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Sample records for ultrasound prostate image

  1. Transrectal ultrasound imaging and prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossen, Tjerk; Wijkstra, Hessel

    2003-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most important causes of death from cancer in men. Ultrasound imaging is frequently used in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. This paper presents an overview of currently available ultrasound imaging techniques. The underlying principles and methods are discussed

  2. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Prostate Ultrasound of the prostate uses sound waves to ... Ultrasound Imaging? What is Ultrasound Imaging of the Prostate? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces pictures ...

  3. Dual-Modality PET/Ultrasound imaging of the Prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Jennifer S.; Moses, William W.; Pouliot, Jean; Hsu, I.C.

    2005-11-11

    Functional imaging with positron emission tomography (PET)will detect malignant tumors in the prostate and/or prostate bed, as well as possibly help determine tumor ''aggressiveness''. However, the relative uptake in a prostate tumor can be so great that few other anatomical landmarks are visible in a PET image. Ultrasound imaging with a transrectal probe provides anatomical detail in the prostate region that can be co-registered with the sensitive functional information from the PET imaging. Imaging the prostate with both PET and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) will help determine the location of any cancer within the prostate region. This dual-modality imaging should help provide better detection and treatment of prostate cancer. LBNL has built a high performance positron emission tomograph optimized to image the prostate.Compared to a standard whole-body PET camera, our prostate-optimized PET camera has the same sensitivity and resolution, less backgrounds and lower cost. We plan to develop the hardware and software tools needed for a validated dual PET/TRUS prostate imaging system. We also plan to develop dual prostate imaging with PET and external transabdominal ultrasound, in case the TRUS system is too uncomfortable for some patients. We present the design and intended clinical uses for these dual imaging systems.

  4. Dual-Modality PET/Ultrasound imaging of the Prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, Jennifer S.; Moses, William W.; Pouliot, Jean; Hsu, I.C.

    2005-01-01

    Functional imaging with positron emission tomography (PET)will detect malignant tumors in the prostate and/or prostate bed, as well as possibly help determine tumor ''aggressiveness''. However, the relative uptake in a prostate tumor can be so great that few other anatomical landmarks are visible in a PET image. Ultrasound imaging with a transrectal probe provides anatomical detail in the prostate region that can be co-registered with the sensitive functional information from the PET imaging. Imaging the prostate with both PET and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) will help determine the location of any cancer within the prostate region. This dual-modality imaging should help provide better detection and treatment of prostate cancer. LBNL has built a high performance positron emission tomograph optimized to image the prostate.Compared to a standard whole-body PET camera, our prostate-optimized PET camera has the same sensitivity and resolution, less backgrounds and lower cost. We plan to develop the hardware and software tools needed for a validated dual PET/TRUS prostate imaging system. We also plan to develop dual prostate imaging with PET and external transabdominal ultrasound, in case the TRUS system is too uncomfortable for some patients. We present the design and intended clinical uses for these dual imaging systems

  5. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... ultrasound or with a rectal examination, an ultrasound-guided biopsy can be performed. This procedure involves advancing ... of the Prostate) Prostate Cancer Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy Images related to Ultrasound - Prostate Sponsored ...

  6. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... Z Ultrasound - Prostate Ultrasound of the prostate uses sound waves to produce pictures of a man’s prostate ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  7. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... pictures of a man’s prostate gland and to help diagnose symptoms such as difficulty urinating or an ... Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Prostate ultrasound, ...

  8. Ultrasound and PET-CT image fusion for prostate brachytherapy image guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasford, F.

    2015-01-01

    Fusion of medical images between different cross-sectional modalities is widely used, mostly where functional images are fused with anatomical data. Ultrasound has for some time now been the standard imaging technique used for treatment planning of prostate cancer cases. While this approach is laudable and has yielded some positive results, latest developments have been the integration of images from ultrasound and other modalities such as PET-CT to compliment missing properties of ultrasound images. This study has sought to enhance diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancers by developing MATLAB algorithms to fuse ultrasound and PET-CT images. The fused ultrasound-PET-CT image has shown to contain improved quality of information than the individual input images. The fused image has the property of reduced uncertainty, increased reliability, robust system performance, and compact representation of information. The objective of co-registering the ultrasound and PET-CT images was achieved by conducting performance evaluation of the ultrasound and PET-CT imaging systems, developing image contrast enhancement algorithm, developing MATLAB image fusion algorithm, and assessing accuracy of the fusion algorithm. Performance evaluation of the ultrasound brachytherapy system produced satisfactory results in accordance with set tolerances as recommended by AAPM TG 128. Using an ultrasound brachytherapy quality assurance phantom, average axial distance measurement of 10.11 ± 0.11 mm was estimated. Average lateral distance measurements of 10.08 ± 0.07 mm, 20.01 ± 0.06 mm, 29.89 ± 0.03 mm and 39.84 ± 0.37 mm were estimated for the inter-target distances corresponding to 10 mm, 20 mm, 30 mm and 40 mm respectively. Volume accuracy assessment produced measurements of 3.97 cm 3 , 8.86 cm 3 and 20.11 cm 3 for known standard volumes of 4 cm 3 , 9 cm 3 and 20 cm 3 respectively. Depth of penetration assessment of the ultrasound system produced an estimate of 5.37 ± 0.02 cm

  9. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Prostate ultrasound, also called transrectal ultrasound, provides ...

  10. Prostate ultrasound: back in business!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisan, Nicolae; Andras, Iulia; Radu, Corina; Andras, David; Coman, Radu-Tudor; Tucan, Paul; Pisla, Doina; Crisan, Dana; Coman, Ioan

    2017-11-29

    The use of grey scale prostate ultrasound decreased after the implementation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis and evaluation of prostate cancer. The new developments, such as multiparametric ultrasound and MRI-ultrasound fusion technology, renewed the interest for this imaging method in the assessment of prostate cancer. The purpose of this paper was to review the current role of prostate ultrasound in the setting of these new applications. A thorough reevaluation of the selection criteria of the patients is required to assess which patients would benefit from multiparametric ultrasound, who wouldbenefit from multiparametric MRI or the combination of both to assist prostate biopsy in order to ensure the balance between overdiagnosis and underdiagnosis of prostate cancer.

  11. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Prostate Ultrasound of ...

  12. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... uses sound waves to produce pictures of a man’s prostate gland and to help diagnose symptoms such ... also called transrectal ultrasound, provides images of a man's prostate gland and surrounding tissue. The exam typically ...

  13. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding minimally invasive procedures such as ... bowel (rectum) removed during prior surgery are not good candidates for ultrasound of the prostate gland because ...

  14. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... inserted into a man's rectum to view the prostate. Transvaginal ultrasound. The transducer is inserted into a ... Stenting Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Biopsies - Overview Images related to General Ultrasound Videos ...

  15. Poster - 10: QA of Ultrasound Images for Prostate Brachytherapy

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    Szpala, Stanislaw; Kohli, Kirpal S. [BCCA-Fraser Valley Centre (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: The current QA protocol of ultrasound systems used in prostate brachytherapy (TG128) addresses geometrical verifications, but the scope of evaluation of image quality is limited. We recognized importance of the latter in routine practice, and designed a protocol for QA of the images. Methods: Images of an ultrasound prostate phantom (CIRS053) were collected with BK Flex Focus 400. The images were saved as bmp after adjusting the gain to 50% for consistent results. Mean pixel values and signal to noise ratio were inspected in the representative sections of the phantom, including the mock prostate and the unechoic medium. Constancy of these numbers over a one year period was looked at. Results: The typical intensity in the mock prostate region in the transverse images ranged between 95 and 118 (out of 256), and the signal to noise was about 10. The intensity in the urethra region was about 170±40, and the unechoic medium was 2±2. The mean and the signal to noise ratio remained almost unchanged after a year, while the signal in the unechoic medium increased to about 7±4. Similar values were obtained in the sagittal images. Conclusions: The image analysis discussed above allows quick evaluation of constancy of the image quality. This may be also useful in troubleshooting image-quality problems during routine exams, which might not be due to deterioration of the US system, but other reasons, e.g. variations in tissue properties or air being trapped between the probe and the anatomy.

  16. Clinically low-risk prostate cancer: evaluation with transrectal doppler ultrasound and functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês Novis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate transrectal ultrasound, amplitude Doppler ultrasound, conventional T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, spectroscopy and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in localizing and locally staging low-risk prostate cancer. INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer has been diagnosed at earlier stages and the most accepted classification for low-risk prostate cancer is based on clinical stage T1c or T2a, Gleason score <6, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA <10 ng/ml. METHODS: From 2005 to 2006, magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 42 patients, and transrectal ultrasound in 26 of these patients. Seven patients were excluded from the study. Mean patient age was 64.94 years and mean serum PSA was 6.05 ng/ml. The examinations were analyzed for tumor identification and location in prostate sextants, detection of extracapsular extension, and seminal vesicle invasion, using surgical pathology findings as the gold standard. RESULTS: Sixteen patients (45.7% had pathologically proven organ-confined disease, 11 (31.4% had positive surgical margin, 8 (28.9% had extracapsular extension, and 3 (8.6% presented with extracapsular extension and seminal vesicle invasion. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV and accuracy values for localizing low-risk prostate cancer were 53.1%, 48.3%, 63.4%, 37.8% and 51.3% for transrectal ultrasound; 70.4%, 36.2%, 65.1%, 42.0% and 57.7% for amplitude Doppler ultrasound; 71.5%, 58.9%, 76.6%, 52.4% and 67.1% for magnetic resonance imaging; 70.4%, 58.7%, 78.4%, 48.2% and 66.7% for magnetic resonance spectroscopy; 67.2%, 65.7%, 79.3%, 50.6% and 66.7% for dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy values for detecting extracapsular extension were 33.3%, 92%, 14.3%, 97.2% and 89.7% for transrectal ultrasound and 50.0%, 77.6%, 13.7%, 95.6% and 75.7% for magnetic resonance imaging

  17. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... prostate gland and to help diagnose symptoms such as difficulty urinating or an elevated blood test result. ... image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is no ...

  18. The future perspectives in transrectal prostate ultrasound guided biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Il Hwang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is one of the most common neoplasms in men. Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS-guided systematic biopsy has a crucial role in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. However, it shows limited value with gray-scale ultrasound alone because only a small number of malignancies are visible on TRUS. Recently, new emerging technologies in TRUS-guided prostate biopsy were introduced and showed high potential in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. High echogenicity of ultrasound contrast agent reflect the increased status of angiogenesis in tumor. Molecular imaging for targeting specific biomarker can be also used using ultrasound contrast agent for detecting angiogenesis or surface biomarker of prostate cancer. The combination of TRUS-guided prostate biopsy and ultrasound contrast agents can increase the accuracy of prostate cancer diagnosis. Elastography is an emerging ultrasound technique that can provide the information regarding tissue elasticity and stiffness. Tumors are usually stiffer than the surrounding soft tissue. In two types of elastography techniques, shearwave elastography has many potential in that it can provide quantitative information on tissue elasticity. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI from high resolution morphologic and functional magnetic resonance (MR technique enables to detect more prostate cancers. The combination of functional techniques including apparent diffusion coefficient map from diffusion weighted imaging, dynamic contrast enhanced MR and MR spectroscopy are helpful in the localization of the prostate cancer. MR-ultrasound (US fusion image can enhance the advantages of both two modalities. With MR-US fusion image, targeted biopsy of suspicious areas on MRI is possible and fusion image guided biopsy can provide improved detection rate. In conclusion, with recent advances in multiparametric-MRI, and introduction of new US techniques such as contrast-enhanced US and elastography, TRUS-guided biopsy

  19. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... Images related to Ultrasound - Prostate Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  20. Influence of volumes of prostate, rectum, and bladder on treatment planning CT on interfraction prostate shifts during ultrasound image-guided IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, Nandanuri M. S.; Nori, Dattatreyudu; Sartin, William; Maiorano, Samuel; Modena, Jennifer; Mazur, Andrej; Osian, Adrian; Sood, Brijmohan; Ravi, Akkamma; Sampath, Seshadri; Lange, Christopher S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between prostate, bladder, and rectum volumes on treatment planning CT day and prostate shifts in the XYZ directions on treatment days. Methods: Prostate, seminal vesicles, bladder, and rectum were contoured on CT images obtained in supine position. Intensity modulated radiation therapy plans was prepared. Contours were exported to BAT-ultrasound imaging system. Patients were positioned on the couch using skin marks. An ultrasound probe was used to obtain ultrasound images of prostate, bladder, and rectum, which were aligned with CT images. Couch shifts in the XYZ directions as recommended by BAT system were made and recorded. 4698 couch shifts for 42 patients were analyzed to study the correlations between interfraction prostate shifts vs bladder, rectum, and prostate volumes on planning CT. Results: Mean and range of volumes (cc): Bladder: 179 (42-582), rectum: 108 (28-223), and prostate: 55 (21-154). Mean systematic prostate shifts were (cm, ±SD) right and left lateral: -0.047±0.16 (-0.361-0.251), anterior and posterior: 0.14±0.3 (-0.466-0.669), and superior and inferior: 0.19±0.26 (-0.342-0.633). Bladder volume was not correlated with lateral, anterior/posterior, and superior/inferior prostate shifts (P>0.2). Rectal volume was correlated with anterior/posterior (P 0.2). The smaller the rectal volume or cross sectional area, the larger was the prostate shift anteriorly and vice versa (P 0.2). The smaller the prostate volume, the larger was prostate shift superiorly and vice versa (P<0.05). Conclusions: Prostate and rectal volumes, but not bladder volumes, on treatment planning CT influenced prostate position on treatment fractions. Daily image-guided adoptive radiotherapy would be required for patients with distended or empty rectum on planning CT to reduce rectal toxicity in the case of empty rectum and to minimize geometric miss of prostate.

  1. Identification of threshold prostate specific antigen levels to optimize the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer by magnetic resonance imaging/ultrasound fusion guided biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakir, Nabeel A; George, Arvin K; Siddiqui, M Minhaj; Rothwax, Jason T; Rais-Bahrami, Soroush; Stamatakis, Lambros; Su, Daniel; Okoro, Chinonyerem; Raskolnikov, Dima; Walton-Diaz, Annerleim; Simon, Richard; Turkbey, Baris; Choyke, Peter L; Merino, Maria J; Wood, Bradford J; Pinto, Peter A

    2014-12-01

    Prostate specific antigen sensitivity increases with lower threshold values but with a corresponding decrease in specificity. Magnetic resonance imaging/ultrasound targeted biopsy detects prostate cancer more efficiently and of higher grade than standard 12-core transrectal ultrasound biopsy but the optimal population for its use is not well defined. We evaluated the performance of magnetic resonance imaging/ultrasound targeted biopsy vs 12-core biopsy across a prostate specific antigen continuum. We reviewed the records of all patients enrolled in a prospective trial who underwent 12-core transrectal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging/ultrasound targeted biopsies from August 2007 through February 2014. Patients were stratified by each of 4 prostate specific antigen cutoffs. The greatest Gleason score using either biopsy method was compared in and across groups as well as across the population prostate specific antigen range. Clinically significant prostate cancer was defined as Gleason 7 (4 + 3) or greater. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. A total of 1,003 targeted and 12-core transrectal ultrasound biopsies were performed, of which 564 diagnosed prostate cancer for a 56.2% detection rate. Targeted biopsy led to significantly more upgrading to clinically significant disease compared to 12-core biopsy. This trend increased more with increasing prostate specific antigen, specifically in patients with prostate specific antigen 4 to 10 and greater than 10 ng/ml. Prostate specific antigen 5.2 ng/ml or greater captured 90% of upgrading by targeted biopsy, corresponding to 64% of patients who underwent multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and subsequent fusion biopsy. Conversely a greater proportion of clinically insignificant disease was detected by 12-core vs targeted biopsy overall. These differences persisted when controlling for potential confounders on multivariate analysis. Prostate cancer upgrading with targeted biopsy increases

  2. Monitoring Prostate Tumor Growth in an Orthotopic Mouse Model Using Three-Dimensional Ultrasound Imaging Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Ni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (CaP is the most commonly diagnosed and the second leading cause of death from cancer in males in USA. Prostate orthotopic mouse model has been widely used to study human CaP in preclinical settings. Measurement of changes in tumor size obtained from noninvasive diagnostic images is a standard method for monitoring responses to anticancer modalities. This article reports for the first time the usage of a three-dimensional (3D ultrasound system equipped with photoacoustic (PA imaging in monitoring longitudinal prostate tumor growth in a PC-3 orthotopic NODSCID mouse model (n = 8. Two-dimensional and 3D modes of ultrasound show great ability in accurately depicting the size and shape of prostate tumors. PA function on two-dimensional and 3D images showed average oxygen saturation and average hemoglobin concentration of the tumor. Results showed a good fit in representative exponential tumor growth curves (n = 3; r2 = 0.948, 0.955, and 0.953, respectively and a good correlation of tumor volume measurements performed in vivo with autopsy (n = 8, r = 0.95, P < .001. The application of 3D ultrasound imaging proved to be a useful imaging modality in monitoring tumor growth in an orthotopic mouse model, with advantages such as high contrast, uncomplicated protocols, economical equipment, and nonharmfulness to animals. PA mode also enabled display of blood oxygenation surrounding the tumor and tumor vasculature and angiogenesis, making 3D ultrasound imaging an ideal tool for preclinical cancer research.

  3. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides real-time images, it also can be used to guide procedures such as needle biopsies , in which a needle is used to sample cells (tissue) from an abnormal area in the ...

