WorldWideScience

Sample records for ultrastructural tracer studies

  1. Tracer a application in marine outfall studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genders, S.

    1979-01-01

    The applicability of radioactive and fluorescent tracers for field studies to predict or investigate waste water transport and dispersion from marine outfalls is evaluated. The application of either instantaneous or continuous tracer release, 'in situ' detection of tracers and data processing are considered. The necessity of a combined use of tracer techniques and conventional hydrographic methods for a statistical prediction of transport and dillution of waste water are pointed out. A procedure to determine an outlet distance from the coast, which satisfy bathing water criteria is outlined. (M.A.) [pt

  2. Ultrastructural study of chromoplast components rich in glycolipids

    OpenAIRE

    Wrischer, Mercedes; Prebeg, Tatjana; Magnus, Volker; Ljubešić, Nikola

    2001-01-01

    A cytochemical method for the ultrastructural localization of glycolipids, performed on thin sections, was used in the study of tubular chromoplasts. The method gave clear pictures of structures that contained glycolipids, while other chemical constituents were not stained. The method was tested on two flowers (Impatients noli-tangere L. and Thunbergia alata Boj. ex Sims) containing different types of tubular chromoplasts. The ultrastructure and mode of development of the two types of tubu...

  3. Radioisotope tracers in industrial flow studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easey, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    The scope of radioisotope tracer work carried out by ANSTO has involved most sectors of Australian industry including iron and steel coal, chemical, petrochemical, natural gas, metallurgical, mineral, power generation, liquified air plant, as well as port authorities, water and sewerage instrumentalities, and environmental agencies. A major class of such studies concerns itself with flow and wear studies involving industrial equipment. Some examples are discussed which illustrate the utility of radioisotope tracer techniques in these applications

  4. An ultrastructural and irradiation study of diffuse and localised kinetochore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokhari, F.S.

    1979-05-01

    An electron microscope study of plant types Luzula nivea and Cyperus eragrostis with diffuse kinetochores and Crepis neglecta with localised kinetochore showed that Luzula has a rather different kinetochore organisation from Cyperus, with features approaching the localised type of Crepis. These studies included an examination of the ultrastructure of the kinetochore at metaphase at low magnification in control and irradiated material of Luzula; the chromosomal ultrastructure at high magnification at interphase and all stages of mitosis in Luzula, Cyperus and Crepis; and the ultrastructure of the nucleolus in Luzula, Cyperus and Crepis. Light microscopic studies were also performed showing the effects of irradiation on first mitotic division in Cyperus, Luzula and Crepis, mitotic aberrations in Cyperus and Crepis and meiosis in Cyperus. Finally, the survival with the diffuse as opposed to the localised kinetochore in M 1 and M 2 generations following seed irradiation was studied. (U.K.)

  5. Early studies of placental ultrastructure by electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A M; Enders, A C

    2016-01-01

    many other scientists to Washington University in St. Louis. Work on human placental ultrastructure was initiated at Cambridge and Kyoto whilst domestic animals were initially studied by Björkman in Stockholm and electron micrographs of bat placenta were published by Wimsatt of Cornell University......BACKGROUND: Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was first applied to study placental ultrastructure in the 1950's. We review those early studies and mention the scientists that employed or encouraged the use of TEM. FINDINGS: Among the pioneers Edward W. Dempsey was a key figure who attracted...

  6. Tracer studies with aortic infusion result in improper tracer distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisneski, J.A.; Brooks, G.A.; Neese, R.A.; Stanley, W.C.; Morris, D.L.; Gertz, E.W.

    1986-01-01

    It has been suggested that lactate turnover can be accurately assessed by infusing radioactive lactate tracer into the aorta and sampling blood in the vena cava. However, there may be streaming of newly infused tracer in the aorta, resulting in a nonuniform arterial specific activity (SA). Furthermore vena caval blood may not be representative of mixed venous blood. The authors examined this problem in 7 anesthetized dogs with sampling catheters in the pulmonary (PA), carotid (CA), and femoral (FA) arteries, and the superior (SVC) and inferior (IVC) vena cavi. [1- 14 C]lactate was continuously infused into the left ventricle through a catheter introduced through the femoral artery. The same SA (dpm/μmol) was found in the CA and FA, indicating adequate mixing of newly infused tracer with trace. Three dogs showed differences between SVC, IVC and PA, suggesting a mixed venous sample can not be obtained from the VC. When the catheter was moved into the aorta, wide differences in SA appeared between the CA and FA, clearly reflecting streaming of tracer. These differences also appeared in the SVC and IVC. In conclusion, adequate mixing does not occur between tracer and trace in arterial blood with aortic infusion. Further, VC sampling will not give a consistent mixed venous SA. Therefore, for practical reasons, aortic tracer infusion with vena caval sampling will lead to erroneous turnover values

  7. Ultrastructural studies of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818) embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, O.K.; Okazaki, K.; Kawano, T.; Ribeiro, A.A.G.F.C.

    1988-09-01

    Ultrastructural studies of Biomphalaria glabrata embryos (MOllusca: Gastropoda), and important snail vector of schistosomiasis has not been explored. In the present work it was evaluated a suitable electron microscopical technique for embryos processing. Promising results was obtained with double fixation in 1% glutaraldehyde plus 1% osmium tetroxide in 0.05 M cacodylate buffer (pH 7.4), preliminary staining overnight in 1% uranyl acetate and embedding in EPON or Polylite under vacuum. It was used embryos at young trochophore stage wich is characterized by active organogenesis. Some ultrastructural aspects of B. glabrata embryos cells are presented. (author) [pt

  8. Biological, Histological and Ultra-Structural Studies of Female Mullet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biological, Histological and Ultra-Structural Studies of Female Mullet, Mugil cephalus , Ovaries Collected from Different Habitats during Annual Reproductive Cycle. ... 35 and 52 cm, respectively; whereas, the total number of ripe ova in brackish water fish ranged from 0.57±0.14 to 3.81±0.59 x106 for the same length groups.

  9. Ultrastructural studies of synthetic apatite crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arends, J; Jongebloed, W L

    1979-03-01

    In this paper a survey is given of some ultrastructural properties of synthetic hydroxyapatite. The preparation method by which single crystals with a length in the range of 0.1-3.0mm and a defined purity and stoïchiometry can be produced is given. Two groups of materials are considered in detail: carbonate-rich (greater than 0.1% CO3) and low-carbonate hydroxyapatites. The experiments on carbonate-rich material, being the most interesting from a biological point of view, show that acids attack at an active site in the hexagonal basal-plane of the crystals. Later on the crystals dissolve in the center of the crystal parallel to the c-axis forming tube-like structures. The active site can be protected from dissolution if the crystals are pretreated by EHDP or MFP. A comparison with lattice defect theory shows that most likely dislocations of the "hollow-core" type are responsible for the preferential dissolution.

  10. [Spermatogonia types in tepezcuintle (Cuniculus paca). Ultrastructural study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureña, F; Bolaños, R; Rojas, N; Suárez, R; Quesada, R

    1988-11-01

    Ultrastructural studies of different types of spermatogonia by thin section techniques and transmission electron microscopy showed that Cuniculus paca has two types of Type A spermatogonia (A-O and A-1). Samples were taken at different stages of the cycle in the seminiferous tubule epithelium presented a similar pattern as those of other rodents. Type B spermatogonia are similar to those of the rat, the difference being that the heterochromatic zones are larger and more numerous. Both characteristics differentiate them from preleptotenic spermatocytes.

  11. Pathology of mitochondria in MELAS syndrome: an ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felczak, Paulina; Lewandowska, Eliza; Stępniak, Iwona; Ołdak, Monika; Pollak, Agnieszka; Lechowicz, Urszula; Pasennik, Elżbieta; Stępień, Tomasz; Wierzba-Bobrowicz, Teresa

    Ultrastructural changes in skeletal muscle biopsy in a 24-year-old female patient with clinically suspected mitochondrial encephalomyopathy lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome are presented. We observed proliferation and/or pleomorphism of mitochondria in skeletal muscle and smooth muscle cells of arterioles, as well as in pericytes of capillaries. Paracrystalline inclusions were found only in damaged mitochondria of skeletal muscle. Genetic testing revealed a point mutation in A3243G tRNALeu(UUR) typical for MELAS syndrome. We conclude that differentiated pathological changes of mitochondria in the studied types of cells may be associated with the different energy requirements of these cells.

  12. Ultrastructural study of tissues surrounding replanted teeth and dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shioya, Kazuhiro; Sawada, Takashi; Miake, Yasuo; Inoue, Sadayuki; Yanagisawa, Takaaki

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the ultrastructure of the dentogingival border at replanted teeth and implants. Wistar rats (8 weeks old) were divided into groups for replantation and implantation experiments. In the former, the upper right first molars were extracted and then immediately replanted. In the latter, pure titanium implants were used. All tissues were fixed, demineralized and embedded in epoxy resin for ultrastructural observations. One week after replantation, the junctional epithelium was lost, and the oral sulcular epithelium covered the enamel surface. The amount of the epithelium increased in 2 weeks, and resembled the junctional epithelium, and the internal basal lamina and hemidesmosomes were formed in 4 weeks. One week after implantation, peri-implant epithelium was formed, and in 2 and 4 weeks, this epithelium with aggregated connective tissue cells were observed. In 8 weeks, the peri-implant epithelium receded, and aligned special cells with surrounding elongated fibroblasts and bundles of collagen fibers appeared to seal the implant interface. In replantation of the tooth, the internal basal lamina remained at the surface of the enamel of the replanted tooth, which is likely to be related to regeneration of the junctional epithelium and the attachment apparatus at the epithelium-tooth interface. Following implantation, a layer of cells with characteristics of connective tissue cells, but no junctional epithelium and attachment apparatus, was formed to seal the site of the implant.

  13. Atmospheric tracer experiments for regional dispersion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heffter, J.L.; Ferber, G.J.

    1980-01-01

    Tracer experiments are being conducted to verify atmospheric transport and dispersion calculations at distances from tens to hundreds of km from pollutant sources. In one study, a 2 1/2 year sampling program has been carried out at 13 sites located 30 to 140 km from a source of 85 Kr at the Savannah River Plant in South Carolina. Average weekly concentrations as well as twice-daily concentrations were obtained. Sampling data and meteorological data, including surface, tower, and rawinsonde observations are available on magnetic tape for model verification studies. Some verification results for the Air Resources Laboratories Atmospheric Transort and Dispersion Model (ARL-ATAD) are shown for averaging periods from one week to two years

  14. Inter-relationships of haplosporidians deduced from ultrastructural studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hine, P.M.; Carnegie, R.B.; Burreson, E.M.; Engelsma, M.Y.

    2009-01-01

    We reviewed papers reporting haplosporidian ultrastructure to compare inter-relationships based on ultrastructure with those based on molecular data, to identify features that may be important in haplosporidian taxonomy, and to consider parasite taxonomy in relation to host taxonomy. There were

  15. [Lattice degeneration of the peripheral retina: ultrastructural study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bec, P; Malecaze, F; Arne, J L; Mathis, A

    1985-01-01

    The ultrastructural study of a case of snail track degeneration shows the presence of lipid inclusions in both the glial and the macrophage cells in every layer of the retina, and the existence of intraretinal fibers different from collagen fibers appearing to be glial filaments similar to those found in astrocytic gliomes and to the Rosenthal fibers observed in senile nervous cells. Other features were thinning of the retina and absence of blood vessels in the retina. There are no abnormalities of the vitreo-retinal juncture. All the lesions are in agreement with those observed by Daicker [Ophthalmologica, Basel 165: 360-365, 1972; Klin. Mbl. Augenheilk. 172: 581-583, 1978] with some differences, however. They are different from those found in lattice degeneration. They show that snail track degeneration is a specific form of peripheral retinal degeneration which is quite different from lattice degeneration and must not be considered similar.

  16. Heterogeneity of acute myeloblastic leukemia without maturation: an ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, K; Date, M; Taniguchi, H; Nagano, T; Kishimoto, Y; Kimura, T; Fukuhara, S

    1995-01-01

    We demonstrated by ultrastructural examination that the leukemic blasts of 13 patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) without maturation (M1 in the French-American-British classification) showed heterogeneous features. In 7 patients, the leukemic blasts had a high level of light microscopic myeloperoxidase positivity (> 50%). Ultrastructurally, the cells were myeloblast-promyelocytes with 100% myeloperoxidase positivity, and these 7 patients appeared to have typical AML. In contrast, the remaining 6 patients had leukemic blasts with a low myeloperoxidase positivity (undifferentiated blasts. The former group had a better prognosis than the latter, indicating that ultrastructural analysis of M1 leukemia may help predict the response to therapy.

  17. Positron emitting tracers for studies of cocaine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.S.; Gatley, S.J.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.; Yu, D.W.; Dewey, S.L.; Schlyer, D.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Bendriem, B.; Logan, J.

    1990-01-01

    The use of PET to study the behavior and mechanism of action of therapeutic drugs and substances of abuse can be approached from a number of perspectives. The most common approach is to measure the effect of a drug on some aspect of metabolism and requires well characterized radiotracers whose behavior in vivo can be related to a discrete biochemical transformation. A second approach is to study the labeled drug itself. This provides information on the drug's regional distribution and kinetics as well as its pharmacological profile and metabolism. Cocaine has been labeled in different positions with carbon-11 and with fluorine-18 and the stereoisomers of cocaine have also been labeled to characterize its binding and metabolism in human and baboon brain. Regional cocaine binding as measured by PET is consistent with reversible binding to striatal dopamine reuptake sites and its time course parallels the behavioral activation of cocaine. The behaviorally inactive enantiomer (+)-cocaine is rapidly metabolized in serum preventing its entry into the brain. These PET tracers are useful in understanding the neurochemical basis of cocaine's action

  18. National Biomedical Tracer Facility: Project definition study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaton, R.; Peterson, E.; Smith, P.

    1995-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is an ideal institution and New Mexico is an ideal location for siting the National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). The essence of the Los Alamos proposal is the development of two complementary irradiation facilities that combined with our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities and waste handling and disposal facilities provide a low cost alternative to other proposals that seek to satisfy the objectives of the NBTF. We propose the construction of a 30 MeV cyclotron facility at the site of the radiochemical facilities, and the construction of a 100 MeV target station at LAMPF to satisfy the requirements and objectives of the NBTF. We do not require any modifications to our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities or our waste treatment and disposal facilities to accomplish the objectives of the NBTF. The total capital cost for the facility defined by the project definition study is $15.2 M. This cost estimate includes $9.9 M for the cyclotron and associated facility, $2.0 M for the 100 MeV target station at LAMPF, and $3.3 M for design

  19. National Biomedical Tracer Facility: Project definition study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaton, R.; Peterson, E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Smith, P. [Smith (P.A.) Concepts and Designs (United States)

    1995-05-31

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is an ideal institution and New Mexico is an ideal location for siting the National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). The essence of the Los Alamos proposal is the development of two complementary irradiation facilities that combined with our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities and waste handling and disposal facilities provide a low cost alternative to other proposals that seek to satisfy the objectives of the NBTF. We propose the construction of a 30 MeV cyclotron facility at the site of the radiochemical facilities, and the construction of a 100 MeV target station at LAMPF to satisfy the requirements and objectives of the NBTF. We do not require any modifications to our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities or our waste treatment and disposal facilities to accomplish the objectives of the NBTF. The total capital cost for the facility defined by the project definition study is $15.2 M. This cost estimate includes $9.9 M for the cyclotron and associated facility, $2.0 M for the 100 MeV target station at LAMPF, and $3.3 M for design.

  20. Sistem Pre Kompilasi Data Tracer Studi Online Ditjen Belmawa Ristekdikti (Studi Kasus: Politeknik Harapan Bersama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Very Kurnia Bakti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tracer studi merupakan salah satu upaya yang diharapkan dapat menyediakan informasi untuk mengevaluasi hasil pendidikan di Politeknik Harapan Bersama dari kuisioner yang diberikan kepada alumni. Kegiatan tracer studi ini sudah dilaksanakan secara online, namun masih terdapat kendala pada bagian sistem yang digunakan saat ini, hal tersebut menyebabkan Politeknik Harapan Bersama tidak dapat melaporkan / mengunggah hasil tracer studi kepada Ditjen Belmawa Ristekdikti, dimana form kuisioner dan data export tracer studi yang dihasilkan berbeda dengan kebutuhan seperti yang tercantum pada surat edaran No. 313/B/SE/2016 tentang pelaksanaan tracer studi di tingkat perguruan tinggi. Mengingat pentingnya tracer studi sebagai umpan balik bagi Politeknik Harapan Bersama, maka perlu solusi untuk mengatasi kekurangan sistem ini. Dengan merubah sistem yang ada dengan sistem tracer studi yang baru merupakan solusi yang tepat dalam permasalahan ini. Sistem tracer studi yang baru mampu menghasilkan data tracer studi alumni dan pengisian form kuisioner sesuai dengan standar Ditjen Belmawa Ristekdikti yang dapat diunggah sistem tracer studi ristekdikti.

  1. Rate tracer studies of heterogeneous catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Happel, J; Kiang, S

    1977-10-01

    An analysis is presented of the extent to which parameters involved in transient tracing of isotopic species in heterogeneous catalysis can be determined by experiments in which tracer concentrations are measured as a function of time. Different treatments for open and closed systems with the over-all reaction at equilibrium or irreversible were developed.

  2. National Biomedical Tracer Facility. Project definition study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafer, R.

    1995-02-14

    We request a $25 million government-guaranteed, interest-free loan to be repaid over a 30-year period for construction and initial operations of a cyclotron-based National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF) in North Central Texas. The NBTF will be co-located with a linear accelerator-based commercial radioisotope production facility, funded by the private sector at approximately $28 million. In addition, research radioisotope production by the NBTF will be coordinated through an association with an existing U.S. nuclear reactor center that will produce research and commercial radioisotopes through neutron reactions. The combined facilities will provide the full range of technology for radioisotope production and research: fast neutrons, thermal neutrons, and particle beams (H{sup -}, H{sup +}, and D{sup +}). The proposed NBTF facility includes an 80 MeV, 1 mA H{sup -} cyclotron that will produce proton-induced (neutron deficient) research isotopes.

  3. National Biomedical Tracer Facility. Project definition study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schafer, R.

    1995-01-01

    We request a $25 million government-guaranteed, interest-free loan to be repaid over a 30-year period for construction and initial operations of a cyclotron-based National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF) in North Central Texas. The NBTF will be co-located with a linear accelerator-based commercial radioisotope production facility, funded by the private sector at approximately $28 million. In addition, research radioisotope production by the NBTF will be coordinated through an association with an existing U.S. nuclear reactor center that will produce research and commercial radioisotopes through neutron reactions. The combined facilities will provide the full range of technology for radioisotope production and research: fast neutrons, thermal neutrons, and particle beams (H - , H + , and D + ). The proposed NBTF facility includes an 80 MeV, 1 mA H - cyclotron that will produce proton-induced (neutron deficient) research isotopes

  4. Bromide as a tracer for studying water movement and nitrate displacement in soils: comparison with stable isotope tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russow, R.; Knappe, S.

    1999-01-01

    Tracers are an ideal means of studying water movement and associated nitrate displacement. Often bromide is preferred as a tracer because it is considered a representative tracer for water and because, being a conservative tracer (i.e. not involved in chemical and biological soil processes), it can be used for studying anion transport in soils. Moreover, it is less expensive and easier to measure than the stable isotopes deuterium and 15 N. Its great advantage over radioactive tracers (e.g. tritium), which outweighs their extreme sensitivity and ease of measurement and which it has in common with stable isotopes, is that it does not require radiation protection measures. However, there are also constraints on the use of bromide as a tracer in soil/water/plant systems. Our own studies on different soils using D 2 O, bromide and [ 15 N]-nitrate in lysimeters suggest that the above assumptions on bromide tracers need not always be valid under conditions as they prevail in biologically active soils. As the present paper shows, these studies permit a good assessment of the possibilities and limits to these tracers [de

  5. Ultrastructural study of the chromatoid body in planarian regenerative cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, I. (Kanazawa Medical Univ., Ishikawa (Japan))

    1982-04-01

    The present paper deals with the ultrastructural changes of chromatoid bodies in planarian regenerative cells under normal and experimental conditions. A close relationship was usually observed between chromatoid bodies and pore regions of the nuclear envelope in these cells. The chromatoid bodies continued to decrease in size during cytodifferentiation of regenerative cells, though they did not disappear entirely throughout the regeneration processes. Cytochemistry and (/sup 3/H)uridine autoradiography have shown that the chromatoid body contains RNA. The typical morphological effect of actinomycin D became apparent in three organelles, i.e., nucleolus, polysome and chromatoid body. Ultrastructural changes in nucleoli were observed to occur after actinomycin treatment (20 ..mu..g/ml). The exposure to a higher dose of actinomycin (50 ..mu..g/ml) caused a decay of chromatoid bodies while nuclear envelopes retained numerous pores. Both the nucleoli and the chromatoid bodies disappeared in the sequential stages. Within the cytoplasm of such cells disintegration of a polysomal pattern was correlated with the disappearance of chromatoid bodies. The significance of the planarian chromatoid body is discussed in relation to differentiation of the regenerative cells.

  6. Concentration dynamics in lakes and reservoirs. Studies using radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilath, Ch.

    1983-01-01

    The use of radioactive tracers for the investigation of concentration dynamics of inert soluble matter in lakes and reservoirs is reviewed. Shallow and deep stratified lakes are considered. The mechanism of mixing in lakes, flow pattern and input - output response are discussed. The methodology of the use of radioactive tracers for concentration dynamic studies is described. Examples of various investigations are reviewed. The dynamics of shallow lakes can be found and expressed in terms of transfer functions, axial dispersion models, residence time distributions and sometimes only semiquantitative information about the flow pattern. The dynamics of deep, stratified lakes is more complex and difficult to investigate with tracers. Flow pattern, horizontal and vertical eddy diffusivities, mass transfer between the hypolimnion and epilimnion are tools used for describing this dynamics. (author)

  7. Familial atrophia maculosa varioliformis cutis: an ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Oglio, F; Nasca, M R; Taparelli, F; Bacchelli, B; Micali, G

    2001-01-01

    Atrophia maculosa varioliformis cutis is a rare and distinctive form of idiopathic facial macular noninflammatory atrophy that may rarely be observed in members of the same family. We describe two brothers, ages 14 and 16 years, with spontaneously appearing, asymptomatic, varioliform and linear atrophic lesions. Their past medical history was positive for varicella occurring in childhood without residual facial scarring. Routine laboratory investigations and screening for circulating autoantibodies were negative. Both patients were concordant for HLA A2 and DQ4.1. Routine and ultrastructural histologic examination of a punch biopsy specimen showed the presence of scarce, small, fragmented elastic fibers and compact collagen bundles associated with hypertrophic fibroblasts in the dermis. Our patients remained clinically stable, untreated, over a 2-year follow-up period. No long-term follow-up data have previously been reported.

  8. Circulation of cerebrospinal fluid. Comparative study of various tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bok, B.; Thebault, B.; Cavailloles, F.; Aboulker, J.

    1977-01-01

    The dynamics of cerebrospinal fluid in the spinal subarachnoid space is studied by gammamyelography. There are still controversies about the ideal properties of the tracer to be used. The influence of the tracer's molecular weight on the kinetic of ascent in the medullar cerebrospinal fluid with a view to rating the criterias for choice of an available radiopharmaceutical was evaluated. Three compounds injected simultaneously through a lombar puncture were compared: indium 111 labelled transferrin, iodine 131 labelled human serum albumin and technetium 99m labelled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. The individual stability of the compounds and a possible interference between them was investigated especially by electrophoretic technics. A spectrometric study showed that it is possible to simultaneously identify and count each of the isotopes included in the mixture on the detector device: an hybrid scanner. The comparison of linear activity profils collected on phantoms and on ten patients showed a similar fate of the three compounds during the first hours of the investigation studying the ascent of tracers into basal cisterns either in normal or pathological patients. It is therefore concluded that molecular weight does not influence in a detectable manner the spinal C.S.F. kinetics of the radiopharmaceuticals. This allows the use of the most convenient and best tolerated tracer from the dosimetric and toxicological stand point [fr

  9. General circulation and tracers: studies in the Western Indian Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamous, Daniel

    1991-01-01

    The main question addressed in this thesis is how to best use the information obtained from hydro-biogeochemical tracer data, to study the oceanic general circulation in the Western Indian Ocean. First, a principal component analysis is performed on a historical data set. The tracers considered are temperature, salinity, density, oxygen, phosphate and silica. The method reduces the amount of data to be considered by a factor of 5. It reproduces correctly and efficiently the large-scale distributions of these oceanic properties. The analysed data are then used in a finite-difference nonlinear inverse model. The grid has a resolution of 4 deg. by 4 deg.. Dynamical as well as tracer conservation constraints are used. These constraints are well satisfied by the obtained solutions but the associated errors remain large. Additional constraints would be required in order to discuss the different solutions in more detail. Finally, a qualitative study is done on the deep distribution of helium-3. The data show several important features linked to hydrothermal input in the Gulf of Aden and on the Central Indian Ridge, and to the origin of water masses and deep circulation characteristics. However additional data are required in order to clarify the distribution of this tracer in other key areas. (author) [fr

  10. Ultra-structural study of Egyptian Buffalo oocytes before and after in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The oocytes examined in this study showed normal ultra-structure of mitochondria, smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER), zona pellucida (ZP), lipid droplets, vesicles and Golgi in the good type meanwhile, some differences and abnormalities in denuded oocytes were recorded. The most remarkable changes observed in the ...

  11. Histopathological and Ultrastructural Studies of Liver Tissue from TCDD-Exposed Beach Mice (Peromyscus polionotus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    TQuantitative ultrastructural studies were conducted on liver tissue f ran beach Lj mice, Per~ ascus polionotus, exposed to the toxin 2,3, 7f8...weights per se was not attempted since the ages of the beach mice were not known and the animals could only be classified by sex and treatment. The

  12. An ultrastructural study of the interaction of human eosinophils with respiratory syncytial virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimpen, JLL; Garofalo, R; Welliver, RC; Fujihara, K; Ogra, PL

    It was shown previously that eosinophils are activated in vivo and in vitro by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (Garofalo et al., J Pediatr 1992: 120: 28-32; Kimpen et al., Pediatr Res 1992: 32: 160-4). For study of the interaction of eosinophils and RSV on the ultrastructural level, normodense

  13. A comparative ultrastructural study of pit membranes with plasmodesmata associated thickenings in four angiosperm species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabaey, D.; Lens, F.; Huysmans, S.; Smets, E.; Jansen, S.

    2008-01-01

    Recent micromorphological observations of angiosperm pit membranes have extended the number and range of taxa with pseudo-tori in tracheary elements. This study investigates at ultrastructural level (TEM) the development of pseudo-tori in the unrelated Malus yunnanensis, Ligustrum vulgare,

  14. Histochemical and ultrastructural studies on the calcareous corpuscles and eggs of Taenia taeniaeformis and Dipylidium caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Refaat M A; Mazen, Nawal A M; Marawan, Aziza M A; Thabit, Hasnaa T M

    2011-08-01

    Calcareous corpuscles were noticed by several previous workers to be present in larval and adult cestodes without knowing their function. However, nothing was mentioned in the available literature about distribution of these corpuscles and their density, structure and composition in different parts of the body of different cestodes. Hence, in the present work, a comparative study of their distribution, density, histochemical and ultrastructural characters in different parts of the body was performed in Taenia taeniaeformis and Dipylidium caninum. Due to the presence of the eggs in their gravid segments, their histochemical and ultrastructural characteristics were also studied. It was found that the size, location and density of the calcareous bodies were different in different body parts of the same and the other cestode. Histochemically, the main component of these corpuscles was calcium; while other constituents as polysaccharides, lipids, protrins and mucopolysaccharides were found in their outer rim. Ultrastructurally, they were quite similar in the two studied cestodes and different stages of their development were exhibited. Histochemically, the eggs of both cestodes were similar in their contents. However, some ultrastructural differences have been demonstrated particularly in relation to the size and shape of the rods in the embryophore and the structures in between the embryophore and onchosphere.

  15. Radioisotope tracer study in an aniline production reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, H.J.; Yelgoankar, V.N.; Mendhekar, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    A radioisotope tracer study was carried out in an aniline production reactor to investigate the cause of poor heat transfer from tube side to shell side in an aniline production (ANPO) reactor. The results of the study indicated that more than 50% of the shell volume was reduced due to deposition of the process material (i.e. fouling) on the shell walls and may be the cause of poor heat transfer in the reactor. (author). 2 refs., 2 figs

  16. Hanford 100-N Area Tracer Study Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretzschmar, S.P.; Bedi, G.S.; Martinez, P.; Ervin, K.

    1996-09-01

    This document provides an engineering tracer study final report for the determination of contact time for the disinfection process at Group A Nontransient Noncommunity water treatment plant for the 100- N Water Plant (located on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington). The purpose of this study is to determine the actual detention time within the plant clearwell, and the disinfection contact time at several clearwell effluent flow rates

  17. TRACER STUDY FAKULTAS EKONOMI UNIVERSITAS NEGERI JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darma Rika Swaramarinda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to identify the competencies of graduates FE UNJ waiting times based upon the profile of the work , the suitability of the first areas of work, salary and perceptions about the competence of the alumni corporation. This research is a qualitative study and the population are alumni of the Faculty of Economics who working in government agencies, private and entrepreneur and graduated from the period 2011/2012 to 2012/2013. Sample of the population is set at 10 % of the total population, and using a technique convenience sampling ( non probability sampling . The data used in this study is primary data obtained from interviews and use the questionnaire instrument. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics by looking at the frequency distribution and the average of respondents answers regarding the competence of graduates of the Faculty of Economics UNJ. 92.8% of alumni of the Faculty of Economics working as employees of the company, 5.8 % be a teacher, others go to college and as entrepreneurs . The average waiting time for alumni FE UNJ only takes waited less than 6 months to get a job. The level of salary received at the time of the first alumni of work varies with an average of 2-3 million by 49 % and between 3 million and above by 23 % . The level of compliance competencies and job average amounted to 77 % of alumni and competence of alumni based on the user 's perception was expressed by 71 % of alumni FE UNJ have a good competence.

  18. Hanford facilities tracer study report (315 Water Treatment Facility)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambalam, T.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results and findings of a tracer study to determine contact time for the disinfection process of 315 Water Treatment Facility that supplies sanitary water for the 300 Area. The study utilized fluoride as the tracer and contact times were determined for two flow rates. Interpolation of data and short circuiting effects are also discussed. The 315 Water Treatment Facility supplies sanitary water for the 300 Area to various process and domestic users. The Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR), outlined in the 1986 Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments enacted by the EPA in 1989 and regulated by the Washington State Department of Health (DOH) in Section 246-290-600 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC), stipulates filtration and disinfection requirements for public water systems under the direct influence of surface water. The SWTR disinfection guidelines require that each treatment system achieves predetermined inactivation ratios. The inactivation by disinfection is approximated with a measure called CxT, where C is the disinfectant residual concentration and T is the effective contact time of the water with the disinfectant. The CxT calculations for the Hanford water treatment plants were derived from the total volume of the contact basin(s). In the absence of empirical data to support CxT calculations, the DOH determined that the CxT values used in the monthly reports for the water treatment plants on the Hanford site were invalid and required the performance of a tracer study at each plant. In response to that determination, a tracer study will be performed to determine the actual contact times of the facilities for the CxT calculations

  19. Studies of Tracer Dispersion and Fluid Flow in Porous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rage, T.

    1996-12-31

    This doctoral thesis explores the connection between the topology of a porous medium and its macroscopic transport properties and is based on computerized simulation. In porous media, both diffusion and convection contribute to the dispersion of a tracer and their combined effect is emphasized. The governing equations are solved numerically, using finite differences and Monte Carlo technique. The influence of finite Reynolds number on the outcome of echo-experiments is discussed. Comparing experiments and simulations it is found that nonlinear inertial forces lead to a visible deformation of a returned tracer at surprisingly small Reynolds numbers. In a study of tracer dispersion and fluid flow in periodic arrays of discs it is demonstrated that the mechanisms of mechanical dispersion in periodic media and in natural (non-periodic) porous media are essentially different. Measurements of the percolation probability distribution of a sandstone sample is presented. Local porosity theory predicts that this simple geometric function of a porous medium is of dominant importance for its macroscopic transport properties. It is demonstrated that many aspects of transport through fractures can be studied by using simple but realistic models and readily available computer resources. An example may be the transport of hydrocarbon fluids from the source rock to a reservoir. 165 refs., 44 figs., 1 table

  20. Five channel data acquisition system for tracer studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narender Reddy, J.; Dhananjay Reddy, Y.; Dheeraj Reddy, J.

    2001-01-01

    Radioactive tracers are being used by many modern industries for trouble shooting, process control/quality control and optimization in the process plants. A five channel data acquisition system which has five independent scintillation detector based channels for data acquisition has been developed and made available. This system can be used for tracer studies involving Mean residence time, Resident time distribution and other similar parameters involving tracer movement. System developed can acquire data with dwell times ranging from 10 m sec to 100 sec into each channel and has a capacity to acquire data into 10K channels. Each channel electronics, has a 1x1 NaI Scintillation Detector probe, HV, AMP SCA, micro-controller based data acquisition card with independent dot matrix LCD display for visualization. Extensive use of serial bus (I 2 C, microwire) compatible devices has been incorporated in the design. Data acquisition is initiated simultaneously into all the channels. System design permits delayed/prompt data acquisition selectively. Dual counter switching technique has been employed to achieve faster dwell times for data acquisition. (author)

  1. Ultrastructural study of Rift Valley fever virus in the mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Christopher; Steele, Keith E.; Honko, Anna; Shamblin, Joshua; Hensley, Lisa E. [United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Fort Detrick, MD (United States); Smith, Darci R., E-mail: darci.smith1@us.army.mil [United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Fort Detrick, MD (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Detailed ultrastructural studies of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in the mouse model are needed to develop and characterize a small animal model of RVF for the evaluation of potential vaccines and therapeutics. In this study, the ultrastructural features of RVFV infection in the mouse model were analyzed. The main changes in the liver included the presence of viral particles in hepatocytes and hepatic stem cells accompanied by hepatocyte apoptosis. However, viral particles were observed rarely in the liver; in contrast, particles were extremely abundant in the CNS. Despite extensive lymphocytolysis, direct evidence of viral replication was not observed in the lymphoid tissue. These results correlate with the acute-onset hepatitis and delayed-onset encephalitis that are dominant features of severe human RVF, but suggest that host immune-mediated mechanisms contribute significantly to pathology. The results of this study expand our knowledge of RVFV-host interactions and further characterize the mouse model of RVF.

  2. Ultrastructural study of Rift Valley fever virus in the mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, Christopher; Steele, Keith E.; Honko, Anna; Shamblin, Joshua; Hensley, Lisa E.; Smith, Darci R.

    2012-01-01

    Detailed ultrastructural studies of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in the mouse model are needed to develop and characterize a small animal model of RVF for the evaluation of potential vaccines and therapeutics. In this study, the ultrastructural features of RVFV infection in the mouse model were analyzed. The main changes in the liver included the presence of viral particles in hepatocytes and hepatic stem cells accompanied by hepatocyte apoptosis. However, viral particles were observed rarely in the liver; in contrast, particles were extremely abundant in the CNS. Despite extensive lymphocytolysis, direct evidence of viral replication was not observed in the lymphoid tissue. These results correlate with the acute-onset hepatitis and delayed-onset encephalitis that are dominant features of severe human RVF, but suggest that host immune-mediated mechanisms contribute significantly to pathology. The results of this study expand our knowledge of RVFV–host interactions and further characterize the mouse model of RVF.

  3. Radiation induced cell death in cervical squamous cell carcinoma. An immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atari, Eio; Toda, Takayoshi; Sadi, A.M.; Egawa, Haruhiko; Moromizato, Hidehiko; Mamadi, T.; Kiyuna, Masaya

    1998-01-01

    To study the process of cell death in cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) after radiation, an ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study was performed. Paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of biopsy samples pre- and post-radiation stage III SCC (n=15) were collected. Irradiation caused varying ultrastructural changes including nuclear and cytoplasmic disorganization suggesting cell necrosis. Immunohistochemically, the pre-radiation specimens showed no positive reaction for tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), tumor necrosis factor-receptor (TNF-γ) or Fas. C-fos, p53 and bcl-2 showed positive reactions in only a few non-irradiated specimens. All of the irradiated specimens showed a positive reaction for TNF-α, and variable positive reactions were observed for TNF-γ, Fas, p53, c-fos and bcl-2. These results suggest that TNF-α, TNF-γ, and c-fos are responsible for radiation induced cell death in cervical SCC. (author)

  4. Methods for conduct of atmospheric tracer studies at ANSTO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G H; Stone, D J.M.; Pascoe, J H [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Environment Division

    2000-07-01

    A perfluorocarbon atmospheric tracer system has been developed to investigate atmospheric dispersion processes in the region surrounding the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre. This report discusses the tracer release, sampling and analysis methods.

  5. Autoradiographic and ultrastructural studies on the human fibro-atheromatous plaque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villaschi, S.; Spagnoli, L.G. (Universita degli Studi, Rome (Italy). Istituto di Anatomia ed Istologia Patologica)

    1983-07-01

    Foam cells, either myogenic or macrophagic, are commonly detected in experimental and human fibro-atheromatous plaques. Their role in human atherosclerosis is not yet understood. This paper reports on a preliminary autoradiographic study combined with ultrastructural observations in the human fibro-atheromatous plaque. Most of the autoradiographic silver grains appeared on foam cells and monocytelike cells, thus suggesting a local proliferation of these cells.

  6. Autoradiographic and ultrastructural studies on the human fibro-atheromatous plaque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villaschi, Sergio; Spagnoli, L.G.

    1983-01-01

    Foam cells, either myogenic or macrophagic, are commonly detected in experimental and human fibro-atheromatous plaques. Their role in human atherosclerosis is not yet understood. This paper reports on a preliminary autoradiographic study combined with ultrastructural observations in the human fibro-atheromatous plaque. Most of the autoradiographic silver grains appeared on foam cells and monocytelike cells, thus suggesting a local proliferation of these cells. (author)

  7. Ultrastructural Studies on Root Nodules of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Raiha Qadri; A. Mahmood; Mohammad Athar

    2007-01-01

    Ultrastructural studies were conducted on Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb) Benth. root nodules collected from trees growing under natural conditions. Rhizobial infection on root surface of P. dulce started with curling of root hair. Both curled and straight root hairs were observed. The internal structure of a mature nodule showed an epidermis, cortex, vascular region and a bacteriod region. Vascular bundles were amphicribral. A distinct periderm consisted of sclereid tissue could be observed in t...

  8. Spermatological characteristics of the genus Taenia inferred from the ultrastructural study on Taenia hydatigena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, Jordi; Khallaayoune, Khalid; Azzouz-Maache, Samira; Pétavy, Anne-Françoise

    2015-01-01

    The present study attempts to establish the sperm ultrastructure baseline for Taenia hydatigena, which is essential for the future research on the location of specific proteins involved in spermatogenesis in this species. Thus, the ultrastructural organisation of the mature spermatozoon is described by means of transmission electron microscopy. Live tapeworms were obtained from an experimentally infected dog in the Department of Pathology and Public Health of the Agronomic and Veterinary Institute Hassan II of Rabat (Morocco). The spermatozoon of T. hydatigena is a filiform cell, which is tapered at both extremities and lacks mitochondria. It exhibits all the characteristics of type VII spermatozoon of tapeworms, namely a single axoneme, a crested body, spiralled cortical microtubules and nucleus, a periaxonemal sheath and intracytoplasmic walls. Other interesting characteristics are the presence of a 2000 nm long apical cone in its anterior extremity and only the axoneme in its posterior extremity. The ultrastructural characters of the spermatozoon of T. hydatigena are compared with those of other cestodes studied to date, with particular emphasis on representatives of the genus Taenia.

  9. Chemical-Free Technique to Study the Ultrastructure of Primary Cilium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohieldin, Ashraf M; AbouAlaiwi, Wissam A; Gao, Min; Nauli, Surya M

    2015-11-02

    A primary cilium is a hair-like structure with a width of approximately 200 nm. Over the past few decades, the main challenge in the study of the ultrastructure of cilia has been the high sensitivity of cilia to chemical fixation, which is required for many imaging techniques. In this report, we demonstrate a combined high-pressure freezing (HPF) and freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy (FFTEM) technique to examine the ultrastructure of a cilium. Our objective is to develop an optimal high-resolution imaging approach that preserves cilia structures in their best natural form without alteration of cilia morphology by chemical fixation interference. Our results showed that a cilium has a swelling-like structure (termed bulb), which was previously considered a fixation artifact. The intramembrane particles observed via HPF/FFTEM indicated the presence of integral membrane proteins and soluble matrix proteins along the ciliary bulb, which is part of an integral structure within the ciliary membrane. We propose that HPF/FFTEM is an important and more suitable chemical-free method to study the ultrastructure of primary cilia.

  10. Preparation of radioactive tracer for studying sediment movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, S.D.; Ghauri, G.A.; Qureshi, M.H.; Khan, N.A.

    1983-06-01

    In order to study the movement of sediment in harbours, estuaries and streams, artificial sediment in the form of glass is prepared. A preselected nuclide is added to the glass during its manufacture. The density and size distribution of the glass particles is method with that of the natural sediment. The activation of the artificial sediment in a reactor changes the nuclide into a radioactive isotope thereby tagging it and making it possible to trace its movement with suitable radiation detector. The method of tracer preparation is described with special reference to sadiment movement studies at Karachi harbour. (authors)

  11. Study of transport in unsaturated sands using radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merritt, W.F.; Pickens, J.F.; Allison, G.B.

    1979-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the mixing that occurs as a series of labelled pulses of water are transported by gravity drainage down through a sand filled column having a water table imposed at the bottom. It also demonstrated the utility of gamma-ray emitting radioactive tracers in studying transport in unsaturated or saturated porous media. The motivation for pursuing this topic was developed from observing that the content of oxygen-18, deuterium and tritium in rainwater shows marked temporal variations whereas their concentrations below the water table in shallow ground water flow systems are generally found to show much less variation. (auth)

  12. Skeletal scintigraphy and quantitative tracer studies in metabolic bone disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelman, Ignac

    Bone scan imaging with the current bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals, the technetium-99m labelled diphosphonates, has dramatically improved our ability to evaluate skeletal pathology. In this thesis, chapter 1 presents a review of the history of bone scanning, summarises present concepts as to the mechanism of uptake of bone seeking agents and briefly illustrates the role of bone scanning in clinical practice. In chapter 2 the applications of bone scan imaging and quantitative tracer techniques derived from the bone scan in the detection of metabolic bone disease are discussed. Since skeletal uptake of Tc-99m diphosphonate depends upon skeletal metabolism one might expect that the bone scan would be of considerable value in the assessment of metabolic bone disease. However in these disorders the whole skeleton is often diffusely involved by the metabolic process and simple visual inspection of the scan image may not reveal the uniformly increased uptake of tracer. Certain patterns of bone scan abnormality have, however, been reported in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and renal osteo-dystrophy; the present studies extend these observations and introduce the concept of "metabolic features" which are often recognisable in conditions with generalised increased bone turnover. As an aid to systematic recognition of these features on a given bone scan image a semi-quantitative scoring system, the metabolic index, was introduced. The metabolic index allowed differentiation between various groups of patients with metabolic disorders and a control population. In addition, in a bone scan study of patients with acromegaly, it was found that the metabolic index correlated well with disease activity as measured by serum growth hormone levels. The metabolic index was, however, found to be a relatively insensitive means of identifying disease in individual patients. Patients with increased bone turnover will have an absolute increase in skeletal uptake of tracer. As a

  13. Tracer theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margrita, R.

    1988-09-01

    Tracers are used in many fields of science to investigate mass transfer. The scope of tracers applications in Service of Applications Radioisotopes (S.A.R.-France) is large and concerns natural and industrial systems such as Sciences of earth: hydrology - civil engineering - Sedimentology - environmental studies. Industrial field: chemical engineering - mechanical engineering. A general tracer methodology has been developed in our laboratories from these different applications fields and this paper shows these different points of view in using tracers; our wish is that the methods used in an experimental field can be employed in an another one

  14. EFFECT OF CYCLOSPORINE A ON THE KIDNEY OF RABBIT: A LIGHT AND ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Fathy Ahmed Fetouh; Abdelmonem Awad Hegazy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nephrotoxicity is a relatively common problem in patients immunosuppressed with cyclosporine A (CsA) with an incidence reaching up to thirty percent. The present work aimed to study the histological and ultrastructural effects of CsA on the kidney of rabbit. Materials and Methods: Two groups of Egyptian adult rabbits were used for this study (5 rabbits for each). One group was used as a control and the other group (experimental) was treated with CsA in a dose of 15 mg/kg of bod...

  15. Biological, histological and ultra-structural studies of female mullet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-07-29

    Jul 29, 2015 ... INTRODUCTION. Mugilids are widely distributed ... were fixed in 10% formal saline solution until used for histological studies. The gonadosomatic .... cephalus (October and November), in general all the ovaries of ripe marine ...

  16. Ultrastructural Study of Elaeis guineensis (Oil Palm) Leaf and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    INFORMM), Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800. Minden, Penang, Malaysia. .... the stock culture maintained in the same medium at 4 °C. The test microorganism was .... unavailable, and health facilities inaccessible. CONCLUSION. This study confirms ...

  17. An ultrastructural and ecological study of Ceratium hirundinella (Dinophyceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Deborah Vivien

    1981-01-01

    Vegetative cells of Ceratium hirundinella taken from Esthwaite Water, a small productive lake in the English Lake District, were studied each month by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Changes in size and abundance of chloroplasts and their lamellar spacing was shown to be related to their exposure to light within the lake. Changes in the quantities of starch and lipid present were mainly related to cyst formation or recent excystment. Excystment and encystment were studied by li...

  18. Rate equations for tracer studies in recirculating reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Happel, J [Columbia Univ., New York (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1974-10-01

    The employment of isotopic tracers is a useful technique for gaining insight into the rate controlling steps of a complex chemical reaction such as is frequently encountered in heterogeneous catalysis. An effective procedure has been to superpose tracer transfer on a reaction which is occurring under steady state conditions. If tracer transfer is employed in this fashion it is often possible to assess the individual step velocities in an assumed reaction mechanism. If transient transfer of tracer is now introduced it is possible in addition to estimate surface concentrations of chemisorbed species. The purpose of the present paper is to present the mathematical relationships involved when transfer of the tracer is not differential in the investigation. For this purpose a simple example is chosen to illustrate the various possibilities involved.

  19. Rate equations for tracer studies in recirculatinng reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Happel, J.

    1974-01-01

    The employment of isotopic tracers is a useful technique for gaining insight into the rate controlling steps of a complex chemical reaction such as is frequently encountered in heterogeneous catalysis. An effective procedure has been to superpose tracer transfer on a reaction which is occurring under steady state conditions. If tracer transfer is employed in this fashion it is often possible to assess the individual step velocities in an assumed reaction mechanism. If transient transfer of tracer is now introduced it is possible in addition to estimate surface concentrations of chemisorbed species. The purpose of the present paper is to present the mathematical relationships involved when transfer of the tracer is not differential in the investigation. For this purpose a simple example is chosen to illustrate the various possibilities involved. (auth.)

  20. Analysis of the changes in the basal cell region of oral lichen planus: An ultrastructural study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Mayura; Shetty, Devi Charan

    2013-01-01

    Context: Oral lichen planus (OLP) affects 0.5-1% of the total world's population. The histological features of oral lichen planus were first described by Dubreuill in 1906. Despite the advent of various techniques, the etiology of lichen planus remains obscure, although many theories for the etiology have been proposed. Aims: By studying OLP electron microscopically, we shall be emphasizing on the cells and its interactions in specific/altered surroundings which would help us in hypothesizing the effects of its specific cell-to-cell interactions. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 cases of oral lichen planus were selected and categorized into erosive and nonerosive forms based upon clinical pattern and confirmed as lichen planus by histopathological analysis. Tissue specimens thus obtained were cut into two halves and fixed in appropriate fixatives, i.e., neutral buffered formalin for paraffin-embedded hematoxylin and eosin stained sections and 2.5% glutaraldehyde and 2% paraformaldehyde for electron microscopic purpose respectively. Results: Ultrastructural comparison among the two forms showed significant differences between them. The basal layer showed cytoplasmic processes, intercellular spaces, desmosomes, nuclei, and signs of degeneration. The erosive form showed elongated, narrow or irregular cytoplasmic projections whereas the nonerosive showed short and broad based projections. Conclusions: The present study confirms the ultrastructural findings of basal cells in OLP with previous authors findings. Besides this, the categorization of the ultrastructural differences between erosive and nonerosive has raised the question of difference in the probable cellular and molecular mechanism between erosive and nonerosive forms. PMID:23798823

  1. Ultrastructural studies of human and rabbit alpha-M-globulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloth, B; Chesebro, B; Svehag, S E

    1968-04-01

    Electron micrographs of isolated human alpha(2)M-molecules, obtained by the negative contrast technique, revealed morphologically homogenous structures resembling a graceful monogram of the two letters H and I. The modal values for the length and width of the alpha(2)M particles were 170 A and 100 A, respectively. Purified rabbit alphamacroglobulins contained about 80% alpha(1)M- and 20% alpha(2)M-globulins. The isolated rabbit alpha(1)M- and alpha(2)M-molecules were morphologically indistinguishable from one another and from human alpha(2)M-molecules. Preliminary immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that the two rabbit alphaM-globulins were antigenically different. Sedimentation constant determinations gave s(20, w) values of 18.8 and 18.2 for rabbit alpha(1)M and alpha(2)M, respectively.

  2. Ultrastructural study of spermatogenesis in Phoronopsis harmeri (Lophophorata, Phoronida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reunov, Arkadiy; Klepal, Waltraud

    2004-02-01

    The process of sperm development in Phoronopsis harmeri was studied by electron microscopy. Developing spermatogenical cells are aggregated around the capillaries of the haemal plexus. The spermatogonia, which are situated around the capillary walls of the caeca, are remarkable for the presence of germ-line vesicles and contain their centrioles near the cell membrane. The spermatocytes and spermatids are flagellated cells arranged in clusters. During spermiogenesis the basal body/flagellum complex migrates to the apical pole of the spermatid. The acrosome-like structure arises from material produced by the Golgi complex. It lacks a surrounding membrane and has a fibrillar content. The nucleus elongates and the condensation of chromatin is caused by an activation of 'initiation centres'. The late spermatid and the spermatozoon appear as two-armed 'V'-shaped cells in which one arm contains the nucleus and posteriorly located mitochondria, and the other one is the axoneme. Spermatogenesis of P. harmeri is an interesting example of gamete differentiation where advanced sperm structure is combined with a plesiomorphic pattern of sperm development characterized as 'flagellate spermatogenesis'.

  3. An experimental study of tracers for labelling of injection gas in oil reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugstad, Oe.

    1992-01-01

    This work demonstrates the feasibility of the PMCP and PMCH as tracers in field experiments. These compounds have properties which make them as well suited for well to well studies as the more common tracers CH 3 T and 85 Kr. In an injection project carried out at the Gullfaks field in the North Sea the two PFCs verified communication between wells. This implies communication between different geological layers in the reservoir and also communication across faults within the same layers. Laboratory studies carried out have focused on the retention of the tracers in dynamic flooding experiments under conditions comparable with those in the petroleum reservoirs. Simultaneous injection of a variety of tracers has shown individual variations in tracer retention which are caused by important reservoir parameters as fluid saturation and rock properties. By proper design of field injection programs the tracers response may therefore be used to estimate fluid saturation if actual rock properties are known. 45 refs., 20 figs., 13 tabs

  4. Aligning Higher Education to Workforce Needs in Liberia: A Tracer Study of University Graduates in Liberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flomo, John S., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the congruence between higher education and the labor market from the perspectives of college graduates in Liberia. It specifically examined the alignment of the skills college students acquire in college to Liberia's labor market. The study employed a Tracer Study quantitative research methodology. Tracer study as a…

  5. Adjuvant potential of virgin coconut oil extract on antiretroviral therapy-induced testicular toxicity: An ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogedengbe, O O; Jegede, A I; Onanuga, I O; Offor, U; Peter, A I; Akang, E N; Naidu, E C S; Azu, O O

    2018-04-01

    The effects of Virgin coconut oil as an adjuvant to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were investigated on the testicular ultrastructure and biochemical markers in rats. Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 153-169 g were divided into four groups and treated as follows: control A (distilled water), B (HAART), C (HAART+Virgin coconut oil 10 ml/kg) and D (Virgin coconut oil [VCO] 10 ml/kg). Testicular segments were evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. Serum was assayed for testosterone, luteinising hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and testicular tissue for malondialdehyde and glutathione. Ultrastructure of basement membrane (Bm), mitochondria and spermatocytes was normal in the control group. HAART-treated group showed significant increase (p group. Mitochondrial cristae appear collapsed, and Sertoli cells showed cytoplasmic vacuolations. HAART+VCO group showed improved ultrastructural details in Bm, and Sertoli cell and Leydig cells show abundant lipid droplets. Virgin coconut oil-treated group showed thinning of Bm with otherwise normal ultrastructural features of organelles. HAART-treated group showed significant increase (p Virgin coconut oil improved testicular morphology and reversed HAART-induced ultrastructural alterations. Further studies on putative mechanism are required. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Structural and ultrastructural studies of the urinary tract of mice inoculated with Lactobacillus fermentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva de Ruiz, C; del R Rey, M; Nader-Macías, M E

    2003-06-01

    To assess, using structural and ultrastructural studies of the urinary tract, the effects of the intraurethral inoculation of lactobacilli (probiotic treatment) as lactobacilli are the predominant micro-organisms of the urogenital tract of humans, monkeys and mice. Previous work showed the protective effect of Lactobacillus fermentum CRL 1058 intraurethrally inoculated against the challenge of uropathogenic Escherichia coli. There was also an effect of oestrogens and antibiotics in the kinetics of colonization of both micro-organisms in mice. In the present study L. fermentum was inoculated with agarose beads (107 colony-forming units) and the number of micro-organisms determined by plating in selective media, giving a high degree of colonization in all the organs studied. The urinary tract organs were processed by histological and electron microscopy techniques standardized in our laboratory. The intraurethral inoculation of lactobacilli produced no adverse effects or significant changes in any of the organs assessed (kidney, ureter, bladder or urethra), when evaluated by histological and ultrastructural techniques. The use of lactobacilli as a probiotic treatment is probably safe.

  7. A comparative ultrastructural study of pit membranes with plasmodesmata associated thickenings in four angiosperm species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaey, David; Lens, Frederic; Huysmans, Suzy; Smets, Erik; Jansen, Steven

    2008-11-01

    Recent micromorphological observations of angiosperm pit membranes have extended the number and range of taxa with pseudo-tori in tracheary elements. This study investigates at ultrastructural level (TEM) the development of pseudo-tori in the unrelated Malus yunnanensis, Ligustrum vulgare, Pittosporum tenuifolium, and Vaccinium myrtillus in order to determine whether these plasmodesmata associated thickenings have a similar developmental pattern across flowering plants. At early ontogenetic stages, the formation of a primary thickening was observed, resulting from swelling of the pit membrane in fibre-tracheids and vessel elements. Since plasmodesmata appear to be frequently, but not always, associated with these primary pit membrane thickenings, it remains unclear which ultrastructural characteristics control the formation of pseudo-tori. At a very late stage during xylem differentiation, a secondary thickening is deposited on the primary pit membrane thickening. Plasmodesmata are always associated with pseudo-tori at these final developmental stages. After autolysis, the secondary thickening becomes electron-dense and persistent, while the primary thickening turns transparent and partially or entirely dissolves. The developmental patterns observed in the species studied are similar and agree with former ontogenetic studies in Rosaceae, suggesting that pseudo-tori might be homologous features across angiosperms.

  8. Plan for radionuclide tracer studies of the residence time distribution in the Wilsonville dissolver and preheater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolley, R.L.; Begovich, J.M.; Brashear, H.R.

    1983-12-01

    Stimulus-response measurements using radiotracers to measure residence time distribution (RTD) and hydrodynamic parameters for the preheaters and dissolvers at the Ft. Lewis Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) and the Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) coal conversion pilot plants are reviewed. A plan is also presented for a series of radioactive tracer studies proposed for the Advanced Coal Liquefaction Facility at Wilsonville, Alabama, to measure the RTD for the preheater and dissolvers in the SRC-I mode. The tracer for the gas phase will be 133 Xe, and 198 Au (on carbonized resin or as an aqueous colloidal suspension) will be used as the slurry tracer. Four experimental phases are recommended for the RTD tracer studies: (1) preheater; (2) dissolver with 100% takeoff; (3) dissolver with 100% takeoff and solids withdrawal; and (4) dissolver with 50% takeoff. Eighteen gas-tracer and 22 liquid-tracer injections are projected to accomplish the four experimental phases. Two to four tracer injections are projected for preliminary tests to ensure the capability of safe injection of the radiotracers and the collection of statistically significant data. A complete projected cost and time schedule is provided, including procurement of necessary components, preparation of the radiotracers, assembly and testing of tracer injection apparatus and detection systems, onsite work and tracer injections, laboratory experimentation, data analysis, and report writing

  9. Ultrastructural cytochemical prospective study of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia: detection of peroxidase activity in patients failing to respond to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiffers, J; Darmendrail, V; Larrue, J; Villenave, I; Bernard, P; Boisseau, M; Broustet, A

    1981-08-15

    Ultrastructural cytochemical studies revealed peroxidase activity in five of 25 adult patients with apparent null lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in whom the peroxidase reaction studied with light microscopy was negative. None of these 5 patients responded to a chemotherapy regimen used for adult ALL. The importance of ultrastructural cytochemistry which allows the recognition of myeloblastic differentiation in undifferentiated blast cells is also demonstrated. The correct classification of such cases may be important for prognosis because they appear to be resistant to the chemotherapy used in treating ALL.

  10. Digital Imaging Analysis for the Study of Endotoxin-Induced Mitochondrial Ultrastructure Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandar S. Joshi

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary defects in mitochondrial function have been implicated in over 100 diverse diseases. In situ, mitochondria possess unique and well-defined morphology in normal healthy cells, but diseases linked to defective mitochondrial function are characterized by the presence of morphologically abnormal and swollen mitochondria with distorted cristae. In situ study of mitochondrial morphology is established as an indicator of mitochondrial health but thus far assessments have been via subjective evaluations by trained observers using discontinuous scoring systems. Here we investigated the value of digital imaging analysis to provide for unbiased, reproducible, and convenient evaluations of mitochondrial ultrastructure. Electron photomicrographs of ileal mucosal mitochondria were investigated using a scoring system previously described by us, and also analyzed digitally by using six digital parameters which define size, shape, and electron density characteristics of over 700 individual mitochondria. Statistically significant changes in mitochondrial morphology were detected in LPS treated animals relative to vehicle control using both the subjective scoring system and digital imaging parameters (p < 0:05. However, the imaging approach provided convenient and high throughput capabilities and was easily automated to remove investigator influences. These results illustrate significant changes in ileal mucosal mitochondrial ultrastructure during sepsis and demonstrate the value of digital imaging technology for routine assessments in this setting.

  11. Histopathology of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronovirus (MERS-CoV) infection - clinicopathological and ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaad, Khaled O; Hajeer, Ali H; Al Balwi, Mohammed; Al Moaiqel, Mohammed; Al Oudah, Nourah; Al Ajlan, Abdulaziz; AlJohani, Sameera; Alsolamy, Sami; Gmati, Giamal E; Balkhy, Hanan; Al-Jahdali, Hamdan H; Baharoon, Salim A; Arabi, Yaseen M

    2018-02-01

    The pathogenesis, viral localization and histopathological features of Middle East respiratory syndrome - coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in humans are not described sufficiently. The aims of this study were to explore and define the spectrum of histological and ultrastructural pathological changes affecting various organs in a patient with MERS-CoV infection and represent a base of MERS-CoV histopathology. We analysed the post-mortem histopathological findings and investigated localisation of viral particles in the pulmonary and extrapulmonary tissue by transmission electron microscopic examination in a 33-year-old male patient of T cell lymphoma, who acquired MERS-CoV infection. Tissue needle biopsies were obtained from brain, heart, lung, liver, kidney and skeletal muscle. All samples were collected within 45 min from death to reduce tissue decomposition and artefact. Histopathological examination showed necrotising pneumonia, pulmonary diffuse alveolar damage, acute kidney injury, portal and lobular hepatitis and myositis with muscle atrophic changes. The brain and heart were histologically unremarkable. Ultrastructurally, viral particles were localised in the pneumocytes, pulmonary macrophages, renal proximal tubular epithelial cells and macrophages infiltrating the skeletal muscles. The results highlight the pulmonary and extrapulmonary pathological changes of MERS-CoV infection and provide the first evidence of the viral presence in human renal tissue, which suggests tissue trophism for MERS-CoV in kidney. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. [An ultrastructural study of oogenesis in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea (Platyhelminthe, Paludicola)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrath, Abdul Halim; Alwasal, Saleh H; Alhazza, Ibrahim; Zghal, Fathia; Tekaya, Saida

    2011-07-01

    The ovary of the freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea has been studied for the first time using both light and electron microscopy methods. The ultrastructure of the ovary revealed two types of cells: accessory cells and germinal cells at various stages of differentiation, distributed along a maturation axis. Initially, oogonia underwent cytoplasm growth due to the development of organelles, such as endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, and mitochondria, which are all involved in the production of cytoplasmic inclusions or yolk globules. It is shown that the chromatoid body and fibrogranular aggregates may participate in the synthesis of vitelline inclusions. When completely mature, the oocytes have become larger, due to the accumulation of nutritive inclusions, which are round in shape and have a paracrystalline structure. These inclusions are interpreted as being yolk globules and may represent a kind of nutritive material for the developing embryo. These ultrastructural features of the ovary agree with the available phylogenetic tree, based on morphological and karyological characters that considers Schmidtea group as a genus and not a subgenus. The presence of sperm between the oocytes suggests that fertilization may occur within the ovary, representing an uncommon condition within the Triclads, in which fertilization usually takes places outside of the ovaries. Copyright © 2011 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Ultrastructural and biochemical studies on formation of calcium oxalate in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelmottaleb, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Plant calcium oxalate crystals occur within cells called crystal idioblasts. Important aspects of this calcification phenomenon have not been characterized. This dissertation examines some of the aspects of this ubiquitous type of calcification including (1) characterization of ultrastructural features of developing crystal idioblasts, (2) determination of the relationship of specialized ultrastructural features of the idioblasts to transport of compounds and mechanisms of crystal deposition, and (3) the biochemical relationship between ascorbic acid metabolism and production of oxalic acid used for crystal formation. Structural and cytochemical studies revealed that crystal idioblasts have dense cytoplasm, modified plastids, enlarged nuclei, extensive endoplasmic reticulum, numerous dictyosomes and vesicles, and a bundle of raphide crystals in their vacuoles. A mechanism for Ca transport and crystal precipitation is proposed, based on these results. There is a strong and dynamic relationship between Ca concentration and oxalic acid produced for crystal formation, where increasing Ca level in the growth medium lead to increased total and insoluble oxalate in the plant. Calmodulin antagonists reduced oxalic acid production

  14. Study on Radioecology and Tracer of Iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaolin, Hou

    2004-01-01

    Iodine-129 (15.7 Ma) is a naturally occurring radioisotope of iodine. The ratio of 129 I/ 127 I was estimated to be ∼ 10 -12 in the ocean and 10 -11 in the territorial environment in pre-nuclear era, releases from nuclear weapon tests have increased this ratio to ∼ 10 -10 . However, a large amount of iodine-129 was released from various nuclear facilities, and the greatest releases of 129 I are from two European reprocessing plants, especially in recent years. By 1998, 2600 Kg and 220 Kg 129 I have been discharged to the marine environment and atmosphere from La Hague (France) and Sellafield reprocessing plants, respectively. This amount is tens times larger than the total 129 I inventory in the pre-nuclear ocean and weapon test releases. Although there is no significant radiation risk for the human health at present level of 129 I, the continuously increasing production and release of 129 I make the accumulation of 129 I in the environment, immigration, cycle and long term radioecological risk should be give more attention due to its long half-life, high accumulation in human thyroid and high mobility. Iodine is a conservative element in the ocean, the large amount of iodine-129 discharged to the marine system can therefore be used as a oceanographic tracer to study the physical dispersion, mixing and circulative processes of water mass in the ocean. In Riso national laboratory, a radiochemical neutron activation analysis method was developed, using this method the radioecology and tracer of iodine-129 was studied. Some representative works are presented below. (1) Evaluation of radiation exposure of humans to iodine-129. The human and animal thyroids collected from different places, such as Tianjin in China, Gemol in Belarus, Ribe in Denmark, human urine in Denmark, seafood in China were analysed for iodine-129 concentration and 129 I/ 127 I ratio, the exposure level were compared with other places. (2) Reconstruction of radiation dose from I-131 in the

  15. Deuterium used as artificial tracer in column studies under saturated water flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeniger, P.; Geiges, M.; Leibundgut, Ch.

    2003-04-01

    In contrast to numerous investigations using deuterium as an environmental tracer, hydrological investigations with deuterium-labelled water are rather rare. Currently applications in groundwater studies are restricted due to increasing costs of spiking large water quantities but an application as intelligent tracer might be of advantage especially in combination with other tracers and under distinct environmental conditions. Therefore deuterium was applied as artificial tracer in column experiments that are well proved as a tool to characterise tracer behaviour in recent studies. Deuterium was tested in comparison to the more familiar conservative tracer fluorescein. Varying experimental conditions, e.g. column length (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 m), initial tracer concentration (0.01, 0.02, 0.2 mg) and flow velocity (1.5 to 6.0 m/d) were used to investigate tracer behaviour under saturated water flow conditions. Deuterium was analysed using an H/Device with chrome reduction connected to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer and expressed in relative concentrations [per mill V-SMOW]. Theoretical tracer breakthrough curves were calculated using a one dimensional dispersion model. The results indicate higher mean transport velocities and smaller dispersion for deuterium in all experiments. Due to different molecule properties that also determine the interaction of soil substrate and tracer, deuterium indicates a more conservative transport behaviour. Deuterium is non-toxic, completely soluble, chemically and biologically stable and not subject to light-influenced decay. Furthermore, it shows promise for investigations of water flow in the unsaturated zone, and of interactions of water in soil-plant-atmosphere systems. A further discussion of problems, together with possibilities for applying deuterium as an artificial tracer, will be presented.

  16. Ultrastructural and histological findings on examination of skin in osteogenesis imperfecta: a novel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Meena; Wagner, Bart E; Peres, Luiz C; Sobey, Glenda J; Parker, Michael J; Dalton, Ann; Arundel, Paul; Bishop, Nicholas J

    2015-04-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders of bone formation, resulting in low bone mass and an increased propensity for fractures. It is a variable condition with a range of clinical severities. The histological and ultrastructural findings in the skin of patients with OI have not been described in detail in the previously published literature. Although protein analysis of cultured fibroblasts has historically been used in the diagnostic work-up of OI patients, other aspects of skin examination are not routinely performed as part of the diagnostic pathway in patients with OI. The aims of this study were to perform histological and ultrastructural examination of skin biopsies in patients with OI. This was to identify common and distinguishing features in the numerous genetically distinct subtypes of OI and compare the findings with those in patients who did not present with fractures, and to enable the use of the results thus obtained to aid in the diagnostic work-up of patients with OI. As part of a larger research study set-up to identify clinical features and natural history in patients with atypical features of OI, skin biopsy and examination (histology and electron microscopy) were undertaken. Genetic analysis and ancillary investigations were also performed to identify similarities within this group and to differentiate this group from the 'normal' population. At the end of this study, we were able to demonstrate that the histological and electron microscopic findings on a skin biopsy may be an indicator of the likelihood of identifying a pathogenic mutation in type 1 collagen genes. This is because patients with specific findings on examination, such as elastic fibre area fraction (on histological analysis), collagen fibril diameter variability, deviation from the expected mean and collagen flowers (on electron microscopy), are more likely to be positive on genetic analyses. This has, in turn, provided more insight into the

  17. Project definition study for the National Biomedical Tracer Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roozen, K.

