaking some form of exercise will help reduce fatigue, especially in those who are the most fatigued. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A feasibility randomised controlled trial of pre-operative occupational therapy to optimise recovery for patients undergoing primary total hip replacement for osteoarthritis (PROOF-THR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepson, Paul; Sands, Gina; Beswick, Andrew D; Davis, Edward T; Blom, Ashley W; Sackley, Catherine M

    2016-02-01

    To assess the feasibility of a pre-operative occupational therapy intervention for patients undergoing primary total hip replacement. Single blinded feasibility randomised controlled trial, with data collection prior to the intervention, and at 4, 12, and 26 weeks following surgery. Recruitment from two NHS orthopaedic outpatient centres in the West Midlands, UK. Patients awaiting primary total hip replacement due to osteoarthritis were recruited. Following pre-operative assessment, patients were individually randomised to intervention or control by a computer-generated block randomisation algorithm stratified by age and centre. The intervention group received a pre-surgery home visit by an occupational therapist who discussed expectations, assessed home safety, and provided appropriate adaptive equipment. The control group received treatment as usual. The study assessed the feasibility of recruitment procedures, delivery of the intervention, appropriateness of outcome measures and data collection methods. Health related quality of life and resource use were recorded at 4, 12 and 26 weeks. Forty-four participants were recruited, 21 were randomised to the occupational therapy intervention and 23 to usual care. Analysis of 26 week data included 18 participants in the intervention group and 21 in the control. The intervention was delivered successfully with no withdrawals or crossovers; 5/44 were lost to follow-up with further missing data for participation and resource use. The feasibility study provided the information required to conduct a definitive trial. Burden of assessment would need to be addressed. A total of 219 patients would be required in an efficacy trial. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Thrombolytic therapy in pulmonary embolism.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nagi, D

    2010-01-01

    Massive pulmonary embolism carries a high mortality. Potential treatment includes anticoagulation, thrombolytic therapy and embolectomy. We report a case of deep vein thrombosis leading to progressive massive pulmonary embolism despite appropriate anticoagulation, where thrombolysis with IVC filter placement resulted in a successful outcome.

  16. [Retrospective analysis of correlative factors between digestive system injury and anticoagulant or antiplatelet-agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ning; Luo, Hesheng

    2014-05-27

    To explore the correlative factors and clinical characteristics of digestive system injury during the treatment of anticoagulant and (or) antiplatelet-agents. A total of 1 443 hospitalized patients on anticoagulant and (or) antiplatelet-agents from January 2010 to December 2013 at Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University were analyzed retrospectively. Their length of hospital stay was from 5 to 27 days. Most of them were elderly males (n = 880, 61.0%) with an average age of (62 ± 6) years. 1 138 patients (78.9%) were farmers, workers or someone without a specific occupation. During the treatment of anticoagulant/antiplatelet-agents, statistical difference existed (P = 0.01) between positively and negatively previous digestive disease groups for actively newly occurring digestive system injury (16.0% (41/256) vs 15.9% (189/1 187)). After the dosing of anticoagulant and (or) antiplatelet-agents, 57 (66.3%, 57/86) patients were complicated by hemorrhage of digestive tract, taking 62.9% (61/97) of all positive result patients for Helicobacter pylori test. Comparing preventive PPI group with no PPI group, there was no marked statistical differences (P = 2.67) for digestive system complication (including hemorrhage of digestive tract) while receiving anticoagulant and (or) antiplatelet-agents (13.9% (74/533) vs 17.1% (156/910)). During anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet-agent therapy, 185 patients (12.8%) were complicated by peptic ulcer or peptic ulcer with bleeding, 40 patients (2.8%) had erosive gastritis and 5 (0.3%) developed acute gastric mucosal lesions. And 42 of 76 patients complicated by hemorrhage of digestive tract underwent endoscopic hemostasis while 2 patients were operated. Ninety-seven patients (6.7%) died, including 61 (62.9%, 61/97) from hemorrhage of digestive tract. The remainder became cured, improved and discharged. Moreover, no significant statistical differences existed (P = 2.29) among three combination group (aspirin, clopidogrel, warfarin), two

  17. Excessive anticoagulation with warfarin or phenprocoumon may have multiple causes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meegaard, Peter Martin; Holck, Line H V; Pottegård, Anton

    2012-01-01

    Excessive anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists is a serious condition with a substantial risk of an adverse outcome. We thus found it of interest to review a large case series to characterize the underlying causes of excessive anticoagulation.......Excessive anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists is a serious condition with a substantial risk of an adverse outcome. We thus found it of interest to review a large case series to characterize the underlying causes of excessive anticoagulation....

  18. The effect of relaxation techniques on edema, anxiety and depression in post-mastectomy lymphedema patients undergoing comprehensive decongestive therapy: A clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Bahareh; Mirzakhany, Navid; Angooti Oshnari, Leila; Irani, Ashkan; Hosseinzadeh, Samaneh; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mehdi; Haghighat, Shahpar

    2018-01-01

    Lymphedema is sometimes accompanied by high degrees of anxiety and depression. This study aimed to assess the effects of relaxation techniques on the level of edema, anxiety and depression in women undergoing Comprehensive Decongestive Therapy (CDT). This clinical trial compared two treatment methods in 31 women with post-mastectomy lymphedema, including 15 cases who received CDT and 16 who received RCDT (Relaxation plus CDT). The edema volume, anxiety and depression scores were compared at the first and last sessions of the first phase of the treatment and six weeks afterwards. The edema, anxiety and depression scores were 63.6%, 54.1% and 65.5% in the RCDT group and 60.7%, 31.4% and 35.2% in the CDT group. There were significant differences between the two groups in terms of the reduction in depression (p = 0.024) and anxiety (p = 0.011) scores throughout the study. This significant relationship was due to the differences in the depression score in the 3rd and 9th weeks of the study between the two groups. Similarly, anxiety levels differed significantly between the two groups at the 9th week of the study (P = 0.013). Relaxation techniques reduced the anxiety and depression scores and the volume of edema in the patients with lymphedema. The addition of this intervention to the therapeutic package for lymphedema patients requires further studies in terms of cost-effectiveness.