  4. A Comparison of daily megavoltage CT and ultrasound image guided radiation therapy for prostate cancer

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    Peng Cheng; Kainz, Kristofer; Lawton, Colleen; Li, X. Allen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    In order to quantify the differences between ultrasound-imaging and megavoltage-CT (MVCT) daily prostate localization in prostate-cancer radiotherapy and their dosimetric impacts, daily shifts were analyzed for a total of 140 prostate cancer patients; 106 positioned using ultrasound-based imaging [B-mode Acquisition and Targeting (BAT)], and 34 using the MVCT from a TomoTherapy Hi-Art unit. The shifts indicated by the two systems were compared statistically along the right/left (R/L), superior/inferior (S/I), and anterior/posterior (A/P) directions. The systematic and random variations among the daily alignments were calculated. Margins to account for these shifts were estimated. The mean shifts and standard deviations along the R/L, S/I, and A/P directions were -0.11{+-}3.80, 0.67{+-}4.67, and 2.71{+-}6.31 mm for BAT localizations and -0.98{+-}5.13, 0.27{+-}3.35, and 1.00{+-}4.22 mm for MVCT localizations, respectively. The systematic and random variations in daily shifts based on MVCT were generally smaller than those based on BAT, especially along the A/P direction. A t-test showed this difference to be statistically significant. The planning target volume margins in the A/P direction estimated to account for daily variations were 8.81 and 14.66 mm based on MVCT and BAT data, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the daily prostate movement pattern between the first few fractions and the remaining fractions. Dosimetric comparison of MVCT and BAT prostate alignments was performed for seven fractions from a patient. The degradation from the plan caused by the MVCT alignment is trivial, while that by BAT is substantial. The MVCT technique results in smaller variations in daily shifts than ultrasound imaging, indicating that MVCT is more reliable and precise for prostate localization. Ultrasound-based localization may overestimate the daily prostate motion, particularly in the A/P direction, negatively impacting prostate dose coverage

  5. A Comparison of daily megavoltage CT and ultrasound image guided radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Cheng; Kainz, Kristofer; Lawton, Colleen; Li, X. Allen

    2008-01-01

    In order to quantify the differences between ultrasound-imaging and megavoltage-CT (MVCT) daily prostate localization in prostate-cancer radiotherapy and their dosimetric impacts, daily shifts were analyzed for a total of 140 prostate cancer patients; 106 positioned using ultrasound-based imaging [B-mode Acquisition and Targeting (BAT)], and 34 using the MVCT from a TomoTherapy Hi-Art unit. The shifts indicated by the two systems were compared statistically along the right/left (R/L), superior/inferior (S/I), and anterior/posterior (A/P) directions. The systematic and random variations among the daily alignments were calculated. Margins to account for these shifts were estimated. The mean shifts and standard deviations along the R/L, S/I, and A/P directions were -0.11±3.80, 0.67±4.67, and 2.71±6.31 mm for BAT localizations and -0.98±5.13, 0.27±3.35, and 1.00±4.22 mm for MVCT localizations, respectively. The systematic and random variations in daily shifts based on MVCT were generally smaller than those based on BAT, especially along the A/P direction. A t-test showed this difference to be statistically significant. The planning target volume margins in the A/P direction estimated to account for daily variations were 8.81 and 14.66 mm based on MVCT and BAT data, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the daily prostate movement pattern between the first few fractions and the remaining fractions. Dosimetric comparison of MVCT and BAT prostate alignments was performed for seven fractions from a patient. The degradation from the plan caused by the MVCT alignment is trivial, while that by BAT is substantial. The MVCT technique results in smaller variations in daily shifts than ultrasound imaging, indicating that MVCT is more reliable and precise for prostate localization. Ultrasound-based localization may overestimate the daily prostate motion, particularly in the A/P direction, negatively impacting prostate dose coverage and rectal

  6. WE-EF-210-08: BEST IN PHYSICS (IMAGING): 3D Prostate Segmentation in Ultrasound Images Using Patch-Based Anatomical Feature

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    Yang, X; Rossi, P; Jani, A; Ogunleye, T; Curran, W; Liu, T [Emory Univ, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) is the standard imaging modality for the image-guided prostate-cancer interventions (e.g., biopsy and brachytherapy) due to its versatility and real-time capability. Accurate segmentation of the prostate plays a key role in biopsy needle placement, treatment planning, and motion monitoring. As ultrasound images have a relatively low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), automatic segmentation of the prostate is difficult. However, manual segmentation during biopsy or radiation therapy can be time consuming. We are developing an automated method to address this technical challenge. Methods: The proposed segmentation method consists of two major stages: the training stage and the segmentation stage. During the training stage, patch-based anatomical features are extracted from the registered training images with patient-specific information, because these training images have been mapped to the new patient’ images, and the more informative anatomical features are selected to train the kernel support vector machine (KSVM). During the segmentation stage, the selected anatomical features are extracted from newly acquired image as the input of the well-trained KSVM and the output of this trained KSVM is the segmented prostate of this patient. Results: This segmentation technique was validated with a clinical study of 10 patients. The accuracy of our approach was assessed using the manual segmentation. The mean volume Dice Overlap Coefficient was 89.7±2.3%, and the average surface distance was 1.52 ± 0.57 mm between our and manual segmentation, which indicate that the automatic segmentation method works well and could be used for 3D ultrasound-guided prostate intervention. Conclusion: We have developed a new prostate segmentation approach based on the optimal feature learning framework, demonstrated its clinical feasibility, and validated its accuracy with manual segmentation (gold standard). This segmentation technique could be a useful

  7. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is enlarged, also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) , with measurements acquired as needed for any treatment ... caption Related Articles and Media Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) (Enlargement of the Prostate) Prostate Cancer Ultrasound- and ...

  8. Imaging and prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, Lawrence H.

    1996-01-01

    The use of imaging in evaluating patients with prostate cancer is highly dependent upon the purpose of the evaluation. Ultrasound, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, TC-99m Bone Scanning, and Positron Emission Tomography may all be utilized for imaging in prostate cancer. The utility of each of these modalities depends upon the intended purpose: for instance, screening, staging, or evaluating for progression of disease in patients with prostate cancer. Transrectal ultrasound is performed by placing a 5MHz to 7.5 MHz transducer in the rectum and imaging the prostate in the coronal and sagittal planes. Prostate cancer generally appears as an area of diminished echogenocity in the peripheral zone of the prostate gland. However, up to 24% of prostate cancers are isoechoic and cannot be well distinguished from the remainder of the peripheral zone. In addition, the incidence of malignancy in a lesion judged to be suspicious on ultrasound is between 20% and 25%. Therefore, while ultrasound is the least expensive of the three cross sectional imaging modalities, its relatively low specificity precludes it from being used as a screening examination. Investigators have also looked at the ability of ultrasound to evaluate the presence and extent of extracapsular spread of prostate cancer. The RDOG (Radiology Diagnostic Oncology Group) multi-institutional cooperative trial reported a disappointing overall accuracy of ultrasound of 58% for staging prostate cancer. The accuracy was somewhat higher 63%, for patients with advanced disease. The other cross-sectional imaging modalities available for imaging the prostate include Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Computed Tomography is useful as an 'anatomic' imaging technique to detect lymph node enlargement. It is not sensitive in detecting microscopic nodal involvement with tumor, or tumor in non-enlarged pelvic lymph nodes. The primary prostate neoplasm is generally the same attenuation as the normal

  9. MR imaging of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asbach, P.; Haas, M.; Hamm, B.

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common form of cancer in men in Germany; however, there is a distinct difference between incidence and mortality. The detection of prostate cancer is based on clinical and laboratory testing using serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and transrectal ultrasound with randomized biopsy. Multiparametric MR imaging of the prostate can provide valuable diagnostic information for detection of prostate cancer, especially after negative results of a biopsy prior to repeat biopsy. In addition the use of MR ultrasound fusion-guided biopsy has gained in diagnostic importance and has increased the prostate cancer detection rate. The prostate imaging reporting and data system (PI-RADS) classification has standardized the reporting of prostate MRI which has positively influenced the acceptance by urologists. (orig.) [de

  10. Image guided prostate cancer treatments

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    Bard, Robert L. [Bard Cancer Center, Biofoundation for Angiogenesis Research and Development, New York, NY (United States); Fuetterer, Jurgen J. [Radboud Univ. Nijmegen, Medical Centre (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiology; Sperling, Dan (ed.) [Sperling Prostate Center, Alpha 3TMRI, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Systematic overview of the application of ultrasound and MRI in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lower urinary tract. Detailed information on image-guided therapies, including focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, and microwave and laser ablation. Numerous high-quality illustrations based on high-end equipment. Represents the state of the art in Non Invasive Imaging and Minimally Invasive Ablation Treatment (MIAT). Image-Guided Prostate Cancer Treatments is a comprehensive reference and practical guide on the technology and application of ultrasound and MRI in the male pelvis, with special attention to the prostate. The book is organized into three main sections, the first of which is devoted to general aspects of imaging and image-guided treatments. The second section provides a systematic overview of the application of ultrasound and MRI to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lower urinary tract. Performance of the ultrasound and MRI studies is explained, and the normal and abnormal pathological anatomy is reviewed. Correlation with the ultrasound in the same plane is provided to assist in understanding the MRI sequences. Biopsy and interventional procedures, ultrasound-MRI fusion techniques, and image-guided therapies, including focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, microwave and laser ablation, are all fully covered. The third section focuses on securing treatment effectiveness and the use of follow-up imaging to ensure therapeutic success and detect tumor recurrence at an early stage, which is vital given that prompt focal treatment of recurrence is very successful. Here, particular attention is paid to the role of Doppler ultrasound and DCE-MRI technologies. This book, containing a wealth of high-quality illustrations based on high-end equipment, will acquaint beginners with the basics of prostate ultrasound and MRI, while more advanced practitioners will learn new skills, means of avoiding pitfalls, and ways of effectively

  11. Imaging of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turgut, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The main role of imaging in prostatic diseases is for prostate cancer. Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the most commonly used imaging tools used for the diagnosis of the diseases of the prostate gland. The main indications for TRUS is the evaluation for prostate cancer and guidance for prostate biopsy. On TRUS, the transition zone with a hypoechoic appearance can be differentiated from the peripheral zone, which appears relatively echogenic and homogenous in echotexture. Prostate cancer mainly involves the peripheral zone, though one fifth of the disease can be detected in the transition zone, which is the major site for hyperplastic changes in older men. Color Doppler ultrasound may be helpful for the differentiation of low-risk, hypovascular tumors from high-risk, hypervascular tumors, as the latter group is associated with higher Gleason tumor grades consistent with higher risk for extraprostatic spread. Nevertheless, targeted prostate biopsy solely based on high-frequency color or power Doppler imaging is not recommended, as the technique has inherent risk of missing a significant number of cancers. Although power Doppler ultrasound can enable the operator to perform more accurate sampling of the prostate by determining sites of focal hypervascularity, it has not been found to be superior to color Doppler ultrasound. It has been reported to be useful only for targeted biopsies with limited number of biopsy cores. Microbubble contrast agents may enable better visualization of prostatic microvasculature and cancerous prostate tissue. By means of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), the number of cores may be decreased by performing targeted biopsies. Importantly, the detection of the signals reflected by the microbubbles can be enhanced by the phase inversion (pulse-inversion) technology. Prostate cancer appears as a dark zone on elastography representing limited elasticity or compressibility. By means of the

  12. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the prostate. help diagnose the cause of a man's infertility. A transrectal ultrasound of the prostate gland is typically used to help diagnose symptoms such as: a nodule felt by a physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated ...

  13. Prostate ultrasound imaging: evaluation of a two-step scoring system in the diagnosis of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yong; Liao, Xin-Hong; Ma, Yan; Lu, Lu; Wei, Li-Yan; Yan, Xue

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to investigate the feasibility and performance of a two-step scoring system of ultrasound imaging in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. 75 patients with 888 consecutive histopathologically verified lesions were included in this study. Step 1, an initial 5-point scoring system was developed based on conventional transrectal ultrasound (TRUS). Step 2, a final scoring system was evaluated according to contrast-enhanced transrectal ultrasound (CE-TRUS). Each lesion was evaluated using the two-step scoring system (step 1 + step 2) and compared with only using conventional TRUS (step 1). 888 lesions were histologically verified: 315 of them were prostate cancer from 46 patients and 573 were benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) from 29 patients. According to the two-step scoring system, 284 lesions were upgraded and 130 lesions were downgraded from step 1 to step 2 (this means using step 2 to assess the results by step 1). However, 96 cases were improperly upgraded after step 2 and 48 malignant lesions were still missed after step 2 as score-1. For the two-step scoring system, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 84.7%, 83.2%, and 83.7%, respectively, versus 22.8%, 96.6%, and 70.4%, respectively, for conventional TRUS. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for lesion diagnosis was 0.799-0.952 for the two-step scoring system, versus 0.479-0.712 for conventional TRUS. The difference in the diagnostic accuracy of the two-step scoring system and conventional TRUS was statistically significant (Pstep scoring system was straightforward to use and achieved a considerably accurate diagnostic performance for prostate cancer. The application of the two-step scoring system for prostate cancer is promising.

  14. Initial Australian experience with daily ultrasound localisation for prostate radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneebone, A.; Fuller, M.W.; Williams, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Variability in prostate position is a major problem in the delivery of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Daily ultrasound localisation prior to radiotherapy has become popular in the United States but to date has not been used clinically in Australia or New Zealand. Daily transabdominal ultrasound images through the prostate were acquired using the BAT ultrasound system. Contour data from the planning system is reconstructed at the same locations/angles as the BAT images. By overlaying the planned contours with the newly acquired images, the isocentre is adjusted to ensure that the prostate will be within the irradiated volume. After commissioning by Medical Physics, an initial pre-clinical trial period was adopted. This involved performing BAT alignments daily but treating to the planned isocentre in 30 patients. Eighty three percent of patients (25/30) had images judged to be of good or excellent quality by the reviewing radiation oncologist. It was noted that for each operator there was a period needed to build confidence/competence in both imaging and interpreting the images for the moves. The median scan time in addition to the normal patient set-up was 3.2 minutes (range=1.5-12.0 mins) with the second 15 patients scanned quicker than the first 15 (2.9 minutes versus 3.8 minutes). A summary of the movements recommended by the BAT system is contained in the table. We feel that daily prostate ultrasound localization offers a significant advance in delivering EBRT for prostate cancer. The incorporation of the system into clinical use, however, was not without difficulty and requires significant time and effort from therapists, physicists and medical staff. Further clinical evaluation of the unit is ongoing

  15. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page ... to Ultrasound - Prostate Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ...

  16. Time-dependent change of blood flow in the prostate treated with high-intensity focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Sunao; Tonooka, Akiko; Hashimoto, Akio; Nakamoto, Masahiko; Tomonaga, Tetsuro; Nakano, Mayura; Sato, Haruhiro; Terachi, Toshiro; Koike, Junki; Uchida, Toyoaki

    2014-09-01

    Avascular areas on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging have been considered to be areas of localized prostate cancer successfully treated by high-intensity focused ultrasound. However, the optimal timing of magnetic resonance imaging has not been discussed. The thermal effect of high-intensity focused ultrasound is degraded by regional prostatic blood flow. Conversely, the mechanical effect of high-intensity focused ultrasound (cavitation) is not affected by blood flow, and can induce vessel damage. In this series, the longitudinal change of blood flow on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging was observed from postoperative day 1 to postoperative day 14 in 10 patients treated with high-intensity focused ultrasound. The median rates of increase in the non-enhanced volume of the whole gland, transition zone and peripheral zone from postoperative day 1 to postoperative day 14 were 36%, 39%, and 34%, respectively. In another pathological analysis of the prostate tissue of 17 patients immediately after high-intensity focused ultrasound without neoadjuvant hormonal therapy, we observed diffuse coagulative degeneration and partial non-coagulative prostate tissue around arteries with vascular endothelial cell detachment. These observations on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging support a time-dependent change of the blood flow in the prostate treated with high-intensity focused ultrasound. Additionally, our pathological findings support the longitudinal changes of these magnetic resonance imaging findings. Further large-scale studies will investigate the most appropriate timing of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of the effectiveness of high-intensity focused ultrasound for localized prostate cancer. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  17. Granulomatous prostatitis: a pitfall in MR imaging of prostatic carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevenois, P.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Cliniques Univ. de Bruxelles, Hopital Erasme (Belgium); Stallenberg, B. [Dept. of Radiology, Cliniques Univ. de Bruxelles, Hopital Erasme (Belgium); Sintzoff, S.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Cliniques Univ. de Bruxelles, Hopital Erasme (Belgium); Salmon, I. [Dept. of Pathology, Cliniques Univ. de Bruxelles, Hopital Erasme (Belgium); Regemorter, G. van [Dept. of Urology, Cliniques Univ. de Bruxelles, Hopital Erasme (Belgium); Struyven, J. [Dept. of Radiology, Cliniques Univ. de Bruxelles, Hopital Erasme (Belgium)

    1992-08-01

    Granulomatous prostatitis is an uncommon disease that can mimic prostatic carcinoma on both digital rectal examination and transrectal ultrasound. Four patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate had a histological diagnosis of granulomatous prostatitis; three of them had recent urinary tract infections. The other patient had an associated midline prostatic cyst and a focus of malignancy. T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo images were obtained in all cases. Peripheral zone lesions of decreased signal intensity, suggestive of carcinoma, were found in all four patients on T2-weighted images. Granulomatous prostatitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of low signal intensity areas with prostatic magnetic resonance imaging. (orig.)

  18. Multi-atlas-based automatic 3D segmentation for prostate brachytherapy in transrectal ultrasound images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouranian, Saman; Mahdavi, S. Sara; Spadinger, Ingrid; Morris, William J.; Salcudean, S. E.; Abolmaesumi, P.

    2013-03-01

    One of the commonly used treatment methods for early-stage prostate cancer is brachytherapy. The standard of care for planning this procedure is segmentation of contours from transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images, which closely follow the prostate boundary. This process is currently performed either manually or using semi-automatic techniques. This paper introduces a fully automatic segmentation algorithm which uses a priori knowledge of contours in a reference data set of TRUS volumes. A non-parametric deformable registration method is employed to transform the atlas prostate contours to a target image coordinates. All atlas images are sorted based on their registration results and the highest ranked registration results are selected for decision fusion. A Simultaneous Truth and Performance Level Estimation algorithm is utilized to fuse labels from registered atlases and produce a segmented target volume. In this experiment, 50 patient TRUS volumes are obtained and a leave-one-out study on TRUS volumes is reported. We also compare our results with a state-of-the-art semi-automatic prostate segmentation method that has been clinically used for planning prostate brachytherapy procedures and we show comparable accuracy and precision within clinically acceptable runtime.