    1995-02-15

    The University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) has conducted a study of the proposed National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). In collaboration with General Atomics, RUST International, Coleman Research Corporation (CRC), IsoMed, Ernst and Young and the advisory committees, they have examined the issues relevant to the NBTF in terms of facility design, operating philosophy, and a business plan. They have utilized resources within UAB, CRC and Chem-Nuclear to develop recommendations on environmental, safety and health issues. The Institute of Medicine Panel`s Report on Isotopes for Medicine and the Life Sciences took the results of prior workshops further in developing recommendations for the mission of the NBTF. The IOM panel recommends that the NBTF accelerator have the capacity to accelerate protons to 80 MeV and a minimum of 750 microamperes of current. The panel declined to recommend a cyclotron or a linac. They emphasized a clear focus on research and development for isotope production including target design, separation chemistry and generator development. The facility needs to emphasize education and training in its mission. The facility must focus on radionuclide production for the research and clinical communities. The formation of a public-private partnership resembling the TRIUMF-Nordion model was encouraged. An advisory panel should assist with the NBTF operations and prioritization.

  18. Project definition study for the National Biomedical Tracer Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roozen, K.

    1995-01-01

    The University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) has conducted a study of the proposed National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). In collaboration with General Atomics, RUST International, Coleman Research Corporation (CRC), IsoMed, Ernst and Young and the advisory committees, they have examined the issues relevant to the NBTF in terms of facility design, operating philosophy, and a business plan. They have utilized resources within UAB, CRC and Chem-Nuclear to develop recommendations on environmental, safety and health issues. The Institute of Medicine Panel's Report on Isotopes for Medicine and the Life Sciences took the results of prior workshops further in developing recommendations for the mission of the NBTF. The IOM panel recommends that the NBTF accelerator have the capacity to accelerate protons to 80 MeV and a minimum of 750 microamperes of current. The panel declined to recommend a cyclotron or a linac. They emphasized a clear focus on research and development for isotope production including target design, separation chemistry and generator development. The facility needs to emphasize education and training in its mission. The facility must focus on radionuclide production for the research and clinical communities. The formation of a public-private partnership resembling the TRIUMF-Nordion model was encouraged. An advisory panel should assist with the NBTF operations and prioritization

  19. Bromide as a tracer for studying water movement and nitrate displacement in soils: comparison with stable isotope tracers; Bromid als Tracer zur Untersuchung der Wasserbewegung und der Nitratverlagerung in Boeden: Vergleich mit stabilisotopen Tracern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russow, R.; Knappe, S. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Bad Lauchstaedt (Germany). Sektion Bodenforschung

    1999-02-01

    Tracers are an ideal means of studying water movement and associated nitrate displacement. Often bromide is preferred as a tracer because it is considered a representative tracer for water and because, being a conservative tracer (i.e. not involved in chemical and biological soil processes), it can be used for studying anion transport in soils. Moreover, it is less expensive and easier to measure than the stable isotopes deuterium and {sup 15}N. Its great advantage over radioactive tracers (e.g. tritium), which outweighs their extreme sensitivity and ease of measurement and which it has in common with stable isotopes, is that it does not require radiation protection measures. However, there are also constraints on the use of bromide as a tracer in soil/water/plant systems. Our own studies on different soils using D{sub 2}O, bromide and [{sup 15}N]-nitrate in lysimeters suggest that the above assumptions on bromide tracers need not always be valid under conditions as they prevail in biologically active soils. As the present paper shows, these studies permit a good assessment of the possibilities and limits to these tracers. [Deutsch] Fuer die Untersuchung der Wasserbewegung sowie der daran gekoppelten Nitrat-Verlagerung ist der Einsatz von Tracern das Mittel der Wahl. Dabei wird Bromid als Tracer haeufig bevorzugt, da es allgemein als ein repraesentativer Tracer fuer Wasser und als konservativer Tracer (nicht involviert in chemische und biologische Bodenprozesse) zur Untersuchung des Anionentransportes in Boeden angesehen wird und es gegenueber den stabilen Isotopen Deuterium und {sup 15}N billiger und einfacher zu bestimmen ist. Gegenueber den radioaktiven Tracern (z.B. Tritium), die zwar sehr empfindlich und einfach messbar sind, besteht der grosse Vorteil, dass, wie bei den stabilen Isotopen, keine Strahlenschutzmassnahmen ergriffen werden muessen. Es gibt jedoch auch einschraenkende Hinweise fuer die Verwendung von Bromid als Tracer im System Boden

  20. Extrahepatic bile duct ligation in broiler chickens: ultrastructural study of Ito cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekowati Handharyani

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Ito cell (fat-storing cell is a cell lying in perisinusoidal space of liver. The function of Ito cell is expanding from a site of fat-storing site to a center of extracellular matrix metabolism and mediator production in the liver. This study was performed in order to evaluate the Ito cells in cholestatic condition. The artificial cholestatic was conducted by ligation of extrahepatic bile ducts (bile duct ligation = BDL in broilers. The results showed that BDL induced bile congestion, fibrosis, proliferation of Ito cells and intrahepatic bile ductules. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that Ito cells were scattered throughout the fibrotic areas, and larger in size with more extensive immunoreactivity than those in normal livers. Ultrastructural study demonstrated that Ito cells were closely associated with the production of extracellular collagen fibers. Ito cells actively react against hepatocytic injuries, especially in fibrogenesis of cholestatic livers.

  1. Histochemical and ultrastructural study of an elastofibroma dorsi coexisting with a high grade spindle cell sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Alberghini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Elastofibroma dorsi is a pseudotumoral fibroproliferative lesion characterized by polymorphic fiber-like deposits of elastinophilic material. Several theories have been reported explaining the pathogenesis of elastofibroma. Recent cytogenetic studies have demonstrated chromosomal instability in elastofibromas, not normally observed in non-neoplastic tissues. These chromosomal defects are commonly observed in aggressive fibromatosis too. Such clinical observations suggest a multistage pathogenetic mechanism for the onset of elastofibroma. This study, using histochemical, immunohistochemical staining techniques, and ultrastructural examination, describes the detection of an otherwise typical elastofibroma contextual to a high grade sarcoma. Hence, the coexistence of elastofibroma and high-grade sarcoma may suggest a causal link between the two pathological entities. The results obtained suggest that the coexistence of the two pathological entities is conceivably coincidental.

  2. Accumulation of enriched uranium UO2F2 in ultrastructure as studied by electron microscopic autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shoupeng; Wang Yuanchang

    1992-01-01

    A study was made on the retention of soluble enriched uranium UO 2 F 2 in ultrastructure by electron microscopic autoradiography. The early dynamic accumulation of radioactivity in the body showed that enriched uranium UO 2 F 2 was mainly localized in kidneys, especially accumulated in epithelial cells of proximal convoluted tubules leading to degeneration and necrosis of the tubules. In liver cells, enriched uranium UO 2 F 2 at first deposited in nuclei of the cells and in soluble proteins of the plasma, and later accumulated selectively in mitochondria and lysosomes. On electron microscopic autoradiographic study it was shown that the dynamic retention of radioactivity of enriched uranium UO 2 F 2 in skeleton increased steadily through the time period of exposure. Enriched uranium UO 2 F 2 chiefly deposited in nuclei and mitochondria of osteoblasts as well as of osteoclasts

  3. Enzymatic and ultrastructural study of lysosomes in rats bearing radiation-induced thyroid follicular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starling, J.R.; Clifton, K.H.; Norback, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Radiation-induced well-differentiated and poorly differentiated follicular thyroid cancers were transplanted into the intrascapular fat pads of male Fisher 144 rats. The tumors grew in the recipient rats and after a time interval were removed and studied along with normal rat thyroids for lysosomal activity and ultrastructural characteristics. Plasma from experimental and control rats was also studied for lysosomal activity. Rats with radiation-induced thyroid carcinoma had a decrease in growth rate compared with normal rats. There was no significant increase in plasma lysosomal enzymes in the experimental rats. Well-differentiated thyroid carcinomatous tissue showed increased total activities of lysosomal enzymes as well as a difference in subcellular distribution compared with normal and poorly differentiated carcinomatous tissue. Electron microscopy of normal and carcinomatous tissue demonstrated the greatest number of lysosomes in the well-differentiated carcinoma and the fewest in the poorly differentiated carcinoma

  4. Skin toxicity of jet fuels: ultrastructural studies and the effects of substance P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A.; Inman, Alfred O.; Riviere, Jim E.

    2004-01-01

    Topical exposure to jet fuel is a significant occupational hazard. Recent studies have focused on dermal absorption of fuel and its components, or alternatively, on the biochemical or immunotoxicological sequelae to exposure. Surprisingly, morphological and ultrastructural analyses have not been systematically conducted. Similarly, few studies have compared responses in skin to that of the primary target organ, the lung. The focus of the present investigation was 2-fold: first, to characterize the ultrastructural changes seen after topical exposure to moderate doses (335 or 67 μl/cm 2 ) of jet fuels [Jet A, Jet Propellant (JP)-8, JP-8+100] for up to 4 days in pigs, and secondly, to determine if co-administration of substance P (SP) with JP-8 jet fuel in human epidermal keratinocyte cell cultures modulates toxicity as it does to pulmonary toxicity in laboratory animal studies. The primary change seen after exposure to all fuels was low-level inflammation accompanied by formation of lipid droplets in various skin layers, mitochondrial and nucleolar changes, cleft formation in the intercellular lipid lamellar bilayers, as well as disorganization in the stratum granulosum-stratum corneum interface. An increased number of Langerhans cells were also noted in jet fuel-treated skin. These changes suggest that the primary effect of jet fuel exposure is damage to the stratum corneum barrier. SP administration decreased the release of interleukin (IL)-8 normally seen in keratinocytes after JP-8 exposure, a response similar to that reported for SP's effect on JP-8 pulmonary toxicity. These studies provide a base upon which biochemical and immunological data collected in other model systems can be compared

  5. Axoglial contacts in the area postrema of the cat - An ultrastructural study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damelio, Fernando E.; Gibbs, Michael A.; Mehler, William R.; Philpott, Delbert E.; Savage, Wayne

    1986-01-01

    Axoglial contacts were observed in an ultrastructural study of the area postrema of the cat. According to the disposition of the electron-dense projections attached to the adjoining membranes these contacts were classified as symmetrical or asymmetrical. The axon profiles contained aggregations of clear vesicles randomly distributed or grouped in clusters adjacent to the electron-dense projections. Dense core vesicles were occasionally seen. The neuroglial profiles were either astrocytic or ependymoglial in nature. The astrocytes showed a clear cytoplasm, polymorphous vesicles, mitochondria, glycogen granules, and bundles of filaments. The ependymal cells, in contrast, had a more electron-dense and granular appearance, tubular structures, irregular vesicular formations, profiles of smooth reticuloendoplasm, and filaments grouped in bundles or isolated in the cytoplasm. The possibility that these contacts might play a role in the chemical transfer from neurons to glial cells is discussed on the basis of existing biochemical data.

  6. Morphological and ultrastructural studies on Ulva flexuosa subsp. pilifera (Chlorophyta from Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Messyasz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ulva flexuosa subsp. pilifera (Kütz. M. J. Wynne 2005 (= Enteromorpha pilifera Kützing 1845 was previously found in Argentina, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Romania, Slovakia and Sweden, recently also in Poland. The genus Ulva was first time described as Enteromorpha. Interestingly, Enteromorpha is used nowadays as a synonym for Ulva, a development which is based on molecular data. The morphologies of both young and mature specimens were studied, and most life cycle stages could be observed. Further, the formation of calcium carbonate crystals on the surface of Ulva thalli seems to influence the arrangement of the cells. A detailed ultrastructural (TEM analysis of cell walls is presented. The TEM reveals in great details highly complex, irregular structures with stratification lines.

  7. [Extra skeletal Ewing's sarcoma. Report of two cases. Ultrastructural study of one case (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krulik, M; Brechot, J M; de Saint-Maur, P; Lecomte, D; Mougeot-Martin, M; Audebert, A A; Zylberait, D; Debray, J

    The authors report two cases of extra skeletal Ewing's sarcoma. The first case concerns a 26 years old woman presenting a tumor at the level of the sacrum area, locally recurrent, metastazing to the lungs and the lumbar column, despite of radiotherapy and chemotherapy and leading to death after a course of 18 months. The second one is that of a 30 years old man bearing a tumor of the shoulder area probably already metastazed to bones, rapidly recurrent and metastazing to the lungs and cause of death after 9 months in spite of intensive therapy. About these 2 observations a review of the literature of the cases of extra skeletal Ewing's sarcoma is done. Whatever nosologic discussion it seems that Ewing's sarcoma may present essentially as a tumor of soft tissues. An ultrastructural study has been performed in the second case. The findings are similar to those reported in Ewing's sarcoma.

  8. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on mole rats kidney: A histopathologic and ultrastructural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Türker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to realize the ultrastructural effects of ultraviolet radiation on the kidney tissue cells of mole rats (Spalax leucodon. The mole rats of 180–200 g body weight were divided into the control and radiation-trial groups. The control group was not given any radiation. The other groups were irradiated with artificially produced UVC radiation for 14, 28 and 60 days. The kidney tissue samples were prepared at the end of experiments and analyzed by the light and electron microscope. Several effects were observed in the kidney tissues cells analyzed in accordance with the dose magnitude of radiation. These results clearly show the detrimental effects of UVC radiation on kidney tissue cells in exposure periods dependent on radiation dose and exposure time.

  9. Fluoride-associated ultrastructural changes and apoptosis in human renal tubule: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadri, J A; Sarwar, S; Sinha, A; Kalaivani, M; Dinda, A K; Bagga, A; Roy, T S; Das, T K; Shariff, A

    2018-01-01

    The susceptibility of the kidneys to fluoride toxicity can largely be attributed to its anatomy and function. As the filtrate moves along the complex tubular structure of each nephron, it is concentrated in the proximal and distal tubules and collecting duct. It has been frequently observed that the children suffering from renal impairments also have some symptoms of dental and skeletal fluorosis. The findings suggest that fluoride somehow interferes with renal anatomy and physiology, which may lead to renal pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fluoride-associated nephrotoxicity. A total of 156 patients with childhood nephrotic syndrome were screened and it was observed that 32 of them had significantly high levels ( p ≤ 0.05) of fluoride in urine (4.01 ± 1.83 ppm) and serum (0.1 ± 0.013 ppm). On the basis of urinary fluoride concentration, patients were divided into two groups, namely group 1 (G-1) ( n = 32) containing normal urine fluoride (0.61 ± 0.17 ppm) and group 2 (G-2) ( n = 32) having high urine fluoride concentration (4.01 ± 1.83 ppm). Age-matched healthy subjects ( n = 33) having normal levels of urinary fluoride (0.56 ± 0.15 ppm) were included in the study as control (group 0 (G-0)). Kidney biopsies were taken from G-1 and G-2 only, who were subjected to ultrastructural (transmission electron microscopy) and apoptotic (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling) analysis. Various subcellular ultrastructural changes including nuclear disintegration, chromosome condensation, cytoplasmic ground substance lysis, and endoplasmic reticulum blebbing were observed. Increased levels of apoptosis were observed in high fluoride group (G-2) compared to normal fluoride group (G-1). Various degrees of fluoride-associated damages to the architecture of tubular epithelia, such as cell swelling and lysis, cytoplasmic vacuolation, nuclear condensation, apoptosis, and necrosis, were observed.

  10. Structural and ultrastructural study of the rabbit kidney exposed to carbamate insecticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viera Almášiová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of orally administered insecticide bendiocarb on the structure and ultrastructure of the kidney parenchyma in rabbits. Bendiocarb in the form of capsules (96% Bendiocarb, Bayer, at a dose of 5 mg/kg of body weight was fed daily for 3 days. After sampling, kidney sections of experimental and control animals were evaluated. Under a light and electron microscope the diffuse degenerative changes in kidney cortex and medulla were noted. Light microscopy revealed that the renal corpuscles had normal structure, but other nephron components and the collecting ducts were invariably changed. The epithelial cells inside the proximal and distal tubules and collecting ducts possessed increased quantity of cytoplasmic vacuoles and some tubular sections showed cellular sloughing and necrotization. The cells within the thin limbs of the Henley’s loops had normal histological structure except for sporadic necrotizing cells within some segments. The ultrastructural evaluation showed extensive cytoplasmic vacuolisation and degenerative changes, such as mitochondrial swelling and shortening of basal infoldings within proximal and distal tubules, and microvilli reduction within proximal tubules. Cells of the collecting tubules exhibited a higher number of vacuoles and some cells had apparently reduced organelles. The cells of the thin limbs of the Henle’s loop showed more vacuolised cytoplasm, some tubular sections revealed cellular detachment between the adjacent epithelial cells and rare necrotising epithelial cells were observed. The described findings addressed in the present study indicate an adverse effect of bendiocarb on the kidney parenchyma in rabbits.

  11. Environmental Tracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Elliot

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental tracers continue to provide an important tool for understanding the source, flow and mixing dynamics of water resource systems through their imprint on the system or their sensitivity to alteration within it. However, 60 years or so after the first isotopic tracer studies were applied to hydrology, the use of isotopes and other environmental tracers are still not routinely necessarily applied in hydrogeological and water resources investigations where appropriate. There is therefore a continuing need to promote their use for developing sustainable management policies for the protection of water resources and the aquatic environment. This Special Issue focuses on the robustness or fitness-for-purpose of the application and use of environmental tracers in addressing problems and opportunities scientifically, to promote their wider use and to address substantive issues of vulnerability, sustainability, and uncertainty in (groundwater resources systems and their management.

  12. Study of hydraulic parameters in leach mining using radioactive tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Tariq, J.A.; Iqbal, N.; Rafiq, M.

    2002-01-01

    Six radioactive tracer (/sup 131/I) experiments were carried out at in-situ leach mining site to study transit time of injected fluid from the injection wells to the production well along the dip, against the dip, along the diagonals and the strike. It was found that the dip of the host sandstone does not affect the movement of fluid as the same velocity was found along the dip (0.23 m/h) and against the dip (0.22 m/h). Along the diagonals, the breakthrough times for 13.75 m and 16.25 m were 54 hours and 155 hours respectively yielding velocities of 0.26 m/h and 0.1 m/h. The higher velocity is not only due to shorter distance but also due to higher porosity / injection rate. Along the strike, the breakthrough time was 29 hours (very short) for 9.25 m distance and 147 hours for 16.25 m distance. The unexpectedly high velocity along the strike for shorter distance was also due to higher injection rate in the well as the other well was accepting only small fraction of the total injection. At higher injection/production rate or higher hydraulic gradient, the breakthrough time is shorter and also the dispersion of fluid is less, consequently the leach area would be relatively small. Fluctuations of activity in some cases show the presence of fractures/cracks at certain places in the strata. The estimated porosity and hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer are 28% and 1.23 x 10-5 m/s respectively. (author)

  13. Studies on groundwater transport in fractured crystalline rock under controlled conditions using nonradioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, E.; Klockars, C.-E.

    1981-04-01

    The purpose of the investigation has been study the following parameters along existing fractures between two boreholes: hydraulic properties of rock mass and fractures; adsorptive properties of some selected tracers during transport along fractures; dispersivity and dilution of tracers during transport in fractures; kinematic porosity of fractured bedrock. The procedure has been to determine the hydraulic properties of a rock mass by means of conventional hydraulic testing methods in 100 m deep boreholes, and to study transport mechanisms and properties of selected tracers in a selected fracture zone between two boreholes. (Auth.)

  14. Air pollution tracer studies in the lower atmosphere (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for 1964-Jan 80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-02-01

    The cited reports cover research on the use of tracers to study lower atmospheric air pollution movements. The tracer used include sulfur hexafluoride, krypton 85, carbon 14, and other radioactive isotopes. The studies cite the results and techniques used, tracer movement from nuclear power plants, industrial stacks, urban areas, and the detectors used in their measurement

  15. Tracer studies of flotation in laboratory and plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, A.J.; Thereska, J.; Plasari, E.; Kacaj, M.

    1992-01-01

    Froth flotation is used for the industrial extraction of valuable minerals from ores. Its progress depends on the properties of minerals being processed and on flotation practices. While flotation is basically a kinetic process, it functions industrially in continuous flow vessels whose flow patterns influence the separation effected. Radioisotope tracers have proven to be a necessary tool in the acquisition of both kinetic and flow pattern data

  16. Tracer Equivalent Latitude: A Diagnostic Tool for Isentropic Transport Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Douglas R.; Nakamura, Noboru

    2003-01-01

    Area equivalent latitude based on potential vorticity (PV) is a widely used diagnostic for isentropic transport in the stratosphere and upper troposphere. Here, an alternate method for calculating equivalent latitude is explored, namely, a numerical synthesis of a PV-like tracer from a long-term integration of the advection-diffusion equation on isentropic surfaces. It is found that the tracer equivalent latitude (TrEL) behaves much like the traditional PV equivalent latitude (PVEL) despite the simplified governing physics; this is evidenced by examining the kinematics of the Arctic lower stratospheric vortex. Yet in some cases TrEL performs markedly better as a coordinate for long-lived trace species such as ozone. These instances include analysis of lower stratospheric ozone during the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE) campaign and three-dimensional reconstruction of total column ozone during November-December 1999 from fitted ozone-equivalent latitude relationship. It is argued that the improvement is due to the tracer being free from the diagnostic errors and certain diabatic processes that affect PV. The sensitivity of TrEL to spatial and temporal resolution, advection scheme, and driving winds is also examined.

  17. Underground flux studies in waste basin of CIPC using natural and artificial tracers - v.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minardi, P.S.P.

    1982-10-01

    Underground flux studies in waste basin of CIPC is presented, with the description of the regions and the wells, the techniques with artificial tracers and the results and conclusion, based in field campaign realized till february/82. (author)

  18. Underground flux studies in waste basin of CIPC using natural and artificial tracers - v.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minardi, P.S.P.

    1982-10-01

    This report is a complement of the first volume and it has studies with natural tracers to be done on February and March/82, results and conclusions obtained with artificial tracers on March/82, every direction tests and flood course done up to october/82, besides mineralogical and complete qualitative analysis of soil obtained from sounding evidences done in mineral and industrial complex of Pocos de Caldas. (author)

  19. Tracer studies of flotation in the laboratory and in mineral processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, A.J.; Thereska, J.; Plasari, E.; Kacaj, M.

    1993-01-01

    Radioisotope tracers have a proven application for the extraction of residence time distributions and the evaluation of flotation rates in industry. This paper shows how values of the rate factor k are scaled up on the basis of flotation in the laboratory and tracer tests in plant. The procedure is illustrated by a theoretical study and by experimental data. The information obtained can be introduced into models of larger flotation systems. (author)

  20. A study plan for determining recharge rates at the Hanford Site using environmental tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, E.M.; Szercsody, J.E.; Phillips, S.J.

    1991-02-01

    This report presents a study plan for estimating recharge at the Hanford Site using environmental tracers. Past operations at the Hanford Site have led to both soil and groundwater contamination, and recharge is one of the primary mechanisms for transporting contaminants through the vadose zone and into the groundwater. An alternative to using fixed lysimeters for determining recharge rates in the vadose zone is to use environmental tracers. Tracers that have been used to study water movement in the vadose zone include total chloride, 36 Cl, 3 H, and 2 H/ 18 O. Atmospheric levels of 36 Cl and 3 H increased during nuclear bomb testing in the Pacific, and the resulting ''bomb pulse'' or peak concentration can be measured in the soil profile. Locally, past operations at the Hanford Site have resulted in the atmospheric release of numerous chemical and isotopic tracers, including nitrate, 129 I, and 99 Tc. Seven study sites on the Hanford Site have been selected, in two primary soil types that are believed to represent the extremes in recharge, the Quincy sand and the Warden silt loam. An additional background study site upwind of the Hanford facilities has been chosen at the Yakima Firing Center. Six tracer techniques (total chloride, 36 Cl, 3 H, nitrate, 129 I, and 99 Tc) will be tested on at least one site in the Quincy sand, one site in the Warden silt loam, and the background site, to determine which combination of tracers works best for a given soil type. In subsequent years, additional sites will be investigated. The use of environmental tracers is perhaps the only cost-effective method for estimating the spatial variability of recharge at a site as large as Hanford. The tracer techniques used at Hanford have wide applicability at other arid sites. 166 refs., 41 figs., 16 tabs

  1. Data volume of atmospheric tracer studies at Lucas Heights, NSW, Australia -1996-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.H.; Stone, D.J.M.; Pascoe, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    A perfluorocarbon atmospheric tracer system has been used to investigate atmospheric dispersion processes in the region surrounding the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre. Tracers have been released from two locations: a laboratory vent near the ridge of the Woronora river valley and from the HIFAR research reactor ventilation system. Most studies have been conducted during the early to late morning periods when valley influences might be expected on dispersion of the tracer plume. This report summarises the meteorological and tracer air concentration data and makes comparisons with estimates from a simple gaussian dispersion model. It is intended that the data will also be used for evaluation of more elaborate wind field and atmospheric models

  2. An overview of application of bayesian classifier approach in radioactive tracer technology.case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Aseer, A.; Dawood, E.; Ben Ayad, S.; Alwerfalli, M.

    2015-01-01

    The usefulness of implementing a radioactive tracer techniques subjected to varied risk factors. Thus, the setup procedure for the application experimental techniques of radioactive tracer must be evaluated prior the decision action steps. One way of doing this, is to use Bay's theorem techniques. As there is a possibility of classifying the implemented parameters into certain catogries depending on their certainty to effect radioactive tracer technology. In this paper, the radioactive tracer experimental parameters classified accoring to Bayesian theory. Using this theory, one can study the proposed technical systems to determine the probabilities of the effectiveness of any selected parameter among the others. The classification of the applied experimental parameters into suitable or unsuitable in proposed theoretically. Ten parameters used in this experimental data were classified accordingly. The posterior is calculate from the prior and the likelihood previously determined by bayes rule.(author)

  3. Acupuncture meridians demythified. A study using the radioactive tracer method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, J.; Esquerre, J.P.; Guiraud, R.; Guiraud, G.; Lazorthes, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Radioactive trajectories can be visualized by injecting a radioactive tracer, technetium 99 m, at the site of acupuncture points. To determine the exact nature of these trajectories we performed several experiments on healthy volunteers, and our results may be summarized as follows. The target organs of technetium 99 m, and notably the thyroid gland, were always visualized. The circulating radioactivity, visible on scintiscans and confirmed by venous blood counts, was not negligible. The radioactive trajectories we observed were often divided at their starting point and did not extend along the whole length of the acupuncture meridians they might have made visible. The radioactive trajectories disappeared after venous blockade to reappear when the blockade was lifted. Finally, the radioactive trajectories obtained were very similar after injection at the acupuncture point and at a control point. These findings indicate a lymphatic and venous drainage of the radioactive tracer at the site of injection followed by transportation through the veins, rather than visualization of acupuncture meridians as suggested by some authors [fr

  4. Acupuncture meridians demythified. A study using the radioactive tracer method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J.; Esquerre, J.P.; Guiraud, R.; Guiraud, G.; Lazorthes, Y.

    1988-07-01

    Radioactive trajectories can be visualized by injecting a radioactive tracer, technetium 99 m, at the site of acupuncture points. To determine the exact nature of these trajectories we performed several experiments on healthy volunteers, and our results may be summarized as follows. The target organs of technetium 99 m, and notably the thyroid gland, were always visualized. The circulating radioactivity, visible on scintiscans and confirmed by venous blood counts, was not negligible. The radioactive trajectories we observed were often divided at their starting point and did not extend along the whole length of the acupuncture meridians they might have made visible. The radioactive trajectories disappeared after venous blockade to reappear when the blockade was lifted. Finally, the radioactive trajectories obtained were very similar after injection at the acupuncture point and at a control point. These findings indicate a lymphatic and venous drainage of the radioactive tracer at the site of injection followed by transportation through the veins, rather than visualization of acupuncture meridians as suggested by some authors.

  5. Using biofuel tracers to study alternative combustion regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, J.H.; Flowers, D.L.; Buchholz, B.A.; Dibble, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    Interest in the use of alternative fuels and engines is increasing as the price of petroleum climbs. The inherently higher efficiency of Diesel engines has led to increased adoption of Diesels in Europe, capturing approximately 40% of the new passenger car market. Unfortunately, lower CO 2 emissions are countered with higher nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and particulate matter (PM) emissions and higher noise. Adding oxygenated compounds to the fuel helps reduce PM emissions. However, relying on fuel alone to reduce PM is unrealistic due to economic constraints and difficult due to the emerging PM standards. Keeping peak combustion temperature below 1700 K inhibits NO x formation. Altering the combustion regime to burn at temperatures below the NO x threshold and accept a wide variety of fuels seems like a promising alternative for future engines. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a possible solution. Fuel and air are well mixed prior to intake into a cylinder (homogeneous charge) and ignition occurs by compression of the fuel-air mixture by the piston. HCCI is rapid and relatively cool, producing little NO x and PM. Unfortunately, it is hard to control since HCCI is initiated by temperature and pressure instead of a spark or direct fuel injection. We investigate biofuel HCCI combustion, and use intrinsically labeled biofuels as tracers of HCCI combustion. Data from tracer experiments are used to improve our combustion modeling

  6. Protective Effect of Vitamin E against Gamma Radiation Injury in Mice Histological and Ultrastructural Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Nour, S.M.; Abd EI Azeem, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Vitamin E has been shown to ameliorate the effect of ionising radiation. The present study was designed to study the effect of high dose of gamma-radiation on the intestinal tissue of mice and the protective effect of the natural antioxidant vitamin E; a slow acting free radical scavenger. 24 adult albino male mice were divided into 4 groups (6 animals each). The first group represents the control group. The second experimental group received orally daily doses of vitamin E (100 mg/ kg body wt for 15 days). The third experimental group were exposed to 7 Gy gamma-rays as a single dose, while the fourth experimental group received vitamin E in the same dose before being irradiated. All animals were scarified and jejunal specimens were processed and prepared for histological and ultrastructural study after one day post irradiation. The results suggested that gamma-radiation induced different histological changes in the intestine of irradiated animals. Degeneration of the intestinal cells and microvilli were seen by light microscopic examination. SEM electron microscope (SEM) revealed haemorrhagic ulcerating tissues. In addition, the mitochondria were markedly swollen and loss of cristae, thickness of the terminal web zone was seen by transmission electron microscope. On the contrary, in animals treated with vitamin E, the intestinal tissues revealed structure almost similar to the control group. We conclude that vitamin E had protective effects against gamma-radiation induced oxidative stress

  7. Ultrastructural study of primordial germ cells, oogonia and oocytes in goat fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M Banan Khojasteh

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available According to morphological evidences, primordial germ cells (PGCs are derived from the caudal endoderm of the yolk sac and migrate to embryonic gonads. After entering the gonads, first they differentiate to oogonia and then to oocytes. In the present study, ultrastructure of PGCs, oogonia and oocytes has been examined. Tissue samples were collected from posterior parts of the yolk sacs of fetuses in the early stages of development (with age of less than 1 month, and also gonads of fetuses at later developmental stages (with age of more than 1 month. Samples were studied using transmission electron microscopy after fixation, washing with buffers, dehydration, embedding and staining with uranyl acetate and lead citrate. The Results indicated that PGCs were large with oval to spherical nuclei, reticular chromatin with nucleoli, and there were plenty of glycogen and also different organelles in their cytoplasm. Oogonia showed active mitotic divisions. These cells had regular plasma membranes and were observed as cellular clusters with spherical shape, euchromatin nucleus containing one or more nucleoli, round mitochondria and vacuoles with different sizes in cytoplasm. Oocytes had larger sizes in comparison with oogonia but didn't show cellular clusters.

  8. A histomorphologic and ultrastructural study of the malignant tumours of the renal pelvis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyagi N

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried at two different centres. Only 9 cases of primary malignant tumours of the renal pelvis could be collected during the period of 7 years (1984-1990. Renal pelvis malignancies constituted 0.21% of all the malignancies and 12.16% of all the malignant growths of the kidney (9 out of 74 cases. The age of these patients ranged from 24 to 70 years; the mean being 41.7 years. Male/female ratio was 8:1. Common triad of complaints (pain, haematuria and lump was noticed in 22.2% of patients. Individually they were noticed in 77.8%, 66.7% and 44.4% of patients respectively. Transitional cell carcinoma was the commonest, seen in 7 patients (77.8% whereas squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma were noticed in one patient (11.1% each. Hydronephrosis, chronic pyelonephritis and nephrolithiasis were noticed in 66.7%, 44.4% and 22.2% of patients respectively. Ultrastructural study of urothelial tumours revealed tumour cells in various stages of differentiation with loss of intercellular junctions and dense collection of rough endopasmic reticulum fibrils around the nucleus.

  9. Morphogenesis of Pestiviruses: New Insights from Ultrastructural Studies of Strain Giraffe-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, Jan; Thiel, Heinz-Jürgen; König, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge on the morphogenesis of pestiviruses is limited due to low virus production in infected cells. In order to localize virion morphogenesis and replication sites of pestiviruses and to examine intracellular virion transport, a cell culture model was established to facilitate ultrastructural studies. Based on results of virus growth kinetic analysis and quantification of viral RNA, pestivirus strain Giraffe-1 turned out to be a suitable candidate for studies on virion generation and export from culture cells. Using conventional transmission electron microscopy and single-tilt electron tomography, we found virions located predominately in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in infected cells and were able to depict the budding process of virions at ER membranes. Colocalization of the viral core protein and the envelope glycoprotein E2 with the ER marker protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) was demonstrated by immunogold labeling of cryosections. Moreover, pestivirions could be shown in transport vesicles and the Golgi complex and during exocytosis. Interestingly, viral capsid protein and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) were detected in multivesicular bodies (MVBs), which implies that the endosomal compartment plays a role in pestiviral replication. Significant cellular membrane alterations such as those described for members of the Flavivirus and Hepacivirus genera were not found. Based on the gained morphological data, we present a consistent model of pestivirus morphogenesis. PMID:24352462

  10. A comparative study of the ultrastructure of submandibular, parotid and exocrine pancreas in diabetes and fasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Take, G.; Ilgaz, C.; Erdogan, D.; Ozogul, C.; Elmas, C.

    2007-01-01

    To comparatively analyze the ultrastructural changes in the submandibular and parotid glands and in the exocrine pancreas following diabetes induced by Streptozotocin exposure and the effects of fasting and insulin treatment on these alterations. For experimental procedure, we included 48 Sprague-Dawley type rats in July 2001-March 2002 at Gazi University, Turkey. We divided the rats into 8 groups following the infusion of Streptozotocin. While the degeneration manifested itself as accumulation of secretions within the mucous cells in the submandibular gland, lipid droplets were absent, being replaced by vacuolar structures. The parotid gland and exocrine pancreas, having similar properties, were affected similarly. Diabetes-induced loss of granules was observed in the serous cells in both glands. There was diffuse lipid accumulation within these cells. Regarding granule content, we observed the most prominent degenerative changes in the parotid gland. While cellular loss was observed in neither the submandibular, nor the parotid gland, we noted presence of apoptotic cells was noted in the pancreas. State of fasting was found to cause alterations within the glands indicating increased activity. While insulin treatment was seen to restore the structure to normal in general was in both of the 3 glands. This study demonstrated that both of the 3 glands are affected by diabetes and concomitant fasting, and this effect manifests itself via the granule content. (author)

  11. Photokinetic and ultrastructural studies on porphyrin photosensitization of HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanesi, Carla; Sorgato, Fiorella; Jori, Giulio

    1989-01-01

    Liposome-bound haematoporphyrin or haematoporphyrin dimethylester, as well as haematoporphyrin dissolved in phosphate-buffered saline, were added to HeLa cell monolayers at a dose of 1 μg of porphyrin per 10 5 cells. After 2 min or 20 min incubation liposome-bound porphyrins were accumulated by cells in an about two-fold larger amount than the water-dissolved haematoporphyrin. This caused a more efficient photosensitization of HeLa cells by liposome-delivered porphyrins upon illumination with 366 nm light. Ultrastructural studies of HeLa cells, which had been incubated in a physiological medium for 24 h after the end of irradiation, showed that liposomal porphyrins induce an early and extensive endocytoplasmic damage, leading to mitochondrial swelling and vesiculation; changes of permeability of the cytoplasmic membrane are also evident, especially in the case of haematoporphyrin dimethylester. On the other hand, water-dissolved haematoporphyrin predominantly photosensitizes damage of the plasma membrane. The different pattern of cell photodamage probably reflects a different subcellular distribution of the photosensitizing drugs. (author)

  12. A study on the ultrastructure of the mouse kidney tissues affected by lead (Pb)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Chang Kyu; Choe, Rim Soon

    1986-01-01

    This study was made to investigate the ultrastructural changes of the male mouse(ICR strain) kidney tissue affected by lead(Pb). Pb, as a form of Pb(CH 3 COO) 2 was injected within the peritoneal cavity at the time interval of 24 hrs, 48 hrs and 72 hrs from injection time. In the meantime, electron microscopy was used to investigate the histologic changes occured in control animals, experimental animals. In kidney cells of experimental animals, changes of the nuclear chromatin were little, but cristae of mitochondria presented in cytoplasm was impaired, vacuolation was risen, thoseby many vacuole was formed. Especially, in the case of 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg Pb concentration, mitochondrial presented in cytoplasm was considerably deformed. While, with 20 mg/kg of Pb(CH 3 C00) 2 , it was observed that normal structure was presented in the nucleus electrodensity in cytoplasm was decreased mostly, but mitochondrial deform was slightly decreased. (Author)

  13. Ultrastructural studies on variants of Streptomyces SP-765 obtained after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spasova, D.I.; Krystev, Kh.I.; Todorov, I.O.; Dzhedzheva, G.M.; Popov, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    The study has been carried out with two variants of Streptomyces SP-765, gray and olygosporous, obtained after 1000 Gy gamma irradiation of spore suspension from the initial strain. The gray variant has chains of spores which are oval or oblong with rounded-off edges. Sporulation is highly inhibited in the olygosporous variant. Eleven electron-microscopic pictures of ultrathin sections from colonies of the two variants are presented. The gray variant reveals the presence of a large number of lyzed cells, spores, and scarce vegetative cells; typical of the lyzed cells are the spherical and highly osmiophilic formations on the outer and inner surface of their cytoplasmic membrane. The oligosporous variant shows lyzed cells of various sizes, cells void of content with thick walls, relativelly small number of vegetative cells and individual wall-less cells, shperoplast and protoplast formation, lamellar membrane structure of nearly all cells. Both lyzed and vegetable cells have individual anomalous form containing daughter cells. The conclusion is made that gray and oligosporous variants of Streptomyces SP-765, obtained after irradiation of its spores, possess different ultrastructural organization

  14. Ovarian development of Caspian roach, Rutilus caspicus, in southern Caspian Sea: A histological and ultrastructural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Akhoundian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The histology and ultrastructure of the ovarian maturation process in Caspian roach, Rutilus caspicus, was studied. A total 170 female specimens were collected from the Gharasoo River, Bandar Turkmen, the southern Caspian Sea to evaluate its maturation cycle. Based on the results, its ovarian follicle’s development could classified into six stages by distinct characteristics. Minimum and maximum diameter of oocytes were recorded in the chromatin-nucleolus and maturation stages as 56.34±3.74 and 918.83±14.82 µm, respectively. The zona radiata was observed from the cortical alveoli stage and its maximum diameter measured in the secondary vitellogenesis stage as 93.11±23.0 µm. Gonadosomatic index (GSI reached to its peak in mid-March and its sharp drop in the late April showed its spawning period from late March or early April till the end of April. A positive correlation was found between the GSI and HSI in the vitellogenesis stage. The results also revealed Caspian roach as iteroparous synchronous spawner.

  15. Implications of obesity for tendon structure, ultrastructure and biochemistry: a study on Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancalana, Adriano; Velloso, Lício Augusto; Taboga, Sebastião Roberto; Gomes, Laurecir

    2012-02-01

    The extracellular matrix consists of collagen, proteoglycans and non-collagen proteins. The incidence of obesity and associated diseases is currently increasing in developed countries. Obesity is considered to be a disease of modern times, and genes predisposing to the disease have been identified in humans and animals. The objective of the present study was to compare the morphological and biochemical aspects of the deep digital flexor tendon of lean (Fa/Fa or Fa/fa) and genetically obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats. Ultrastructural analysis showed the presence of lipid droplets in both groups, whereas disorganized collagen fibril bundles were observed in obese animals. Lean animals presented a larger amount of non-collagen proteins and glycosaminoglycans than obese rats. We propose that the overweight and lesser physical activity in obese animals may have provoked the alterations in the composition and organization of extracellular matrix components but a genetic mechanism cannot be excluded. These alterations might be related to organizational and structural modifications in the collagen bundles that influence the mechanical properties of tendons and the progression to a pathological state. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Concentration dynamics in lakes and reservoirs, studies using radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilath, C.

    1979-01-01

    The concentration dynamics in lakes and reservoirs through which water flows can be investigated by injecting a pulse of radioactive tracer and measuring the response at the outlet or any other point of interest inside the lake. The methodology developed for this Kind of investigation is presented. It was found that concentration dynamics in shallow reservoirs can be described by a model consisting of a time delay in series with one or two time constants. Procedures for the determination of the volumes of these regions are presented for reservoirs considered as either constant or variable parameter systems. The flow pattern in the reservoirs was investigated by measuring the response of the concentration through the lake and was analyzed in relation to the prevailing wind conditions. Wind induced currents have a dominant influence on the flow pattern. (Author) [pt

  17. Study on the flow state of groundwater by isotope tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Tong; Chen Jiansheng; Chen Liang

    2008-01-01

    Radioisotope logging technique is an effective method to evaluate groundwater movement. Moving with the water, the isotope tracer distributes differently in different flow states. According to the depth and time distribution of radioactivity, flow state of the groundwater can be determined. In this paper, different flow states, i.e. laminar flow, turbulent flow and mixing flow, are analyzed, and calculation of the flow velocity is discussed. Also, we discuss how to distinguish the laminar flow part and turbulent part in a mixing flow. If one judges the flow state incorrectly, the error of flow velocity will be huge, hence the importance of flow state analysis. Finally, some problems in the practical projects and measuring methods are concluded. (authors)

  18. Identification and characterization of conservative organic tracers for use as hydrologic tracers for the Yucca Mountain Site characterization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombrowski, T.; Stetzenbach, K.

    1993-01-01

    This report is in two parts one for the fluorinated benzoic acids and one for the fluorinated aliphatic acids. The assumptions made in the report regarding the amount of tracer that will be used, dilution of the tracer during the test and the length of exposure (if any) to individuals drinking the water were made by the authors. These assumptions must really come from the USGS hydrologists in charge of the c-well tracer testing program. Accurate estimates of dilution of the tracer during the test are also important because of solubility limitations of some of the tracers. Three of the difluorobenzoic acids have relatively low solubilities and may not be usable if the dilution estimates are large. The toxicologist that reviewed the document agreed with our conclusion that the fluorinated benzoic and toluic acids do not represent a health hazard if used under the conditions as outlined in the report. We are currently testing 15 of these compounds, and if even if three difluorobenzoic acids cannot be used because of solubility limitations we will still have 12 tracers. The toxicologist felt that the aliphatic fluorinated acids potentially present more of a health risk than the aromatic. This assessment was based on the fact of a known allergic response to halothane anesthetic. This risk, although minimal, is known and he felt that was enough reason to recommend against their use. The authors feel that the toxicologists interpretation of this risk was overly conservative, however, we will not go against his recommendation at this time for the following reasons. First, without the aliphatic compounds we still have 12 to 15 fluorinated aromatic acids which, should be enough for the c-well tests. Second, to get a permit to use aliphatic compounds would undoubtedly require a hearing which could be quite lengthy

  19. Changes in lung morphology and cell number in radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis: a quantitative ultrastructural study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergara, J.A.; Raymond, U.; Thet, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    We used stereologic-morphometric techniques to obtain a detailed quantitative picture of the changes in lung ultrastructure of rats at 12 and 26 weeks after unilateral thoracic irradiation with 3000 cGy. At 12 weeks post-radiation, the total number type 1 epithelial cells, type 2 epithelial cells and capillary endothelial cells were decreased 50-70%, total type 1 epithelial and capillary surface areas were decreased 55-60%, and the total volume of intracapillary blood was decreased 75%. The interstitial cells and matrix together accounted for more than 9% of the peripheral lung tissue volume including air, compared to 3% in controls. The numerical density of interstitial cells was increased to 3-fold the control value. The numerical density of interstitial cells was increased to 3-fold the control value. Although fibroblasts still comprised the largest interstitial cell subgroup, the numerical density of mast cells was increased over 150-fold and other inflammatory and immune cells were increased to a lesser extent. At 26 weeks post-radiation, the number, volume, and surface area of the type 1 epithelium and capillary endothelium had further decreased to only 5-10% of control values. The total number of type 2 epithelial cells was reduced by 75% but the volume density was actually increased because of a 4-fold increase in the mean cell volume. The interstitial cells and matrix now comprised over 77% of total peripheral lung tissue volume including air as compared to 6% in controls. Mast cells and plasma cells comprised 11% and 19% of all interstitial cells respectively and the densities of these cells were 540 and 180-fold the control value respectively. The relation of these morphometric findings to the results of previous morphologic studies is discussed

  20. Ultrastructural pathological study on skeletal muscle injury in rabbit after a high-dose radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wei; Ni Xinchu; Sun Suping; Cai Leiming; Yu Jingping; Wang Jian; Nie Bin; Sun Zhiqiang; Ni Xinye; Cao Xiufeng

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish a rabbit model of radiation-induced skeletal muscle injury in order to study the ultrastructural pathological changes and underlying mechanism. Methods: 28 New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 2 groups with 16 rabbits in experimental group and 12 rabbits in control group. The experimental rabbits were irradiated on hip with a single dose of 80 Gy of 9 MeV electrons from a linear accelerator. 1 month and 6 months after irradiation the pathological changes were respectively observed under light microscope and electron microscope. Results: One month after irradiation, the morphologic changes including degeneration, necrosis of muscle cells, and hemorrhage between the muscle cells were observed under light microscope and the swelling of myofibrillae, blurring of light and shade band, vacuolar degeneration of mitochondria and amorphous areas of necrosis were observed under electron microscope. Six months after irradiation, the morphologic changes of nucleolus chips, fibrous connective tissue, thickening of vascular wall and vascular congestion between the muscle cells and the amorphous areas of necrosis in the experimental group were much more serious than those of 1 month after irradiation. In addition, the myofilaments were lost in degeneration areas and the sarcomere became shorten. Observation with electron microscope showed that the mitochondrial size and its morphological changes were varied and the amounts of collagen between myofibrillaes were increased 6 months after irradiation. Conclusions: A rabbit model of high-dose irradiated skeleton muscle injury was successfully established with a single dose of 80 Gy of 9 MeV electrons from a linear accelerator. The degeneration and necrosis of muscle cells may be promoted by mitochondrial and vascular injury, degeneration of vessel and nerve fiber. (authors)

  1. The use of tracer techniques in the study of soil water flows and contaminant transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, A.D.; Beven, K.J.

    1990-04-01

    This report reviews the use of different types of tracers in the characterisation of soil water flows and the implications of tracer studies for modelling contaminant transport. The tracers considered are a number of different anions, stable isotopes, radioactive tracers, organic dyes, fluorocarbons, gases, solid particles and water temperature. The theoretical basis for modelling the results of tracer experiments in terms of the traditional convective-dispersion equation (CDE) is outlined. A number of alternative modelling strategies are reviewed: the mobile/immobile water extension of the CDE; the Jury Transfer Function Model (TFM); the Aggregated Mixing Zone (AMZ) model and Random Particle Tracking models. The first will form the basis of the Systeme Hydrologique Europeen (SHE) contaminant transport component. The Jury and AMZ models are both linear models and are consequently limited to applications in which the flows may be considered to be quasi-steady or repeatable. Random particle tracking models have the advantage of both flexibility and applicability to transient and spatially variable flow domains. A random particle model is being implemented on a transputer workstation at Lancaster and will be used to explore the effect of sub-grid scale complexities on effective grid-scale parameter values for distributed models such as SHE. (author)

  2. Fluctuation theorem for an optically trapped tracer in dense colloids. A simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puertas Antonio M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The work supplied by an external parabolic potential that traps one tracer in a colloidal system is studied in this work by computer simulations. The density of the bath is changed from zero up to values close to the glass transition, and the velocity varies over several decades from the linear behaviour in the low Peclet limit to the high Peclet limit. The work distributions are analyzed using the model for the isolated Brownian partice, where the friction coefficient and temperature of the medium have been fitted to reproduce the position distribution of the tracer in the trap. The overall agreement is good but not perfect. The region of negative works is studied in more detail using the predictions of the fluctuation theorem, finding good qualitative agreement with the model of the isolated Brownian particle. The present results indicate that the fluctuation theorem is of application in cases where the tracer dynamics is complex, as predicted by theoretical works.

  3. Field ionization mass spectrometry (FIMS) applied to tracer studies and isotope dilution analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anbar, M.; Heck, H.d'A.; McReynolds, J.H.; St John, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    The nonfragmenting nature of field ionization mass spectrometry makes it a preferred technique for the isotopic analysis of multilabeled organic compounds. The possibility of field ionization of nonvolatile thermolabile materials significantly extends the potential uses of this technique beyond those of conventional ionization methods. Multilabeled tracers may be studied in biological systems with a sensitivity comparable to that of radioactive tracers. Isotope dilution analysis may be performed reliably by this technique down to picogram levels. These techniques will be illustrated by a number of current studies using multilabeled metabolites and drugs. The scope and limitations of the methodology are discussed

  4. Stable nuclide tracer studies and human amino acid requirements. A summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, V.R.

    1994-01-01

    The nutritional requirements for proteins have been estimated for various age groups. The current status of knowledge concerning the quantitative needs for specific indispensable amino acids was reviewed and it was concluded that, except for infants, current values for pre-school children, school age children and healthy adults are based on limited experimental data and/or on results from nitrogen balance determinations which are open to serious question regarding their nutritional significance. A review of 13 C-labelled tracer studies carried out in MIT laboratories was undertaken to demonstrate the applicability of stable nuclide tracer studies for purposes of determining the amino acid requirements of humans. 5 refs

  5. Aluminum metabolism studied by [sup 26]Al tracer using AMS technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Koichi (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Science and Technology); Yumoto, Sakae; Nagai, Hisao; Hosoyama, Yoshiyuki; Imamura, Mineo; Hotta, Masayoshi; Ohashi, Hideo

    1992-01-01

    By accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), we studied aluminum metabolism using [sup 26]Al as a tracer. To investigate the role of aluminum toxicity in the etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Alzheimer's disease, aluminum incorporation into the rat cerebrum was studied. When healthy rats were injected intraperitoneally with [sup 26]Al, a considerable amount of the tracer was incorporated into the brain within only 5 days after the injection. This [sup 26]Al accumulation was apparently irreversible, since it persisted even after 75 days. (author).

  6. A 82Br tracer study of coastal groundwater movement at Hat Head, NSW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, C.; Stone, D.

    2003-01-01

    At Hat Head, NSW, on the eastern Australian coast, a radioisotope tracer study of groundwater flow in response to tidal forcing was conducted adjacent to a tidal creek. Using radiotracer, 82 Br, groundwater movement was tracked in-situ over 5 days on two occasions encompassing both neap and spring tide conditions. The tracer was injected into one borehole and gamma counts monitored from an adjacent borehole using NaI(Th) detectors. This technique maps the path of the slow moving tracer without sampling and allows the net groundwater movement to be distinguished from short term tidally driven fluxes. During the neap tide period net groundwater movement of 0.1 m/d was observed with horizontal tidal fluctuations in the order of 0.04 m. This contrasts with the tidally dominated spring tide period where net groundwater movement was negligible but tidally driven fluctuations of up to 0.13 m were observed

  7. Modelling and tracer studies of atmospheric dispersion and deposition in regions of complex topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norden, C.E.

    1981-11-01

    An indium tracer aerosol generating apparatus based on an alcohol/oxygen burner, and an analytical procedure by which filter samples containing tracer material could be analysed quantitatively by means of neutron activation analysis, were developed for use in atmospheric dispersion and deposition studies. A number of series of atmospheric dispersion experiments were conducted in the Richards Bay and Koeberg- Cape Town areas. The results are given, comparing the airbone tracer concentrations measured at ground level with values predicted by means of a numerical model, utilising two to three schemes, varying in sophistication, for calculating the dispersion coefficients. Recommendations are given regarding a dispersion model and dispersion coefficients for regular use in the Koeberg area, and ways for estimating plume trajectories

  8. Potential study of bed filtration characteristics in impressed boreholes by radon tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinov, A.A.; Pinkenzon, D.B.; Makarov, M.S.; Vinarskij, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    Potential study of bed filtration characteristics in impressed boreholes by radon tracer method is shown. Effects recorded by radon tracer result from gamma radiation of short-living radon decay daughter products. During filtration of tracer through punched holes, cement stone, and rocks the products are deposited and cause a local effect for 2-3 hours. There is a shortage of short-living products in filtrated radon liquid and for some time (which is necessary for production of notable quantity of new decay products) it is practically not a gamma emitter. It is shown that the feature of effect formation governs the technique for well logging as well as interpretation of the results obtained

  9. 15N tracer kinetic studies on the validity of various 15N tracer substances for determining whole-body protein parameters in very small preterm infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plath, C.; Heine, W.; Wutzke, K.D.; Krienke, L.; Toewe, J.M.; Massute, G.; Windischmann, C.

    1987-01-01

    Reliable 15 N tracer substances for tracer kinetic determination of whole-body protein parameters in very small preterm infants are still a matter of intensive research, especially after some doubts have been raised about the validity of [ 15 N]glycine, a commonly used 15 N tracer. Protein turnover, synthesis, breakdown, and further protein metabolism data were determined by a paired comparison in four preterm infants. Their post-conceptual age was 32.2 +/- 0.8 weeks, and their body weight was 1670 +/- 181 g. Tracer substances applied in this study were a [ 15 N]amino acid mixture (Ia) and [ 15 N]glycine (Ib). In a second group of three infants with a post conceptual age of 15 N-labeled 32.0 +/- 1.0 weeks and a body weight of 1,907 +/- 137 g, yeast protein hydrolysate (II) was used as a tracer substance. A three-pool model was employed for the analysis of the data. This model takes into account renal and fecal 15 N losses after a single 15 N pulse. Protein turnovers were as follows: 11.9 +/- 3.1 g kg-1 d-1 (Ia), 16.2 +/- 2.5 g kg-1 d-1 (Ib), and 10.8 +/- 3.0 g kg-1 d-1 (II). We were able to demonstrate an overestimation of the protein turnover when Ib was used. There was an expected correspondence in the results obtained from Ia and II. The 15 N-labeled yeast protein hydrolysate is a relatively cheap tracer that allows reliable determination of whole-body protein parameters in very small preterm infants

  10. Tumoral tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, E.E.

    1979-01-01

    Direct tumor tracers are subdivided in the following categories:metabolite tracers, antitumoral tracers, radioactive proteins and cations. Use of 67 Ga-citrate as a clinically important tumoral tracer is emphasized and gallium-67 whole-body scintigraphy is discussed in detail. (M.A.) [pt

  11. Spermiogenesis and spermatozoon of the tapeworm Parabothriocephalus gracilis (Bothriocephalidea): Ultrastructural and cytochemical studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šípková, Lenka; Levron, Céline; Freeman, M.; Scholz, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2010), s. 58-65 ISSN 1230-2821 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP524/07/P039; GA ČR GA524/08/0885; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Eucestoda * Bothriocephalidea * Parabothriocephalus gracilis * spermiogenesis * spermatozoon * ultrastructure Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.144, year: 2010

  12. Spermatozoa of tapeworms (Platyhelminthes, Eucestoda): advances in ultrastructural and phylogenetic studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Levron, Céline; Miquel, J.; Oros, Mikuláš; Scholz, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 3 (2010), s. 523-543 ISSN 1464-7931 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP524/07/P039; GA ČR GA524/08/0885; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : spermatozoon * spermiogenesis * ultrastructure * phylogeny * classification * Eucestoda * Platyhelminthes * tapeworm Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 6.574, year: 2010

  13. The use of Na-22 as a tracer for long-term bone mineral turnover studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Palmer, R.F.; Gillis, M.F.

    1979-01-01

    Sodium-22 has been studied as a tracer for bone mineral metabolism in rats and dogs. When incorporated into bone during growth from birth to adulthood, the bone becomes uniformly tagged with Na-22, which is released through the metabolic turnover of the bone. The Na-22 not incorporated in the bone matrix is rapidly excreted within a few days when animals are fed high, but nontoxic levels of NaCl. The Na-22 tracer can be used to measure bone mineral loss in animals during space flight and in research on bone disease

  14. Radiological safety methodology in radioactive tracer applications for hydrodynamics and environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, R.; Badano, A.; Dellepere, A.; Artucio, G.; Bertolotti, A.

    1995-01-01

    The use of radioactive tracer techniques as control sewage disposal contamination in Montevideo Estuarine and Carrasco beach has been studied for the Nuclear Technology National Direction. Hydrodynamic models simulation has been introduced as work methodology. As well as radiological safety and radioactive material applications in the environmental studies has been evaluated mainly in the conclusions and recommendations in this report. maps

  15. Study on ultrastructural changes in thyroid gland of rats exposed to pulsed electromagnetic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xiaoguang; Zeng Guiying; Ren Dongqing; Fang Henghu; Su Xiaoming; Huang Xiaofeng

    2006-01-01

    The work is to observe effects of PEMW (pulse electromagnetic wave) exposure on function and morphology of thyroid gland of rats. At different time points (24, 48, 96 and 192 h) after exposure to PEMW (E=115 kV m -1 , 12000 pulses), radioimmunoassay was performed to observe the levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T 4 ) and triiodo- thyronine (T 3 ) in sera of the male Sparague-Dawley rats. Optic microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to observe structural changes of the thyroid gland at the time points. The T 3 , T 4 and TSH in sera increased significantly, reaching a peak at 24 h and decreasing gradually then. Although no obvious changes in the thyroid gland were observed under the optic microscope, some ultrastructural changes in the thyroid gland were found under the TEM. The ultrastructures were obviously changed at 12 h and aggravated until 48 h. In the experimented rats, dilatated endoplasmic reticulum gathered with lots of protein excretion, lipid droplet and heterochromatin gathered under the nucleus membranes were observed in follicular epithelial cells. These changes were palliated at 96 h but not recovered. PEMW can affect levels of hormones in sera and the hazard ultrastructural changes of thyroid gland. Endoplasmic reticulum is the main injured organelle. (authors)

  16. Field studies of transport and dispersion of atmospheric tracers in nocturnal drainage flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul H. Gudiksen; Gilbert J. Ferber; Malcolm M. Fowler; Wynn L. Eberhard; Michael A. Fosberg; William R. Knuth

    1984-01-01

    A series of tracer experiments were carried out as part of the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program to evaluate pollutant transport and dispersion characteristics of nocturnal drainage flows within a valley in northern California. The results indicate that the degree of interaction of the drainage flows with the larger scale regional flows are...

  17. Effects of colchicine on the intestinal transport of endogenous lipid. Ultrastructural, biochemical, and radiochemical studies in fasting rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavelka, M.; Gangl, A.

    1983-01-01

    The involvement of microtubules in the transepithelial transport of exogenous lipid in intestinal absorptive cells has been suggested. Using electronmicroscopic, biochemical, and radiochemical methods, researchers have studied the effects of the antimicrotubular agent colchicine on the intestinal mucosa and on the intestinal transport of endogenous lipid of rats in the fasting state. After colchicine treatment, the concentration of triglycerides in intestinal mucosa of rats fasted for 24 h doubled, and electron microscopic studies showed a striking accumulation of lipid particles in absorptive epithelial cells of the tips of jejunal villi. These findings suggest that colchicine interferes with the intestinal transepithelial transport of endogenous lipoproteins. Additional studies, using an intraduodenal pulse injection of [ 14 C]linoleic acid, showed that colchicine does not affect the uptake of fatty acids by intestinal mucosa. However, it had divergent effects on fatty acid esterification, enhancing their incorporation into triglycerides relative to phospholipids, and caused a significant accumulation of endogenous diglycerides, triglycerides, and cholesterol esters within the absorptive intestinal epithelium. Detailed ultrastructural and morphometric studies revealed a decrease of visible microtubules, and a displacement of the smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. Furthermore, it is shown that after colchicine treatment, microvilli appear at the lateral plasma membrane of intestinal absorptive cells, a change not previously reported to our knowledge. Thus, our study shows that colchicine causes significant changes in enterocyte ultrastructure and colchicine perturbs the reesterification of absorbed endogenous fatty acids and their secretion in the form of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins from the enterocyte

  18. A study of the soil flagellate Phalansterium solitarium Sandon 1924 with preliminary data on its ultrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Flemming

    2002-01-01

    Phalansterium solitarium Sandon 1924, a common soil flagellate, was isolated and a Sandon 1924, a common soil flagellate, was isolated and a clonal culture was examined using light and electron microscopy. The first preliminary observations of its ultrastructure show that the cells of Ph....... solitarium have the same main characters as an earlier investigated species of the genus, Ph. digitatum Stein 1878, including a collarlike structure surrounding the basis of the single emerging flagellum, tubular cristae, a single basal body, surrounded by x, y and z zones with radiating microtubules...

  19. Nested Tracer Studies In Catchment Hydrology: Towards A Multiscale Understanding of Runoff Generation and Catchment Funtioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulsby, C.; Rodgers, P.; Malcolm, I. A.; Dunn, S.

    Geochemical and isotopic tracers have been shown to have widespread utility in catch- ment hydrology in terms of identifying hydrological source areas and characterising residence time distributions. In many cases application of tracer techniques has pro- vided insights into catchment functioning that could not be obtained from hydromet- ric and/or modelling studies alone. This paper will show how the use of tracers has contributed to an evolving perceptual model of hydrological pathways and runoff gen- eration processes in catchments in the Scottish highlands. In particular the paper will focus on the different insights that are gained at three different scales of analysis; (a) nested sub-catchments within a mesoscale (ca. 200 square kilometers) experimen- tal catchment; (b) hillslope-riparian interactions and (c) stream bed fluxes. Nested hydrometric and hydrochemical monitoring within the mesoscale Feugh catchment identified three main hydrological response units: (i) plateau peatlands which gener- ated saturation overland flow in the catchment headwaters, (ii) steep valley hillslopes which drain from the plateaux into (iii) alluvial and drift aquifers in the valley bottoms. End Member Mixing Analysis (EMMA) in 8 nested sub-catchments indicated that that stream water tracer concentrations can be modelled in terms of 2 dominant runoff pro- cesses; overland flow from the peat and groundwater from the drift aquifers. Ground- water contributions generally increased with catchment size, though this was moder- ated by the characteristics of individual sub-basins, with drift cover being particularly important. Hillslope riparian interactions were also examined using tracers, hydromet- ric data and a semi-distributed hydrological model. This revealed that in the glaciated, drift covered terrain of the Scottish highlands, extensive valley bottom aquifers effec- tively de-couple hillslope waters from the river channel. Thus, riparian groundwater appears to significantly

  20. Experimental design for estimating parameters of rate-limited mass transfer: Analysis of stream tracer studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Brian J.; Harvey, Judson W.

    1997-01-01

    Tracer experiments are valuable tools for analyzing the transport characteristics of streams and their interactions with shallow groundwater. The focus of this work is the design of tracer studies in high-gradient stream systems subject to advection, dispersion, groundwater inflow, and exchange between the active channel and zones in surface or subsurface water where flow is stagnant or slow moving. We present a methodology for (1) evaluating and comparing alternative stream tracer experiment designs and (2) identifying those combinations of stream transport properties that pose limitations to parameter estimation and therefore a challenge to tracer test design. The methodology uses the concept of global parameter uncertainty analysis, which couples solute transport simulation with parameter uncertainty analysis in a Monte Carlo framework. Two general conclusions resulted from this work. First, the solute injection and sampling strategy has an important effect on the reliability of transport parameter estimates. We found that constant injection with sampling through concentration rise, plateau, and fall provided considerably more reliable parameter estimates than a pulse injection across the spectrum of transport scenarios likely encountered in high-gradient streams. Second, for a given tracer test design, the uncertainties in mass transfer and storage-zone parameter estimates are strongly dependent on the experimental Damkohler number, DaI, which is a dimensionless combination of the rates of exchange between the stream and storage zones, the stream-water velocity, and the stream reach length of the experiment. Parameter uncertainties are lowest at DaI values on the order of 1.0. When DaI values are much less than 1.0 (owing to high velocity, long exchange timescale, and/or short reach length), parameter uncertainties are high because only a small amount of tracer interacts with storage zones in the reach. For the opposite conditions (DaI ≫ 1.0), solute

  1. Ultrastructural studies on the blood-brain barrier. Mainly as to changes in the permeability of cerebral capillary walls induced by experimental x-ray irradiation and the effect of glucocorticoid on such changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichitsubo, H [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1977-03-01

    In the present study, an ultrastructural examination was made of the role of capillary endothelial cells of the brain which is one of the constituent factors of the blood-brain barrier. In normal cerebral capillaries, both endothelial cells and the basement membrane were demonstrated to be not crossed by a tracer (horseradish peroxidase) even in 60 minutes after its intravenous administration, thus suggesting the blood-brain barrier effect. Author investigated changes in the permeability of cerebral capillary walls induced by experimental brain irradiation and the effect of glucocorticoid on such changes. On forty-eight hours following an appropriate irradiation a marked brain edema was developed; under such circumstances when the tracer was injected intravenously, on 60 minutes thereafter the tracer was demonstrated to be transferred into the neutral tissue, and this was interpreted as indicating that capillary hyperpermeability was induced. These findings were suggested that the mechanism of capillary hyperpermeability might not be based on the passage of a tight junction of the cells of capillary wall but rather on account of activated active transport via an increased number of pinocytotic vesicles. The mechanism of increase of pinocytotic vesicle appeared to be resulting from a breakdown of the controlling system of pinocytotic vesicle production. However, the existence of this controlling system is still speculative. Pre-and post-irradiation administration of glucocorticoid proved to be effective in the prevention of irradiation-induced hyperpermeability of cerebral capillaries, and to be indicating the possible usefulness of the drug for the maintenance or repair of the aforementioned system.

  2. Studies of 15N transamination following application of various tracer substances. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schadereit, R.; Krawielitzki, K.; Herrmann, U.