  19. Early weight loss predicts the reduction of obesity in men with erectile dysfunction and hypogonadism undergoing long-term testosterone replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Mahmoud; Yassin, Dany-Jan; Shoukfeh, Huda; Nettleship, Joanne Elisabeth; Yassin, Aksam

    2017-03-01

    We and others have previously shown that testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) results in sustained weight loss in the majority of middle-aged hypogonadal men. Previously, however, a small proportion failed to lose at least 5% of their baseline weight. The reason for this is not yet understood. In the present study, we sought to identify early indicators that may predict successful long-term weight loss, defined as a reduction of at least 5% of total body weight relative to baseline weight (T0), in men with hypogonadism undergoing TRT. Eight parameters measured were assessed as potential predictors of sustained weight loss: loss of 3% or more of baseline weight after 1 year of TU treatment, severe hypogonadism, BMI, waist circumference, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1C ), age and use of vardenafil. Among the eight measured parameters, three factors were significantly associated with sustained weight loss over the entire period of TU treatment: (1) a loss of 3% of the baseline body weight after 1 year of TRT; (2) baseline BMI over 30; and (3) a waist circumference >102 cm. Age was not a predictor of weight loss.

  20. Current practice of antiplatelet and anticoagulation management in post-cardiac surgery patients: a national audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosmane, Sharath; Birla, Rashmi; Marchbank, Adrian

    2012-04-01

    The Audit and Guidelines Committee of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery recently published a guideline on antiplatelet and anticoagulation management in cardiac surgery. We aimed to assess the awareness of the current guideline and adherence to it in the National Health Service through this National Audit. We designed a questionnaire consisting of nine questions covering various aspects of antiplatelet and anticoagulation management in post-cardiac surgery patients. A telephonic survey of the on-call cardiothoracic registrars in all the cardiothoracic centres across the UK was performed. All 37 National Health Service hospitals in the UK with 242 consultants providing adult cardiac surgical service were contacted. Twenty (54%) hospitals had a unit protocol for antiplatelet and anticoagulation management in post-cardiac surgery. Only 23 (62.2%) registrars were aware of current European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery guidelines. Antiplatelet therapy is variable in the cardiac surgical units across the country. Low-dose aspirin is commonly used despite the recommendation of 150-300 mg. The loading dose of aspirin within 24 h as recommended by the guideline is followed only by 60.7% of surgeons. There was not much deviation from the guideline with respect to the anticoagulation therapy.

  1. Anticoagulant Medicine: Potential for Drug-Food Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medications Anticoagulants and Drug-Food Interactions Anticoagulants and Drug-Food Interactions Make an Appointment Ask a Question Refer Patient ... Jewish Health wants you to be aware these drug-food interactions when taking anticoagulant medicine. Ask your health care ...

  2. The pharmacology of recombinant hirudin, a new anticoagulant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new anticoagulant, recombinant hirudin, was given to healthy volunteers (5 per test dose) in single .intravenous doses of 0,01, 0,02, 0,04, 0,07 and 0,1 mg/kg to study its anticoagulant effects, how it was tolerated and its pharmacokinetics. Hirudin proved to be a potent anticoagulant with important effects on thrombin ...

  3. Comparing intracerebral hemorrhages associated with direct oral anticoagulants or warfarin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurogi, Ryota; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Nakai, Michikazu; Kada, Akiko; Kamitani, Satoru; Nakagawara, Jyoji; Toyoda, Kazunori; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Ono, Junichi; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki; Aruga, Toru; Miyachi, Shigeru; Nagata, Izumi; Matsuda, Shinya; Yoshimura, Shinichi; Okuchi, Kazuo; Suzuki, Akifumi; Nakamura, Fumiaki; Onozuka, Daisuke; Ido, Keisuke; Kurogi, Ai; Mukae, Nobutaka; Nishimura, Ataru; Arimura, Koichi; Kitazono, Takanari; Hagihara, Akihito

    2018-01-01

    Objectives This cross-sectional survey explored the characteristics and outcomes of direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC)–associated nontraumatic intracerebral hemorrhages (ICHs) by analyzing a large nationwide Japanese discharge database. Methods We analyzed data from 2,245 patients who experienced ICHs while taking anticoagulants (DOAC: 227; warfarin: 2,018) and were urgently hospitalized at 621 institutions in Japan between April 2010 and March 2015. We compared the DOAC- and warfarin-treated patients based on their backgrounds, ICH severities, antiplatelet therapies at admission, hematoma removal surgeries, reversal agents, mortality rates, and modified Rankin Scale scores at discharge. Results DOAC-associated ICHs were less likely to cause moderately or severely impaired consciousness (DOAC-associated ICHs: 31.3%; warfarin-associated ICHs: 39.4%; p = 0.002) or require surgical removal (DOAC-associated ICHs: 5.3%; warfarin-associated ICHs: 9.9%; p = 0.024) in the univariate analysis. Propensity score analysis revealed that patients with DOAC-associated ICHs also exhibited lower mortality rates within 1 day (odds ratio [OR] 4.96, p = 0.005), within 7 days (OR 2.29, p = 0.037), and during hospitalization (OR 1.96, p = 0.039). Conclusions This nationwide study revealed that DOAC-treated patients had less severe ICHs and lower mortality rates than did warfarin-treated patients, probably due to milder hemorrhages at admission and lower hematoma expansion frequencies. PMID:29490916

  4. Oral Anticoagulation: the impact of the therapy in health-related quality of life at six-month follow-up Anticoagulación oral: impacto de la terapia en la calidad de vida relacionada a la salud a lo largo de seis meses Anticoagulação oral: impacto da terapia na qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde ao longo de seis meses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Rodrigues da Silva Carvalho