  19. A quantitative analysis of two-dimensional manually segmented transrectal ultrasound axial images in planning high dose rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabić-Stanković Kata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Prostate delineation, pre-planning and catheter implantation procedures, in high-dose rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT, are commonly based on the prostate manually segmented transrectal ultrasound (TRUS images. The aim of this study was to quantitatively analyze the consistency of prostate capsule delineation, done by a single therapist, prior to each HDR-BT fraction and the changes in the shape of the prostate capsule during HDR-BT, using two dimensional (2D TRUS axial image. Methods. A group of 16 patients were treated at the Medical System Belgrade Brachytherapy Department with definitive HDRBT. The total applied median dose of 52 Gy was divided into four individual fractions, each fraction being delivered 2– 3 weeks apart. Real time prostate axial visualization and the manual segmentation prior to each fraction were performed using B-K Medical ultrasound. Quantitative analyses, analysis of an area and shape were applied on 2D-TRUS axial images of the prostate. Area analyses were used to calculate the average value of the cross-sectional area of the prostate image. The parameters of the prostate shape, the fractal dimension and the circularity ratio of the prostate capsule contour were estimated at the maximum axial cross section of the prostate image. Results. The sample group consisted of four phases, each phase being performed prior to the first, second, third and fourth HDR-BT fraction, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that during HDR-BT fractions there were no significant differences in the average value of area, as well as in the maximum shape of prostate capsule. Conclusions. Quantitative analysis of TRUS axial prostate segmented images shows a successful capsule delineation in the series of manually segmented TRUS images, and the prostate maximum shape remaining unchanged during HDR-BT fractions.

  20. Cost-Effectiveness Comparison of Imaging-Guided Prostate Biopsy Techniques: Systematic Transrectal Ultrasound, Direct In-Bore MRI, and Image Fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venderink, W.; Govers, T.M.; Rooij, M. de; Futterer, J.J.; Sedelaar, J.P.M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Three commonly used prostate biopsy approaches are systematic transrectal ultrasound guided, direct in-bore MRI guided, and image fusion guided. The aim of this study was to calculate which strategy is most cost-effective. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A decision tree and Markov model were

  1. Prostate CT segmentation method based on nonrigid registration in ultrasound-guided CT-based HDR prostate brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaofeng, E-mail: xyang43@emory.edu; Rossi, Peter; Ogunleye, Tomi; Marcus, David M.; Jani, Ashesh B.; Curran, Walter J.; Liu, Tian [Department of Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Mao, Hui [Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: The technological advances in real-time ultrasound image guidance for high-dose-rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy have placed this treatment modality at the forefront of innovation in cancer radiotherapy. Prostate HDR treatment often involves placing the HDR catheters (needles) into the prostate gland under the transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guidance, then generating a radiation treatment plan based on CT prostate images, and subsequently delivering high dose of radiation through these catheters. The main challenge for this HDR procedure is to accurately segment the prostate volume in the CT images for the radiation treatment planning. In this study, the authors propose a novel approach that integrates the prostate volume from 3D TRUS images into the treatment planning CT images to provide an accurate prostate delineation for prostate HDR treatment. Methods: The authors’ approach requires acquisition of 3D TRUS prostate images in the operating room right after the HDR catheters are inserted, which takes 1–3 min. These TRUS images are used to create prostate contours. The HDR catheters are reconstructed from the intraoperative TRUS and postoperative CT images, and subsequently used as landmarks for the TRUS–CT image fusion. After TRUS–CT fusion, the TRUS-based prostate volume is deformed to the CT images for treatment planning. This method was first validated with a prostate-phantom study. In addition, a pilot study of ten patients undergoing HDR prostate brachytherapy was conducted to test its clinical feasibility. The accuracy of their approach was assessed through the locations of three implanted fiducial (gold) markers, as well as T2-weighted MR prostate images of patients. Results: For the phantom study, the target registration error (TRE) of gold-markers was 0.41 ± 0.11 mm. For the ten patients, the TRE of gold markers was 1.18 ± 0.26 mm; the prostate volume difference between the authors’ approach and the MRI-based volume was 7.28% ± 0

  2. Prostate CT segmentation method based on nonrigid registration in ultrasound-guided CT-based HDR prostate brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Rossi, Peter; Ogunleye, Tomi; Marcus, David M.; Jani, Ashesh B.; Mao, Hui; Curran, Walter J.; Liu, Tian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The technological advances in real-time ultrasound image guidance for high-dose-rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy have placed this treatment modality at the forefront of innovation in cancer radiotherapy. Prostate HDR treatment often involves placing the HDR catheters (needles) into the prostate gland under the transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guidance, then generating a radiation treatment plan based on CT prostate images, and subsequently delivering high dose of radiation through these catheters. The main challenge for this HDR procedure is to accurately segment the prostate volume in the CT images for the radiation treatment planning. In this study, the authors propose a novel approach that integrates the prostate volume from 3D TRUS images into the treatment planning CT images to provide an accurate prostate delineation for prostate HDR treatment. Methods: The authors’ approach requires acquisition of 3D TRUS prostate images in the operating room right after the HDR catheters are inserted, which takes 1–3 min. These TRUS images are used to create prostate contours. The HDR catheters are reconstructed from the intraoperative TRUS and postoperative CT images, and subsequently used as landmarks for the TRUS–CT image fusion. After TRUS–CT fusion, the TRUS-based prostate volume is deformed to the CT images for treatment planning. This method was first validated with a prostate-phantom study. In addition, a pilot study of ten patients undergoing HDR prostate brachytherapy was conducted to test its clinical feasibility. The accuracy of their approach was assessed through the locations of three implanted fiducial (gold) markers, as well as T2-weighted MR prostate images of patients. Results: For the phantom study, the target registration error (TRE) of gold-markers was 0.41 ± 0.11 mm. For the ten patients, the TRE of gold markers was 1.18 ± 0.26 mm; the prostate volume difference between the authors’ approach and the MRI-based volume was 7.28% ± 0

  3. Towards 3D ultrasound image based soft tissue tracking: a transrectal ultrasound prostate image alignment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Michael; Mozer, Pierre; Daanen, Vincent; Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2007-01-01

    The emergence of real-time 3D ultrasound (US) makes it possible to consider image-based tracking of subcutaneous soft tissue targets for computer guided diagnosis and therapy. We propose a 3D transrectal US based tracking system for precise prostate biopsy sample localisation. The aim is to improve sample distribution, to enable targeting of unsampled regions for repeated biopsies, and to make post-interventional quality controls possible. Since the patient is not immobilized, since the prostate is mobile and due to the fact that probe movements are only constrained by the rectum during biopsy acquisition, the tracking system must be able to estimate rigid transformations that are beyond the capture range of common image similarity measures. We propose a fast and robust multi-resolution attribute-vector registration approach that combines global and local optimization methods to solve this problem. Global optimization is performed on a probe movement model that reduces the dimensionality of the search space and thus renders optimization efficient. The method was tested on 237 prostate volumes acquired from 14 different patients for 3D to 3D and 3D to orthogonal 2D slices registration. The 3D-3D version of the algorithm converged correctly in 96.7% of all cases in 6.5s with an accuracy of 1.41mm (r.m.s.) and 3.84mm (max). The 3D to slices method yielded a success rate of 88.9% in 2.3s with an accuracy of 1.37mm (r.m.s.) and 4.3mm (max).

  4. Stereotactic ultrasound for target volume definition in a patient with prostate cancer and bilateral total hip replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boda-Heggemann, Judit; Haneder, Stefan; Ehmann, Michael; Sihono, Dwi Seno Kuncoro; Wertz, Hansjörg; Mai, Sabine; Kegel, Stefan; Heitmann, Sigrun; von Swietochowski, Sandra; Lohr, Frank; Wenz, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    Target-volume definition for prostate cancer in patients with bilateral metal total hip replacements (THRs) is a challenge because of metal artifacts in the planning computed tomography (CT) scans. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used for matching and prostate delineation; however, at a spatial and temporal distance from the planning CT, identical rectal and vesical filling is difficult to achieve. In addition, MRI may also be impaired by metal artifacts, even resulting in spatial image distortion. Here, we present a method to define prostate target volumes based on ultrasound images acquired during CT simulation and online-matched to the CT data set directly at the planning CT. A 78-year-old patient with cT2cNxM0 prostate cancer with bilateral metal THRs was referred to external beam radiation therapy. T2-weighted MRI was performed on the day of the planning CT with preparation according to a protocol for reproducible bladder and rectal filling. The planning CT was obtained with the immediate acquisition of a 3-dimensional ultrasound data set with a dedicated stereotactic ultrasound system for online intermodality image matching referenced to the isocenter by ceiling-mounted infrared cameras. MRI (offline) and ultrasound images (online) were thus both matched to the CT images for planning. Daily image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) was performed with transabdominal ultrasound and compared with cone beam CT. Because of variations in bladder and rectal filling and metal-induced image distortion in MRI, soft-tissue-based matching of the MRI to CT was not sufficient for unequivocal prostate target definition. Ultrasound-based images could be matched, and prostate, seminal vesicles, and target volumes were reliably defined. Daily IGRT could be successfully completed with transabdominal ultrasound with good accordance between cone beam CT and ultrasound. For prostate cancer patients with bilateral THRs causing artifacts in planning CTs, ultrasound referenced to

  5. MO-B-BRC-02: Ultrasound Based Prostate HDR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Z. [Duke University Medical Center (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Brachytherapy has proven to be an effective treatment option for prostate cancer. Initially, prostate brachytherapy was delivered through permanently implanted low dose rate (LDR) radioactive sources; however, high dose rate (HDR) temporary brachytherapy for prostate cancer is gaining popularity. Needle insertion during prostate brachytherapy is most commonly performed under ultrasound (U/S) guidance; however, treatment planning may be performed utilizing several imaging modalities either in an intra- or post-operative setting. During intra-operative prostate HDR, the needles are imaged during implantation, and planning may be performed in real time. At present, the most common imaging modality utilized for intra-operative prostate HDR is U/S. Alternatively, in the post-operative setting, following needle implantation, patients may be simulated with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Each imaging modality and workflow provides its share of benefits and limitations. Prostate HDR has been adopted in a number of cancer centers across the nation. In this educational session, we will explore the role of U/S, CT, and MRI in HDR prostate brachytherapy. Example workflows and operational details will be shared, and we will discuss how to establish a prostate HDR program in a clinical setting. Learning Objectives: Review prostate HDR techniques based on the imaging modality Discuss the challenges and pitfalls introduced by the three imagebased options for prostate HDR brachytherapy Review the QA process and learn about the development of clinical workflows for these imaging options at different institutions.

  6. MO-B-BRC-02: Ultrasound Based Prostate HDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Brachytherapy has proven to be an effective treatment option for prostate cancer. Initially, prostate brachytherapy was delivered through permanently implanted low dose rate (LDR) radioactive sources; however, high dose rate (HDR) temporary brachytherapy for prostate cancer is gaining popularity. Needle insertion during prostate brachytherapy is most commonly performed under ultrasound (U/S) guidance; however, treatment planning may be performed utilizing several imaging modalities either in an intra- or post-operative setting. During intra-operative prostate HDR, the needles are imaged during implantation, and planning may be performed in real time. At present, the most common imaging modality utilized for intra-operative prostate HDR is U/S. Alternatively, in the post-operative setting, following needle implantation, patients may be simulated with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Each imaging modality and workflow provides its share of benefits and limitations. Prostate HDR has been adopted in a number of cancer centers across the nation. In this educational session, we will explore the role of U/S, CT, and MRI in HDR prostate brachytherapy. Example workflows and operational details will be shared, and we will discuss how to establish a prostate HDR program in a clinical setting. Learning Objectives: Review prostate HDR techniques based on the imaging modality Discuss the challenges and pitfalls introduced by the three imagebased options for prostate HDR brachytherapy Review the QA process and learn about the development of clinical workflows for these imaging options at different institutions

  7. Transrectal ultrasound and needle biopsy of the prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Smrkolj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last 25 years widespread use of prostatic specific antigen caused a stage migration of prostate cancer towards localized disease at diagnosis, which resulted in transrectal ultrasound biopsy to become standard in clinical practice. Transrectal ultrasound examination of the prostate is used to diagnose benign prostatic diseases, e.g. benign prostatic enlargement, prostatitis, prostatic and seminal vesicle cysts. It is also important in detection of obstructive causes of male infertility. Transrectal ultrasound examination is performed most often in needle biopsy for prostate cancer diagnosis. Besides guiding systematic tissue core biopsy, characteristic ultrasound changes enables target biopsies of suspect areas. The article describes indications, contraindications, antibiotic prophylaxis, various biopsy templates and complications of the needle biopsy. Experience with transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy at Department of urology at University medical center in Ljubljana is presented.

  8. Real-time registration of 3D to 2D ultrasound images for image-guided prostate biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Derek J; Gardi, Lori; De Silva, Tharindu; Zhao, Shuang-Ren; Fenster, Aaron

    2017-09-01

    During image-guided prostate biopsy, needles are targeted at tissues that are suspicious of cancer to obtain specimen for histological examination. Unfortunately, patient motion causes targeting errors when using an MR-transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) fusion approach to augment the conventional biopsy procedure. This study aims to develop an automatic motion correction algorithm approaching the frame rate of an ultrasound system to be used in fusion-based prostate biopsy systems. Two modes of operation have been investigated for the clinical implementation of the algorithm: motion compensation using a single user initiated correction performed prior to biopsy, and real-time continuous motion compensation performed automatically as a background process. Retrospective 2D and 3D TRUS patient images acquired prior to biopsy gun firing were registered using an intensity-based algorithm utilizing normalized cross-correlation and Powell's method for optimization. 2D and 3D images were downsampled and cropped to estimate the optimal amount of image information that would perform registrations quickly and accurately. The optimal search order during optimization was also analyzed to avoid local optima in the search space. Error in the algorithm was computed using target registration errors (TREs) from manually identified homologous fiducials in a clinical patient dataset. The algorithm was evaluated for real-time performance using the two different modes of clinical implementations by way of user initiated and continuous motion compensation methods on a tissue mimicking prostate phantom. After implementation in a TRUS-guided system with an image downsampling factor of 4, the proposed approach resulted in a mean ± std TRE and computation time of 1.6 ± 0.6 mm and 57 ± 20 ms respectively. The user initiated mode performed registrations with in-plane, out-of-plane, and roll motions computation times of 108 ± 38 ms, 60 ± 23 ms, and 89 ± 27 ms, respectively, and corresponding

  9. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... nodule felt by a physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides real-time ...

  10. Towards clinical prostate ultrasound elastography using full inversion approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyed Reza; Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Czarnota, Gregory J; Samani, Abbas

    2014-03-01

    Various types of cancers including prostate cancer are known to be associated with biological changes that lead to tissue stiffening. Digital rectal examination is based on manually palpating the prostate tissue via the rectum. This test lacks sufficient accuracy required for early diagnosis which is necessary for effective management of prostate cancer. To develop an effective prostate cancer diagnostic technique, the authors propose an imaging technique that maps the distribution of the relative prostate tissue's elasticity modulus. Unlike digital rectal examination, this technique is quantitative, capable of accurately detecting small prostate lesions that cannot be sensed by manual palpation, and its accuracy is independent of the physician's experience. The proposed technique is a quasistatic elastography technique which uses ultrasound imaging to acquire tissue displacements resulting from transrectal ultrasound mechanical stimulation. The system involves a standard ultrasound imaging unit with accessibility to its radiofrequency data. The displacements are used as data for the tissue elasticity reconstruction. This reconstruction does not require tissue segmentation and is based on physics governing tissue mechanics. It is formulated using an inverse problem framework where elastic tissue deformation equations are fully inverted using an iterative scheme where each iteration involves stress calculation followed by elastic modulus updating until convergence is achieved.In silico and tissue mimicking phantom studies were conducted to validate the proposed technique, followed by a clinical pilot study involving two prostate cancer patients with whole-mount histopathology analysis on prostatectomy specimens to confirm a cancer location. The phantom studies demonstrated robustness and reasonably high accuracy of the proposed method. Obtained Young's modulus ratios indicated reconstruction errors of less than 12%. Reconstructed elastic modulus images of the two

  11. Comparison of daily megavoltage electronic portal imaging or kilovoltage imaging with marker seeds to ultrasound imaging or skin marks for prostate localization and treatment positioning in patients with prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serago, Christopher F.; Buskirk, Steven J.; Igel, Todd C.; Gale, Ashley A.; Serago, Nicole E.; Earle, John D.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the accuracy of imaging modalities, immobilization, localization, and positioning techniques in patients with prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Thirty-five patients with prostate cancer had gold marker seeds implanted transrectally and were treated with fractionated radiotherapy. Twenty of the 35 patients had limited immobilization; the remaining had a vacuum-based immobilization. Patient positioning consisted of alignment with lasers to skin marks, ultrasound or kilovoltage X-ray imaging, optical guidance using infrared reflectors, and megavoltage electronic portal imaging (EPI). The variance of each positioning technique was compared to the patient position determined from the pretreatment EPI. Results: With limited immobilization, the average difference between the skin marks' laser position and EPI pretreatment position is 9.1 ± 5.3 mm, the average difference between the skin marks' infrared position and EPI pretreatment position is 11.8 ± 7.2 mm, the average difference between the ultrasound position and EPI pretreatment position is 7.0 ± 4.6 mm, the average difference between kV imaging and EPI pretreatment position is 3.5 ± 3.1 mm, and the average intrafraction movement during treatment is 3.4 ± 2.7 mm. For the patients with the vacuum-style immobilization, the average difference between the skin marks' laser position and EPI pretreatment position is 10.7 ± 4.6 mm, the average difference between kV imaging and EPI pretreatment position is 1.9 ± 1.5 mm, and the average intrafraction movement during treatment is 2.1 ± 1.5 mm. Conclusions: Compared with use of skin marks, ultrasound imaging for positioning provides an increased degree of agreement to EPI-based positioning, though not as favorable as kV imaging fiducial seeds. Intrafraction movement during treatment decreases with improved immobilization

  12. WE-EF-210-07: Development of a Minimally Invasive Photo Acoustic Imaging System for Early Prostate Cancer Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, M; Yousefi, S; Xing, L [Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The objective of this work is to design, implement and characterize a catheter-based ultrasound/photoacoustic imaging probe for early-diagnosis of prostate cancer and to aid in image-guided radiation therapy. Methods: The need to image across 6–10cm of tissue to image the whole prostate gland limits the resolution achievable with a transrectal ultrasound approach. In contrast, the urethra bisects the prostate gland, providing a minimally invasive pathway for deploying a high resolution ultrasound transducer. Utilizing a high-frequency (20MHz) ultrasound/photoacoustic probe, high-resolution structural and molecular imaging of the prostate tissue is possible. A custom 3D printed probe containing a high-frequency single-element ultrasound transducer is utilized. The diameter of the probe is designed to fit inside a Foley catheter and the probe is rotated around the central axis to achieve a circular B-scan. A custom ultrasound amplifier and receiver was set up to trigger the ultrasound pulse transmission and record the reflected signal. The reconstructed images were compared to images generated by traditional 5 MHz ultrasound transducers. Results: The preliminary results using the high-frequency ultrasound probe show that it is possible to resolve finely detailed information in a prostate tissue phantom that was not achievable with previous low-frequency ultrasound systems. Preliminary ultrasound imaging was performed on tissue mimicking phantom and sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio of the catheter was measured. Conclusion: In order to achieve non-invasive, high-resolution, structural and molecular imaging for early-diagnosis and image-guided radiation therapy of the prostate tissue, a transurethral catheter was designed. Structural/molecular imaging using ultrasound/photoacoustic of the prostate tissue will allow for localization of hyper vascularized areas for early-stage prostate cancer diagnosis.