    1986-01-01

    4 groups of 3 growing Wistar rats each were orally given 15 N-labelled methionine, lysine, glycine and ammonia sulphate, resp., over 10 days. Measuring the 15 N accumulation in the amino acids (AA) of the body protein, the transamination of the individual 15 N substances and thus their suitability as tracer substances for studies of N metabolism was determined. None of the tested 15 N-AA achieved a proportionate labelling of all AA of the body protein. The AA used as tracer in each case showed the highest 15 N labelling. Of the amino- 15 N detected in the animal body, about 19% were found in Met after 15 N Met application, 88% in Lys after 15 N Lys application and 50% in Gly after 15 N Gly application. After the application of 15 N-ammonia sulphate about 42% of the body amino- 15 N are apportioned to the essential and 58% to the non-essential AA. Thus, this substance produces a more proportional labelling of the essential and non-essential AA of the body protein than 15 N-Gly. The following quotas of the 15 N amounts applied were found in the AA of the animal bodies: tracer substance lysine 52%, glycine 32%, ammonia sulphate 24%, methionine 21%. After summing up the amino acid 15 N amounts in the animal body, eliminating in each case the tracer AA and taking into account the molecular weight of the AA, there was a good agreement of the intensity of the accumulation of 15 N in the individual AA, irrespective of the applied tracer substance. (author)

  3. An ultrastructural study of the chromatoid body in planarian regenerative cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Isao

    1982-01-01

    The present paper deals with the ultrastructural changes of chromatoid bodies in planarian regenerative cells under normal and experimental conditions. A close relationship was usually observed between chromatoid bodies and pore regions of the nuclear envelope in these cells. The chromatoid bodies continued to decrease in size during cytodifferentiation of regenerative cells, though they did not disappear entirely throughout the regeneration processes. Cytochemistry and [ 3 H]uridine autoradiography have shown that the chromatoid body contains RNA. The typical morphological effect of actinomycin D became apparent in three organelles, i.e., nucleolus, polysome and chromatoid body. Ultrastructural changes in nucleoli were observed to occur after actinomycin treatment (20 μg/ml). The exposure to a higher dose of actinomycin (50 μg/ml) caused a decay of chromatoid bodies while nuclear envelopes retained numerous pores. Both the nucleoli and the chromatoid bodies disappeared in the sequential stages. Within the cytoplasm of such cells disintegration of a polysomal pattern was correlated with the disappearance of chromatoid bodies. The significance of the planarian chromatoid body is discussed in relation to differentiation of the regenerative cells. (author)

  4. Dietary cadmium and enteropathy in the Japanese quail: histochemical and ultrastructural studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, M.E.; Fox, M.R.S.

    1974-01-01

    Cadmium was fed to young Japanese quail, at a level of 75 mg. per kg. of diet, from hatching to 4 weeks of age. Cadmium produced gross, microscopic, and ultrastructural lesions in the proximal small intestine of these quail, similar to those occurring in human malabsorption syndromes, celiac disease, nontropical sprue, and tropical sprue. The small intestines of the quail were dilated and thin walled. Villi were short and thick and had a dense cellular infiltrate in the lamina propria. The striated border was thin but stained for neutral mucopolysaccharides, as did the normal border. Some villi were covered with stratified epithelial cells. Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of goblet were seen, but the mucin stained for weakly acidic mucopolysaccharides, as did the normal cells. At the ultrastructural level, microvilli of both absorptive and goblet cells were markedly shortened, particularly near the tips of the villi. Absorptive cells were atrophic, and there was s diminution of the usual cellular organelles. Granular cisternae were long and tortuous, mitochondria were dense and small, and large lysosome-like bodies and large lipid droplets accumulated in the cytoplasm, but there was a decrease in the normal small, pale and dark lipid droplets. The cellular infiltrate of the lamina propria included groups of plasma cells with dilated cisternae. There were large, irregular, electron-dense bodies in the endothelium of large veins and degeneration of some nerve plexuses in the muscularis propria. 31 references, 21 figures.

  5. Study on the ultrastructure of brain in rats prenatally exposed to tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhiyuan; Guo Yuefen; Lai Chixiang

    1993-01-01

    At 11th day of gestation, rats were intraperitoneally injected with HTO, the activity of which were 5.55 x 10 6 Bq/mL of body water and 5.55 x 10 5 Bq/mL of body water. In these conditions, the cumulative doses for 1-day-old and 18-day-old young rats were estimated to be 1.6-1.7 Gy and 0.16-0.17 Gy, respectively. Under the above-mentioned conditions, some significant injuries in the ultrastructure of the nucleus of neutron and of the cell apparatuses in the cytoplasm of the cerebral and cerebellar cortexes can be seen on the 1-day-old and 18-day-old young rats. When young rats were 90 days old, these injuries of ultrastructure in brain cells had not be observed but it was observed that the processes of neutroglia cells replenished the crevices in injured neutropilem of the cerebral and cerebellar cortex

  6. A Study Plan for Determining Recharge Rates at the Hanford Site Using Environmental Tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, E. M.; Szecsody, J. E.; Phillips, S. J.

    1991-02-01

    This report presents a study plan tor estimating recharge at the Hanford Site using environmental tracers. Past operations at the Hanford Site have led to both soil and groundwater contamination, and recharge is one of the primary mechanisms for transporting contaminants through the vadose zone and into the groundwater. The prediction of contaminant movement or transport is one aspect of performance assessment and an important step in the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process. In the past, recharge has been characterized by collecting lysimeter data. Although lysimeters can generate important and reliable data, their limitations include 1) fixed location, 2) fixed sediment contents, 3) edge effects, 4) low rates, and 5) relatively short duration of measurement. These limitations impact the ability to characterize the spatial distribution of recharge at the Hanford Site, and thus the ability to predict contaminant movement in the vadose zone. An alternative to using fixed lysimeters for determining recharge rates in the vadose zone is to use environmental tracers. Tracers that have been used to study water movement in the vadose zone include total chloride, {sup 36}CI, {sup 3}H, and {sup 2}H/{sup 18}O. Atmospheric levels of {sup 36}CI and {sup 3}H increased during nuclear bomb testing in the Pacific, and the resulting "bomb pulse" or peak concentration can be measured in the soil profile. Locally, past operations at the Hanford Site have resu~ed in the atmospheric release of numerous chemical and isotopic tracers, including nitrate, {sup 129}I, and {sup 99}Tc. The radionuclides, in particular, reached a well-defined atmospheric peak in 1945. Atmospheric releases of {sup 129}I and {sup 99}Tc were greatly reduced by mid-1946, but nitrogen oxides continued to be released from the uranium separations facilities. As a result, the nitrate concentrations probably peaked in the mid-1950s, when the greatest number of separations facilities were operating

  7. Characterization of crushed tuff for the evaluation of the fate of tracers in transport studies in the unsaturated zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polzer, W.L.; Fuentes, H.R.; Raymond, R.; Bish, D.L.; Gladney, E.S.; Lopez, E.A.

    1987-03-01

    Results of field-scale (caisson) transport studies under unsaturated moisture and steady and nonsteady flow conditions indicate variability and a lack of conservation of mass in solute transport. The tuff materials used in that study were analyzed for the presence of tracers and of freshly precipitated material to help explain the variability and lack of conservation of mass. Selected tuff samples were characterized by neutron activation analysis for tracer identification, by x-ray diffraction for mineral identification, by petrographic analysis for identification of freshly precipitated material, and by x-ray fluorescence analysis for identification of major and trace elements. The results of these analyses indicate no obvious presence of freshly precipitated material that would retard tracer movement. The presence of the nonsorbing tracers (bromide and iodide) suggest the retention of these tracers in immobile water. The presence of the nonsorbing tracers (bromide and iodide) suggest the retention of these tracers in immobile water. The presence of sorbing and nonsorbing tracers on the tuff at some locations (even cesium at the 415-cm depth) and not at others suggests variability in transport. 15 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs

  8. Tracer techniques for the study of host-parasite relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendgen, K.

    1975-01-01

    Autoradiographic techniques have been used to study the interaction of many facultative and obligate parasites, including viruses. After feeding the host plant with labelled substrates, labelled material accumulates in the infected cells and seems to penetrate into structures of the parasite. After labelling the parasite, its influence on the host may be studied. We use this technique to study the interaction of host (bean) and parasite (bean rust) during the infection process. After infection with uredospores labelled with tritiated orotic acid, the radioactivity is retained almost completely within the young haustorium at 22 h after inoculation. This may indicate a very small influence of the parasite on its compatible host. In incompatible host-parasite combinations, the infection process proceeds in a different way. The use of autoradiographic techniques to compare combinations of varying compatibilities will be discussed. (author)

  9. Disinfection Contact Time study plan (100-N Area tracer protocol). Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretzschmar, S.P.; Bedi, G.S.; Martinez, P.; Ervin, K.

    1996-07-01

    Bechtel Hanford, Inc. will prepare an Engineering Tracer Study Protocol for the determination of contact time for the disinfection process at Group A Non-transient Non-community water treatment plant for the 100-N Water Plant at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Included in this report are the results of a study that determine the actual detention time within the plant clearwell, and thus the disinfection contact time at several clearwell effluent flow rates

  10. UKAEA code of practice for tracer and irradiation studies involving the use of volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchard, J.N.; Morgan, A.

    1987-06-01

    The subject is discussed under the following headings: 1) General considerations in volunteer studies (informed consent, beneficial objectives, recruitment from within or without the workforce, records, compensation, codes of practice, confidentiality etc.) 2) Tracer and irradiation studies approval committee, (terms of reference, membership, dose limitations, assessment of chemical toxicity, procedure for submitting proposals) 3) Obtaining a project licence 4) Conduct of volunteer experiments 5) The use of non-authority volunteers. (U.K.)

  11. Fallout Radionuclides as Tracers in Southern Alps Sediment Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, A. E.; Karanovic, Z.; Dibb, J. E.

    2005-12-01

    The primary geologic processes shaping the landscape are physical and chemical weathering and the transport of solids by erosion. As part of our studies on the coupling between physical erosion and chemical weathering, we have determined depositional and erosional processes in New Zealand's tectonically active, rapidly uplifting Southern Alps, specifically focusing on the Hokitika River watershed. The South Island watersheds we are studying are subject to extreme orographic precipitation (as high as 7-12 m annually) and high landslide frequency, but have modest topography due to the rapid erosion. In concert with our studies of chemical weathering and physical erosion, we have used the atmospherically-delivered radionuclides of 7Be, 137Cs and 210Pbexcess to determine the relative magnitude of particle residence time in the high elevation Cropp and Whitcombe subwatersheds and the rates of sedimentation. One- and two-box modeling with 7Be and 210Pbexcess was used to determine soil and sediment residence times. Residence time of fine suspended particles is short and particles can travel the length of the river during a single storm, probably due to the short duration, high-intensity rainfalls which produce rapidly moving, steep flood waves. The readily detected peak of 137Cs activity in Cropp terrace and Hokitika gorge soils yielded sedimentation rates of 0.06-0.12 cm yr-1. At the Cropp terrace, inventory models of 210Pbexcess yield soil accumulation rates significantly less than those determined using the 137Cs activity peak. We attribute the differences to overestimation of 210Pbexcess in surface soils and to contrasting fallout fluxes, geochemical behavior and radionuclide contents of sedimenting materials. Total inventories of 210Pbexcess in soils greatly exceed the expected direct atmospheric deposition, suggesting that lateral transport of this nuclide occurs within the watershed. At the Hokitika gorge, all nuclides studied yielded similar sedimentation rates

  12. Study of the mineralization of coral implanted in vivo by radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irigaray, J.L.; Sauvage, T.; Oudadesse, H.; El Fadl, H.; Lefaivre, J.; Barlet, J.P.; Trevers, S.; Tixer, H.

    1993-01-01

    Coral has been used for the last ten years as bone substitution in the body because of its mechanical and osteoconductor properties. Primary studies have shown, for the first time, the quantitative behaviour of the atomic components. A biocoral implanted 'in vivo' was studied by some physical method of analysis. The natural biocorals used are the calcium carbonated exoskeletons built by Madrepian coral polyps. Neutron activation analysis showed that initial coral, essentially CaCO 3 , becomes a new material which has a mineral composition close to that of bone. The calcification mechanism of this implant was studied by using radioactive tracers. The tracer kinetics of calcium biomaterial have been established in the blood circuit and its use was shown by the organism for skeleton mineralization. (author) 8 refs.; 6 figs.; 4 tabs

  13. Isotopic tracer aided studies of fenvalerate residues in stored rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varca, L.M.; Sanchez, T.E.; Magallona, E.D.

    1990-01-01

    Following application of 14 C-fenvalerate to milled rice and paddy rice at a concentration of 0.33 mg/kg, only insignificant losses were measured after 9 months. Distribution patterns in surface, methanol extractable and bound residues were studied. Paddy rice contained less extractable residues than milled rice, with the major part being found in the husk. Bound residues in both milled and paddy rice decreased also with length of storage; as much as 30% was found as bound residues after nine months. Cooking reduced the insecticide residues in milled rice by 33-40% and residues in paddy rice by 58%. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  14. studies on iron availability in Egyptian soils using tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gad allah, A.M.A.

    1984-01-01

    four experiments were conducted to study the available fe in some egyptian soils, representing alluvial,, calcareous, and sandy soils, including the following:1) estimation of soil available iron using different chemical methods as well as E-value and evaluated against biological method. 2) differentiation of iron as Fe 2+ and Fe 2+ in some selected egyptian soils by using the modified method (charlot,1966). 3) determination of total Fe in soil using neutron activation analysis. 4) the relative importance of Fe-diffusion in egyptian soils under different treatments

  15. Radioactive tracer applications in the study of flow reactors. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyn, J.; Hovorka, J.

    1975-01-01

    Response curves of gas streaming through the jet fluidized bed of a granular material in a rotary-jet pilot reactor were measured for a number of gas flow rates. A mathematical model of the gas residence time distribution was designed. Good agreement of the mathematical model with the experiments permits determining the ratio of streaming through the fluidized bed in form of bubbles of a different size. The measured values were evaluated as the distribution density of the gas residence time (age) at the outlet, the distribution function of the internal gas age in the device, and the so-called intensity function. The gas was labelled by a rapid injection of the radioactive 85 Kr and the response was studied by specially connected Geiger-Mueller counters placed inside the device, immediately above the granular material bed. (author)

  16. Ion exchange in ultramarine blue. Studies using radioactive tracers (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goenvec, H.

    1963-05-01

    A study has been made of the exchange reaction between the constituent sodium in ultramarine blue, and silver in the form of a silver nitrate solution; an attempt hat been made to define the influence of the solvent of the silver nitrate on the kinetics of the exchange reaction. Five solvents have been used: water, methanol, ethanol, n-propanol and acetone. The reaction rates are controlled by a diffusion process inside the ultramarine grains, whatever the solvent used. It seems that the solvated ionic radius of the diffusing ion is one of the factors influencing the rate of reaction. Furthermore, the solvated ionic radius varies with temperature; this variation is different for each solvent and should explain the differences observed in the activation energies. (author) [fr

  17. National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). Project definition study: Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagunas-Solar, M.C.

    1995-02-15

    This report describes a five-year plan for the construction and commissioning of a reliable and versatile NBTF facility for the production of high-quality, high-yield radioisotopes for research, biomedical, and industrial applications. The report is organized in nine sections providing, in consecutive order, responses to the nine questions posed by the U.S. Department of Energy in its solicitation for the NBTF Project Definition Study. In order to preserve direct correspondence (e.g., Sec. 3 = 3rd item), this Introduction is numbered {open_quotes}0.{close_quotes} Accelerator and facility designs are covered in Section 1 (Accelerator Design) and Section 2 (Facility Design). Preliminary estimates of capital costs are detailed in Section 3 (Design and Construction Costs). Full licensing requirements, including federal, state, and local ordinances, are discussed in Section 4 (Permits). A plan for the management of hazardous materials to be generated by NBTF is presented in Section 5 (Waste Management). An evaluation of NBTF`s economic viability and its potential market impact is detailed in Section 6(Business Plan), and is complemented by the plans in Section 7 (Operating Plan) and Section 8 (Radioisotope Plan). Finally, a plan for NBTF`s research, education, and outreach programs is presented in Section 9 (Research and Education Programs).

  18. Joint DOE/NRC field study of tracer migration in the unsaturated zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.; Polzer, W.; Essington, E.; Cokal, E.; Lane, L.; Lopez, E.; Stallings, E.; Walker, R.

    1986-03-01

    The results of a joint DOE/NRC field experiment to evaluate leaching and transport of solutes in a sandy silt backfill used for shallow land burial operations at Los Alamos are presented for steady-state and unsteady-state flow conditions. The migration of iodide, bromide, and lithium through the backfill material is studied as functions of depth and time and they are compared with one another. The bromide and iodide tracer data are used to estimate the diffusion coefficient, the tortuosity factor, and dispersivity. These values are used to calculate effective dispersion coefficients for subsequent analyses of the retardation factor and the distribution coefficient for lithium using least squares procedures. The results of the tracer migration study are discussed relative to challenges facing the waste management community, and chemical transport modeling opportunities are presented for a modeling workshop to be held in FY86

  19. Ultrastructural study of myelinating cells and sub-pial astrocytes in developing rat spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, K

    1979-12-01

    The anterior funiculus of the spinal cervical cord of post-natal rats was examined ultrastructurally. The myelinating cells found one day after brith contained a large amount of evenly distributed ribosomes up to the outer tongue of mesaxons, representing the cytoplasmic density. These cells were separated by astrocytic processes from the pial basement membrane, even when they were located on the pial surface. Astrocytes contained glial fibrils from one day onwards and often attached their processes to the pial basement membrane. Although the cytoplasmic processes of astrocytes occasionally wrapped axons, they were never shown to form the initial layer of myelin sheaths. However, the tenuous processes of the sub-pial astrocytes were occasionally rolled in myelin lamellae, as if a part of the myelin sheaths was constructed by astrocytic processes. The interpretation for this finding is discussed in relation to function and potency of the astrocytes, and variations and anomalies of nervous ontogeny.

  20. Contribution of radioactive tracers to sediment transport study in fluvial flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson Junior, G.

    1995-01-01

    The uses of radioactive tracers in sediment transport studies are presented in this report to evidence the importance of: Open channel researches, to describe field applications in waterways; Simultaneous utilization of classical methods and radiotracer techniques, in fluvial and estuarine environments; Development of radiotracers techniques applied in dynamic sedimentology. The report illustrated with some experiments carried out in Brazil and France, in open channel and natural flows. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs

  1. Determination of the lysosomal role in tumor accumulation of 67Ga by dual-tracer studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Atsushi; Ando, Itsuko; Hiraki, Tatsunosuke; Yamada, Norihisa; Hisada, Kinichi

    1989-01-01

    The lysosomal role in tumor accumulation of 67 Ga was determined by dual-tracer( 67 Ga and 46 Sc) studies. It became clear that 67 Ga essentially did not accumulate in the tumor lysosome, and that the lysosome did not play a major role in tumor accumulation of 67 Ga. In addition, it was revealed that tumor lysosome was hardly disrupted at all in some phases of fractionation procedures. (author)

  2. The Effectiveness of Natural Diarylheptanoids against Trypanosoma cruzi: Cytotoxicity, Ultrastructural Alterations and Molecular Modeling Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Sueth-Santiago

    Full Text Available Curcumin (CUR is the major constituent of the rhizomes of Curcuma longa and has been widely investigated for its chemotherapeutic properties. The well-known activity of CUR against Leishmania sp., Trypanosoma brucei and Plasmodium falciparum led us to investigate its activity against Trypanosoma cruzi. In this work, we tested the cytotoxic effects of CUR and other natural curcuminoids on different forms of T. cruzi, as well as the ultrastructural changes induced in epimastigote form of the parasite. CUR was verified as the curcuminoid with more significant trypanocidal properties (IC50 10.13 μM on epimastigotes. Demethoxycurcumin (DMC was equipotent to CUR (IC50 11.07 μM, but bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC was less active (IC50 45.33 μM and cyclocurcumin (CC was inactive. In the experiment with infected murine peritoneal macrophages all diarylheptanoids were more active than the control in the inhibition of the trypomastigotes release. The electron microscopy images showed ultrastructural changes associated with the cytoskeleton of the parasite, indicating tubulin as possible target of CUR in T. cruzi. The results obtained by flow cytometry analysis of DNA content of the parasites treated with natural curcuminoids suggested a mechanism of action on microtubules related to the paclitaxel`s mode of action. To better understand the mechanism of action highlighted by electron microscopy and flow cytometry experiments we performed the molecular docking of natural curcuminoids on tubulin of T. cruzi in a homology model and the results obtained showed that the observed interactions are in accordance with the IC50 values found, since there CUR and DMC perform similar interactions at the binding site on tubulin while BDMC do not realize a hydrogen bond with Lys163 residue due to the absence of methoxyl groups. These results indicate that trypanocidal properties of CUR may be related to the cytoskeletal alterations.

  3. Experimental chronic entrapment of the sciatic nerve in adult hamsters: an ultrastructural and morphometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prinz R.A.D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrapment neuropathy is a group of clinical disorders involving compression of a peripheral nerve and interference with nerve function mostly through traction injury. We have investigated the chronic compression of peripheral nerves as an experimental procedure for detecting changes in ultrastructural nerve morphology. Adult hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus, N = 30 were anesthetized with a 25% pentobarbital solution and received a cuff around the right sciatic nerve. Left sciatic nerves were not operated (control group. Animals survived for varying times (up to 15 weeks, after which they were sacrificed and both sciatic nerves were immediately fixed with a paraformaldehyde solution. Experimental nerves were divided into segments based upon their distance from the site of compression (proximal, entrapment and distal. Semithin and ultrathin sections were obtained and examined by light and electron microscopy. Ultrastructural changes were qualitatively described and data from semithin sections were morphometrically analyzed both in control and in compressed nerves. We observed endoneurial edema along with both perineurial and endoneurial thickening and also the existence of whorled cell-sparse structures (Renaut bodies in the subperineurial space of compressed sciatic nerves. Morphometric analyses of myelinated axons at the compression sites displayed a remarkable increase in the number of small axons (up to 60% in comparison with the control axonal number. The distal segment of compressed nerves presented a distinct decrease in axon number (up to 40% comparatively to the control group. The present experimental model of nerve entrapment in adult hamsters was shown to promote consistent histopathologic alterations analogous to those found in chronic compressive neuropathies.

  4. Dynamic study of an anaerobic reactor in pilot plant scale using radioactive tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, A.M.F.; Moreira, R.M.; Chernicharo, C.A.L.

    1995-01-01

    The use of flow traces is a common practice in hydrodynamic studies. However chemical tracers have some shortcomings, such as the need of sampling, analysis and possible interferences with the delicate biological processes taking place within the reactor. Thus a radiotracer, Br 82 has been chosen for this purpose. The advantages of this radioisotope are its energetic gamma emission which can be easily detected outside the reactor walls, its solubility and lack of adsorption, besides having a convenient half-life and being easily produced is small nuclear reactors. The tracer responses to instantaneous injections at the reactor entrance were used to determine the resistance time and the mixing patterns of the reactors. The normalized residence time distributions were fitted to mathematical models by a least-squares subroutine. The axial dispersion model and the tanks-in-series model have been used, thus allowing the determination of the dispersion coefficient and the Peclet Number. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  5. Experiences of simulated tracer dispersal studies using effluent discharges at Tarapur aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudheendran, V.; Baburajan, A.; Sawane, Pratibha; Rao, D.D.; Hegde, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear complex in Tarapur, Maharashtra is a multi facility nuclear site comprising of power reactors and research facilities. Each facility has independent liquid effluent discharge line to Arabian Sea. Experimental studies were conducted to evaluate dilution factors in the aquatic environment using liquid effluent releases as tracer from one of the facilities. 3 H and 137 Cs radioisotopes present in the routine releases were used as simulated tracer nuclides. The dilution factors(D.F) observed for tritium were in the range of 20-20000 in a distance range of 10 m to 1500 m respectively and for 137 Cs the D.F. were in the range of 50 to 900 over a distance range of 10-200 m. The paper describes the analytical methodology and sampling scenarios and the results of dilution factors obtained for Tarapur aquatic environment. (author)

  6. Pathology of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis: a light microscopical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study of skin lesions and draining lymph nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismail, Ahmed; Gadir, A Fattah A; Theander, Thor G

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whereas the clinical manifestations and treatment of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) have been adequately described before, the pathology received little attention, particularly the African form of PKDL which shows some clinical differences from the disease in India...... leishmaniasis: a light microscopical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study of skin lesions and draining lymph nodes....

  7. Choice of infusion-sampling mode for tracer studies of free fatty acid metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.D.; Rogers, P.J.; Ellman, M.G.; Miles, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    To determine the preferred infusion-sampling mode for isotopic studies of free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism, tracer [( 14 C]palmitate) was infused into the left ventricle of five anesthetized dogs, and tracee ([ 3 H]palmitate) was infused into three separate peripheral veins of each dog. The [ 14 C]palmitate specific activity (SA) was lower in mixed venous than arterial blood, and [ 3 H]palmitate SA was equal in both sites. The actual infusion rate of [ 3 H]palmitate [2.15 +/- 0.31 X 10(5) disintegrations/min (dpm).kg-1.min-1] could be accurately predicted (2.14 +/- 0.32 X 10(5) dpm.kg-1.min-1) using the known [ 14 C]palmitate infusion rate and the arterial plasma [ 14 C]-to-[ 3 H]palmitate ratio. In contrast, the mixed venous [ 14 C]-to-[ 3 H]palmitate ratio resulted in overestimates (P less than 0.05) of the actual [ 3 H]palmitate infusion rate. In summary, venous tracer infusion with arterial blood sampling for FFA tracer studies provides the most accurate estimates of tracee rate of appearance

  8. STRATEGIES FOR QUANTIFYING PET IMAGING DATA FROM TRACER STUDIES OF BRAIN RECEPTORS AND ENZYMES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, J.

    2001-04-02

    A description of some of the methods used in neuroreceptor imaging to distinguish changes in receptor availability has been presented in this chapter. It is necessary to look beyond regional uptake of the tracer since uptake generally is affected by factors other than the number of receptors for which the tracer has affinity. An exception is the infusion method producing an equilibrium state. The techniques vary in complexity some requiring arterial blood measurements of unmetabolized tracer and multiple time uptake data. Others require only a few plasma and uptake measurements and those based on a reference region require no plasma measurements. We have outlined some of the limitations of the different methods. Laruelle (1999) has pointed out that test/retest studies to which various methods can be applied are crucial in determining the optimal method for a particular study. The choice of method will also depend upon the application. In a clinical setting, methods not involving arterial blood sampling are generally preferred. In the future techniques for externally measuring arterial plasma radioactivity with only a few blood samples for metabolite correction will extend the modeling options of clinical PET. Also since parametric images can provide information beyond that of ROI analysis, improved techniques for generating such images will be important, particularly for ligands requiring more than a one-compartment model. Techniques such as the wavelet transform proposed by Turkheimer et al. (2000) may prove to be important in reducing noise and improving quantitation.

  9. Application of tracer techniques in studies of sediment transport in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hai, P.S.; Quang, N.H.; Xuan, N.M.; Chuong, P.N.; Hien, P.Z.

    1997-01-01

    As a consequence of intensive erosion processes typical of the humid tropical one, as well as of human activities destroying tropical forests, grasslands and protective mangrove swamps, etc, most navigable estuaries in Vietnam suffer seriously from sedimentation. In order to maintain the necessary depth for the 7.000 ton vessels entering and leaving ports, a large amount of money is spent annually on dredging operation. A lot of hydraulic and sedimentary surveys were carried out in the past by different groups of researchers. However, owing to the complexity of sediment processes in estuarine areas under the hydrometeorological conditions typical of the southwest Pacific, the use of just any modelling approach is not suitable. In many cases, the conclusions inferred from mathematical models have been the controversial matter. The tracer techniques, which have been employed in the country since 1991, have provided a very efficient tool to obtain a dynamic idea of sediment transport. Many investigations of bedload transport using Sc-46 labelled glass and Ir-192 glass as radioactive tracers were carried out from 1992 to 1996 at Haiphong harbour area. Bedload transport rates under effect of northeast monsoon and southeast monsoon at 5 zones located on both sides of the navigation channel were estimated. In bedload transport studies, apart from conventional methods for assessment of transport thickness, a new method using the ratio of photoelectric peak to Compton region of spectra acquired directly on the sea bed was put forward and applied. The influence of dredging materials at two dumping sites under different tidal phases on in fill rate in the access channel was assessed by radioactive tracers. The qualitative and quantitative information on sediment transport at some experimental sites given by tracers was used by modelling specialists who have undertaken hydraulic and sedimentary surveys in this region

  10. Mineral imbalances in farm animals and their study and diagnosis with isotopic tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, E.J.

    1976-01-01

    Twenty-two mineral elements are known to be essential for animal life. These are calcium, phosphorus, sulphur, potassium, sodium, chlorine, magnesium, iron, iodine, copper, manganese, zinc, cobalt, molybdenum, selenium, chromium, tin, vanadium, fluorine, silicon, nickel and arsenic. Naturally occurring and man-made dietary imbalances of many of these elements and their interactions with other minerals are described and their functions and requirements by farm animals are outlined. The nature and importance of metabolic interactions among the mineral elements are discussed and the important concept stressed that there is no single minimum requirement or safe tolerance of a particular mineral, but a series of such minimum requirements and safe tolerances depending on the extent to which other minerals with which it interacts is present or absent from the diet. Radioactive tracer elements are shown to be of great value in the determination of mineral nutrient availability to the animal and for following mineral metabolic movements in the body. They are also shown to have considerable potential for the diagnosis of mineral imbalances. Various in vivo and in vitro techniques involving both radioactive and stable tracers developed for the early diagnosis of mineral deficiencies are described and the strengths and weaknesses of such techniques, in comparison with standard biochemical tests, are discussed. The need for further critical studies with isotopic tracers in the detection and diagnosis of mineral imbalances is emphasized. The main types of biochemical criteria used in the diagnosis of mineral deficiencies and excesses are given, with appropriate examples of their use. (author)

  11. Circulation of the medullary cerebrospinal fluid. Comparative study of various tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bok, B.; Thebault, B.; Cavailloles, F.; Aboulker, J.

    Gammamyelography is used to study the circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid in the perimedullary sub-arachoid spaces. Many radioactive preparations have been proposed for this examination which is designed to show up all dynamic perturbations of the CSF flux. Of the criteria governing the choice of tracer some importance given has been to the molecular diffusion constant of the preparation, iodinated albumine seeming the most suitable in this respect. An attempt was made to estimate the influence of molecular weight on the tracer kinetics by comparing three preparations injected simultaneously: indium 111-labelled siderophilline of M.W. above 100,000; iodine 131-labelled human serum albumine of MW around 70,000; sup(99m)Tc-labelled DTPA, a chelate of low molecular weight. The results showed no detectable influence of the molecular weight of these preparations on their intraspinal kinetics in the time taken for the examination. In practice this work justifies the use of the preparation most convenient and least harmful from the dosimetric viewpoint for the isotope and from the antigenic toxicological viewpoint for the tracer, which means that the replacement of iodinated albumine by indium-111 DTPA for example should be possible at least at the medullary level [fr

  12. Effects of management in gestational diabetes mellitus with normal prepregnancy body mass index on pregnancy outcomes and placental ultrastructures: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yun; Zheng, Yan-Li; Wu, Ai-Min; Liu, Hong-Bin; Su, Jian-Bin; Lu, Xiao-Yan; Han, Yu-Wen; Ji, Jin-Long; Ji, Ju-Hua; Shi, Yue

    2016-12-01

    A great quantity of gestational diabetes mellitus with normal prepregnancy body mass index have emerged with the new criteria of gestational diabetes mellitus in China based on the International Diabetes in Pregnancy Consensus group criteria, and understanding placental changes and how they affect outcomes are necessary in order to develop effective management approach. The aim of this study was to prospectively explore the effect of active management starting from the late second trimester in gestational diabetes mellitus women with normal prepregnancy body mass index on pregnancy outcomes and placental ultrastructures, and to provide scientific evidences for optimizing the management of gestational diabetes mellitus in China. Gestational diabetes mellitus women with normal prepregnancy body mass index in the same period of this prospective cohort study were divided into intervention group (n = 51) and control group (n = 55). The intervention group was managed rigorously, while the control group received conventional prenatal cares. The glucose profile, gestational weight gain and pregnancy outcomes were followed up and placental ultrastructures were observed and recorded by transmission electron microscopy. The blood glucose level and gestational weight gain in intervention group were significantly better controlled than those in control group (P gestational age were significantly lower in intervention group than in control group (P gestational age (P gestational diabetes mellitus women with normal prepregnancy body mass index can improve pregnancy outcomes and placental ultrastructures, and the abnormal placental ultrastructure might be closely associated with the undesirable glycemic control and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  13. The use of bromine as a tracer for studying infiltrations in mining processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, F; Andonie, O; Rojas, X

    2003-01-01

    The impact of mining activity on underground water is becoming increasingly important because of the scarcity of the resource and due to the different use if there is water under the mining. Once the resource is affected the source of infiltration should be identified in all the processes and systems that are involved in the production system in order to take the appropriate preventive or remedial measures, which should also be the most efficient ones. Tracers play an important role in studying infiltration from mining processes to underground bodies of water. Natural chemical and isotopic tracers can identify the hydrogeological setting and help to establish supported hypotheses about the possible origin of the infiltrations. After the different ideas about the processes or systems that could be infiltrated are presented, the application of additional artificial tracers can resolve any doubts This work presents the use of bromine as a tracer for such studies, because of its specific characteristics as a good tracer in water with low interaction in porous surroundings, generally, and its determination by Neutron Activation Analyzers (NAA) due to its low limits of detection and the technique's precision and accuracy for use at reasonable costs. Given that for this type of study a large number of samples are necessary and that it should be carried out in a time period that does not surpass the duration of the process (a few months), a change had to be made in the methodology usually used for the NAA, which included taking a fraction of significantly less sample while meeting the power requirements for differentiating small changes in concentrations between samples. With this modification a larger number of samples can be irradiated in available positions for these purposes in the RECH-1 and the requirements for the number of samples and response time can be met. After the practical performance of this modification, a comparison between both methodologies was carried

  14. The subacute damage of the dorsal root ganglion induced by collagenase in rats: a study on the ultrastructure of neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Heping; Zhuang Wenquan; Yang Jianyong; Chen Wei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of collagenase on the ultrastructure of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in rats. The safety of collagenase on nerve tissue was investigated. Additionally, the safety of percutaneous collagenase chemonucleolysis (PCCN) on nerve tissue was evaluated. Methods: In total 27 male, healthy SD rats were enrolled. All rats were randomized into 3 groups: normal group (9 rats), subacute damage of collagenase group (9 rats), subacute intervention-analogue group (9 rats). The left L5 DRG was exposed in each rat. One milliliter of the collagenase solution (300 units) was carefully applied to the exposed DRG in collagenase group, and one milliliter of the isotonic saline was applied to the exposed DRG in intervention-analogue group. The morphology of the DRG under electron microscope were analyzed 7-9 days after the procedures. Results: The types, number, and morphology of cells; the membrane of neutrons; the nerve fibers and blood vessels in DRG had not been changed in all groups observed under optic microscope. The difference of the ultrastructure of neutrons in DRG among the normal groups, intervention-analogue group and collagenase group was significant: 1) The eccentric nucleolus were revealed; 2) Swelling mitochondria and absence of mitochondria crests and vesicles. Cytoclasis and apoptosis of neutrons had not been observed under electron microscope. Conclusion: The collagenase used in PCCN dose have a certain damage to the neutreons in DRG. In the procedure of PCCN, the volume and dosage of collagenase should be carefully selected and the intervention should be precisely performed by experienced hands. (authors)

  15. DNA synthesis and pronucleus development in pig zygotes obtained in vivo: an autoradiographic and ultrastructural study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurincik, J.; Hyttel, P.; Kopecny, V.

    1995-01-01

    Porcine zygotes flushed from oviducts 48, 52, 56, 60, or 64 hr after hCG were incubated 30 min in 3H-thymidine, transferred to nonradioactive medium for 2 hr, and incubated for 30 min with 14C-thymidine. After this procedure, ova were prepared (i.e., at 51, 55, 59, 63, or 67 hr after hCG) for autoradiography and ultrastructural observations, respectively. The first autoradiographic labelling, i.e., DNA synthesis, was observed at 56-56.5 hr after hCG, while the latest labelling was seen at 60-60.5 hr. At 51 hr after hCG, formation of the pronuclear envelope was observed, while no nucleolus precursor bodies or prestages to these structures were found. At 55 hr a few clusters of small electron-dense granules were observed, together with condensed chromatin in the pronuclei. At 59 hr the apposed regions of both pronuclei contained nucleolus precursor bodies and condensed chromatin, in close contact with both clusters of small granules and clusters of an additional category of large granules and the nuclear envelope. Additionally, large accumulations of the small granules were found in the vicinity of similarly sized accumulations of the large granules without chromatin association. At 63 hr the spherical accumulations of large granules on some occasions presented a central vacuole, and condensed chromatin and clusters of small granules were attached to its periphery. Within the vacuole, electron-dense material was found

  16. An ultrastructural study of Paraphysoderma sedebokerense (Blastocladiomycota), an epibiotic parasite of microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, Peter M; Lee, Philip A; Lopez, Salvador; Burnett, Micheal; McBride, Robert C; Powell, Martha J

    2016-03-01

    Successful algal cultivation for biofuel production is one path in the transition to a renewable energy economy. The green alga Scenedesmus dimorphus is a candidate for biofuel production, but is subject to parasitism and subsequent population crash when cultivated in open ponds. From an open pond cultivating S. dimorphus for biofuel production in New Mexico, USA, an amoeboid parasite was isolated, designated as isolate FD61, and its rDNA operon sequenced. A BLAST search for nuc 18S rDNA (18S) sequence similarity identified the parasite as Paraphysoderma sedebokerense (Blastocladiomycota). Here, we examine the ultrastructure of P. sedebokerense and compare it with that of a sister taxon, Physoderma maydis. The parasite has thin-walled vegetative sporangia and thick-walled resting sporangia. Our observations indicate that amoeboid swarmers are produced in the vegetative phase, while either amoeboid swarmers or zoospores are the product of meiosis in resting sporangia. Meiosis is confirmed by the presence of synaptonemal complexes in resting sporangia nuclei. Notably, P. sedebokerense has a Golgi apparatus with stacked cisternae, a feature reported for P. maydis, but which is absent in all other examined taxa in Blastocladiomycota. This report furthers our knowledge of the life cycle of P. sedebokerense. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ultrastructural study on experimental infection of rotavirus in a murine heterologous model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Majerowicz

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available Viral replication, histopathological and ultrastructural changes were observed for a period of nine days in the small intestine of suckling mice infected with a simian rotavirus (SA11. Samples taken from duodenum, jejunun and ileum were prepared for light microscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy analysis. Histopathologic effect could be detected within 8 hr post-infection, when only a few altered cells were observed. Damage was extensive after 16 hr post-infection, showing swollen enterocytes and reduced and irregularly oriented microvilli at intestinal villi tips. Virus particles were detected at 16 and 48 hr post-infection, budding from the viroplasm into the rough endoplasmic reticulum cisternae in ileum enterocytes. Clear evidence of viral replication, observed by electron microscopy was not described before in heterologous murine models. Regeneration of the intestinal villi began at the third day post-infection. Despite some differences observed in clinical symptoms and microscopic analysis of homologous and heterologous rotavirus infections, we concluded that mechanisms of heterologous rotavirus infection in mice follow similar patterns to those observed in the homologous models.

  18. Application of tracer techniques to the study of trematode infections: Pathological and epidemiological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nansen, P.

    1976-01-01

    Liver fluke and blood fluke infections cause heavy losses in animal production. The infections are characterized by a concomitant anaemia and dysproteinaemia. A review is made of radioisotopic tracer studies which have contributed to an understanding of the dynamic processes underlying the blood changes. Such studies have provided important information about the activity of the parasites, for example, how they cause disease and how they influence animal production. Radioisotopic techniques have also been utilized in the study of free-living fluke larvae. A brief outline of principles and fields if investigations within this area is given. (author)

  19. Hydrophilic and lipophilic radiopharmaceuticals as tracers in pharmaceutical development: In vitro – In vivo studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terán, Mariella; Savio, Eduardo; Paolino, Andrea; Frier, Malcolm

    2005-01-01

    Scintigraphic studies have been performed to assess the release, both in vitro and in vivo, of radiotracers from tablet formulations. Four different tracers with differing physicochemical characteristics have been evaluated to assess their suitability as models for drug delivery. In-vitro disintegration and dissolution studies have been performed at pH 1, 4 and 7. In-vivo studies have been performed by scintigraphic imaging in healthy volunteers. Two hydrophilic tracers, ( 99m Tc-DTPA) and ( 99m Tc-MDP), and two lipophilic tracers, ( 99m Tc-ECD) and ( 99m Tc-MIBI), were used as drug models. Dissolution and disintegration profiles, differed depending on the drug model chosen. In vitro dissolution velocity constants indicated a probable retention of the radiotracer in the formulation. In vivo disintegration velocity constants showed important variability for each radiopharmaceutical. Pearson statistical test showed no correlation between in vitro drug release, and in vivo behaviour, for 99m Tc-DTPA, 99m Tc-ECD and 99m Tc-MIBI. High correlation coefficients were found for 99m Tc-MDP not only for in vitro dissolution and disintegration studies but also for in vivo scintigraphic studies. Scintigraphic studies have made a significant contribution to the development of drug delivery systems. It is essential, however, to choose the appropriate radiotracers as models of drug behaviour. This study has demonstrated significant differences in release patterns, depending on the model chosen. It is likely that each formulation would require the development of a specific model, rather than being able to use a generic drug model on the basis of its physicochemical characteristics

  20. An ultrastructural study of cell-cell interactions in capture organs of the nematophagous fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhuis, Marten; Nordbring-Hertz, Birgit; Harder, Willem

    1985-01-01

    A detailed ultrastructural analysis was made of interactions between individual cells within the same adhesive network (trap) of the nematophagous fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora. These interactions were confined to traps which had captured nematodes, and occurred concurrently with the

  1. Seepage studies through hydraulic structures and their foundations by inactive and radio tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, Azher; Mahajan, N.M.; Kamble, M.D.

    1977-01-01

    In the last ten years extensive efforts have been made by the Central Water and Power Research Station, Pune to study seepage by means of inactive and radiotracers. Various inactive tracers like electrolytes and organic dyes and radiotracers like 82 Br and 3 H in the form of tritiated water have been used for location of source of seepage. Different techniques like borehole dilution, in situ detection at various observation points and analysis of water samples in liquid scintillation spectrometer in the laboratory have been employed to suit the field conditions. Some typical studies at river valley projects indicating the techniques are enumerated. (author)

  2. Tracer Study Lulusan Program Studi Bimbingan dan Konseling Universitas Negeri Gorontalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Rahim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini diharapkan dapat memperbaiki dan meningkatkan kualitas pengelolaan program studi Bimbingan dan Konseling Universitas Negeri Gorontalo berdasarkan informasi yang diperoleh melalui tracer study. Secara khusus, penelitian ini dilakukan untuk memperoleh informasi tentang lulusan, yang meliputi (1 rata-rata masa tunggu lulusan, (2 jenis pekerjaan yang ditekuni, dan (3 tanggapan terhadap pengguna lulusan. Permasalahan penelitian ini adalah: (1 berapa rata-rata masa tunggu lulusan?, (2 jenis pekerjaan apa yang ditekuni lulusan?, dan (3 bagaimana tanggapan pengguna terhadap lulusan?. Anggota populasi dalam penelitian ini berjumlah 408 orang, dari jumlah tersebut 58% (238 orang dijadikan sebagai anggota sampel dengan menggunakan cluster sampling. Indikator penelitian meliputi: (1 rata-rata masa tunggu lulusan, (2 jenis pekerjaan yang ditekuni lulusan, dan (3 tanggapan pengguna terhadap lulusan. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan menggunakan instrumen tracer study. Data yang terkumpul dianalisis secara kuantitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan: (1 rata-rata masa tunggu lulusan adalah 3 bulan; (2 jenis pekerjaan yang ditekuni lulusan terdiri dari 13 kategori yakni (a Guru BK (PNS sebanyak 27.31%; (b Guru BK (Non PNS sebanyak 50.00%; (c Guru PAUD sebanyak 0.84%; (d Guru TK sebanyak 5.04%; (e Guru SD sebanyak 4.20%; (f Guru SLB sebanyak 0.42%; (g Pegawai instansi pemerintah sebanyak 2.52%; (h Pegawai perusahaan sebanyak 0.84%; (i Dosen sebanyak 1.26%; (j Dosen luar biasa sebanyak 1.26%; (k Wirausaha sebanyak 3.78%; (l Anggota DPR sebanyak 0.42%; (m dan lain-lain sebanyak 2.10%; dan (3 tanggapan pengguna terhadap lulusan, yang menyangkut: (a  integritas (etika dan moral = 89.60 (sangat baik; (b keahlian berdasarkan bidang ilmu (profesionalisme = 82.92 (baik; (c bahasa Inggris = 67.89 (cukup; (d penggunaan teknologi informasi = 81.71 (baik; (e komunikasi = 84.06 (baik; (f kerjasama tim = 85.04 (sangat baik; dan (g pengembangan diri = 83.83 (baik

  3. Application of tracer gas studies in the optimal design of soil vapor extraction systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marley, M.C.; Cody, R.J.; Polonsky, J.D.; Woodward, D.D.; Buterbaugh, G.J.

    1992-01-01

    In the design of an optimal, cost effective vapor extraction system (VE) for the remediation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), it is necessary to account for heterogeneities in the vadose zone. In some cases, such as those found in relatively homogeneous sands, heterogeneities can be neglected as induced air flow through the subsurface can be considered uniform. The subsurface conditions encountered at many sites (soil/bedrock interfaces, fractured bedrock) will result in preferential subsurface-air flow pathways during the operation of the VES. The use of analytical and numerical compressible fluid flow models calibrated and verified from parameter evaluation tests can be utilized to determine vadose zone permeability tensors in heterogeneous stratifications and can be used to project optimal, full scale VES performance. Model-derived estimations of the effect of uniform and/or preferential air flow pathways on subsurface induced air flow velocities can be enhanced, confirmed utilizing tracer gas studies. A vadose zone tracer gas study entails the injection of an easily detected, preferably inert gas into differing locations within the vadose zone at distances away from the VES extraction well. The VES extraction well is monitored for the detection of the gas. This is an effective field methodology to qualify and quantify the subsurface air flow pathways. It is imperative to gain an understanding of the dynamics of the air flow in the soils and lithologies of each individual site, and design quick and effective methodologies for the characterization of the subsurface to streamline remediation costs and system operations. This paper focuses on the use of compressible fluid flow models and tracer gas studies in the enhancement of the design of vapor extraction systems

  4. Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies on Trichomonas vaginalis adhering to and phagocytizing genitourinary epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文列; 陈金富; 钟秀容; 梁平; 林炜

    2004-01-01

    Background Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis) belongs to a common sexually transmitted disease pathogen causing genitourinary trichomoniasis in both sexes. We investigated the pathogenetic mechanism of genitourinary trichomoniasis.Methods Cultured T. vaginalis bodies were injected into the vaginas of rats, or incubated with genitourinary epithelial cells of female subjects, male subjects, and sperm. The ultrastructural and microscopic changes were observed via transmission and scanning electron microscopy and through microscopic histochemistry.Results Groups of T.vaginalis adhered to PAS positive columnar cells at the surface of stratified epithelium in the middle and upper portions of the vaginas. They also traversed under these cells. The parasites were shown to be PAS, cathepsin D, and actin positive, and they could release hydrolase into the cytoplasm of adhered epithelial cells. In the amebiform T.vaginalis, microfilaments were arranged into reticular formation. Similar phenomena were found during the interaction of T.vaginalis with host cells, both in vitro and in vivo. Usually several protozoa adhered to an epithelial cell and formed polymorphic pseudopodia or surface invaginations to surround and phagocytize the microvilli or other parts of the epithelial cytoplasm. Adhesion and phagocytosis of sperm by the protozoa occurred at 15-30 minutes of incubation. Digestion of sperm was found at 45-75 minutes and was complete at 90-105 minutes.Conclusions T.vaginalis tends to parasitize at the fornix of the vagina, because this is the site where columnar cells are rich in mucinogen granules and their microvilli are helpful for adhesion and nibbling. T.vaginalis possesses some invading and attacking abilities. Shape change, canalization, encystation, phagocytosis, digestion, the cell coat, cytoskeleton, and lysosome all play important roles in the process of adhesion. They have two methods of phagocytosis: nibbling and ingestion. Genitourinary epithelium may be

  5. Study of leak detection using tracers in a bottling plant in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vizuet Gonzalez, Jorge; Reyes Jimenez, Jose Luis; Molina, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    The Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), Mexico, promoted the application of different techniques, involving the use of radioactive materials. Among them is the use of radioactive material as a medium tracer in the industry. Below is a study of locating leaks in ducts collectors of process water of a bottling plant which had several problems, one was not able to stop production, and most important, having to disassemble a large amount of machinery and equipment, in order to open the floor and locate the leak

  6. Study of the mineralization of coral implanted in vivo by radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irigaray, J.L.; Sauvage, T.; Oudadesse, H.; El Fadl, H.

    1993-01-01

    Coral may be used as a substitution biomaterial to the bone graft, due to its physico-chemical and architectural properties. The coral, after its implantation 'in vivo' reaches a mineral composition and crystalline structure comparable to those of a bone. The calcification mechanism of this implant is studied using 45 Ca as radioactive tracer. The atomic elements contained in the initial coral were analysed in function of the time spent in the body, by marking the calcium and the strontium contained in its structure. (K.A.) 8 refs.; 6 figs.; 4 tabs

  7. Simplification of complex kinetic models used for the quantitative analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance or radioactive tracer studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, R.; Schuster, S.; Holzhuetter, H.-G.

    1992-01-01

    A method for simplifying the mathematical models describing the dynamics of tracers (e.g. 13 C, 31 P, 14 C, as used in NMR studies or radioactive tracer experiments) in (bio-)chemical reaction systems is presented. This method is appropriate in the cases where the system includes reactions, the rates of which differ by several orders of magnitude. The basic idea is to adapt the rapid-equilibrium approximation to tracer systems. It is shown with the aid of the Perron-Frobenius theorem that for tracer systems, the conditions for applicability of this approximation are satisfied whenever some reactions are near equilibrium. It turns out that the specific enrichments of all of the labelled atoms that are connected by fast reversible reactions can be grouped together as 'pool variables'. The reduced system contains fewer parameters and can, thus, be fitted more easily to experimental data. Moreover, the method can be employed for identifying non-equilibrium and near-equilibrium reactions from experimentally measured specific enrichments of tracer. The reduction algorithm is illustrated by studying a model of the distribution of 13 C-tracers in the pentose phosphate pathway. (author)

  8. Using rare earth element tracers and neutron activation analysis to study rill erosion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mian; Li Zhanbin; Ding Wengfeng; Liu Puling; Yao Wenyi

    2006-01-01

    Spatially averaged soil erosion data provide little information on the process of rill erosion. The dynamically varied data on the temporal and spatial distributions in the rill erosion process are needed to better understand the erosion process and reveal its innate characteristics. The objectives of this study were to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of rare earth element (REE) tracers and the neutron activation analysis (NAA) method on the study of the rill erosion process and to reveal quantitatively the relationships and characteristics of temporal and spatial distributions of sediment yield in rill erosion. Four REEs were used to study the changeable process of rill erosion at 4 slope positions. Four water inflow rates were applied to a 0.3x5 m soil bed at 3 slopes of 10.5%, 15.8% and 21.2% in scouring experiments. All of the runoff was collected in the experiment. Each sample was air-dried and well mixed. Then 20 g of each sample was sieved through 100-mesh and about a 50 mg sample was weighed for analysis of the four elemental compositions by NAA. Results indicate that the REE tracers and NAA method can be used to not only quantitatively determine soil erosion amounts on different slope segments, but also to reveal the changeable process of rill erosion amount. All of the relative errors of the experimental results were less than 25%, which is considered satisfactory on the study of rill erosion process

  9. Using rare earth element tracers and neutron activation analysis to study rill erosion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Mian [Yellow River Institute of Hydraulic Research, Yellow River Conservancy Commission, Key Laboratory of Yellow River Sediment Research of Ministry of Water Resources, Shunhelu 45, Zhengzhou, Henan 450003 (China)]. E-mail: hnli-mian@163.com; Li Zhanbin [Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710048 (China); Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Ding Wengfeng [Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Yangtse River' s Scientific Research Institute, Wuhan, Hubei 430010 (China); Liu Puling [Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Yao Wenyi [Yellow River Institute of Hydraulic Research, Yellow River Conservancy Commission, Key Laboratory of Yellow River Sediment Research of Ministry of Water Resources, Shunhelu 45, Zhengzhou, Henan 450003 (China)

    2006-03-15

    Spatially averaged soil erosion data provide little information on the process of rill erosion. The dynamically varied data on the temporal and spatial distributions in the rill erosion process are needed to better understand the erosion process and reveal its innate characteristics. The objectives of this study were to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of rare earth element (REE) tracers and the neutron activation analysis (NAA) method on the study of the rill erosion process and to reveal quantitatively the relationships and characteristics of temporal and spatial distributions of sediment yield in rill erosion. Four REEs were used to study the changeable process of rill erosion at 4 slope positions. Four water inflow rates were applied to a 0.3x5 m soil bed at 3 slopes of 10.5%, 15.8% and 21.2% in scouring experiments. All of the runoff was collected in the experiment. Each sample was air-dried and well mixed. Then 20 g of each sample was sieved through 100-mesh and about a 50 mg sample was weighed for analysis of the four elemental compositions by NAA. Results indicate that the REE tracers and NAA method can be used to not only quantitatively determine soil erosion amounts on different slope segments, but also to reveal the changeable process of rill erosion amount. All of the relative errors of the experimental results were less than 25%, which is considered satisfactory on the study of rill erosion process.

  10. Laboratory studies into the use of the scandium-46-EDTA complex as a tracer for groundwater flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, H.; Nixon, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    Gamma ray emitting metal radionuclides, when complexed with an appropriate complexing agent, provide a wide choice of water tracers particularly for groundwater studies where a radionuclide of appropriate half-life suited to the particular study can be selected. Scandium-46 has easily detectable gamma emission and a suitable half-life (84 days) for medium term studies. It has been widely and successfully used as a tracer in studies of sediment movement but has not yet been introduced as a groundwater tracer. In our experiments the chemical aspects of the preparation of Sc-46-EDTA were studied in some detail and its behaviour in various mineralogical environments was evaluated with reference to the standard tracer, tritiated water. The experimental results have shown that the scandium cation can be easily complexed with EDTA to form soluble SC-EDTA. The complex is very stable in a wide range of pH; the adsorptive properties of Sc-EDTA in the batch studies and the retardation and recovery in the column tests in comparison with tritiated water are quite satisfactory. In general Sc-46-EDTA is a promising tracer for groundwater studies. In the report the appropriate conditions, procedures and some rational and efficient methods for testing the purity of Sc-46-EDTA in the preparation of the tracer solution of Sc-46-EDTA are described. In addition, it has been found that the formation of the metal hydroxide colloids is the major reason for the great loss in groundwater aquifers of most trivalent metal nuclide tracers in the cationic form including scandium-46. (author). 29 refs, 11 figs, 12 tabs

  11. Ultrastructural analysis of oral exfoliated epithelial cells of tobacco smokers and betel nut chewers: A scanning electron microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sameera Shamim; Shreedhar, Balasundari; Kamboj, Mala

    2016-01-01

    The study was undertaken to correlate epithelial surface pattern changes of oral exfoliated cells of tobacco smokers and betel nut chewers and also to compare them with patients of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and healthy individuals. In this cross-sectional study, a total of fifty persons were included in the study, out of which thirty formed the study group (15 each tobacco smokers and betel nut chewers) and twenty formed the control group (ten each of OSCC patients - positive control and ten normal buccal mucosa - negative control). Their oral exfoliated cells were scraped, fixed, and studied under scanning electron microscope (SEM). The statistical analysis was determined using ANOVA, Tukey honestly significant difference, Chi-square test, and statistical SPASS software, P betel nut chewers compared to normal oral mucosa have been tabulated. In normal oral mucosa, cell surface morphology depends on the state of keratinization of the tissue. Thus, it could prove helpful in detecting any carcinomatous change at its incipient stage and also give an insight into the ultra-structural details of cellular differentiations in epithelial tissues.

  12. Study of flow characteristics in a secondary clarifier by numerical simulation and radioisotope tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.S.; Shin, M.S.; Jang, D.S.; Jung, S.H.; Jin, J.H.

    2005-01-01

    Numerical simulation in a 2-D rectangular coordinate and experimental study have been performed to figure out the flow characteristics and concentration distribution of a large-scale rectangular final clarifier in wastewater treatment facility located in Busan, S. Korea. The purpose of numerical calculation is to verify the experimentally measured data by radioisotope tracer technique and further to understand the important physical feature occurring in a large-scale clarifier, in many cases which is not sufficient by the aid of limited number of experimental data. To this end, a comprehensive computer program is basically made by SIMPLE algorithm by Patankar with the special emphasis on the parametric evaluation of the various phenomenological models. Calculation results are successfully evaluated against experimental data obtained by the method of radioisotope tracer. Detailed comparison is made on the calculated residence time distribution (RTD) curves with measurement inside the clarifier as well as the exhaust. Further the calculation results predict well the well-known characteristics of clarifier flow such as the waterfall phenomenon at the front end of the clarifier, the bottom density current in the settling zone and the upward flow in the withdrawal zone. Thus it is believed that the flow calculation program and the data incorporation technique of radioisotope measurement employed in this study show the high possibility as a complementary tool of experiment in this area

  13. Multi-Tracer Approach for Shelf Water Mixing Studies in Brazilian Regions under Different Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, L. D.; Marins, R. V.; Dias, F. J.S. [Instituto de Ciencias do Mar, Universidate Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Godoy, M. L.D.P. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Godoy, J. M.; Souza, T. A. [Departamento de Quimica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rezende, C. E. [Centro de Biociencias e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    Fresh water and sediment supply at estuary and plume regions has dramatically changed due to land use changes, mostly damming, in river basins. The resulting impact, however, may vary significantly depending on climate and hydrology. The seasonal differences in shelf, plume, estuarine and river waters of two watersheds located under contrasting climates in the Brazilian coast are reported using a multi-tracer approach (salinity, barium, silica, uranium, deuterium and {sup 18}O) to characterize the mixing processes. At the Paraiba do Sul River, SE Brazil, in a wet tropical coast, all results showed similarity between dry and wet seasons; at the Jaguaribe river under semi arid climate in NE Brazil, the results showed a moving freshwater plume depending on season, with freshwater at the estuary in the rainy season and shelf water intrusion upstream in the estuary in the dry season. Most tracers used were able to consistently characterize water masses even in the wide range of latitudes studied, confirming their importance as a tool for modelling mixing processes at the continent-ocean boundary. Barium, however, still needs better studies on its seashore chemistry, since in the semi arid site, Ba distribution could not be directly related to conservative mixing behaviour, at least during the rainy season. (author)

  14. Recent progress of {sup 10}Be tracer studies in Chinese loess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Weijian, E-mail: weijian@loess.llqg.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710061 (China); Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry and Application, Xi’an AMS Center, Xi' an 710061 (China); Joint Center for Global Change Studies, Beijing 100875 (China); Xie, Xingjun [State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710061 (China); Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry and Application, Xi’an AMS Center, Xi' an 710061 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Beck, Warren [NSF-Arizona AMS Facility, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Kong, Xianghui; Xian, Feng; Du, Yajuan; Wu, Zhenkun [State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710061 (China); Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry and Application, Xi’an AMS Center, Xi' an 710061 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Studies of cosmogenic {sup 10}Be in Chinese loess began about twenty-five years ago and since then a number of research groups worldwide have contributed to a firm understanding of the production, transport, deposition and storage of {sup 10}Be in loess. The essential characteristics that make {sup 10}Be a useful isotopic tracer in loess, include: (1) dominant atmospheric production directly linked to the intensity of the Earth’s magnetic field; (2) climate-dependent deposition; and (3) subsequent immobility, so that as {sup 10}Be accumulates in a loess profile its stratigraphic integrity is preserved. This fact, combined with very high deposition rates in loess on the Chinese Loess Plateau, makes {sup 10}Be an especially valuable continental archive of paleoclimate and paleomagnetism, complementing marine and ice-core records. Here we provide in particular the most recent progress of {sup 10}Be tracer studies in Chinese loess, including the determination of the correct age of the Brunhes–Matuyama polarity reversal at 780 ± 3 ka B.P., in accord with marine and ice records, and quantitative reconstruction of 130-ka paleoprecipitation using {sup 10}Be from Chinese loess profiles.

  15. Natural radon as a limnological tracer for the study of vertical and horizontal eddy diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imboden, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    Radon-222 (half-life 3.8 d) has been used successfully as a geochemical tracer for vertical near bottom mixing in the ocean. The parent nuclide radium-226 (half-life 1600 a) occurs in far greater quantities in sediments than in the water column, thus providing a boundary source for emanation of radon. Vertical mixing in lakes may be of central importance for the evolution of chemical and biological processes. Most lakes pass through a stagnation period during which the euphotic zone continuously loses nutrients by sedimentation of plankton through the thermocline. The return flux of nutrients from the sediments through the hypolimnion and thermocline to the euphotic layer can only be understood and quantified if vertical mixing processes are known. The traditional means by which vertical eddy diffusion is calculated is the temperature method. However, temperature changes near the bottom of deep lakes are often too small to be measured. Among various (natural or man-made) geochemical tracers radon-222 seems to be especially suitable for the study of vertical mixing since its 'memory' of about one week very often allows measured activities to be interpreted in terms of a relatively simple steady-state model

  16. On interpreting studies of tracer transport by deep cumulus convection and its effects on atmospheric chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Lawrence

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Global chemistry-transport models (CTMs and chemistry-GCMs (CGCMs generally simulate vertical tracer transport by deep convection separately from the advective transport by the mean winds, even though a component of the mean transport, for instance in the Hadley and Walker cells, occurs in deep convective updrafts. This split treatment of vertical transport has various implications for CTM simulations. In particular, it has led to a misinterpretation of several sensitivity simulations in previous studies in which the parameterized convective transport of one or more tracers is neglected. We describe this issue in terms of simulated fluxes and fractions of these fluxes representing various physical and non-physical processes. We then show that there is a significant overlap between the convective and large-scale mean advective vertical air mass fluxes in the CTM MATCH, and discuss the implications which this has for interpreting previous and future sensitivity simulations, as well as briefly noting other related implications such as numerical diffusion.

  17. Magnitude of the Suess Effect in North Atlantic - a Study of Foraminifera and Transient Tracer Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Oppo, D.; Gebbie, G.; Thornalley, D. J.

    2016-02-01

    The Suess Effect is the decrease of δ 13C in the atmosphere due to the burning of fossil fuels. The recent decrease in δ 13C in the deep sea due to uptake of carbon has been measured in samples taken on hydrographic surveys, although these surveys only provide snapshots of deep sea δ 13C. The long-term decrease in δ 13C has been estimated using modern hydrographic properties, but there are no direct measurements. Here we present records of δ 13C from benthic and planktonic foraminifera, collected south of Iceland in the North Atlantic Ocean. The cores have high accumulation rates and, based on radiocarbon, modern core tops. We find a monotonic decreasing trend since 1850 that is significant in two out of the three benthic records we have generated. A tracer simulation, with Transit Time Distribution and Equilibrium Time Distribution generated from previous tracer modeling studies, predicts a trend that is similar to our observations at the core sites. The presence of the Suess Effect in some of the cores is consistent with previous estimates on the uptake of anthropogenic CO{}2 in the newly formed North Atlantic Deep Water.

  18. Incomplete gastric metaplasia in children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and celiac disease. An ultrastructural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinelli Leonardo

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM and celiac disease (CD has been widely reported in children but the relationship between the two conditions is incompletely understood. Moreover, specific studies on intestinal biopsies of patients with the association of the two diseases are still lacking. Methods We studied the ultrastructure of the duodenal mucosa in 12 patients with both IDDM and CD. Results All patients had either total or partial atrophy of duodenal mucosa. In seven subjects, an accumulation of electrondense granules in the apical cytoplasm of groups of enterocytes was found. In four of them, a double population of granules existed (mean diameter: 400-800 nm and 100-200 nm respectively showing a biphasic pattern. In the other three patients, only smaller granules (100- 200 nm were found in the enterocytes. Conclusions The present work suggests that patients with IDDM/CD may represent a subgroup in the context of the CD population. Intestinal biopsies of such individuals often show accumulation of electrondense granules in the apical cytoplasm of enterocytes that can be interpreted as incomplete gastric metaplasia.

  19. A functional thyrotropin- and growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma with a ultrastructurally monomorphic feature: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Y; Kameya, T; Kasuga, A; Naritaka, H; Kanda, N; Maruyama, H; Saruta, T

    1998-04-01

    A 38-yr-old female with a TSH- and GH-secreting pituitary adenoma is described, who had both overt symptoms, hyperthyroidism and acromegaly. Her serum TSH was not suppressed despite high concentrations of free T3 and free T4, and her alpha-subunit/TSH molar ratio was high. Her serum GH was consistently high, and was not suppressed by an oral glucose tolerance test. Preoperative testing revealed that, although the TSH response was impaired, TSH, alpha-subunit and GH were increased by TRH injection, and that these hormones were reduced by bromocriptine or somatostatin analog. Although she did not have hyperprolactinemia, the in vitro culture and immunohistochemical studies revealed that the adenoma cells produced and released PRL, in addition to TSH, alpha-subunit and GH. Immunohistochemical studies showed the presence of GH in the cytoplasm of many adenoma cells. TSH beta-positive adenoma cells were less frequently seen than GH-positive adenoma cells. No cells showed the coexistence of GH and TSH beta, and a few cells were positive for PRL. By electron microscopy, the adenoma was found to be composed of a single cell type resembling thyrotrophs, and did not have any characteristics of somatotrophs. This case was considered to be of interest, because the adenoma was ultrastructurally monomorphous, but immunohistochemically polymorphous.

  20. Atmospheric tracer study of the emissions from the University of Michigan Cyclotron/PET Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scofield, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The University of Michigan (U of M) Cyclotron/Positron Emission Tomography (PET) facility consists of a cyclotron (Model CS-30, The Cyclotron Corporation), radiochemistry laboratory, and Pet scanner. Accelerator-produced radioactive materials, such as, carbon-11 and oxygen-15 are typically emitted from the Cyclotron/PET facility through short stacks located on the roof. This project studied the dispersion of emissions from the facility within the medical complex. To achieve this purpose, the research project had three phases: a physical modeling study; a preliminary field smoke release study; and, a field study using a tracer gas to simulate emission dispersion from the U of M Cyclotron/PET facility vault stack. The objective was to determine normalized concentrations, under selected wind directions and speeds, for use in establishing radionuclide concentrations at the air intakes of the Cyclotron/PET facility and surrounding buildings and at selected ground-level locations

  1. Ultrastructural characterization of mesenchymal stromal cells labeled with ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles for clinical tracking studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Louise; Hansen, Alastair B; Mathiasen, Anders B

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: To evaluate survival and engraftment of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in vivo, it is necessary to track implanted cells non-invasively with a method, which does not influence cellular ultrastructure and functional characteristics. Iron-oxide particles have been applied for cell...... sequence of trans-activator of transcription (TAT) (IODEX-TAT) and evaluate the effect of labeling on ultrastructure, viability, phenotype and proliferative capacity of the cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MSCs were labeled with 5 and 10 μg IODEX-TAT/10(5) cells for 2, 6 and 21 hours. IODEX-TAT uptake...... and cellular ultrastructure were determined by electron microscopy. Cell viability was determined by propidium iodide staining and cell proliferation capacity by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. Maintenance of stem cell surface markers was determined by flow cytometry. Results. IODEX-TAT labeling...