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to study the changes in health-related quality of life from beginning of anticoagulation therapy to six-month follow-up, and to study associations of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics with measures of quality of life and general health status at six-month follow-up, in individuals using oral anticoagulation due to various medical indications for the therapy. METHOD: prospective study performed at a city in the state of Paraná, Brazil, composed of 78 patients. Measures included the Duke Anticoagulation Satisfaction Scale and the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form SF-36. RESULTS: mean age was 57 years (S.D.= 16 and 54% were women. Compared to the beginning of therapy, there was a statistically significant improvement in health-related quality of life at six-month follow-up. Linear regression analyses explained 32% and 30%, respectively, of the variance of the Duke Anticoagulation Satisfaction Scale and of the general health status. There was improvement in all components of the SF-36, except Mental Health. CONCLUSION: The use of oral anticoagulation therapy was associated with improvement in health-related quality of life in the first six months of therapy. This study is longitudinal and therefore, has fewer limitations than cross-sectional studies published to date in the Nursing literature in Brazil.OBJETIVO: Estudiar los cambios en la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud desde el inicio de la anticoagulación oral y al final de seis meses de tratamiento, y estudiar las asociaciones de las características sociodemográficas y clínicas con las medidas de calidad de vida y salud general seis meses después de iniciar la terapia, en pacientes con diversas indicaciones clínicas de anticoagulación oral. MÉTODO: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo en una ciudad de Paraná, Brasil, evaluando 78 pacientes. Las herramientas aplicadas fueron la Duke Anticoagulation Satisfaction Scale y el Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form

  5. [Drug compliance of patients on anticoagulant treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadó, Klára; Kocsis, Eszter; Zelkó, Romána; Hankó, Balázs; Kovácsné Balogh, Judit; Forczig, Mónika; Domján, Gyula

    2015-08-09

    Despite several therapeutic possibilities the morbidity and mortality of thromboembolic disorders remain high. Improving drug compliance - i. e. keeping up the doctor's prescriptions - may be an effective tool to reach better results. To improve patients' compliance, the risk factors of non-compliance should be recognized. Among these patients' fear of adverse effects of drugs, their lack of knowledge about their illness and medication, forgetfulness, and other social, economic factors may be the most important. Furthermore, adherence may be worsened when the patient feels that the decision has been made over his/her head. Sustained medical adherence is important because anticoagulation may be a life-long treatment. The new oral anticoagulants make the matter of compliance to be current. These new type of drugs do not need regular laboratory monitoring and, therefore, compliance cannot be strictly followed. There are several studies concerning drug compliance to anticoagulant medications. Improvement of adherence is based on regular patient education after reviewing the factors of non-compliance, which needs teamwork with important roles of doctors, pharmacists, dietetics and nurses. Careful and accurate work of the participants of primary care might be complemented by the activity of anticoagulant clinics.

  6. Does novel oral anticoagulant improve anticoagulation for non-valvular atrial fibrillation associated stroke: An inpatient registration study in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Di Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts: Objective: To summarize the use rate, safety, efficacy of antithrombotics in stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA prevention, and reasons for not using dabigatran etexilate (DE in Shanghai, China. Methods: Non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF-associated stroke patients were prospectively registered as an electronic database. Use rate of antithrombotics and reasons for not using DE were extracted during follow-up. Patients' baseline characteristics, recurrent ischemic stroke/TIA events and bleeding complications were analyzed. Patients: From April 2012 to August 2014, 110 inpatients with NVAF-associated stroke were studied in our hospital. NVAF was diagnosed by 12-lead electrocardiogram, 24 h Holter and echocardiography. Results: Before introduction of DE (April 2013, use rates of warfarin and antiplatelets were 28.9% (11/38 and 60.5% (23/38 respectively; after that, use rates of warfarin, DE, and antiplatelets were 20.8% (15/72, 12.5% (9/72, and 43.1% (31/72. The DE did not improve use of anticoagulants (P = 0.639. There were 19 (17.3% recurrent ischemic stroke events up to October 2015; two (9.5% in the non-user group, 10 (18.5% in the antiplatelet group, and seven (20.0% in the anticoagulants group (P = 0.570. Furthermore, recurrence rates were similar between the DE group (20.0% and the Warfarin group (20.0%, P = 1.000. The most common reason for not using DE was financial concerns (61.0%, followed by inconvenience to purchase (14.0% and hemorrhage concerns (11.0%. Two patients using warfarin found fecal occult blood so they stopped warfarin and began to use antiplatelet drugs. No bleeding event occurred in the other groups. Only one patient had side effects (dyspepsia and gastroesophageal reflux from DE. Conclusion: The use rate of either DE or warfarin in Shanghai was low; DE had not improved anticoagulation therapy for NVAF patients in Shanghai mainly because DE had not been covered by health insurance. Keywords

  7. The effects of short-term preoperative physical therapy and education on early functional recovery of patients younger than 70 undergoing total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukomanović Aleksandra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hip arthroplasty is a routine operation which relieves pain in patients with osteoarthritis. The role of physical therapy after hip arthroplasty was recognized, but the importance of preoperative physical therapy and education is still to be judged. The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of short-term preoperative program of education and physical therapy on patients' early functional recovery immediately after total hip arthroplasty (THA. Methods. This prospective study included 45 patients with hip osteoarthritis scheduled to undergo primary THA and admitted to the Department of Orthopedics of Military Medical Academy. They were randomized into 2 groups: study and control one (with and without preoperative education and physical therapy. Preoperative education was conducted through conversation (1 appointment with physiatrist and brochure. The study group was instructed to perform exercises and basic activities from the postoperative rehabilitation program (2 practical classes with physiotherapist. Effects were measured with questionnaires (Harris, Oxford and Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA hip scores, range of motion and visual analog scale of pain. Marks showing ability to perform basic activities and endurance were from 0 (did not perform activity to 5 (independent and secure. Analyses examined differences between the groups over the preoperative and immediate postoperative periods and 15 months after the operation. Results. There were no differences between the groups at discharge according to pain, range of motion, Harris hip score and JOA hip score. Oxford hip score did not differ between the groups 15 months after the operation. The groups started to walk at the same time, but the study group walked up and down stairs (3.7±1.66 vs 5.37±1.46, p ≤ 0.002, used toilet (2.3±0.92 vs 3.2±1.24, p ≤ 0.02 and chair (2.2±1.01 vs 3.25±1.21, p ≤ 0.006 significantly earlier than the control group. On the