  13. Elastic Versus Rigid Image Registration in Magnetic Resonance Imaging-transrectal Ultrasound Fusion Prostate Biopsy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venderink, Wulphert; de Rooij, Maarten; Sedelaar, J P Michiel; Huisman, Henkjan J; Fütterer, Jurgen J

    2016-07-29

    The main difference between the available magnetic resonance imaging-transrectal ultrasound (MRI-TRUS) fusion platforms for prostate biopsy is the method of image registration being either rigid or elastic. As elastic registration compensates for possible deformation caused by the introduction of an ultrasound probe for example, it is expected that it would perform better than rigid registration. The aim of this meta-analysis is to compare rigid with elastic registration by calculating the detection odds ratio (OR) for both subgroups. The detection OR is defined as the ratio of the odds of detecting clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa) by MRI-TRUS fusion biopsy compared with systematic TRUS biopsy. Secondary objectives were the OR for any PCa and the OR after pooling both registration techniques. The electronic databases PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane were systematically searched for relevant studies according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Statement. Studies comparing MRI-TRUS fusion and systematic TRUS-guided biopsies in the same patient were included. The quality assessment of included studies was performed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies version 2. Eleven papers describing elastic and 10 describing rigid registration were included. Meta-analysis showed an OR of csPCa for elastic and rigid registration of 1.45 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.21-1.73, pimaging-transrectal ultrasound fusion systems which vary in their method of compensating for prostate deformation. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... with measurements acquired as needed for any treatment planning. detect an abnormal growth within the prostate. help ... end of their bowel (rectum) removed during prior surgery are not good candidates for ultrasound of the ...

  15. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... less than 20 minutes. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Ultrasound ... in the region of the prostate. A biopsy will add time to the procedure. Rarely, a small ...

  16. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... needle biopsies and fluid aspiration. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on ... and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page This page was reviewed on ...

  17. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) , with measurements acquired as needed for any treatment planning. detect ... areas of the body while other areas, especially air-filled lungs, are poorly suited for ultrasound. For ...

  18. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... the rectal wall is relatively insensitive to the pain in the region of the prostate. A biopsy ... needle biopsies and fluid aspiration. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on ...

  19. Prostate imaging. An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franiel, T.; Teichgraeber, U.; Asbach, P.; Hamm, B.; Foller, S.

    2015-01-01

    New technical and clinical developments of sonography and magnetic resonance imaging include improved detection, localization and staging as well as active surveillance of prostate cancer. Multiparametric MRI can best answer these typical clinical questions. However, ultrasound elastography seems to be suitable for the detection of significant prostate cancer as well. The structured reporting system for multiparametric MRI of the prostate according to PI-RADS Version 1 led to improved and reproducible diagnosis of prostate cancer. The new PI-RADS Version 2 aims to minimize the limitations of Version 1 and make PI-RADS standardization more globally acceptable.

  20. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... diagnose symptoms such as difficulty urinating or an elevated blood test result. It’s also used to investigate ... physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides ...

  1. Patient repositioning in prostate conformal radiotherapy by image fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betrouni, Nacim

    2004-01-01

    This research thesis first proposes an overview of imaging modalities which are generally used in radiotherapy, and briefly presents operation principles for ultrasound scans, scanners and MRI. The issue of patient repositioning in radiotherapy is then introduced, and already proposed solutions are presented. In the next part, the author addresses space location and ultrasound-based location, with a brief overview of methods used to track the displacements of a mobile object, in this case an ultrasound probe, and calibration. Then, after a presentation of the adopted method, and a discussion of published works related to contour extraction and to filtering and noise reduction methods in ultrasound imagery, the author addresses the issue of prostate segmentation based on ultrasound images. The next part deals with image registration with an overview of available methods and tools. A method of registration of pre-operation images obtained by MRI or scanner, and of intra-operation ultrasound images is proposed for a real-time registration. This method is aimed at supporting patient repositioning during prostate conformal radiotherapy

  2. A review of the recommendations governing quality assurance of ultrasound systems used for guidance in prostate brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Andrea Jane; King, Deirdre M; Browne, Jacinta E

    2017-12-01

    Ultrasound guided brachytherapy for the treatment of prostate cancer has become a routine treatment option, due to many benefits including patient recovery and dose localisation [1]; however it is not clear whether the standards which govern the image quality for these systems are adequate. Upon review of the recommended standards for ultrasound systems used in prostate brachytherapy procedures, the recommended tests do not appear to be specific to the clinical application of ultrasound guided prostate brachytherapy. Rather they are generic and similar to those recommended for other clinical applications such as general abdominal scanning [2]. Furthermore, there is growing evidence that these tests should be specific to the clinical application [3,4] in order to gain meaningful data about the performance of the system for the application, and also to detect clinically relevant changes in quality control results. An additional problem is that there are no clinically relevant test phantom recommended for the quality assurance of ultrasound systems used in prostate brachytherapy. The image quality for this application of ultrasound needs to be monitored to ensure consistent levels of confidence in the procedure. This paper reviews the currently recommended test guidelines and test phantoms for ultrasound systems used in prostate brachytherapy from the different standard bodies and professional organisations. A critical analysis of those tests which are most reflective of the imaging and guidance tasks undertaken in an ultrasound guided prostate brachytherapy procedure will also be presented to inform the design of a TRUS quality assurance protocol. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prostatic carcinoma. Diagnostic and stating: MR imaging. Cancer de la prostate Diagnostic et bilan: role de l'imagerie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, C; Spittler, G; Jacqmin, D [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 67 - Strasbourg (FR); Morel, M [Clinique Saint-Francois, 67 Haguenau (FR)

    1991-01-01

    Prostatic carcinoma is the second most commun cause of cancer death over 60 years. It is suspected by digital examination and prostatic specific antigen dosage. Transrectal ultrasound shows the tumor as an hypoechoic lesion. Sensitivity is good but specificity is low. Transrectal biopsy of prostate guided by transrectal ultrasound made the diagnosis. At present, MR Imaging is the most accurate diagnostic modality for loco-regional staging of prostatic carcinoma.

  4. Histoscanning and shear wave ultrasound elastography for prostate cancer diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Amosov

    2016-01-01

    morphological verification of postoperative material was made. In the 63 patients of the first and the second groups the contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the pelvic organs was made. In the health men’s group, besides the ultrasound shear wave elastography, only the routine diagnosis methods of the prostate cancer (PSA level, TRUS and DRE were used.Results. According to the results of our study, the threshold values for the normal prostate tissue stiffness due to the ultrasound shear wave elastography were from 0 to 23 kPa, for the hyperplastic prostate – from 23.4 to 50 kPa, for the prostate cancer – from 50.5 kPa. The data analysis of the 212 patients with the verified prostate cancer showed the increase of the mean degree of tissue stiffness due to the clinical stage and tumor differentiation (Gleason scale total score. All the patients were divided into the subgroups with the certain correlation values. In patients with the Gleason scale total score < 7, the mean degree of tissue stiffness was 72 kPa (n = 63. In 57 patients with the Gleason scale total score 7, the mean degree of tissue stiffness was 69 kPa. In 48 patients with the Gleason scale total score from 8 to 10, the tissue stiffness was averagely 119 kPa. The locally advanced stage Т3–4 was determined in 44 examined patients. The tissue stiffness value correlated with the tumor differentiation rate: the index variations were from 120 to 295 kPa. On the results of this method analysis, its resistance was 90,8 % and specificity was 94,6 %. According to the comparative assessment with the other examination technics, the informative value of the ultrasound shear wave elastography is far above the DRE, the doppler TRUS and the histoscanning, but is lower than the contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.Conclusion. In view of the above, the ultrasound shear wave elastography is a very informative method of the prostate cancer detection and it has a high rate of the agreement

  5. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... symptoms such as difficulty urinating or an elevated blood test result. It’s also used to investigate a nodule ... exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides real-time ...

  6. A comparison of complications between ultrasound-guided prostate brachytherapy and open prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoit, Ronald M.; Naslund, Michael J.; Cohen, Jeffrey K.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Prostate brachytherapy has reemerged during the 1990s as a treatment for clinically localized prostate cancer. The renewed popularity of prostate brachytherapy is largely due to the use of transrectal ultrasound of the prostate, which allows for more accurate isotope placement within the prostate when compared to the open approach. The present study investigates whether this improved cancer control is at the expense of increased morbidity by comparing the morbidity after transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate brachytherapy to the morbidity after prostate brachytherapy performed via an open approach. Methods and Materials: All men in the Medicare population who underwent prostate brachytherapy in the year 1991 were identified. These men were further stratified into those men who underwent prostate brachytherapy via an open approach and the men who underwent prostate brachytherapy with ultrasound guidance. All subsequent inpatient, outpatient, and physician (Part B) Medicare claims for these men from the years 1991-1993 were then analyzed to determine outcomes. Results: In the year 1991, 2124 men in the Medicare population underwent prostate brachytherapy. An open approach was used in 715 men (33.7%), and ultrasound guidance was used in 1409 men (66.3%). Mean age for both cohorts was 73.7 years with a range of 50.7-92.8 years for the ultrasound group and 60.6-92.1 years for the open group. A surgical procedure for the relief of bladder outlet obstruction was performed in 122 men (8.6%) in the ultrasound group and in 54 men (7.6%) in the open group. An artificial urinary sphincter was placed in 2 men (0.14%) in the ultrasound group and in 2 men (0.28%) in the open group. A penile prosthesis was implanted in 10 men (0.71%) in the ultrasound group and in 4 men (0.56%) in the open group. A diagnosis code for urinary incontinence was carried by 95 men (6.7%) in the ultrasound group and by 45 men (6.3%) in the open group. A diagnosis code for erectile dysfunction

  7. A deep learning approach for real time prostate segmentation in freehand ultrasound guided biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anas, Emran Mohammad Abu; Mousavi, Parvin; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2018-06-01

    Targeted prostate biopsy, incorporating multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) and its registration with ultrasound, is currently the state-of-the-art in prostate cancer diagnosis. The registration process in most targeted biopsy systems today relies heavily on accurate segmentation of ultrasound images. Automatic or semi-automatic segmentation is typically performed offline prior to the start of the biopsy procedure. In this paper, we present a deep neural network based real-time prostate segmentation technique during the biopsy procedure, hence paving the way for dynamic registration of mp-MRI and ultrasound data. In addition to using convolutional networks for extracting spatial features, the proposed approach employs recurrent networks to exploit the temporal information among a series of ultrasound images. One of the key contributions in the architecture is to use residual convolution in the recurrent networks to improve optimization. We also exploit recurrent connections within and across different layers of the deep networks to maximize the utilization of the temporal information. Furthermore, we perform dense and sparse sampling of the input ultrasound sequence to make the network robust to ultrasound artifacts. Our architecture is trained on 2,238 labeled transrectal ultrasound images, with an additional 637 and 1,017 unseen images used for validation and testing, respectively. We obtain a mean Dice similarity coefficient of 93%, a mean surface distance error of 1.10 mm and a mean Hausdorff distance error of 3.0 mm. A comparison of the reported results with those of a state-of-the-art technique indicates statistically significant improvement achieved by the proposed approach. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Toward a real-time system for temporal enhanced ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Shekoofeh; Van Woudenberg, Nathan; Sojoudi, Samira; Li, Ming; Xu, Sheng; Abu Anas, Emran M; Yan, Pingkun; Tahmasebi, Amir; Kwak, Jin Tae; Turkbey, Baris; Choyke, Peter; Pinto, Peter; Wood, Bradford; Mousavi, Parvin; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2018-03-27

    We have previously proposed temporal enhanced ultrasound (TeUS) as a new paradigm for tissue characterization. TeUS is based on analyzing a sequence of ultrasound data with deep learning and has been demonstrated to be successful for detection of cancer in ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy. Our aim is to enable the dissemination of this technology to the community for large-scale clinical validation. In this paper, we present a unified software framework demonstrating near-real-time analysis of ultrasound data stream using a deep learning solution. The system integrates ultrasound imaging hardware, visualization and a deep learning back-end to build an accessible, flexible and robust platform. A client-server approach is used in order to run computationally expensive algorithms in parallel. We demonstrate the efficacy of the framework using two applications as case studies. First, we show that prostate cancer detection using near-real-time analysis of RF and B-mode TeUS data and deep learning is feasible. Second, we present real-time segmentation of ultrasound prostate data using an integrated deep learning solution. The system is evaluated for cancer detection accuracy on ultrasound data obtained from a large clinical study with 255 biopsy cores from 157 subjects. It is further assessed with an independent dataset with 21 biopsy targets from six subjects. In the first study, we achieve area under the curve, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 0.94, 0.77, 0.94 and 0.92, respectively, for the detection of prostate cancer. In the second study, we achieve an AUC of 0.85. Our results suggest that TeUS-guided biopsy can be potentially effective for the detection of prostate cancer.

  9. Transurethral light delivery for prostate photoacoustic imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.; Guo, Xiaoyu; Song, Danny Y.; Boctor, Emad M.

    2015-01-01

    Photoacoustic imaging has broad clinical potential to enhance prostate cancer detection and treatment, yet it is challenged by the lack of minimally invasive, deeply penetrating light delivery methods that provide sufficient visualization of targets (e.g., tumors, contrast agents, brachytherapy seeds). We constructed a side-firing fiber prototype for transurethral photoacoustic imaging of prostates with a dual-array (linear and curvilinear) transrectal ultrasound probe. A method to calculate ...

  10. BrachyView: Combining LDR seed positions with transrectal ultrasound imaging in a prostate gel phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnaghy, S; Cutajar, D L; Bucci, J A; Enari, K; Safavi-Naeini, M; Favoino, M; Tartaglia, M; Carriero, F; Jakubek, J; Pospisil, S; Lerch, M; Rosenfeld, A B; Petasecca, M

    2017-02-01

    BrachyView is a novel in-body imaging system which aims to provide LDR brachytherapy seeds position reconstruction within the prostate in real-time. The first prototype is presented in this study: the probe consists of a gamma camera featuring three single cone pinhole collimators embedded in a tungsten tube, above three, high resolution pixelated detectors (Timepix). The prostate was imaged with a TRUS system using a sagittal crystal with a 2.5mm slice thickness. Eleven needles containing a total of thirty 0.508U 125 I seeds were implanted under ultrasound guidance. A CT scan was used to localise the seed positions, as well as provide a reference when performing the image co-registration between the BrachyView coordinate system and the TRUS coordinate system. An in-house visualisation software interface was developed to provide a quantitative 3D reconstructed prostate based on the TRUS images and co-registered with the LDR seeds in situ. A rigid body image registration was performed between the BrachyView and TRUS systems, with the BrachyView and CT-derived source locations compared. The reconstructed seed positions determined by the BrachyView probe showed a maximum discrepancy of 1.78mm, with 75% of the seeds reconstructed within 1mm of their nominal location. An accurate co-registration between the BrachyView and TRUS coordinate system was established. The BrachyView system has shown its ability to reconstruct all implanted LDR seeds within a tissue equivalent prostate gel phantom, providing both anatomical and seed position information in a single interface. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... guide biopsy of breast cancer ( see the Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy page . diagnose a variety of heart ... Articles and Media Angioplasty and Vascular Stenting Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Biopsies - Overview ...

  12. MR imaging of the prostate; MRT der Prostata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asbach, P.; Haas, M.; Hamm, B. [Charite Campus Benjamin Franklin, Klinik fuer Radiologie, Berlin (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Prostate cancer is the most common form of cancer in men in Germany; however, there is a distinct difference between incidence and mortality. The detection of prostate cancer is based on clinical and laboratory testing using serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and transrectal ultrasound with randomized biopsy. Multiparametric MR imaging of the prostate can provide valuable diagnostic information for detection of prostate cancer, especially after negative results of a biopsy prior to repeat biopsy. In addition the use of MR ultrasound fusion-guided biopsy has gained in diagnostic importance and has increased the prostate cancer detection rate. The prostate imaging reporting and data system (PI-RADS) classification has standardized the reporting of prostate MRI which has positively influenced the acceptance by urologists. (orig.) [German] Das Prostatakarzinom ist in Deutschland die haeufigste Krebserkrankung des Mannes, wobei ein deutlicher Unterschied zwischen Inzidenz und Mortalitaet besteht. Die Detektion des Prostatakarzinoms basiert auf klinischer und laborchemischer Untersuchung (prostataspezifisches-Antigen[PSA]-Wert) sowie der transrektalen Ultraschalluntersuchung mit randomisierter Biopsie. Die multiparametrische MR-Tomographie kann zur Detektion des Prostatakarzinoms, insbesondere bei negativer Biopsie vor einer erneuten Biopsie wertvolle diagnostische Informationen liefern. Zudem wird zunehmend die MRT-Ultraschall-Fusionsbiopsie in der Diagnostik eingesetzt, wodurch die Detektionsrate des Prostatakarzinoms deutlich gesteigert werden kann. Mit Einfuehrung der PI-RADS-Klassifikation (Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System) konnte zudem eine Standardisierung der Befundung erreicht werden, was die Akzeptanz der MRT der Prostata in der Urologie erhoeht hat. (orig.)