  2. Tracer sorption and macroscopic transport in clay nano-pores: a lattice-Boltzmann study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levesque, Maximilien; Rotenberg, Benjamin; Duvail, Magali; Benichou, Olivier; Voituriez, Raphael; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Frenkel, Daan

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The Agence Nationale pour la gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA) has been entrusted to find a safe solution for disposing of existing and future nuclear wastes. A prototype site has been considered for the waste disposal in a deep underground sedimentary geological formation. It is composed of clay minerals chosen, among other reasons, for their remarkable ability to limit radionuclide transport. Clay minerals are complex charged porous media characterized by heterogeneities at several length scales. They naturally occur as an assembly of few nano-meter-sized particles connected to form 10 to 100 nm interparticle pores containing water and ions. This intrinsically multi-scale structure, that gives the material its remarkable properties, makes the description of sorption and transport phenomena of transported ions particularly challenging. Experimental studies of water and ion transport through clays mostly consist in evaluating macroscopic effective transport coefficients like permeability or conductivity. They showed that the main transport mechanism is an effective diffusion that not only depends on particle charge but also on its chemical nature, or specificity. The goal of assessing the performance of clays as confinement barriers, particularly in the context of the geological disposal of nuclear waste, requires not only quantitative prediction of the retention and transport of species but also an understanding of the microscopic mechanisms underlying them. A successful approach has been to use numerical simulations via the Lattice-Boltzmann method (LB). It consists in making evolve populations describing the fluid at a level which is consistent with time and length-scales involved in transport properties, while still including a microscopic description of the phenomena. The transport of charged ions at the pore scale has recently been included in LB. In this method, the evolution of a tracer population is

  3. Potential Alleviation of Chlorella vulgaris and Zingiber officinale on Lead-Induced Testicular Toxicity: an Ultrastructural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Hesham Noaman

    2015-01-01

    Natural, products were studied to combat reproductive alterations of lead. The current work aimed to disclose the efficacy of Chlorella vulgaris and Zingiber officinale to alleviate lead acetate induced toxicity. Sixty adult male Wistar rats were distributed into four groups. Group 1 was considered control, group 2 received 200 mg/l PbAc water, group 3 received 50 mg/kg/rat of C. vulgaris extract and 200 mg/l PbAc water, and group 4 received 100 mg/kg/rat of Z. officinale and 200 mg/l PbAc water for 90 days. Testis samples were subjected to ultrastructural examination. It was observed that PbAc caused degenerative alterations in the spermatogenic series in many tubules, with a loss of germ cells and vacuoles inside the cytoplasm and between the germ cells. Mitochondria exhibited ballooning, with lost cristae and widening of the interstitial tissue, while nuclear envelopes of primary spermatocytes were broken up, and axonemes of the mid-pieces of the sperms were distorted. With the treatment with C. vulgaris or Z. officinale, there were noticeable improvements in these modifications. It was concluded that both C. vulgaris and Z. officinale represent convincing medicinal components that may be used to ameliorate testicular toxicity in those exposed to lead in daily life with superior potentials revealed by C. vulgaris due to its chelating action.

  4. An ultrastructural and immunocytochemical study of a rare genetic sperm tail defect that causes infertility in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Baccio; Bruni, Emanuele; Gambera, Laura; Moretti, Elena; Piomboni, Paola

    2004-08-01

    To characterize and describe the ontogenesis of a rare flagellar defect affecting the whole sperm population of a sterile man. Case report. Regional referral center for male infertility in Siena, Italy. A 28-year-old man with severe asthenozoospermia. Physical and hormonal assays, semen analysis, and testicular biopsy. Semen samples and testicular biopsies were analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy; immunocytochemical study with anti-beta-tubulin and anti-AKAP 82 antibodies was performed to detect the presence and distribution of proteins. Ultrastructural analysis of ejaculated spermatozoa and testicular biopsy revealed absence of the fibrous sheath in the principal-piece region of the tail. Fibrous sheath-like structures were observed in cytoplasmic residues and residual bodies released by spermatids in the seminiferous epithelium. Other anomalies observed were supplementary axonemes and mitochondrial helix elongation. These features were confirmed by immunocytochemical staining. This rare sperm tail defect, characterized by absence of the fibrous sheath, presence of supplementary axonemes, and an abnormally elongated midpiece, originates in the seminiferous tubules during spermiogenesis, as detected in testicular biopsy sections. These defects occur in the whole sperm population, and therefore a genetic origin could be suggested.

  5. Lead arthritis and lead poisoning following bullet wounds: a clinicopathologic, ultrastructural, and microanalytic study of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, R E; Swedo, J; Cartwright, J; Viegas, S; Custer, E M

    1988-02-01

    Bullet wounds causing lead synovitis in the wrist and knee are reported in two patients, one of whom also developed clinical plumbism. Very high lead levels in the synovial fluid are believed to be responsible for toxicity changes that occurred in the synovium and bone. Ultrastructurally, these alterations included the formation of nuclear lead inclusions, dilation, and degranulation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and deposition of crystalline precipitates in the matrix of the mitochondria in macrophages, osteoclasts, and synoviocytes, as well as the development of cytoplasmic lead inclusions in osteoclasts. Energy-dispersive x-ray elemental analysis (EDXEA) indicated that the nuclear inclusions contained only lead, whereas precipitates within the mitochondria and elsewhere in the cytoplasm were composed of complexes containing lead, calcium, and phosphorus. Similarly constituted extracellular complexes were incorporated into newly formed trabecular bone laid down as a physiologic response to the bullet lodged within the wrist bones. This bone subsequently exhibited defects in bone resorption, which were characterized by depressed osteoclastic function and a unique lesion termed incomplete osteocytic osteolysis. The genesis of this latter lesion is uncertain. The sequestration of the partially degraded bone fragments containing lead complexes into the marrow and eventually into the joint spaces and synovium permitted the recycling of bone lead, and this may have played an important role in inducing clinical plumbism in one of the patients in this study.

  6. The use of tracer techniques in pesticide balance and metabolism studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuehr, F.

    1977-01-01

    The radioisotope tracing technique has been a useful tool in obtaining extensive information on the fate of pesticides in the soil-plant systems, including their uptake, transport and metabolism by plants; their photochemical, chemical and microbial degradation; their adsorption, desorption and translocation in soil; and their bioavailability to untreated crops. A pesticide balance study under practical field conditions using radio labelling can examine a number of factors affecting the fate of a compound at the same time and assess the magnitude of the major processes involved. On the basis of these results, more detailed studies are then formulated to be conducted under an exactly defined environment of a growth chamber or a laboratory. The use of tracer techniques in such studies is reported. (author)

  7. Study of sensitivity and application of some tracers of use in hydrologic works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, M.C.

    1980-05-01

    Inside the Industrial Applications Management, particularly in the Hydrology department, in the ININ outlined diverse problems are had in the study of underground waters and surface waters that either in a particular way, or in inter institutional collaboration (SARH, CFE, UNAM) it seen the necessity to solve this problem in the interconnection aspects in aquifer, expenses and contamination. One of the medullary parts that are had in this study is the applied evaluation of the tracer one that it presents two general aspects: a) determination method and b) Applicability depending on the land type that one has in the current to be applied. This study seeks according to: the sensibility reached with each one, and the evaluation of some other parameters like used time, cost and mainly realization feasibility at field level, to present some alternative for the use of them. (Author)

  8. The ultrastructural changes in the liver cells induced by high doses of Benzodiazepine Tranquilizing drugs: An experimental transmission electron microscopic study on male guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisher, Ameen S. Ahmad

    2008-01-01

    Benzodiazepines are tranquilizing psychotropic drugs. Unfortunately, despite their therapeutic benefits, they are illegally consumed in high doses by some addicts to reach a sedative, exhilarative and euphoria state similar to that produced by narcotic substances. The present study, using transmission electron microscope on male guinea pigs, aims to investigate the potential ultrastructural changes in the liver cells induced by the high doses of Benzodiazepines. Animals in three treated groups administrated a daily combined dose consisted of (10mg Alprazolam with 10mg Diazepam/day/animal) for three different treatment periods: 7, 15, and 25 days. The ultrastructural examination of the hepatocytes of the animals treated for 15 days showed limited changes in the form of marginal heterochromatine accompanied with marginal nucleoli enlargement. On the other hand, severe ultrastructural damages are observed in the animals treated for 25 days, which appeared in the following various patterns: fatty degeneration of the hepatocytes as indicated by the accumulation of large number of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm, marked nuclear atrophy in some necrotic hepatocytes, massive nuclear degeneration in other hepatocytes, mitochondrial damages in the form of cristea destruction accompanied with abnormal oval shape, massive lysis of the cytoplasmic organelles with severe plasma membrane rupture. In conclusion, the observed ultrastructural damages in the present study may refer to the potential hepatotoxic effects of the high dose of Benzodiazepins. It is recommended that much more official restrictions should be applied on the pharmacies sector to prevent any illegal selling of these drugs in order to prevent abusers from obtaining them, as unfortunately in some developing countries the illegal selling of these drugs is known to occur due to the absence of official control. (author)

  9. Isotopic marking and tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, F.

    1997-01-01

    The use of radioactive isotopes as tracers in biology has been developed thanks to the economic generation of the required isotopes in accelerators and nuclear reactors, and to the multiple applications of tracers in the life domain; the most usual isotopes employed in biology are carbon, hydrogen, phosphorus and sulfur isotopes, because these elements are present in most of organic molecules. Most of the life science knowledge appears to be dependent to the extensive use of nuclear tools and radioactive tracers; the example of the utilization of radioactive phosphorus marked ATP to study the multiple reactions with proteins, nucleic acids, etc., is given

  10. A Preliminary Study on the Measurement of Sediment Concentration in Hill-Slope Runoff with an Electrolyte Tracer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonan Shi Fan Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sediment concentration in hill-slope runoff is an important index for soil erosion. Developing a reliable and portable measuring system of sediment concentration is a core issue for soil and water conservation study, especially for the Tibetan Plateau under unfavorable climate and terrain conditions for field investigation. Challenges include uneven distribution of sediment across a runoff section as well as difficulty in detecting a wide range of particle sizes. An electrolyte tracer, with the advantage of uniform distribution and its widely used electric-conductivity sensor, can avoid the problems of direct measurement of sediment. A new measurement method of sediment concentration in runoff with an electrolyte tracer is proposed based on a premise that sediment concentration is closely correlated with hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient of solute in runoff. In this study, an experiment system of hill-slope runoff with an electrolyte tracer and sediments is first designed. Second, two model parameters in the advective-dispersive equation of solute transport, flow velocity and diffusion coefficient, are inversely estimated by calibrating the observed concentrations of an electrolyte tracer. And third, the relationship between sediment concentrations and hydrodynamic dispersion coefficients are defined through specified regression. As a result, a measurement system of sediment concentration in hill-slope runoff with an electrolyte tracer is primarily established by integrating the relationship of variables, experiment system, and model theory.

  11. Hydrodynamics of a commercial scale CFB boiler-study with radioactive tracer particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Weigang; Hansen, Peter F.B.; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental results with radioactive tracer particles in an 80 MWth circulating fluidized-bed boiler. Batches of gamma-ray emitting tracer particles were injected into the standpipe. The response curves of the impulse injection were measured by a set of successive scintil...

  12. Isotopic and geochemical tracers for fingerprinting process-affected waters in the oil sands industry: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, J.J.; Birks, S.J.; Moncur, M.; Yi, Y.; Tattrie, K.; Jasechko, S.; Richardson, K.; Eby, P. [Alberta Innovates - Technology Futures (Canada)

    2011-04-15

    During 2009 and 2010, Alberta Innovates - Technology Futures carried out a pilot study for Alberta Environment to examine the possibility of labeling process affected water from oil sands operations with isotropic and geochemical tracers. For the study, 3 oil sands operators furnished logistical support and personnel, 39 samples were gathered and several isotope tracers were measured. In addition, geotechnical analyses were performed and the presence of organic compounds in the samples was scanned using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Results showed that the selected tracers were able to label water sources in some locations, however they cannot be used as a universal method and a case by case approach needs to be adopted. This study pointed out that Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry is the best way to construct a dataset for use in identification of process affected waters.

  13. Interconnection Studies of Subsurface River Between Bribin and Ngreneng by Using Radioisotope Tracer Iodium-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wibagiyo

    2004-01-01

    Interconnection Studies of Subsurface River Between Bribin and Ngreneng by Using Radioisotope Tracer Iodium-131, carried out in 2002, the similar studies was also conducted in 2000 from subsurface river in Jurang Jero sinkhole, where the radioactivity appeared at Bribin cave 4 hours and 8 hours at Ngreneng cave. There is a question whether a subsurface river is flowing from Jurang Jero sinkhole to Bribin cave and then to Ngreneng cave, or from Jurang Jero sinkhole there is junction to Bribin and to Ngreneng. in 2002 a Germany team founded junction on up stream of river in Bribin cave, from the junction was carried out tracing which monitoring in Ngreneng cave. Where the result a junction connecting with Ngreneng cave, but the main stream in Bribin not connecting with Ngreneng. (author)

  14. Studies of deep water formation and circulation in the Weddell Sea using natural and anthropogenic tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, Peter; Bayer, Reinhold

    1991-01-01

    The application of natural and anthropogenic trace substances in oceanographic studies of the Weddell Sea is reviewed. The potential of some steady-state and transient tracers (tritium, CFC-11 and CFC-12, 18 O, and helium isotopes) for studies of deep water formation and circulation is discussed on the basis of data sets collected mainly on cruises of R/V 'Polastern' to the Weddell Sea during the 1980s. CFC/ tritium ratio dating of young water masses is applied to estimate mean age and transit times of water involved in Weddell Sea Bottom Water formation. The history of the CFC-11/tritium ratio through time is derived for Weddell Sea shelf waters. (author). 36 refs.; 18 figs

  15. Use of 65 Zn as radioactive tracer in the bioaccumulation study of zinc by aquatic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malagrino, W.

    1992-01-01

    The present work has as main objective to emphasize the importance of using radioactive tracers as well as to establish a methodology for the utilization of 65 Zn in the bioaccumulation study of zinc by Poecilia reticulata. The exposure time varied from 5 days (short term experiments) to 30 days (long term experiments). The bioaccumulation of zinc from the water as well as the elimination of the metal previously absorbed were determined by measuring the activity of 65 Zn which was added to the water in the beginning of the experiments. The technique chosen is suitable to study the behaviour of the stable zinc since the radionuclide used is an isotope of the same element and therefore presents the same chemical properties. (author)

  16. Using isoelectric focussing and neutron activation analysis to study protein-bound tracer elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmelzer, W.

    1976-01-01

    A method to determine protein-bound tracer elements was determined by combining a protein separation method with neutron activation analysis. Gel filtration, disk electrophoresis, and isoelectric focussing were studied with regard to their suitability as separation methods. Using isoelectric focussing, human serum protein could be separated with good resolution on a preparative scale. The Se, Cr, Ag, Sc, Fe, Zn, Co, Br, Na, Rb, and Cs contents of the various protein fractions were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis and by gamma-spectroscopic identification of their long-lived nuclides. Particular attention was paid to the main source of error with this method, i.e. contamination of the proteins in the course of the separation process. Information on the binding of the elements to protein was obtained by comparing the contents in the serum and in the protein separated by gel chromatography. For example, 75% of the Se and 30% of the Cs are bound to protein. Contamination of the protein fractions was studied by means of tracer elements with the element Se, errors due to contamination could be ruled out. The method was modified for the special imvestigation of Se-protein complexes in the serum. The Se content was determined by activation analysis via the short-lived radionuclide sup(77m)Se, this considerably reducing the duration of analysis. With regard to focussing, discrimination was improved in the pH region in which specific Se complexes were found. The activity distribution in fractionated serum protein labelled in vitro with 75 Se in the presence of erythrocytes showed that specific labelling is possible in this way. It is thus possible to study the distribution of Se carrier proteins with the aid of a radiotracer technique. (orig./RB) [de

  17. Study of the migration of metallic micropollutants in the soils by means of radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquemet, P.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the migration of metallic micropollutants using radioactive tracers. Three experimental techniques were employed to show the interaction phenomena linked to these migrations. First, a simple batch characterization allows the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the sorption-desorption of the micropollutants on the soils. Next, an elution technique applied to soil columns was introduced to study the behavior of the pollutants in hydrodynamic conditions. Finally, a series of lysimetric pots were prepared to extend the experiment to systems which mimic a natural environment. The tests were conducted in a hot laboratory with five agricultural soils and seven pollutants ( 57 Co, 134 Cs, 123m Te, 109 Cd, 144 Ce, 85 Sr and 110m Ag). The batch measurements (kinetics, K d sorption ratio at equilibrium and isothermal measurements according to the Langmuir or Freundlich models) allowed for a better understanding of the sorption-desorption mechanisms of the micropollutants. Their migration on continuously percolated columns (breakthrough curves and determination of the radioactive profiles in the soils) was evaluated and expounded together with the results obtained from the batch characterization. The profiles of the radioactive tracers in the soils of the lysimeters (with or without vegetation) were also determined. All these observations were used to characterize the migration properties of the micropollutants in the investigated soils. A simple simulation model of the migration of interactive solutes in porous media based on dispersion and convection was also applied to the experimental data. The calculated profiles showed fairly good agreement with the experimental ones, especially in the case of unplanted systems. Several parametric adjustments were, however, necessary. It was shown, finally, that simulations, as perfect as they could be, can seldom replace the experimental studies of the behaviour of micropollutants in the

  18. Experimental study of ventilation efficiency with a gaseous tracer (He and SF6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel, Claude

    1982-01-01

    When it is desired to test the efficiency of a ventilation system in a nuclear installation in normal working conditions or in an accidental situation, it is possible to avoid having recourse to the direct use of contaminating, toxic or explosive substances, by carrying out a simulation by atmospheric tracing. The study of the scattering shows that the dispersion of substances in the atmosphere that is met in a nuclear plant is practically independent of the nature of the substance emitted, whether it be an aerosol, a gas of ''heavy'' molecular mass or low molecular mass. To show the scattering phenomena a tracer can be employed that is not dangerous in use, is easy to use and for which there is a simple and transportable instrumentation [fr

  19. The first data on the vitellogenesis of paruterinid tapeworms: an ultrastructural study of Dictyterina cholodkowskii (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yoneva, Aneta; Kuchta, Roman; Mariaux, J.; Georgiev, B. B.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 1 (2017), s. 327-334 ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ultrastructure * vitellocytes * vitelline vesicles * Cestode * Cyclophyllidean * Dictyterina cholodkowskii Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 2.329, year: 2016

  20. Comparative studies on intestine ultrastructure of third-stage larvae and adults of Cystidicoloides ephemeridarum (Nematoda, Cystidicolidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frantová, Denisa; Moravec, František

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 5 (2004), s. 377-383 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB6022305 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Nematoda * Cystidicolidae * ultrastructure Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.060, year: 2004

  1. Ultrastructural analysis of oral exfoliated epithelial cells of tobacco smokers and betel nut chewers: A scanning electron microscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameera Shamim Khan

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: In normal oral mucosa, cell surface morphology depends on the state of keratinization of the tissue. Thus, it could prove helpful in detecting any carcinomatous change at its incipient stage and also give an insight into the ultra-structural details of cellular differentiations in epithelial tissues.

  2. Application of isotope tracer technique on the study of the filling and release behavior of carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shengwei; Guo Jinxue; Li Yan; Li Yulan; Li Wenxin; Liu Shiyuan

    2004-01-01

    The behaviors of washing and release of 110 Ag m -AgNO 3 from carbon nanotubes (CNTs), following soak of opened CNTs in 110 Ag m -AgNO 3 solutions are investigated with the isotope tracer technique. The filled CNTs samples are characterized by HREM, SEM, XRD and EDS. The amount of filled materials is also estimated by the isotope tracer technique. It shows that there are silver materials filled in the CNTs and would not release from the cavities. The results indicate that radioactive tracer is an effective and powerful technique to be applied into study of filling and release behaviors of CNTs as well as estimating the amount of filled materials. (authors)

  3. Cosmetic micromanipulation of vitrified-warmed cleavage stage embryos does not improve ART outcomes: An ultrastructural study of fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Somayyeh; Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Barekati, Zeinab; Halvaei, Iman; Anvari, Morteza; Nottola, Stefania A

    2017-09-01

    The aim was to study the ultrastructure of cytoplasmic fragments along with the effect of cosmetic micromanipulation (CM) on the morphology and development of vitrified-warmed embryos as well as assisted reproductive technology (ART) outcomes. A total of 96 frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles were included in this prospective randomized study. They were divided into three groups of CM (n=32), sham (n=32) and control (n=32). In the CM group, the vitrified- warmed embryos were subjected to fragments and coarse granules removal (cosmetic micromanipulation) after laser assisted zona hatching (LAH); sham group subjected only to LAH and no intervention was taken for the control group. Fragmented embryo was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Significant improvement was observed in the morphological parameters, such as fragmentation degrees, evenness of the blastomeres and embryo grade during the subsequent development, after applying cosmetic micromanipulation, when compared to sham or control groups (P=0.00001). However, there were no differences in the clinical outcomes amongst the three studied groups e.g. the rates of clinical, ongoing and multiple pregnancies, implantation, delivery and live birth. In fine structure view, fragments exhibited uniform cytoplasmic texture containing majority of organelles that were observed in normal blastomeres including mitochondria. In conclusion, application of cosmetic micromanipulation in low-grade vitrified-warmed embryos showed significant improvement on embryo morphology parameters; however, did not result in noticeable improvements in clinical outcomes of the patients undergoing ART program. In addition, embryo vitrification had no adverse effects on fine structure of the fragments. Copyright © 2017 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  4. Multiple stable isotope tracer technique for studying the metabolic kinetics of amino acids in hepatic failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zongqin, Xia; Tengchang, Dai; Jianhua, Zhang; Yaer, Hu; Bingyao, Yu; Xingrong, Xu; Guanlu, Huang; Gengrong, Shen; Yaqiu, Zhou; Hong, Yu

    1987-08-01

    In order to study the mechanism of the imbalance of amino acid metabolism during hepatic failure, a stable isotope tracer method for observing simultaneously the metabolic kinetics of several amino acids has been established. /sup 15/N-L-Ala, (2,3-D/sub 3/)-Leu and (2,3-D/sub 3/)-Phe were chosen as nonessential, branched chain and aromatic amino acids. A single iv injection of 40 mg N-Ala, 20 mg deuterated Leu and 20 mg deuterated Phe was given to each human subject. Blood samples were taken just before and at different times (up to 60 min) after the injection. Total free amino acids were isolated from the plasma with a small dowex 50 x 8 column and converted to trifluoroacetyl derivatives. Their abundances were then analyzed with a GC-MS system and typical double exponential time course curves were found for all the three labelled amino acids. A two-pool model was designed and applied for compartmental analysis. Significant changes were found in the kinetic parameters of Phe and Leu in patients with fulminant hepatitis or heptic cirrhosis. The half-lives of both Phe pools were longer and the pool sizes were larger than normal subjects, while the half-lives and pool sizes of Leu changes in the opposite direction. No marked change was found in Ala. The significance of intracellular imbalance of Phe and Leu metabolism was discussed. It is evident that the combination of GCMS technique and multiple-tracers labelled with stable isotopes is of great potential for similar purposes.

  5. Tritium as tracer of groundwater pollution extension: case study of Andralanitra landfill site, Antananarivo-Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaroson, Voahirana; Rakotomalala, Christian Ulrich; Rajaobelison, Joel; Fareze, Lahimamy Paul; Razafitsalama, Falintsoa A.; Rasolofonirina, Mamiseheno

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to understand the extension of groundwater pollution downstream of a landfill, Andralanitra-Antananarivo-Madagascar. Twenty-one samples, composed of dug well waters, spring waters, river, and lake, were measured in stable isotopes ( δ 2H, δ 18O) and tritium. Results showed that only two dug well waters, collected at the immediate vicinity of the landfill, have high tritium activities (22.82 TU and 10.43 TU), probably of artificial origin. Both upstream and further downstream of the landfill, tritium activities represent natural source, with values varying from 0.17 TU to 1.46 TU upstream and from 0.88 TU to 1.88 TU further downstream. Stable isotope data suggest that recharge occurs through infiltration of slightly evaporated rainfall. Using the radioactive decay equation, the calculated tracer ages related to two recent ground water samples collected down gradient of the landfill lay between [8-15] years and [4-7] years, taking into account the uncertainty of tritium measurements. For the calculation, a value of 2.36 TU was taken as A o. The latter was estimated based on similarity between stable isotope compositions of nearby spring and dug well waters as well as tritium activities of the local precipitation. Calculation of the tritium activities from the contaminated water point having 22.82 TU to further downstream using the calculated tracer ages showed values of one order of magnitude higher than the measured values. The absence of hydrological connection from the contaminated water point to further downstream the landfill would explain the lower tritium activities measured. Groundwater pollution seems to be limited to the closest proximity of the landfill.

  6. Predictive value of tracer studies for 131I treatment in hyperthyroid cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broome, M.R.; Turrel, J.M.; Hays, M.T.

    1988-01-01

    In 76 cats with hyperthyroidism, peak thyroidal radioiodine ( 131 I) uptakes and effective half-lives were determined after administration of tracer and therapeutic activities of 131 I. In 6 additional hyperthyroid cats, only peak thyroidal uptakes after administration of tracer and therapeutic activities of 131 I were determined. Good correlation was found between peak thyroidal uptakes of tracer and therapeutic 131 I; however, only fair correlation was observed between effective half-lives. In 79% of the cats, the effective half-life for therapeutic 131 I was longer than that for tracer 131 I. After administration of therapeutic activity of 131 I, monoexponential and biphasic decay curves were observed in 51 and 16 cats, respectively. Using therapeutic kinetic data, radiation doses to the thyroid gland were calculated retrospectively on the basis of 2 methods for determining the activity of 131 I administered: (1) actual administration of tracer-compensated activity and (2) hypothetic administration of uniform activity (3 mCi). Because of the good predictive ability of tracer kinetic data for the therapeutic kinetic data, the tracer-compensated radiation doses came significantly (P = 0.008) closer to the therapeutic goal than did the uniform-activity doses. In addition, the use of tracer kinetic information reduced the extent of the tendency for consistently high uniform-activity doses. A manual method for acquiring tracer kinetic data was developed and was an acceptable alternative to computerized techniques. Adoption of this method gives individuals and institutions with limited finances the opportunity to characterize the iodine kinetics in cats before proceeding with administration of therapeutic activities of 131 I

  7. Study of movement of fly ash by radioactive tracer studies at Ennore Thermal Power Station (Tamil Nadu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, L K; Dange, A P

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the movement of fly ash from the Thermal Power Station at Ennore dumped in the ocean. The purpose of the study was to ensure that the ash dumped in the sea does not find its way to intake of the power station through the mouth of the river situated at a distance of 2 kms north. In such situations the use of radioactive tracer studies is found to be very effective and these studies indicated the necessity of dumping the fly ash beyond 6 m depth in the sea.

  8. Study of movement of fly ash by radioactive tracer studies at Ennore Thermal Power Station (Tamil Nadu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, L K; Dange, A P [Central Water and Power Research Station, Pune (India)

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the movement of fly ash from the Thermal Power Station at Ennore dumped in the ocean. The purpose of the study was to ensure that the ash dumped in the sea does not find its way to intake of the power station through the mouth of the river situated at a distance of 2 kms north. In such situations the use of radioactive tracer studies is found to be very effective and these studies indicated the necessity of dumping the fly ash beyond 6m depth in the sea.

  9. Adrenergic regulation of cytoplasmic structures related to secretory processes in pig pinealocytes-an ultrastructural, quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylska-Gornowicz, Barbara; Lewczuk, Bogdan; Ziółkowska, Natalia; Prusik, Magdalena

    2017-10-01

    Two structures, considered as secretory in nature, are present in the pinealocytes in of the domestic pig show the presence of two structures, which are considered as secretory in nature - the dense core vesicles (DCV) and the membrane bounded (dense) bodies (MBB). The latter are extremely numerous in pig pinealocytes (they occupy 6-20% of the cytoplasm), and the number of MBB changes under different physiological and experimental conditions. Norepinephrine is the main neurotransmitter that regulates the secretion of pineal melatonin. The present study was carried out to 1) clarify whether the DCV and their source - the Golgi apparatus (GA) - as well as the MBB are controlled by norepinephrine, 2) determine the effect of adrenergic stimulation on these structures, and 3) identify the receptors involved in the regulation of these structures. The studies were performed using a static organ culture of pig pineal explants. The explants were incubated in a control medium between 08:00 and 20:00 and in a medium with 10μM norepinephrine or alpha- or beta-adrenoceptor agonists between 20:00 and 08:00 on five consecutive days. The tissues were subsequently prepared for ultrastructural analysis. The results distinctly showed that the DCV, GA and MBB in pig pinealocytes are under adrenergic control. The stimulation of the beta-adrenoceptors resulted in an increase in the numerical density of the DCV and a decrease in the relative volume of the GA in the perikarya, while the incubation with agonists of the alpha1-adrenoceptors was ineffective. The relative volume of the MBB in the perikarya significantly decreased after treatment with both beta-agonists and alpha1-agonists, which suggested the involvement of two types of adrenoceptors in the regulation of these structures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Towards tracer dose reduction in PET studies: Simulation of dose reduction by retrospective randomized undersampling of list-mode data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatidis, Sergios; Würslin, Christian; Seith, Ferdinand; Schäfer, Jürgen F; la Fougère, Christian; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Schwenzer, Nina F; Schmidt, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Optimization of tracer dose regimes in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is a trade-off between diagnostic image quality and radiation exposure. The challenge lies in defining minimal tracer doses that still result in sufficient diagnostic image quality. In order to find such minimal doses, it would be useful to simulate tracer dose reduction as this would enable to study the effects of tracer dose reduction on image quality in single patients without repeated injections of different amounts of tracer. The aim of our study was to introduce and validate a method for simulation of low-dose PET images enabling direct comparison of different tracer doses in single patients and under constant influencing factors. (18)F-fluoride PET data were acquired on a combined PET/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. PET data were stored together with the temporal information of the occurrence of single events (list-mode format). A predefined proportion of PET events were then randomly deleted resulting in undersampled PET data. These data sets were subsequently reconstructed resulting in simulated low-dose PET images (retrospective undersampling of list-mode data). This approach was validated in phantom experiments by visual inspection and by comparison of PET quality metrics contrast recovery coefficient (CRC), background-variability (BV) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of measured and simulated PET images for different activity concentrations. In addition, reduced-dose PET images of a clinical (18)F-FDG PET dataset were simulated using the proposed approach. (18)F-PET image quality degraded with decreasing activity concentrations with comparable visual image characteristics in measured and in corresponding simulated PET images. This result was confirmed by quantification of image quality metrics. CRC, SNR and BV showed concordant behavior with decreasing activity concentrations for measured and for corresponding simulated PET images. Simulation of dose

  11. Case study: evaluation of the performance of water treatment units by the use of tracer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, C.; Maghella, G.; Mamani, E.

    2000-12-01

    Very often, water treatment systems do not reach the expected performance due to disturbances of hydraulic order, which cause malfunctioning in the flow through such systems. Tracer techniques have proved to be very useful to obtain information on the system or a part of it, by means of observation of the released tracer or observation of the released tracer during its progress into the system or at the output of the same. This paper is a report of the behavior of a set of both sand settlement unit and hydraulic flocculators in a potable water plant, through the analysis of radiotracers response curves or residence time distribution curves. The tracers released into the system consists in an aqueous solution of Iodine-131 with very low activity, in order to get a dynamic behave similar to the one of the fluid under investigation

  12. Oxygen tracer studies of ferroelectric fatigue in Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schloss, Lawrence F.; McIntyre, Paul C.; Hendrix, Bryan C.; Bilodeau, Steven M.; Roeder, Jeffrey F.; Gilbert, Stephen R.

    2002-01-01

    Long-range oxygen motion has been observed in Pt/Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 /Ir thin-film structures after electrical fatigue cycling at room temperature. Through an exchange anneal, isotopic 18 O was incorporated as a tracer into bare Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 (PZT) films, allowing secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements of the tracer profile evolution as a function of the number of polarization reversals. Observation of 18 O tracer redistribution during voltage cycling, which is presumably mediated by oxygen vacancy motion, was found to be strongly dependent upon the thermal history of the film. However, there was no strong correlation between the extent of 18 O tracer redistribution and the extent of polarization suppression induced by voltage cycling. Our results suggest that oxygen vacancy motion plays, at most, a secondary role in ferroelectric fatigue of PZT thin films

  13. The field tracer test study of atmospheric dispersion in Fujian Huian Nuclear Power Plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Erbang; Xin Cuntian; Yan Jiangyu; Ren Zhiqiang; Xuan Yiren; Jia Peirong

    2003-01-01

    The SF 6 tracer tests and its main results completed in site of Fujian Huian Nuclear Power Plant during summer, 2002, are described. A total of 15 times of SF 6 tracer tests were done in the July, in which the time of atmospheric stability B, C, D, E is respectively 3, 2, 9, 1 based on ΔT-U method and the time of B, D, E is respectively 1, 11, 3 based on ΔT method. About 50 samples were collected in each SF 6 tracer tests, the maximum of sample distance from the tower in which the SF 6 tracer was released is about 15 km. The values of p y , p z , q y , q z in the formula of diffusion parameters is determined. Finally the above diffusion parameters are compared with P-G curve, Briggs diffusion parameters and those obtained from turbulence observation and wind tunnel simulation test done in the past time. (authors)

  14. A Comparative Uptake Study of Multiplexed PET Tracers in Mice with Turpentine-Induced Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Huang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential value of multiplexed positron emission tomography (PET tracers in mice with turpentine-induced inflammation was evaluated and compared with 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F]FDG for glucose metabolism imaging. These PET tracers included [18F]fluoromethylcholine ([18F]FCH for choline metabolism imaging, (S-[11C]methyl-D-cysteine ([11C]DMCYS for amino acid metabolism imaging, [11C]bis(zinc(II-dipicolylamine ([11C]DPA-Zn2+ for apoptosis imaging, 2-(4-N-[11C]-methylaminophenyl-6-hydroxybenzothiazole ([11C]PIB for β amyloid binding imaging, and [18F]fluoride (18F− for bone metabolism imaging. In mice with turpentine-induced inflammation mice, the biodistribution of all the tracers mentioned above at 5, 15, 30, 45, and 60 min postinjection was determined. Also, the time-course curves of the tracer uptake ratios for inflammatory thigh muscle (IM to normal uninflammatory thigh muscle (NM, IM to blood (BL, IM to brain (BR, and IM to liver (LI were acquired, respectively. Moreover, PET imaging with the tracers within 60 min postinjection on a clinical PET/CT scanner was also conducted. [18F]FDG and 18F− showed relatively higher uptake ratios for IM to NM, IM to BL, IM to BR, and IM to LI than [18F]FCH, [11C]DPA-Zn2+, [11C]DMCYS and [11C]PIB, which were highly consistent with the results delineated in PET images. The results demonstrate that 18F− seems to be a potential PET tracer for inflammation imaging. [18F]FCH and [11C]DMCYS, with lower accumulation in inflammatory tissue than [18F]FDG, are not good PET tracers for inflammation imaging. As a promising inflammatory tracer, the chemical structure of [11C]DPA-Zn2+ needs to be further optimized.

  15. An evaluation of an improved method for computing histograms in dynamic tracer studies using positron-emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollinger, J.M.; Snyder, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    A method for computing approximate minimum-mean-square-error estimates of histograms from list-mode data for use in dynamic tracer studies is evaluated. Parameters estimated from these histograms are significantly more accurate than those estimated from histograms computed by a commonly used method

  16. In vivo trace element speciation study by using enriched stable isotopic tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Weiyue; Chai Zhifang; Shi Junwen; Ding Wenjun

    2005-01-01

    In contrast to the radioactive tracer method, the enriched stable isotopic technique used in life sciences will not cause radiation damage to cells and its operation will be no radioactive risk, In our laboratory, the enriched stable isotopes Cr-50, Hg-196 and Hg-198 combined with biochemical separation, neutron activation analysis (NAA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-IVIS) have been used to investigate the element speciation in vivo. Chromium (Cr) is proposed to act as a potentiator of insulin action in animals and human beings. Its deficiency induces the symptoms resembling diabetes and its supplement can alleviate these symptoms. However, as the concentration of Cr in vivo is usually at ultratrace level(- ng/g), its speciation study is usually difficult, since it is almost impossible to avoid the exogenous Cr contamination caused by separation and determination processes. Therefore, in this study, 50 Cr 2 O 3 with 94.2% 50 Cr was used as a tracer combined with gel chromatography to study the Cr speciation in serum, liver, urine and other tissues of healthy and diabetic rats. The Cr concentrations can be determined via 50 Cr(n, γ) 51 Cr by NAA, which is ideally suited for the ultratrace element analyses due to its high precision, accuracy and sensitivity. Such research have found that the most quantity of chromium in vivo is mainly combined with high molecular weight proteins, which is later identified as transferrin and low molecular weight protein is mainly excreted from urine. Mercury is listed by the International Program of Chemical Safety as one of the six most dangerous chemicals in the global environment. Mercury compounds in the environment are often difficult to degrade. However, the mechanism on mercury toxicity to developing children following long term and low dose of mercury exposure is still not clear. Therefore, high sensitive method in vivo needs to be developed to study such low level mercury toxicity to fetus In this

  17. Measurement of open streams by using tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, German F.; Tarquino, W.; Curcuy, H.; Orozco, C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an intercomparison study to be carried out between flux measurements by using tracers and moulinet. This intercomparison is scheduled to be performed at the measurement station belonging to the National Service of Meteorology and Hydrology (SENAMHI). Two techniques of tracer dilution are outstanded: total evaluation with tracer punctual injection and punctual evaluation with tracer continuous injection. Total evaluation with tracer punctual injection has been used since this technique is considered to be more suitable for hydrology purposes

  18. Chemical Tracer Methods: Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Richard W.

    2017-01-01

    Tracers have a wide variety of uses in hydrologic studies: providing quantitative or qualitative estimates of recharge, identifying sources of recharge, providing information on velocities and travel times of water movement, assessing the importance of preferential flow paths, providing information on hydrodynamic dispersion, and providing data for calibration of water flow and solute-transport models (Walker, 1998; Cook and Herczeg, 2000; Scanlon et al., 2002b). Tracers generally are ions, isotopes, or gases that move with water and that can be detected in the atmosphere, in surface waters, and in the subsurface. Heat also is transported by water; therefore, temperatures can be used to trace water movement. This chapter focuses on the use of chemical and isotopic tracers in the subsurface to estimate recharge. Tracer use in surface-water studies to determine groundwater discharge to streams is addressed in Chapter 4; the use of temperature as a tracer is described in Chapter 8.Following the nomenclature of Scanlon et al. (2002b), tracers are grouped into three categories: natural environmental tracers, historical tracers, and applied tracers. Natural environmental tracers are those that are transported to or created within the atmosphere under natural processes; these tracers are carried to the Earth’s surface as wet or dry atmospheric deposition. The most commonly used natural environmental tracer is chloride (Cl) (Allison and Hughes, 1978). Ocean water, through the process of evaporation, is the primary source of atmospheric Cl. Other tracers in this category include chlorine-36 (36Cl) and tritium (3H); these two isotopes are produced naturally in the Earth’s atmosphere; however, there are additional anthropogenic sources of them.

  19. Ultrastructural characteristics of three undifferentiated mouse embryonic stem cell lines and their differentiated three-dimensional derivatives: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Suzan; Elsafadi, Mona; Mobarak, Mohammed; Alrwili, Ali; Vishnubalaji, Radhakrishnan; Manikandan, Muthurangan; Al-Qudsi, Fatma; Karim, Saleh; Al-Nabaheen, May; Aldahmash, Abdullah; Mahmood, Amer

    2014-04-01

    The fine structures of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) grown as colonies and differentiated in three-dimensional (3D) culture as embryoid bodies (EBs) were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Undifferentiated mESCs expressed markers that proved their pluripotency. Differentiated EBs expressed different differentiation marker proteins from the three germ layers. The ultrastructure of mESCs revealed the presence of microvilli on the cell surfaces, large and deep infolded nuclei, low cytoplasm-to-nuclear ratios, frequent lipid droplets, nonprominent Golgi apparatus, and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, we found prominent juvenile mitochondria and free ribosomes-rich cytoplasm in mESCs. Ultrastructure of the differentiated mESCs as EBs showed different cell arrangements, which indicate the different stages of EB development and differentiation. The morphologies of BALB/c and 129 W9.5 EBs were very similar at day 4, whereas C57BL/6 EBs were distinct from the others at day 4. This finding suggested that differentiation of EBs from different cell lines occurs in the same pattern but not at the same rate. Conversely, the ultrastructure results of BALB/c and 129 W9.5 ESCs revealed differentiating features, such as the dilated profile of a rough endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, we found low expression levels of undifferentiated markers on the outer cells of BALB/c and 129 W9.5 mESC colonies, which suggests a faster differentiation potential.

  20. Differential Toxicities of Intraneurally Injected Mercuric Chloride for Sympathetic and Somatic Motor Fibers: An Ultrastructural Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Jung Cheng

    2011-02-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrated an undue susceptibility of sympathetic fibers to mercury intoxication. The mechanisms that underlie the selective reaction of sympathetic fibers to mercury warrant further investigation.

  1. Development of radioisotope tracer technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Joon Ha; Lee, Myun Joo; Jung, Sung Hee; Park, Soon Chul; Lim, Dong Soon; Kim, Jae Ho; Lee, Jae Choon; Lee, Doo Sung; Cho, Yong Suk; Shin, Sung Kuan

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the radioisotope tracer technology, which can be used in solving industrial and environmental problems and to build a strong tracer group to support the local industries. In relation to the tracer technology in 1999, experiments to estimate the efficiencies of a sludge digester of a waste water treatment plant and a submerged biological reactor of a dye industry were conducted. As a result, the tracer technology for optimization of facilities related to wastewater treatment has been developed and is believed to contribute to improve their operation efficiency. The quantification of the experimental result was attempted to improve the confidence of tracer technology by ECRIN program which basically uses the MCNP simulation principle. Using thin layer activation technique, wear of tappet shim was estimated. Thin layer surface of a tappet shim was irradiated by proton beam and the correlation between the measured activity loss and the amount of wear was established. The equipment was developed to adjust the energy of proton which collides with the surface of tappet. The tracer project team has participated into the tracer test for estimating the efficiency of RFCC system in SK cooperation. From the experiment the tracer team has obtained the primary elements to be considered for judging the efficiency of RFCC unit. By developing the tracer techniques to test huge industrial units like RFCC, the tracer team will be able to support the local industries that require technical services to solve any urgent trouble. (author)

  2. 11C-harmine as a potential PET tracer for ductal pancreas cancer: in vitro studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herlin, G.; Persson, B.; Laangstroem, B.; Aspelin, P.; Bergstroem, M.

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to find a tracer in diagnosing human pancreatic cancer using positron emission tomography (PET). For this purpose in vitro test of pancreatic tissues with autoradiography was used. Autoradiography was performed with 11 C-harmine (a MAO-A-inhibitor) with and without competitive inhibition. Tissue preparations were obtained from normal human pancreas and pancreatic cancer. The uptake was compared with rat brain or pig brain, tissues with high expression of MAO-A. Nine autoradiography studies on 16 samples from five different human pancreatic cancers gave a significant level of specific binding of 11 C-harmine in 13, and 3 samples did not give a significant level of specific binding of 11 C-harmine. All 16 samples were analysed with autoradiography. Compared with rat brain, the uptake in the human cancers varied between 9 and 43% except for one tissue preparation which had a too low value for measurement. This study shows expression of MAO-A in human pancreatic cancer. This is readily characterised in vitro. The potential use of 11 C-harmine in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer using PET might be limited, but further PET studies are necessary. (orig.)

  3. Tramadol Induced Adrenal Insufficiency: Histological, Immunohistochemical, Ultrastructural, and Biochemical Genetic Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelaleem, Shereen Abdelhakim; Hassan, Osama A.; Ahmed, Rasha F.; Zenhom, Nagwa M.; Rifaai, Rehab A.; El-Tahawy, Nashwa F.

    2017-01-01

    Tramadol is a synthetic, centrally acting analgesic. It is the most consumed narcotic drug that is prescribed in the world. Tramadol abuse has dramatically increased in Egypt. Long term use of tramadol can induce endocrinopathy. So, the aim of this study was to analyze the adrenal insufficiency induced by long term use of tramadol in experimental animals and also to assess its withdrawal effects through histopathological and biochemical genetic study. Forty male albino rats were used in this ...

  4. Green River air quality model development: meteorological and tracer data, July/August 1982 field study in Brush Valley, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteman, C.D.; Lee, R.N.; Orgill, M.M.; Zak, B.D.

    1984-06-01

    Meteorological and atmospheric tracer studies were conducted during a 3-week period in July and August of 1982 in the Brush Creek Valley of northwestern Colorado. The objective of the field experiments was to obtain data to evaluate a model, called VALMET, developed at PNL to predict dispersion of air pollutants released from an elevated stack located within a deep mountain valley in the post-sunrise temperature inversion breakup period. Three tracer experiments were conducted in the valley during the 2-week period. In these experiments, sulfur hexafluoride (SF/sub 6/) was released from a height of approximately 100 m, beginning before sunrise and continuing until the nocturnal down-valley winds reversed several hours after sunrise. Dispersion of the sulfur hexafluoride after release was evaluated by measuring SF/sub 6/ concentrations in ambient air samples taken from sampling devices operated within the valley up to about 8 km down valley from the source. An instrumented research aircraft was also used to measure concentrations in and above the valley. Tracer samples were collected using a network of radio-controlled bag sampling stations, two manually operated gas chromatographs, a continuous SF/sub 6/ monitor, and a vertical SF/sub 6/ profiler. In addition, basic meteorological data were collected during the tracer experiments. Frequent profiles of vertical wind and temperature structure were obtained with tethered balloons operated at the release site and at a site 7.7 km down the valley from the release site. 10 references, 63 figures, 50 tables.

  5. Study of seepage losses from irrigation canals using radioactive tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Tariq, J.A.; Rashid, A.; Rafiq, M.; Iqbal, N.

    2004-06-01

    wetted area of the canal. The radiotracer (/sup 99m/Tc) having very short half-life (6 hrs) poses no health hazards as it decays in one day after traveling a very short distance, at the most a few meters. A very small quantity of the tracer required for a test can be met from the leftover activity of /sup 99m/ Tc imported for medical centers. However ECNEC has approved a project produce. /sup 99m/Tc locally at PINSTECH which will ensure its availability at competitive cost. In this study it has been proven that radioactive tracer technique can be used to determine seepage losses from distributaries to biggest canal either unlined or lined in running condition without its closure or disturbing flow. Cost per test based on few tests is about Rs. 100,000/-which could be reduced to Rs. 60,000/-per test for the large scale investigations by creating facilities for drilling and fabrication of filters. The seepage tests can be repeated at the same locations using the existing wells at a cost of Rs. 15000/-. Therefore, this technique is also useful to evaluate the effectiveness of the lining or any other remedial measure. Considering the accuracy of the radiotracer technique and availability of facilities at reasonable cost, this novel technique may be applied at national level. (author)

  6. The use of tracers in the study of the ionic permeability of the nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinnebault, M.

    1961-01-01

    The use of the radioactive tracers 24 Na and 42 K, and the electrophysiological fine study carried out on the plant Cephalopods nervous cells have made it possible, during ten years, to study the relationships between the electrical phenomena observed during the propagation of the nervous impulse and the ionic movements which occur at the cell membrane between the intra- and extra-cellular media. In the state of rest, the nerve fibres present a certain permeability towards sodium and potassium, a permeability which allows the renewal, from the extra-cellular medium, of the cations contained in the cytoplasm. At the moment of the passage of the nervous impulse, it is possible to demonstrate a temporary increase in the permeability towards the sodium which causes the entry of Na + ions into the nerve fibre, whilst, a few milliseconds later, the increase in the potassium permeability causes the departure of an equivalent quantity of K + ions. A recovery phase follows the passage of the nervous impulse, during which the original ionic conditions are re-established. If the potassium movements can be considered as passive, the expulsion of Na + requires, on the part of the cell, the use of a part of the metabolic energy. (author) [fr

  7. Study of phenomena of tracer transport and dispersion in fractured media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ippolito, Irene

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this research thesis is to present some transport phenomena according to two different approaches: firstly, the study of flows and tracing in a natural crack within a granitic site, and secondly, the study of flows of different geometries in model cracks, mainly by using techniques of tracer dispersion. The author first presents some properties of fractured media and elements of the theory of the phenomenon of dispersion. She notably discusses the reversibility of the Taylor dispersion which is the prevailing mechanism for simply connected geometries such as in the case of a flow between two continuous solid surfaces limiting a fracture. In the next chapters, the author reports the analysis of characteristics of local structures (mouths, roughnesses) of a single fracture by using echo dispersion. She reports experiments as well as Monte Carlo simulations performed on well defined geometries. In a parallel way, some characteristics measurements (rate-pressure, distribution of flows and tracing in transmission) and mechanical measurements of fracture deformation have been performed on a natural fracture in a granitic site [fr

  8. A pilot study of the behavior of gas- and particle-phase ETS tracers in residences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apte, Michael; Gundel, Lara; Dod, Raymond; Chang, Gee-Min; Sextro, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Our previous study of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in a three-room environmental chamber showed that smoking history significantly influenced inter-room ETS transport, particularly of gas-phase nicotine. We conducted a three-home pilot study where smoking was limited to one room. Single-smoker residences were monitored during five one-week periods while the smoker participated in a smoking cessation program. Nicotine traced ETS particles were detected reliably in the smoking rooms (SRs) and unreliably in the non-smoking rooms (NSRs). On average, the ventilation- and volume-normalized smoking rate, 0.1 Cigarette-h(sup -1) m(sup -3), added about 17 and 4(micro)g m(sup -3) of ETS particles into the SR and NSR, while average nicotine concentration increases were 2 and 0.06(micro)g m(sup -3), respectively. Thus, nicotine tracers may underestimate ETS particle exposure in a NSR (e.g., a child's bedroom) by a factor of 2 to 8. In other words, ETS exposure predicted from nicotine concentrations could be almost an order of magnitude lower than actual exposure

  9. Techniques necessary for multiple tracer quantitative small-animal imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, Terry L.; Dence, Carmen S.; Engelbach, John A.; Herrero, Pilar; Gropler, Robert J.; Welch, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: An increasing number and variety of studies on rodent models are being conducted using small-animal positron emission tomography scanners. We aimed to determine if animal handling techniques could be developed to perform routine animal imaging in a timely and efficient manner and with minimal effect on animal physiology. These techniques need to be reproducible in the same animal while maintaining hemodynamic and physiological stability. Methods: The necessary techniques include (a) the use of inhalant anesthesia, (b) arterial and venous cannulation for multiple tracer administrations and blood sampling, (c) development of small-volume analytic columns and techniques and (d) measurement of the physiological environment during the imaging session. Results: We provide an example of a cardiac imaging study using four radiotracers ( 15 O-water, 1-[ 11 C]-acetate, 1-[ 11 C]-palmitate and 1-[ 11 C]-glucose) injected into normal rats. Plasma substrates, CO 2 production and total metabolites were measured. The animals remained anesthetized over the entire imaging session, and their physiological state was maintained. Conclusion: The intrastudy stability of the physiological measurements and substrate levels and interstudy reproducibility of the measurements are reported

  10. Identification and characterization of conservative organic tracers for use as hydrologic tracers for the Yucca Mountain site characterization study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stetzenbach, K.; Farnham, I.

    1996-01-01

    Extensive tracer testing is expected to take place at the C-well complex in the Nevada Test Site as part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The C-well complex consists of one pumping well, C3, and two injection wells, C1 and C2 into which tracer will be introduced. The goal of this research was to provide USGS with numerous tracers to completed these tests. Several classes of fluorinated organic acids have been evaluated. These include numerous isomers of fluorinated benzoic acids, cinnamic acids, and salicylic acids. Also several derivatives of 2-hydroxy nicotinic acid (pyridone) have been tested. The stability of these compounds was determined using batch and column tests. Ames testing (mutagenicity/carcinogenicity) was conducted on the fluorinated benzoic acids and a literature review of toxicity of the fluorobenzoates and three perfluoro aliphatic acids was prepared. Solubilities were measured and method development work was performed to optimize the detection of these compounds. A Quality Assurance (QA) Program was developed under existing DOE and USGS guidelines. The program includes QA procedures and technical standard operating procedures. A tracer test, using sodium iodide, was performed at the C-well complex. HRC chemists performed analyses on site, to provide real time data for the USGS hydrologists and in the laboratories at UNLV. Over 2,500 analyses were performed. This report provides the results of the laboratory experiments and literature reviews used to evaluate the potential tracers and reports on the results of the iodide C-well tracer test

  11. Identification and characterization of conservative organic tracers for use as hydrologic tracers for the Yucca Mountain site characterization study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stetzenbach, K.; Farnham, I.

    1996-06-01

    Extensive tracer testing is expected to take place at the C-well complex in the Nevada Test Site as part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The C-well complex consists of one pumping well, C3, and two injection wells, C1 and C2 into which tracer will be introduced. The goal of this research was to provide USGS with numerous tracers to completed these tests. Several classes of fluorinated organic acids have been evaluated. These include numerous isomers of fluorinated benzoic acids, cinnamic acids, and salicylic acids. Also several derivatives of 2-hydroxy nicotinic acid (pyridone) have been tested. The stability of these compounds was determined using batch and column tests. Ames testing (mutagenicity/carcinogenicity) was conducted on the fluorinated benzoic acids and a literature review of toxicity of the fluorobenzoates and three perfluoro aliphatic acids was prepared. Solubilities were measured and method development work was performed to optimize the detection of these compounds. A Quality Assurance (QA) Program was developed under existing DOE and USGS guidelines. The program includes QA procedures and technical standard operating procedures. A tracer test, using sodium iodide, was performed at the C-well complex. HRC chemists performed analyses on site, to provide real time data for the USGS hydrologists and in the laboratories at UNLV. Over 2,500 analyses were performed. This report provides the results of the laboratory experiments and literature reviews used to evaluate the potential tracers and reports on the results of the iodide C-well tracer test.

  12. Ultrastructural study of the effect of air pollution by SO2 on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    changes in airways has been suggested by smog incidents, but has not been evaluated by experiments. So, this study was done to answer the following questions: (1) What morphologic changes are produced by repeated injury to airway epithelial cells by SO2? (2) What is the time course of these morphologic features?

  13. Systemic rhabdomyosarcoma presenting as leukemia: case report with ultrastructural study and reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntrakoon, M; Callaway, L A; Vergara, G G

    1987-08-01

    A 20-year-old white male was initially suspected clinically and pathologically of having an acute lymphoblastic leukemic process because of fatigue, severe anemia, thrombocytopenia, a leuko-erythroblastic peripheral blood picture, and a diffusely infiltrated bone marrow. Subsequent review of the bone marrow material indicated cytologic features consistent with either an embryonal, undifferentiated small cell mesenchymal malignancy or reticulo-endothelial malignancy. Ultimately, the electron microscopic (EM) study of the tumor proved to be diagnostic of rhabdomyosarcoma. An extensive search for a primary site of rhabdomyosarcoma did not show any lesion, although the genitourinary region was clinically suspected. The clinical course was a rapidly downhill one with extensive bone and CNS involvement. The patient died 5 months later. An autopsy permit was not obtained. This case emphasizes the occasional tendency of rhabdomyosarcoma to masquerade as a hematopoietic malignancy at the time of presentation and the usefulness of EM study in confirming a diagnosis.

  14. Tramadol Induced Adrenal Insufficiency: Histological, Immunohistochemical, Ultrastructural, and Biochemical Genetic Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen Abdelhakim Abdelaleem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tramadol is a synthetic, centrally acting analgesic. It is the most consumed narcotic drug that is prescribed in the world. Tramadol abuse has dramatically increased in Egypt. Long term use of tramadol can induce endocrinopathy. So, the aim of this study was to analyze the adrenal insufficiency induced by long term use of tramadol in experimental animals and also to assess its withdrawal effects through histopathological and biochemical genetic study. Forty male albino rats were used in this study. The rats were divided into 4 groups (control group, tramadol-treated group, and withdrawal groups. Tramadol was given to albino rats at a dose of 80 mg/kg body weight for 3 months and after withdrawal periods (7–15 days rats were sacrificed. Long term use of tramadol induced severe histopathological changes in adrenal glands. Tramadol decreased the levels of serum cortisol and DHEAS hormones. In addition, it increased the level of adrenal MDA and decreased the genetic expression of glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase in adrenal gland tissues. All these changes started to return to normal after withdrawal of tramadol. Thus, it was confirmed that long term use of tramadol can induce severe adrenal insufficiency.

  15. Tramadol Induced Adrenal Insufficiency: Histological, Immunohistochemical, Ultrastructural, and Biochemical Genetic Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaleem, Shereen Abdelhakim; Hassan, Osama A; Ahmed, Rasha F; Zenhom, Nagwa M; Rifaai, Rehab A; El-Tahawy, Nashwa F

    2017-01-01

    Tramadol is a synthetic, centrally acting analgesic. It is the most consumed narcotic drug that is prescribed in the world. Tramadol abuse has dramatically increased in Egypt. Long term use of tramadol can induce endocrinopathy. So, the aim of this study was to analyze the adrenal insufficiency induced by long term use of tramadol in experimental animals and also to assess its withdrawal effects through histopathological and biochemical genetic study. Forty male albino rats were used in this study. The rats were divided into 4 groups (control group, tramadol-treated group, and withdrawal groups). Tramadol was given to albino rats at a dose of 80 mg/kg body weight for 3 months and after withdrawal periods (7-15 days) rats were sacrificed. Long term use of tramadol induced severe histopathological changes in adrenal glands. Tramadol decreased the levels of serum cortisol and DHEAS hormones. In addition, it increased the level of adrenal MDA and decreased the genetic expression of glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase in adrenal gland tissues. All these changes started to return to normal after withdrawal of tramadol. Thus, it was confirmed that long term use of tramadol can induce severe adrenal insufficiency.

  16. Geostatistical and Stochastic Study of Flow and Tracer Transport in the Unsaturated Zone at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Ming; Pan, Feng; Hu, Xiaolong; Zhu, Jianting

    2007-01-01

    Yucca Mountain has been proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy as the nation's long-term, permanent geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel or high-level radioactive waste. The potential repository would be located in Yucca Mountain's unsaturated zone (UZ), which acts as a critical natural barrier delaying arrival of radionuclides to the water table. Since radionuclide transport in groundwater can pose serious threats to human health and the environment, it is important to understand how much and how fast water and radionuclides travel through the UZ to groundwater. The UZ system consists of multiple hydrogeologic units whose hydraulic and geochemical properties exhibit systematic and random spatial variation, or heterogeneity, at multiple scales. Predictions of radionuclide transport under such complicated conditions are uncertain, and the uncertainty complicates decision making and risk analysis. This project aims at using geostatistical and stochastic methods to assess uncertainty of unsaturated flow and radionuclide transport in the UZ at Yucca Mountain. Focus of this study is parameter uncertainty of hydraulic and transport properties of the UZ. The parametric uncertainty arises since limited parameter measurements are unable to deterministically describe spatial variability of the parameters. In this project, matrix porosity, permeability and sorption coefficient of the reactive tracer (neptunium) of the UZ are treated as random variables. Corresponding propagation of parametric uncertainty is quantitatively measured using mean, variance, 5th and 95th percentiles of simulated state variables (e.g., saturation, capillary pressure, percolation flux, and travel time). These statistics are evaluated using a Monte Carlo method, in which a three-dimensional flow and transport model implemented using the TOUGH2 code is executed with multiple parameter realizations of the random model parameters. The project specifically studies uncertainty of unsaturated flow

  17. Ultrastructural findings in noncompaction prevail with neuromuscular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterer, Josef; Stöllberger, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the ultrastructural abnormalities of left ventricular hypertrabeculation/noncompaction (LVHT). This literature review aimed to summarize and discuss ultrastructural abnormalities described in LVHT so far. The literature search was conducted via MEDLINE using the search terms 'non-compaction', 'noncompaction', 'left ventricular hypertrabeculation', 'spongy myocardium' in combination with the terms 'ultra-structural', or 'electron microscopy'. Altogether, 11 studies reporting ultrastructural investigations of LVHT were retrieved. In these 11 studies, data on 13 patients with LVHT were presented. Ultrastructural abnormalities found in these study patients were generally nonspecific and included an increase in the number of mitochondria (n = 3), abnormally shaped mitochondria (n = 2), distorted cristae (n = 3), sarcomeric derangement (n = 3), immature cardiomyocytes (n = 1), lipid-like inclusions (n = 1), enlarged interstitial spaces (n = 1), increased interstitial collagen (n = 1), or increased glycogen (n = 1). The morphological abnormalities were most prominent in patients with a neuromuscular disorder like Barth syndrome or mitochondrial myopathy. Only in few patients with LVHT, ultrastructural investigations have been performed so far. Ultrastructural abnormalities in LVHT are nonspecific and most prominent in patients with a neuromuscular disorder. There is a strong need to carry out thorough ultrastructural investigations of LVHT to contribute to the understanding of this still unexplained myocardial abnormality.

  18. Tracer-based quantification of individual frac discharge in single-well multiple-frac backflow: sensitivity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghergut, Julia; Behrens, Horst; Sauter, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Within the deep-geothermal research project at GroßSchönebeck in the NE German Basin, targeting volcanic rocks (Lower Rotliegend) and siliciclastics (Upper Rotliegend) in the Lower Permian by means of a well doublet with several screening intervals between 3815 and 4247 m b.s.l., several artificial fractures with different geometric and hydraulic characteristics were created at each well, aiming to increase reservoir performance [1], [2]. It could not be told a priori which of the various fracturing treatments was to prove as most promising in terms of future reservoir productivity. At the intended-production well (GS-4), one large-area waterfrac was created in the low-permeability volcanic rocks, and two gel-proppant fractures in selected sandstone layers. Each fracturing treatment was accompanied by the injection of a water-dissolved tracer slug, followed by a defined volume of tracer-free ('chaser') fluid [3]. Each frac received a different species of a sulfonated aromatic acid salt, as a conservative water tracer. During subsequent backflow tests (either gas-based lifting, or production by means of a downhole submersible pump), each frac can contribute a certain (more or less constant) amount to the measured total discharge (also depending on whether and when each frac 'starts' contributing, and which effective aperture and area it actually 'manifests' during the process). Since these individual-frac discharge amounts cannot be measured directly, it was endeavoured to indirectly determine ('resolve') them from tracer signals as detectable in the overall backflow discharge. Therefore, we need to examine how these tracer signals depend on local discharge values and on local hydrogeologic parameters (matrix porosity, permeability distribution; frac transmissivity, thickness, effective area and aperture), and to what extent hydrogeological uncertainty will impede the inversion of local discharge values. To this end, a parameter sensitivity study was conducted on

  19. Ghost cells in pilomatrixoma, craniopharyngioma, and calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor: histological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumayor, Alicia; Carlos, Román; Kirsch, Hernán Molina; de Andrade, Bruno A Benevenuto; Romañach, Mario J; de Almeida, Oslei Paes

    2015-04-01

    Pilomatrixoma, craniopharyngioma, and calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor are the main entities presenting ghost cells as an important histological feature, in spite their quite different clinical presentation; it seems that they share a common pathway in the formation of these cells. The aim of this study is to examine and compare the characteristics of ghost and other cells that form these lesions. Forty-three cases including 21 pilomatrixomas, 14 craniopharyngiomas, and eight calcifying cystic odontogenic tumors were evaluated by immunohistochemistry for cytokeratins, CD138, β-catenin, D2-40, Glut-1, FAS, CD10 and also by scanning electron microscopy. The CKs, CD138, β-catenin, Glut-1, FAS, and CD10 were more often expressed by transitional cells of craniopharyngioma and calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor, compared with pilomatrixoma. Basaloid cells of pilomatrixoma showed strong positivity for CD138 and CD10. Differences on expression pattern were identified in transitional and basal cells, as ghost cells were negative for most antibodies used, except by low expression for cytokeratins. By scanning electron microscopy, the morphology of ghost cells were similar in their fibrillar cytoplasm, but their pattern varied from sheets in pilomatrixoma to small clusters in craniopharyngioma and calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor. Mechanisms involved in formation of ghost cells are unknown, but probably they follow different pathways as protein expression in the basal/transitional cells was not uniform in the three tumors studied. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Biologic changes due to long-wave ultraviolet irradiation on human skin: ultrastructural study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumakiri, M.; Hashimoto, K.; Willis, I.

    1977-01-01

    Alteration of the skin induced by single and repeated long-wave ultraviolet (UVA) exposures was studied. Following a single exposure to relatively large doses of UVA, pronounced dermal damage was observed. In the papillary dermis, superficial dermal vessels showed widely open endothelial gaps and extravasation of blood cells. Marked changes of fibroblasts were also seen in the superficial dermis. In the reticular dermis, extravascular fibrin deposition was seen. After repeated exposures to UVA the formation of cross-banded filamentous aggregations (''Zebra bodies'') was observed in the superficial and reticular dermis. These were often found in amorphous masses surrounding the blood vessels. These striking dermal alterations were absent in skin irradiated by solar stimulating radiation and in control skin. Dyskeratotic ''sunburn cells'' were occasionally seen in the epidermis after single as well as repeated exposures to UVA. The number of these cells was less than that seen after a single exposure to solar simulating radiation

  1. Bone tissue ultrastructural defects in a mouse model for osteogenesis imperfecta: a Raman spectroscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsoching; Kozloff, Kenneth M.; Goldstein, Steven A.; Morris, Michael D.

    2004-07-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is genetic defect in which the genes that code for the α1(I) or α2(I) chains of type I collagen are defective. The defects often result in substitution of a bulky amino acid for glycine, causing formation of collagen that can not form the normal triple helix. Depending on the details of the defects, the outcomes range from controllable to lethal. This study focuses on OI type IV, a more common and moderately severe form of the disease. People with the disease have a substantial increase in the risk and rate of fracture. We examine the spectroscopic consequences of these defects, using a mouse model (BRTL) that mimics OI type IV. We compare Raman images from tibial cortical tissue of wild-type mice and BRTL mice with single copy of mutation and show that both mineral to matrix ratios and collagen inter-fibril cross-links are different in wild-type and mutant mice.

  2. Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis. A review including ultrastructural and pulmonary function studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, U.B.; Barham, S.S.; Rosenow, E.C.; Brown, M.L.; Payne, W.S.