  8. POST-NOAC: Portuguese observational study of intracranial hemorrhage on non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Matos, Cláudia; Alves, José Nuno; Marto, João Pedro; Ribeiro, Joana Afonso; Monteiro, Ana; Araújo, José; Silva, Fernando; Grenho, Fátima; Viana-Baptista, Miguel; Sargento-Freitas, João; Pinho, João; Azevedo, Elsa

    2017-08-01

    Background There is a lower reported incidence of intracranial hemorrhage with non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants compared with vitamin K antagonist. However, the functional outcome and mortality of intracranial hemorrhage patients were not assessed. Aims To compare the outcome of vitamin K antagonists- and non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants-related intracranial hemorrhage. Methods We included consecutive patients with acute non-traumatic intracranial hemorrhage on oral anticoagulation therapy admitted between January 2013 and June 2015 at four university hospitals. Clinical and demographic data were obtained from individual medical records. Intracranial hemorrhage was classified as intracerebral, extra-axial, or multifocal using brain computed tomography. Three-month functional outcome was assessed using the modified Rankin Scale. Results Among 246 patients included, 24 (9.8%) were anticoagulated with a non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants and 222 (90.2%) with a vitamin K antagonists. Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants patients were older (81.5 vs. 76 years, p = 0.048) and had intracerebral hemorrhage more often (83.3% vs. 63.1%, p = 0.048). We detected a non-significant trend for larger intracerebral hemorrhage volumes in vitamin K antagonists patients ( p = 0.368). Survival analysis adjusted for age, CHA 2 DS 2 VASc, HAS-BLED, and anticoagulation reversal revealed that non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants did not influence three-month mortality (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.39-1.80, p = 0.638). Multivariable ordinal regression for three-month functional outcome did not show a significant shift of modified Rankin Scale scores in non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants patients (odds ratio (OR) 1.26, 95%CI 0.55-2.87, p = 0.585). Conclusions We detected no significant differences in the three-month outcome between non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants

  9. Management of antithrombotic therapy in patients with coronary artery disease or atrial fibrillation who underwent abdominal surgical operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schizas, Dimitrios; Kariori, Maria; Boudoulas, Konstantinos Dean; Siasos, Gerasimos; Patelis, Nikolaos; Kalantzis, Charalampos; Carmen-Maria, Moldovan; Vavuranakis, Manolis

    2018-04-02

    Patients treated with antithrombotic therapy that require abdominal surgical procedures has progressively increased overtime. The management of antithrombotics during both the peri- and post- operative period is of crucial importance. The goal of this review is to present current data concerning the management of antiplatelets in patients with coronary artery disease and of anticoagulants in patients with atrial fibrillation who had to undergo abdominal surgical operations. For this purpose, incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and risk of antithrombotic use during surgical procedures, as well as the recommendations based on recent guidelines were reported. A thorough search of PubMed, Scopus and the Cochrane Databases was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials, observational studies, novel current reviews, and ESC and ACC/AHA guidelines on the subject. Antithrombotic use in daily clinical practice results to two different pathways: reduction of thromboembolic risk, but a simultaneous increase of bleeding risk. This may cause a therapeutic dilemma during the perioperative period. Nevertheless, careless cessation of antithrombotics can increase MACE and thromboembolic events, however, maintenance of antithrombotic therapy may increase bleeding complications. Studies and current guidelines can assist clinicians in making decisions for the treatment of patients that undergo abdominal surgical operations while on antithrombotic therapy. Aspirin should not be stopped perioperatively in the majority of surgical operations. Determining whether to discontinue the use of anticoagulants before surgery depends on the surgical procedure. In surgical operations with a low risk for bleeding, oral anticoagulants should not be discontinued. Bridging therapy should only be considered in patients with a high risk of thromboembolism. Finally, patients with an intermediate risk for thromboembolism, management should be individualized according to patient

  10. Positive and negative mood in men with advanced prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy: considering the role of social support and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Catherine; Dahn, Jason R; Antoni, Michael H; Traeger, Lara; Kava, Bruce; Bustillo, Natalie; Zhou, Eric S; Penedo, Frank J

    2015-08-01

    Advanced prostate cancer patients often undergo androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Advanced disease and adverse ADT side effects are often debilitating and negatively impact mood. Social support has been shown to mitigate detrimental effects of stress on mood. This study sought to characterize positive and negative mood in this select patient population and determine whether social support moderated relations between stress and mood. Participants (N = 80) completed the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List, Perceived Stress Scale, and Derogatis Affect Balance Scale at a single time point. Hierarchical regression models evaluated relations among social support, stress, and mood controlling for relevant covariates. Standard moderation analyses were performed. Participants reported higher levels of negative and positive mood compared with published means of localized prostate cancer patients. Overall, mood was more positive than negative. Stress levels were comparable to cancer populations with recurrent disease. Moderated regression analyses showed that social support partially buffered the effects of stress on positive mood; men with high stress and low support reported the lowest levels of positive mood. The model with negative mood as the dependent measure did not support moderation; that is, the relationship between stress and negative mood did not differ by level of social support. Among individuals living with advanced prostate cancer, social support may be an important factor that sustains positive mood in the presence of stress. Future work should examine the extent to which social support prospectively impacts health-related quality of life by promoting positive mood. Limitations include cross-sectional design, which precludes causal inferences. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Cerebrovascular Accident due to Thyroid Storm: Should We Anticoagulate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Gonzalez-Bossolo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid storm is a life-threatening condition that occurs secondary to an uncontrolled hyperthyroid state. Atrial fibrillation is a cardiovascular complication occurring in up to 15% of patients experiencing thyroid storm, and if left untreated this condition could have up to a 25% mortality rate. Thyroid storm with stroke is a rare presentation. This case report details a left middle cerebral artery (MCA stroke with global aphasia and thyroid storm in a 53-year-old Hispanic male patient. Although uncommon, this combination has been reported in multiple case series. Although it is well documented that dysfunctional thyroid levels promote a hypercoagulable state, available guidelines from multiple entities are unclear on whether anticoagulation therapy is appropriate in this situation.