  13. Magnetic Resonance and Ultrasound Image Fusion Supported Transperineal Prostate Biopsy Using the Ginsburg Protocol: Technique, Learning Points, and Biopsy Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Nienke; Patruno, Giulio; Wadhwa, Karan; Gaziev, Gabriele; Miano, Roberto; Barrett, Tristan; Gnanapragasam, Vincent; Doble, Andrew; Warren, Anne; Bratt, Ola; Kastner, Christof

    2016-08-01

    Prostate biopsy supported by transperineal image fusion has recently been developed as a new method to the improve accuracy of prostate cancer detection. To describe the Ginsburg protocol for transperineal prostate biopsy supported by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) image fusion, provide learning points for its application, and report biopsy results. The article is supplemented by a Surgery in Motion video. This single-centre retrospective outcome study included 534 patients from March 2012 to October 2015. A total of 107 had no previous prostate biopsy, 295 had benign TRUS-guided biopsies, and 159 were on active surveillance for low-risk cancer. A Likert scale reported mpMRI for suspicion of cancer from 1 (no suspicion) to 5 (cancer highly likely). Transperineal biopsies were obtained under general anaesthesia using BiopSee fusion software (Medcom, Darmstadt, Germany). All patients had systematic biopsies, two cores from each of 12 anatomic sectors. Likert 3-5 lesions were targeted with a further two cores per lesion. Any cancer and Gleason score 7-10 cancer on biopsy were noted. Descriptive statistics and positive predictive values (PPVs) and negative predictive values (NPVs) were calculated. The detection rate of Gleason score 7-10 cancer was similar across clinical groups. Likert scale 3-5 MRI lesions were reported in 378 (71%) of the patients. Cancer was detected in 249 (66%) and Gleason score 7-10 cancer was noted in 157 (42%) of these patients. PPV for detecting 7-10 cancer was 0.15 for Likert score 3, 0.43 for score 4, and 0.63 for score 5. NPV of Likert 1-2 findings was 0.87 for Gleason score 7-10 and 0.97 for Gleason score ≥4+3=7 cancer. Limitations include lack of data on complications. Transperineal prostate biopsy supported by MRI/TRUS image fusion using the Ginsburg protocol yielded high detection rates of Gleason score 7-10 cancer. Because the NPV for excluding Gleason score 7-10 cancer was very

  14. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... about radiology? Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery Radiologist and patient consultation. View full size with caption Related Articles and Media Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) (Enlargement of the Prostate) ...

  15. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... Radiation Therapy for Gynecologic Cancers Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page This page was reviewed on ... Abdomen Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Kidney and Bladder Stones Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding ... Images related to Ultrasound - Pelvis Sponsored by Please ...

  16. Imaging of implant needles for real-time HDR-brachytherapy prostate treatment using biplane ultrasound transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Frank-André; Hirt, Markus; Niehoff, Peter; Kovács, György

    2009-08-01

    Ultrasound imaging is becoming increasingly important in prostate brachytherapy. In high-dose-rate (HDR) real-time planning procedures the definition of the implant needles is often performed by transrectal ultrasound. This article describes absolute measurements of the visibility and accuracy of manual detection of implant needle tips and compares measurement results of different biplane ultrasound systems in transversal and longitudinal (i.e., sagittal) ultrasound modes. To obtain a fixed coordinate system and stable conditions the measurements were carried out in a water tank using a dedicated marker system. Needles were manually placed in the phantom until the observer decided by the real-time ultrasound image that the zero position was reached. A comparison of three different ultrasound systems yielded an offset between 0.8 and 3.1 mm for manual detection of the needle tip in ultrasound images by one observer. The direction of the offset was discovered to be in the proximal direction, i.e., the actual needle position was located more distally compared to the ultrasound-based definition. In the second part of the study, the ultrasound anisotropy of trocar implant needles is reported. It was shown that the integrated optical density in a region of interest around the needle tip changes with needle rotation. Three peaks were observed with a phase angle of 120 degrees. Peaks appear not only in transversal but also in longitudinal ultrasound images, with a phase shift of 60 degrees. The third section of this study shows results of observer dependent influences on needle tip detection in sagittal ultrasound images considering needle rotation. These experiments were carried out using the marker system in a water tank. The needle tip was placed exactly at the position z=0 mm. It was found that different users tend to differently interpret the same ultrasound images. The needle tip was manually detected five times in the ultrasound images by three experienced observers

  17. Effect of Prostate Magnetic Resonance Imaging/Ultrasound Fusion-guided Biopsy on Radiation Treatment Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Aaron; Valle, Luca F.; Shankavaram, Uma; Krauze, Andra; Kaushal, Aradhana; Schott, Erica; Cooley-Zgela, Theresa [Radiation Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Wood, Bradford [Center for Interventional Oncology, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Pinto, Peter [Urologic Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Choyke, Peter; Turkbey, Baris [Molecular Imaging Program, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Citrin, Deborah E., E-mail: citrind@mail.nih.gov [Radiation Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Purpose: Targeted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/ultrasound fusion prostate biopsy (MRI-Bx) has recently been compared with the standard of care extended sextant ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (SOC-Bx), with the former associated with an increased rate of detection of clinically significant prostate cancer. The present study sought to determine the influence of MRI-Bx on radiation therapy and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) recommendations. Methods and Materials: All patients who had received radiation treatment and had undergone SOC-Bx and MRI-Bx at our institution were included. Using the clinical T stage, pretreatment prostate-specific antigen, and Gleason score, patients were categorized into National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk groups and radiation treatment or ADT recommendations assigned. Intensification of the recommended treatment after multiparametric MRI, SOC-Bx, and MRI-Bx was evaluated. Results: From January 2008 to January 2016, 73 patients received radiation therapy at our institution after undergoing a simultaneous SOC-Bx and MRI-Bx (n=47 with previous SOC-Bx). Repeat SOC-Bx and MRI-Bx resulted in frequent upgrading compared with previous SOC-Bx (Gleason score 7, 6.7% vs 44.6%; P<.001; Gleason score 8-10, 2.1% vs 38%; P<.001). MRI-Bx increased the proportion of patients classified as very high risk from 24.7% to 41.1% (P=.027). Compared with SOC-Bx alone, including the MRI-Bx findings resulted in a greater percentage of pathologically positive cores (mean 37% vs 44%). Incorporation of multiparametric MRI and MRI-Bx results increased the recommended use and duration of ADT (duration increased in 28 of 73 patients and ADT was added for 8 of 73 patients). Conclusions: In patients referred for radiation treatment, MRI-Bx resulted in an increase in the percentage of positive cores, Gleason score, and risk grouping. The benefit of treatment intensification in accordance with the MRI-Bx findings is unknown.

  18. Short-lag spatial coherence beamforming of photoacoustic images for enhanced visualization of prostate brachytherapy seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.; Kuo, Nathanael; Song, Danny Y.; Boctor, Emad M.

    2013-01-01

    Prostate brachytherapy, administered by implanting tiny radioactive seeds to treat prostate cancer, currently relies on transrectal ultrasound imaging for intraoperative visualization of the metallic seeds. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging has been suggested as a feasible alternative to ultrasound imaging due to its superior sensitivity to metal surrounded by tissue. However, PA images suffer from poor contrast when seeds are distant from the light source. We propose a transperineal light delivery ...

  19. Fast prostate segmentation for brachytherapy based on joint fusion of images and labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouranian, Saman; Ramezani, Mahdi; Mahdavi, S. Sara; Spadinger, Ingrid; Morris, William J.; Salcudean, Septimiu E.; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2014-03-01

    Brachytherapy as one of the treatment methods for prostate cancer takes place by implantation of radioactive seeds inside the gland. The standard of care for this treatment procedure is to acquire transrectal ultrasound images of the prostate which are segmented in order to plan the appropriate seed placement. The segmentation process is usually performed either manually or semi-automatically and is associated with subjective errors because the prostate visibility is limited in ultrasound images. The current segmentation process also limits the possibility of intra-operative delineation of the prostate to perform real-time dosimetry. In this paper, we propose a computationally inexpensive and fully automatic segmentation approach that takes advantage of previously segmented images to form a joint space of images and their segmentations. We utilize joint Independent Component Analysis method to generate a model which is further employed to produce a probability map of the target segmentation. We evaluate this approach on the transrectal ultrasound volume images of 60 patients using a leave-one-out cross-validation approach. The results are compared with the manually segmented prostate contours that were used by clinicians to plan brachytherapy procedures. We show that the proposed approach is fast with comparable accuracy and precision to those found in previous studies on TRUS segmentation.

  20. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durmus, T.; Baur, A.; Hamm, B.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men, but only about 10 % of patients die from that cancer. Recent studies suggest that not all patients benefit from a radical therapeutic approach. When prostate cancer is suspected, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can make an important contribution to cancer localization within the prostate. Many studies show that T2-weighted morphologic imaging should be supplemented by multiparametric MRI techniques including diffusion-weighted imaging, contrast-enhanced sequences, and MR spectroscopy. This approach detects aggressive prostate cancer with high sensitivity and specificity. The findings of multiparametric MRI additionally contribute information to the assessment of cancer aggressiveness. The use of these multiparametric MRI techniques will gain an increasing role in the clinical management of prostate cancer patients. They can help in establishing a definitive diagnosis with a minimum of invasiveness and may also contribute to optimal individualized treatment. This review article presents the different techniques of multiparametric MRI and discusses their contribution to the detection of prostate cancer. Moreover, this review outlines an objective approach to image interpretation and structured reporting of MRI findings using the PI-RADS criteria. The review concludes with an outline of approaches to prostate biopsy on the basis of MRI (transrectal ultrasound, direct MRI guidance of tissue sampling, and MRI-ultrasound fusion biopsy) and emerging future uses of MRI in the planning of focal treatment options and in the active surveillance of patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. (orig.)

  1. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... to-use and less expensive than other imaging methods. Ultrasound imaging uses no ionizing radiation. Ultrasound scanning ... radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does ...

  2. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of the body's ... Because ultrasound provides real-time images, it also can be used to guide procedures such as needle ...

  3. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of ... test result. difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides real-time images, it also can be used to guide ...

  4. [Ultrasound physiotherapy treatment of prostatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talberg, P I; Andryukhin, M I; Mazina, S E; Nikolaev, A L

    2016-12-01

    Develop a method of treatment of prostatitis based on the use of a standard antibiotic, immunomodulatory therapy, and transrectal ultrasound physiotherapy. The dynamics of the accumulation of the antibiotic was investigated in male rats. Sonication was performed immediately before the administration of the antibiotic and its accumulation in the process at 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 min after dosing. The clinical study included 138 patients with chronic prostatitis. Patients of the experimental group, in addition to standard therapy, 10 sessions of transrectal ultrasound physical therapy was performed. The efficacy of treatment was assessed after 14 and 28 days after initiation. and its discussion. Experiments on laboratory animals have shown that the highest concentration and the residence time of antibiotic in the prostate tissue is noted ultrasonic treatment in the period of maximum blood concentration of the test drug. The data obtained allow to determine that the ultrasonic treatment must be performed considering the pharmacokinetics of the antibiotic. In conducting clinical trials on day 14 of treatment and clinical manifestations of prostatitis bacterial microflora in prostatic secretions were no patients in both groups. In 15% of patients of the experimental group the number of leukocytes decreased to the normal range. After 28 days the amount of leukocytes was normal in 51% of patients in the control and 85% in the experimental group. In animal experiments defined the optimal time interval separating the moment of injection of the antibiotic from the beginning of sonication. Clinical studies have shown that the transrectal ultrasound exposure during the period of maximum concentration of the antibiotic in the blood, improves patient outcomes by 33.8%.

  5. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of ... blood test result. difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides real-time images, it also can be used to guide ...

  6. In vivo optoacoustic temperature imaging for image-guided cryotherapy of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, E. V.; Brecht, H. P.; Motamedi, M.; Oraevsky, A. A.; Ermilov, S. A.

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study is to demonstrate in vivo the feasibility of optoacoustic temperature imaging during cryotherapy of prostate cancer. We developed a preclinical prototype optoacoustic temperature imager that included pulsed optical excitation at a wavelength of 805 nm, a modified clinical transrectal ultrasound probe, a parallel data acquisition system, image processing and visualization software. Cryotherapy of a canine prostate was performed in vivo using a commercial clinical system, Cryocare® CS, with an integrated ultrasound imaging. The universal temperature-dependent optoacoustic response of blood was employed to convert reconstructed optoacoustic images to temperature maps. Optoacoustic imaging of temperature during prostate cryotherapy was performed in the longitudinal view over a region of 30 mm (long)  ×  10 mm (deep) that covered the rectum, the Denonvilliers fascia, and the posterior portion of the treated gland. The transrectal optoacoustic images showed high-contrast vascularized regions, which were used for quantitative estimation of local temperature profiles. The constructed temperature maps and their temporal dynamics were consistent with the arrangement of the cryoprobe and readouts of the thermal needle sensors. The temporal profiles of the readouts from the thermal needle sensors and the temporal profile estimated from the normalized optoacoustic intensity of the selected vascularized region showed significant resemblance, except for the initial overshoot, that may be explained as a result of the physiological thermoregulatory compensation. The temperature was mapped with errors not exceeding  ±2 °C (standard deviation) consistent with the clinical requirements for monitoring cryotherapy of the prostate. In vivo results showed that the optoacoustic temperature imaging is a promising non-invasive technique for real-time imaging of tissue temperature during cryotherapy of prostate cancer, which can be combined

  7. Characterization of ultrasound elevation beamwidth artifacts for prostate brachytherapy needle insertion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peikari, Mohammad; Chen, Thomas Kuriran; Lasso, Anras; Heffter, Tamas; Fichtinger, Gabor; Burdette, Everette C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Ultrasound elevation beamwidth leads to image artifacts and uncertainties in localizing objects (such as a surgical needle) in ultrasound images. The authors examined the clinical significance of errors caused by elevation beamwidth artifacts and imaging parameters in needle insertion procedures. Methods: Beveled prostate brachytherapy needles were inserted through all holes of a grid template under real-time transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guidance. The needle tip position as indicated by the TRUS image was compared to their observed physical location. A new device was developed to measure the ultrasound elevation beamwidth. Results: Imaging parameters of the TRUS scanner have direct impact on the localization error ranging from 0.5 up to 4 mm. The smallest localization error was observed laterally close to the center of the grid template and axially within the beam's focal zone. Largest localization error occurs laterally around both sides of the grid template and axially within the beam's far field. The authors also found that the localization errors vary with both lateral and elevation offsets. Conclusions: The authors found properly adjusting the TRUS imaging settings to lower the ultrasound gain and power effectively minimized the appearance of elevation beamwidth artifacts and in turn reduced the localization errors of the needle tip.

  8. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound - Abdomen Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Kidney and Bladder Stones Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding Ovarian Cancer Images related to Ultrasound - Pelvis Sponsored by Please ...

  9. Online Image-based Monitoring of Soft-tissue Displacements for Radiation Therapy of the Prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, Jeffrey; Salisbury, Kenneth; Hristov, Dimitre

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Emerging prolonged, hypofractionated radiotherapy regimens rely on high-dose conformality to minimize toxicity and thus can benefit from image guidance systems that continuously monitor target position during beam delivery. To address this need we previously developed, as a potential add-on device for existing linear accelerators, a novel telerobotic ultrasound system capable of real-time, soft-tissue imaging. Expanding on this capability, the aim of this work was to develop and characterize an image-based technique for real-time detection of prostate displacements. Methods and Materials: Image processing techniques were implemented on spatially localized ultrasound images to generate two parameters representing prostate displacements in real time. In a phantom and five volunteers, soft-tissue targets were continuously imaged with a customized robotic manipulator while recording the two tissue displacement parameters (TDPs). Variations of the TDPs in the absence of tissue displacements were evaluated, as was the sensitivity of the TDPs to prostate translations and rotations. Robustness of the approach to probe force was also investigated. Results: With 95% confidence, the proposed method detected in vivo prostate displacements before they exceeded 2.3, 2.5, and 2.8 mm in anteroposterior, superoinferior, and mediolateral directions. Prostate pitch was detected before exceeding 4.7° at 95% confidence. Total system time lag averaged 173 ms, mostly limited by ultrasound acquisition rate. False positives (FPs) (FP) in the absence of displacements did not exceed 1.5 FP events per 10 min of continuous in vivo imaging time. Conclusions: The feasibility of using telerobotic ultrasound for real-time, soft-tissue–based monitoring of target displacements was confirmed in vivo. Such monitoring has the potential to detect small clinically relevant intrafractional variations of the prostate position during beam delivery.

  10. Prostate Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be able to give a clearer picture of soft tissues that do not show up well on x-ray images. Ultrasound causes no health problems and may be repeated as often as is necessary if medically indicated. Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding ...

  11. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the best way to see if treatment is working or if a finding is stable or changed over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Ultrasound is widely available, easy-to-use and less expensive than other imaging methods. Ultrasound imaging uses ...

  12. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Kidney and Bladder Stones Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding Ovarian Cancer Images related to Ultrasound - Pelvis Sponsored by Please ...

  13. The standards of an ultrasound examination of the prostate gland. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz F. Tyloch

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the rules of the proper performing of the ultrasound examination of the prostate gland. It has been divided into two parts: the general part and the detailed part. The first part presents the necessary requirements related to the ultrasound equipment needed for performing transabdominal and transrectal examinations of the prostate gland. The second part presents the application of the ultrasound examination in benign prostatic hyperplasia, in cases of prostate inflammation and in prostate cancer. Ultrasound examinations applied in the diagnostics of benign prostatic hyperplasia accelerated the diagnosis, facilitated the qualification to surgery and the selection of the treatment method. The assessment of the size of the prostate gland performed using the endorectal ultrasound examination is helpful in making the choice between transurethral electroresection and adenomectomy. In prostate inflammation this examination should be performed with particular gentleness due to pain ailments. The indication for performing the examination in acute inflammation is the suspicion of prostate abscess. In chronic, exacerbating prostatitis it is possible to perform an intraprostatic antibiotic injection. In the recent years increased morbidity and detectability of prostate gland cancer is observed among men. In Poland it ranks second (13% among diseases occurring in men. The indication for an endorectal examination is the necessity to assess the size of the prostate gland, its configuration, the echostructure in classical ultrasonography, the vascularization in an ultrasound examination performed with power doppler and, if possible, the differences in the gland tissue firmness (consistency in elastography. The ultrasound examination is used for performing the mapping biopsy of the prostate gland – from routine, strictly defined locations, the targeted biopsy – from locations suspected of neoplastic proliferation and the staging biopsy

  14. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be able to give a clearer picture of soft tissues that do not show up well on x-ray images. Ultrasound causes no health problems and may be repeated as often as is necessary if medically indicated. Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding ...