    1983-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is a rare disease of unknown cause in which calcium phosphate microliths are deposited throughout the lungs. These deposits are of sufficient density to be almost diagnostic on chest roentgenograms. The Mayo Clinic experience with 8 patients is added to the approximately 120 cases reported in the world literature. The age range of all patients is from newborn to 80 years, with a mean age at diagnosis of about 35 years. No sexual predominance has been noted, but in about half of the reported cases a familial pattern has been found. The progression of the disease is generally very slow, some patients having been followed up for more than 30 years without evidence of change. No specific treatment is available. Pulmonary function studies demonstrate a tendency toward a restrictive pattern. Technetium-99m scanning and scanning and transmission electron microscopy are useful procedures for analysis of pulmonary alveolar microliths

  3. Age and diabetes related changes of the retinal capillaries: An ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Enrica; Ripandelli, Guido; Taurone, Samanta; Feher, Janos; Plateroti, Rocco; Kovacs, Illes; Magliulo, Giuseppe; Orlando, Maria Patrizia; Micera, Alessandra; Battaglione, Ezio; Artico, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Normal human aging and diabetes are associated with a gradual decrease of cerebral flow in the brain with changes in vascular architecture. Thickening of the capillary basement membrane and microvascular fibrosis are evident in the central nervous system of elderly and diabetic patients. Current findings assign a primary role to endothelial dysfunction as a cause of basement membrane (BM) thickening, while retinal alterations are considered to be a secondary cause of either ischemia or exudation. The aim of this study was to reveal any initial retinal alterations and variations in the BM of retinal capillaries during diabetes and aging as compared to healthy controls. Moreover, we investigated the potential role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and pro-inflammatory cytokines in diabetic retina.Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed on 46 enucleated human eyes with particular attention to alterations of the retinal capillary wall and Müller glial cells. Inflammatory cytokines expression in the retina was investigated by immunohistochemistry.Our electron microscopy findings demonstrated that thickening of the BM begins primarily at the level of the glial side of the retina during aging and diabetes. The Müller cells showed numerous cytoplasmic endosomes and highly electron-dense lysosomes which surrounded the retinal capillaries. Our study is the first to present morphological evidence that Müller cells start to deposit excessive BM material in retinal capillaries during aging and diabetes. Our results confirm the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β within the retina as a result of diabetes.These observations strongly suggest that inflammatory cytokines and changes in the metabolism of Müller glial cells rather than changes in of endothelial cells may play a primary role in the alteration of retinal capillaries BM during aging and diabetes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Study on chromium speciation in rats by the isotope tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Weiyue; Qian Qinfang; Ding Wenjun; Chai Zhifang

    1999-01-01

    The chromium speciation in the liver cytosol fraction, serum and urine of both normal and diabetic rats are studied by the enriched stable isotope tracer technique combined with the get chromatography and the neutron activating analysis (NAA). The results are as follows: (1) When Cr(III) enters the animal body, it is most likely to be combined with serum proteins. The chromium-protein compound acts as a carrier to transport Cr to the whole body. In the liver cytosol fraction, Cr (III) is also mainly combined with the high molecular weight protein and retains as chromium-protein substance in the liver. (2) A low molecular weight chromium-containing compound is found in all the liver cell cytosol fraction, serum and urine of the two group rats. (3) The diabetic rats lose more amount of low molecular weight of chromium compound in urine than the normal rats do. This might be a main reason to explain why the diabetic rats retain lower Cr in their bodies than the normal group

  5. A study of the behavior of a cathode film formed in chromium plating with radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Katsuyoshi; Suzuki, Akihira; Doi, Kazuyuki; Arai, Katsutoshi

    1979-01-01

    The behavior and composition of a cathode film formed on a steel cathode during chromium plating were studied with radioactive tracers. A special cell with a rapid washing compartment was used for preventing the cathode film from dissolving in electrolyte after plating. The cathode film was composed of two layers. The outer layer facing to the electrolyte had a loose structure and contained more sulfuric anions than the inner layer, for sulfuric acid probably concentrated in the outer layer. This outer layer is called L-film in this paper. The L-film was easily dissolved in the electrolyte solution. The inner layer (called C-film, compact film) was stable against electrolytes and contained less anions than that of L-film. The C-film had a thickness equivalent to 5 mg/m 2 and the concentration of anions unaffected by the composition of electrolytes. The C-film was not reduced to metallic chromium, but it remained in the cathode film during and after plating. This suggests that chromic acid in the cathode film is not reduced to metallic chromium, that metallic chromium is deposited from chromium complexes reaching the cathode surface through the cathode film, and that the complexes do not play a role on the construction of the cathode film. (author)

  6. Clinical studies of bone metabolism using a simple model of calcium tracer kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roncari, G.; Milan Univ., Varese

    1981-01-01

    Bone metabolism studies were performed in 44 subjects with and without bone disease using a calcium tracers kinetics model, the central feature of which is an expanding exchangeable calcium pool. In normal subjects the accretion rate and the exchangeable calcium pool ranged from 1.49 to 8.45 (mean 3.9 +- 2.05) mg.d -1 kg -1 and from 60 to 131 (mean 81.25 +- 18.11) mg.kg -1 , respectively. The patients with osteogenesis imperfecta, Pierre Marie's disease and one out of two cases of hypoparathyroidism had values which fell within the normal range. Both the accretion rate and the exchangeable calcium pool were significantly elevated in patients with Paget's disease and with hyperparathyroidism. Uremic patients with generalizated bone lesions had accretion rates or both parameters elevated. As far as patients with successful renal transplant are concerned, the results suggest that this method is a very poor means for detecting bone disorders with only focal lesions. In contrast, the method can be very useful when persistent renal osteodystrophy or secondary hyperparathyroidism are suspected. (orig.) [de

  7. Clinical studies of bone metabolism using a simple model of calcium tracer kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roncari, G.

    1981-08-01

    Bone metabolism studies were performed in 44 subjects with and without bone disease using a calcium tracer kinetics model, the central feature of which is an expanding exchangeable calcium pool. In normal subjects the accretion rate and the exchangeable calcium pool ranged from 1.49 to 8.45 (mean 3.9 +- 2.05) mg.d/sup -1/kg/sup -1/ and from 60 to 131 (mean 81.25 +- 18.11) mg.kg/sup -1/, respectively. The patients with osteogenesis imperfecta, Pierre Marie's disease and one out of two cases of hypoparathyroidism had values which fell within the normal range. Both the accretion rate and the exchangeable calcium pool were significantly elevated in patients with Paget's disease and with hyperparathyroidism. Uremic patients with generalizated bone lesions had accretion rates or both parameters elevated. As far as patients with successful renal transplant are concerned, the results suggest that this method is a very poor means for detecting bone disorders with only focal lesions. In contrast, the method can be very useful when persistent renal osteodystrophy or secondary hyperparathyroidism are suspected.

  8. Electron microscopic studies on ameloblast using /sup 45/Ca as tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, K [Gifu Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1974-02-01

    In order to study the functional role of ameloblast on inorganic substance, electron microscopic autoradiography was prepared from dental germ of incisor and molar teeth of young rats using /sup 45/Ca as the tracer and following results were obtained. At 15 minutes after /sup 45/Ca administration, /sup 45/Ca appeared in cells of each stage of development, reaching the peak after 30 minutes and gradually shifting from the inside of cells to matrix. /sup 45/Ca was localized in the cells in the nuclear substance, rough surfaced endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi area and mitochondria. Especially in the mitochondria, silver grains are accumulated in high concentration, suggesting a major role in the storage and accumulation of Ca. /sup 45/Ca passed through the mature ameloblasts rapidly. After 15 minutes, silver grains were noted in the matrix formation. After 2 hours, scarcely any silver grains were noted in the cells, most of them being shifted to calcifing area from the matrix formation. As the pathway of transport of /sup 45/Ca, intracellular passage is mainly adopted in the stage of matrix formation, without transport through the intercellular space. Even if a considerable separation occurred between each cell in the mature stage, no silver grains were noted in this area. These results would indicate an important role of ameloblast in the transport and storage of inorganic substances through the movement of Ca.

  9. Lead isotope ratios as a tracer for lead contamination sources: A lake Andong case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Y. H

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate stable Pb isotope signatures as a tracer for Pb contamination in Lake Andong. For Pb isotope analysis, we collected water and sediment from Lake Andong, particles in the air, soils, and stream water, mine tailings, sludge and wastewater from zinc smelting around lake Andong watershed. The results showed that Pb isotope ratios (206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb for zinc concentrate were 18.809 ± 0.322, 15.650 ± 0.062, and 38.728 ± 0.421, respectively. In wastewater, isotopic ratio values (206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb were 17.363 ± 0.133, 15.550 ± 0.025, and 37.217 ± 0.092, respectively. Additionally, isotopic ratio values (206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb for sludge were 17.515 ± 0.155, 15.537 ± 0.018, and 37.357 ± 0.173, respectively. These values were similar to those in zinc and lead concentrate originated from Canada and South America. In contrast, Pb isotope ratios of soil, tailings and sediment from Lake Andong were similar to those of Korean ore. Atmospheric particles showed different patterns of Pb isotope ratios from sediments, soils, and zinc smelting and this needs further investigation in order to identify atmospheric Pb sources.

  10. Structural and ultrastructural study of rat testes influenced by electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almášiová, Viera; Holovská, Katarína; Cigánková, Viera; Račeková, Enikö; Fabianová, Kamila; Martončíková, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the influence of whole-body electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on testicular parenchyma of Wistar rats. Sexually mature rats were subjected to pulsed electromagnetic field at frequency of 2.45 GHz and mean power density 2.8 mW/cm(2) by 3-h daily applications for 3 wk. Tissue samples were obtained 3 h after the last irradiation and processed by histological techniques for light and transmission electron microscopy. Testes showed apparent degenerative changes of seminiferous epithelium. The seminiferous tubules were mostly irregular in shape, and seminiferous epithelium contained a number of empty spaces of different size. Subsequently, groups of sloughed epithelial cells were often found inside the lumina of tubules. Except for relatively unchanged Sertoli cells, some locations of basal compartment of seminiferous epithelium contained shriveled Sertoli cells with dark cytoplasm. These areas showed degenerative features including necrotizing and shriveled spermatogonia surrounded by empty irregular spaces, and undulating basement membrane. The intertubular spaces were enlarged but interstitial Leydig cells did not show any marked morphological changes. Evidence demonstrates the adverse effects of EMR on testicular parenchyma in rats.

  11. Structural and ultrastructural study of rat liver influenced by electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holovská, K; Almášiová, V; Cigánková, V; Beňová, K; Račeková, E; Martončíková, M

    2015-01-01

    Mobile communication systems are undoubtedly an environmental source of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). There is an increasing concern regarding the interactions of EMR with the humans. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of EMR on Wistar rat liver. Mature rats were exposed to electromagnetic field of frequency 2.45 GHz and mean power density of 2.8 mW/cm2 for 3 h/d for 3 wk. Samples of the liver were obtained 3 h after the last irradiation and processed histologically for light and transmission electron microscopy. Data demonstrated the presence of moderate hyperemia, dilatation of liver sinusoids, and small inflammatory foci in the center of liver lobules. Structure of hepatocytes was not altered and all described changes were classified as moderate. Electron microscopy of hepatocytes revealed vesicles of different sizes and shapes, lipid droplets, and proliferation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Occasionally necrotizing hepatocytes were observed. Our observations demonstrate that EMR exposure produced adverse effects on rat liver.

  12. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in rat lung alveolar epithelial cells. An ultrastructural enzyme-cytochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Matsubara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD is the key enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway in carbohydrate metabolism, and it plays an important role in cell proliferation and antioxidant regulation within cells in various organs. Although marked cell proliferation and oxidant/antioxidant metabolism occur in lung alveolar epithelial cells, definite data has been lacking as to whether cytochemically detectable G6PD is present in alveolar epithelial cells. The distribution pattern of G6PD within these cells, if it is present, is also unknown. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the subcellular localization of G6PD in alveolar cells in the rat lung using a newly- developed enzyme-cytochemistry (copper-ferrocyanide method. Type I cells and stromal endothelia and fibroblasts showed no activities. Electron-dense precipitates indicating G6PD activity were clearly visible in the cytoplasm and on the cytosolic side of the endoplasmic reticulum of type II alveolar epithelial cells. The cytochemical controls ensured specific detection of enzyme activity. This enzyme may play a role in airway defense by delivering substances for cell proliferation and antioxidant forces, thus maintaining the airway architecture.

  13. Histological, surface ultrastructural, and histochemical study of the stomach of red piranha, Pygocentrus nattereri (Kner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Saroj Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The structural characterization and function of the stomach in the omnivore Pygocentrus nattereri were described using light and scanning electron microscopy. The sac-like stomach was morphologically divided into the cardiac and pyloric regions. The histological structure of the stomach consisted of four layers of the mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, and serosa. The superficial epithelium of the cardiac stomach was lined with columnar epithelial cells and the glandular epithelium contained numerous gastric glands. Gastric glands were completely absent in the pyloric portion. The mucosal surface of the stomach was a meshwork of various folds, provided with oval or rounded columnar epithelial cells which were densely packed with short, stubby microvilli. The occasional presence of conspicuous gastric pits was surrounded by epithelial cells. The localization and chemical nature of acid and neutral mucins in the various cells of the stomach was studied by employing combined the Alcian Blue-Periodic Acid Schiff (AB-PAS technique. The deposition of glycogen was detected in the gastric glands as well as in the epithelial lining of the stomach. The utmost reactions for protein and tryptophan were recorded in the gastric glands of mucosa. The cellular organization and histochemical characterization of the stomach are discussed in relation to the feeding and digestion of the fish concerned.

  14. Ultrastructural and autoradiographic studies of nucleolar development and rDNA transcription in preimplantation mouse embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geuskens, M.; Alexandre, H. (Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). Dep. de Biologie Moleculaire)

    1984-06-01

    The development of the nucleoli and the sites of rDNA transcription have been studies by high-resolution autoradiography during the cleavage stages of mouse embryos. The appearance of fibrillar centres at the periphery of the fibrillar primary nucleoli has been observed at the 4-cell stage. Several fibrillar centres interconnected by electron-dense fibrillar strands, form a reticulated region around the fibrillar mass at the 6- to 8-cell stage. After a 10 min pulse with (/sup 3/H)uridine, only this peripheral network is labelled. At the late morula and at the blastocyst stage, the fibrillar component (nucleolonema) of the reticulated nucleoli is labelled after 10 min (/sup 3/H)uridine incorporation. When the embryos are reincubated for 2 h in cold medium, the label is localized mainly in the granular component. Fibrillar centres are not labelled. Autoradiograms of in vitro developed embryos pulsed for 2 h with (/sup 3/H)uridine confirm that the central fibrillar core of the nucleoli of 6- to 8-cell embryos is never labelled. Thus, the fibrillar constituent of this core is not homologous to the fibrillar component of the nucleoli of later stage embryos, which is the site of active rDNA transcription. An interpretation of nucleologenesis during early mouse embryogenesis is proposed.

  15. Ultrastructural and autoradiographic studies of nucleolar development and rDNA transcription in preimplantation mouse embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geuskens, M.; Alexandre, H.

    1984-01-01

    The development of the nucleoli and the sites of rDNA transcription have been studies by high-resolution autoradiography during the cleavage stages of mouse embryos. The appearance of fibrillar centres at the periphery of the fibrillar primary nucleoli has been observed at the 4-cell stage. Several fibrillar centres interconnected by electron-dense fibrillar strands, form a reticulated region around the fibrillar mass at the 6- to 8-cell stage. After a 10 min pulse with ( 3 H)uridine, only this peripheral network is labelled. At the late morula and at the blastocyst stage, the fibrillar component (nucleolonema) of the reticulated nucleoli is labelled after 10 min ( 3 H)uridine incorporation. When the embryos are reincubated for 2 h in cold medium, the label is localized mainly in the granular component. Fibrillar centres are not labelled. Autoradiograms of in vitro developed embryos pulsed for 2 h with ( 3 H)uridine confirm that the central fibrillar core of the nucleoli of 6- to 8-cell embryos is never labelled. Thus, the fibrillar constituent of this core is not homologous to the fibrillar component of the nucleoli of later stage embryos, which is the site of active rDNA transcription. An interpretation of nucleologenesis during early mouse embryogenesis is proposed. (author)

  16. Elemental diet as prophylaxis against radiation injury. Histological and ultrastructural studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McArdle, A.H.; Wittnich, C.; Freeman, C.R.; Duguid, W.P.

    1985-01-01

    The authors investigated whether elemental diet feeding would protect the intestine from radiation injury. Five dogs were fed an elemental diet for three days before receiving pelvic irradiation (500 rad/day for four days) and were maintained on the diet during the days of irradiation. These dogs were compared with five dogs that were fed normal kennel ration, but were treated similarly otherwise. One day and five days following completion of the radiation treatment, the dogs were anesthetized and a biopsy specimen of terminal ileum was taken for histologic and electron microscopic studies. In the dogs fed the elemental diet, there was no significant damage to the intestine seen on histological examination, and electron microscopy disclosed elongated microvilli and no organelle damage. However, both histological and electron microscopic examination of the intestine from dogs maintained on normal kennel ration showed that severe damage had occurred from the irradiation procedure. It seems, therefore, that the feeding of an elemental diet to dogs as a prophylaxis can afford protection to the intestine from the acute phase of radiation injury

  17. Fate of thymic lymphocytes. [/sup 125/IudR and /sup 3/HTdR tracer studies in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laissue, J A; Chanana, A D; Cronkite, E P; Joel, D D

    1976-01-01

    Data are summarized from a number of studies on the fate of thymic lymphocytes. Results are reported from studies in mice in which /sup 125/IudR and /sup 3/HTdR were used as tracers to study the production, maturation, migration, and life span of thymic lymphocytes. It is pointed out that thymus-derived cells constitute the majority of recirculating lymphocytes and that peripheral, differentiated thymus-derived lymphocytes exhibit a number of immunological functions. 114 references.

  18. Application of radioisotope tracer techniques in studies on host-parasite relationships, with special reference to larval trematodes. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, N.Oe.

    1981-01-01

    The application of radioisotope tracer techniques in studies on various host-parasite relationships between larval trematodes and their intermediate and definite hosts is reviewed. Such studies comprise, for example, the reproduction and nutrition of various developmental stages of trematodes in relation to host and environment. The preparation and application of radiolabelled larvae are also discussed with special emphasis on their use in studies on free-living ecology and migration in hosts. (author)

  19. Immunohistochemical, lectin histochemical and ultrastructural studies of canine transmissible venereal tumor in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana B. Mascarenhas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT is a naturally occurring contagious round-cell neoplasia, with poorly understood origin and transmission. This study aims to further investigate the tumor nature through immunohistochemistry, lectin histochemistry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM analysis, and to provide support for diagnostic and differential diagnoses of CTVT. Immunohistochemistry was performed in 10 genital and six exclusively extragenital tumors, which were previously diagnosed by citology and histopathology. CTVT samples were incubated with biotinylated antibodies to specific membrane and cytoplasmic antigens (anti-lysozyme, anti-macrophage, anti-vimentin, anti-CD18, monoclonal anti-CD117, monoclonal anti-CD3, polyclonal anti-CD117, polyclonal CD3 and anti-CD79a, followed by the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex technique. The lectins Con A, DBA, SBA, PNA, UEA-1, WGA, sWGA, GSL, JSA, PSA, PHA-L, PHA-E and RCA were additionally tested in four genital CTVTs and TEM was performed in eight genital tumors. The anti-vimentin antibody revealed strong immunoreactivity to neoplastic cells in all the assessed samples (16/16. The polyclonal anti-CD3 antibodies showed moderate to strong immunoreactivity in fourteen (14/16 and the polyclonal anti-CD117 in fifteen cases (15/16. There was no immunoreactivity to anti-lysozyme, anti-macrophage, anti-CD18, monoclonal anti-CD117, monoclonal anti-CD3 and anti-CD79a antibodies. At lectin histochemistry, it was observed strong staining of tumor cells to Con-A, PHA-L and RCA. There was no histopathological and immunoreactivity differences between genital and extragenital CTVTs. These findings do not support the hypothesis of histiocytic origin of CTVT. In contrast, the lectin histochemical results were similar to cells from lymphoid/myeloid origin.

  20. Local study of pollutants dispersion by a real time tracer method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faivre-Pierret, R.X.; Sestier-Carlin, R.; Berne, P.

    1992-01-01

    It is possible to use a Gaussian mathematical model of atmospheric dispersion for calculating atmospheric transfer coefficient (ATC) in long range model, but for proximity models, an experimental model using a tracer technic has to take in account ground effects and natural or artificial obstacles. SF 6 tracer method gives the true plume ground trace in real time. The measured ATC shows a larger ground trace, lower concentration in the axis, and a displacement of the maximum concentration with regard to wind axis in comparison with the calculated ATC. (A.B.). 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  1. Using Temperature as a Tracer to Study Fluid Flow Patterns On and Offshore Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, W. C.

    2017-12-01

    Fluid flows are a dynamic system in the crust that affect crustal deformation and formation of natural resources. It is difficult to study fluid flow velocity instrumentally, but temperature data offers a quantitative tool that can be used as a tracer to study crustal hydrogeology. Here we present numerical techniques we have applied to study the fluid migration velocity along conduits including faults in on and offshore settings. Offshore SW Taiwan, we use a bottom-simulating reflector (BSR) from seismic profiles to study the temperature field at several hundred meters subbottom depth. The BSR is interpreted as the base of a gas hydrate stability zone under the seabed. Gas hydrates are solid-state water with gas molecules enclosed, which can be found where the temperature, pressure, and salinity conditions allow hydrates to be stable. Using phase diagrams and hydro pressure information we can derive the temperature at the BSR. BSRs are widespread in the study area, providing very dense temperature field information which shows upward bending of the BSR near faults. We have quantitatively estimated the 1D and 2D fluid flow patterns required to fit the BSR-based temperature field. This shows that fault zones can act as conduits with high permeability parallel to the fault planes. On the other hand, fault zones can also act as barriers to fluid flow, as demonstrated in our onland temperature data. We have collected temperature profiles at several bore holes onland that are very close together. The preliminary results show that the fault zones separate the ground water systems, causing very different geothermal gradients. Our results show that the physical properties of fault zones can be anisotropic, as demonstrated in previous work. Future work includes estimating the regional water expulsion budget offshore SW Taiwan, in particular for several gas hydrate sites.

  2. Teacher Education Graduate Tracer Study from 2010 to 2014 in One State University in Batangas, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anania B. Aquino

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Teacher Education institutions primarily aim of producing competent and highly qualified graduates employable here and abroad. Tracer studies on graduates can appropriately provide valuable information for evaluating the results of the education and training of a specific institution of higher education. It collects essential information concerning the employment profile of graduates, their undergraduate experience, the first and current jobs of graduates and the relevance of their educational background and skills required in their job. The main objective of this study was to trace the employment profile of the graduates after they obtained their teacher education degree. The descriptive survey method of research was applied to this research with a survey questionnaire as the main data gathering instrument. It analyzed data from 129 respondents characterized by a preponderance of females over male as females and unmarried or single graduates as opposed to those who were married. The study found that there were more respondents who finished Bachelor of Secondary Education (BSED over Bachelor of Elementary Education. They obtained this degree as they believed that teaching is a rewarding and challenging profession, Majority are Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET passers and are employed in public schools at the time of the study. Their present job, mostly professional in nature, was also their first job and relevant to their degree. It took only a moderate period of time for most graduates to land a job. Most stay in their job for economic reason, finding communication skills and human relation skills as part of their teacher education preparation very relevant to their jobs.

  3. Fluorescence Localization and Comparative Ultrastructural Study of Periplocoside NW from Periploca sepium Bunge in the Midgut of the Oriental Amyworm, Mythimna separata Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxing Feng

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Periplocoside NW (PSNW is a novel insecticidal compound isolated from the root bark of Periploca sepium Bunge and has potent stomach toxicity against some insect pests. Previous studies showed that the Mythimna separata larva is sensitive to PSNW, but the Agrotis ispilon larva is insensitive. In this study, preliminary target localization on the midgut of M. separata larvae was conducted via a fluorescence labeling technique. A comparative ultrastructural study on the effects of PSNW on the midguts of M. separata and A. ispilon larvae was performed. Symptom observation results showed that typical stomach toxicity was induced by PSNW in M. separata larvae. Fluorescence localization results showed that PSNW binds to the midgut cells of M. separata larvae. Ultrastructure observations showed destruction of the microvilli, organelle, and cytomembrane in the midgut cells of M. separata larvae, whereas no obvious changes were observed in midgut cells of A. ispilon larvae. These results were consistent with the insecticidal activity of PSNW. Therefore, PSNW might act on the midgut tissues of the insects, and one or more binding sites of PSNW may exist in M. separata larvae midgut cell cytomembranes.

  4. Ultrastructural changes in rabbits liver after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieciura, L; Bartel, H; Orkisz, S

    1975-01-01

    Ultrastructural changes in hepatocytes observed 1 to 30 days after irradiation are presented. The dose absorbed was 550 rad (LD 33/30). Electron microscopy studies showed that early and more distinct changes were observed in mitochondria within 24 hours. Disintegration of endoplasmic reticulum and vacuolization of cytoplasm were seen on the 3rd day after irradiation. From the 9th day, the ultrastructural picture of hepatocytes became normal. In the liver in this period the increase in number of large hypertrophic macrophages was noted.

  5. Development and evaluation of a tracer-injection hydrothermal technique for studies of waste package interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.E.; Coles, D.G.; Britton, R.C.; Burnell, J.R.

    1986-11-01

    A tracer-injection system has been developed for use in characterizing reactions of waste package materials under hydrothermal conditions. High-pressure liquid chromatographic instrumentation has been coupled with Dickson-type rocking autoclaves to allow injection of selected components into the hydrothermal fluid while maintaining run temperature and pressure. Hydrothermal experiments conducted using this system included the interactions of depleted uranium oxide and Zircaloy-4 metal alloy discs with trace levels of 99 Tc and non-radioactive Cs and I in a simulated groundwater matrix. After waste-package components and simulated waste forms were pre-conditioned in the autoclave systems (usually 4 to 6 weeks), known quantities of tracer-doped fluids were injected into the autoclaves' gold reaction bag at run conditions. Time-sequenced sampling of the hydrothermal fluid providing kinetic data on the reactions of tracers with waste package materials. The injection system facilitates the design of experiments that will better define ''steady-state'' fluid compositions in hydrothermal reactions. The injection system will also allow for the formation of tracer-bearing solid phases in detectable quantities

  6. Tracer element studies on deep water formation and circulation in the European Artic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boenisch, G.

    1991-01-01

    Tracer element investigations (tritium, helium 3, carbon 14, argon 39, krypton 85 and fluorohydrocarbons) were carried out in the European Arctic Sea. The findings are discussed with a view to their validity in the case of deep water formation and circulation. The data cover the period of 1972 through 1989. (BBR) [de

  7. Studies applications through tracers techniques and effluent contaminants dispersing in Montevideo coastal waters and east beaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, R.; Dellepere, A.; Pintos, A.; Barreiro, M.; Odino, R.; Souto, B.; Badano, A.; Crosignani, L.; Moreno, S.

    1995-01-01

    With the purpose to define or not the contamination influence in Montevideo coastal waters, uranine and tritium tracers were injected in outlet river. A higher grade of contamination was found in the Montevideo Bay, and several recommendations were given for the future

  8. An improved method for analysis of In-EDTA, I- and Br- used as active tracers in hydrological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanescu, S.P.; Spiridon, S.

    1992-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis combined with chemical preconcentration of the elements in water samples can give a high sensitivity in the determination of concentrations for In-EDTA, I - and Br - used as active tracers in hydrological studies. The authors have developed an improved method of analysis which is sensitive, selective and applicable to a wide range of underground and surface water samples including those having a high concentration of manganese ions. (author) 6 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  9. Use of radon-222 as a tracer in the study of atmospheric diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikebe, Y.; Yamada, H.; Nishimura, T.; Kojima, S.; Shimo, M.; Yamanishi, H.; Tojyo, K.; Iida, T.; Chino, M.

    1991-01-01

    222 Rn is one of the most useful tracer for studying the atmospheric diffusion. In this report, first we report analytical treatments about temporal variation of Rn concentration in the atmosphere to clarify origin and transport of Rn. Secondly we report the numerical simulation of the behavior of Rn. The results is compared with the observed Rn concentration for confirming the validity of the simulation. Based on the results of numerical analysis of a diffusion equation, we assumed that Rn concentration measured at Nagoya can be divided into the following two components: (I) Rn atom originated near from the measuring site, which is denoted by 'diurnal variation component'. For this, it was shown that the measured temporal variation can be explained by using ordinary non-steady state one dimensional diffusion equation. (II) Rn atoms originated far from the measuring site (including Chinese Continent), which is denoted by 'background component'. For this component, we propose a one layer transport model using air mass trajectory technique. By this model we can explain well the temporal variation of back-ground component and seasonal variation of Rn at Nagoya. A numerical simulation of the temporal variation of Rn was carried out for meso-regional scale (200kmx200kmx1km). The results was compared with the continuous measurements of Rn concentration at Nagoya, and fairly good agreements was obtained. We have obtained horizontal distributions of Rn around Nagoya (150kmx150km) for each season by using a passive method. The linear relationship between Rn concentration and measured Rn exhalation rate supports the transport model mentioned above and gives us other interesting informations. (author)

  10. Radon as a natural geochemical tracer for study of groundwater discharge into lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Axel

    2008-01-01

    In the presented work the suitability of the naturally occurring radioactive noble gas isotope radon-222 for qualitative and quantitative description of groundwater discharge into lakes was studied. Basis of these investigations was the development of two innovative techniques for the on-site determination of radon in water. In the ex-situ radon measurement procedure, water from the source concerned is taken up in an exchange cell used for this purpose. Inside this cell, the radon dissolved in water is transferred via diffusion into a closed counter-flow of air and subsequently detected by a radon-in-air monitor. Where the in-situ radon determination is concerned, a module composed of a semipermeable membrane is introduced into a water column. Subsequently, the radon dissolved in the water body diffuses through the membrane into the corresponding air flow, by means of which it is transferred into a radon-in-air monitor and is detected. Combination of the developed mobile radon extraction techniques with a suitable and portable radon monitor allow the detection of radon-222 with sufficient accuracy (smaller 20 %) in groundwater as well as in surface waters, i.e., within a broad range of concentrations. Radon-222 was subsequently used to characterize groundwater discharge into a meromictic and a dimictic lake, i.e. two types of lake basically distinct from each other with respect to their water circulation properties were investigated. The use of the noble gas isotope radon-222 as a geochemical tracer makes the application of on-site detection techniques possible and that this in turn permits a rapid, reliable, and cost-effective assessment of groundwater discharge rates into lake water bodies

  11. Two dimensional model study of atmospheric transport using carbon-14 and strontium-90 as inert tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnison, D.E.; Wuebbles, D.J.; Johnston, H.S.

    1992-02-01

    This study tests the transport processes in the LLNL two-dimensional chemical-radiative-transport model using recently reanalyzed carbon-14 and strontium-90 data. These radioactive tracers were produced bythe atmospheric nuclear bomb tests of 1952--58 and 1961--62, and they were measured at a few latitudes up to 35 kilometers over the period 1955--1970. Selected horizontal and vertical eddy diffusion coefficients were varied in the model to test their sensitivity to short and long term transpose of carbon-14. A sharp transition of K zz and K yy through the tropopause, as opposed to a slow transition between the same limiting values, shows a distinct improvement in the calculated carbon-14 distributions, a distinct improvement in the calculated seasonal and latitudinal distribution of ozone columns (relative to TOMS observations), and a very large difference in the calculated ozone reduction by a possible fleet of High Speed Civil Transports. Calculated northern hemisphere carbon-14 is more sensitive to variation of K yy than are global ozone columns. Strontium-90 was used to test the LLNL tropopause height at four different latitudes. Starting with the 1960 background distribution of carbon-14, we calculate the input of carbon-14 as the sum of each nuclear test of the 1961--62 series, using two bomb-cloud rise models. With the Seitz bomb-rise formulation in the LLNL model, we find good agreement between calculated and observedcarbon-14 (with noticeable exceptions at the north polar tropopause and the short-term mid-latitude mid-stratosphere) between 1963 and 1970

  12. Radon as a natural geochemical tracer for study of groundwater discharge into lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Axel

    2008-06-27

    In the presented work the suitability of the naturally occurring radioactive noble gas isotope radon-222 for qualitative and quantitative description of groundwater discharge into lakes was studied. Basis of these investigations was the development of two innovative techniques for the on-site determination of radon in water. In the ex-situ radon measurement procedure, water from the source concerned is taken up in an exchange cell used for this purpose. Inside this cell, the radon dissolved in water is transferred via diffusion into a closed counter-flow of air and subsequently detected by a radon-in-air monitor. Where the in-situ radon determination is concerned, a module composed of a semipermeable membrane is introduced into a water column. Subsequently, the radon dissolved in the water body diffuses through the membrane into the corresponding air flow, by means of which it is transferred into a radon-in-air monitor and is detected. Combination of the developed mobile radon extraction techniques with a suitable and portable radon monitor allow the detection of radon-222 with sufficient accuracy (smaller 20 %) in groundwater as well as in surface waters, i.e., within a broad range of concentrations. Radon-222 was subsequently used to characterize groundwater discharge into a meromictic and a dimictic lake, i.e. two types of lake basically distinct from each other with respect to their water circulation properties were investigated. The use of the noble gas isotope radon-222 as a geochemical tracer makes the application of on-site detection techniques possible and that this in turn permits a rapid, reliable, and cost-effective assessment of groundwater discharge rates into lake water bodies.

  13. Ultrastructural characters of the spermatozoa in Digeneans of the genus Lecithochirium Lühe, 1901 (Digenea, Hemiuridae, parasites of fishes: comparative study of L. microstomum and L. musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndiaye Papa Ibnou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study provides the first ultrastructural data of spermatozoa in the genus Lecithochirium. The spermatozoa of L. microstomum (from Trichiurus lepturus in Senegal and L. musculus (from Anguilla anguilla in Corsica exhibit the general pattern described in the great majority of the Digenea, namely two axonemes with the 9 + “1” pattern typical of the Trepaxonemata, one mitochondrion, a nucleus, parallel cortical microtubules and external ornamentation of the plasma membrane. Spermatozoa of L. microstomum and L. musculus have some specific features such as the presence of a reduced number of cortical microtubules arranged on only one side of the spermatozoon, the lack of spine-like bodies and expansion of the plasma membrane. The external ornamentation of the plasma membrane entirely covers the anterior extremity of the spermatozoa. The ultrastructure of the posterior extremity of the spermatozoa corresponds to the pattern previously described in the Hemiuridae, characterized by only singlets of the second axoneme. A particularity of these spermatozoa is the organization of the microtubule doublets of the second axoneme around the nucleus in the posterior part of the spermatozoon.

  14. Isolation, in vitro culture, ultrastructure study, and characterization by lectin-agglutination tests of Phytomonas isolated from tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) and cherimoyas (Anona cherimolia) in southeastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Moreno, M; Fernandez-Becerra, C; Mascaro, C; Rosales, M J; Dollet, M; Osuna, A

    1995-01-01

    Plants of Lycopersicon esculentum (grown in greenhouses) and Anona cherimolia cultivated in southeastern Spain were examined for the presence of trypanosomatid flagellates. Kinetoplastid protozoa were found in the fruits but not in the phloem or other plant tissues. Parasites were detected from the onset of fruiting. Isolates were detected from the onset of fruiting. Isolates were adapted to in vitro culturing in monophase media. The form and the structural organization was studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The parasites showed an ultrastructural pattern similar to that of other species of the genus Phytomonas. In tomatoes experimentally inoculated with flagellates cultivated in vitro, we observed that the parasites did not lose their infectious capacity. Three strains of trypanosomatids of the genus Phytomonas, isolated from different species of Euphorbia (E. characias and E. hyssopifolia) and from Cocos nucifera, were compared with our isolates by lectin-agglutination tests. Our isolates were different from the two strains isolated from Euphorbia, but with this technique we could not differentiate our isolates from those of the coconut, nor could we differentiate between the isolates, their ultrastructural similarity together with their similar behavior in the lectin-agglutination test suggesting that these isolates have a common origin.

  15. Micromorphological study (ultrastructure of lamina surface, seeds, ultrasculpture of pollen grains of Gladiolus L. species (Iridaceae Juss. of Ukrainian flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhygalova Svitlana L.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Micro-morphological characteristics of the four Gladiolus L. species of the Ukrainian flora (G. imbricatus L., G. italicus Mill., G. palustris Gaudin and G. tenuis M. Bieb. as regards leaves, seeds and pollens are presented with this investigation in a detailed way. An examination of the surface structure of the leaves, seeds and pollen grains of the Gladiolus species indicates that the characteristics of the ultrastructure of leaves and of pollen grains are not diagnostic for distinguishing species, but they could be important at genus level (leaves: features such as being amphistomatic, having the same quantity of immersed stomata on both surfaces and having a high stomata index, the presence and localisation of papillae, the shape of epidermal cells; pollen grains: monosulcate type with two operculums. However, the type of surface ultrastructure of the seed coat is a diagnostic feature as at genus level so for species. It can be mentioned that propose the use of features such as the shape and position of the cicatricle, the type of cuticle, the shape and boundaries of cells of testa, and the anticlinal cell walls as diagnostic features at genera level. The shape of seeds, the presence and disposition of wing, the level of the periclinal cell walls of the seed coat and types of relief are additional diagnostic features for distinguishing of Gladiolus species.

  16. You are not always what we think you eat. Selective assimilation across multiple whole-stream isotopic tracer studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodds, W. K.; Collins, S. M.; Hamilton, S. K.; Johnson, S.; Webster, J. R.; Simon, K. S.; Whiles, M. R.; Rantala, H. M.; McDowell, W. H.; Peterson, S. D.; Riis, T.; Crenshaw, C. L.; Thomas, S. A.; Kristensen, P. B.; Cheever, B. M.; Flecker, A. S.; Griffiths, N. A.; Crowl, T.; Rosi-Marshall, E. J.; El-Sabaawi, R.; Marti, E.

    2014-01-01

    Analyses of 21 15 N stable isotope tracer experiments, designed to examine food web dynamics in streams around the world, indicated that the isotopic composition of food resources assimilated by primary consumers (mostly invertebrates) poorly reflected the presumed food sources. Modeling indicated that consumers assimilated only 33-50% of the N available in sampled food sources such as decomposing leaves, epilithon, and fine particulate detritus over feeding periods of weeks or more. Thus, common methods of sampling food sources consumed by animals in streams do not sufficiently reflect the pool of N they assimilate. Lastly, Isotope tracer studies, combined with modeling and food separation techniques, can improve estimation of N pools in food sources that are assimilated by consumers

  17. Study on bioavailability of zinc for children's diet by using activable isotopic tracer 70Zn and neutron activation analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yangmei; Ni Bangfa; Wang Pingsheng; Tian Weizhi; Cao Lei

    2001-01-01

    Bioavailability of zinc for three groups (low amount of diet zinc, balance amount of diet zinc and high amount of diet zinc) of children's diet is studied by using activable isotopic tracer 70 Zn and neutron activation analysis techniques. The results indicate that the fractional absorption of zinc from balance diet zinc group is the highest, up to 33.9%. A procedure of pre-irradiation concentration zinc for fecal samples using anion exchanger is developed, and the enriched 70 Zn with isotopic abundance of 18.3% is used for tracer. The mass ratios between 70 Zn and 68 Zn or 64 Zn and their contents between natural zinc and enriched zinc are used to calculate the bioavailability of zinc. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of 64 Zn of each original fecal samples and pre-irradiation concentrated zinc samples are used to normalize the chemical yield in order to reduce the uncertainty during the chemical separation procedure

  18. Delayed clearance of cerebrospinal fluid tracer from entorhinal cortex in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: A glymphatic magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Per K; Ringstad, Geir

    2018-01-01

    The glymphatic system plays a key role for clearance of waste solutes from the rodent brain. We recently found evidence of glymphatic circulation in the human brain when using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tracer in conjunction with multiple MRI acquisitions (gMRI). The present study explored the hypothesis that reduced glymphatic clearance in entorhinal cortex (ERC) may be instrumental in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) dementia. gMRI acquisitions were obtained over a 24-48 h time span in cognitively affected iNPH patients and non-cognitively affected patients with suspected CSF leaks. The CSF tracer enrichment was determined as changes in normalized MRI T1 signal units. The study included 30 patients with iNPH and 8 individuals with suspected CSF leaks (i.e. reference individuals). Compared to reference individuals, iNPH patients presented with higher medial temporal lobe atrophy score and Evan's index and inferior ERC thickness. We found delayed clearance of the intrathecal CSF tracer gadobutrol from CSF, the ERC and adjacent white matter, suggesting impaired glymphatic circulation. Reduced clearance and accumulation of toxic waste product such as amyloid-β may be a mechanism behind dementia in iNPH. Glymphatic MRI (gMRI) may become a tool for assessment of early dementia.

  19. Bottom sediment transport study at Haiphong port using radioactive scandium as tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Ngoc Chuong; Phan Son Hai; Pham Duy Hien

    1993-01-01

    A radioisotope tracer experiment was performed for investigating the bedload movement at the site near the access channel to Haiphong port, North Vietnam. The scandium glass and a number of mechanical devices were manufactured locally for the experiment. Simple and safe procedures were adopted for the production, transportation and injection of radioactive tracer materials. Five tracking experiments were carried out covering the period of 84 days in winter 1992-1993. The experimental results provide a firm basis for elaborating appropriate measures against the siltation problem at Haiphong port, especially for the design of a new access channel with a better orientation with respect to the directions of the water flow and bedload transport, as proposed recently by the Port Authority. (Author). 2 refs, 4 figs

  20. Study on development of evaluation technique of in-situ tracer test in Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Hideharu; Amano, Kenji; Maekawa, Keisuke; Kunimaru, Takanori; Naemura, Yumi; Ijiri, Yuji; Motoshima, Takayuki; Suzuki, Shunichi; Teshima, Kazufumi

    2013-06-01

    In the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project, in-situ tracer tests are valuable and important as the investigations to obtain the mass transportation data of fractures in hostrock. However, it is difficult that the in-situ tests are executed under various conditions due to long test period and the tests results are evaluated about permeable heterogeneity in a fracture and/or scale effects. In this study, a number of tracer tests are simulated in a fictitious single plate fracture generated on computer. And the transport parameters are identified by fitting one- and two-dimensional models to the breakthrough curves obtained from the simulations in order to investigate the applicability of these models to the evaluation of in-situ tracer test. As a result, one-dimensional model yields larger longitudinal dispersion length than two-dimensional model in the both cases of homogeneous and heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity fields of the fictitious fracture. This is because that the effect of transverse dispersion has to be included in the longitudinal dispersion length parameter in the one-dimensional model. It is also found that the larger dipole ratio and the larger natural groundwater flow crossing the flow generated between two boreholes make the identified longitudinal dispersion length larger. And, the longitudinal dispersion length identified from a tracer test is smaller and/or larger than the macroscopic longitudinal dispersion length identified from whole fracture. It is clarified that these are occurred by shorter or longer distance between boreholes compare to the correlation length of geostatistical heterogeneity of fictitious fracture. (author)

  1. The Thrombin Receptor Antagonist for Clinical Event Reduction in Acute Coronary Syndrome (TRA*CER) trial: study design and rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1), the main platelet receptor for thrombin, represents a novel target for treatment of arterial thrombosis, and SCH 530348 is an orally active, selective, competitive PAR-1 antagonist. We designed TRA*CER to evaluate the efficacy and safety of SCH 530348 compared with placebo in addition to standard of care in patients with non-ST-segment elevation (NSTE) acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and high-risk features. TRA*CER is a prospective, randomized, double-blind, multicenter, phase III trial with an original estimated sample size of 10,000 subjects. Our primary objective is to demonstrate that SCH 530348 in addition to standard of care will reduce the incidence of the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, recurrent ischemia with rehospitalization, and urgent coronary revascularization compared with standard of care alone. Our key secondary objective is to determine whether SCH 530348 will reduce the composite of cardiovascular death, MI, or stroke compared with standard of care alone. Secondary objectives related to safety are the composite of moderate and severe GUSTO bleeding and clinically significant TIMI bleeding. The trial will continue until a predetermined minimum number of centrally adjudicated primary and key secondary end point events have occurred and all subjects have participated in the study for at least 1 year. The TRA*CER trial is part of the large phase III SCH 530348 development program that includes a concomitant evaluation in secondary prevention. TRA*CER will define efficacy and safety of the novel platelet PAR-1 inhibitor SCH 530348 in the treatment of high-risk patients with NSTE ACS in the setting of current treatment strategies.

  2. Biodistribution of [11C] methylaminoisobutyric acid, a tracer for PET studies on system A amino acid transport in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutinen, E.; Jyrkkioe, S.; Groenroos, T.; Haaparanta, M.; Lehikoinen, P.; Naagren, K.

    2001-01-01

    [N-methyl- 11 C]α-Methylaminoisobutyric acid ( 11 C-MeAIB) is a potentially useful tracer for positron emission tomography (PET) studies on hormonally regulated system A amino acid transport. 11 C-MeAIB is a metabolically stable amino acid analogue specific for system A amino acid transport. We evaluated the biodistribution of 11 C-MeAIB in rats and humans to estimate the usefulness of the tracer for in vivo human PET studies, for example, on regulation of system A amino acid transport and on tumour imaging. Healthy Sprague-Dawley rats (n=14) were killed 5, 20, 40 or 60 min after the injection of 11 C-MeAIB, and the tissue samples were weighed and counted for 11 C radioactivity. Ten lymphoma patients with relatively limited tumour burden underwent whole-body (WB) PET imaging with 11 C-MeAIB. In addition, three other patients had dynamic PET scanning of the head and neck area, and the tracer uptake was quantitated by calculating the kinetic influx constants (K i values) for the tracer. In animal studies, the highest activity was detected in the kidney, pancreas, adrenal gland and intestines. In humans, the highest activity was found in the salivary glands, and after that in the kidney and pancreas, similar to the results in animal studies. Rapid uptake was also detected in the skeletal muscle. In the graphical analysis, linear plots were obtained, and the mean fractional tracer uptake values (K i ) of the parotid glands (n=3) and cervical muscles (n=3) were 0.039±0.008 min -1 and 0.013±0.006 min -1 , respectively. The K i value of the tumour (n=1) was 0.064 min -1 . Higher uptake of 11 C-MeAIB into the tumour tissue was encountered. These results encourage further 11 C-MeAIB PET studies in humans on the physiology and pathology of system A amino acid transport and on tumour detection. (orig.)

  3. Study of solid and liquid behavior in large copper flotation cells (130 m2) using radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, F.; Jimenez, O.; Yianatos, J.; Contreras, F.

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of the solid and liquid phases, in large flotation cells, was characterized by means of the radioactive tracer technique. The use of radioactive tracers enabled the identification of the Residence Time Distribution, of floatable and non-floatable solid, from continuous (on-line) measuring at the output streams of the flotation cells. For this study, the proper radioactive tracers were selected and applied in order to characterize the different phases; i.e. for liquid phase Br-82 as Ammonium Bromide, for floatable solid recovered in the concentrate Cu-64, and for non-floatable solid in three particle size classes (coarse: >150 μm, intermediate: 45 μm, and fine: <45 μm), Na-24. The experimental results confirmed the strong effect of particle size on the Residence Time Distribution, and mean residence time of solids in larger flotation cells, and consequently in flotation hydrodynamics. From a hydrodynamic point of view, the experimental data confirmed that a single mechanical flotation cells, of large size, can deviate significantly from perfect mixing. The experimental work was developed in a 130 m3 industrial flotation cell of the rougher circuit at El Teniente Division, Codelco-Chile. (authors)

  4. Prospect of radon as a tracer in studying of landslide forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huifeng; Ding Dexin

    2004-01-01

    Radon, as a chemical element of radioactivity, is widely used in the fields of earth-quake monitoring, prospecting mine and exploring resource. This paper discussed the theory of radon's separating out from the soil and the theory and means of surveying radon. It also relates the radon anomaly in the measuring process of soil radon, caused by the interferring of the environmental factors in measurement results. It further clarifies the wilde application of radon as a tracer in landslide forecast. (authors)

  5. Compartmental Modeling and Dosimetry of in Vivo Metabolic Studies of Leucine and Three Secretory Proteins in Humans Using Radioactive Tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatakrishnan, Vaidehi

    1995-01-01

    Physical and mathematical models provide a systematic means of looking at biological systems. Radioactive tracer kinetic studies open a unique window to study complex tracee systems such as protein metabolism in humans. This research deals with compartmental modeling of tracer kinetic data on leucine and apolipoprotein metabolism obtained using an endogenous tritiated leucine tracer administered as a bolus, and application of compartmental modeling techniques for dosimetric evaluation of metabolic studies of radioiodinated apolipoproteins. Dr. Waldo R. Fisher, Department of Medicine, was the coordinating research supervisor and the work was carried out in his laboratory. A compartmental model for leucine kinetics in humans has been developed that emphasizes its recycling pathways which were examined over two weeks. This model builds on a previously published model of Cobelli et al, that analyzed leucine kinetic data up to only eight hours. The proposed model includes different routes for re-entry of leucine from protein breakdown into plasma accounting for proteins which turn over at different rates. This new model successfully incorporates published models of three secretory proteins: albumin, apoA-I, and VLDL apoB, in toto thus increasing its validity and utility. The published model of apoA-I, based on an exogenous radioiodinated tracer, was examined with data obtained using an endogenous leucine tracer using compartmental techniques. The analysis concludes that the major portion of apoA-I enters plasma by a fast pathway but the major fraction of apoA-I in plasma resides with a second slow pathway; further the study is suggestive of a precursor-product relationship between the two plasma apoA-I pools. The possible relevance of the latter suggestion to the aberrant kinetics of apoA-I in Tangier disease is discussed. The analysis of apoA-II data resulted in similar conclusions. A methodology for evaluating the dosimetry of radioiodinated apolipoproteins by

  6. Studies of radioisotope tracer technique and its applications to pesticide sciences in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Minghong; Chen Qing; Zheng Ran

    1996-05-01

    The improper use of chemical pesticides has resulted in serious environmental problems and food pollutions, affecting the ecosystem balance and human being health. There are more and more scientists and research institutions being engaged in the area of radioisotope tracer techniques for pesticide sciences in China. So far, more than 80 labeled compounds, including insecticides, fungicides, acaricides, herbicides, metabolic intermediates, fertilizer and biological agents, etc. have been synthesized at the laboratory for application of isotopes in Institute for Application of Atomic Energy, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences. Over past several years, the great achievements have been made in the researches of radioisotope tracer techniques and their applications to pesticide sciences in China, especially in the researches for isotopic labeling, residues, degradation and metabolism of pesticides in plant and animal, behavior and fate of pesticides in environment, and techniques for safe application of pesticide, and so on. The researches of radioisotope tracer techniques and their applications to pesticide sciences in China in the past years are briefly introduced. Some problems are put forward and the development in future is predicted. (1 tab.)

  7. A comparative modeling study of a dual tracer experiment in a large lysimeter under atmospheric conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpp, C.; Nützmann, G.; Maciejewski, S.; Maloszewski, P.

    2009-09-01

    SummaryIn this paper, five model approaches with different physical and mathematical concepts varying in their model complexity and requirements were applied to identify the transport processes in the unsaturated zone. The applicability of these model approaches were compared and evaluated investigating two tracer breakthrough curves (bromide, deuterium) in a cropped, free-draining lysimeter experiment under natural atmospheric boundary conditions. The data set consisted of time series of water balance, depth resolved water contents, pressure heads and resident concentrations measured during 800 days. The tracer transport parameters were determined using a simple stochastic (stream tube model), three lumped parameter (constant water content model, multi-flow dispersion model, variable flow dispersion model) and a transient model approach. All of them were able to fit the tracer breakthrough curves. The identified transport parameters of each model approach were compared. Despite the differing physical and mathematical concepts the resulting parameters (mean water contents, mean water flux, dispersivities) of the five model approaches were all in the same range. The results indicate that the flow processes are also describable assuming steady state conditions. Homogeneous matrix flow is dominant and a small pore volume with enhanced flow velocities near saturation was identified with variable saturation flow and transport approach. The multi-flow dispersion model also identified preferential flow and additionally suggested a third less mobile flow component. Due to high fitting accuracy and parameter similarity all model approaches indicated reliable results.

  8. Study of the effect of Chinese medicine on calcium absorption with isotopic tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, S.M.; Mao, X.Y.; Feng, W.Y.; OY, H.; Wang, M.; Xu, D.D.; Zhang, F.; Chai, Z.F.

    2005-01-01

    The present work was undertaken to study the effect of Chinese medicine on calcium absorption. Female Wistar rats, 3 months old, weighing 250-275 g, were randomly divided into ten groups of 5 rats each. The rats were individually housed in stainless steel metabolic cages in an environmentally controlled room (temperature, 20 degree C; relative humidity, 30%-60%; reversed light : dark cycle, 12:12 hr). Isotopic tracer technique was conducted to study the absorption of calcium acetate and calcium acetate + Chinese medicine in rats. The two calcium supplements were irradiated in a nuclear reactor for 4.95 d at neutron flux of φ=6.1 x 10 13 n/cm 2 ·s. Then they were prepared from concentrated 47 Ca solution (10 mg/ml) with cyclodextrin. The animals received oral doses of 25 mg calcium as calcium acetate or calcium acetate + Chinese medicine via an intragastric gavage. The animals were fasted overnight preceding and food was resumed 3 hrs after the gavage. Blood, heart, lung, liver, spleen, stomach, kidney, small intestine, large intestine and femur samples of the rats were taken upon sacrifice at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 12, 24, 48, 72, 120, 168 hrs after dosing and assayed for 47 Ca. Urine and feces samples were collected separately after dosing and assayed for 47 Ca. The radioactivity of the samples was counted with a high pure Ge detector and a PC-based Ortec MCA. Its energy resolution was l.85 keV at 1332.5 keV and the relative detection efficiency was 30 %. The dead time was controlled within 10 % to reduce the count loss. Weighed 47 CaCO 3 was used as reference materials. A big distance between the samples and detector was kept to overcome the geometric effect caused by different shape and size of the samples. The gamma energy spectra were analyzed with a multipurpose gamma ray spectrum analysis software package. The parameters were evaluated by means of general linear model, using analysis of covariance with SAS 6.12 for Windows. The results showed that peroral 47 Ca was

  9. A radiogenic isotope tracer study of transatlantic dust transport from Africa to the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Abouchami, W.; Galer, S.J.G.; Garrison, V.H.; Williams, E.; Andreae, M.O.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have suggested that long-range transport of African desert dusts across the Atlantic Ocean occurs, delivering key nutrients and contributing to fertilization of the Amazon rainforest. Here we utilize radiogenic isotope tracers – Sr, Nd and Pb – to derive the provenance, local or remote, and pathways of dust transport from Africa to the Caribbean. Atmospheric total suspended particulate (TSP) matter was collected in 2008 on quartz fibre filters, from both sides of the Atlantic Ocean at three different locations: in Mali (12.6°N, 8.0°W; 555 m a.s.l.), Tobago (11.3°N, 60.5°W; 329 m a.s.l.) and the U.S. Virgin Islands (17.7°N, 64.6°W; 27 m a.s.l.). Both the labile phase, representative of the anthropogenic signal, and the refractory detrital silicate fraction were analysed. Dust deposits and soils from around the sampling sites were measured as well to assess the potential contribution from local sources to the mineral dust collected. The contribution from anthropogenic sources of Pb was predominant in the labile, leachate phase. The overall similarity in Pb isotope signatures found in the leachates is attributed to a common African source of anthropogenic Pb, with minor inputs from other sources, such as from Central and South America. The Pb, Sr and Nd isotopic compositions in the silicate fraction were found to be systematically more radiogenic than those in the corresponding labile phases. In contrast, Nd and Sr isotopic compositions from Mali, Tobago, and the Virgin Islands are virtually identical in both leachates and residues. Comparison with existing literature data on Saharan and Sahelian sources constrains the origin of summer dust transported to the Caribbean to mainly originate from the Sahel region, with some contribution from northern Saharan sources. The source regions derived from the isotope data are consistent with 7-day back-trajectory analyses, demonstrating the usefulness of radiogenic isotopes in tracing dust provenance and

  10. A radiogenic isotope tracer study of transatlantic dust transport from Africa to the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Abouchami, W.; Galer, S. J. G.; Garrison, V. H.; Williams, E.; Andreae, M. O.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have suggested that long-range transport of African desert dusts across the Atlantic Ocean occurs, delivering key nutrients and contributing to fertilization of the Amazon rainforest. Here we utilize radiogenic isotope tracers - Sr, Nd and Pb - to derive the provenance, local or remote, and pathways of dust transport from Africa to the Caribbean. Atmospheric total suspended particulate (TSP) matter was collected in 2008 on quartz fibre filters, from both sides of the Atlantic Ocean at three different locations: in Mali (12.6°N, 8.0°W; 555 m a.s.l.), Tobago (11.3°N, 60.5°W; 329 m a.s.l.) and the U.S. Virgin Islands (17.7°N, 64.6°W; 27 m a.s.l.). Both the labile phase, representative of the anthropogenic signal, and the refractory detrital silicate fraction were analysed. Dust deposits and soils from around the sampling sites were measured as well to assess the potential contribution from local sources to the mineral dust collected. The contribution from anthropogenic sources of Pb was predominant in the labile, leachate phase. The overall similarity in Pb isotope signatures found in the leachates is attributed to a common African source of anthropogenic Pb, with minor inputs from other sources, such as from Central and South America. The Pb, Sr and Nd isotopic compositions in the silicate fraction were found to be systematically more radiogenic than those in the corresponding labile phases. In contrast, Nd and Sr isotopic compositions from Mali, Tobago, and the Virgin Islands are virtually identical in both leachates and residues. Comparison with existing literature data on Saharan and Sahelian sources constrains the origin of summer dust transported to the Caribbean to mainly originate from the Sahel region, with some contribution from northern Saharan sources. The source regions derived from the isotope data are consistent with 7-day back-trajectory analyses, demonstrating the usefulness of radiogenic isotopes in tracing dust provenance and

  11. 26Al tracer experiment by accelerator mass spectrometry and its application to the studies for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Koichi; Yumoto, Sakae; Nagai, Hisao; Hosoyama, Yoshiyuki; Imamura, Mineo; Masuzawa, Shin-ichirou; Koizumi, Yoshinobu; Yamashita, Hiroshi.

    1990-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was applied for 26 Al tracer experiment to study the aluminum toxicity and metabolism in rats. To investigate the cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Alzheimer's disease, the aluminum incorporation into the brain (cerebrum) was studied by AMS using 26 Al as a tracer. When 26 Al was intraperitoneally injected into rats, a considerable amount of 26 Al was incorporated into the cerebrum after 5-35 days of the injection. (author)

  12. 2007 California Aerosol Study: Evaluation of δ15N as a Tracer Of NOx Sources and Chemsitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzman, T. L.

    2017-12-01

    Although stable isotopes of N are commonly used as a source tracer, how this tracer is applied is a point of contention. The "source" hypothesis argues that the δ15N value of NO3- reflects the δ15N value of NOx source inputs into the environment, and any observed variation is solely the result of differences in source contributions. Conversely, the "chemistry" hypothesis argues that N isotopes are influenced by chemical reactions, atmospheric or biologic processing, and post-depositional effects. Previous studies often apply the source hypothesis, writing off the chemistry hypothesis as "minor," but others have noted the impact chemistry should has on δ15N values. Given the known complications, this work seeks to assess the use of stable isotopes as tracers, specifically, the assumption that the δ15N value is a tracer of source alone without significant influence from chemical reactions. If the "source" hypothesis is correct, source emission data, known source δ15N values, and isotope mass balance should be able to approximate measured δ15NNO3 values and determine the δ15N value associated with wildfire derived NOx, which is currently unknown. Significant deviations from observed values would support the significance of equilibrium and kinetic isotope effects associated with chemical reactions and processing in the atmosphere. Aerosols collected in during 2007, emission data, and isotopic analysis were utilized to determine the utility of δ15N as tracer of NOx sources. San Diego, California is a coastal urban area influenced by sea salt aerosols, anthropogenic combustion emissions, and seasonal wildfires. Wildfires also have a significant influence on local atmospheric chemistry and 2007 was notable for being one of the worst fire seasons in the San Diego region on record. Isotopic analysis of collected NO3- has suggested that source δ15N values are likely not conserved as NOx is oxidized into NO3-. Given known source contributions and known δ15N values

  13. Collection and processing of information in biological kinetics studies with radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remy, J.; Lafuma, J.

    1968-01-01

    The authors present an automatic method for the collection and treatment of information in biological kinetics experiments using radioactive tracers. The recording are made without any time constant on magnetic tape. The information recorded is sampled by a 400 channel multi-scale analyzer and transferred to punched cards. The digital analysis is done by an I.B.M. computer. The method is illustrated by an example: the hepatic fixation of colloidal gold in the pig. Its advantages and requirements are discussed. In the appendix are given the FORTRAN texts for two programmes used in treating the example presented. (authors) [fr

  14. Historical and contemporary stable isotope tracer approaches to studying mammalian protein metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Over a century ago, Frederick Soddy provided the first evidence for the existence of isotopes; elements that occupy the same position in the periodic table are essentially chemically identical but differ in mass due to a different number of neutrons within the atomic nucleus. Allied to the discovery of isotopes was the development of some of the first forms of mass spectrometers, driven forward by the Nobel laureates JJ Thomson and FW Aston, enabling the accurate separation, identification, and quantification of the relative abundance of these isotopes. As a result, within a few years, the number of known isotopes both stable and radioactive had greatly increased and there are now over 300 stable or radioisotopes presently known. Unknown at the time, however, was the potential utility of these isotopes within biological disciplines, it was soon discovered that these stable isotopes, particularly those of carbon (13C), nitrogen (15N), oxygen (18O), and hydrogen (2H) could be chemically introduced into organic compounds, such as fatty acids, amino acids, and sugars, and used to “trace” the metabolic fate of these compounds within biological systems. From this important breakthrough, the age of the isotope tracer was born. Over the following 80 yrs, stable isotopes would become a vital tool in not only the biological sciences, but also areas as diverse as forensics, geology, and art. This progress has been almost exclusively driven through the development of new and innovative mass spectrometry equipment from IRMS to GC‐MS to LC‐MS, which has allowed for the accurate quantitation of isotopic abundance within samples of complex matrices. This historical review details the development of stable isotope tracers as metabolic tools, with particular reference to their use in monitoring protein metabolism, highlighting the unique array of tools that are now available for the investigation of protein metabolism in vivo at a whole body down to a single protein level

  15. Study of solid phase kinetics during cyanidation using the 198 Au radioactive tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbus, A.; Pop, I.I.; Gaspar, E.

    1995-01-01

    During cyanidation, the various gold bearing pyrite sorts exhibit different behaviour, that sometimes cause increased cyanidation times influencing the reagent and power consumption, in the same time generating fluctuations in the recovery efficiencies. The introduction of the 198 Au radioactive tracer into the cyanidation circuit enabled us to follow several parameters of the cyanidation kinetics: the average residence time of the gold bearing pyrite in the technological equipment, information about the homogenization process, dispersion of solids and gold dissolution efficiency on each technological stage. (author)

  16. Tracer research in process engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iller, E.

    1992-01-01

    The book is a review of modern applications of tracer techniques in chemical and process engineering studies. The next topics have been extensively presented: 1) media flow through apparatus; 2) the tracers in the study of media flow dynamics through apparatus; 3) mathematical interpretation of experimental data from impulse-response method; 4) the models of media flow through chemical reactors and apparatus; 5) radiotracers in mass transport study; 6) examples of practical applications of tracer methods in industrial objects. 84 refs, 96 figs, 31 tabs

  17. Kajian Profil Lulusan STAIN Samarinda Program Studi Pendidikan Agama Islam (PAI Tahun 2009 – 2013 dengan Pendekatan Tracer Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahdatunnisa Wahdatunnisa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Islamic higher education is targeted to create a high qualified human resources. A tracer study could be used to gain a data about the flaws, both of the process of education and the process of learning, of the quality of Islamic higher educations. by knowing the flaws, it can be used to make a better planning in the future. The problem of this study are: 1 How is the appropriateness of the work-field of the alumnae and the study program of Islamic education program of IAIN Samarinda?, 2 How is the contributions of the curriculum of Islamic education program of IAIN Samarinda to the work-field?, 3 How is the improvement of curriculum of Islamic education program of IAIN Samarinda to create a high qualified alumnae? This is and evaluative research design which is objected to describe the profil of alumnae and the curriculum relevance at Islamic education program at IAIN Samarinda. In this study, the researcher used interview and documentation to collect the data. The researcher used interview guide and recording tools as the instruments. The result of the study shows that: firstly, most of alumnae work in the schools as teachers or administration staff. Secondly, curriculum of PAI at STAIN Samarinda proves in supporting the work of alumnae. Thirdly, the improvement of curriculum can be done by adjusting the content of curriculum with the work field, improving lecturers’ qualification, erlarging the practicum, empowering the alumnae with some competencies, and strengthening the subjects of teachers and educational content.

  18. 24-Hour protein, arginine and citrulline metabolism in fed critically ill children – a stable isotope tracer study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Betue, Carlijn T.I.; Garcia Casal, Xiomara C.; van Waardenburg, Dick A.; Schexnayder, Stephen M.; Joosten, Koen F.M.; Deutz, Nicolaas E.P.; Engelen, Marielle P.K.J.

    2017-01-01

    Background & aims The reference method to study protein and arginine metabolism in critically ill children is measuring plasma amino acid appearances with stable isotopes during a short (4–8h) time period and extrapolate results to 24-hour. However, 24-hour measurements may be variable due to critical illness related factors and a circadian rhythm could be present. Since only short duration stable isotope studies in critically ill children have been conducted before, the aim of this study was to investigate 24-hour appearance of specific amino acids representing protein and arginine metabolism, with stable isotope techniques in continuously fed critically ill children. Methods In eight critically ill children, admitted to the pediatric (n=4) or cardiovascular (n=4) intensive care unit, aged 0–10 years, receiving continuous (par)enteral nutrition with protein intake 1.0–3.7 g/kg/day, a 24-hour stable isotope tracer protocol was carried out. L-[ring-2H5]-phenylalanine, L-[3,3-2H2]-tyrosine, L-[5,5,5-2H3]-leucine, L-[guanido-15N2]-arginine and L-[5-13C-3,3,4,4-2H4]-citrulline were infused intravenously and L-[15N]-phenylalanine and L-[1-13C]leucine enterally. Arterial blood was sampled every hour. Results Coefficients of variation, representing intra-individual variability, of the amino acid appearances of phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, arginine and citrulline were high, on average 14–19% for intravenous tracers and 23–26% for enteral tracers. No evident circadian rhythm was present. The pattern and overall 24-hour level of whole body protein balance differed per individual. Conclusions In continuously fed stable critically ill children, the amino acid appearances of phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, arginine and citrulline show high variability. This should be kept in mind when performing stable isotope studies in this population. There was no apparent circadian rhythm. PMID:28089618

  19. Study on lead transportation in air-water-paddy system with 210Pb as tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuding; Zhang Hairong; Ma Xuejun

    1987-08-01

    With 210 PbCl 2 as tracer, a research into lead sources in brown rice, lead distribution in soil and rice, lead chemical forms in soil and their change with time, availability of soil for rice and effect of soil pH on the Pb adsorption was carried out in air-water-paddy system near cities and towns located upper and middle reaches of Liaohe River, northeastern China. Test soil was light acid meadow brown soil. The Pb proportions in rice grain derived from the soil, airborne dust and irrigation water and the transportation pathway to brown rice were investigated. Transportation coefficients of Pb in the system were determined by tracer experiment. It was indicated that the Pb concentration in rice root, the Pb concentration and its distribution in the soil are main factors effecting Pb transportation to rice. Based on the simulation test, mathematical model for computing soil environmental capacity of Pb in the system is put forward. The soil environmental capacity of Pb computed is 1600 - 1700 ppm, i.e. 3.6 - 3.8 t/ha. The computed result was in agreement with the observed. The mathematical model was also used to compute soil enviromental capacity of those heavy metal corresponding respectively with 203 Hg, 115+115m Cd, 65 Zn, 51 Cr, 65 Ni, 60 Co etc

  20. Viral tracer studies indicate contamination of marine waters by sewage disposal practices in key largo, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, J H; Rose, J B; Brown, J; Shinn, E A; Miller, S; Farrah, S R

    1995-06-01

    Domestic wastewater disposal practices in the Florida Keys are primarily limited to on-site disposal systems such as septic tanks, injection wells, and illegal cesspits. Poorly treated sewage is thus released into the highly porous subsurface Key Largo limestone matrix. To investigate the fate and transport of sewage in the subsurface environment and the potential for contamination of marine surface waters, we employed bacteriophages as tracers in a domestic septic system and a simulated injection well in Key Largo, Florida. Transport of bacteriophage (Phi)HSIC-1 from the septic tank to adjacent surface canal waters and outstanding marine waters occurred in as little as 11 and 23 h, respectively. Transport of the Salmonella phage PRD1 from the simulated injection well to a canal adjacent to the injection site occurred in 11.2 h. Estimated rates of migration of viral tracers ranged from 0.57 to 24.2 m/h, over 500-fold greater than flow rates measured previously by subsurface flow meters in similar environments. These results suggest that current on-site disposal practices can lead to contamination of the subsurface and surface marine waters in the Keys.