  12. Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Duke Anticoagulation Satisfaction Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelegrino, Flávia M; Dantas, Rosana A S; Corbi, Inaiara S A; da Silva Carvalho, Ariana R; Schmidt, André; Pazin Filho, Antônio

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the internal reliability and validity of the Brazilian-Portuguese version of Duke Anticoagulation Satisfaction Scale (DASS) among cardiovascular patients. Oral anticoagulation is widely used to prevent and treat thromboembolic events in several conditions, especially in cardiovascular diseases; however, this therapy can induce dissatisfaction and reduce the quality of life. Methodological and cross-sectional research design. The cultural adaptation of the DASS included the translation and back-translation, discussions with healthcare professionals and patients to ensure conceptual equivalence, semantic evaluation and instrument pretest. The Brazilian-Portuguese version of the DASS was tested among subjects followed in a university hospital anticoagulation outpatient clinic. The psychometric properties were assessed by construct validity (convergent, known groups and dimensionality) and internal consistency/reliability (Cronbach's alpha). A total of 180 subjects under oral anticoagulation formed the baseline validation population. DASS total score and SF-36 domain correlations were moderate for General health (r=-0.47, pDASS score and most of the subscales, except Limitation (r=-0.375, pscale, and it ranged from 0.76 (hassles and burdens)-0.46 (psychological impact) among the domains, confirming the internal consistency reliability. The Brazilian-Portuguese version of the DASS has shown levels of reliability and validity comparable with the original English version. Healthcare practitioners and researchers need internationally validated measurement tools to compare outcomes of interventions in clinical management and research tools in oral anticoagulation therapy. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Management of Anticoagulation for Portal Vein Thrombosis in Individuals with Cirrhosis: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Huard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-neoplastic portal vein thrombosis (PVT is an increasingly recognized complication of liver cirrhosis. It is often diagnosed fortuitously and can be either partial or complete. The clinical significance of PVT is not obvious except in some situations such as when patients are on the waiting list for liver transplantation. The only known therapy is anticoagulation which has been shown to permit the disappearance of thrombosis and to prevent further extension. Anticoagulation is a challenging therapy in individuals with liver cirrhosis because of the well-recognized coagulation abnormalities observed in that setting and because of the increased risk of bleeding, especially from gastrointestinal tract caused by portal hypertension. We herein review the current knowledge on that topic in order to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of the currently proposed therapeutic attitudes in face of the diagnosis of PVT in individuals with cirrhosis.

  14. Acute kidney injury aggravated by treatment initiation with apixaban: Another twist of anticoagulant-related nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Brodsky

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Anticoagulant-related nephropathy (ARN was initially described in patients on warfarin (as warfarin-related nephropathy and recently in those using dabigatran. Herein, we report clinical history and kidney biopsy findings in a patient on apixaban (Eliquis. Initiation of treatment with apixaban resulted in aggravation of preexisting mild acute kidney injury (AKI. A few days after apixaban therapy, the patient became oligoanuric, and kidney biopsy showed severe acute tubular necrosis with numerous occlusive red blood cell casts. Only one out of 68 glomeruli with open capillary loops had small segmental cellular crescent. Therefore, there was major discrepancy between the degree of glomerular injury and the glomerular hematuria. Considering that the onset of this AKI was associated with apixaban treatment initiation, we propose that this patient had ARN associated with factor Xa inhibitor (apixaban, which has not previously been described. Monitoring of kidney function is recommended after initiation of anticoagulant therapy.

  15. Anticoagulation in adults with congenital heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A S; Idorn, L; Nørager, B

    2015-01-01

    Adults with congenital heart disease are a growing population. One of the major challenges in the care of these patients is to prevent thromboembolic episodes. Despite relative young age and no typical cardiovascular risk factors, this cohort has a high prevalence of thrombotic events....... Furthermore, there is a lack of scientific evidence regarding how to prevent thromboembolic events with anticoagulation in adults with congenital heart disease. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature pertaining to anticoagulation in adults with congenital heart disease and hence enable....... It is difficult to use treatment algorithms from the general adult population with acquired heart disease in this heterogeneous population due to special conditions such as myocardial scarring after previous surgery, atypical atrial flutter, prothrombotic conditions and the presence of interatrial shunts...