  15. First-in-Human Ultrasound Molecular Imaging With a VEGFR2-Specific Ultrasound Molecular Contrast Agent (BR55) in Prostate Cancer: A Safety and Feasibility Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeenge, Martijn; Tranquart, François; Mannaerts, Christophe K; de Reijke, Theo M; van de Vijver, Marc J; Laguna, M Pilar; Pochon, Sibylle; de la Rosette, Jean J M C H; Wijkstra, Hessel

    2017-07-01

    BR55, a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2)-specific ultrasound molecular contrast agent (MCA), has shown promising results in multiple preclinical models regarding cancer imaging. In this first-in-human, phase 0, exploratory study, we investigated the feasibility and safety of the MCA for the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) in men using clinical standard technology. Imaging with the MCA was performed in 24 patients with biopsy-proven PCa scheduled for radical prostatectomy using a clinical ultrasound scanner at low acoustic power. Safety monitoring was done by physical examination, blood pressure and heart rate measurements, electrocardiogram, and blood sampling. As first-in-human study, MCA dosing and imaging protocol were necessarily fine-tuned along the enrollment to improve visualization. Imaging data were correlated with radical prostatectomy histopathology to analyze the detection rate of ultrasound molecular imaging with the MCA. Imaging with MCA doses of 0.03 and 0.05 mL/kg was adequate to obtain contrast enhancement images up to 30 minutes after administration. No serious adverse events or clinically meaningful changes in safety monitoring data were identified during or after administration. BR55 dosing and imaging were fine-tuned in the first 12 patients leading to 12 subsequent patients with an improved MCA dosing and imaging protocol. Twenty-three patients underwent radical prostatectomy. A total of 52 lesions were determined to be malignant by histopathology with 26 (50%) of them seen during BR55 imaging. In the 11 patients that were scanned with the improved protocol and underwent radical prostatectomy, a total of 28 malignant lesions were determined: 19 (68%) were seen during BR55 ultrasound molecular imaging, whereas 9 (32%) were not identified. Ultrasound molecular imaging with BR55 is feasible with clinical standard technology and demonstrated a good safety profile. Detectable levels of the MCA can be reached in patients

  16. Biomechanical modeling constrained surface-based image registration for prostate MR guided TRUS biopsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, W.J.M. van de; Hu, Y.; Barentsz, J.O.; Karssemeijer, N.; Barratt, D.; Huisman, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Adding magnetic resonance (MR)-derived information to standard transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images for guiding prostate biopsy is of substantial clinical interest. A tumor visible on MR images can be projected on ultrasound (US) by using MR-US registration. A common approach is to use surface-based

  17. SU-G-JeP1-09: Evaluation of Transperineal Ultrasound Imaging as a Potential Solution for Target Tracking During Ablative Body Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najafi, M; Han, B; Hancock, S; Hristov, D [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Cooper, D [Elekta Inc., Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Prostate SABR is emerging as a clinically viable, potentially cost effective alternative to prostate IMRT but its adoption is contingent on providing solutions for accurate tracking during beam delivery. Our goal is to evaluate the performance of the Clarity Autoscan ultrasound monitoring system for inter-fractional prostate motion tracking in both phantoms and in-vivo. Methods: In-vivo evaluation was performed under IRB protocol to allow data collection in prostate patients treated with VMAT whereby prostate was imaged through the acoustic window of the perineum. The probe was placed before KV imaging and real-time tracking was started and continued until the end of treatment. Initial absolute 3D positions of fiducials were estimated from KV images. Fiducial positions in MV images subsequently acquired during beam delivery were compared with predicted positions based on Clarity estimated motion. Results: Phantom studies with motion amplitudes of ±1.5, ±3, ±6 mm in lateral direction and ±2 mm in longitudinal direction resulted in tracking errors of −0.03 ± 0.3, −0.04 ± 0.6, −0.2 ± 0.9 mm, respectively, in lateral direction and −0.05 ± 0.30 mm in longitudinal direction. In phantom, measured and predicted fiducial positions in MV images were within 0.1 ± 0.6 mm. Four patients consented to participate in the study and data was acquired over a total of 140 fractions. MV imaging tracking was possible in about 75% of the time (due to occlusion of fiducials) compared to 100% with Clarity. Overall range of estimated motion by Clarity was 0 to 4.0 mm. In-vivo fiducial localization error was 1.2 ± 1.0 mm compared to 1.8 ± 1.9 mm if not taking Clarity estimated motion into account. Conclusion: Real-time transperineal ultrasound tracking reduces uncertainty in prostate position due to intrafractional motion. Research was supported by Elekta.

  18. Prostate cancer multi-feature analysis using trans-rectal ultrasound images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, S S; Salama, M M A; Kamel, M; El-Saadany, E F; Rizkalla, K; Chin, J

    2005-01-01

    This note focuses on extracting and analysing prostate texture features from trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) images for tissue characterization. One of the principal contributions of this investigation is the use of the information of the images' frequency domain features and spatial domain features to attain a more accurate diagnosis. Each image is divided into regions of interest (ROIs) by the Gabor multi-resolution analysis, a crucial stage, in which segmentation is achieved according to the frequency response of the image pixels. The pixels with a similar response to the same filter are grouped to form one ROI. Next, from each ROI two different statistical feature sets are constructed; the first set includes four grey level dependence matrix (GLDM) features and the second set consists of five grey level difference vector (GLDV) features. These constructed feature sets are then ranked by the mutual information feature selection (MIFS) algorithm. Here, the features that provide the maximum mutual information of each feature and class (cancerous and non-cancerous) and the minimum mutual information of the selected features are chosen, yeilding a reduced feature subset. The two constructed feature sets, GLDM and GLDV, as well as the reduced feature subset, are examined in terms of three different classifiers: the condensed k-nearest neighbour (CNN), the decision tree (DT) and the support vector machine (SVM). The accuracy classification results range from 87.5% to 93.75%, where the performance of the SVM and that of the DT are significantly better than the performance of the CNN. (note)

  19. Imaging and intervention in prostate cancer: Current perspectives and future trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the commonest malignancy in men that causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Screening by digital rectal examination (DRE and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA is used despite its limitations. Gray-scale transrectal ultrasound (TRUS, used to guide multiple random prostatic biopsies, misses up to 20% cancers and frequently underestimates the grade of malignancy. Increasing the number of biopsy cores marginally increases the yield. Evolving techniques of real-time ultrasound elastography (RTE and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS are being investigated to better detect and improve the yield by allowing "targeted" biopsies. Last decade has witnessed rapid developments in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI for improved management of prostate cancer. In addition to the anatomical information, it is capable of providing functional information through diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS, and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE MRI. Multi-parametric MRI has the potential to exclude a significant cancer in majority of cases. Inclusion of MRI before prostatic biopsy can reduce the invasiveness of the procedure by limiting the number of cores needed to make a diagnosis and support watchful waiting in others. It is made possible by targeted biopsies as opposed to random. With the availability of minimally invasive therapeutic modalities like high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU and interstitial laser therapy, detecting early cancer is even more relevant today. [18F]--fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ( 18 FDG PET/CT has no role in the initial evaluation of prostate cancer. Choline PET has been recently found to be more useful. Fluoride-PET has a higher sensitivity and resolution than a conventional radionuclide bone scan in detecting skeletal metastases.

  20. Fused-data transrectal EIT for prostate cancer imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Ethan K; Wu, Xiaotian; Halter, Ryan J

    2018-05-25

    Prostate cancer is a significant problem affecting 1 in 7 men. Unfortunately, the diagnostic gold-standard of ultrasound-guided biopsy misses 10%-30% of all cancers. The objective of this study was to develop an electrical impedance tomography (EIT) approach that has the potential to image the entire prostate using multiple impedance measurements recorded between electrodes integrated onto an end-fired transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) device and a biopsy probe (BP). Simulations and sensitivity analyses were used to investigate the best combination of electrodes, and measured tank experiments were used to evaluate a fused-data transrectal EIT (fd-TREIT) and BP approach. Simulations and sensitivity analysis revealed that (1) TREIT measurements are not sufficiently sensitive to image the whole prostate, (2) the combination of TREIT  +  BP measurements increases the sensitive region of TREIT-only measurements by 12×, and (3) the fusion of multiple TREIT  +  BP measurements collected during a routine or customized 12-core biopsy procedure can cover up to 76.1% or 94.1% of a nominal 50 cm 3 prostate, respectively. Three measured tank experiments of the fd-TREIT  +  BP approach successfully and accurately recovered the positions of 2-3 metal or plastic inclusions. The measured tank experiments represent important steps in the development of an algorithm that can combine EIT from multiple locations and from multiple probes-data that could be collected during a routine TRUS-guided 12-core biopsy. Overall, this result is a step towards a clinically deployable impedance imaging approach to scanning the entire prostate, which could significantly help to improve prostate cancer diagnosis.

  1. Results of vardenafil mediated power Doppler ultrasound, contrast enhanced ultrasound and systematic random biopsies to detect prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Girolamo; Pagni, Riccardo; Mariani, Chiara; Minervini, Riccardo; Morelli, Andrea; Gori, Francesco; Ferdeghini, Ezio Maria; Paterni, Marco; Mauro, Eva; Guidi, Elisa; Armillotta, Nicola; Canale, Domenico; Vitti, Paolo; Caramella, Davide; Minervini, Andrea

    2011-06-01

    We evaluated the ability of the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor vardenafil to increase prostate microcirculation during power Doppler ultrasound. We also evaluated the results of contrast and vardenafil enhanced targeted biopsies compared to those of standard 12-core random biopsies to detect cancer. Between May 2008 and January 2010, 150 consecutive patients with prostate specific antigen more than 4 ng/ml at first diagnosis with negative digital rectal examination and transrectal ultrasound, and no clinical history of prostatitis underwent contrast enhanced power Doppler ultrasound (bolus injection of 2.4 ml SonoVue® contrast agent), followed by vardenafil enhanced power Doppler ultrasound (1 hour after oral administration of vardenafil 20 mg). All patients underwent standard 12-core transrectal ultrasound guided random prostate biopsy plus 1 further sampling from each suspected hypervascular lesion detected by contrast and vardenafil enhanced power Doppler ultrasound. Prostate cancer was detected in 44 patients (29.3%). Contrast and vardenafil enhanced power Doppler ultrasound detected suspicious, contrast enhanced and vardenafil enhanced areas in 112 (74.6%) and 110 patients (73.3%), and was diagnostic for cancer in 32 (28.5%) and 42 (38%), respectively. Analysis of standard technique, and contrast and vardenafil enhanced power Doppler ultrasound findings by biopsy core showed significantly higher detection using vardenafil vs contrast enhanced power Doppler ultrasound and standard technique (41.2% vs 22.7% and 8.1%, p power Doppler ultrasound was 10% and 11.7% (p not significant). Vardenafil enhanced power Doppler ultrasound enables excellent visualization of the microvasculature associated with cancer and can improve the detection rate compared to contrast enhanced power Doppler ultrasound and the random technique. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. SU-E-J-135: An Investigation of Ultrasound Imaging for 3D Intra-Fraction Prostate Motion Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shea, T; Harris, E; Bamber, J [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton, Greater London (United Kingdom); Evans, P [Centre for Vision, Speech and Signal Processing, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: This study investigates the use of a mechanically swept 3D ultrasound (US) probe to estimate intra-fraction motion of the prostate during radiation therapy using an US phantom and simulated transperineal imaging. Methods: A 3D motion platform was used to translate an US speckle phantom while simulating transperineal US imaging. Motion patterns for five representative types of prostate motion, generated from patient data previously acquired with a Calypso system, were using to move the phantom in 3D. The phantom was also implanted with fiducial markers and subsequently tracked using the CyberKnife kV x-ray system for comparison. A normalised cross correlation block matching algorithm was used to track speckle patterns in 3D and 2D US data. Motion estimation results were compared with known phantom translations. Results: Transperineal 3D US could track superior-inferior (axial) and anterior-posterior (lateral) motion to better than 0.8 mm root-mean-square error (RMSE) at a volume rate of 1.7 Hz (comparable with kV x-ray tracking RMSE). Motion estimation accuracy was poorest along the US probe's swept axis (right-left; RL; RMSE < 4.2 mm) but simple regularisation methods could be used to improve RMSE (< 2 mm). 2D US was found to be feasible for slowly varying motion (RMSE < 0.5 mm). 3D US could also allow accurate radiation beam gating with displacement thresholds of 2 mm and 5 mm exhibiting a RMSE of less than 0.5 mm. Conclusion: 2D and 3D US speckle tracking is feasible for prostate motion estimation during radiation delivery. Since RL prostate motion is small in magnitude and frequency, 2D or a hybrid (2D/3D) US imaging approach which also accounts for potential prostate rotations could be used. Regularisation methods could be used to ensure the accuracy of tracking data, making US a feasible approach for gating or tracking in standard or hypo-fractionated prostate treatments.

  3. Poster — Thur Eve — 77: Implanted Brachythearpy Seed Movement due to Transrectal Ultrasound Probe-Induced Prostate Deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, D; Usmani, N; Sloboda, R; Meyer, T; Husain, S; Angyalfi, S; Kay, I

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the movement of implanted brachytherapy seeds upon transrectal US probe removal, providing insight into the underlying prostate deformation and an estimate of the impact on prostate dosimetry. Implanted seed distributions, one obtained with the prostate under probe compression and another with the probe removed, were reconstructed using C-arm fluoroscopy imaging. The prostate, delineated on ultrasound images, was registered to the fluoroscopy images using seeds and needle tracks identified on ultrasound. A deformation tensor and shearing model was developed to correlate probe-induced seed movement with position. Changes in prostate TG-43 dosimetry were calculated. The model was used to infer the underlying prostate deformation and to estimate the location of the prostate surface in the absence of probe compression. Seed movement patterns upon probe removal reflected elastic decompression, lateral shearing, and rectal bending. Elastic decompression was characterized by expansion in the anterior-posterior direction and contraction in the superior-inferior and lateral directions. Lateral shearing resulted in large anterior movement for extra-prostatic seeds in the lateral peripheral region. Whole prostate D90 increased up to 8 Gy, mainly due to the small but systematic seed movement associated with elastic decompression. For selected patients, lateral shearing movement increased prostate D90 by 4 Gy, due to increased dose coverage in the anterior-lateral region at the expense of the posterior-lateral region. The effect of shearing movement on whole prostate D90 was small compared to elastic decompression due to the subset of peripheral seeds involved, but is expected to have greater consequences for local dose coverage

  4. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... those sound waves to create an image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in ... abnormal masses, such as tumors. In an ultrasound examination, a transducer both sends the sound waves into ...

  5. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and produces pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound ... from the probe through the gel into the body. The transducer collects the sounds that bounce back ...

  6. Poster - 09: A MATLAB-based Program for Automated Quality Assurance of a Prostate Brachytherapy Ultrasound System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poon, Justin; Sabondjian, Eric; Sankreacha, Raxa [University of British Columbia, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Trillium Health Partners – Credit Valley Hospital, Peel Regional Cancer Centre, Mississauga, ON, Trillium Health Partners – Credit Valley Hospital, Peel Regional Cancer Centre, Mississauga, ON, Trillium Health Partners – Credit Valley Hospital, Peel Regional Cancer Centre, Mississauga, ON (Canada); University of Toronto, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: A robust Quality Assurance (QA) program is essential for prostate brachytherapy ultrasound systems due to the importance of imaging accuracy during treatment and planning. Task Group 128 of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine has recommended a set of QA tests covering grayscale visibility, depth of penetration, axial and lateral resolution, distance measurement, area measurement, volume measurement, and template/electronic grid alignment. Making manual measurements on the ultrasound system can be slow and inaccurate, so a MATLAB program was developed for automation of the described tests. Methods: Test images were acquired using a BK Medical Flex Focus 400 ultrasound scanner and 8848 transducer with the CIRS Brachytherapy QA Phantom – Model 045A. For each test, the program automatically segments the inputted image(s), makes the appropriate measurements, and indicates if the test passed or failed. The program was tested by analyzing two sets of images, where the measurements from the first set were used as baseline values. Results: The program successfully analyzed the images for each test and determined if any action limits were exceeded. All tests passed – the measurements made by the program were consistent and met the requirements outlined by Task Group 128. Conclusions: The MATLAB program we have developed can be used for automated QA of an ultrasound system for prostate brachytherapy. The GUI provides a user-friendly way to analyze images without the need for any manual measurement, potentially removing intra- and inter-user variability for more consistent results.

  7. Poster - 09: A MATLAB-based Program for Automated Quality Assurance of a Prostate Brachytherapy Ultrasound System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poon, Justin; Sabondjian, Eric; Sankreacha, Raxa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: A robust Quality Assurance (QA) program is essential for prostate brachytherapy ultrasound systems due to the importance of imaging accuracy during treatment and planning. Task Group 128 of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine has recommended a set of QA tests covering grayscale visibility, depth of penetration, axial and lateral resolution, distance measurement, area measurement, volume measurement, and template/electronic grid alignment. Making manual measurements on the ultrasound system can be slow and inaccurate, so a MATLAB program was developed for automation of the described tests. Methods: Test images were acquired using a BK Medical Flex Focus 400 ultrasound scanner and 8848 transducer with the CIRS Brachytherapy QA Phantom – Model 045A. For each test, the program automatically segments the inputted image(s), makes the appropriate measurements, and indicates if the test passed or failed. The program was tested by analyzing two sets of images, where the measurements from the first set were used as baseline values. Results: The program successfully analyzed the images for each test and determined if any action limits were exceeded. All tests passed – the measurements made by the program were consistent and met the requirements outlined by Task Group 128. Conclusions: The MATLAB program we have developed can be used for automated QA of an ultrasound system for prostate brachytherapy. The GUI provides a user-friendly way to analyze images without the need for any manual measurement, potentially removing intra- and inter-user variability for more consistent results.

  8. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... endometrial polyps fibroids cancer, especially in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding Some physicians also use 3-D ultrasound or ... Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Kidney and Bladder Stones Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding Ovarian Cancer Images related to Ultrasound - Pelvis Sponsored ...

  9. Magnitude of speed of sound aberration corrections for ultrasound image guided radiotherapy for prostate and other anatomical sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontanarosa, Davide; Meer, Skadi van der; Bloemen-van Gurp, Esther; Stroian, Gabriela; Verhaegen, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to assess the magnitude of speed of sound (SOS) aberrations in three-dimensional ultrasound (US) imaging systems in image guided radiotherapy. The discrepancy between the fixed SOS value of 1540 m/s assumed by US systems in human soft tissues and its actual nonhomogeneous distribution in patients produces small but systematic errors of up to a few millimeters in the positions of scanned structures. Methods: A correction, provided by a previously published density-based algorithm, was applied to a set of five prostate, five liver, and five breast cancer patients. The shifts of the centroids of target structures and the change in shape were evaluated. Results: After the correction the prostate cases showed shifts up to 3.6 mm toward the US probe, which may explain largely the reported positioning discrepancies in the literature on US systems versus other imaging modalities. Liver cases showed the largest changes in volume of the organ, up to almost 9%, and shifts of the centroids up to more than 6 mm either away or toward the US probe. Breast images showed systematic small shifts of the centroids toward the US probe with a maximum magnitude of 1.3 mm. Conclusions: The applied correction in prostate and liver cancer patients shows positioning errors of several mm due to SOS aberration; the errors are smaller in breast cancer cases, but possibly becoming more important when breast tissue thickness increases.