  1. 18O isotopic tracer studies of silicon oxidation in dry oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    Oxidation of silicon in dry oxygen has been an important process in the integrated circuit industry for making gate insulators on metal-oxide-semiconductory (MOS) devices. This work examines this process using isotopic tracers of oxygen to determine the transport mechanisms of oxygen through silicon dioxide. Oxides were grown sequentially using mass-16 and mass-18 oxygen gas sources to label the oxygen molecules from each step. The resulting oxides are analyzed using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The results of these analyses suggest two oxidant species are present during the oxidation, each diffuses and oxidizes separately during the process. A model from this finding using a sum of two linear-parabolic growth rates, each representing the growth rate from one of the oxidants, describes the reported oxidation kinetics in the literature closely. A fit of this relationship reveals excellent fits to the data for oxide thicknesses ranging from 30 A to 1 μm and for temperatures ranging from 800 to 1200 0 C. The mass-18 oxygen tracers also enable a direct observation of the oxygen solubility in the silicon dioxide during a dry oxidation process. The SIMS profiles establish a maximum solubility for interstitial oxygen at 1000 0 C at 2 x 10 20 cm -3 . Furthermore, the mass-18 oxygen profiles show negligible network diffusion during an 1000 0 C oxidation

  2. Regional glucose utilization and blood flow in experimental brain tumors studied by double tracer autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, A.; Sako, K.; Diksic, M.; Yamamoto, Y.L.; Feindel, W.

    1985-01-01

    Coupling of regional glucose utilization (GLU) and blood flow (CBF) was examined in rats with implanted brain tumors (AA ascites tumor) by quantitative double tracer autoradiography using YF-2-fluorodeoxyglucose and 14C-iodoantipyrine. Four to 13 days after implantation, the animals were injected with the two tracers to obtain autoradiograms from the same brain section before and after the decay of YF. The autoradiograms were then analyzed by an image processor to obtain a metabolic coupling index (MCI = GLU/CBF). In the tumor, high GLU and low CBF were uncoupled to give a high MCI which implied anerobic glycolysis. In large tumors, the CBF was even lower. In the peri-tumoral region, GLU was reduced and reduction was lowest around the larger tumors. CBF in the peri-tumoral region was also reduced, but this reduction became less as the distance from the tumor margin increased. The GLU and CBF of white matter was little influenced by the presence of tumors except for some reduction in these values in relation to the larger tumors. The MCI in the tumor was higher than in the cortex of the same as well as the opposite hemisphere. These findings indicate that the metabolism and blood flow of the tumor and surrounding brain are variable and directly related to tumor size.

  3. Behavioral, Ultrastructural and Chemical Studies on the Honeydew and Waxy Secretions by Nymphs and Adults of the Asian Citrus Psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, El-Desouky; Alessandro, Rocco; Shatters Jr, Robert G.; Hall, David G.

    2013-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is the primary vector of the bacterium causing citrus huanglongbing (citrus greening), the most serious disease of citrus worldwide. Psyllids and other hemipterans produce large amounts of honeydew, which has been used previously as an indicator of phloem sap composition and insect feeding or metabolism. Behavioral, ultrastructural and chemical studies on ACP, its honeydew and waxy secretions showed important differences between nymphs, males and females, and suggested some mechanisms by which the psyllids, especially nymphs and adult females, can minimize their contamination with honeydew excretions. The anal opening in ACP, near the posterior end of the abdomen, is on the ventral side in nymphs and on the dorsal side in adult males and females. Video recordings showed that adult males produce clear sticky droplets of honeydew gently deposited behind their body on the leaf surface, whereas adult females produce whitish honeydew pellets powerfully propelled away from the female body, probably to get their excretions away from eggs and newly hatched nymphs. ACP nymphs produce long ribbons or tubes of honeydew that frequently stay attached to the exuviae after molting, or drop when feeding on the lower side of citrus leaves. Furthermore, honeydew excretions of both nymphs and adult females are covered with a thin layer of whitish waxy material ultrastructurally composed of a convoluted network of long fine filaments or ribbons. This material is extruded from intricate arrays of wax pores in the circumanal ring (around the anus) that is found in nymphs and females but not in males of ACP or other psyllid species. Infrared microscopy and mass spectroscopy revealed that, in addition to various sugars, honeydew excretions of ACP nymphs and females are covered with a thin layer of wax similar in profile to ester waxes. PMID:23762268

  4. Behavioral, ultrastructural and chemical studies on the honeydew and waxy secretions by nymphs and adults of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Desouky Ammar

    Full Text Available The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae is the primary vector of the bacterium causing citrus huanglongbing (citrus greening, the most serious disease of citrus worldwide. Psyllids and other hemipterans produce large amounts of honeydew, which has been used previously as an indicator of phloem sap composition and insect feeding or metabolism. Behavioral, ultrastructural and chemical studies on ACP, its honeydew and waxy secretions showed important differences between nymphs, males and females, and suggested some mechanisms by which the psyllids, especially nymphs and adult females, can minimize their contamination with honeydew excretions. The anal opening in ACP, near the posterior end of the abdomen, is on the ventral side in nymphs and on the dorsal side in adult males and females. Video recordings showed that adult males produce clear sticky droplets of honeydew gently deposited behind their body on the leaf surface, whereas adult females produce whitish honeydew pellets powerfully propelled away from the female body, probably to get their excretions away from eggs and newly hatched nymphs. ACP nymphs produce long ribbons or tubes of honeydew that frequently stay attached to the exuviae after molting, or drop when feeding on the lower side of citrus leaves. Furthermore, honeydew excretions of both nymphs and adult females are covered with a thin layer of whitish waxy material ultrastructurally composed of a convoluted network of long fine filaments or ribbons. This material is extruded from intricate arrays of wax pores in the circumanal ring (around the anus that is found in nymphs and females but not in males of ACP or other psyllid species. Infrared microscopy and mass spectroscopy revealed that, in addition to various sugars, honeydew excretions of ACP nymphs and females are covered with a thin layer of wax similar in profile to ester waxes.

  5. Studies on the distribution of 2,4 D herbicide in soil-plant ecosystem using isotope tracer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onal, G.

    1986-01-01

    In this study, distribution of 2,4 Diclorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4 D) herbicide in soil-plant ecosystems under greenhouse conditions were investigated by using isotope tracer techniques. For this purpose barley, wheat and oat plants were grown in two different kinds of soil taken from surrounding of Ankara and the distribution of the herbicide between soil and plants were investigated. In the research 14 C-2,40 D was used and the radioactivity was measured in a liquid scintillation counter. (author)

  6. Study on bioavailability of dietary iron of women by using activable isotopic tracer and neutron activation analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yangmei; Ni Bangfa; Tian Weizhi; Wang Pingsheng; Cao Lei

    2002-01-01

    The bioavailability of diet iron of 10 healthy young women in Beijing area is studied by using two enriched isotopes 54 Fe and 58 Fe, and neutron activation analysis techniques. The abundance of 54 Fe and 58 Fe is 61.4% and 23.4%, respectively. In additional, the atomic absorption spectrometry is employed to measure total iron in fecal samples. Dysprosium, rarely absorbed by human body, is used to monitor the residence time of tracer isotopes in order to collect the fecal samples completely. The results show that the bioavailability of dietary iron in young women is (14.9 +- 3.9)%

  7. Reactivity of hydrogen contained in Raney nickel for ethylene hydrogenation studied by means of a tritium tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatani, Daisaku; Takeuchi, Toyosaburo.

    1979-01-01

    Reactivity of hydrogen contained in Raney nickel with ethylene was studied by using a tritium tracer. Hydrogen in Raney nickel was previously labeled with tritium and distinguished from hydrogen introduced during the hydrogenation reaction. The reactivity of the contained hydrogen was determined by measurement of the radioactivity of ethane produced in the hydrogenation. Ethylene reacted with hydrogen in Raney nickel for no supply of hydrogen during the hydrogenation. However, when ethylene was hydrogenated by both hydrogen in Raney nickel and introduced hydrogen, over 99% of the ethylene reacted with the introduced hydrogen and hardly reacted with the contained hydrogen. (author)

  8. Acute respiratory bronchiolitis: an ultrastructural and autoradiographic study of epithelial cell injury and renewal in Rhesus monkeys exposed to ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castleman, W.L.; Dungworth, D.L.; Schwartz, L.W.; Tyler, W.S.

    1980-01-01

    The pathogenesis of acute respiratory bronchiolitis was examined in Rhesus monkeys exposed to 0.8 ppM ozone for 4 to 50 hours. Epithelial injury and renewal were qualitatively and quantitatively characterized by correlated techniques of scanning and transmission electron microscopy as well as by light-microscopic autoradiography following labeling with tritiated thymidine. Extensive degeneration and necrosis of Type 1 epithelial cells occurred on the respiratory bronchiolar wall during the initial 4 to 12 hours of exposure. Increased numbers of labeled epithelial cells were present in this region after 18 hours of exposure, and the highest labeling index (18%) was measured after 50 hours of exposure. Most (67 to 80%) of the labeled cells and all the mitotic epithelial cells (22) observed ultrastructurally were cuboidal bronchiolar epithelial cells. Of the labeled epithelial cells, 20 to 33% were Type 2 epithelial cells. After 50 hours of exposure the respiratory bronchiolar epithelium was hyperplastic. The predominant inflammatory cell in respiratory bronchiolar exudate was the alveolar macrophage. Monkeys that were exposed for 50 hours and allowed to recover in unozonized air for 7 days had incomplete resolution of respiratory bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia. The results indicate that Type 1 epithelial cells lining respiratory bronchioles are the cell types most sensitive to injury and that both cuboidal bronchiolar epithelial cells and Type 2 epithelial cells function as stem cells in epithelial renewal

  9. HERC 1 ubiquitin ligase mutation affects neocortical, CA3 hippocampal and spinal cord projection neurons. An ultrastructural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío eRuiz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The spontaneous mutation tambaleante is caused by the Gly483Glu substitution in the highly conserved N terminal RCC1-like domain of the HERC1 protein, which leads to the increase of mutated protein levels responsible for cerebellar Purkinje cell death by autophagy. Until now, Purkinje cells have been the only central nervous neurons reported as being targeted by the mutation, and their degeneration elicits an ataxic syndrome in adult mutant mice. However, the ultrastructural analysis performed here demonstrates that signs of autophagy, such as autophagosomes, lysosomes, and altered mitochondria, are present in neocortical pyramidal, CA3 hippocampal pyramidal, and spinal cord motor neurons. The main difference is that the reduction in the number of neurons affected in the tambaleante mutation in the neocortex, the hippocampus, and the spinal cord is not so evident as the dramatic loss of cerebellar Purkinje cells. Interestingly, signs of autophagy are absent in both interneurons and neuroglia cells. Affected neurons have in common that they are projection neurons which receive strong and varied synaptic inputs, and possess the highest degree of neuronal activity. Therefore, because the integrity of the ubiquitin-proteasome system is essential for protein degradation and, hence, for normal protein turnover, it could be hypothesized that the deleterious effects of the misrouting of these pathways would depend directly on the neuronal activity.

  10. Particle integrity, sampling, and application of a DNA-tagged tracer for aerosol transport studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeser, Cynthia Jeanne [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2017-07-21

    Aerosols are an ever-present part of our daily environment and have extensive effects on both human and environmental health. Particles in the inhalable range (1-10 μm diameter) are of particular concern because their deposition in the lung can lead to a variety of illnesses including allergic reactions, viral or bacterial infections, and cancer. Understanding the transport of inhalable aerosols across both short and long distances is necessary to predict human exposures to aerosols. To assess the transport of hazardous aerosols, surrogate tracer particles are required to measure their transport through occupied spaces. These tracer particles must not only possess similar transport characteristics to those of interest but also be easily distinguished from the background at low levels and survive the environmental conditions of the testing environment. A previously-developed DNA-tagged particle (DNATrax), composed of food-grade sugar and a DNA oligonucleotide as a “barcode” label, shows promise as a new aerosol tracer. Herein, the use of DNATrax material is validated for use in both indoor and outdoor environments. Utilizing passive samplers made of materials commonly found in indoor environments followed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay for endpoint particle detection, particles detection was achieved up to 90 m from the aerosolization location and across shorter distances with high spatial resolution. The unique DNA label and PCR assay specificity were leveraged to perform multiple simultaneous experiments. This allowed the assessment of experimental reproducibility, a rare occurrence among aerosol field tests. To transition to outdoor testing, the solid material provides some protection of the DNA label when exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, with 60% of the DNA remaining intact after 60 minutes under a germicidal lamp and the rate of degradation declining with irradiation time. Additionally, exposure of the DNATrax material using

  11. Tracer dating and ocean ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiele, G.; Sarmiento, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    The interpretation of transient tracer observations depends on difficult to obtain information on the evolution in time of the tracer boundary conditions and interior distributions. Recent studies have attempted to circumvent this problem by making use of a derived quantity, age, based on the simultaneous distribution of two complementary tracers, such as tritium and its daughter, helium 3. The age is defined with reference to the surface such that the boundary condition takes on a constant value of zero. The authors use a two-dimensional model to explore the circumstances under which such a combination of conservation equations for two complementary tracers can lead to a cancellation of the time derivative terms. An interesting aspect of this approach is that mixing can serve as a source or sink of tracer based age. The authors define an idealized ventilation age tracer that is conservative with respect to mixing, and they explore how its behavior compares with that of the tracer-based ages over a range of advective and diffusive parameters

  12. Meteorological tracers in regional planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, K.H.

    1974-11-01

    Atmospheric tracers can be used as indicators to study both the ventilation of an urban region and its dispersion meteorology for air pollutants. A correlation analysis applied to the space-time dependent tracer concentrations is able to give transfer functions, the structure and characteristic parameters of which describe the meteorological and topographical situation of the urban region and its surroundings in an integral manner. To reduce the number of persons usually involved in a tracer experiment an automatic air sampling system had to be developed

  13. Measuring SSRI occupancy of SERT using the novel tracer [{sup 123}I]ADAM: a SPECT validation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlandsson, Kjell; Lui, Dominic; Townsend, Caroline E.; Ell, Peter J. [Middlesex Hospital, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Sivananthan, Tharani; Mu, Song; Lucas, Richard [Lilly Research Centre, Eli Lilly and Company, Windlesham, Surrey (United Kingdom); Spezzi, Andrea; Warrington, Steven [Central Middlesex Hospital, Hammersmith Medicines Research, London (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-01

    Serotonergic brain regions play a crucial role in the modulation of emotion, and serotonergic dysfunction may contribute to several neurological disorders. [{sup 123}I]ADAM is a novel SPECT tracer which binds with high affinity to serotonin transporters (SERT). The objective of this study was to compare different methods for the quantification of tracer binding and to develop a simplified single-scan protocol for this tracer, as well as to investigate its potential for characterisation of the transporter occupancy versus plasma concentration curve of a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI). Dynamic SPECT scans were performed on 16 healthy volunteers after administration of {proportional_to}150 MBq [{sup 123}I]ADAM. Data were acquired from the time of injection until {proportional_to}5.5 h after injection in 30- or 45-min sessions. Each subject was scanned twice: with and without pre-treatment with the SSRI citalopram in various dosage regimens. The plasma concentration of citalopram (C{sub p}) was determined from venous samples. Images were reconstructed by filtered back-projection with scatter and attenuation correction. Tracer binding was quantified for midbrain, striatum and thalamus using cerebellum as a reference region. Quantification was done by kinetic modelling, graphical analysis and multi-linear regression, as well as by the ratio method, with binding potential (BP{sub 2}) as the outcome measure. The SERT occupancy by citalopram was determined relative to the baseline scan for each subject, and the occupancy versus C{sub p} curve was fitted with the E{sub max} model. The highest binding of [{sup 123}I]ADAM was in midbrain (mean baseline BP{sub 2}{+-}SD=1.31{+-}0.29), with lower binding in thalamus (0.79{+-}0.16) and striatum (0.66{+-}0.13). There was good agreement between BP{sub 2} values obtained by different quantification methods. Using the ratio method, the best agreement with kinetic modelling was obtained with data from the time interval

  14. Measuring SSRI occupancy of SERT using the novel tracer [123I]ADAM: a SPECT validation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlandsson, Kjell; Lui, Dominic; Townsend, Caroline E.; Ell, Peter J.; Sivananthan, Tharani; Mu, Song; Lucas, Richard; Spezzi, Andrea; Warrington, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Serotonergic brain regions play a crucial role in the modulation of emotion, and serotonergic dysfunction may contribute to several neurological disorders. [ 123 I]ADAM is a novel SPECT tracer which binds with high affinity to serotonin transporters (SERT). The objective of this study was to compare different methods for the quantification of tracer binding and to develop a simplified single-scan protocol for this tracer, as well as to investigate its potential for characterisation of the transporter occupancy versus plasma concentration curve of a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI). Dynamic SPECT scans were performed on 16 healthy volunteers after administration of ∝150 MBq [ 123 I]ADAM. Data were acquired from the time of injection until ∝5.5 h after injection in 30- or 45-min sessions. Each subject was scanned twice: with and without pre-treatment with the SSRI citalopram in various dosage regimens. The plasma concentration of citalopram (C p ) was determined from venous samples. Images were reconstructed by filtered back-projection with scatter and attenuation correction. Tracer binding was quantified for midbrain, striatum and thalamus using cerebellum as a reference region. Quantification was done by kinetic modelling, graphical analysis and multi-linear regression, as well as by the ratio method, with binding potential (BP 2 ) as the outcome measure. The SERT occupancy by citalopram was determined relative to the baseline scan for each subject, and the occupancy versus C p curve was fitted with the E max model. The highest binding of [ 123 I]ADAM was in midbrain (mean baseline BP 2 ±SD=1.31±0.29), with lower binding in thalamus (0.79±0.16) and striatum (0.66±0.13). There was good agreement between BP 2 values obtained by different quantification methods. Using the ratio method, the best agreement with kinetic modelling was obtained with data from the time interval [200,260] min after injection. The fitting of the midbrain occupancy curve

  15. Cobalt and tantalum tracers measured by activation analysis in sediment transport studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groot, A.J. de [Institute for Soil Fertility, Haren (Netherlands); Allersma, E [Delft Hydraulics Laboratory, Delft (Netherlands); Bruin, M de; Houtman, J P.W. [Reactor Institute, Delft (Netherlands)

    1970-09-15

    The paper proposes certain principles of research to be used in investigating the origin and transport of fine-grained sediments in rivers and sea arms in connection with siltation problems of harbours and navigation channels. An element, which either does not occur in the sediment or only occurs in minute quantities, is fixed to the mud from the river or sea arm. After the material is marked it is returned to the water course where it mixes with the solids moving naturally. At specified points throughout the water course sediment samples are taken to determine the marking element by activation analysis. This gives an insight into the flow path of the suspended matter. The selection and successful application of tracers that can be measured by activation analysis depends on the sensitivity of detection, the natural occurrence of the relevant elements in the sediments under investigation and the fixation capacity of the tracer to the various grain size fractions. Further, the influence of the added element on the sedimentation behaviour of the mud in suspension and on the desorption properties must be considered. The irradiation of Co and Ta with thermal neutrons gives rise to a very sensitive evaluation of the original elements present. The fixation process of Co is restricted to sediments with special characteristics; Ta, however, can adhere tightly to any sediment. Tantalum also has the advantage that its natural content in sediments is very low. Large quantities (several per cent by weight) can adhere to the sediment without changing the sedimentation properties to an appreciable extent. Hardly any losses occur during leaching experiments simulating natural conditions. A detailed treatment is given of the chemical aspects of the method, including the behaviour of the elements used in the light of the general environmental processes of sediment constituents in deltaic systems. Finally, the scope and limits of the method are discussed. (author)

  16. Cobalt and Tantalum Tracers Measured by Activation Analysis in Sediment Transport Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groot, A.J. de [Institute for Soil Fertility, Haren (Netherlands); Allersma, E. [Delft Hydraulics Laboratory, Delft (Netherlands); Bruin, M. de; Houtman, J. P.W. [Reactor Institute, Delft (Netherlands)

    1970-09-15

    The paper proposes certain principles of research to be used in investigating the origin and transport of fine-grained sediments in rivers and sea arms in connection with siltation problems of harbours and navigation channels. An element, which either does not occur in the sediment or only occurs in minute quantities, is fixed to the mud from the river or sea arm. After the material is marked it is returned to the water course where it mixes with the solids moving naturally. At specified points throughout the water course sediment samples are taken to determine the marking element by activation analysis. This gives an insight into the flow path of the suspended matter. The selection and successful application of tracers that can be measured by activation analysis depends on the sensitivity of detection, the natural occurrence of the relevant elements in the sediments under investigation and the fixation capacity of the tracer to the various grain size fractions. Further, the influence of the added element on the sedimentation behaviour of the mud in suspension and on the desorption properties must be considered. The irradiation of Co and Ta with thermal neutrons gives rise to a very sensitive evaluation of the original elements present. The fixation process of Co is restricted to sediments with special characteristics; Ta, however, can adhere tightly to any sediment. Tantalum also has the advantage that its natural content in sediments is very low. Large quantities (several per cent by weight) can adhere to the sediment without changing the sedimentation properties to an appreciable extent. Hardly any losses occur during leaching experiments simulating natural conditions. A detailed treatment is given of the chemical aspects of the method, including the behaviour of the elements used in the light of the general environmental processes of sediment constituents in deltaic systems. Finally, the scope and limits of the method are discussed. (author)

  17. Physical oceanographic characteristics influencing the dispersion of dissolved tracers released at the sea floor in selected deep ocean study areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupferman, S.L.; Moore, D.E.

    1981-02-01

    Scenarios which follow the development in space and time of the concentration field of a dissolved tracer released at the sea floor are presented for a Pacific and two Atlantic study areas. The scenarios are closely tied to available data by means of simple analytical models and proceed in stages from short time and space scales in the immediate vicinity of a release point to those scales characteristic of ocean basins. The concepts of internal mixing time and residence time in the benthic mixed layer, useful for developing an intuitive feeling for the behavior of a tracer in this feature, are introduced and discussed. We also introduce the concept of domain of occupation, which is useful in drawing distinctions between mixing and stirring in the ocean. From this study it is apparent that reliable estimation of mixing will require careful consideration of the dynamics of the eddy fields in the ocean. Another area in which more information is urgently needed is in the relation of deep isopycnal structure and bottom topography to local near-bottom circulation

  18. Rapid dual-tracer PTSM+ATSM PET imaging of tumour blood flow and hypoxia: a simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, T C; Kadrmas, D J

    2006-01-01

    Blood flow and hypoxia are interrelated aspects of physiology that affect cancer treatment and response. Cu-PTSM and Cu-ATSM are related PET tracers for blood flow and hypoxia, and the ability to rapidly image both tracers in a single scan would bring several advantages over conventional single-tracer techniques. Using dynamic imaging with staggered injections, overlapping signals for multiple PET tracers may be recovered utilizing information from kinetics and radioactive decay. In this work, rapid dual-tracer PTSM+ATSM PET was simulated and tested as a function of injection delay, order and relative dose for several copper isotopes, and the results were compared relative to separate single-tracer data. Time-activity curves representing a broad range of tumour blood flow and hypoxia levels were simulated, and parallel dual-tracer compartment modelling was used to recover the signals for each tracer. The main results were tested further using a torso phantom simulation of PET tumour imaging. Using scans as short as 30 minutes, the dual-tracer method provided measures of blood flow and hypoxia similar to single-tracer imaging. The best performance was obtained by injecting PTSM first and using a somewhat higher dose for ATSM. Comparable results for different copper isotopes suggest that tracer kinetics with staggered injections play a more important role than radioactive decay in the signal separation process. Rapid PTSM+ATSM PET has excellent potential for characterizing both tumour blood flow and hypoxia in a single, fast scan, provided that technological hurdles related to algorithm development and routine use can be overcome

  19. Study of particle movement in conical fluidized beds using the tracer method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penkalla, H. J.; Gyarmati, E.; Nickel, H.

    1976-01-15

    In the work reported here, a method is described which enables the path and speed of the particles during fluidization to be measured using a tracer particle technique. Using statistical methods, it is then possible to determine the path-time diagram, the rate of circulation of the particles, the transport capacity, the extent of mixing and the relative residence time of the particles in a given zone of the bed. Measurements were made at room temperature in a 3'' model fluidized bed as a first step in evaluating the feasibility of the test method. Criteria for the type of coating, the growth rate of the coatings and the coating potential of the coating as were correlated with the relative dwell time of the particles and the dwell-time spectrum of the coating gases in a given part of the bed. It was therefore necessary to know the streaming behavior of the fluidizing gas, and so such an analysis was first carried out.

  20. Study of cation diffusion in Zn O using 65Zn as radioactive tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraz, Wilmar B.; Correa, Ricardo F.; Nogueira, Maria A.N.; Ramos, Marcelo; Sabioni, Antonio C.S.

    2000-01-01

    Zinc self-diffusion coefficient were measured in polycrystalline Zn O of high purity (99,999%) prepared by conventional sintering at 1393 deg C, 4 h, in oxygen atmosphere. The Zn O samples had high density (>99% of the theoretical density) and grain size of 20 μm. These samples were resintered for 72 h at 1400 deg C in order to increase the grain-size higher than 50 μ m. Samples of 15 x 15 x 2 mm 3 were polished with diamond paste, and pre-annealed under the same conditions of temperature and atmosphere of the diffusion annealing. A thin film of 65 Zn - radioactive tracer - applied to the polished surface was oxidized in oxygen atmosphere for a short time before diffusion annealing. The diffusion experiments were performed between 1002 and 1201 deg C in oxygen atmosphere. The 65 Zn diffusion profiles were measured by sectioning in conjunction with residual-activity measurements. The results of the determination of the zinc in Zn O diffusion coefficients in function of temperature are presented and a comparison of these results obtained by the two radioactive method is showed. (author)

  1. Enhanced oil recovery methods studied by gamma tracer scanning at simulated reservoir conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, D.O.; Haugen, O.B.; Bjornstad, T.

    2009-01-01

    During recovery (production) of hydrocarbons pressure is maintained by injecting prepared sea water and recycled gas (lean gas) into dedicated injection wells. In one well at the Snorre field in the North Sea the injected gas was recycled too fast to enable support of pressure and squeezing of oil. To plug this high-permeable area the operator wanted to inject foam as a test of its possibilities to decrease gas permeability. As part of the project laboratory tests were included. In these tests we could for the first time map the foam inside the sandstone sample at simulated reservoir conditions. The tracers used were 22 Na + for the γ-scanning of the aqueous brine, tritiated water for permeability measurements, and 35 S-labeled organic sulfonic acid of the same compound as the surfactant. This method resulted in a 'negative' mapping of the foam, i.e. measurements of the absence or exclusion of the aqueous phase by the foam. This method was new and showed that radiotracer-based γ-scanning could give much more accurate measurements of the position of the foam than the standard method using measurements of pressure drops over parts of the core. (author)

  2. Heat tracer methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Richard W.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2010-01-01

    The flow of heat in the subsurface is closely linked to the movement of water (Ingebritsen et al., 2006). As such, heat has been used as a tracer in groundwater studies for more than 100 years (Anderson, 2005). As with chemical and isotopic tracers (Chapter 7), spatial or temporal trends in surface and subsurface temperatures can be used to infer rates of water movement. Temperature can be measured accurately, economically, at high frequencies, and without the need to obtain water samples, facts that make heat an attractive tracer. Temperature measurements made over space and time can be used to infer rates of recharge from a stream or other surface water body (Lapham, 1989; Stonestrom and Constantz, 2003); measurements can also be used to estimate rates of steady drainage through depth intervals within thick unsaturated zones (Constantz et al., 2003; Shan and Bodvarsson, 2004). Several thorough reviews of heat as a tracer in hydrologic studies have recently been published (Constantz et al., 2003; Stonestrom and Constantz, 2003; Anderson, 2005; Blasch et al., 2007; Constantz et al., 2008). This chapter summarizes heat-tracer approaches that have been used to estimate recharge.Some clarification in terminology is presented here to avoid confusion in descriptions of the various approaches that follow. Diffuse recharge is that which occurs more or less uniformly across large areas in response to precipitation, infiltration, and drainage through the unsaturated zone. Estimates of diffuse recharge determined using measured temperatures in the unsaturated zone are referred to as potential recharge because it is possible that not all of the water moving through the unsaturated zone will recharge the aquifer; some may be lost to the atmosphere by evaporation or plant transpiration. Estimated fluxes across confining units in the saturated zone are referred to as interaquifer flow (Chapter 1). Focused recharge is that which occurs directly from a point or line source, such

  3. Tracer transport in fractured rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, C.F.; Tsang, Y.W.; Hale, F.V.

    1988-07-01

    Recent interest in the safety of toxic waste underground disposal and nuclear waste geologic repositories has motivated many studies of tracer transport in fractured media. Fractures occur in most geologic formations and introduce a high degree of heterogeneity. Within each fracture, the aperture is not constant in value but strongly varying. Thus for such media, tracer tends to flow through preferred flowpaths or channels within the fractures. Along each of these channels, the aperture is also strongly varying. A detailed analysis is carried out on a 2D single fracture with variable apertures and the flow through channels is demonstrated. The channels defined this way are not rigidly set pathways for tracer transport, but are the preferred flow paths in the sense of stream-tubes in the potential theory. It is shown that such variable-aperture channels can be characterized by an aperture probability distribution function, and not by the exact deterministic geometric locations. We also demonstrate that the 2D tracer transport in a fracture can be calculated by a model of a system of 1D channels characterized by this distribution function only. Due to the channeling character of tracer transport in fractured rock, random point measurements of tracer breakthrough curves may give results with a wide spread in value due to statistical fluctuations. The present paper suggests that such a wide spread can probably be greatly reduced by making line/areal (or multiple) measurements covering a few spatial correlation lengths. 13 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  4. Evaluation of short-term tracer fluctuations in groundwater and soil air in a two year study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, Florian; Mayer, Simon; Aeschbach, Werner; Weissbach, Therese

    2016-04-01

    The application of gas tracers like noble gases (NGs), SF6 or CFCs in groundwater studies such as paleo temperature determination requires a detailed understanding of the dynamics of reactive and inert gases in the soil air with which the infiltrating water equilibrates. Due to microbial gas consumption and production, NG partial pressures in soil air can deviate from atmospheric air, an effect that could bias noble gas temperatures estimates if not taken into account. So far, such an impact on NG contents in groundwater has not been directly demonstrated. We provide the first long-term study of the above mentioned gas tracers and physical parameters in both the saturated and unsaturated soil zone, sampled continuously for more than two years near Mannheim (Germany). NG partial pressures in soil air correlate with soil moisture and the sum value of O2+CO2, with a maximal significant enhancement of 3-6% with respect to atmospheric air during summer time. Observed seasonal fluctuations result in a mass dependent fractionation of NGs in soil air. Concentrations of SF6 and CFCs in soil air are determined by corresponding fluctuations in local atmospheric air, caused by industrial emissions. Arising concentration peaks are damped with increasing soil depth. Shallow groundwater shows short-term NG fluctuations which are smoothed within a few meters below the water table. A correlation between NG contents of soil air and of groundwater is observable during strong recharge events. However, there is no evidence for a permanent influence of seasonal variations of soil air composition on shallow groundwater. Fluctuating NG contents in shallow groundwater are rather determined by variations of soil temperature and water table level. Our data gives evidence for a further temperature driven equilibration of groundwater with entrapped air bubbles within the topmost saturated zone, which permanently occurs even some years after recharge. Local subsurface temperature fluctuations

  5. Radioisotope tracer study in a pilot-scale trickle bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pant, H.J.; Pendharkar, A.S. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Isotope Applications Div, Bombay (India); Prasad, J.S.; Maiti, R.N.; Chawla, R.; Lahri, R.N.; Ram Babu, D. [Engineers India Limited, Gurgaon, Haryana (India); Berne, Ph. [CEA Grenoble, DTEN/SAT, 38 (France)

    2001-07-01

    Trickle bed reactor (TBR) is a reactor in which a liquid and a gas phase flow concurrently downwards through a fixed bed of catalyst particles while the reaction takes place. The trickle bed reactors find a number of applications in petroleum refining, chemical. petro-chemical and bio-chemical processes due to their suitability for hydro-processing operations.The knowledge of radial distribution, mean residence time (MRT). liquid holdup and degree of axial mixing is a basic requirement to evaluate the reactor performance of a TBR, its optimal size, the physical and chemical interactions and the pumping requirements. Measurement and analysis of residence time distribution (RTD) of liquid phase facilitate the determination of these parameters. This paper describes the measurement of RTD of liquid phase in a pilot-scale trickle bed reactor operating at high pressure. Kerosene and nitrogen were used as liquid and gas phase, respectively. Porous alumina catalyst particles were used as packing. Bromine-82 as para-di-bromo benzene was used as a tracer to measure RTD of organic liquid phase. The RTD of kerosene was measured as a function of liquid and gas flow rates and pressure. The axial dispersion model with exchange between active and dead zones was proposed and used to simulate the measured RTD data and model parameters i.e mean residence time ({tau}), Peclet Number (Pe), dynamic fraction of the liquid ({phi}) and the number of transfer units (N) were obtained. The results of the simulations indicated intermediate degree of axial mixing of liquid phase. The RTD predicted by the axial dispersion model with exchange between active and dead zones fits well to the experimentally measured RTD data and thus is a suitable model to describe the dynamics of the liquid phase in TBRs filled with porous catalyst particles. (authors)

  6. Application of tracer isotope in kinetic study of first order ion exchange reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokhande, R.S.; Singare, P.U.

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of first order ion exchange reaction rates at different temperatures (27 deg- 48 degC) and particularly at low concentration of potassium iodide solution (electrolyte) ranging from 0.005 M to 0.040 M is carried out by application of radioactive tracer isotope 131 I. With increase in concentration of electrolyte, amount of iodide ion exchanged in millimoles increases. Specific reaction rates of ion exchange reaction are calculated for different temperatures and for different amount of ion exchange resins. It is observed that with increase in temperature, reaction rate increases but the increase is more pronounced for increase in amount of ion exchange resins. For 0.005 M solution of electrolyte, the reaction rate increases from 0.121 min -1 at 27 degC to 0.178 min -1 at 48 degC. For 0.005 M solution of electrolyte the reaction rate increases from 0.121 min -1 at 27 degC to 0.178 min 1 at 48 degC. For 0.005 M solution of electrolyte at 27 degC the reaction rate increases from 0.121 min -1 for 1.0 g of resin to 0.368 min -1 for 5.0 g of resin. From the reaction rates calculated at different temperatures, energy of activation in kJ/mole is calculated. It is observed that for 0.005 M solution of electrolyte, energy of activation is 4.62 kJ/mole which decreases to 2.87 kJ/mole for increase in concentration of electrolyte to 0.100 M. (author)

  7. When tractography meets tracer injections: a systematic study of trends and variation sources of diffusion-based connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogan, Dogu Baran; Jacobs, Russell; Dulawa, Stephanie; Thompson, Summer L; Francois, Maite Christi; Toga, Arthur W; Dong, Hongwei; Knowles, James A; Shi, Yonggang

    2018-04-16

    Tractography is a powerful technique capable of non-invasively reconstructing the structural connections in the brain using diffusion MRI images, but the validation of tractograms is challenging due to lack of ground truth. Owing to recent developments in mapping the mouse brain connectome, high-resolution tracer injection-based axonal projection maps have been created and quickly adopted for the validation of tractography. Previous studies using tracer injections mainly focused on investigating the match in projections and optimal tractography protocols. Being a complicated technique, however, tractography relies on multiple stages of operations and parameters. These factors introduce large variabilities in tractograms, hindering the optimization of protocols and making the interpretation of results difficult. Based on this observation, in contrast to previous studies, in this work we focused on quantifying and ranking the amount of performance variation introduced by these factors. For this purpose, we performed over a million tractography experiments and studied the variability across different subjects, injections, anatomical constraints and tractography parameters. By using N-way ANOVA analysis, we show that all tractography parameters are significant and importantly performance variations with respect to the differences in subjects are comparable to the variations due to tractography parameters, which strongly underlines the importance of fully documenting the tractography protocols in scientific experiments. We also quantitatively show that inclusion of anatomical constraints is the most significant factor for improving tractography performance. Although this critical factor helps reduce false positives, our analysis indicates that anatomy-informed tractography still fails to capture a large portion of axonal projections.

  8. Tracer Study of Dentistry Graduates of one Higher Education Institution in the Philippines from 2008 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer D. Maderazo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This tracer study determines the employment status of the graduates of Doctor of Dental Medicine of Lyceum of the Philippines University (LPU from 2008-2012. It assessed the relevance of the Dentistry curriculum, knowledge, skills and attitude acquired by the graduates deemed to be relevant for their employment; identify the personal and professional characteristics and job placement of Dentistry graduates and the school related factors associated with their employment. This tracer study used a descriptive research design. The study described the experiences of the graduates before and after employment. The graduates conveyed their personal observations regarding the situations they faced after graduation. The findings showed that majority of the Dentistry graduate-respondents are presently employed except for one whose primary reason is family concern and decided not to find a job. Most of the graduates had their first job as associate dentist with recommendation from the department or alumni of the college and opted to put up their own private practice after 6 months. Rewarding salaries and benefits are the main reason for staying on the job and are all enjoying a professional career in dentistry with initial gross income of 25,000 pesos and above. The following school related factors for job placement such as curriculum and instruction for the general education and professional subjects, student services and faculty instruction were found to be relevant in meeting the demands of the graduates’ dental profession. And the following are the work related values gained by the graduates such a love for God, honesty and truth, professional integrity and leadership. These values were found to be very relevant in the practice of the profession.

  9. sup 26 Al tracer experiment by accelerator mass spectrometry and its application to the studies for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease, 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Koichi (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Science and Technology); Yumoto, Sakae; Nagai, Hisao; Hosoyama, Yoshiyuki; Imamura, Mineo; Masuzawa, Shin-ichirou; Koizumi, Yoshinobu; Yamashita, Hiroshi

    1990-12-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was applied for {sup 26}Al tracer experiment to study the aluminum toxicity and metabolism in rats. To investigate the cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Alzheimer's disease, the aluminum incorporation into the brain (cerebrum) was studied by AMS using {sup 26}Al as a tracer. When {sup 26}Al was intraperitoneally injected into rats, a considerable amount of {sup 26}Al was incorporated into the cerebrum after 5-35 days of the injection. (author).

  10. On the use of flow-storage repartitions derived from artificial tracer tests for geothermal reservoir characterization in the Malm-Molasse basin: a theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, Dina Silvia; Osaigbovo Enomayo, Augustine; Mohsin, Rizwan; Karmakar, Shyamal; Ghergut, Julia; Sauter, Martin

    2016-04-01

    needed to calculate FSR. Looking at the Sauerlach example, we find that premature interruption of tracer sampling systematically leads to overestimating the reservoir's storage capacity and underestimating its flow capacity, with misestimation generally increasing as the bedded/reef interfacial area per volume is increased. It is interesting to correlate these findings with the tracer-based approach to facies identification for the shallower Malm aquifers of the Southern Franconian Alb, proposed by Seiler et al. (1989, 1995) and with expectations from the direct (i. e., distributed-parameter) modeling of matrix-diffusive effects (Maloszewski and Zuber 1985) on measured tracer signals. References: Maloszewski P, Zuber A (1985) On the theory of tracer experiments in fissured rocks with a porous matrix, Journal of Hydrology, 79, 333-358 Seiler K-P, Behrens H, Wolf M (1995) Use of artificial and environmental tracers to study storage and drainage of groundwater in the Franconian Alb, Germany, and the consequences for groundwater protection, Proc Isotopes in Water Resources Management, 2, 135-146 (IAEA, Vienna) Seiler K-P, Maloszewski P, Behrens H (1989) Hydrodynamic dispersion in karstified limestones and dolomites in the Upper Jurassic of the Franconian Alb, FRG, Journal of Hydrology, 108, 235-247 Shook G M (2003) A Simple, Fast Method of Estimating Fractured Reservoir Geometry from Tracer Tests, Geothermal Resources Council Transactions, 27, 407-411 Financial support from the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy is gratefully acknowledged. - Gefördert durch BMWi aufgrund eines Beschlusses des Deutschen Bundestages (FKZ 0325515 "TRENDS").

  11. A pilot study of the feasibility of long-term human bone balance during perimenopause using a 41Ca tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui, S.K.; Prior, J.; Gelbart, Z.; Johnson, R.R.; Lentle, B.C.; Paul, M.

    2007-01-01

    The mechanisms governing calcium fluxes during bone remodeling processes in perimenopausal women are poorly known. Despite higher, albeit erratic, estradiol levels in perimenopause, spine bone loss is greater than during the first five years past the final menstrual flow when estradiol becomes low. Understanding changes during this dynamic transition are important to prevent fragility fractures in midlife and older women. The exploration of long-lived 41 Ca (T 1/2 = 1.04 x 10 5 yrs) tracer measurements using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) leads to the possibility of monitoring bone remodeling balance. With this new technology, we explored a pilot long-term feasibility study of bone health by measuring the 41 Ca trace element in urine for six years from premenopausal to later perimenopausal phases in one midlife woman. We measured bone mineral density in parallel

  12. Double-tracer autoradiographic study of protein synthesis and glucose consumption in rats with focal cerebral ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas; Balchen, T; Bruhn, T

    1999-01-01

    A double-tracer autoradiographic method for simultaneous measurement of regional glucose utilization (rCMRglc) and regional protein synthesis (PS) in consecutive brain sections is described and applied to study the metabolism of the ischemic penumbra 2 h after occlusion of the middle cerebral...... artery (MCAO) in rats. In halothane anesthesia, the left middle cerebral artery was permanently occluded. Two hours after MCAO an i.v. bolus injection of 14C-deoxyglucose and 3H-leucine was given and circulated for 45 min. Two sets of brain sections were processed for quantitative autoradiography....... Neighboring brain sections exposed an X-ray film (3H-insensitive), and a 3H-sensitive for determination of rCMRglc and PS, respectively. Sections for PS determination were washed in trichloroacetic acid (TCA) prior to film exposure in order to remove 14C-deoxyglucose and unincorporated 3H-leucine. Regional...

  13. Preparation of 19-iodocholestrol labelled with I-125 and its study as a 'tracer' of plasma lipoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriquez Barquero, L.

    1988-01-01

    A technique of synthesis of the 19-iodocholesterol labelled with I-125, modified in some steps from other methods published previously, is described. We have obtained a product with high chemical (96%) and radiochemical (99,9%) purities. The yield was higher and the time necessary to prepare it was lower than other methods reported. The study of thermal and radiolytic stability showed that the 19-iodocholesterol-I-125 was not broken by autoradiolysis whereas the I-125 was separated from the molecule when the temperature was increased. The use of this 19-iodocholesterol-I-125 as a tracer of cholesterol of plasma lipoprotein showed some properties of LCAT and CETP and also showed the different capacity of VLDL and LDL to transport cholesteryl esters. (author) 105 refs

  14. Transient tracers in the ocean (TTO) program: the North Atlantic study, 1981: the Tropical Atlantic study, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, P.G.; Sarmiento, J.L.; Smethie, W.M. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The two parts of this major geochemical and physical oceanographic expedition took place on the research vessel Knorr of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. The expeditions were designed to observe the passage of man-made geochemical tracers into the interior of the ocean. A systematic survey revealed the penetration into the thermocline and deep ocean of the products of man's military/industrial activities, principally tritium and carbon-14 resulting from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons. The passage of these tracers documents as nothing else can the manner and time scale of ocean mixing and provides a fundamental calibration for models of ocean circulation. Maps showing the cruise routes are presented. 1 figure, 1 table

  15. Preparation of mono-radioiodinated tracers for study of the in vivo metabolism of atrial natriuretic peptide in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerico, A.; Marastoni, M.; Del Chicca, M.G.; Giannessi, D.; Del Ry, S.; Andreassi, M.G.; Sabatino, L.; Iascone, M.R.; Biagini, A.; Donato, L.

    1995-01-01

    The authors evaluate the optimum chemical conditions for labelling atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and its metabolites and for preparing highly purified radiotracers which can be used for in vivo kinetic studies of ANP in humans. Synthetic α h 1-28 ANP and some hormone metabolites were iodinated with Na 125 I or Na 131 I by means of the lactoperoxidase (ANP) or the chloramine-T (ANP metabolites) technique. The biological activity of labelled ANP was tested by means of a binding study using mouse cardiac membranes. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) procedure was used to purify the labelled hormone and the principal labelled metabolites in venous plasma samples collected up to 50 min after the injection of 125 I-labelled ANP from nine healthy men. The main ANP kinetic parameters were derived from the disappearance curves of the [ 125 I]ANP, which were satisfactorily fitted by a bi-exponential function in all subjects. The main advantages of this tracer technique are high accuracy, allowing the identification of the metabolites produced in vivo under steady-state conditions after injection of the precursor (labelled hormone) high sensitivity, allowing the detection of minimal quantities of metabolites high specificity, allowing the detection of possible in vitro artefactual generation of cleavage products of ANP using an internal labelled standard. Utilizing this tracer method, it was possible to estimate the principal parameters of ANP kinetics and also to plot the appearance curves of the labelled metabolites produced in vivo after the injection of the labelled precursor. (orig.). With 5 figs

  16. [Ultrastructural study on the nucleus pulposus of the inter-vertebral disc--the behavior of the cells in the nucleus pulposus and their autolytic changes in the monkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hase, H

    1985-08-01

    Ultrastructural studies were carried out to examine the normal structure and postmortem autolytic changes of the cells and matrix of nucleus pulposus using adult monkey. Two kinds of cells were observed in the nucleus pulposus. The one was chondrocyte, which contained normal organelles and that was characterized by large halo. The halo was composed of numerous "crista like structures", that were regarded to form the matrix of nucleus pulposus. The other was notochordal cell, most of which appeared in grouping or separately, and yet had cell activity. In addition, there were the intermediate type of cells between chondrocyte and notochordal cell. The ultrastructural autolytic changes were rarely seen in the cells of 6 hours after death, but the changes in the halo and in the cytoplasm were remarkable after more than 12 hours. The autopsied nucleus pulposus for electron microscopical examination should be used within 6 hours after death in usual room temperature.

  17. Early events of secretory granule formation in the rat parotid acinar cell under the influence of isoproterenol. An ultrastructural and lectin cytochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F D’Amico

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The events involved in the maturation process of acinar secretory granules of rat parotid gland were investigated ultrastructurally and cytochemically by using a battery of four lectins [Triticum vulgaris agglutinin (WGA, Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I, Glycine max agglutinin (SBA, Arachys hypogaea agglutinin (PNA]. In order to facilitate the study, parotid glands were chronically stimulated with isoproterenol to induce secretion. Specimens were embedded in the Lowicryl K4M resin. The trans-Golgi network (TGN derived secretory granules, which we refer to as immature secretory granules, were found to be intermediate structures in the biogenesis process of the secretory granules in the rat parotid acinar cell. These early structures do not seem to be the immediate precursor of the mature secretory granules: in fact, a subsequent interaction process between these early immature granule forms and TGN elements seems to occur, leading, finally, to the mature granules. These findings could explain the origin of the polymorphic subpopulations of the secretory granules in the normal acinar cells of the rat parotid gland. The lectin staining patterns were characteristic of each lectin. Immature and mature secretory gran- ules were labelled with WGA, SBA, PNA, and lightly with UEA-I. Cis and intermediate cisternae of the Golgi apparatus were labelled with WGA, and trans cisternae with WGA and SBA.

  18. Radioactive tracers in the sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, W.J.; Livingston, H.D.

    1980-01-01

    Artificial radionuclides introduced to the oceans during the last four decades have proved invaluable tools for study of many processes in marine water columns and sediments. Both global and close-in fallout of radioactivity from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing have distributed these radionuclides widely, and in amounts sufficient to be useful as tracers. An additional source of considerable significance and tracer potential comes from coastal discharges of European nuclear fuel reprocessing wastes. The nature of these sources, types and amounts of radionuclides introduced and the time histories of their introduction generate a variety of tracer distributions which illuminate a broad spectrum of physical and chemical processes active over a wide range of timescales. Depending on their respective chemistries, artificial radionuclides have been demonstrated to exhibit both conservative and non-conservative properties in the oceans. Some examples are given of the uses made of soluble, conservative tracers for the study of oceanic transport processes and of non-conservative tracers for studies of processes which move them to, and mix them within, marine sediments. Sampling and measurement techniques which have been used in these studies are described

  19. Prediction of iodine-131 biokinetics and radiation doses from therapy on the basis of tracer studies: an important question for therapy planning in nuclear medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willegaignon, José; Pelissoni, Rogério A; Lima, Beatriz C G D; Sapienza, Marcelo T; Coura-Filho, George B; Buchpiguel, Carlos A

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to present a comparison of iodine-131 (I) biokinetics and radiation doses to red-marrow (rm) and whole-body (wb), following the administration of tracer and therapeutic activities, as a means of confirming whether I clearance and radiation doses for therapy procedures can be predicted by tracer activities. Eleven differentiated thyroid cancer patients were followed after receiving tracer and therapeutic I activity. Whole-body I clearance was estimated using radiation detectors and OLINDA/EXM software was used to calculate radiation doses to rm and wb. Tracer I activity of 86 (±14) MBq and therapeutic activity of 8.04 (±1.18) GBq were administered to patients, thereby producing an average wb I effective half-time and residence time of, respectively, 13.51 (±4.05) and 23.13 (±5.98) h for tracer activities and 13.32 (±3.38) and 19.63 (±4.77) h for therapy. Radiation doses to rm and wb were, respectively, 0.0467 (±0.0208) and 0.0589 (±0.0207) mGy/MBq in tracer studies and 0.0396 (±0.0169) and 0.0500 (±0.0163) mGy/MBq in therapy. Although the differences were not considered statistically significant between averages, those between the values of effective half-times (P=0.906), residence times (P=0.145), and radiation doses to rm (P=0.393) and to wb (P=0.272), from tracer and therapy procedures, large differences of up to 80% in wb I clearance, and up to 50% in radiation doses were observed when patients were analyzed individually, thus impacting on the total amount of I activity calculated to be safe for application in individual therapy. I biokinetics and radiation doses to rm and wb in therapy procedures are well predicted by diagnostic activities when average values of a group of patients are compared. Nonetheless, when patients are analyzed individually, significant differences may be encountered, thus implying that nuclear medicine therapy-planning requires due consideration of changes in individual patient-body status from

  20. Principles and techniques of gamma ray tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claxton, K.T.

    1978-01-01

    Radioactive tracer techniques provide a very sensitive means of studying physical and chemical processes in a whole variety of different media. Some of the techniques and principles of radioactive tracers and their application to practical engineering systems are discussed. Information which has been found useful in the design of high temperature liquid sodium facilities employing radio-tracers, is presented. The report deals solely with the use of gamma-emitting species as the tracer. These find particular application for in-situ studies on engineering systems where the highly penetrating properties of gamma rays are needed for detection through strongly absorbent media such as stainless steel pepe walls. (author)

  1. Tracer gas dispersion in ducts-study of a new compact device using arrays of sonic micro jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.R. [Instituto Nacional de Engenharia e Tecnologia Industrial (INETI), Lisboa (Portugal); Afonso, C.F. [Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto Departmento de Mecanica e Gestao Industrial, Porto (Portugal)

    2004-07-01

    One of the most feasible ways to measure duct airflows is by tracer gas techniques, especially for complex situations when the duct lengths are short as well as their access, which makes extremely difficult or impossible other methods to be implemented. One problem associated with the implementation of tracer gas technique when the ducts lengths are short is due to the impossibility of achieving complete mixing of the tracer with airflow and its sampling. In this work, the development of a new device for the injection of tracer gas in ducts is discussed as well as a new tracer-sampling device. The developed injection device has a compact tubular shape, with magnetic fixation to be easy to apply in duct walls. An array of sonic micro jets in counter current direction, with the possibility of angular movement according to its main axle ensures a complete mixing of the tracer in very short distances. The tracer-sampling device, with a very effective integration function, feeds the sampling system for analysis. Both devices were tested in a wind tunnel of approximately 21 m total length. The tests distances between injection and integration device considered were: X/Dh = 22; X/Dh = 4; X/Dh 2; and X/Dh = 1. For very short distances of X/Dh = 2 and X/Dh = 1, semi-empirical expressions were needed. A good reproducibility of airflow rate values was obtained. These preliminary tests showed that the practical implementation of tracer gas techniques in HVAC systems for measuring airflow rates with a very short mixing distance is possible with the devices developed. (author)

  2. Present stage of the use of radioactive tracers in studies carried out at Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental, SP, Brazil, in the field of environmental engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, W.; Agudo, E.G.

    1979-01-01

    Studies using radioactive tracers in the field of environmental engineering, carried out at Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental, SP, Brazil, from 1975 to 1978 are presented. Future research to be developed in this area is also discussed. (M.A.) [pt

  3. Study on adsorption of activated carbon fiber to background-level xenon in air by the method of 133Xe tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Haitao; Wang Yalong; Zhang Lixing; Wang Xuhui; Zhang Xiaolin

    2001-01-01

    The adsorption behaviors of the different activated carbon fibers to ultra-trace xenon in air are studied using the method of 133 Xe as tracer. The efficiency equation of adsorption columns are determined. The comparison of adsorptive capacity between activated carbon fibers and activated carbon indicates that activated carbon fibers are better than activated carbon under low temperature

  4. Fundamental study on the response analysis of liquid tracer in gas-liquid, two-phase steady flow in porous media; Takoshitsu sonai kieki niso teijoryu ni okeru ekiso tracer no oto kaiseki ni kansuru kisoteki kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haga, D; Niibori, Y; Chida, T [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    1998-10-25

    Fluids in geothermal reservoirs are not necessarily in the single phase but is occasionally in the gas-liquid double phase. This study aims to collect fundamental knowledge about the analysis of tracer responses in a gas-liquid two-phase flow, with special attention paid to the movement of substances in the liquid-phase portion of the two-phase flow. A tracer test is conducted in a glass bead-filled layer, and then it is found that the conventional mixture-diffusion model fails to explain the outcome of the test conducted using the said very simple apparatus. The failure is attributed to the coexistence of high-saturation and low-saturation layers throughout the glass bead-filled layer, and a mathematical model is formulated, which is a development from the two-fractured-layer (TFL) model. It turns out that the mathematical model excellently describes the test result that the mixture-diffusion model fails to explain. In the numerical solution of this problem, the validity is confirmed of the use of the SIMPLEX method for the estimation of the effect of the numerical dispersion term of the third-order accurate finite upstream difference method, and of unknown parameters. 31 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Doublet Tracer Testing in Klamath Falls, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudmundsson, J.S.; Johnson, S.E.; Horne, R.N.; Jackson, P. B. [Pet. Eng. Dept., Stanford University; Culver, G.G. [Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR

    0001-01-01

    A tracer test was carried out in a geothermal doublet system to study the injection behavior of a developed reservoir known to be fractured. The doublet produces about 320 gpm of 160 degrees Fahrenheit water that is used for space heating and then injected; the wells are spaced 250 ft apart. Tracer breakthrough was observed in 2 hours and 45 minutes in the production well, indicating fracture flow. However, the tracer concentrations were low and indicated porous media flow; the tracers mixed with a reservoir volume much larger than a fracture.

  6. Doublet Tracer Testing in Klamath Falls, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudmundsson, J S; Johnson, S E; Horne, R N; Jackson, P B [Pet. Eng. Dept., Stanford University; Culver, G G [Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR

    0000-12-30

    A tracer test was carried out in a geothermal doublet system to study the injection behavior of a developed reservoir known to be fractured. The doublet produces about 320 gpm of 160 degrees Fahrenheit water that is used for space heating and then injected; the wells are spaced 250 ft apart. Tracer breakthrough was observed in 2 hours and 45 minutes in the production well, indicating fracture flow. However, the tracer concentrations were low and indicated porous media flow; the tracers mixed with a reservoir volume much larger than a fracture.

  7. Radiochemical tracers in marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrocelli, S.R.; Anderson, J.W.; Neff, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    Tracers have been used in a great variety of experimentation. More recently, labeled materials have been applied in marine biological research. Some of the existing tracer techniques have been utilized directly, while others have been modified to suit the specific needs of marine biologists. This chapter describes some of the uses of tracers in marine biological research. It also mentions the problems encountered as well as offering possible solutions and discusses further applications of these techniques. Only pertinent references are cited and additional information may be obtained by consulting these references. Due to their relative ease of maintenance, freshwater species are also utilized in studies which involve radiotracer techniques. Since most of these techniques e directly applicable to marine species, some of these studies will also be included

  8. Radioisotope tracer applications in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    Radioisotope tracers have many advantages in industrial trouble-shooting and studies on process kinetics. The applications are mainly of two types: one leading to qualitative (Yes or No type) information and the other to quantitative characterisation of flow processes through mass balance considerations and flow models. ''Yes or No'' type methods are mainly used for leakage and blockage locations in pipelines and in other industrial systems and also for location of water seepage zones in oil wells. Flow measurements in pipelines and mercury inventory in electrolytic cells are good examples of tracer methods using the mass balance approach. Axial dispersion model and Tanks-in-Series model are the two basic flow models commonly used with tracer methods for the characterisation of kinetic processes. Examples include studies on flow processes in sugar crystallisers as well as in a precalcinator in a cement plant. (author). 18 figs

  9. Quadratic tracer dynamical models tobacco growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang Jiyi; Hua Cuncai; Wang Shaohua

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the non-uniformly transferring process of some tracer dosages, we assume that the absorption of some tracer by tobacco is a quadratic function of the tracer quantity of the tracer in the case of fast absorption, whereas the exclusion of the tracer from tobacco is a linear function of the tracer quantity in the case of slow exclusion, after the tracer is introduced into tobacco once at zero time. A single-compartment quadratic dynamical model of Logistic type is established for the leaves of tobacco. Then, a two-compartment quadratic dynamical model is established for leaves and calms of the tobacco. Qualitative analysis of the models shows that the tracer applied to the leaves of the tobacco is excluded finally; however, the tracer stays at the tobacco for finite time. Two methods are also given for computing the parameters in the models. Finally, the results of the models are verified by the 32 P experiment for the absorption of tobacco. (authors)

  10. Ultrastructural, Confocal and Viscoelastic Characteristics of Whole Blood and Plasma After Exposure to Cadmium and Chromium Alone and in Combination: An Ex Vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantelle Venter

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Heavy metal pollution is increasing in the environment, contaminating water, food and air supplies. This can be linked to many anthropogenic activities. Heavy metals are absorbed through the skin, inhalation and/or orally. Irrespective of the manner of heavy metal entry in the body, the blood circulatory system is potentially the first to be affected following exposure and adverse effects on blood coagulation can lead to associated thrombotic disease. Although the plasma levels and the effects of cadmium (Cd and chromium (Cr on erythrocytes and lymphocytes have been described, the environmental exposure to heavy metals are not limited to a single metal and often involves metal mixtures, with each metal having different rates of absorption, different cellular, tissue, and organ targets. Therefore the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of the heavy metals Cd and Cr alone and whether Cr synergistically increases the effect of Cd on physiological important processes such as blood coagulation. Methods: Human blood was exposed to the heavy metals ex vivo, and thereafter morphological analysis was performed with scanning electron- and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM in conjunction with thromboelastography®. Results: The erythrocytes, platelets and fibrin networks presented with ultrastructural changes, including varied erythrocytes morphologies, activated platelets and significantly thicker fibrin fibres in the metal-exposed groups. CLSM analysis revealed the presence of phosphatidylserine on the outer surface of the membranes of the spherocytic erythrocytes exposed to Cd and Cr alone and in combination. The viscoelastic analysis revealed only a trend that indicates that clots that will form after heavy metal exposure, will likely be fragile and unstable especially for Cd and Cr in combination. Conclusion: This study identified the blood as an important target system of Cd and Cr toxicity.

  11. Packet Tracer network simulator

    CERN Document Server

    Jesin, A

    2014-01-01

    A practical, fast-paced guide that gives you all the information you need to successfully create networks and simulate them using Packet Tracer.Packet Tracer Network Simulator is aimed at students, instructors, and network administrators who wish to use this simulator to learn how to perform networking instead of investing in expensive, specialized hardware. This book assumes that you have a good amount of Cisco networking knowledge, and it will focus more on Packet Tracer rather than networking.

  12. Studies on the preparation of low-carrier Se-73,75 tracers for in vivo examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helfer, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    With the growing importance of positron emission tomography (PET) for in vivo imaging in diagnostic medicine there is great interest of developing new labelling methods for the positron emitter selenium-73. As attractive application an examination of a no-carrier-added (n.c.a.) preparation of the analogous tracer Sulindac Selenid and of the selenium containing compound Ebselen was examined with 73,75 Se. First of all a labelling strategy for Sulindac Selenid based on a protected precursor was developed. This precursor should further be transformed into the corresponding standard compound for chomatographic identification of the n.c.a. product. This, however, was not possible. An alternative synthesis method also did not result in a product. Thus, a radioactive labelling in case of Sulindac Selenid was not indicated in spite of a successful synthesis of a precursor. The preparation of Ebselen was performed as earlier described by a sequential one-pot synthesis with a yield of 46 %. An adaption of the reaction parameters to a radiosynthesis with 75 Se failed on the n.c.a. state and also after adding carrier to the reaction mixture. The desired product could, however, be prepared in a copper catalysed one-pot radiosynthesis for the first time under carrier-added conditions. Here, optimized conditions resulted in radiochemical yields of 60 ± 18 %. A no-carrier-added product could finally be achieved using sulphur as nonisotopic carrier in the reaction mixture. After optimisation of reaction parameters n.c.a. [ 75 Se]Ebselen could be synthesized with radiochemical yields of 55 ± 7 % within 4 h. Furthermore the desired product could be separated by RHPL-chromatography from its co-produced sulfur-analogue. After transferring the conditions to radiosyntheses with the positron emitter 73 Se, n.c.a. [ 73 Se]Ebselen could be achieved with a radiochemical yield of 22 ± 1 % and can now be used as a potential radiotracer in preclinical evaluation studies with respect to

  13. Studies on the electrochemical behaviour of iron by the use of radio-tracer technique, 1. Studies on the electrodeposition and dissolution of iron by the use of radio-tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moritani, Kimikazu; Ito, Yasuhiko; Kamata, Masahiro; Oishi, Jun

    1984-12-01

    To investigate whether radio-tracer techniques can augment conventional electrochemical techniques, offering useful information about the electrochemical behaviour of iron, the current efficiency of the electrodeposition of iron and the corrosion rate of metallic iron were measured by the radio-tracer method and the results were compared with the results measured by gravimetry and absorption photometry. Major conclusions obtained by the experiments are summarized as: 1) Between ordinary Fe and /sup 59/Fe, no isotope effect was observed. 2) Radiation from /sup 59/Fe had no effect on the electrode reaction. 3) While the use of a Ge semiconductor detector is undoubtedly preferable, Geiger-Mueller counter or NaI(Tl) scintillation counter gave fully satisfactory results. 4) Electrodeposited iron corrodes several times more rapidly than the iron base metal. These results suggests many other interesting applications of the radio-tracer technique when it is desired to obtain more detailed information on the electrochemical behaviour of iron. (author).

  14. Open and Distance Education Systems: do they enhance Graduates' Soft Skills? The results from 2009 Universitas Terbuka Tracer Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Juliah Ratnaningsih

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The vision and mission of Universitas Terbuka (UT is to become a highly qualified open and distance education institution and to provide higher education access to all communities. Graduates of UT are expected to acquire adequate knowledge, hard skills and soft skills. Soft skills play important roles in the world of work. The aim of this article is to describe: (1 whether the open and distance education systems are capable of providing graduates with soft skills, (2 how soft skills are acquired during the period of study, and (3 how are the range of soft skills acquired by graduates and required by stakeholders at work. This article uses 2009 UT tracer study, which employed survey and in-depth interviews to selected respondents and stakeholders. 2.417 pairs data (graduates and stakeholders were analysed. The rating scales were from 1 (very poor to 4 (excellent. The attributes analysed were personal, interpersonal and situational skills. The results show that learning systems that are based on individual learning and tutorial did provide graduates with soft skills. Graduates and stakeholders perceived interpersonal skills as fair. In general, soft skills required at work were time management, self-confidence, problem solving, creativity and team-work.

  15. Studies on biosorption of Cr(VI) on a green resin: dry cow dung powder and tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barot, N.S.; Bagla, H.K.

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation entails the application of dry cow dung powder (DCP) as an indigenous, inexpensive and eco-friendly material for the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous medium. Batch biosorption experiments were conducted employing 51 Cr(VI) as a tracer and the effect of various process parameters such as optimum pH, temperature, amount of resin, time of equilibration, agitation speed, concentration of metal ions and interfering effect of different salts etc. were studied. The kinetic studies were carried out employing various models but the best fitting was given by Lagergren Pseudo-second order model with high correlation coefficient R 2 value of 0.997 and adsorption capacity of 10.20 mg/g. The thermodynamic parameters for biosorption were evaluated as ΔG = -2.837 kJ/mol, ΔH = -4.757 kJ/mol and ΔS = 16.64 J/mol K, which indicated spontaneous and exothermic process with high affinity of DCP for Cr(VI). Many naturally available materials are used for the biosorption of heavy metal pollutants, where most of them are physically or chemically modified. In this research work, DCP has been utilized without any pre or post chemical treatment. Thus it manifests the principle of green chemistry and proves to be an eco-friendly resin. (orig.)

  16. Studies on biosorption of Cr(VI) on a green resin: dry cow dung powder and tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barot, N.S.; Bagla, H.K. [Kishinchand Chellaram College, Mumbai (India). Nuclear and Radiochemistry Dept.

    2012-07-01

    The present investigation entails the application of dry cow dung powder (DCP) as an indigenous, inexpensive and eco-friendly material for the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous medium. Batch biosorption experiments were conducted employing {sup 51}Cr(VI) as a tracer and the effect of various process parameters such as optimum pH, temperature, amount of resin, time of equilibration, agitation speed, concentration of metal ions and interfering effect of different salts etc. were studied. The kinetic studies were carried out employing various models but the best fitting was given by Lagergren Pseudo-second order model with high correlation coefficient R{sup 2} value of 0.997 and adsorption capacity of 10.20 mg/g. The thermodynamic parameters for biosorption were evaluated as {Delta}G = -2.837 kJ/mol, {Delta}H = -4.757 kJ/mol and {Delta}S = 16.64 J/mol K, which indicated spontaneous and exothermic process with high affinity of DCP for Cr(VI). Many naturally available materials are used for the biosorption of heavy metal pollutants, where most of them are physically or chemically modified. In this research work, DCP has been utilized without any pre or post chemical treatment. Thus it manifests the principle of green chemistry and proves to be an eco-friendly resin. (orig.)

  17. Human ketone body production and utilization studied using tracer techniques: Regulation by free fatty acids, insulin, catecholamines, and thyroid hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, U.; Lustenberger, M.; Mueller-Brand, J.G.; Gerber, P.P.; Stauffacher, W.

    1989-05-01

    Ketone body concentrations fluctuate markedly during physiological and pathological conditions. Tracer techniques have been developed in recent years to study production, utilization, and the metabolic clearance rate of ketone bodies. This review describes data on the roles of insulin, catecholamines, and thyroid hormones in the regulation of ketone body kinetics. The data indicate that insulin lowers ketone body concentrations by three independent mechanisms: first, it inhibits lipolysis, and thus lowers free fatty acid availability for ketogenesis; second, it restrains ketone body production within the liver; third, it enhances peripheral ketone body utilization. To assess these effects in humans in vivo, experimental models were developed to study insulin effects with controlled concentrations of free fatty acids, insulin, glucagon, and ketone bodies. Presently available data also support an important role of catecholamines in increasing ketone body concentrations. Evidence was presented that norepinephrine increases ketogenesis not only by stimulating lipolysis, and thus releasing free fatty acids, but also by increasing intrahepatic ketogenesis. Thyroid hormone availability was associated with lipolysis and ketogenesis. Ketone body concentrations after an overnight fast were only modestly elevated in hyperthyroidism resulting from increased peripheral ketone body clearance. There was a significant correlation between serum triiodothyronine levels and the ketone body metabolic clearance rate. Thus, ketone body homeostasis in human subjects resulted from the interaction of hormones such as insulin, catecholamines, and thyroid hormones regulating lipolysis, intrahepatic ketogenesis, and peripheral ketone body utilization. 58 references.