  16. Heterofucans from Dictyota menstrualis have anticoagulant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.R.L. Albuquerque

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Fucan is a term used to denote a family of sulfated L-fucose-rich polysaccharides which are present in the extracellular matrix of brown seaweed and in the egg jelly coat of sea urchins. Plant fucans have several biological activities, including anticoagulant and antithrombotic, related to the structural and chemical composition of polysaccharides. We have extracted sulfated polysaccharides from the brown seaweed Dictyota menstrualis by proteolytic digestion, followed by separation into 5 fractions by sequential acetone precipitation. Gel electrophoresis using 0.05 M 1,3-diaminopropane-acetate buffer, pH 9.0, stained with 0.1% toluidine blue, showed the presence of sulfated polysaccharides in all fractions. The chemical analyses demonstrated that all fractions are composed mainly of fucose, xylose, galactose, uronic acid, and sulfate. The anticoagulant activity of these heterofucans was determined by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT using citrate normal human plasma. Only the fucans F1.0v and F1.5v showed anticoagulant activity. To prolong the coagulation time to double the baseline value in the APTT, the required concentration of fucan F1.0v (20 µg/ml was only 4.88-fold higher than that of the low molecular weight heparin Clexane® (4.1 µg/ml, whereas 80 µg/ml fucan 1.5 was needed to obtain the same effect. For both fucans this effect was abolished by desulfation. These polymers are composed of fucose, xylose, uronic acid, galactose, and sulfate at molar ratios of 1.0:0.8:0.7:0.8:0.4 and 1.0:0.3:0.4:1.5:1.3, respectively. This is the fist report indicating the presence of a heterofucan with higher anticoagulant activity from brown seaweed.

  17. Direct oral anticoagulants: what can we learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marongiu, Francesco; Barcellona, Doris

    2018-03-02

    Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) represent an innovation because they avoid periodic laboratory monitoring, and also reduce cerebral bleeding. An examination of the performance of DOACs versus warfarin in randomized clinical trials dedicated to atrial fibrillation would reveal the poor performance of warfarin because the percentage of major bleeding is always above 3%; however, the percentage of major bleeding is less than half of that when the management is done in anticoagulation clinics (ACs). Several years ago, a common opinion was that ACs would disappear as soon as DOACs enter the market. We proposed then that ACs could be transformed into thrombosis centres (TCs) because we envisaged many new activities in terms of diagnostic tools and therapeutic choices. After the introduction of DOACs, the role of the ACs has been re-evaluated because their role may be crucial in selecting both the most appropriate diagnostic approach and the best therapeutic option (including anti-vitamin K drugs) for the single patient. TCs can organize a regular follow-up to improve patient adherence to DOACs. Marketing might have a role in the decision making of the single doctor. Efforts should be made for limiting the relationships between doctors and pharmaceutical companies. It seems reasonable to better prepare doctors, during their university courses, for them to develop a greater scientific culture that would enable them to critically read clinical studies and acquire an independent opinion. Ideally, an expert in haemostasis and thrombosis should handle new and old anticoagulants.

  18. An open-label, randomized, controlled, multicenter study exploring two treatment strategies of rivaroxaban and a dose-adjusted oral vitamin K antagonist treatment strategy in subjects with atrial fibrillation who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PIONEER AF-PCI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibson, C.M.; Mehran, R.; Bode, C.; Halperin, J.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Wildgoose, P.; Eickels, M. van; Lip, G.Y.; Cohen, M.; Husted, S.; Peterson, E.; Fox, K.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommendations regarding anticoagulant therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) rely on retrospective, nonrandomized observational data. Currently, patients are treated with triple-therapy (dual antiplatelet therapy

  19. Contemporary use trends and survival outcomes in patients undergoing radical cystectomy or bladder-preservation therapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahn, David B; Handorf, Elizabeth A; Ghiraldi, Eric M; Ristau, Benjamin T; Geynisman, Daniel M; Churilla, Thomas M; Horwitz, Eric M; Sobczak, Mark L; Chen, David Y T; Viterbo, Rosalia; Greenberg, Richard E; Kutikov, Alexander; Uzzo, Robert G; Smaldone, Marc C

    2017-11-15

    The current study was performed to examine temporal trends and compare overall survival (OS) in patients undergoing radical cystectomy (RC) or bladder-preservation therapy (BPT) for muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. The authors reviewed the National Cancer Data Base to identify patients with AJCC stage II to III urothelial carcinoma of the bladder from 2004 through 2013. Patients receiving BPT were stratified as having received any external-beam radiotherapy (any XRT), definitive XRT (50-80 grays), and definitive XRT with chemotherapy (CRT). Treatment trends and OS outcomes for the BPT and RC cohorts were evaluated using Cochran-Armitage tests, unadjusted Kaplan-Meier curves, adjusted Cox multivariate regression, and propensity score matching, using increasingly stringent selection criteria. A total of 32,300 patients met the inclusion criteria and were treated with RC (22,680 patients) or BPT (9620 patients). Of the patients treated with BPT, 26.4% (2540 patients) and 15.5% (1489 patients), respectively, were treated with definitive XRT and CRT. Improved OS was observed for RC in all groups. After adjustments with more rigorous statistical models controlling for confounders and with more restrictive BPT cohorts, the magnitude of the OS benefit became attenuated on multivariate (any XRT: hazard ratio [HR], 2.115 [95% confidence interval [95% CI], 2.045-2.188]; definitive XRT: HR, 1.870 [95% CI, 1.773-1.972]; and CRT: HR, 1.578 [95% CI, 1.474-1.691]) and propensity score (any XRT: HR, 2.008 [95% CI, 1.871-2.154]; definitive XRT: HR, 1.606 [95% CI, 1.453-1.776]; and CRT: HR, 1.406 [95% CI, 1.235-1.601]) analyses. In the National Cancer Data Base, receipt of BPT was associated with decreased OS compared with RC in patients with stage II to III urothelial carcinoma. Increasingly stringent definitions of BPT and more rigorous statistical methods adjusting for selection biases attenuated observed survival differences. Cancer 2017;123:4337-45. © 2017

  20. Efficacy of protocol-based pharmacotherapy management on anticoagulation with warfarin for patients with cardiovascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katada, Y; Nakagawa, S; Minakata, K; Odaka, M; Taue, H; Sato, Y; Yonezawa, A; Kayano, Y; Yano, I; Nakatsu, T; Sakamoto, K; Uehara, K; Sakaguchi, H; Yamazaki, K; Minatoya, K; Sakata, R; Matsubara, K