  10. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound is safe, noninvasive, and does not use ionizing radiation. This procedure requires little to no special preparation. ... create an image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is ...

  11. Prostate cancer prediction using the random forest algorithm that takes into account transrectal ultrasound findings, age, and serum levels of prostate-specific antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Li-Hong; Chen, Pei-Ran; Gou, Zhong-Ping; Li, Yong-Zhong; Li, Mei; Xiang, Liang-Cheng; Feng, Ping

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the ability of the random forest algorithm that combines data on transrectal ultrasound findings, age, and serum levels of prostate-specific antigen to predict prostate carcinoma. Clinico-demographic data were analyzed for 941 patients with prostate diseases treated at our hospital, including age, serum prostate-specific antigen levels, transrectal ultrasound findings, and pathology diagnosis based on ultrasound-guided needle biopsy of the prostate. These data were compared between patients with and without prostate cancer using the Chi-square test, and then entered into the random forest model to predict diagnosis. Patients with and without prostate cancer differed significantly in age and serum prostate-specific antigen levels (P prostate-specific antigen and ultrasound predicted prostate cancer with an accuracy of 83.10%, sensitivity of 65.64%, and specificity of 93.83%. Positive predictive value was 86.72%, and negative predictive value was 81.64%. By integrating age, prostate-specific antigen levels and transrectal ultrasound findings, the random forest algorithm shows better diagnostic performance for prostate cancer than either diagnostic indicator on its own. This algorithm may help improve diagnosis of the disease by identifying patients at high risk for biopsy.

  12. Prostate imaging. An update; Bildgebung der Prostata. Ein Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franiel, T.; Teichgraeber, U. [University Hospital Jena (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Asbach, P.; Hamm, B. [University Medicine Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Foller, S. [University Hospital Jena (Germany). Dept. of Urology

    2015-09-15

    New technical and clinical developments of sonography and magnetic resonance imaging include improved detection, localization and staging as well as active surveillance of prostate cancer. Multiparametric MRI can best answer these typical clinical questions. However, ultrasound elastography seems to be suitable for the detection of significant prostate cancer as well. The structured reporting system for multiparametric MRI of the prostate according to PI-RADS Version 1 led to improved and reproducible diagnosis of prostate cancer. The new PI-RADS Version 2 aims to minimize the limitations of Version 1 and make PI-RADS standardization more globally acceptable.

  13. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Imaging? Ultrasound waves are disrupted by air or gas; therefore ultrasound is not an ideal imaging technique ... page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Gynecologic Cancers Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer ...

  14. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... endometrial polyps fibroids cancer, especially in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding Some physicians also use 3-D ultrasound or ... Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Kidney and Bladder Stones Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding Ovarian Cancer Images related to Ultrasound - Pelvis Sponsored ...

  15. Prostate cancer prediction using the random forest algorithm that takes into account transrectal ultrasound findings, age, and serum levels of prostate-specific antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hong Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the ability of the random forest algorithm that combines data on transrectal ultrasound findings, age, and serum levels of prostate-specific antigen to predict prostate carcinoma. Clinico-demographic data were analyzed for 941 patients with prostate diseases treated at our hospital, including age, serum prostate-specific antigen levels, transrectal ultrasound findings, and pathology diagnosis based on ultrasound-guided needle biopsy of the prostate. These data were compared between patients with and without prostate cancer using the Chi-square test, and then entered into the random forest model to predict diagnosis. Patients with and without prostate cancer differed significantly in age and serum prostate-specific antigen levels (P < 0.001, as well as in all transrectal ultrasound characteristics (P < 0.05 except uneven echo (P = 0.609. The random forest model based on age, prostate-specific antigen and ultrasound predicted prostate cancer with an accuracy of 83.10%, sensitivity of 65.64%, and specificity of 93.83%. Positive predictive value was 86.72%, and negative predictive value was 81.64%. By integrating age, prostate-specific antigen levels and transrectal ultrasound findings, the random forest algorithm shows better diagnostic performance for prostate cancer than either diagnostic indicator on its own. This algorithm may help improve diagnosis of the disease by identifying patients at high risk for biopsy.

  16. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound for diagnosis of prostate cancer and kidney lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitterberger, Michael; Pelzer, Alexandre; Colleselli, Daniela; Bartsch, Georg; Strasser, Hannes; Pallwein, Leo; Aigner, Friedrich; Gradl, Johann; Frauscher, Ferdinand

    2007-01-01

    Purpose of review: Conventional ultrasonography of both, kidney and prostate, is limited due to the poor contrast of B-mode imaging for parenchymal disease and limited sensitivity of colour Doppler for the detection of capillaries and deep pedicular vessels. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) overcomes these limitations. Recent findings: CEUS investigates the blood flow of the prostate, allows for prostate cancer visualization and for targeted biopsies. Comparisons between systematic and CEUS-targeted biopsies have shown that the targeted approach detects more cancers with a lower number of biopsy cores and with higher Gleason scores compared with the systematic approach. Also the kidney offers promising applications as CEUS improves the detection of abnormal microvascular and macrovascular disorders. Summary: In recent literature CEUS has shown its value for diagnosis of both, prostate cancer and kidney lesions. This paper describes recent improvements and future perspectives of CEUS

  17. Photo-Acoustic Ultrasound Imaging to Distinguish Benign from Malignant Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    tissue phantoms and animal models of disease . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Photoacoustic, Ultrasound imaging, transurethral probe 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...visible, ultrasound images are unable to discriminate between benign or malignant cancers. In photoacoustic imaging, laser energy is transmitted ...40 g/L concentration of sea plaque agarose into DI water heated to approximately 80°C. A 10 g/L concentration of silica powder was then added to

  18. Comparing Three Different Techniques for Magnetic Resonance Imaging-targeted Prostate Biopsies : A Systematic Review of In-bore versus Magnetic Resonance Imaging-transrectal Ultrasound fusion versus Cognitive Registration. Is There a Preferred Technique?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegelin, Olivier; Melick, H.H.E.; Hooft, Lotty; Bosch, J L H Ruud; Reitsma, Hans B; Barentsz, Jelle O; Somford, Diederik M

    CONTEXT: The introduction of magnetic resonance imaging-guided biopsies (MRI-GB) has changed the paradigm concerning prostate biopsies. Three techniques of MRI-GB are available: (1) in-bore MRI target biopsy (MRI-TB), (2) MRI-transrectal ultrasound fusion (FUS-TB), and (3) cognitive registration

  19. Compact CdZnTe-Based Gamma Camera For Prostate Cancer Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Y.; Lall, T.; Tsui, B.; Yu, J.; Mahler, G.; Bolotnikov, A.; Vaska, P.; DeGeronimo, G.; O'Connor, P.; Meinken, G.; Joyal, J.; Barrett, J.; Camarda, G.; Hossain, A.; Kim, K.H.; Yang, G.; Pomper, M.; Cho, S.; Weisman, K.; Seo, Y.; Babich, J.; LaFrance, N.; James, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the design of a compact gamma camera for high-resolution prostate cancer imaging using Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe or CZT) radiation detectors. Prostate cancer is a common disease in men. Nowadays, a blood test measuring the level of prostate specific antigen (PSA) is widely used for screening for the disease in males over 50, followed by (ultrasound) imaging-guided biopsy. However, PSA tests have a high false-positive rate and ultrasound-guided biopsy has a high likelihood of missing small cancerous tissues. Commercial methods of nuclear medical imaging, e.g. PET and SPECT, can functionally image the organs, and potentially find cancer tissues at early stages, but their applications in diagnosing prostate cancer has been limited by the smallness of the prostate gland and the long working distance between the organ and the detectors comprising these imaging systems. CZT is a semiconductor material with wide band-gap and relatively high electron mobility, and thus can operate at room temperature without additional cooling. CZT detectors are photon-electron direct-conversion devices, thus offering high energy-resolution in detecting gamma rays, enabling energy-resolved imaging, and reducing the background of Compton-scattering events. In addition, CZT material has high stopping power for gamma rays; for medical imaging, a few-mm-thick CZT material provides adequate detection efficiency for many SPECT radiotracers. Because of these advantages, CZT detectors are becoming popular for several SPECT medical-imaging applications. Most recently, we designed a compact gamma camera using CZT detectors coupled to an application-specific-integrated-circuit (ASIC). This camera functions as a trans-rectal probe to image the prostate gland from a distance of only 1-5 cm, thus offering higher detection efficiency and higher spatial resolution. Hence, it potentially can detect prostate cancers at their early stages. The performance tests of this camera

  20. Implementation and utility of a daily ultrasound-based localization system with intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morr, Jody; DiPetrillo, Thomas; Tsai, J.-S.; Engler, Mark; Wazer, David E. MD.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical feasibility of daily computer-assisted transabdominal ultrasonography for target position verification in the setting of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty-three patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated using a sequential tomotherapy IMRT technique (Peacock) and daily computer-assisted transabdominal ultrasonography (BAT) for target localization. Patients were instructed to maintain a full bladder and were placed in the supine position using triangulation tattoos and a leg immobilizer to minimize pelvic rotation. The BAT ultrasound system is docked to the treatment collimator and electronically imports the CT simulation target contours and isocenter. The system is able to use the machine isocenter as a reference point to overlay the corresponding CT contours onto the ultrasound images captured in the transverse and sagittal planes. A touch screen menu is used to maneuver the CT contours in three dimensions such that they match the ultrasound images. The system then displays the three-dimensional couch shifts required to produce field alignment. Data were prospectively collected to measure the frequency by which useful ultrasound images were obtained, the amount of time required for localization/setup, and the direction/magnitude of the positional adjustments. Results: Of the 23 patients, the BAT ultrasound system produced images of sufficient quality to perform the overlay of the CT contours in 19 patients such that positional verification could be reliably performed. Poor image quality was associated with patient inability to maintain a full bladder, large body habitus, or other anatomic constraints. Of the 19 assessable patients, a total of 185 treatment alignments were performed (mean 8.8/patient). For all cases, the average time required for the daily ultrasound imaging and positional adjustments was 11.9 min. After the initial 5 cases, the user

  1. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... receiver coil. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top ... here Images × Image Gallery Radiologist and patient consultation. View full size with caption Related Articles and Media ...

  2. Highly directional transurethral ultrasound applicators with rotational control for MRI-guided prostatic thermal therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Anthony B [Thermal Therapy Research Group, UCSF Radiation Oncology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Diederich, Chris J [Thermal Therapy Research Group, UCSF Radiation Oncology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Nau, William H [Thermal Therapy Research Group, UCSF Radiation Oncology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Gill, Harcharan [Department of Urology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Bouley, Donna M [Department of Comparative Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Daniel, Bruce [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Rieke, Viola [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Butts, R Kim [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Sommer, Graham [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2004-01-21

    Transurethral ultrasound applicators with highly directional energy deposition and rotational control were investigated for precise treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and adenocarcinoma of the prostate (CaP). Two types of catheter-based applicators were fabricated, using either sectored tubular (3.5 mm OD x 10 mm) or planar transducers (3.5 mm x 10 mm). They were constructed to be MRI compatible, minimally invasive and allow for manual rotation of the transducer array within a 10 mm cooling balloon. In vivo evaluations of the applicators were performed in canine prostates (n 3) using MRI guidance (0.5 T interventional magnet). MR temperature imaging (MRTI) utilizing the proton resonance frequency shift method was used to acquire multiple-slice temperature overlays in real time for monitoring and guiding the thermal treatments. Post-treatment T1-weighted contrast-enhanced imaging and triphenyl tetrazolium chloride stained tissue sections were used to define regions of tissue coagulation. Single sonications with the tubular applicator ) produced coagulated zones covering a wedge of the prostate extending from 1-2 mm outside the urethra to the outer boundary of the gland (16 mm radial coagulation). Single sonications with the planar applicator (15-20 W, 10 min, {approx}8 MHz) generated thermal lesions of {approx}30 extending to the prostate boundary. Multiple sequential sonications (sweeping) of a planar applicator (12 W with eight rotations of 30 each) demonstrated controllable coagulation of a 270 contiguous section of the prostate extending to the capsule boundary. The feasibility of using highly directional transurethral ultrasound applicators with rotational capabilities to selectively coagulate regions of the prostate while monitoring and controlling the treatments with MRTI was demonstrated in this study.

  3. Ablation of benign prostatic hyperplasia using microbubble-mediated ultrasound cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Liu, Zheng

    2010-04-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a world-wide common disease in elderly male patients. A number of invasive physiotherapies have been used to replace prostatectomy. In this article we report our hypothesis of using microbubbles-mediated ultrasound cavitation effects to ablate prostatic tissues. Microbubble ultrasound contrast agent is widely used contrast media in ultrasonography, yet it is also found to act as cavitation nuclei or enhancer. Once excited by a high peak pressure ultrasound pulse, the mechanical effects, like shock wave and microstream, released from cavitation could produce a series of bioeffects, contributing to sonoporation, microvascular rupture and hematoma. BPH is known to have hyperplastic neovasculature and this make it possible to be disrupted by the physical effects of cavitation under existing microbubbles in circulation. Mechanical ablation of prostatic capillary or small vessels could result in pathological alterations such as thrombosis, micro-circulation blockage, prostatic necrosis and atrophia. Thereupon it could effectively treat BPH by nontraumatic ways. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ultrasonic Nanobubbles Carrying Anti-PSMA Nanobody: Construction and Application in Prostate Cancer-Targeted Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhou Fan

    Full Text Available To facilitate prostate cancer imaging using targeted molecules, we constructed ultrasonic nanobubbles coupled with specific anti-PSMA (prostate specific membrane antigen nanobodies, and evaluated their in vitro binding capacity and in vivo imaging efficacy. The "targeted" nanobubbles, which were constructed via a biotin-streptavidin system, had an average diameter of 487.60 ± 33.55 nm and carried the anti-PSMA nanobody as demonstrated by immunofluorescence. Microscopy revealed targeted binding of nanobubbles in vitro to PSMA-positive cells. Additionally, ultrasonography indicators of nanobubble imaging (including arrival time, peak time, peak intensity and enhanced duration were evaluated for the ultrasound imaging in three kinds of animal xenografts (LNCaP, C4-2 and MKN45, and showed that these four indicators of targeted nanobubbles exhibited significant differences from blank nanobubbles. Therefore, this study not only presents a novel approach to target prostate cancer ultrasonography, but also provides the basis and methods for constructing small-sized and high-efficient targeted ultrasound nanobubbles.

  5. A comparison of prostate tumor targeting strategies using magnetic resonance imaging-targeted, transrectal ultrasound-guided fusion biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Peter R; Cool, Derek W; Fenster, Aaron; Ward, Aaron D

    2018-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-targeted, three-dimensional (3D) transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy aims to reduce the 21-47% false-negative rate of clinical two-dimensional (2D) TRUS-guided systematic biopsy, but continues to yield false-negative results. This may be improved via needle target optimization, accounting for guidance system errors and image registration errors. As an initial step toward the goal of optimized prostate biopsy targeting, we investigated how needle delivery error impacts tumor sampling probability for two targeting strategies. We obtained MRI and 3D TRUS images from 49 patients. A radiologist and radiology resident assessed these MR images and contoured 81 suspicious regions, yielding tumor surfaces that were registered to 3D TRUS. The biopsy system's root-mean-squared needle delivery error (RMSE) and systematic error were modeled using an isotropic 3D Gaussian distribution. We investigated two different prostate tumor-targeting strategies using (a) the tumor's centroid and (b) a ring in the lateral-elevational plane. For each simulation, targets were spaced at equal arc lengths on a ring with radius equal to the systematic error magnitude. A total of 1000 biopsy simulations were conducted for each tumor, with RMSE and systematic error magnitudes ranging from 1 to 6 mm. The difference in median tumor sampling probability and probability of obtaining a 50% core involvement was determined for ring vs centroid targeting. Our simulation results indicate that ring targeting outperformed centroid targeting in situations where systematic error exceeds RMSE. In these instances, we observed statistically significant differences showing 1-32% improvement in sampling probability due to ring targeting. Likewise, we observed statistically significant differences showing 1-39% improvement in 50% core involvement probability due to ring targeting. Our results suggest that the optimal targeting scheme for prostate biopsy depends on

  6. Molecular Ultrasound Imaging of Early Vascular Response in Prostate Tumors Irradiated with Carbon Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Palmowski

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Individualized treatments with combination of radiotherapy and targeted drugs require knowledge about the behavior of molecular targets after irradiation. Angiogenic marker expression has been studied after conventional radiotherapy, but little is known about marker response to charged particles. For the very first time, we used molecular ultrasound imaging to intraindividually track changes in angiogenic marker expression after carbon ion irradiation in experimental tumors. Expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 and of αvβ3-integrin in subcutaneous AT-1 prostate cancers in rats treated with carbon ions (16 Gy was studied using molecular ultrasound and immunohistochemistry. For this purpose, cyanoacrylate microbubbles were synthesized and linked to specific ligands. The accumulation of targeted microbubbles in tumors was quantified before and 36 hours after irradiation. In addition, tumor vascularization was analyzed using volumetric Doppler ultrasound. In tumors, the accumulation of targeted microbubbles was significantly higher than in nonspecific ones and could be inhibited competitively. Before irradiation, no difference in binding of αvβ3-integrin-specific or ICAM-1-specific microbubbles was observed in treated and untreated animals. After irradiation, however, treated animals showed a significantly higher binding of αvβ3-integrin-specific microbubbles and an enhanced binding of ICAM-1-specific microbubbles than untreated controls. In both groups, a decrease in vascularization occurred during tumor growth, but no significant difference was observed between irradiated and nonirradiated tumors. In conclusion, carbon ion irradiation upregulates ICAM-1 and αvβ3-integrin expression in tumor neovasculature. Molecular ultrasound can indicate the regulation of these markers and thus may help to identify the optimal drugs and time points in individualized therapy regimens.