  18. Human ketone body production and utilization studied using tracer techniques: Regulation by free fatty acids, insulin, catecholamines, and thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, U.; Lustenberger, M.; Mueller-Brand, J.G.; Gerber, P.P.; Stauffacher, W.

    1989-01-01

    Ketone body concentrations fluctuate markedly during physiological and pathological conditions. Tracer techniques have been developed in recent years to study production, utilization, and the metabolic clearance rate of ketone bodies. This review describes data on the roles of insulin, catecholamines, and thyroid hormones in the regulation of ketone body kinetics. The data indicate that insulin lowers ketone body concentrations by three independent mechanisms: first, it inhibits lipolysis, and thus lowers free fatty acid availability for ketogenesis; second, it restrains ketone body production within the liver; third, it enhances peripheral ketone body utilization. To assess these effects in humans in vivo, experimental models were developed to study insulin effects with controlled concentrations of free fatty acids, insulin, glucagon, and ketone bodies. Presently available data also support an important role of catecholamines in increasing ketone body concentrations. Evidence was presented that norepinephrine increases ketogenesis not only by stimulating lipolysis, and thus releasing free fatty acids, but also by increasing intrahepatic ketogenesis. Thyroid hormone availability was associated with lipolysis and ketogenesis. Ketone body concentrations after an overnight fast were only modestly elevated in hyperthyroidism resulting from increased peripheral ketone body clearance. There was a significant correlation between serum triiodothyronine levels and the ketone body metabolic clearance rate. Thus, ketone body homeostasis in human subjects resulted from the interaction of hormones such as insulin, catecholamines, and thyroid hormones regulating lipolysis, intrahepatic ketogenesis, and peripheral ketone body utilization. 58 references

  19. Quantifying the Contribution of Grape Hexoses to Wine Volatiles by High-Precision [U13C]-Glucose Tracer Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Mark A.; Tobias, Herbert J.; Brenna, J. Thomas; Sacks, Gavin L.; Mansfield, Anna Katharine

    2016-01-01

    Many fermentation volatiles important to wine aroma potentially arise from yeast metabolism of hexose sugars, but assessing the relative importance of these pathways is challenging due to high endogenous hexose substrate concentrations. To overcome this problem, gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) was used to measure high-precision 13C/12C isotope ratios of volatiles in wines produced from juices spiked with tracer levels (0.01–1 APE) of uniformly labeled [U-13C]-glucose. The contribution of hexose to individual volatiles was determined from the degree of 13C enrichment. As expected, straight-chain fatty acids and their corresponding ethyl esters were derived almost exclusively from hexoses. Most fusel alcohols and their acetate esters were also majority hexose-derived, indicating the importance of anabolic pathways for their formation. Only two compounds were not derived primarily from hexoses (hexanol and isobutyric acid). This approach can be extended to other food systems or substrates for studying precursor–product relationships. PMID:24960193

  20. Quantifying the contribution of grape hexoses to wine volatiles by high-precision [U¹³C]-glucose tracer studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Mark A; Tobias, Herbert J; Brenna, J Thomas; Sacks, Gavin L; Mansfield, Anna Katharine

    2014-07-16

    Many fermentation volatiles important to wine aroma potentially arise from yeast metabolism of hexose sugars, but assessing the relative importance of these pathways is challenging due to high endogenous hexose substrate concentrations. To overcome this problem, gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) was used to measure high-precision (13)C/(12)C isotope ratios of volatiles in wines produced from juices spiked with tracer levels (0.01-1 APE) of uniformly labeled [U-(13)C]-glucose. The contribution of hexose to individual volatiles was determined from the degree of (13)C enrichment. As expected, straight-chain fatty acids and their corresponding ethyl esters were derived almost exclusively from hexoses. Most fusel alcohols and their acetate esters were also majority hexose-derived, indicating the importance of anabolic pathways for their formation. Only two compounds were not derived primarily from hexoses (hexanol and isobutyric acid). This approach can be extended to other food systems or substrates for studying precursor-product relationships.

  1. Study of ketone body kinetics in children by a combined perfusion of 13C and 2H3 tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bougneres, P.F.; Ferre, P.

    1987-01-01

    Ketone body kinetics were quantified in six children (3-5 yr old), who were fasted for 13-22 h, by a combined perfusion of [3- 13 C]acetoacetate ([ 13 C]AcAc) and D-(-)-beta-[4,4,4- 2 H3]hydroxybutyrate (beta-[ 2 H3]OHB) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Results were analyzed according to the single-pool (combined enrichments) or the two-accessible pools models. After 20-22 h of fasting, ketone body turnover rate was 30-50 mumol.kg-1.min-1, a rate achieved after several days of fasting in adults. At low ketosis, acetoacetate was the ketone body preferentially synthesized de novo and utilized irreversibly. When ketosis increased, acetoacetate irreversible disposal was not enhanced, since it was largely converted into beta-OHB, whereas beta-OHB irreversible disposal was very much increased. The single-pool and two-pool models gave similar ketone body turnover rates when [ 13 C]AcAc was the tracer, whereas the use of beta-[ 2 H3]OHB gave some more divergent results, especially at low ketosis. These studies demonstrate that ketogenesis is very active in short-term fasted children and that the use of a combined infusion of [ 13 C]AcAc and beta-[ 2 H3]OHB is a convenient way to give insight into individual ketone body kinetics

  2. Case study: evaluation of continuos blending silos in the cement industry, by the aid of tracer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, C.; Maghella, G.; Mamani, E.

    2000-12-01

    Besides the actual burning process in cement manufacture, particular importance is attached to raw material preparation and homogenization, not only because of the quality of the kiln fed and therefore of the produced cement, but also because of the economy of the kiln operation, which significantly depends on the uniformity of the chemical composition of the material. As a result, the blending process of the cement raw material, before burning, is a basic stage of cement technology production. In this case, the pneumatic homogenization process is studied in a silo with a great storing and processing capacity. The objective is to evaluate the parameters which influence in the continuos operation. The method allows us to determine the optimal blending parameters, through the observation of the movement and distribution of the different fractions of fine dust raw meal, labelled with La-140 as tracer. Changes in blending according to time are discussed as well as the influence of the silo design on the degree of homogenization. It was showed that the silo blending operation has a strong influence on the production of good-quality cement as well as the implications on energy saving

  3. Ultrastructural hepatocellular features associated with severe hepatic lipidosis in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center, S A; Guida, L; Zanelli, M J; Dougherty, E; Cummings, J; King, J

    1993-05-01

    In this study, we compared hepatic ultrastructure in healthy cats, in cats with severe hepatic lipidosis, and in cats with experimentally induced, chronic, extrahepatic bile duct occlusion. Ultrastructural features unique to the lipidosis syndrome included an apparent reduction in number of peroxisomes and alteration in their morphologic features. The quantity of endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complexes, and lysosomes was subjectively reduced, and paucity of cytosolic glycogen was observed. Bile canaliculi appeared collapsed because of cytosolic distention with lipid. Mitochondria were reduced in number and were markedly pleomorphic. Cristae assumed a variety of shapes, lengths, and orientations. Ultrastructural features of bile duct occlusion were similar to those described in other species and differed from those in cats with hepatic lipidosis.

  4. Advances in computer applications in radioactive tracer studies of the circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Klingensmith, W.C. III; Knowles, L.G.; Lotter, M.G.; Natarajan, T.K.

    1977-01-01

    Advances in computer technology since the last IAEA symposium on medical radionuclide imaging have now made possible a new approach to the study of physiological processes that promise to improve greatly our perception of body functions and structures. We have developed procedures, called ''compressed time imaging'' (CTI), that display serial images obtained over periods of minutes and hours at framing rates of approximately 16 to 60 per minute. At other times, ''real'' or ''expanded time imaging'' is used, depending on the process under study. Designed initially to study the beating heart, such multidimensional time studies are now being extended to the cerebral and other regional circulations, as well as to other organ systems. The improved imaging methods provide a new approach to space and time in the study of physiology and are supplemented by quantitative analysis of data displayed on the television screen of the computer. (author)

  5. Long term effects of low doses of 56Fe ions on the brain and retina of the mouse: ultrastructural and behavioral studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, D. E.; Miquel, J.

    1986-01-01

    Eight month old male C57BL6 mice were exposed without anesthesia to whole-body irradiation in circular holders. The mice were tested for behavioral decrements after 0.5 and 50 rads of Fe particle irradiation at 6 and 12 months post irradiation to obtain long term results. A standard maze was used and the animals were timed for completion thereof. A string test also was administered to the mice, testing their ability to grasp and move along a string to safety. The results from animals exposed to 50 rads were significantly different from [correction of fron] control results to p = brain) and the retina were examined for ultrastructural changes. The ultrastructural changes were similar to those we found in our Cosmos 782, 936 and in our Argon experiments. The mouse data indicate that iron particles were able to induce long term changes in the central nervous system which lead to behavioral impairment.

  6. The kinetics of multi-compartmentalized systems, studied by radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouveia, A.S. de.

    1978-01-01

    The use of compartmental models to investigate kinetic problems is presented. This use is restricted, however, to linear models. As an application of different methods, the kinetic behaviour of haemaccel labelled with iodine 131 is studied, the interval of the physically viable solutions being established. The existence of a class of solutions is explained as a result of lack of knowledge of a complete data set. The possibility of obtaining a single solution is also discussed. The formalism of the program SAAM (Simulation, Analysis and modelling) now judged very important for the study of multi-compartimental analysis is presented. (I.C.R) [pt

  7. Iris ultrastructure in patients with synechiae as revealed by in vivo laser scanning confocal microscopy : In vivo iris ultrastructure in patients with Synechiae by Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Cheng, Hongbo; Guo, Ping; Zhang, Chun; Tang, Song; Wang, Shusheng

    2016-04-26

    Iris plays important roles in ocular physiology and disease pathogenesis. Currently it is technically challenging to noninvasively examine the human iris ultrastructure in vivo. The purpose of the current study is to reveal human iris ultrastructure in patients with synechiae by using noninvasive in vivo laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). The ultrastructure of iris in thirty one patients, each with synechiae but transparent cornea, was examined by in vivo LSCM. Five characteristic iris ultrastructures was revealed in patients with synechiae by in vivo LSCM, which include: 1. tree trunk-like structure; 2. tree branch/bush-like structure; 3. Fruit-like structure; 4. Epithelioid-like structure; 5. deep structure. Pigment granules can be observed as a loose structure on the top of the arborization structure. In iris-associated diseases with Tyndall's Phenomenon and keratic precipitates, the pigment particles are more likely to fall off from the arborization structure. The ultrastructure of iris in patients with synechiae has been visualized using in vivo LSCM. Five iris ultrastructures can be clearly observed, with some of the structures maybe disease-associated. The fall-off of the pigment particles may cause the Tyndall's Phenomenon positive. In vivo LSCM provides a non-invasive approach to observe the human iris ultrastructure under certain eye disease conditions, which sets up a foundation to visualize certain iris-associated diseases in the future.

  8. Underground flux studies in waste basin of CIPC using natural and artificial tracers (volume I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minardi, P.S.P.

    1982-10-01

    This report presents studies to be done in wastes basin of CIPC in order to verify the contamination possibility of Rio das Antas basin, by infiltration in subsoil, of liquid wastes proceeding from mineral and industrial complex of Pocos de Caldas to be done up to February/82. (author) [pt

  9. Coupling Cover Crops with Alternative Swine Manure Application Strategies: Manure-15N Tracer Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integration of rye cover crops with alternative liquid swine (Sus scrofa L.) manure application strategies may enhance retention of manure N in corn (Zea mays L.) - soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] cropping systems. The objective of this study was to quantify uptake of manure derived-N by a rye (Seca...

  10. Carbon-14 tracer study of polyacrylate polymer in a wastewater plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.E.; King, L.W.; Hylko, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    A highly absorbent consumer-product, polyacrylate-polymer material tagged with carbon-14 ( 14 C), was dosed to a standard on-site aerobic wastewater treatment plant which contained a settling chamber, an aeration chamber, and an effluent chamber. Operation of the test plant was essentially the same as that of a control plant even under exaggerated conditions. About 97% of the polymer material was retained in solids deposited in the primary and aeration chambers, and effluent releases were minimal. The use of a 14 C tagging procedure proved to be a successful method for studying the behavior of these complex materials. It may be useful to conduct a further study on retained solids to determine whether microbial decomposition of the polymer material occurs while they remain in typical plants. (author)

  11. Kinetic modeling of receptor-ligand binding applied to positron emission tomographic studies with neuroleptic tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, J; Wolf, A P; Shiue, C Y; Fowler, J S

    1987-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with labeled neuroleptics has made possible the study of neurotransmitter-receptor systems in vivo. In this study we investigate the kinetics of the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine (dopamine) receptor-ligand binding using PET data from a series of experiments in the baboon with the /sup 18/F-labeled drugs spiperone, haloperidol, and benperidol. Models used to describe these systems are based on first-order kinetics which applies at high specific activity (low receptor occupancy). The parameters governing the uptake and loss of drug from the brain were found by fitting PET data from regions with little or no receptor concentration (cerebellum) and from experiments in which specific binding was blocked by pretreatment with the drug (+)-butaclamol. Receptor constants were determined by fitting data from receptor-containing structures. Correcting the arterial plasma activities (the model driving function) for the presence of drug metabolites was found to be important in the modeling of these systems.

  12. Tracer study on sulphur use efficiency in potato-barley sequence on acid soil of Shimla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sud, K.C.; Sharma, R.C.; Sharma, N.K.

    1999-01-01

    Controlled studies were conducted on acidic soil of Fagu (Shimla) to study the efficiency of labelled ammonium sulphate as effected by farmyard manure (FYM) on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and its residual effect on succeeding barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The direct and residual effects of FYM and sulphur on dry matter yield and S concentration in potato and barley plants were significant. Applied FYM had a positive effect on radioassay values i.e. % Sdff and % S utilization by potato from labelled S carrier, whereas, the residual effect of applied S on barley was more than its direct effect on potato. Results indicate that combined application of S and FYM resulted in 3.4 per cent more S contribution to barley crop and was reflected in % S utilization values. (author)

  13. A study on the cycling of phosphorus in wheat (T. alstivum L.) by tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedi, R.S.

    1974-01-01

    The cycling of phosphorus was studied in relation to its uptake, retention, release and mineralization during the growth period of wheat crop (S. 308) in pure stand (PS) and mixed stand (MS) by using carrier free 32 P. It was estimated that about 60 kg P 2 O 5 /ha was added to the soil through litter by growing two such crops in a year. The mineralization of phosphorus from the litter was to be two times faster at 6 inches soil depth at semi-saturated soil moisture than surface litter. The dry matter production and re-absorption of litter phosphorus by maize plant growing at the bassal dose of decomposed litter were insignificantly different from those of fertilized soils. All the parameters of phosphorus cycling determined by both the techniques did not differ markedly. For mineralization and especially reabsorption studies, only the radiotracer technique appeared to be most sensitive, easy, reliable and quicker. (author)

  14. Contribution to the study of the behavior of tetravalent technetium at tracer amounts in aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guennec, J.Y.

    The behavior of /sup 99m/Tc was studied first in perchloric media. Reduction of TcO 4 - by BH 4 - at pH 7 in perchloric medium leads to Tc(IV) as a radiocolloid (20 percent) and soluble TcO 2 (50 percent). Acidification of the medium oxidizes the soluble Tc(IV) fraction. Acid solutions containing only the IV species and free of radiocolloids can be studied using back extraction. Tc(IV) is extracted by the organic phases, containing or not containing TTA or HDEHP from solutions of Tc(VII) reduced by BH 4 - at pH 7. These organic phases are then contacted with aqueous phases 5 x 10 -2 to 3 M HClO 4 , and the variation of the distribution coefficient was studied as a function of the chelating agent content and of the pH. In the absence of a chelating agent, the extracted species is TcO 2 . In the presence of chelating agents, the cation TcO(OH) + is extracted in the forms TcO(OH)A and TcO(OH)A 2 H respectively with TTA and HDEHP. Hydrolysis of this cation leads to TcO 2 . Study of the reduction of Tc(VII) in hydrochloric medium is complicated by the oxychlorinated forms of Tc(IV). The hexachlorotechnetate ion, TcCl 6 , exists in HCl 12 M down to 1 M and is very inert. Addition of chloride ions to solutions containing only TcO 2 and TcO(OH) + , when [Cl - ] is less than 1 M, leads to a neutral extractable species, which could be TcOCl 2 . When the Cl - concentration is greater than 1 M, there is formation of a species with one more chlorine atoms; this could be TcOCl 3 . The behavior of technetium during the formation of the complex ''Tc-Iron-Ascorbic Acid'' used in medical scintigraphy was also studied. Ascorbic acid alone or divalent iron alone slightly reduce the pertechnetate. Addition of Fe 2+ (or BH 4 - ) to Tc(VII) and ascorbic acid produces a high percentage of Tc(IV). So it is the ascorbate of iron which reduces the Tc(VII) and the excess ascorbic acid maintains the technetium in its reduced state by formation of a weak complex

  15. Radioassay of granulocyte chemotaxis. Studies of human granulocytes and chemotactic factors. [/sup 51/Cr tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallin, J I

    1974-01-01

    The above studies demonstrate that the /sup 51/Cr radiolabel chemotactic assay is a relatively simple and objective means for studying leukocyte chemotaxis in both normal and pathological conditions. Application of this method to studies of normal human chemotaxis revealed a relatively narrow range of normal and little day-to-day variability. Analysis of this variability revealed that there is more variability among the response of different granulocytes to a constant chemotactic stimulus than among the chemotactic activity of different sera to a single cell source. Utilizing the /sup 51/Cr radioassay, the abnormal granulocyte chemotactic behavior reported in Chediak-Higashi syndrome and a patient with recurrent pyogenic infections and mucocutaneous candidiasis has been confirmed. The /sup 51/Cr chemotactic assay has also been used to assess the generation of chemotactic activity from human serum and plasma. The in vitro generation of two distinct chemotactic factors were examined; the complement product (C5a) and kallikrein, an enzyme of the kinin-generating pathway. Kinetic analysis of complement-related chemotactic factor formation, utilizing immune complexes or endotoxin to activate normal sera in the presence or absence of EGTA as well as kinetic analysis of activation of C2-deficient human serum, provided an easy means of distinguishing the classical (antibody-mediated) complement pathway from the alternate pathway. Such kinetic analysis is necessary to detect clinically important abnormalities since, after 60 min of generation time, normal chemotactic activity may be present despite complete absence or inhibition of one complement pathway. The chemotactic factor generated by either pathway of complement activation appears to be predominately attributable to C5a.

  16. Synthesis of high specific activity carbon-11 labeled tracers for neuroreceptor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dannals, R.F.; Ravert, H.T.; Wilson, A.A.; Wagner, H.N. Jr; Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD

    1989-01-01

    The use of short-lived positron-emitting radiotracers together with positron emission tomography (PET) has allowed scientists to acquire previously inaccessible information regarding problems in physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology in the living human body. In the past five years, successes in the application of PET to the non-invasive determination of the spatial distribution and regional concentration of a variety of neurotransmitter binding sites within the living brain often followed the successful selections and syntheses of appropriately radiolabeled ligands. This presentation concentrates on the synthesis of these high specific activity radiotracers for neuroreceptor PET studies labeled specifically with carbon-11. (author). 15 refs.; 1 fig

  17. The biokinetics of Rhuthenium and Zirconium radionuclides in humans studied with stable tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veronese, I.; Cantone, M.C.; Giussani, A.

    2002-01-01

    The assessment of the internal radiation dose delivered by radionuclides incorporated in the human body after accidental release into the environment requires the use of suitable biokinetic models. These models describe the absorption of radionuclides into the blood circulation, their distribution and retention in various organs and tissues, and the excretion routes. Biokinetic models are also employed for interpreting bioassay measurements in exposed subjects, like activity concentration measurements in body fluids (e.g. urine, blood), in order to estimate the incorporated amount of radioactive substances. The reliability of a biokinetic model is closely linked to the available experimental data used to develop the model itself. Biokinetic data for human subjects are available for most essential elements, as well as for some important non-essential elements such as caesium, lead, radium, uranium, americium and plutonium. For many other radionuclides, either very little or no information is available from human studies, and the respective models must be derived from other sources. These may include results from studies in animals, comparative data on the behaviour of similar radionuclides or chemical analogues in vitro. Biokinetic models developed from such a variety of data sources can be applied to humans only with a limited degree of confidence. The availability of data directly obtained on human subjects is therefore fundamental to set up more reliable and realistic models. Ruthenium and zirconium are among the elements characterised by a serious lack of reliable data in humans

  18. Kinetic and Related Determinants of Plasma Triglyceride Concentration in Abdominal Obesity: Multicenter Tracer Kinetic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borén, Jan; Watts, Gerald F; Adiels, Martin; Söderlund, Sanni; Chan, Dick C; Hakkarainen, Antti; Lundbom, Nina; Matikainen, Niina; Kahri, Juhani; Vergès, Bruno; Barrett, P Hugh R; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta

    2015-10-01

    Patients with obesity and diabetes mellitus have increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A major cause is an atherogenic dyslipidemia related primarily to elevated plasma concentrations of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. The aim of this study was to clarify determinants of plasma triglyceride concentration. We focused on factors that predict the kinetics of very-low density lipoprotein 1 (VLDL1) triglycerides. A multicenter study using dual stable isotopes (deuterated leucine and glycerol) and multicompartmental modeling was performed to elucidate the kinetics of triglycerides and apoB in VLDL1 in 46 subjects with abdominal obesity and additional cardiometabolic risk factors. Results showed that plasma triglyceride concentrations were dependent on both the secretion rate (r=0.44, Ptriglycerides and VLDL1-apoB. Liver fat mass was independently and directly associated with secretion rates of VLDL1-triglycerides (r=0.56, Ptriglycerides (r=0.48, Ptriglyceride concentrations in abdominal obesity are determined by the kinetics of VLDL1 subspecies, catabolism being mainly dependent on apoC-III concentration and secretion on liver fat content. Reduction in liver fat and targeting apoC-III may be an effective approach for correcting triglyceride metabolism atherogenic dyslipidemia in obesity. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. The choice of label and measurement technique in tracer studies of body protein metabolism in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, W.P.T.; Sender, P.M.; Garlick, P.J.; Waterlow, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    The turnover of non-serum proteins in man has had limited study despite the physiological importance of maintaining the balance between synthesis and breakdown of body proteins. Body protein is usually considered as a single pool and breakdown rates are often measured by monitoring excreted label at intervals after pulse labelling with radioactive or 15 N amino acids. No label has yet been used for measuring tissue protein breakdown in man which is free from the major problem of label re-utilization. All measurements of breakdown rates, eg. with 75 Se-selenomethionine, 15 N- or 14 C-glycine, give rate constants which are too low. The heterogeneity of body proteins also means that an estimate of the weighted average breakdown rate can only be obtained after following the excretion of isotope for a long period, perhaps of the order of 3-4 half-lives which, for man, would be 100 days after labelling. We therefore use infusions with either 14 C- or 15 N-labelled amino acids to measure breakdown and synthesis rates: these values are less affected by problems of protein heterogeneity. Single injection techniques are subject to more error than constant infusions of label because of the difficulty of defining the precursor activity. 15 N labelling need not be confined to essential amino acids if total protein rather than amino acid turnover is studied: the latter involves measurements of the labelled amino acid itself which is difficult with 15 N because of the small amounts of free amino acid nitrogen available. Carbon labelling of non-essential amino acids is unsuitable for studies of protein turnover and the choice of the position of the label on the molecule is important when labelled essential amino acids are employed. Short-term changes in protein metabolism are evaluated better with amino acids with a small pool size; the equilibration time in the excretory bicarbonate pool is also shorter than in the urea pool so that 15 N is less useful than carbon labelling. We

  20. Isotope tracers in global water and climate studies of the past and present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, T.W.D.; Birks, S.J.; Gibson, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    To date the global distribution of isotopes in modern precipitation has been characterized almost exclusively from the IAEA/WMO GNIP database, although patchiness of GNIP station records in both time and space has limited the potential of isotope hydrology and climate applications in some areas. Herein, we discuss the prospect of utilizing GCMs for simulating global isotope distributions as a supplementary tool for modern and paleoclimate isotope studies to bridge this gap. Such models currently generate reliable zonal isotope fields, and it is anticipated that future enhancements in finescale resolution of GCMs, and incorporation of land-surface feedbacks and topography will allow for future development of a global reanalysis data set ground-truthed by GNIP. Compilation of time-slice maps of past isotope distribution in precipitation from archival records of meteoric waters also offers significant potential to ground-truth paleoclimate simulations extending back tens to hundreds of thousands of years. (author)

  1. Multi-tracer investigation of river and groundwater interactions: a case study in Nalenggele River basin, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Su, Xiaosi; Dai, Zhenxue; Yang, Fengtian; Zhu, Pucheng; Huang, Yong

    2017-11-01

    Environmental tracers (such as major ions, stable and radiogenic isotopes, and heat) monitored in natural waters provide valuable information for understanding the processes of river-groundwater interactions in arid areas. An integrated framework is presented for interpreting multi-tracer data (major ions, stable isotopes (2H, 18O), the radioactive isotope 222Rn, and heat) for delineating the river-groundwater interactions in Nalenggele River basin, northwest China. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were undertaken to estimate the bidirectional water exchange associated with small-scale interactions between groundwater and surface water. Along the river stretch, groundwater and river water exchange readily. From the high mountain zone to the alluvial fan, groundwater discharge to the river is detected by tracer methods and end-member mixing models, but the river has also been identified as a losing river using discharge measurements, i.e. discharge is bidirectional. On the delta-front of the alluvial fan and in the alluvial plain, in the downstream area, the characteristics of total dissolved solids values, 222Rn concentrations and δ18O values in the surface water, and patterns derived from a heat-tracing method, indicate that groundwater discharges into the river. With the environmental tracers, the processes of river-groundwater interaction have been identified in detail for better understanding of overall hydrogeological processes and of the impacts on water allocation policies.

  2. pH dependence and unsuitability of fluorescein dye as a tracer for pesticide mobility studies in acid soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Peterson

    2009-01-01

    The mobility of fluorescein and bromide used as tracers in packed soil columns was investigated.Five different soils were used in two application methods: soil surface application and soil incorporation, both of which simulate accepted methods of soil application of termiticides to prevent structural infestation. The...

  3. You are not always what we think you eat: selective assimilation across multiple whole-stream isotopic tracer studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. K. Dodds; S. M. Collins; S. K. Hamilton; J. L. Tank; S. Johnson; J. R. Webster; K. S. Simon; M. R. Whiles; H. M. Rantala; W. H. McDowell; S. D. Peterson; T. Riis; C. L. Crenshaw; S. A. Thomas; P. B. Kristensen; B. M. Cheever; A. S. Flecker; N. A. Griffiths; T. Crowl; E. J. Rosi-Marshall; R. El-Sabaawi; E. Martí

    2014-01-01

    Analyses of 21 15N stable isotope tracer experiments, designed to examine food web dynamics in streams around the world, indicated that the isotopic composition of food resources assimilated by primary consumers (mostly invertebrates) poorly reflected the presumed food sources. Modeling indicated that consumers assimilated only 33–50% of the N...

  4. Field study of time-dependent selenium partitioning in soils using isotopically enriched stable selenite tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Tullo, Pamela; Pannier, Florence; Thiry, Yves; Le Hécho, Isabelle; Bueno, Maïté

    2016-01-01

    A better understanding of selenium fate in soils at both short and long time scales is mandatory to consolidate risk assessment models relevant for managing both contamination and soil fertilization issues. The purpose of this study was thus to investigate Se retention processes and their kinetics by monitoring time-dependent distribution/speciation changes of both ambient and freshly added Se, in the form of stable enriched selenite-77, over a 2-years field experiment. This study clearly illustrates the complex reactivity of selenium in soil considering three methodologically defined fractions (i.e. soluble, exchangeable, organic). Time-dependent redistribution of Se-77 within solid-phases having different reactivity could be described as a combination of chemical and diffusion controlled processes leading to its stronger retention. Experimental data and their kinetic modeling evidenced that transfer towards less labile bearing phases are controlled by slow processes limiting the overall sorption of Se in soils. These results were used to estimate time needed for "7"7Se to reach the distribution of naturally present selenium which may extend up to several decades. Ambient Se speciation accounted for 60% to 100% of unidentified species as function of soil type whereas "7"7Se(IV) remained the more abundant species after 2-years field experiment. Modeling Se in the long-term without taking account these slow sorption kinetics would thus result in underestimation of Se retention. When using models based on K_d distribution coefficient, they should be at least reliant on ambient Se which is supposed to be at equilibrium.

  5. Field study of time-dependent selenium partitioning in soils using isotopically enriched stable selenite tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Tullo, Pamela, E-mail: pamela.ditullo@univ-pau.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement (LCABIE), Université de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour/CNRS, UMR 5254, IPREM, Hélioparc, 2 Avenue du Président Angot, 64053 Pau Cedex 9 (France); Andra, Research and Development Division, Parc de la Croix Blanche, 1-7 rue Jean Monnet, 92298 Châtenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Pannier, Florence, E-mail: florence.pannier@univ-pau.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement (LCABIE), Université de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour/CNRS, UMR 5254, IPREM, Hélioparc, 2 Avenue du Président Angot, 64053 Pau Cedex 9 (France); Thiry, Yves, E-mail: yves.thiry@andra.fr [Andra, Research and Development Division, Parc de la Croix Blanche, 1-7 rue Jean Monnet, 92298 Châtenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Le Hécho, Isabelle, E-mail: isabelle.lehecho@univ-pau.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement (LCABIE), Université de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour/CNRS, UMR 5254, IPREM, Hélioparc, 2 Avenue du Président Angot, 64053 Pau Cedex 9 (France); Bueno, Maïté, E-mail: maite.bueno@univ-pau.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement (LCABIE), Université de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour/CNRS, UMR 5254, IPREM, Hélioparc, 2 Avenue du Président Angot, 64053 Pau Cedex 9 (France)

    2016-08-15

    A better understanding of selenium fate in soils at both short and long time scales is mandatory to consolidate risk assessment models relevant for managing both contamination and soil fertilization issues. The purpose of this study was thus to investigate Se retention processes and their kinetics by monitoring time-dependent distribution/speciation changes of both ambient and freshly added Se, in the form of stable enriched selenite-77, over a 2-years field experiment. This study clearly illustrates the complex reactivity of selenium in soil considering three methodologically defined fractions (i.e. soluble, exchangeable, organic). Time-dependent redistribution of Se-77 within solid-phases having different reactivity could be described as a combination of chemical and diffusion controlled processes leading to its stronger retention. Experimental data and their kinetic modeling evidenced that transfer towards less labile bearing phases are controlled by slow processes limiting the overall sorption of Se in soils. These results were used to estimate time needed for {sup 77}Se to reach the distribution of naturally present selenium which may extend up to several decades. Ambient Se speciation accounted for 60% to 100% of unidentified species as function of soil type whereas {sup 77}Se(IV) remained the more abundant species after 2-years field experiment. Modeling Se in the long-term without taking account these slow sorption kinetics would thus result in underestimation of Se retention. When using models based on K{sub d} distribution coefficient, they should be at least reliant on ambient Se which is supposed to be at equilibrium.

  6. Study on hydrogen transfer in coal liquefaction by tritium and carbon-14 tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitoh, Osamu; Kabe, Toshiaki; Kabe, Yaeko.

    1985-01-01

    For the analysis of mechanism of hydrogenation and cracking of coal, the liquefaction of Taiheiyo coal using tritium labeled gaseous hydrogen and tritium labeled tetralin with small amounts of carbon-14 labeled naphthalene has been studied. Taiheiyo coal(25g) was thermally decomposed in tetralin or naphthalene solvent(75g) at 400--440 0 C under the initial hydrogen pressure of 5.9MPa for 30min with Ni-Mo-Al 2 O 3 catalyst(0--5g). The reaction mixture in an autoclave was separated by filtration, distillation and solvent extraction. Produced gas, oils and the solvent were analyzed by gas chromatography. The tritium and carbon-14 contents of separated reaction products were measured with a liquid scintilation counter to study the hydrogen transfer mechanism. The distribution of reaction products and the amount of hydrogen transfer from gas or solvent to the products were also determined. In hydrogen donor solvent such as tetralin, the coal liquefaction yield was independent from the catalyst, but the catalyst was effective in hydrocracking of preasphaltene and asphaltene. In naphthalene solvent, the coal liquefaction reaction hardly occured in the absence of the catalyst, because hydrogen transfer from both the solvent and gaseous hydrogen was scarce. Tritium distribution in the reaction products showed that complicated hydrogen exchange reactions between gaseous hydrogen, coal liquids and solvent came out by the presence of coal liquids and catalyst. The very small amounts of carbon-14 transferred to the liquefaction products showed that carbon exchange or transfer between solvent and coal did not take place. (author)

  7. Tracer filamentation at an unstable ocean front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yen Chia; Mahadevan, Amala; Thiffeault, Jean-Luc; Yecko, Philip

    2017-11-01

    A front, where two bodies of ocean water with different physical properties meet, can become unstable and lead to a flow with high strain rate and vorticity. Phytoplankton and other oceanic tracers are stirred into filaments by such flow fields, as can often be seen in satellite imagery. The stretching and folding of a tracer by a two-dimensional flow field has been well studied. In the ocean, however, the vertical shear of horizontal velocity is typically two orders of magnitude larger than the horizontal velocity gradient. Theoretical calculations show that vertical shear alters the way in which horizontal strain affects the tracer, resulting in thin, sloping structures in the tracer field. Using a non-hydrostatic ocean model of an unstable ocean front, we simulate tracer filamentation to identify the effect of vertical shear on the deformation of the tracer. In a complementary laboratory experiment, we generate a simple, vertically sheared strain flow and use dye and particle image velocimetry to quantify the filamentary structures in terms of the strain and shear. We identify how vertical shear alters the tracer filaments and infer how the evolution of tracers in the ocean will differ from the idealized two-dimensional paradigm. Support of NSF DMS-1418956 is acknowledged.

  8. Dynamics of feeding responses in Pieris brassicae Linn. as a function of chemosensory input : a behavioural, ultrastructural and electrophysiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, W.C.

    1972-01-01

    The present study of contact chemoreception in Pieris brassicae L. is divided into three major parts, viz. 1. behavioural analyses, 2. the identification and description of sense organs and 3. investigations concerning the sensory physiology. In a separate section some

  9. Studies on photosynthate distribution and root exudates of cinesische by 14C tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Junwei; Ni Zhuru; Liu Zhihong; Fu Zhijian

    1994-01-01

    Cinesische (Cunninghamia sinesis R. Br.) plants grown in nutrient solution were exposed to 14 CO 2 for 24 hours to study the photosynthate distribution and root exudates. One day after feeding 14 CO 2 , the majority of 14 C assimilate was remained in leaves, only 27.38% of 14 C assimilate was translocated into new shoots, main branches, lateral branches and roots. 3 days after feeding 14 CO 2 , the distribution rate of 14 C photosynthate in leaves was still the highest, but the percentage decreased and it correspondingly increased in other plant parts. 22 days after feeding 14 CO 2 , the distribution rate in new shoots became the highest, roots ranked the second, main branches were the third, leaves and lateral branches were the lowest. The photosynthate in the root could rapidly convert into root exudates. The amount of root exudates reached a peak after 4 days of feeding 14 CO 2 , afterward the amount of 14 C root exudates decreased rapidly. The amount of sugar was the highest among all kinds of root exudates, the amount of organic acid was the second, the content of amino acid was much lower than that of the other two root exudates

  10. Organotin persistence in contaminated marine sediments and porewaters: In situ degradation study using species-specific stable isotopic tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furdek, Martina; Mikac, Nevenka [Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, Zagreb (Croatia); Bueno, Maite; Tessier, Emmanuel; Cavalheiro, Joana [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-inorganique et Environnement, Institut Pluridisciplinaire de Recherche sur l’Environnement et les Matériaux, CNRS UMR 5254, Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour, Hélioparc Pau Pyrénées, 2, Av. P. Angot, 64053 Pau Cedex 9 (France); Monperrus, Mathilde, E-mail: mathilde.monperrus@univ-pau.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-inorganique et Environnement, Institut Pluridisciplinaire de Recherche sur l’Environnement et les Matériaux, CNRS UMR 5254, Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour, Hélioparc Pau Pyrénées, 2, Av. P. Angot, 64053 Pau Cedex 9 (France)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Limiting step in OTC degradation in sediments is their desorption into porewater. • TBT persistence in contaminated sediments increases in sediments rich in organic matter. • DBT does not accumulate in sediments as degradation product of TBT. • TBT and DBT degradation in porewaters occurs with half-lives from 2.9 to 9.2 days. • PhTs degradation is slower than BuTs degradation in oxic porewaters. - Abstract: This paper provides a comprehensive study of the persistence of butyltins and phenyltins in contaminated marine sediments and presents the first data on their degradation potentials in porewaters. The study’s aim was to explain the different degradation efficiencies of organotin compounds (OTC) in contaminated sediments. The transformation processes of OTC in sediments and porewaters were investigated in a field experiment using species-specific, isotopically enriched organotin tracers. Sediment characteristics (organic carbon content and grain size) were determined to elucidate their influence on the degradation processes. The results of this study strongly suggest that a limiting step in OTC degradation in marine sediments is their desorption into porewaters because their degradation in porewaters occurs notably fast with half-lives of 9.2 days for tributyltin (TBT) in oxic porewaters and 2.9 ± 0.1 and 9.1 ± 0.9 days for dibutyltin (DBT) in oxic and anoxic porewaters, respectively. By controlling the desorption process, organic matter influences the TBT degradation efficiency and consequently defines its persistence in contaminated sediments, which thus increases in sediments rich in organic matter.

  11. Organotin persistence in contaminated marine sediments and porewaters: In situ degradation study using species-specific stable isotopic tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furdek, Martina; Mikac, Nevenka; Bueno, Maite; Tessier, Emmanuel; Cavalheiro, Joana; Monperrus, Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Limiting step in OTC degradation in sediments is their desorption into porewater. • TBT persistence in contaminated sediments increases in sediments rich in organic matter. • DBT does not accumulate in sediments as degradation product of TBT. • TBT and DBT degradation in porewaters occurs with half-lives from 2.9 to 9.2 days. • PhTs degradation is slower than BuTs degradation in oxic porewaters. - Abstract: This paper provides a comprehensive study of the persistence of butyltins and phenyltins in contaminated marine sediments and presents the first data on their degradation potentials in porewaters. The study’s aim was to explain the different degradation efficiencies of organotin compounds (OTC) in contaminated sediments. The transformation processes of OTC in sediments and porewaters were investigated in a field experiment using species-specific, isotopically enriched organotin tracers. Sediment characteristics (organic carbon content and grain size) were determined to elucidate their influence on the degradation processes. The results of this study strongly suggest that a limiting step in OTC degradation in marine sediments is their desorption into porewaters because their degradation in porewaters occurs notably fast with half-lives of 9.2 days for tributyltin (TBT) in oxic porewaters and 2.9 ± 0.1 and 9.1 ± 0.9 days for dibutyltin (DBT) in oxic and anoxic porewaters, respectively. By controlling the desorption process, organic matter influences the TBT degradation efficiency and consequently defines its persistence in contaminated sediments, which thus increases in sediments rich in organic matter.

  12. [Thrombopenia and radial aplasia: 2 cases with platelet function and ultrastructural studies of megakaryocytes and platelets (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhan, I; Bayle, J; Mattei, J F; Thevenieau, D; Perrimond, H; Muratore, R

    1979-10-01

    The authors report on two cases of congenital thrombopenia with radial aplasia. Both children display several formative abnormalities and a mild thrombopenia; hemorragic manifestations occurred in the first case only. Megacryoblastic to platelets series, as studied with electronic microscopy, show small-sized, "microcytic" and hypogranular megacaryocytes, displaying a maturative disorder (dysmegacaryocytopoiesis). In functional studies, platelets of the first patient show an imperfect nucleotidic release and do not agregate normally with ristocetin. The second case exhibits mostly a PF3 reduction. The variety of expression of the megacaryocytic-platelets disorders appears likewise in the squelettal and visceral malformations. The whole disorder could be ascribed to a pleiotropic abnormal gene with a variable expressivity.

  13. X-rays effect on the proximal tubes of mice kidney (Mus musculus). Ultra-structural study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, I.P.

    1973-01-01

    The kidney alterations in mice it was submitted to total irradiation was studied, trying to determine which lesions were produced and in which sequence its occur. Knowing that irradiation, since in low doses, decrease the organism survival, since anticipating the normal aging, and how it occur and, in event of it occur if such alterations are qualitative and/or quantitatively related with that occur in aging. (L.M.J.)

  14. Electron microscopic studies on odontoblasts using 45Ca as the tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Eiji

    1980-01-01

    In order to study the relationship between odontoblasts and inorganic salts, odontoblasts of 10-day old rats' incisions and molars were used. The animals were sacrificed 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 1 hour or 2 hours after 45 Ca administration to obtain the specimen. The specimens were processed for electron microscopic autoradiography. 15 minutes after 45 Ca administration, silver grains indicated 45 Ca uptake was already noted within the cells. 45 Ca was localized in the mitochondria, Golgi area, rough surfaced endoplasmic reticulum and partially within the karyoplasm. After 30 minutes' administration, the number of silver grains were generally increased as compared with the findings obtained after 15 minutes' administration. The localization was similar with those after 15 minutes' administration but some were found in the ribosomes and smooth surfaced endoplasmic reticulum with numerous silver grains within small vesicles derived from the Golgi apparatus as well. A movement of 45 Ca from the protruding part to the stroma was also noted. 1 hour after the administration, the number of silver grains were generally decreased, with a more pronounced movement towards stroma from the protruding part. The marked movement of silver grains was obtained onto the collagen fibers in the stroma. In the mitochondria, however, considerable number of silver grains were still seen. In this section, on the other hand, numerous silver grains were seen in the intercellular space, in addition to the pathway of intracellular route, indicating the Ca shift from outside of the cells. After 2 hours' 45 Ca administration, the tendency towards the decrease of the silver grains became more remarkable, the movement of 45 Ca via the extracellular pathway described above was also frequently found. (author)

  15. Nuclear heart function diagnostics. Studies during the first tracer passage and on the distribution equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feistel, H.

    1982-01-01

    The author attempted to establish a method of evaluation for gated blood pool scintiscanning. The necessary hardware for this purpose was installed, and a method of evaluation for the image sequences was developed on the basis of the medicine-specific GAMMA-11 routines. In addition, the inflow phase directly after the injection was observed. Two different images were possible, i.e. left-oblique in 45 0 projection or right-oblique in 30 0 projection. The findings were evaluated by an analysis of the cyclic heart action and by a quantitative determination of global parameters of the heart function, e.g. ejection fraction, rate of volume change etc. The regional myocardial motility can be assessed after orthogonal transformation into an amplitude image and a phase image. A new type of transformation is presented, i.e. the ''quantized sine/cosine transformation'' which allows fast calculation without a floating-point processor. States of akinesia and dyskinesia are well imaged. The first-passage technique gives a general picture of the cardiopulmonary situation. The algorithms described were used in 26 cardiac examinations of 24 patients. Ten further patients were examined by angiography. Except for one case of hypokinesia of the back wall, all disturbances of motility were detected. The angiographic and scintigraphic ejection fractions are correlated with r = 0.98, the rates between first-pass and gated study with r = 0.92, and the rates between 12-picture and 48-picture sequences with r = 0.98. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Ultrastructural study of liver and lead tissue concentrations in young mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) after ingestion of single lead shot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineau, Alain; Fauconneau, Bernard; Plouzeau, Eric; Fernandez, Béatrice; Quellard, Nathalie; Levillain, Pierre; Guillard, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Lead (Pb) represents a serious threat to wildlife and ecosystems. The aim of this study was to examine the subcellular effects of dietary Pb pellet ingestion on mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) livers. After ingestion of a single Pb shot (LS4 size class: 0.177 ± 0.03 g) in 41 mallard ducks (22 males and 19 females) versus 10 controls (5 males and 5 females), all 7-week old, a morphologic study was conducted by TEM (transmission electron microscopy) of liver at the subcellular level. The results in treated mallards showed at a magnification of 2500 X that hepatic parenchyma was altered as evidenced by intralysosomal electron-dense deposits, which are compatible with Pb deposits. Further, at a higher magnification (15,000 X) in both genders, deterioration of mitochondria was observed in which the crests and, to a lesser extent, outer membrane were lysed. While the rough endoplasmic reticulum was fragmented, intracytoplasmic electron-dense material compatible with Pb deposits was maximally visible, thereby underscoring the deeply destructive effect of this metal on the subcellular architecture of the liver. In addition, applying an optimized and validated method in a clean room using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometer (ETAAS) with Zeeman background correction, the objective was to improve and refine certain indispensable measurements pertaining to Pb impregnation in tissues other than liver such as kidneys, bones, and feathers of mallards. Data demonstrated show that compared with controls, Pb accumulation increases significantly, not only in the liver (3-fold), but also in the bones and the feathers (14-fold). No significant difference was noted between males and females. Bearing in mind the marked subcellular toxicity attributed to Pb, this study reinforces present-day arguments advocating limitation of game consumption.

  17. Ultrastructural study of electron dense deposits in renal tubular basement membrane: prevalence and relationship to epithelial atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Jim L C; Killingsworth, Murray C

    2014-08-01

    This study reports the prevalence of immune deposits associated with the proximal and distal tubules in a series of routine renal biopsies received in our department during a single calendar year. From 87 cases, 65 (74%) were found to have glomerular immune deposits by immunofluorescence. Tubular immune deposits were found in 12 cases (18%), 3 of which had no glomerular deposits. By transmission electron microscopy (EM), 58 cases (66%) were found to have deposits of granular or vesicular material associated with the tubular basement membranes (TBM). Finely granular electron dense deposits appeared to correspond to the immune deposits seen by immunofluorescence microscopy (IF) and may be a sensitive marker of immune deposition.

  18. Expression of β human chorionic gonadotropin in the placenta of gestational diabetic mothers: an immunohistochemistry and ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sak, Muhammed Erdal; Deveci, Engin; Evsen, Mehmet Siddik; Kalkanhi, Sevgi; Baran, Ozlem; Ozekinci, Selver; Seker, Uğur

    2013-02-01

    To investigate morphologic differences of the placenta in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes compared to nondiabetic pregnancies. This was a comparative morphological study of the placentas from 20 women with gestational diabetes and 20 healthy pregnancies at 28-35 weeks of gestation. The presence of lesions such as fibrinoid necrosis, villous edema, syncytial knot and vascular lesions like chorangiosis was apparent, mainly in the diabetes group. There was an apparent decrease in the intensity of the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) immunostaining in the syncytiotrophoblast from the 28th to 35th weeks of gestation in the placentas of the healthy control group. No hCG immunostaining was observed in the villous or intervillous areas of any of the placentas. In diabetic placentas the expression of hCG was homogeneous with a moderate to intense immunoreactivity in the syncytiotrophoblast. Several syncytiotrophoblast cells showed dilations of both rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum and loss and alteration of microvilli, and large vacuoles were observed just below the plasma membrane, as well as irregularities in the mitochondria. Syncytial cells play an important role in the placental transition. Increased expression of beta-hCG, deterioration, degeneration of organelles and cell structure and the basal membrane disorder in chorionic vessels were seen in placentas with gestational diabetes. These changes can affect placental transfer. However, further studies are needed to clarify this issue.

  19. Prophylactic Potential of Synbiotic (Lactobacillus casei and Inulin) in Malnourished Murine Giardiasis: an Immunological and Ultrastructural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Geeta; Sharma, Anuj; Bhatia, Ruchika; Sharma, Mridul

    2017-12-19

    Giardiasis is a re-emerging infectious disease with outbreaks reported globally specially in children and malnourished individuals leading to malabsorption, growth retardation, and severe diarrhea. Thus, in the present study, prophylactic administration of synbiotic as the functional food was used to assess its antigiardial potential in malnourished murine giardiasis. Interestingly, prior administration of synbiotic (Lactobacillus casei + inulin) even to malnourished-Giardia-infected mice led to increased body mass, small intestine mass, lactobacilli counts, and reduced severity of giardiasis as evident by decreased cyst and trophozoite counts. Synbiotic therapy further boosted the innate and acquired immune response resulting into increase in nitric oxide, antigiardial secretory IgA and IgG antibody levels along with IL-6 and IL-10 cytokines, and decreased levels of inflammatory TNF-α cytokine in both serum and intestinal fluid in malnourished-synbiotic-Giardia-infected mice compared with malnourished-Giardia-infected mice. More specifically, histopathological and scanning electron microscopy analysis of the small intestine also confirmed the modulatory potentials of synbiotic in malnourished-synbiotic-Giardia mice which had less cellular and mucosal damage compared with severely damaged, mummified, and blunted villi in malnourished-Giardia-infected mice. Taken together, this is the first experimental study to report that prior supplementation of synbiotic restored the gut morphology and improved the immune status of the malnourished-Giardia-infected mice, and could be considered as the prophylactic adjunct therapy for malnourished individuals.

  20. Cadmium induced changes in cell organelles: An ultrastructural study using cadmium sensitive and resistant muntjac fibroblast cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ord, M.J.; Chibber, R.; Bouffler, S.D.

    1988-09-01

    A detailed electron microscopy study of cadmium sensitive and resistant muntjac fibroblast cell lines has identified a wide range of intracellular damage following exposure to cadmium. Damaged organelles included cell membrane, mitochondria, Golgi cisternae and tubular network, chromatin, nucleoli, microfilaments and ribosomes. Although cell membrane damage was generally the earliest indication of adverse cadmium action, particularly with continuous cadmium exposures, cells could tolerate extensive membrane loss. Mitochondrial distortion and some damage to Golgi was also tolerated. The turning point at which cadmium became lethal was generally marked by a cascade of events which included damage to both nuclear and cytoplasmic components. These results for fibroblasts are discussed and compared with damage reported in other types of cells.

  1. Light and ultrastructural studies on liver of Oreochromis niloticus fry grown in tritiated water during embryonic development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carino, V S; Alvendia-Casauay, A [Institute of Biology, College of Science, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)

    1991-01-01

    Oreochromis niloticus embryos of different developmental stages were reared in tritiated water at 3.7, 0.37, 0.037, and 0 GBq/1 and harvested at day 21 stage. In general, gross morphology of liver was altered in fry reared in higher tritium concentrations and in fry reared in tritiated water at earlier stages of development. Under light microscopy, fatty infiltration of liver parenchyma, presence of unresorped yolk sac, occasional vacuolation in cytoplasm of hepatocytes, widening of sinusoids, and increased size of space of Disse were observed in liver of fry reared in tritiated water at higher concentrations. At the electron microscope level, swollen mitochondria, fragmented rough endoplasmic reticulum, and insconspicuous glycogen granules compared to control were noted in liver of treated fish. This study give basic information on how cells may be affected by irradiation at the histological, cellular, and subcellular level. (auth.). 8 figs.; 1 tab.

  2. Ultrastructural Morphology of Sperm from Human Globozoospermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Ricci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Globozoospermia is a rare disorder characterized by the presence of sperm with round head, lacking acrosome. Coiling tail around the nucleus has been reported since early human studies, but no specific significance has conferred it. By contrast, studies on animal models suggest that coiling tail around the nucleus could represent a crucial step of defective spermatogenesis, resulting in round-headed sperm. No observations, so far, support the transfer of this hypothesis to human globozoospermia. The purpose of this work was to compare ultrastructural morphology of human and mouse model globozoospermic sperm. Sperm have been investigated by using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The images that we obtained show significant similarities to those described in GOPC knockout mice, an animal model of globozoospermia. By using this model as reference, we were able to identify the probable steps of the tail coiling process in human globozoospermia. Although we have no evidence that there is the same pathophysiology in man and knocked-out mouse, the similarities between these ultrastructural observations in human and those in the experimental model are very suggestive. This is the first demonstration of the existence of relevant morphological homologies between the tail coiling in animal model and human globozoospermia.

  3. Comparative studies on the histology and ultrastructure of the siphons of two species of Tellinidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João E.V.V. Vitonis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the great importance of the siphons for infaunal bivalves, only a few studies have examined their tissues using histology techniques or scanning electron microscopy. In the present study, the siphons of Tellina lineata Turton, 1819 and Macoma biota Arruda & Domaneschi, 2005 were investigated. The siphon walls are composed by a series of muscle sheets of longitudinal ("L", circular ("C" and radial ("R" fibers, with a clear pattern common to both species: there is a main median longitudinal layer (Lm, and two peripheral circular layers, one inner (Ci and one outer (Co, near the epithelia. A median circular layer (Cm separates an internal (Lmi from an outer (Lmo median longitudinal layer. Further, the Co is split by a thin outer longitudinal layer (Lo, forming Coi and Coo layers, the former being obliquely oriented. Thin radial fibers (R delimit clear packages of Lmi and Lmo fibers. In each siphon, there are six longitudinal nerve cords, running within the Lmi layer, adjacent to the Cm. The inhalant and exhalant siphons of M. biota are very similar in structure, but the Lmo of the exhalant siphon is almost twice as thick as its Lmi, while in the inhalant siphon these layers have similar thicknesses; the Coi is very thick, especially in the exhalant siphon. The inhalant siphon of T. lineata is very similar to that of M. biota, differing only with respect to the thickness of the Coi, which in the former species is not as well developed as in the latter. The Lmo of the exhalant siphon of T. lineata is by far the most developed layer, with the Lmi represented only by uniseriate small cells; in the vicinities of the nerve cords, the Cm is split in two layers. The epithelia of both siphons of M. biota and T. lineata bear ciliated receptors, which were difficult to observe as they were frequently covered with mucus. It was possible to observe that cilia are present in both species, differing in length and in the number per receptor between the

  4. Comparative studies on intestine ultrastructure of third-stage larvae and adults of Cystidicoloides ephemeridarum (Nematoda, Cystidicolidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantová, Denisa; Moravec, Frantisek

    2004-11-01

    The intestinal epithelium of third-stage larvae and adults of Cystidicoloides ephemeridarum from haemocoel of mayflies and stomach of brown trout was studied by electron microscopy and cytochemistry. In section, the intestine of both stages is composed of a single layer of about ten undifferentiated intestinal cells in a ring. A labyrinth of deep invaginations is present in the basal region of each cell. The apical surface is modified into well developed, regularly arranged microvilli. These, together with numerous organelles engaged in metabolism and a well defined gut lumen filled with unidentifiable material suggest that the intestine may function in digestion and absorption during both stages. The adults seem to feed upon the semifluid content of the stomach of brown trout. Fortuitous oral infection with undetermined bacteria in vitro led to degenerative changes in the intestinal tissue and probably caused death of the infected specimens. Up to 75% of the cell volume in the L(3) is occupied by glycogen deposits. In the adults, a minor portion of glycogen, together with lipid droplets, has been observed. The adults are considered to rely more on aerobic metabolism, whereas anaerobic metabolism (glycolysis) may prevail in L(3).

  5. Ultrastructure of Pericystic or Intracystic Blood Vessels in Epidermoid Cysts-A Transmission Electron Microscopy Study: Laboratory Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiao-Hui; Ma, Jun; Zeng, Chun; Sun, Yi-Lin; Lin, Song

    2017-07-01

    Recently, we reported a tendency toward spontaneous hemorrhage in both the preoperative and postoperative periods in patients with intracranial epidermoid cyst (EC). According to our experience, this tendency for spontaneous hemorrhage was partly caused by the pathologic blood vessels adjacent to the EC. This study was designed to testify this hypothesis. Twenty-three removable pericystic or intracystic blood vessels from 17 patients with EC were collected during surgery and were then examined by transmission electron microscopy. The microvascular structure in gliomas was chosen as the control. Under electron microscopy, variant pathologic changes of vessels were found in all patients with EC. In the tunicae intima, we found vacuolization, apoptosis, necrosis, and intralumenal protrusion of endothelial cells, as well as swollen basement and highly flexed and discontinued elastic plate. In the tunicae media, vacuolization and swollen mitochondria were found in muscular cells. In the tunicae adventitia, extravascular erythrocytes, edema or apoptosis of pericytes, collagen predominance, and inflammatory cell infiltration and destruction were found. Neuron denature and necrosis were found in the peripheral brain tissue. In the microvascular structure of 5 glioma specimens, we found enlargement and hyperplasia of endothelial cells, swollen basement membrane, swollen pericytes, and astrocytic hyperplasia and neuron denature in adjacent brain tissues. Our findings provide strong evidence for the hypothesis that intracystic or pericystic vascular degeneration or destruction accounts for the spontaneous hemorrhage tendency before and after surgical resection of ECs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. APLICACIÓN DEL MÉTODO DE COÁGULO DE PLASMA PARA ESTUDIOS DE ULTRAESTRUCTURA CELULAR APPLICATION OF PLASMA COAGULATE METHOD FOR CELULAR ULTRASTRUCTURE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERARDO ANDRÉS TORRES RODRÍGUEZ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios de ultraestructura celular en material particulado como bacterias, virus y células en suspensión requieren de un manejo especial, es por esto que se han desarrollado técnicas como la de coágulo de plasma, la cual se aplicó en un modelo experimental de fagocitosis. Se realizaron análisis de Microscopia Electrónica de Transmisión y de Barrido observándose claramente cuatro etapas de la fagocitosis. Se consideró una relación de 10 partículas de levadura por PMN como la proporción más eficiente para la observación del proceso fagocítico, igualmente se determinó muy corto el periodo de incubación de 20 minutos para alcanzar la fagocitosis en su totalidad. La técnica del coágulo de plasma mostró muy buenos resultados en preparaciones para TEM conservando la integridad de las células, no obstante, esta técnica presentó inconvenientes al observarse en MEB debido a los componentes fibrosos del coágulo que impiden una observación de la muestra, adhiriéndose a las superficies produciendo artefactos y deterioro en éstas.Studying ultrastructure cell in particle material such as bacteria, virus and cells suspension require special handling. For that reason, it has been developed techniques like plasma coagulate with phagocytosis as experimental model and analyzed by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM. Four stages of phagocytosis were observed. The efficient proportion to observe the phagocytosis process was 10 particles per NPM (Nuclear Polymorphic, although 20 min as a incubation period was very short to reaching the total process. Applying this technique, cells conserved their integrity to obtain good quality preparation for TEM. In contrast for SEM samples which kept coagulate fiber components adhered to the surface, producing devices and cell deterioration was observed.

  7. Morphometric and ultrastructural studies of the effect of infrared laser on rabbit temporo-mandibular joint fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cornejo Uribe

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The infrared laser beams has been successfully used in joint lesions treatment due to its analgesic anti inflamatory and healing action, and on a cellular level, inducing an accentuated synthesis of ATP, activating cellular proliferation and collagen synthesis. Samples of normal-control and irradiated tissue from temporo-mandibular joint disc of rabbit, were obtained, with daily doses of 2 joules/cm²during 10 consecutive days. They were prepared for transmission electronic microscopy.Transmission electronic micrographs of normal and irradiated fibroblasts were obtained with final increase of 11.500 X for morphometric studies with the purpose of quantifying the volumetric fractions of the cellular components pertaining to the mentioned cellular types. Volumetric fractions of the quoted cell corresponding to nucleus, cytoplasm, rough endoplasmatic reticule, eu and heterochromatin were evaluated. In the same manner, the nucleus - cytoplasmatic relation and the area of each cellular type were quantified. The results derived from the morphometric comparative study between the normal and irradiated fibroblasts indicated that there were significant differences with respect to the volumetric fractions of euchromatin and heterochromatin and fundamentally in the cellular areas of both types. On the other hand, the rest of quantified parameters remained constant. It could be concluded that the cellular function reflected in collagen synthesis and secretion remained constant in both cellular types. However, by means of infrared laser stimulations, this fibroblast facilitated protein synthesis, due to high percentage of transcriptionally active euchromatine.O raio laser infravermelho tem sido usado com sucesso no tratamento de lesoes articulares por sua ação analgesica, antinflamatoria e cicatrizante e, ao nivel celular, induzindo acentuada síntese de ATP, ativando a proliferação celular e a síntese do colágeno. Foram obtidas amostras do disco da

  8. Tracer attenuation in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkovic, Vladimir

    2011-12-01

    The self-purifying capacity of aquifers strongly depends on the attenuation of waterborne contaminants, i.e., irreversible loss of contaminant mass on a given scale as a result of coupled transport and transformation processes. A general formulation of tracer attenuation in groundwater is presented. Basic sensitivities of attenuation to macrodispersion and retention are illustrated for a few typical retention mechanisms. Tracer recovery is suggested as an experimental proxy for attenuation. Unique experimental data of tracer recovery in crystalline rock compare favorably with the theoretical model that is based on diffusion-controlled retention. Non-Fickian hydrodynamic transport has potentially a large impact on field-scale attenuation of dissolved contaminants.

  9. Suitability of tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, D.

    1999-01-01

    Hydrological tracer techniques are a means of making statements on the direction and speed of underground water. One of the simpler tasks is to find out whether there is hydrological communication between two given points. This requires a determination of the direction of flow, which places less exacting demands on the properties of the tracer than does the task of determining the flow velocity of underground water. Tracer methods can serve to infer from flow velocity the distance (flow) velocity, which is defined as the ratio between the distance between two points located in flow direction and the actual time it takes water to flow from one to the other [de

  10. New radioactive tracers can help find cause of jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrard, G.

    1987-01-01

    Radioactive tracers for the investigation of a condition known as persistent jaundice of the newborn, have been designed, prepared and tested at ANSTO. The tracers are chemical compounds of the radioactive elements gallium-67 and indium-111. They given lower radiation doses than the conventional radioactive tracer, iodine-131, used in these studies

  11. Study of weathering velocity of rocks with uranium as a natural tracer. Application to two drainage basins of the north-east of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Pinto Moreira Nordemann, L.M. da.

    1977-01-01

    Study on rock weathering rate, i.e. rock-soil interface formation, by measuring the elements dissolved in river waters. These elements are used as natural tracers. This work has been carried out in the drainage basin of Preto and Salgado Rivers, in Brazil. Conventional elements, sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium have been utilized first and all dissolved salts have been used as natural tracers to allow comparison with other scientific works. Then, uranium has been used because it is not found in rain waters so that corrections are not necessary and because its abundance can be measured by α and γ spectrometry, and the 234 U/ 238 U ratio obtained, 234 U being more rapidly dissolved during weathering. Another reason is that no interaction occurs between uranium and the biomass. It is then possible to find a geochemical balance for this area [fr

  12. Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart, 1863 (Taeniidae): new data on sperm ultrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, Jordi; Świderski, Zdzisław; Azzouz-Maache, Samira; Pétavy, Anne-Françoise

    2016-06-01

    The present study establishes the ultrastructural organisation of the mature spermatozoon of Echinococcus multilocularis, which is essential for future research on the location of specific proteins involved in the sperm development in this species and also in Echinococcus granulosus. Thus, the ultrastructural characteristics of the sperm cell are described by means of transmission electron microscopy. The spermatozoon of E. multilocularis is a filiform cell, which is tapered at both extremities and lacks mitochondria. It exhibits all the characteristics of type VII spermatozoon of tapeworms, namely a single axoneme, crested bodies, spiralled cortical microtubules and nucleus, a periaxonemal sheath and intracytoplasmic walls. Other characteristics observed in the male gamete are the presence of a >900-nm long apical cone in its anterior extremity and only the axoneme in its posterior extremity. The ultrastructural characters of the spermatozoon of E. multilocularis are compared with those of other cestodes studied to date, with particular emphasis on representatives of the genus Taenia. The most interesting finding concerns the presence of two helical crested bodies in E. multilocularis while in the studied species of Taenia, there is only one crested body. Future ultrastructural studies of other species of the genus Echinococcus would be of particular interest in order to confirm whether or not the presence of two crested bodies is a characteristic of this genus.

  13. Surface ultrastructure of third-instar Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukontason Kabkaew L

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe some ultrastructure of the third-instar Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae using scanning electron microscopy, with the cephalic segment, anterior spiracle and posterior spiracle being emphasized. This study provides the taxonomic information of this larval species, which may be useful to differentiate from other closely-related species.

  14. Application of the multi-rate diffusion approach in tracer test studies at Aespoe HRL. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haggerty, R. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Geosciences

    1999-11-01

    This report summarizes an investigation into heterogeneous diffusivity and associated parameters within granitic rocks at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL). Our tasks for this investigation were: (1) to assess the potential for either anomalous or multi-rate diffusion within Aespoe rocks; (2) to evaluate existing data relating to anomalous and multi-rate diffusion within Aespoe rocks; (3) to perform scoping calculations in support of a Long Term Diffusion Experiment (LTDE) design; and (4) to begin developing a mathematical and computer model for solute advection in the presence of anomalous matrix diffusion. In addition to carrying out these tasks, we also report on (5) the late-time behavior of breakthrough curves. First, in regard to the potential for anomalous and multi-rate diffusion and analyses of existing data, we find that (1) in a literature review of 100 column experiments in various types of rock and sediment, rate coefficients decrease with experimental observation time. This is precisely what would be expected of both multi-rate and anomalous diffusion. (2) Three sets of through-diffusion experiments in Fenno-Scandian granitic rock found decreasing effective diffusivity, D{sub e}, with sample length, while one set did not. (3) Based on diffusivity and sorption data, and speculation on matrix block size variability, the total variability of D{sub a}/a{sup 2} may reasonably be expected to exceed 4 orders of magnitude. (4) Analyses of two-well tracer data completed to date are ambiguous with respect to multi-rate diffusion. Analyses of TRUE data are currently underway and may support multi-rate diffusion. Second, in regard to the potential consequences of multi-rate and anomalous diffusion on nuclear waste disposal, we found the following key points: (1) No single value of diffusivity can represent the diffusion process at all time- or length-scales if diffusion is truly anomalous, while a single value of diffusivity will represent diffusion

  15. Application of the multi-rate diffusion approach in tracer test studies at Aespoe HRL. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haggerty, R.

    1999-11-01

    This report summarizes an investigation into heterogeneous diffusivity and associated parameters within granitic rocks at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL). Our tasks for this investigation were: (1) to assess the potential for either anomalous or multi-rate diffusion within Aespoe rocks; (2) to evaluate existing data relating to anomalous and multi-rate diffusion within Aespoe rocks; (3) to perform scoping calculations in support of a Long Term Diffusion Experiment (LTDE) design; and (4) to begin developing a mathematical and computer model for solute advection in the presence of anomalous matrix diffusion. In addition to carrying out these tasks, we also report on (5) the late-time behavior of breakthrough curves. First, in regard to the potential for anomalous and multi-rate diffusion and analyses of existing data, we find that (1) in a literature review of 100 column experiments in various types of rock and sediment, rate coefficients decrease with experimental observation time. This is precisely what would be expected of both multi-rate and anomalous diffusion. (2) Three sets of through-diffusion experiments in Fenno-Scandian granitic rock found decreasing effective diffusivity, D e , with sample length, while one set did not. (3) Based on diffusivity and sorption data, and speculation on matrix block size variability, the total variability of D a /a 2 may reasonably be expected to exceed 4 orders of magnitude. (4) Analyses of two-well tracer data completed to date are ambiguous with respect to multi-rate diffusion. Analyses of TRUE data are currently underway and may support multi-rate diffusion. Second, in regard to the potential consequences of multi-rate and anomalous diffusion on nuclear waste disposal, we found the following key points: (1) No single value of diffusivity can represent the diffusion process at all time- or length-scales if diffusion is truly anomalous, while a single value of diffusivity will represent diffusion adequately for some

  16. Tracers Detect Aquifer Contamination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Enfield, Carl

    1995-01-01

    The EPA's National Laboratory (NRMRL) at Ada, OK, along with the University of Florida and the University of Texas, have developed a tracer procedure to detect the amount of contamination in aquifer formations...