    2017-10-01

    Anticoagulation therapy with warfarin requires periodic monitoring of prothrombin time-international normalized ratio (PT-INR) and adequate dose adjustments based on the data to minimize the risk of bleeding and thromboembolic events. In our hospital, we have developed protocol-based pharmaceutical care, which we called protocol-based pharmacotherapy management (PBPM), for warfarin therapy. The protocol requires pharmacists to manage timing of blood sampling for measuring PT-INR and warfarin dosage determination based on an algorithm. This study evaluated the efficacy of PBPM in warfarin therapy by comparing to conventional pharmaceutical care. From October 2013 to June 2015, a total of 134 hospitalized patients who underwent cardiovascular surgeries received post-operative warfarin therapy. The early series of patients received warfarin therapy as the conventional care (control group, n=77), whereas the latter received warfarin therapy based on the PBPM (PBPM group, n=68). These patients formed the cohort of the present study and were retrospectively analysed. The indications for warfarin included aortic valve replacement (n=56), mitral valve replacement (n=4), mitral valve plasty (n=22) and atrial fibrillation (n=29). There were no differences in patients' characteristics between both groups. The percentage time in therapeutic range in the first 10 days was significantly higher in the PBPM group (47.1%) than that in the control group (34.4%, PWarfarin therapy based on our novel PBPM was clinically safe and resulted in significantly better anticoagulation control compared to conventional care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Perioperative utility of goal-directed therapy in high-risk cardiac patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: “A clinical outcome and biomarker-based study”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Malhotra Kapoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal-directed therapy (GDT encompasses guidance of intravenous (IV fluid and vasopressor/inotropic therapy by cardiac output or similar parameters to help in early recognition and management of high-risk cardiac surgical patients. With the aim of establishing the utility of perioperative GDT using robust clinical and biochemical outcomes, we conducted the present study. This multicenter randomized controlled study included 130 patients of either sex, with European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation ≥3 undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting on cardiopulmonary bypass. The patients were randomly divided into the control and GDT group. All the participants received standardized care; arterial pressure monitored through radial artery, central venous pressure (CVP through a triple lumen in the right internal jugular vein, electrocardiogram, oxygen saturation, temperature, urine output per hour, and frequent arterial blood gas (ABG analysis. In addition, cardiac index (CI monitoring using FloTrac™ and continuous central venous oxygen saturation (ScVO2 using PreSep™ were used in patients in the GDT group. Our aim was to maintain the CI at 2.5–4.2 L/min/m2, stroke volume index 30–65 ml/beat/m2, systemic vascular resistance index 1500–2500 dynes/s/cm5/m2, oxygen delivery index 450–600 ml/min/m2, continuous ScVO2 >70%, and stroke volume variation 30%, and urine output >1 ml/kg/h. The aims were achieved by altering the administration of IV fluids and doses of inotropes or vasodilators. The data of sixty patients in each group were analyzed in view of ten exclusions. The average duration of ventilation (19.89 ± 3.96 vs. 18.05 ± 4.53 h, P = 0.025, hospital stay (7.94 ± 1.64 vs. 7.17 ± 1.93 days, P = 0.025, and Intensive Care Unit (ICU stay (3.74 ± 0.59 vs. 3.41 ± 0.75 days, P = 0.012 was significantly less in the GDT group, compared to the control group. The extra volume added and the number of inotropic dose adjustments were

  2. Laboratory Assessment of the Anticoagulant Activity of Direct Oral Anticoagulants: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Bethany T; Cuker, Adam; Siegal, Deborah M; Crowther, Mark; Garcia, David A

    2017-01-01

    Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are the treatment of choice for most patients with atrial fibrillation and/or noncancer-associated venous thromboembolic disease. Although routine monitoring of these agents is not required, assessment of anticoagulant effect may be desirable in special situations. The objective of this review was to summarize systematically evidence regarding laboratory assessment of the anticoagulant effects of dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban. PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were searched for studies reporting relationships between drug levels and coagulation assay results. We identified 109 eligible studies: 35 for dabigatran, 50 for rivaroxaban, 11 for apixaban, and 13 for edoxaban. The performance of standard anticoagulation tests varied across DOACs and reagents; most assays, showed insufficient correlation to provide a reliable assessment of DOAC effects. Dilute thrombin time (TT) assays demonstrated linear correlation (r 2  = 0.67-0.99) across a range of expected concentrations of dabigatran, as did ecarin-based assays. Calibrated anti-Xa assays demonstrated linear correlation (r 2  = 0.78-1.00) across a wide range of concentrations for rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban. An ideal test, offering both accuracy and precision for measurement of any DOAC is not widely available. We recommend a dilute TT or ecarin-based assay for assessment of the anticoagulant effect of dabigatran and anti-Xa assays with drug-specific calibrators for direct Xa inhibitors. In the absence of these tests, TT or APTT is recommended over PT/INR for assessment of dabigatran, and PT/INR is recommended over APTT for detection of factor Xa inhibitors. Time since last dose, the presence or absence of drug interactions, and renal and hepatic function should impact clinical estimates of anticoagulant effect in a patient for whom laboratory test results are not available. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier

  3. Quality of Vitamin K Antagonist Anticoagulation in Spain: Prevalence of Poor Control and Associated Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguita Sánchez, Manuel; Bertomeu Martínez, Vicente; Cequier Fillat, Ángel

    2015-09-01

    To study the prevalence of poorly controlled vitamin K antagonist anticoagulation in Spain in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, and to identify associated factors. We studied 1056 consecutive patients seen at 120 cardiology clinics in Spain between November 2013 and March 2014. We analyzed the international normalized ratio from the 6 months prior to the patient's visit, calculating the prevalence of poorly controlled anticoagulation, defined as < 65% time in therapeutic range using the Rosendaal method. Mean age was 73.6 years (standard deviation, 9.8 years); women accounted for 42% of patients. The prevalence of poorly controlled anticoagulation was 47.3%. Mean time in therapeutic range was 63.8% (25.9%). The following factors were independently associated with poorly controlled anticoagulation: kidney disease (odds ratio = 1.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-2.18; P = .018), routine nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (odds ratio = 1.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-2.79; P = .004), antiplatelet therapy (odds ratio = 2.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.49-3.12; P < .0001) and absence of angiotensin receptor blockers (odds ratio = 1.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.79; P = .011). There is a high prevalence of poorly controlled vitamin K antagonist anticoagulation in Spain. Factors associated with poor control are kidney disease, routine nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antiplatelet use, and absence of angiotensin receptor blockers. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Photoselective vaporization of the prostate in men with a history of chronic oral anti-coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer F. Karatas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: A considerable percentage of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH also have additional cardiac pathologies, which often require anticoagulant therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP for BPH in cardiac patients receiving anticoagulant therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 67 patients suffering from BPH and high risk cardiac pathologies were operated on using laser prostatectomy. All patients had cardiac pathologies with bleeding disorders requiring anticoagulant use, and underwent standard urologic evaluation for BPH. Patients were treated with laser prostatectomy for relief of the obstruction using the KTP/532 laser energy at 80 W. RESULTS: The mean patient age was 71.4 years (range 55-80. Mean prostate volume on transrectal ultrasonography was 73.2 mL (range 44-120. Operation time ranged from 40 to 90 min, with an average value of 55 min. The average hospital stay was 48 hours (range 12-72 and the Foley catheters were removed within 48 hours, with a mean catheterization time of 34.2 ± 5.9 hours (0-48. No patient required an additional procedure due to severe bleeding necessitating intervention during the early postoperative phase. Mean International symptoms scoring system (IPSS values and post voiding residual volume decreased and peak urinary flow rate increased (p < 0.001. Our results showed that the mean prostate volume had decreased by 53% at 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: High-power photo selective laser vaporization prostatectomy is a feasible, safe, and effective alternative for the minimal invasive management of BPH, particularly in cardiac patients receiving anticoagulant therapy.

  5. Current guidelines and prospects for using novel oral anticoagulants for nonvalvular atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Fonyakin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The capabilities of antithrombotic therapy to prevent systemic thromboembolic events in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF are substantially extended after clinically introducing novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs, such as dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban. World clinical experience with NOACs in AF has confirmed their efficacy and safety in both primary and secondary stroke prevention. At the same time, apixaban additionally reduces the risk of fatal outcomes and it is the safest among the NOACs against hemorrhagic events. The low risks of intracranial hemorrhage typical of NOACs should be taken into account when choosing oral anticoagulant therapy after hemorrhagic stroke in patients athigh risk for thromboembolic events due to AF. Whether NOACs may be used in acute myocardial infarction and during coronary stenting in the presence of nonvalvular AF, left ventricular thromboses, and cardiomyopathies is considered. In real clinical practice, nonvalvular AF may be accompanied by different cardiovascular diseases, by creating the situations where there are no specific guidelines for the use of NOACs. The results of comparing the clinical efficiency of different antithrombotic therapy regimens, the subanalysis of randomized trials, and experts’ opinions may assist a physician to substantiate their decisions. Thus, just a few NOACs that are similar and/or superior to warfarin in efficacy and safety have emerged to date. There are grounds to believe that many physicians will prefer direct anticoagulants to warfarin not only because of their proven efficacy, but also the rapid onset of their anticoagulant effect, neither interaction with a number of foods or drugs, and above all, nor need for regular laboratory blood testing. World post-marketingsurveillance and new clinical tests will be helpful in better estimating the benefits and risks of treatment with NOACs and in expanding indications for their use, which will considerably

  6. Clinical impact of a pharmacist-led inpatient anticoagulation service: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee T

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tiffany Lee, Erin Davis, Jason Kielly School of Pharmacy, Memorial University, St John's, NL, Canada Background: Anticoagulant therapies provide management options for potentially life-threatening thromboembolic conditions. They also carry significant safety risks, requiring careful consideration of medication dose, close monitoring, and follow-up. Inpatients are particularly at risk, considering the widespread use of anticoagulants in hospitals. This has prompted the introduction of safety goals for anticoagulants in Canada and the USA, which recommend increased pharmacist involvement to reduce patient harm. The goal of this review is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pharmacist-led inpatient anticoagulation services compared to usual or physician-managed care. Methods: This narrative review includes articles identified through a literature search of PubMed, Embase, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts databases, as well as hand searches of the references of relevant articles. Full publications of pharmacist-managed inpatient anticoagulation services were eligible if they were published in English and assessed clinical outcomes. Results: Twenty-six studies were included and further divided into two categories: 1 autonomous pharmacist-managed anticoagulation programs (PMAPs and 2 pharmacist recommendation. Pharmacist management of heparin and warfarin appears to result in improvements in some surrogate outcomes (international normalized ratio [INR] stability and time in INR goal range, while results for others are mixed (time to therapeutic INR, length of stay, and activated partial thromboplastin time [aPTT] measures. There is also some indication that PMAPs may be associated with reduced patient mortality. When direct thrombin inhibitors are managed by pharmacists, there seems to be a shorter time to therapeutic aPTT and a greater percentage of time in the therapeutic range, as well as a decrease in the frequency of medication

  7. Use of anticoagulants in elderly patients: practical recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helia Robert-Ebadi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Helia Robert-Ebadi, Grégoire Le Gal, Marc RighiniDivision of Angiology and Hemostasis (HRE, MR, Department of Internal Medicine, Geneva University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, Geneva, Switzerland, and Department of Internal Medicine and Chest Diseases, EA 3878 (GETBO, Brest University Hospital, Brest, France (GLGAbstract: Elderly people represent a patient population at high thromboembolic risk, but also at high hemorrhagic ris