  17. Radio-isotopic tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfangel, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns the dispersions that may be used for preparing radio-isotopic tracers, technetium labelled dispersions, processes for preparing these dispersions and their use as tracers. Technetium 99m sulphur colloids are utilized as scintillation tracers to give a picture of the reticulo-endothelial system, particularly the liver and spleen. A dispersion is provided which only requires the addition of a radioactive nuclide to form a radioactively labelled dispersion that can be injected as a tracer. It is formed of a colloid of tin sulphur dispersed in an aqueous buffer solution. Such a reagent has the advantage of being safe and reliable and is easier to use. The colloid can be prepared more quickly since additions of several different reagents are avoided. There is no need to heat up and no sulphuretted hydrogen, which is a toxic gas, is used [fr

  18. Studies on the preparation of low-carrier Se-73,75 tracers for in vivo examinations; Untersuchungen zur Darstellung traegerarm 73,75Se-markierter Tracer fuer in vivo Untersuchungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helfer, Andreas

    2013-04-03

    studies with respect to tracer application with PET. First in vitro distributions studies with slices of rat brain were already performed by autoradiography.

  19. Carbon-14 tracer studies in rat-liver perfusion experiments under conditions of gluconeogenesis from lactate and pyruvate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muellhofer, G.; Schwab, A.; Mueller, C.; Stetten, C. von; Gruber, E.

    1977-01-01

    The intracellular events in the metabolic pathway of gluconeogenesis from lactate and pyruvate in liver tissue were assumed to be understood. Nevertheless the results of several 14 C-tracer experiments gave rise to the postulation of still unknown intracellular interactions under this condition. A contribution was made to the solution of this problem by using different 14 C labelled tracers such as [1- 14 C]lactate or pyruvate and [2- 14 C]lactate or pyruvate. [ 14 C]bicarbonate and [1- 14 C]-octanoate in perfusion experiments with livers from rats under conditions of gluconeogenesis from lactate and pyruvate. The 14 C labelling patterns of intracellular metabolities such as malate, citrate, phosphoenolpyruvate, phosphoglycerate and newly synthesized glucose were analysed under different conditions. A comparison with values calculated by using metabolic models based on the generally accepted concepts of intracellular interactions showed some fundamental discrepancies which justify the postulation. (orig./MG) [de

  20. Ultrastructural and cytochemical study of membrane alterations in x-irradiated liver tissue from normal and vitamin E-deficient ducklings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijbers, W.A.R.; Oosterbaan, J.A.; Meskendorp-Haarsma, T.J.; Hardonk, M.J.; Molenaar, I.

    1979-01-01

    An investigation into the differential susceptibility of liver cellular membranes to peroxidative processes has been performed, using x irradiation on the liver surface, resulting in a a 3-mm penetrating gradient of membrane damage. Ultrastructural, cytochemical, and histochemical findings in this area point to a differential sensitivity of cellular membranes to x irradiation. The plasma membrane and the lysosomal membrane, containing much lipid and cholesterol and little membrane and the lysosomal membrane, containing much lipid and cholesterol and little vitamin E, are highly susceptible to x irradiation. Less sensitive are the membranes of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, containing relatively much vitamin E and proteins and a lower amount of lipids and cholesterol

  1. Tracer techniques in microelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flachowsky, J.; Freyer, K.

    1981-01-01

    Tracer technique and neutron activation analysis are capable of measuring impurities in semiconductor material or on the semiconductor surface in a very low concentration range. The methods, combined with autoradiography, are also suitable to determine dopant distributions in silicon. However, both techniques suffer from certain inherent experimental difficulties and/or limitations which are discussed. Methods of tracer technique practicable in the semiconductor field are described. (author)

  2. The development of in vivo tracer methods to obtain new information about human disease: a study of the hallucinating brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.; Silbersweig, D.A.; Stern, E.; Schnorr, L.; Seaward, J.; Clark, J.C.; Lammertsma, A.A.; Grootoonk, S.

    1996-01-01

    An outline is provided of the development of methodological strategies to address the question of focal cerebral activation during hallucinations in schizophrenic patients. In so doing, the innovation and diligence required to tailor in vivo tracer procedures to specific clinical research issues are highlighted. Attention is drawn to the complexity of methodological advances and the way in which they are based upon close scientific and technical collaboration between clinical scientists, and non-clinical scientists and research support staff. (orig.). With 1 fig

  3. Study on the metabolic characteristics of renal imaging agent 99mTc-PAHIDA with tracer experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shoupeng; Wang Liuyi; Lun Mingyue

    1995-01-01

    Tracer experiment showed that 99m Tc-PAHIDA was distributed predominantly in kidney. The distribution in other tissue was in the following descending order: heart, gastrointestinal tract, liver, spleen, muscle, adipose tissue, testes, and brain. The smaller the intravenous dose, the lower the proportion of the drug was combined to plasma protein and the more the drug was distributed in kidney. Excretion of 99m Tc-PAHIDa via urine was rapid and was in its original form as shown by radiochromatography

  4. Study of preparation and survey of radioisotopes tracer applications of gold nanoparticles in the multi-phase industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynh Thai Kim Ngan; Trinh Cong Son; Duong Thi Bich Chi; Tran Tri Hai; Nguyen Huu Quang; Bui Trong Duy; Le Trong Nghia; Ngo Duc Tin

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were prepared by Turkevich and Brust method. The labeled gold in liquids is the colloidal form with nano size particle of gold. This particles is of high dispersity in the liquid phase that makes them a good physical tracer. The stability and dissolve of AuNPs in solvents such as water, toluene are hereafter discussed. The size of AuNPs was determined through UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). (author)

  5. Methodology Measuring Rare Earth Elements in High TDS Reservoir Brines Application as Natural Tracers in CCUS Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W.; Mcling, T. L.; Smith, R. W.; Neupane, H.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years rare earth elements (REE) have been demonstrated to be useful natural tracers for geochemical processes in aqueous environments. The application of REE's to carbon dioxide utilization and storage (CCUS) could provide researchers with a sensitive, inexpensive tool for tracking the movement of CO2 and displaced formation brines. By definition, geologic reservoirs that have been deemed suitable for carbon capture and storage contain formation brine with total dissolved solids (TDS) greater than 10,000 ppm and often these formation brines exceed 75,000 ppm TDS. This high TDS water makes it very difficult to measure REE, which typically occur at part per trillion concentrations. Critical to the use of REE for CCUS studies is the development of a procedure, which allows for the pre-concentration of REE's across a wide range of water quality. Additionally, due to the large number of samples that will need analysis, any developed procedure must be inexpensive, reproducible, and quick to implement. As part of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Project the INL's Center for Advance Energy Studies is developing REE pre-concentration procedures based on methods reported in the literature. While there are many REE pre-concentration procedures in the literature, our tests have shown these methods have difficulty at TDS greater than seawater (roughly 35,000 ppm TDS). Therefore, the ability to quantitatively measure REE's in formation brines with very high TDS has required the modification of an already developed procedure. After careful consideration and testing we selected methods modified after those described by Kingston et al., 1978 and Strachan et al., 1989 utilizing chelating media for very high TDS waters and ion-exchange media as detailed by Crock et al., 1984; Robinson et al., 1985; and Stetzenbach et al., 1994 for low TDS (tested in our laboratory and have proven effective in greatly reducing interfering monovalent and divalent cation concentrations (e

  6. Tracers and tracing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclerc, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The first international congress on 'Tracers and tracing methods' took place in Nancy in May 2001. The objective of this second congress was to present the current status and trends on tracing methods and their applications. It has given the opportunity to people from different fields to exchange scientific information and knowledge about tracer methodologies and applications. The target participants were the researchers, engineers and technologists of various industrial and research sectors: chemical engineering, environment, food engineering, bio-engineering, geology, hydrology, civil engineering, iron and steel production... Two sessions have been planned to cover both fundamental and industrial aspects: 1)fundamental development (tomography, tracer camera visualization and particles tracking; validation of computational fluid dynamics simulations by tracer experiments and numerical residence time distribution; new tracers and detectors or improvement and development of existing tracing methods; data treatments and modeling; reactive tracer experiments and interpretation) 2)industrial applications (geology, hydrogeology and oil field applications; civil engineering, mineral engineering and metallurgy applications; chemical engineering; environment; food engineering and bio-engineering). The program included 5 plenary lectures, 23 oral communications and around 50 posters. Only 9 presentations are interested for the INIS database

  7. 99mTcO(BAT-NI), a novel nitroimidazole tracer: in vivo uptake studies in ischaemic myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffend, J.; Linke, G.; Mohammed, A.; Haberkorn, U.; Tiefenbacher, C.P.; Eisenhut, M.

    2003-01-01

    Myocardial perfusion single-photon emission tomography (SPET) performed with cationic technetium-99m complexes indicates ischaemic areas as cold lesions. By contrast, nitroimidazole derivatives labelled with fluorine-18 or 99m Tc have recently shown promising results for hot spot imaging of ischaemic myocardium. This study evaluates 99m TcO(BAT-NI), a new 99m Tc complex comprising the nitroimidazole ligand, 2,10-dimercapto-2, 10-dimethyl-4, 8-diaza-6-[4-(2-nitroimidazolyl)butyl]undecane, in a low-flow in vivo model of myocardial ischaemia in thoracotomised rats. To elucidate the influence of the 2-nitroimidazole group on ischaemia-induced uptake, comparisons with ligand derivatives were performed where (a) the 2-nitro group was deleted [ 99m TcO(BAT-I)], (b) the 2-nitroimidazole functionality was replaced by a Br atom [ 99m TcO(BAT-Br)] and (c) the 99m TcO(BAT) moiety was replaced by an iodine-125 iodophenoxybutyl ligand ( 125 IP-NI). The radiolabelled compounds were i.v. injected 15 min after reducing resting myocardial blood flow by 50-60% and the uptake of radioactivity was assessed 90 min post injection. Autoradiography of left ventricular short-axis slices showed median uptake ratios of ischaemic/non-ischaemic myocardium (I/N) of 3.4, 4.5 and 3.4 for 99m TcO(BAT-NI), 99m TcO(BAT-I) and 99m TcO(BAT-Br), respectively. In contrast, 125 IP-NI was not preferentially taken up by ischaemic myocardium. Accumulation of 99m TcO(BAT-NI) in ischaemic heart regions was comparable to that in the liver. Biodistribution studies showed a median uptake of 0.65% ID/g of 99m TcO(BAT-NI) in ischaemic tissue and an I/N of 3.3. On planar images of the thorax and upper abdomen the ischaemic hearts were visualised faintly; the median heart to lung count ratio for 99m TcO(BAT-NI) was 1.7, and the median heart to liver count ratio was 1.0. We conclude that uptake of 99m TcO(BAT-NI) in ischaemic myocardium does not depend on the nitroimidazole moiety but is intrinsic to the BAT complex

  8. Ultrastructural researches on rabbit myxomatosis. Lymphnodal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcato, P S; Simoni, P

    1977-07-01

    Ultrastructural examination of head and neck lymph nodes in rabbits with spontaneous subacute myxomatosis showed fusion of immature reticuloendothelial cells which lead to the formation of polykarocytes. There was no ultrastructural evidence of viral infection of these polykaryocytes. Histiosyncytial lymphadenitis can be considered a specific lesion of myxomatosis.

  9. Tracer techniques in food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertsovskij, E.S.; Sakharov, Eh.V.; Dolinin, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    The appicability of radioactive tracer techniques to process control in food industry are considered. Investigations in the field of food industry carried out using the above method are classified. The 1 class included investigations with preliminary preparation of a radioactive indicator and its following introduction in the system studied. The 2 class includes investigations based on the introduction in the system studied of a non-active indicator which is activated in a neutron flux being in samples selected in or after the process investigated. The 3 class includes studies based on investigations of natural radioactivity of certain nuclides in food stuff. The application of tracer techniques to the above classes of investigations in various fields of food industry and the equipment applied are considered in detail [ru

  10. A morphological study of the changes in the ultrastructure of a bacterial biofilm disrupted by an ac corona discharge in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanova, Olga, E-mail: o.m.stepanova@spbu.ru; Astafiev, Alexander; Kudryavtsev, Anatoly [Physical Faculty, Saint Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Rybalchenko, Oksana; Orlova, Olga; Kapustina, Valentina [Faculty of Medicine, Saint Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-14

    The morphology of bacterial cells and biofilms subjected to a low frequency (∼10{sup 5} Hz) ac (∼10{sup −1} A) corona discharge was investigated using electron microscopy. A low-frequency ac corona discharge in air is shown to have a bactericidal and bacteriostatic effect on Escherichia coli M17 culture at both the cellular and population levels. Corona exposure inhibits the formation of a microbial community and results in the destruction of formed biofilms. This paper presents data on changes in the ultrastructure of cells and biofilms after corona treatment. Our results suggest that the E. coli M17 cells inside biofilms are affected with results similar to sub-lethal and lethal thermal exposure. Some of the biological aspects of colony and biofilm cells death are evaluated. Morphological changes in the ultrastructure of the biofilms under corona treatment are described. Our results indicate that the heating effect is the main factor responsible for the corona-induced inactivation of bacteria.

  11. A morphological study of the changes in the ultrastructure of a bacterial biofilm disrupted by an ac corona discharge in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanova, Olga; Astafiev, Alexander; Kudryavtsev, Anatoly; Rybalchenko, Oksana; Orlova, Olga; Kapustina, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    The morphology of bacterial cells and biofilms subjected to a low frequency (∼10"5 Hz) ac (∼10"−"1 A) corona discharge was investigated using electron microscopy. A low-frequency ac corona discharge in air is shown to have a bactericidal and bacteriostatic effect on Escherichia coli M17 culture at both the cellular and population levels. Corona exposure inhibits the formation of a microbial community and results in the destruction of formed biofilms. This paper presents data on changes in the ultrastructure of cells and biofilms after corona treatment. Our results suggest that the E. coli M17 cells inside biofilms are affected with results similar to sub-lethal and lethal thermal exposure. Some of the biological aspects of colony and biofilm cells death are evaluated. Morphological changes in the ultrastructure of the biofilms under corona treatment are described. Our results indicate that the heating effect is the main factor responsible for the corona-induced inactivation of bacteria.

  12. Mixed pituitary adenoma/craniopharyngioma: clinical, morphological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study of a case, review of the literature, and pathogenetic and nosological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finzi, Giovanna; Cerati, Michele; Marando, Alessandro; Zoia, Cesare; Ferreli, Fabio; Tomei, Giustino; Castelnuovo, Paolo; La Rosa, Stefano; Capella, Carlo

    2014-02-01

    Mixed pituitary adenoma/craniopharyngiomas are very rare tumors. Their pathogenesis is still unclear and it is not known whether they are collision tumors derived from independent stem cells or whether they originate from a single stem cell undergoing divergent differentiation. The latter hypothesis is supported by the close commixture between the two tumor components with transition areas that has been previously described. However, "hybrid" cells with both pituitary adenoma and craniopharyngioma features have never been described. In this paper we report a case of mixed pituitary adenoma/craniopharyngioma observed in a 75-year-old woman presenting with diplopia and slight increase of serum prolactin, who underwent endoscopic endonasal trans-sphenoidal tumor resection. Histologically, the tumor was composed of a typical pituitary silent subtype 2 ACTH cell adenoma admixed with islands of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma. Electron microscopy showed that, in addition to distinct silent subtype 2 ACTH and craniopharyngioma cells, there were "hybrid" cells, showing characteristics of both pituitary adenoma and craniopharyngioma, consisting of small dense secretory granules, bundles of cytoplasmic filaments, and desmosomes. This ultrastructural finding was also confirmed by the presence of cells showing nuclear p40 expression and chromogranin A immunoreactivity. The close commixture between the two components and the ultrastructural and immunohistochemical findings demonstrate a common histogenesis of the two components and support the classification of the neoplasm as a mixed tumor. The patient completely recovered and, 10 months after surgery, head MR confirmed the complete resection of the lesion.

  13. Asian Tracer Experiment and Atmospheric Modeling (TEAM) Project: Draft Field Work Plan for the Asian Long-Range Tracer Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allwine, K Jerry; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2007-08-01

    This report provides an experimental plan for a proposed Asian long-range tracer study as part of the international Tracer Experiment and Atmospheric Modeling (TEAM) Project. The TEAM partners are China, Japan, South Korea and the United States. Optimal times of year to conduct the study, meteorological measurements needed, proposed tracer release locations, proposed tracer sampling locations and the proposed durations of tracer releases and subsequent sampling are given. Also given are the activities necessary to prepare for the study and the schedule for completing the preparation activities leading to conducting the actual field operations. This report is intended to provide the TEAM members with the information necessary for planning and conducting the Asian long-range tracer study. The experimental plan is proposed, at this time, to describe the efforts necessary to conduct the Asian long-range tracer study, and the plan will undoubtedly be revised and refined as the planning goes forward over the next year.

  14. Nitrate movement and removal along a shallow groundwater flow path in a riparian wetland within a sheep-grazed pastoral catchment : result of a tracer study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.A.; Nguyen, L.

    2002-01-01

    The movement and removal of nitrate (NO 3 ) along a groundwater flow path within a riparian wetland was investigated during a 24-day period in late autumn-early winter, using a lithium bromide (LiBr)-potassium nitrate (KNO 3 ) tracer solution containing 19 200 mg/litre as Br - and 193.8 mg/litre as NO 3 -N. The tracer solution was added as an instantaneous dose of tracer solution at a depth of 10-20 cm to four injection wells in two 1 m 2 plots within a sheep-grazed pastoral catchment at the Whatawhata Agricultural Research Centre near Hamilton, New Zealand. Bromide and NO 3- N concentrations were measured periodically in: (1) wetland groundwater samples from piezometers installed at 15 and 30 cm depths and located at 30, 60, and 100 cm down gradient from the injection wells; and (2) surface flow samples. Peak concentrations of 50-250 mg/litre of Br - and 0.2-1.1 mg/litre of NO 3 -N were reached within 1-2 days after application at most piezometers. Nitrate concentrations decreased thereafter more sharply than did those of Br - , resulting in decreased NO 3 -N/Br - ratios from Days 2 through 7. More than 99% of groundwater samples collected after the tracer application had NO 3 -N/Br - less than the value in the tracer solution indicating removal of NO 3 -N during transport. Mass flux estimates indicated removal of >90% of added NO 3 -N along the 100 cm flow path from the injection, with essentially all of the NO 3 - removed within the first 30 cm of transport. On Days 10 and 24, just after rain events, surface flow from the experimental plots had greatly elevated NO 3 -N concentrations that were not accompanied by correspondingly elevated Br - concentrations, indicating that NO 3 -N originating from the surrounding catchment was transported over the wetland surface with little penetration or mixing with wetland groundwater. Despite a significant capacity for NO 3 -N removal from shallow groundwater equivalent to an annualised value of 50 kg/ha in these wetland

  15. Phenotypic plasticity of wall ultrastructure in the green alga Pediastrum s.l. (Chlorophyta, Sphaeropleales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenarczyk Joanna

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined wall ultrastructure variability in the microscopic green alga Pediastrum s.l. Its value as a diagnostic character is discussed. Field and cultured material of 21 taxa were compared using light and scanning electron microscopy. Nine ultrastructural elements occurring on the surface of Pediastrum are documented with LM and SEM micrographs. The highest number of taxa showed reticulate ornamentation composed of a trigonal mesh and granules situated on its corners. The paper considers the use of wall ultrastructure to reconcile traditional and modern taxonomical systems with regard to Pediastrum varieties, and addresses the phylogenetic relationships between strains representing different varieties.

  16. Statistically Based Morphodynamic Modeling of Tracer Slowdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhani, S.; Ghasemi, A.; Hill, K. M.; Viparelli, E.

    2017-12-01

    Tracer particles are used to study bedload transport in gravel-bed rivers. One of the advantages associated with using of tracer particles is that they allow for direct measures of the entrainment rates and their size distributions. The main issue in large scale studies with tracer particles is the difference between tracer stone short term and long term behavior. This difference is due to the fact that particles undergo vertical mixing or move to less active locations such as bars or even floodplains. For these reasons the average virtual velocity of tracer particle decreases in time, i.e. the tracer slowdown. In summary, tracer slowdown can have a significant impact on the estimation of bedload transport rate or long term dispersal of contaminated sediment. The vast majority of the morphodynamic models that account for the non-uniformity of the bed material (tracer and not tracer, in this case) are based on a discrete description of the alluvial deposit. The deposit is divided in two different regions; the active layer and the substrate. The active layer is a thin layer in the topmost part of the deposit whose particles can interact with the bed material transport. The substrate is the part of the deposit below the active layer. Due to the discrete representation of the alluvial deposit, active layer models are not able to reproduce tracer slowdown. In this study we try to model the slowdown of tracer particles with the continuous Parker-Paola-Leclair morphodynamic framework. This continuous, i.e. not layer-based, framework is based on a stochastic description of the temporal variation of bed surface elevation, and of the elevation specific particle entrainment and deposition. Particle entrainment rates are computed as a function of the flow and sediment characteristics, while particle deposition is estimated with a step length formulation. Here we present one of the first implementation of the continuum framework at laboratory scale, its validation against

  17. Use of geochemical and isotope tracers to assess groundwater dependency of a terrestrial ecosystem: case study from southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, Anna J.; Witczak, Stanislaw; Kania, Jaroslaw; Rozanski, Kazimierz; Dulinski, Marek; Wachniew, Przemyslaw

    2015-04-01

    The presented study was aimed at better understanding of the functioning of groundwater dependent terrestrial ecosystem (GDTE) located in the south of Poland. The studied GDTE consists of a valuable forest stand (Niepolomice Forest) and associated wetland (Wielkie Bloto fen). It relies not only on shallow, unconfined aquifer but indirectly also on groundwater originating from the deeper confined aquifer, underlying the Quaternary cover and separated from it by an aquitard of variable thickness. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the contribution of groundwater to the water balance of the studied GDTE and thereby assess the potential risk to this system associated with intense exploitation of the deeper aquifer. The Wielkie Błoto fen area and the adjacent parts of Niepolomice Forest are drained by the Dluga Woda stream with 8.2 km2 of gauged catchment area. Hydrometric measurements, carried out on the Dluga Woda stream over two-year period (August 2011 - August 2013) were supplemented by chemical and isotope analyses of stream water, monitored on monthly basis. Physico-chemical parameters of the stream water (SEC, pH, Na content, Na/Cl molar ratio) and isotope tracers (deuterium, oxygen-18 and tritium) were used to quantify the expected contribution of groundwater seepage from the deeper aquifer to the water balance of the Dluga Woda catchment. The mean transit time of water through the catchment, derived from temporal variations of δ18O and tritium content in the Dluga Woda stream, was in the order of three months. This fast component of the total discharge of Dluga Woda stream is associated surface runoff and groundwater flow paths through the Quaternary cover. The slow component devoid of tritium and probably originated from the deeper Neogene aquifer is equal to approximately 30% of the total discharge. The relationships between the physico-chemical parameters of the stream water and the flow rate of Dluga Woda clearly indicate that the monitored

  18. Impurity transport studies by means of tracer-encapsulated solid pellet injection in neutral beam heated plasmas on LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, N; Sudo, S; Khlopenkov, K V; Kato, S; Sergeev, V Yu; Muto, S; Sato, K; Funaba, H; Tanaka, K; Tokuzawa, T; Yamada, I; Narihara, K; Nakamura, Y; Kawahata, K; Ohyabu, N; Motojima, O

    2003-01-01

    The quantitative properties of impurity transport in large helical device (LHD) plasmas heated by neutral beam injection have been investigated by means of tracer-encapsulated solid pellet (TESPEL) injection. In the case of a titanium (Ti) tracer, the behaviour of the emission lines from the highly ionized Ti impurity, Ti Kα(E He-like ∼ 4.7 keV) and Ti XIX (λ = 16.959 nm), has been observed clearly by a soft x-ray pulse height analyzer and a vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer, respectively. A fairly longer decay time of the Ti Kα emission lines is obtained above the value of a line-averaged electron density, 3.0x10 19 m -3 . The dependence of the behaviour of the Ti tracer impurity on the line-averaged electron density below the value of that, 3.5x10 19 m -3 is in qualitative agreement with the characteristics obtained from the observation of the behaviour of an intrinsic metallic impurity in neutral beam heated plasmas on LHD. In order to estimate the properties of the Ti impurity transport quantitatively, the one-dimensional impurity transport code, MIST has been used. As a result of the transport analysis with the MIST code, even an small inward convection should be necessary to account for the experimental results with the value of the line-averaged electron density, 3.5x10 19 m -3 . In order to examine the experimentally obtained transport coefficients, neoclassical analysis with respect to the radial impurity flux has been performed. The inferred rise of the inward convection cannot be explained solely by neoclassical impurity transport. Therefore, in order to account for the inward convection, the effect of a radial electric field and/or some other effect must be taken into account additionally

  19. Building blocks of the GIPU, Italian Group of Ultrastructural Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, V; Costa, R; Cenacchi, G

    2016-06-01

    The Italian Group of Ultrastructural Pathology, GIPU, is a scientific organization committed to promote the art and science of Electron Microscopy (EM) in the pathology field in Italy, sharing its professional work with a public audience. The history of the GIPU goes back to 1990s when a founder group set up the Italian Group of Ultrastructural Diagnostic (GIDU) in Milan. The central focus of annual meetings was on EM, transmission and scanning one, about interesting cases in which it was instrumental in diagnosis. In the 1990s, ultrastructure was still the gold standard for cell/tissue morphology, biology, biochemistry, diagnostic pathology, and played an important role in tailored medicine. So, especially transmission EM, could play a critical role in the diagnosis of various diseases as in human as in animals. Best topics of the annual scientific meetings of the group were kidney, muscle, heart, and liver pathology, infertility, neuropathology, respiratory diseases, skin diseases, storage diseases, tumor pathology, infectious diseases, parasitology, veterinary pathology and more. Nowadays, EM is a method whose importance for diagnosis and pathology is well established: it is still essential in several pathologies, helpful in others, and welcome implemented in eclectic research pathology. Omission of EM likely makes the studies suboptimal and wasteful. So, from 2007 the name of the group has been changed to the Italian Group of Ultrastructural Pathology (GIPU) to favor broader applications of EM also to pathology research field. During last decades, GIDU/GIPU has interconnected with international (Society for Ultrastructural Pathology) and european (European Society of Pathology and Joint Meeting with the European Electron Microscopy Working Group) scientific society, according its statute. By 1991, GIPU has had 40 members: membership in this Group is still open and welcome to all pathologists, PhD, electron microscopy technologists, pathology trainees, and

  20. Study on the metabolic characteristics of renal imaging agent {sup 99m}Tc-PAHIDA with tracer experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoupeng, Zhu; Liuyi, Wang; Mingyue, Lun [Suzhou Medical Coll., JS (China); and others

    1995-05-01

    Tracer experiment showed that {sup 99m}Tc-PAHIDA was distributed predominantly in kidney. The distribution in other tissue was in the following descending order: heart, gastrointestinal tract, liver, spleen, muscle, adipose tissue, testes, and brain. The smaller the intravenous dose, the lower the proportion of the drug was combined to plasma protein and the more the drug was distributed in kidney. Excretion of {sup 99m}Tc-PAHIDa via urine was rapid and was in its original form as shown by radiochromatography.

  1. Fifty years of radiochemical tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    During the past 50 years radiochemical tracers, usually in the form of isotopically labelled organic compounds, have been essential tools to further advance our knowledge at the frontiers of a great variety of scientific developments in the life sciences. This plenary lecture reviews necessarily selected highlights in the synthesis and applications of such radiochemical tracers. Included are examples where important advances, made possible by using radiochemicals, have contributed to improving the quality of life on this planet. The principal radioisotopes involved, 14 C, 3 H, 35 S, 32 P, 125 I, are all relatively safe to handle and are commercially available at maximum theoretical specific activity (carrier free). The compounds labeled with these radioisotopes are used in many fields of research which include biosynthesis and biotechnology studies, cell biology, drug metabolism, clinical research and environmental applications, and are briefly reviewed. (author). 55 refs

  2. Potential Use of Tracer Methods, Especially Autoradiography, in the Study of the Relation of Herbicides to Soil Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossbard, E. [Grassland Research Institute, Hurley, Maidenhead, Berks (United Kingdom)

    1966-05-15

    Several tracer methods, designed originally for the study of general soil processes, are described. Their possible adaptation to investigations of the interaction of herbicides with soil biology (especially the soil microflora) is discussed. Rapid disposal of the herbicide-treated vegetation before replanting (minimal tillage) is essential. In comparing the efficiency of herbicidal destruction of vegetation with conventional ploughing, and also when evaluating the effect of various herbicides on the rate of decay of the treated crops, a method is required to measure the rate of the microbial decomposition of the plant residues. A technique based on autoradiography is described which makes possible the study of the progressive decay of herbage grasses and rye uniformly labelled with carbon-14, placed on the surface of soil and incubated for various periods of time. Photoelectric measurements of the density of images of autoradiographs prepared before the start of the experiment and at intervals during incubation show a statistically significant decrease in density with time of incubation. This progressive loss of carbon is an estimate of the rate of decomposition of the residues. The utilization of breakdown products of herbicides by micro-organisms has been demonstrated in pure culture using labelled herbicides but not directly in the soil. A method based on the stripping film technique demonstrates the incorporation of carbon-14 atoms into the cell material of fungi which decomposed {sup 14}C-labelled plant residues mixed with soil. This technique could be adapted to study the uptake of labelled atoms after the microbial decomposition of radioactive herbicides in the soil. Herbicides inhibit and under,certain conditions may also stimulate the growth of micro-organisms in the soil. The evolution of CO{sub 2} is frequently used as an index of microbial activity. It is, however, also a function of the carbon content of the soil. Soils not treated with herbicides will

  3. Wairakei tracer tests 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, W.J.; Barry, B.J.

    1984-05-01

    Tracer tests, with and without, hot water reinjection into WK213 showed returns of tracer iodine-131; in wells in both the Waiora Valley and the eastern end of the field. The effect of reinjection at a rate of 200 cu. m/h was to reduce the arrived time from 15 to 7 days. Increasing the rate of reinjection into WK62 from 30 cu. m/h to 200 cu. m/h seemed to increase the initial velocity of the tracer wave and the distance it moved. However, returns were recorded only in the adjacent wells WK61 and WK63 with a very small, and three days delayed, response in WK43

  4. Ultrastructural diversity between centrioles of eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Akshari; Kitagawa, Daiju

    2018-02-16

    Several decades of centriole research have revealed the beautiful symmetry present in these microtubule-based organelles, which are required to form centrosomes, cilia, and flagella in many eukaryotes. Centriole architecture is largely conserved across most organisms, however, individual centriolar features such as the central cartwheel or microtubule walls exhibit considerable variability when examined with finer resolution. Here, we review the ultrastructural characteristics of centrioles in commonly studied organisms, highlighting the subtle and not-so-subtle differences between specific structural components of these centrioles. Additionally, we survey some non-canonical centriole structures that have been discovered in various species, from the coaxial bicentrioles of protists and lower land plants to the giant irregular centrioles of the fungus gnat Sciara. Finally, we speculate on the functional significance of these differences between centrioles, and the contribution of individual structural elements such as the cartwheel or microtubules towards the stability of centrioles.Centriole structure, cartwheel, triplet microtubules, SAS-6, centrosome.

  5. Ultrastructure of developing ascospores in Sordaria brevicollis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, C J; Chen, K C

    1976-05-01

    The ultrastructure of ascospore wall formation in the pyrenomycete Sordaria brevicollis was studied in developing asci at progressive time intervals. From early spore delimitation through final stage of maturation, the wall of the ascospore differentiated into four composite layers, the periascosporium the delineation ascosporium, the subascosproium, and the endoascosproium, While ascospores were at the hyaline stage of development,they possessed only the periascosporium and delineation ascosporium as their wall components. At about 7 to 8 days from the initiation of the cross, the spores developed a yellow color, and this coloration was always associated with the elaboration of the subascorsporium just internal to the ascosporium. Asthe spores continued to progressively darken in color, the subascosporium was seen to increase in complexity, electron density, and thickness. Soon after the formation of the subascosporium, the endoascosporium began to develop de novo and was, therefore, the last wall layer formed as the spore approached maturity.

  6. Somatostatinoma: collision with neurofibroma and ultrastructural features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varikatt, W; Yong, J L C; Killingsworth, M C

    2006-11-01

    The clinical presentation, histopathology and immunoelectron microscopic features of two cases of duodenal somatostatinoma are described, one of which is a hitherto unreported example of a collision tumour with a neurofibroma. Ultrastructural morphometric immunoelectron microscopy studies revealed the presence of four types of cells in both tumours, but there was no difference in the proportions of these cells between the collision tumour and the non-collision tumour. Neurosecretory granules ranging in size from 255-815 nm were generally larger than those previously reported for somatostatinomas and somatostatin was identified in granules of all sizes across this range. Neither tumour was associated with the somatostatinoma syndrome comprising associated diabetes mellitis, steatorrhoea and cholelithiasis.

  7. Ultrastructure and properties of Paecilomyces lilacinus spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, R.J.; Gunasekera, T.S. [Macquarie Univ., Dept. of Biological Sciences, Sydney (Australia); Williams, K.L. [Proteome Systems Ltd., Sydney (Australia); Nevalainen, K.M.H. [Dept. of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney (Australia)

    2002-10-01

    Strains of the filamentous soil fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus are currently being developed for use as biological control agents against root-knot, cyst, and other plant-parasitic nematodes. The inoculum applied in the field consists mainly of spores. This study was undertaken to examine the size, ultrastructure, and rodlet layers of P. lilacinus spores and the effect of the culture method on structural and functional spore properties. A rodlet layer was identified on aerial spores only. Other differences noted between aerial spores and those produced in submerged culture included the size and appearance of spores and thickness of spore coat layers when examined with transmission electron microscopy. The two spore types differed in UV tolerance, with aerial spores being less sensitive to environmentally relevant UV radiation. Also, viability after drying and storage was better with the aerial spores. Both spore types exhibited similar nematophagous ability. (author)

  8. Ultrastructure and properties of Paecilomyces lilacinus spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, R.J.; Gunasekera, T.S.; Williams, K.L.; Nevalainen, K.M.H.

    2002-01-01

    Strains of the filamentous soil fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus are currently being developed for use as biological control agents against root-knot, cyst, and other plant-parasitic nematodes. The inoculum applied in the field consists mainly of spores. This study was undertaken to examine the size, ultrastructure, and rodlet layers of P. lilacinus spores and the effect of the culture method on structural and functional spore properties. A rodlet layer was identified on aerial spores only. Other differences noted between aerial spores and those produced in submerged culture included the size and appearance of spores and thickness of spore coat layers when examined with transmission electron microscopy. The two spore types differed in UV tolerance, with aerial spores being less sensitive to environmentally relevant UV radiation. Also, viability after drying and storage was better with the aerial spores. Both spore types exhibited similar nematophagous ability. (author)

  9. Hematology, cytochemistry and ultrastructure of blood cells in fishing cat (Felis viverrina)

    OpenAIRE

    Prihirunkit, Kreangsak; Salakij, Chaleow; Apibal, Suntaree; Narkkong, Nual-Anong

    2007-01-01

    Hematological, cytochemical and ultrastructural features of blood cells in fishing cat (Felis viverrina) were evaluated using complete blood cell counts with routine and cytochemical blood stains, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. No statistically significant difference was found in different genders of this animal. Unique features of blood cells in this animal were identified in hematological, cytochemical and ultrastructural studies. This study contributes to broaden hemato...

  10. Hematology, cytochemistry and ultrastructure of blood cells in fishing cat (Felis viverrina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prihirunkit, Kreangsak; Salakij, Chaleow; Apibal, Suntaree; Narkkong, Nual Anong

    2007-06-01

    Hematological, cytochemical and ultrastructural features of blood cells in fishing cat (Felis viverrina) were evaluated using complete blood cell counts with routine and cytochemical blood stains, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. No statistically significant difference was found in different genders of this animal. Unique features of blood cells in this animal were identified in hematological, cytochemical and ultrastructural studies. This study contributes to broaden hematological resources in wildlife animals and provides a guideline for identification of blood cells in the fishing cat.

  11. Study of lag time of river chenab between marala barrage and khanki headworks using radioactive tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A.; Tariq, J.A.; Ahmad, N.; Iqbal, N.

    2001-05-01

    During the flood season, sometimes discharge peaks in two tributaries of the Indus River System coincide at the point of confluence and their cumulative effect threatens the downstream barrage/headworks. Reasonably accurate lag time (transit time) between different control points in relation to discharge helps mange flood routing more safely. As a part of S tudy of Lag Time of the Indus River Suystem , radioactive tracer experiment was conducted to determine the lag time between Marala Barrage and Khanki Headworks at the river Chenab. Discharge data shows that the maximum flood peak appears in August. In the monsoon period of the year 1999 the floods were low. So the radiotracer experiment was carried out at low discharge of about 538 m/sup 3/ sec/sup-1/ (19000 cusecs). An activity of about 2 Ci of /sup 82/Br radioactive tracer was injected instantaneously in the river at Marala on 1st September 1999 at 0640 hours. Monitoring of radioactivity by scintillation detectors (sodium iodide) was done at Khanki Headworks. The peak value of activity was found on September 2, 1999 at 0005 hours. The lag time was determined as 17 hours and 25 minutes. At this discharge level the river water travelled with the average speed of 3.69 km/hr. (author)

  12. Effect of Different Forms of Hypokinesia on the Ultrastructure of Limbic, Extrapyramidal and Neocortical Areas of the Rat Brain: Electron Microscopic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhvania, Mzia G.; Japaridze, Nadezhda J.; Ksovreli, Mariam G.

    The effect of chronic restraint stress and chronic hypokinesia "without stress" on the ultrastructure of central and lateral nuclei of amygdala, CA1 and CA3 area of the hippocampus, cingular cortex, nucleus caudatus and motor cortex of adult male rats were elucidated. In some neurons and synapses of abovementioned regions pathological modifications were revealed. More significant alterations provokes chronic restraint stress. Alterations are mostly concentrated: first—in the nuclei of amygdala, then in the CA1 and CA3 areas. Moderate alterations were observed in cingular cortex and nucleus caudatus. In comparing with it, hypokinesia "without stress" provokes only moderate modifications: predominantly in the nucleus caudatus, in lesser degree—in the hippocampus and amygdalae.

  13. Two anti-angiogenic TKI-PET tracers, [11C]axitinib and [11C]nintedanib: Radiosynthesis, in vivo metabolism and initial biodistribution studies in rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slobbe, Paul; Poot, Alex J.; Haumann, Rianne; Schuit, Robert C.; Windhorst, Albert D.; Dongen, Guus A.M.S. van

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are very attractive targeted drugs, although a large portion of patients remains unresponsive. PET imaging with EGFR targeting TKIs ([ 11 C]erlotinib and [ 18 F]afatinib) showed promise in identifying treatment sensitive tumors. The aim of this study was to synthesize two anti-angiogenic TKI tracers, [ 11 C]axitinib and [ 11 C]nintedanib, and to evaluate their potential for PET. Methods: Following successful tracer synthesis, biodistribution studies in VU-SCC-OE and FaDu xenograft bearing mice were performed. Furthermore, tracer stability studies in mice were performed employing (radio-)HPLC and LC–MS/MS techniques. For [ 11 C]nintedanib an LC–MS/MS method was developed to detect the primary carboxylic acid metabolite, resulting from methylester cleavage, in plasma and tumors, because this metabolite is postulated to be important for nintedanib efficacy. LC–MS/MS was also explored to assess the metabolic fate of [ 11 C]axitinib in vivo, since axitinib has an isomerizable double bond. Results: [ 11 C]axitinib and [ 11 C]nintedanib were successfully synthesized with 10.5 ± 2.6% and 25.6 ± 3.3% radiochemical yield (corrected for decay), respectively. Biodistribution studies only demonstrated tumor uptake of [ 11 C]nintedanib in FaDu xenografts of 1.66 ± 0.02% ID/g at 60 min p.i. In vivo stability analysis of [ 11 C]axitinib at 45 min p.i. revealed the formation of predominantly non-polar metabolites (36.6 ± 6.8% vs 47.1 ± 8.4% of parent tracer and 16.3 ± 2.1% of polar metabolites), while for [ 11 C]nintedanib mostly polar metabolites were found (70.9 ± 4.1 vs 26.7 ± 3.9% of parent tracer and only 2.4 ± 1.6 of a non-polar metabolites). No isomerization of [ 11 C]axtinib was observed in vivo; however, a sulfoxide metabolite could be detected using LC–MS/MS. For [ 11 C]nintedanib, LC–MS/MS revealed formation of the reported primary carboxylic acid metabolite when in vitro plasma incubations were performed

  14. Proposal for a coordination research programme (CRP) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on stable isotope tracer techniques for studies on protein-energy interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shetty, P.; James, W.P.T.

    1993-01-01

    This Report provides a rationale and justification for the initiation of a Coordinated Research programme to support studies using stable isotopic tracer techniques to address priority areas of human protein-energy interactions with special emphasis on the problems of human nutrition in developing countries. The Report suggests a modus for establishing such a practically oriented Coordinated Research Programme under the aegis of the International Atomic Energy Agency with concrete suggestions for its organization and the identification of probable participants in such a programme. The likely sources of additional funding to sustain such an activity viable for a period of 4 to 5 years are also indicated. 8 refs

  15. 2H, 3H and 18O Tracers used for a preliminary study of groundwaters vulnerability to contaminants in the South-West of Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajaobelison, J.; Ramaroson, V.; Randrianasolo, A.; Randrianarisoa, H.; Mamifarananahary, E.; Ranaivoarisoa, A.

    2004-01-01

    Fresh water access is one of the main issues in the South-West of Madagascar. Most people in this area draw water from surface water which is usually of bad quality and source of stomach diseases. The only reliable water resource is groundwater. However, the latter is more or less vulnerable to geogenic and anthropogenic contaminants. Use of 2 H, 3 H and 18 O environmental tracers has contributed to localize and estimate the active and potential focuses of contamination in shallower and deeper aquifers, within the frame of a preliminary study of ground waters vulnerability to contaminants.

  16. Dating of young groundwater using tritium and gaseous tracers (SF6, SF5CF3, CFC-12, H-1301): case study from southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanski, Kazimierz; Bartyzel, Jakub; Dulinski, Marek; Kuc, Tadeusz; Sliwka, Ireneusz; Mochalski, Pawel; Kania, Jaroslaw; Witczak, Stanislaw

    2013-04-01

    Groundwater is an important source of potable water in many countries. While it covers ca. 50% of the global drinking water needs, in Europe this share is even higher, reaching approximately 70%. Nowadays, this strategic resource is at risk due to anthropogenic pollutants of various nature entering shallow aquifers. Proper management of groundwater resources requires thorough understanding of groundwater dynamics on time scales characteristic for the history of pollutant input to groundwater. The bomb-tritium has been used for several decades now as a tracer of choice to detect recent recharge and to quantify groundwater residence times on time scales extending from several years to several decades. The lumped-parameter modeling was the most often employed approach in this context. Since nowadays atmospheric concentrations of tritium are approaching natural levels in most parts of the world, the usage of this tracer has become more problematic. Therefore, there is a growing interest in alternative indicators of groundwater age in shallow aquifers. Anthropogenic trace gases present in the atmosphere, such as freons (CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), have been applied in numerous case studies as substitutes of tritium. Here we present the results of a comprehensive study aimed at quantifying mean residence time of groundwater in the recharge area of porous sandy aquifer system located in the southern Poland. The principal economic role of the aquifer, consisting of two water-bearing strata, is to provide potable water for public and private users. The yield of the aquifer is insufficient to meet all the needs and, as a consequence, licensing conflicts arise between water supply companies and industry on the amount of water available for safe exploitation. To quantify residence time distribution (RTD) functions of water parcels arriving at the production wells located in the recharge area of the aquifer, tritium along with several gaseous tracers

  17. Biological and Clinical Study of 6-Deoxy-6-Iodo-D-Glucose: a iodinated tracer of glucose transport and of insulin-resistance in human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barone-Rochette, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR), characterized by a depressed cellular sensitivity to insulin in insulin-sensitive organs, is a central feature to obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus and leads to increase cardiovascular diseases, particularly heart failure. All these events are today serious public health problems. But actually, there is no simple tool to measure insulin resistance. The gold standard technique remains the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. However, the complexity and length of this technique render it unsuitable for routine clinical use. Many methods or index have been proposed to assess insulin resistance in human, but none have shown enough relevance to be used in clinical use. The U1039 INSERM unit previously has validated a new tracer of glucose transport, radiolabelled with 123 iodine and has developed a fast and simple imaging protocol with a small animal gamma camera, which allows the obtaining of an IR index for each organ, showing more discriminating for the heart. The project of my thesis was the human transfer of this measurement technique, perfectly validated in animal. The first part of this thesis evaluated to tolerance, in vivo kinetics, distribution and dosimetry of novel tracer of glucose transport, the [ 123 I]-6DIG. The safeties of new tracer and measurement technique were adequate. There were no adverse effects with excellent tolerance of the whole protocol. 6DIG eliminating was fast, primarily in the urine and complete within 72 h. The effective whole-body absorbed dose for a complete scan with injection of 92.5 * 2 MBq was between 3 to 4 mSv. The second part of this thesis evaluated in human feasibility and reproducibility of the measurement technique validated in animal. The third part showed techniques used to allow human transfer of this method. The study protocol was applied on 12 subjects (healthy volunteers (n=6) and type 2 diabetic patients (n=6)). With a method adapted to measure in humans, we determined an

  18. Exploring Hydrofluorocarbons as Groundwater Age Tracers (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, K. B.; Busenberg, E.; Plummer, L. N.; Casile, G.; Sanford, W. E.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater dating tracers are an essential tool for analyzing hydrologic conditions in groundwater systems. Commonly used tracers for dating post-1940's groundwater include sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), 3H-3He, and other isotopic tracers (85Kr, δ2H and δ18O isotopes, etc.). Each tracer carries a corresponding set of advantages and limitations imposed by field, analytical, and interpretive methods. Increasing the number available tracers is appealing, particularly if they possess inert chemical properties and unique temporal emission histories from other tracers. Atmospherically derived halogenated trace gases continue to hold untapped potential for new tracers, as they are generally inert and their emission histories are well documented. SF5CF3, and CFC-13 were previously shown to have application as dating tracers, though their low mixing ratios and low solubility require large amounts of water to be degassed for their quantification. Two related groups of compounds, hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are hypothesized to be potential age tracers, having similar mixing ratios to the CFCs and relatively high solubility. However, these compounds yield gas chromatography electron capture detector (GC-ECD) responses that are 10-2 -10-5 less than CFC-12, making purge and trap or field stripping GC-ECD approaches impractical. Therefore, in order to use dissolved HCFCs and HFCs as age tracers, different approaches are needed. To solve this problem, we developed an analytical method that uses an atomic emission detector (GC-AED) in place of an ECD to detect fluorinated compounds. In contrast to the ECD, the AED is a universally sensitive, highly linear, elementally specific detector. The new GC-AED system is being used to measure chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22), 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a), and other fluorinated compounds in one liter water samples to study their potential as age dating tracers. HCFC-22 is a

  19. Tracer monitoring of enhanced oil recovery projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleven R.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In enhanced oil recovery (EOR, chemicals are injected into the oil reservoir, either to increase macroscopic sweep efficiency, or to reduce remaining oil saturation in swept zones. Tracers can be used to identify reservoirs that are specifically suited for EOR operations. Injection of a selection of partitioning tracers, combined with frequent sample analysis of produced fluids, provides information suited for estimation of residual oil saturation. Tracers can also be used to evaluate and optimize the application of EOR chemicals in the reservoir. Suitable tracers will follow the EOR chemicals and assist in evaluation of retention, degradation or trapping. In addition to field applications, tracers also have a large potential as a tool to perform mechanistic studies of EOR chemicals in laboratory experiments. By labelling EOR chemicals with radioactive isotopes of elements such as H, C and S, detailed studies of transport mechanisms can be carried out. Co-injection of labelled compounds in dynamic flooding experiments in porous media will give information about retention or separation of the unique compounds constituting the chemical formulation. Separation of such compounds may be detrimental to obtaining the EOR effect expected. The paper gives new information of specific methods, and discusses current status for use of tracers in EOR operations.

  20. Models for tracer flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuber, A.

    1983-01-01

    A review and discussion is given of mathematical models used for interpretation of tracer experiments in hydrology. For dispersion model, different initial and boundary conditions are related to different injection and detection modes. Examples of applications of various models are described and commented. (author)

  1. Ultrastructure of Sheep Primordial Follicles Cultured in the Presence of Indol Acetic Acid, EGF, and FSH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Rabelo Andrade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the ultrastructural characteristics of primordial follicles after culturing of sheep ovarian cortical slices in the presence of indol acetic acid (IAA, Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF, and FSH. To evaluate ultrastructure of primordial follicles cultured in MEM (control or in MEM containing IAA, EGF, and FSH, fragments of cultured tissue were processes for transmission electron microscopy. Except in the control, primordial follicles cultured in supplemented media for 6 d were ultrastructurally normal. They had oocyte with intact nucleus and the cytoplasm contained heterogeneous-sized lipid droplets and numerous round or elongated mitochondria with intact parallel cristae were observed. Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER was rarely found. The granulosa cells cytoplasm contained a great number of mitochondria and abundant RER. In conclusion, the presence of IAA, EGF, and FSH helped to maintain ultrastructural integrity of sheep primordial follicles cultured in vitro.

  2. A contribution to the study of radioactive waste dilution in the Rhone involving tests with a rhodamine B tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodier, J.; Marichal, M.

    1961-01-01

    The process whereby waste from the Marcoule plant mixes with the water in the Rhone was followed in tests with rhodamine as a chemical tracer. Satisfactory dispersion was noted less than 4 km downstream from the waste discharge duct outlet, and the degree of homogeneity was considered to be satisfactory at the bridge of Roquemaure, und perfect at Avignon. This investigation not only revealed a complete absence of any preferential flow paths containing high radioactive waste concentrations, but it also enabled the most representative points to be selected at which to take Rhone water samples during future radioactive waste discharges. Reprint of a paper published in 'La Houille Blanche' N. 5 - Aug 196, p. 636-641 [fr

  3. Radioactive tracer studies of soil and litter arthropod food chains. Progress report, November 1, 1978-October 31, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossley, D.A. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Research on soil and litter arthropod food chains, concerning measurement of nutrient flow using radioisotope techniques and investigations of the role of soil arthropods as regulators of the ecosystem-level processes of decomposition and mineralization of nutrients is described. Laboratory measurements of radiotracer turnover by predaceous macroarthropods are reported, as well as the status of research with microarthropod turnover of radioactive tracers. Implications of results are evaluated in context of current understanding of nutrient flows along arthropod food chains. The interactions of soil fauna and mycorrhizal fungi are also under investigation. Field work has been completed on granitic outcrop projects, and a synthesis of results is summarized. Input-output budgets revealed that granitic outcrop island ecosystems are essentially in balance as regards nutrient flows. The ecosystems showed a strong resistance component of stability, as opposed to resilience, following an applied chemical perturbation and a natural one

  4. Applications of isotopes. [Need and cost of stable iotopes for use as tracers in biomedical and environmental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby-Smith, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    Current and potential applications of stable isotopes as tracers in a number of biomedical and environmental areas are discussed. It is pointed out that a wide variety of problems exist in these fields whose solutions in principle are amenable to the isotopic approach. The number and diversity of these problems as well as the unique role stable isotopes can play in their solution illustrate the importance of achieving and maintaining a broad inventory of isotopic species. Experience has demonstrated unequivocally an additional overriding requirement for widespread exploration of stable isotopes by the scientific and technical community, i.e., the need for low cost availability of the materials in quantity. Some representative applications of /sup 12/C, /sup 13/C, /sup 14/N, /sup 15/N, /sup 16/O, /sup 17/O, and /sup 18/O are discussed.

  5. Radioactive tracer studies of soil and litter arthropod food chains. Progress report, November 1, 1978-October 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crossley, Jr, D A

    1979-07-15

    Research on soil and litter arthropod food chains, concerning measurement of nutrient flow using radioisotope techniques and investigations of the role of soil arthropods as regulators of the ecosystem-level processes of decomposition and mineralization of nutrients is described. Laboratory measurements of radiotracer turnover by predaceous macroarthropods are reported, as well as the status of research with microarthropod turnover of radioactive tracers. Implications of results are evaluated in context of current understanding of nutrient flows along arthropod food chains. The interactions of soil fauna and mycorrhizal fungi are also under investigation. Field work has been completed on granitic outcrop projects, and a synthesis of results is summarized. Input-output budgets revealed that granitic outcrop island ecosystems are essentially in balance as regards nutrient flows. The ecosystems showed a strong resistance component of stability, as opposed to resilience, following an applied chemical perturbation and a natural one (drought).

  6. Carbon-14 tracer studies in the metabolism of isolated rat-liver parenchymal cells under conditions of gluconeogenesis from lactate and pyruvate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muellhofer, G.; Mueller, C.; Stetten, C. von; Gruber, E.

    1977-01-01

    In rat liver perfusion experiments under conditions of gluconeogenesis from lactate and pyruvate, 14 C-labeling patterns of metabolites with (1- 14 C)-labeled and (2- 14 C)-labeled lactate or pyruvate. [ 14 C]bicarbonate and [1- 14 C]octanoate as tracers have been obtained which do not agree with generally assumed reaction schemes. The experiments have been repeated with incubations of isolated rat-liver parenchymal cells. The results demonstrate that the discrepancies between expected and analysed 14 C-labeling patterns of metabolites were still existent. From this observation, it may be concluded that 14 C-labelling patterns of metabolites are indicative for the existence of still unknown metabolic relationships in liver parenchymal cells. Furthermore, the results of our experiments prove that conclusions based on the exclusive analysis of metabolite levels are of limited value for studying intracellular events, because of uncharacterized compartmentations, which become evident in 14 C-tracer studies. It cannot be answered by our studies whether the apparent existence of differently labelled species of citrate, oxoglutarate, or acetyl-CoA represent intracellular compartmentation, or whether it is the result of metabolic heterogeneity of liver parenchym cells. (orig.) [de

  7. [1-11C]octanoate as a PET tracer for studying ischemic stroke. Evaluation in a canine model of thromboembolic stroke with positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuge, Yuji; Kawashima, Hidefumi; Minematsu, Kazuo

    2000-01-01

    Octanoate is taken up by the brain and converted in astrocytes to glutamine through the TCA cycle after β-oxidation. Consequently, [1- 11 C]octanoate might serve as a useful positron emission tomography (PET) probe for studying cerebral oxidative metabolism and/or astroglial functions. The present study attempted to evaluate the utility of using [1- 11 C]octanoate as a PET tracer for imaging and evaluating the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke. We used a canine model of thromboembolic stroke. Five male beagle dogs were implanted with an indwelling catheter in the left internal carotid artery. A single autologous blood clot was injected into the left internal carotid artery through the catheter. The brain distribution of [1- 11 C]octanoate and cerebral blood flow (CBF) were determined 24 h after insult using a high resolution PET scanner. Post mortem brain regions unstained with 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) were defined as infarcts. In the region of an infarct, accumulation of [1- 11 C]octanoate decreased concurrently with CBF reduction. In contrast, normal accumulation of [1- 11 C]octanoate was observed in ischemic but vital regions, suggesting that an increased accumulation of [1- 11 C]octanoate relative to CBF takes place in these regions. In conclusion, [1- 11 C]octanoate accumulated in ischemic but vital regions, indicating that [1- 11 C]octanoate is a potentially useful PET tracer for imaging and evaluating the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke. (author)

  8. Xanthine tracers and their preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groman, E.V.; Cabelli, M.D.

    1980-01-01

    Compounds useful as tracers in the radioimmunoassay of xanthine derivatives such as theophylline and pharmacologically related drugs are described. They are substituted xanthines in which at least one substituted radical contains radioiodine. The tracers are made by linking radioiodinatable or preradioiodinated radicals to the xanthine derivative which is to be assayed. The tracers may be employed in known radioimmunoassay techniques. (author)

  9. Ultrastructure of Withania Somnifera (L.) Dunal pollen grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alwadie, H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the morphology and ultrastructure of Withania Somnifera (L.) Dunall pollen grains. Light microscopic examination revealed that the pollen grains are tri- or tetrazonocoplate grains, approximately as long as broad, measuring 29-um. Scanning electron microscopic observation showed that surface sculpturing of the pollen is scarbate-granulate. Ultrathin sections as examined by transmission electron microscope showed that the pollen contained numerous starch grains, lipid droplets, endoplasmic reticulum and vesicles of dictyosomes. Two layers of the pollen wall were also distinguished, the outer wall (exine) divided into ektexine and endexine as well as the inner layer (intine). The nutritive values of Withania pollen are discussed. The importance of studying the ultrastructure of pollen grains as a new tool in palynology is also discussed. (author)

  10. California GAMA Special Study: Analysis of Carbamazepine, Oxcarbazepine and Metabolites as Wastewater Tracers in Water Resource Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, J. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vu, A. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Esser, B. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-20

    The Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program is a comprehensive groundwater quality monitoring program managed by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The GAMA Special Studies project provides analyses and interpretation of constituents of concern that allow assessment of current groundwater conditions. In addition, the Special Studies project develops analyses that will enhance the monitoring and assessment effort by focusing on specific constituents of concern and water quality parameters, such as disinfection byproducts (DBP), wastewater indicators, and redox conditions, as it relates to irrigation and groundwater management. This study developed a robust analytical method for the quantitation of CBZ, OXC, CBZ-E, CBZ-DiOH, and CBZ-10-OH in wastewater treatement plant (WWTP) effluent and in groundwater in the parts per trillion range.

  11. Linking the formation of molecular clouds and high-mass stars: a multi-tracer and multi-scale study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen-Luong, Quang

    2012-01-01

    Star formation is a complex process involving many physical processes acting from the very large scales of the galaxy to the very small scales of individual stars. Among the highly debated topics, the gas to star-formation-rate (SFR) relation is an interesting topic for both the galactic and extragalactic communities. Although it is studied extensively for external galaxies, how this relation behaves with respect to the molecular clouds of the Milky Way is still unclear. The detailed mechanisms of the formation of molecular clouds and stars, especially high-mass stars, are still not clear. To tackle these two questions, we investigate the molecular cloud formation and the star formation activities in the W43 molecular cloud complex and the G035.39-00.33 filament. The first goal is to infer the connections of the gas-SFR relations of these two objects to those of other galactic molecular clouds and to extragalactic ones. The second goal is to look for indications that the converging flows theory has formed the W43 molecular cloud since it is the first theory to explain star formation self-consistently, from the onset of molecular clouds to the formation of seeds of (high-mass) stars. We use a large dataset of continuum tracers at 3.6--870 μm extracted from Galaxy-wide surveys such as HOBYS, EPOS, Hi-GAL, ATLASGAL, GLIMPSE, and MIPSGAL to trace the cloud structure, mass and star formation activities of both the W43 molecular cloud complex and the G035.39-00.33 filament. To explore the detailed formation mechanisms of the molecular cloud in W43 from low-density to very high-density gas, we take advantage of the existing H_I, "1"3CO 1-0 molecular line data from the VGPS and GRS surveys in combination with the new dedicated molecular line surveys with the IRAM 30 m. We characterise the W43 molecular complex as being a massive complex (M(total) ∼ 7.1 *10"6 M. over spatial extent of ∼ 140 pc), which has a high concentration of dense clumps (M(clumps) ∼ 8.4*10"5 M

  12. Ultrastructural Changes in Cherimoya Fruit Injured by Chilling

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez, Margarita; Mar Sola, Maria del; Pascual, Luis; Rodriguez-Garcia, Maria Isabel; Vargas, Alberto M.

    1992-01-01

    Cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) is an important fruit crop that is grown in the South of Spain. Ultrastructural modifications of cherimoya fruit were studied after low-temperature storage. When cherimoya was stored at 4 oc for 6 days, the starch grains did not suffer degradation and the cell walls remained intact. The membrane systems were severely damaged , result ing in a loss of cell compartmentalization. Cherimoya rewarmed to 22 0 C after 9 days of low temperature storage is not able t...

  13. Ultrastructural features of Mimulus aurantiacus (Scrophulariaceae) pollen tubes in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Ekici,Nuran; Dane,Feruzan; Olgun,Göksel

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to give information on ultrastructure of in vivo pollen tubes of Mimulus aurantiacus which were collected from the Botanical Garden of the University of California at Berkeley. Materials were prepared according to electron microscopy methods and examined under Zeiss electron microscope. Four zones were examined in the pollen tubes of Mimulus aurantiacus. APICAL ZONE: Mitochondria, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, rough endoplasmic reticulum, dictyosomes and secretory ves...

  14. Ultrastructural study of the effect of cyclophosphamide on the growth area of incisor teeth of DBA/2 and C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, E

    1996-04-01

    The effect of a single dose of 300 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide (CY) on the ultrastructure of the basal area of lower incisor teeth was investigated in two strains of mice (DBA/2 and C57BL/6) which are very differently affected by the delayed toxicity of CY. As in the rat, CY produced necrosis in the primitive mesenchymal cells and preodontoblasts of the pulp. Moreover, important changes were noticed in the associated layers of the enamel organ (presumptive stratum intermedium cells and stellate reticulum); thus, most of the cells displayed degenerative changes including extensive vacuolization, cytoplasm sequestration and variable nuclear alterations ranging from relative integrity to complete disorganization. In contrast, non-dividing columnar odontoblasts and ameloblasts were not affected by the drug. The alterations appeared as early as 21 hours after CY and progressed in the following 2 and 3 days. Normality of the formative tooth end was regained 7 days after CY. These results indicate that in addition to the effect on the pulp, CY produces severe cytopathological changes in the cells of the stratum intermedium and stellate reticulum of the enamel organ. The different sensitivity of DBA/2 and C57BL/6 mice to the delayed toxicity of CY does not seem to be related to its effect on odontogenesis since both strains showed the same response to CY in this respect.

  15. Tracer tests Wairakei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, W.J.; Manning, M.R.; Barry, B.J.

    1980-07-01

    The report summarises the radioactive tracer tests, using iodine-131 and bromine-82, made in the Wairakei geothermal field over the period 1978-80. Injection of tracer into three wells with strong cool water downflows at about 300-400m below ground level, produced strong rapid responses from the only deep wells feeding from about 800-1000m and lying in the south-westerly direction from the injection wells, i.e. parallel to the fault planes. Shallower wells, even though in some cases much closer to the injection well, reacted much more slowly. Velocities, as measured by peak arrival times, as high as 22m/h over 200m and 11m/h over 650m, were found. The flow patterns for the cool water feeds to the production area are discussed

  16. Radioactive tracers in Sedimentology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, H.T.

    1973-01-01

    First is given a broad description of the uses of radioactive tracers in Sedimentology. The general method is established, including determinations of probability and standard deviation. Following are determined: the response law of the detector, the minimum mass for statistical detection, and the minimum mass for dynamic detection. The granularity is an important variable in these calculations. Final conclusions are given, and results are compared with existing theories

  17. Study of ternary-component bismuth molybdate catalysts by 18O2 tracer in the oxidation of propylene to acrolein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, W.; Moro-oka, Y.; Ikawa, T.

    1981-01-01

    Participation of lattice oxide ions of ternary-component bismuth molybdate catalysts M-Bi-Mo-O (M = Ni, Co, Mg, Mn, Ca, Sr, Ba, and Pb) was investigated using the 18 O 2 tracer in the selective oxidation of propylene to acrolein. The participation of the lattice oxide ions in the oxidation is prominent on every catalyst but the extent of the participation varies significantly depending on the structure of the catalyst. Only lattice oxide ions in the bismuth molybdate phase are incorporated into the oxidized products on the catalysts (M = Ni, Co, Mg, and Mn) where M have smaller ionic radius than Bi 3+ ; catalyst particles are composed of a shell of bismuth molybdates and a core of MMoO 4 . On the other hand, whole oxide ions in the active particles are involved in the oxidation on catalysts having a scheelite-type structure (M = Ca, Sr, Ba, and Pb) where M has a comparable ionic radius to Bi 3+

  18. Study of sensitivity and application of some tracers of use in hydrologic works; Estudio de sensibilidad y aplicacion de algunos trazadores de empleo en trabajos hidrologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, M C [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1980-05-15

    Inside the Industrial Applications Management, particularly in the Hydrology department, in the ININ outlined diverse problems are had in the study of underground waters and surface waters that either in a particular way, or in inter institutional collaboration (SARH, CFE, UNAM) it seen the necessity to solve this problem in the interconnection aspects in aquifer, expenses and contamination. One of the medullary parts that are had in this study is the applied evaluation of the tracer one that it presents two general aspects: a) determination method and b) Applicability depending on the land type that one has in the current to be applied. This study seeks according to: the sensibility reached with each one, and the evaluation of some other parameters like used time, cost and mainly realization feasibility at field level, to present some alternative for the use of them. (Author)

  19. Journal: Efficient Hydrologic Tracer-Test Design for Tracer ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrological tracer testing is the most reliable diagnostic technique available for the determination of basic hydraulic and geometric parameters necessary for establishing operative solute-transport processes. Tracer-test design can be difficult because of a lack of prior knowledge of the basic hydraulic and geometric parameters desired and the appropriate tracer mass to release. A new efficient hydrologic tracer-test design (EHTD) methodology has been developed to facilitate the design of tracer tests by root determination of the one-dimensional advection-dispersion equation (ADE) using a preset average tracer concentration which provides a theoretical basis for an estimate of necessary tracer mass. The method uses basic measured field parameters (e.g., discharge, distance, cross-sectional area) that are combined in functional relatipnships that descrive solute-transport processes related to flow velocity and time of travel. These initial estimates for time of travel and velocity are then applied to a hypothetical continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) as an analog for the hydrological-flow system to develop initial estimates for tracer concentration, tracer mass, and axial dispersion. Application of the predicted tracer mass with the hydraulic and geometric parameters in the ADE allows for an approximation of initial sample-collection time and subsequent sample-collection frequency where a maximum of 65 samples were determined to be necessary for descri

  20. Ultrastructural Changes in the Liver of Intravenous Heroin Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Ilić

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructural research has a decisive role in gathering the knowledge on the liver’s response to the influence of some drugs. The aim of the study was to perform an ultrastructurai analysis of the liver in chronic intravenous heroin addicts.The study involved the autopsy conducted on 40 bodies of intravenous heroin addicts and 10 control autopsies. The liver tissue was fixed in glutaraldehyde and moulded with epon for investigation purposes of ultrastructural changes. The analysis was performed using the method of transmission electron microscopy.In the group of intravenous heroin addicts, the liver autopsy samples showed degenerative vesicular and fat changes, chronic active and persistent hepatitis, cirrhosis, reduction in the amount of glycogen in hepatocytes, as well as the Kupffer cell’s dominant hypertrophy. Various changes occur in organelles, plasma membrane of hepatocytes and biliary channels as well as in the nucleus.The most important ultrastructural findings include: hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum, which is histologically proven vesicular degeneration of hepatocyte occurring as a result of the increased synthesis of enzymes of smooth endoplasmic reticulum due to chronic intravenous heroin intake, and the presence of continuous basal membrane followed by transformation of the sinusoids into capillaries (in the cases of chronic active hepatitis and cirrhosis which leads to a disorder of microcirculation and further progress of cirrhosis.