  7. MO-B-BRC-00: Prostate HDR Treatment Planning - Considering Different Imaging Modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Brachytherapy has proven to be an effective treatment option for prostate cancer. Initially, prostate brachytherapy was delivered through permanently implanted low dose rate (LDR) radioactive sources; however, high dose rate (HDR) temporary brachytherapy for prostate cancer is gaining popularity. Needle insertion during prostate brachytherapy is most commonly performed under ultrasound (U/S) guidance; however, treatment planning may be performed utilizing several imaging modalities either in an intra- or post-operative setting. During intra-operative prostate HDR, the needles are imaged during implantation, and planning may be performed in real time. At present, the most common imaging modality utilized for intra-operative prostate HDR is U/S. Alternatively, in the post-operative setting, following needle implantation, patients may be simulated with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Each imaging modality and workflow provides its share of benefits and limitations. Prostate HDR has been adopted in a number of cancer centers across the nation. In this educational session, we will explore the role of U/S, CT, and MRI in HDR prostate brachytherapy. Example workflows and operational details will be shared, and we will discuss how to establish a prostate HDR program in a clinical setting. Learning Objectives: Review prostate HDR techniques based on the imaging modality Discuss the challenges and pitfalls introduced by the three imagebased options for prostate HDR brachytherapy Review the QA process and learn about the development of clinical workflows for these imaging options at different institutions

  8. MO-B-BRC-00: Prostate HDR Treatment Planning - Considering Different Imaging Modalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-15

    Brachytherapy has proven to be an effective treatment option for prostate cancer. Initially, prostate brachytherapy was delivered through permanently implanted low dose rate (LDR) radioactive sources; however, high dose rate (HDR) temporary brachytherapy for prostate cancer is gaining popularity. Needle insertion during prostate brachytherapy is most commonly performed under ultrasound (U/S) guidance; however, treatment planning may be performed utilizing several imaging modalities either in an intra- or post-operative setting. During intra-operative prostate HDR, the needles are imaged during implantation, and planning may be performed in real time. At present, the most common imaging modality utilized for intra-operative prostate HDR is U/S. Alternatively, in the post-operative setting, following needle implantation, patients may be simulated with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Each imaging modality and workflow provides its share of benefits and limitations. Prostate HDR has been adopted in a number of cancer centers across the nation. In this educational session, we will explore the role of U/S, CT, and MRI in HDR prostate brachytherapy. Example workflows and operational details will be shared, and we will discuss how to establish a prostate HDR program in a clinical setting. Learning Objectives: Review prostate HDR techniques based on the imaging modality Discuss the challenges and pitfalls introduced by the three imagebased options for prostate HDR brachytherapy Review the QA process and learn about the development of clinical workflows for these imaging options at different institutions.

  9. Determination of prostate gland volume by transrectal ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myschetzky, P S; Suburu, R E; Kelly, B S

    1991-01-01

    Seventy six patients underwent transrectal ultrasound examination of the prostate prior to radical prostatectomy. All radical specimens were weighed and measured when freshly excised. Corresponding measurements calculated using transrectal ultrasound dimensions were retrospectively compared with ...... was shown. A modified prolate ellipse formula, using the factor of 0.70, appears to be a more reliable means of estimating gland volume with transrectal ultrasound than the original formula [Width x Height x Length) x 0.523)....

  10. Detection of prostate cancer by contrast-ultrasound dispersion imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuenen, M.P.J.; Saidov, T.A.; Heneweer, C.; Wijkstra, H.; Mischi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the development of several efficient focal therapies for prostate cancer, treatment options are often restricted to radical treatments, such as a radical prostatectomy. One of the main obstacles preventing a wider application of focal therapies is the lack of reliable imaging methods for

  11. Protocol for the realization of transrectal prostatic biopsy guided by ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arce Montero, Jairo

    2013-01-01

    A general protocol is proposed for the realization of the ultrasound-guided prostatic biopsy in patients with positive screening. The screening should be performed taking into account risk antecedents, rectal examination and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in the patients. However, patients that have presented without alteration in the PSA and suspect rectal examination, should be considered for biopsy endorectal with ultrasound guidance even more with positive risk factors. The generalities of prostate cancer are described. The general prostatic anatomy and echographic are reviewed. The echographic technique is analyzed in the exploration endorectal. The echographic findings suspects of prostate cancer are characterized. The different biopsy sampling techniques are described; and based on appropriate knowledge of prostatic echographic anatomy, could increase the effectiveness in the early detection of prostate cancer in patients with positive screening. The complications derived from the process are enumerated. The final recommendations are noted on the protocol described [es

  12. Reduced rectal toxicity with ultrasound-based image guided radiotherapy using BAT trademark (B-mode acquisition and targeting system) for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohrer, Markus; Schroeder, Peter; Welzel, Grit; Wertz, Hansjoerg; Lohr, Frank; Wenz, Frederik; Mai, Sabine Kathrin

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of image guided radiotherapy with stereotactic ultrasound BAT (B-mode acquisition and targeting system) on rectal toxicity in conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer. Patients and Methods 42 sequential patients with prostate cancer undergoing radiotherapy before and after the introduction of BAT were included. Planning computed tomography (CT) was performed with empty rectum and moderately filled bladder. The planning target volume (PTV) included the prostate and seminal vesicles with a safety margin of 1.5 cm in anterior and lateral direction. In posterior direction the anterior 1/3 of the rectum circumference were included. Total dose was 66 Gy and a boost of 4 Gy excluding the seminal vesicles. 22 patients (BAT group) were treated with daily stereotactic ultrasound positioning, for the other 20 patients (NoBAT group) an EPID (electronic portal imaging device) was performed once a week. Acute and late genito-urinary (GU) and rectal toxicity and PSA values were evaluated after 1.5, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. The total median follow up of toxicity was 3 years in the BAT group and 4 years in the NoBAT group. Results In the NoBAT group significant more rectal toxicity occurred, while in GU toxicity no difference was seen. Two patients in the NoBAT group showed late rectal toxicity grade 3, no toxicity > grade 2 occurred in the BAT group. There was no significant difference in PSA reduction between the groups. Conclusion Without BAT significant more acute and a trend to more late rectal toxicity was found. With regard to dose escalation this aspect is currently evaluated with a larger number of patients using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). (orig.)

  13. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce ... the limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? What is General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and ...

  14. TU-H-CAMPUS-IeP3-04: Evaluation of Changes in Quantitative Ultrasound Parameters During Prostate Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najafi, M; El Kaffas, A; Han, B [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Cooper, D [Elekta Inc., Montreal, QC (Canada); Hancock, S; Hristov, D

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Clarity Autoscan ultrasound monitoring system allows acquisition of raw radiofrequency (RF) ultrasound data prior and during radiotherapy. This enables the computation of 3D Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS) tissue parametric maps from. We aim to evaluate whether QUS parameters undergo changes with radiotherapy and thus potentially be used as early predictors and/or markers of treatment response in prostate cancer patients. Methods: In-vivo evaluation was performed under IRB protocol to allow data collection in prostate patients treated with VMAT whereby prostate was imaged through the acoustic window of the perineum. QUS spectroscopy analysis was carried out by computing a tissue power spectrum normalized to the power spectrum obtained from a quartz to remove system transfer function effects. A ROI was selected within the 3D image volume of the prostate. Because longitudinal registration was optimal, the same features could be used to select ROIs at roughly the same location in images acquired on different days. Parametric maps were generated within the rectangular ROIs with window sizes that were approximately 8 times the wavelength of the ultrasound. The mid-band fit (MBF), spectral slope (SS) and spectral intercept (SI) QUS parameters were computed for each window within the ROI and displayed as parametric maps. Quantitative parameters were obtained by averaging each of the spectral parameters over the whole ROI. Results: Data was acquired for over 21 treatment fractions. Preliminary results show changes in the parametric maps. MBF values decreased from −33.9 dB to −38.7 dB from pre-treatment to the last day of treatment. The spectral slope increased from −1.1 a.u. to −0.5 a.u., and spectral intercept decreased from −28.2 dB to −36.3 dB over the 21 treatment regimen. Conclusion: QUS parametric maps change over the course of treatment which warrants further investigation in their potential use for treatment planning and predicting treatment

  15. TU-H-CAMPUS-IeP3-04: Evaluation of Changes in Quantitative Ultrasound Parameters During Prostate Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najafi, M; El Kaffas, A; Han, B; Cooper, D; Hancock, S; Hristov, D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Clarity Autoscan ultrasound monitoring system allows acquisition of raw radiofrequency (RF) ultrasound data prior and during radiotherapy. This enables the computation of 3D Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS) tissue parametric maps from. We aim to evaluate whether QUS parameters undergo changes with radiotherapy and thus potentially be used as early predictors and/or markers of treatment response in prostate cancer patients. Methods: In-vivo evaluation was performed under IRB protocol to allow data collection in prostate patients treated with VMAT whereby prostate was imaged through the acoustic window of the perineum. QUS spectroscopy analysis was carried out by computing a tissue power spectrum normalized to the power spectrum obtained from a quartz to remove system transfer function effects. A ROI was selected within the 3D image volume of the prostate. Because longitudinal registration was optimal, the same features could be used to select ROIs at roughly the same location in images acquired on different days. Parametric maps were generated within the rectangular ROIs with window sizes that were approximately 8 times the wavelength of the ultrasound. The mid-band fit (MBF), spectral slope (SS) and spectral intercept (SI) QUS parameters were computed for each window within the ROI and displayed as parametric maps. Quantitative parameters were obtained by averaging each of the spectral parameters over the whole ROI. Results: Data was acquired for over 21 treatment fractions. Preliminary results show changes in the parametric maps. MBF values decreased from −33.9 dB to −38.7 dB from pre-treatment to the last day of treatment. The spectral slope increased from −1.1 a.u. to −0.5 a.u., and spectral intercept decreased from −28.2 dB to −36.3 dB over the 21 treatment regimen. Conclusion: QUS parametric maps change over the course of treatment which warrants further investigation in their potential use for treatment planning and predicting treatment

  16. Ultrasound-based guidance of intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, Albert Y.C.; Ayyangar, Komanduri M.; Djajaputra, David; Nehru, Ramasamy M.; Enke, Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    In ultrasound-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of prostate cancer, ultrasound imaging ascertains the anatomical position of patients during x-ray therapy delivery. The ultrasound transducers are made of piezoelectric ceramics. The same crystal is used for both ultrasound production and reception. Three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound devices capture and correlate series of 2-dimensional (2D) B-mode images. The transducers are often arranged in a convex array for focusing. Lower frequency reaches greater depth, but results in low resolution. For clear image, some gel is usually applied between the probe and the skin contact surface. For prostate positioning, axial and sagittal scans are performed, and the volume contours from computed tomography (CT) planning are superimposed on the ultrasound images obtained before radiation delivery at the linear accelerator. The planning volumes are then overlaid on the ultrasound images and adjusted until they match. The computer automatically deduces the offset necessary to move the patient so that the treatment area is in the correct location. The couch is translated as needed. The currently available commercial equipment can attain a positional accuracy of 1-2 mm. Commercial manufacturer designs differ in the detection of probe coordinates relative to the isocenter. Some use a position-sensing robotic arm, while others have infrared light-emitting diodes or pattern-recognition software with charge-couple-device cameras. Commissioning includes testing of image quality and positional accuracy. Ultrasound is mainly used in prostate positioning. Data for 7825 daily fractions of 234 prostate patients indicated average 3D inter-fractional displacement of about 7.8 mm. There was no perceivable trend of shift over time. Scatter plots showed slight prevalence toward superior-posterior directions. Uncertainties of ultrasound guidance included tissue inhomogeneities, speckle noise, probe pressure, and inter

  17. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Kidney and Bladder Stones Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding ... questions or for a referral to a radiologist or other physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you ...

  18. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... receiver coil. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top ... To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search the ACR- ...

  19. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... the rectum. The images are obtained from different angles to get the best view of the prostate ... RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your physician with specific medical questions or for ...

  20. Electronic portal imaging device detection of radioopaque markers for the evaluation of prostate position during megavoltage irradiation: a clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigneault, Eric; Pouliot, Jean; Laverdiere, Jacques; Roy, Jean; Dorion, Marc

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to assess daily prostatic apex motion relative to pelvic bone structures during megavoltage irradiation. Methods and Materials: Radioopaque markers were implanted under ultrasound guidance near the prostatic apex of 11 patients with localized prostatic carcinoma. Patients were subsequently treated with a four field-box technique at a beam energy of 23 MV. During treatment, on-line images were obtained with an electronic portal imaging device (EPID). The marker was easily identified, even on unprocessed images, and the distance between the marker and a bony landmark was measured. Timelapse movies were also reviewed. After the completion of treatment, a transcrectal ultrasound examination was performed in 8 of 11 patients, to verify the position of the marker. Results: We acquired over 900 digital portal images and analyzed posterioanterior and right lateral views. The quality of portal images obtained with megavoltage irradiation was good. It was possible to evaluate pelvic bone structures even without image histogram equalization. Moreover, the radioopaque marker was easily visible on every online portal image. The review of timelapse movies showed important interfraction motion of the marker while bone structures remained stable. We measured the position of the marker for each fraction. Marker displacements up to 1.6 cm were measured between 2 consecutive days of treatment. Important marker motions were predominantly in the posteroanterior and cephalocaudal directions. In eight patients, we verified the position of the marker relative to the prostatic apex with ultrasound at the end of the treatments. The marker remained in the trapezoid zone. Intratreatment images reviewed in two cases showed no change in marker position. Our results, obtained during the treatment courses, indicate similar or larger prostate motions than previously observed in studies that used intertreatment x-ray films and CT images. Marker implantation under

  1. Limited evidence for the use of imaging to detect prostate cancer: A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomqvist, L.; Carlsson, S.; Gjertsson, P.; Heintz, E.; Hultcrantz, M.; Mejare, I.; Andrén, O.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • In men with clinical suspicion of prostate cancer, ultrasound guided systematic biopsies is the golden standard for diagnosis. • Diagnostic imaging techniques, especially magnetic resonance imaging, is being used in trials to aid detection of prostate cancer. • To date, there is insufficient scientific evidence for the use of imaging techniques to detect prostate cancer. - Abstract: Objective: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of imaging technologies for detecting prostate cancer in patients with elevated PSA-values or suspected findings on clinical examination. Methods: The databases Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane, CRD HTA/DARE/NHS EED and EconLit were searched until June 2013. Pre-determined inclusion criteria were used to select full text articles. Risk of bias in individual studies was rated according to QUADAS or AMSTAR. Abstracts and full text articles were assessed independently by two reviewers. The performance of diagnostic imaging was compared with systematic biopsies (reference standard) and sensitivity and specificity were calculated. Results: The literature search yielded 5141 abstracts, which were reviewed by two independent reviewers. Of these 4852 were excluded since they did not meet the inclusion criteria. 288 articles were reviewed in full text for quality assessment. Six studies, three using MRI and three using transrectal ultrasound were included. All were rated as high risk of bias. Relevant studies on PET/CT were not identified. Conclusion: Despite clinical use, there is insufficient evidence regarding the accuracy of imaging technologies for detecting cancer in patients with suspected prostate cancer using TRUS guided systematic biopsies as reference standard

  2. Limited evidence for the use of imaging to detect prostate cancer: A systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomqvist, L., E-mail: lennart.k.blomqvist@ki.se [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna (Sweden); Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Carlsson, S. [Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Urology, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna (Sweden); Gjertsson, P. [Department of Clinical Physiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Heintz, E.; Hultcrantz, M.; Mejare, I. [The Swedish Council on Health Technology Assessment, Stockholm (Sweden); Andrén, O. [School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro (Sweden); Department of Urology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro (Sweden)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • In men with clinical suspicion of prostate cancer, ultrasound guided systematic biopsies is the golden standard for diagnosis. • Diagnostic imaging techniques, especially magnetic resonance imaging, is being used in trials to aid detection of prostate cancer. • To date, there is insufficient scientific evidence for the use of imaging techniques to detect prostate cancer. - Abstract: Objective: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of imaging technologies for detecting prostate cancer in patients with elevated PSA-values or suspected findings on clinical examination. Methods: The databases Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane, CRD HTA/DARE/NHS EED and EconLit were searched until June 2013. Pre-determined inclusion criteria were used to select full text articles. Risk of bias in individual studies was rated according to QUADAS or AMSTAR. Abstracts and full text articles were assessed independently by two reviewers. The performance of diagnostic imaging was compared with systematic biopsies (reference standard) and sensitivity and specificity were calculated. Results: The literature search yielded 5141 abstracts, which were reviewed by two independent reviewers. Of these 4852 were excluded since they did not meet the inclusion criteria. 288 articles were reviewed in full text for quality assessment. Six studies, three using MRI and three using transrectal ultrasound were included. All were rated as high risk of bias. Relevant studies on PET/CT were not identified. Conclusion: Despite clinical use, there is insufficient evidence regarding the accuracy of imaging technologies for detecting cancer in patients with suspected prostate cancer using TRUS guided systematic biopsies as reference standard.

  3. Prebiopsy magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging in the diagnosis of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V.; Jagannathan, N.R.; Thulkar, S.; Kumar, R.

    2012-01-01

    Existing screening investigations for the diagnosis of early prostate cancer lack specificity, resulting in a high negative biopsy rate. There is increasing interest in the use of various magnetic resonance methods for improving the yield of transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsies of the prostate in men suspected to have prostate cancer. We review the existing status of such investigations. A literature search was carried out using the Pubmed database to identify articles related to magnetic resonance methods for diagnosing prostate cancer. References from these articles were also extracted and reviewed. Recent studies have focused on prebiopsy magnetic resonance investigations using conventional magnetic resonance imaging, dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging, magnetization transfer imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the prostate. This marks a shift from the earlier strategy of carrying out postbiopsy magnetic resonance investigations. Prebiopsy magnetic resonance investigations has been useful in identifying patients who are more likely to have a biopsy positive for malignancy. Prebiopsy magnetic resonance investigations has a potential role in increasing specificity of screening for early prostate cancer. It has a role in the targeting of biopsy sites, avoiding unnecessary biopsies and predicting the outcome of biopsies. (author)

  4. Method comparison of ultrasound and kilovoltage x-ray fiducial marker imaging for prostate radiotherapy targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Clifton David; Thomas, Charles R., Jr.; Schwartz, Scott; Golden, Nanalei; Ting, Joe; Wong, Adrian; Erdogmus, Deniz; Scarbrough, Todd J.

    2006-10-01

    Several measurement techniques have been developed to address the capability for target volume reduction via target localization in image-guided radiotherapy; among these have been ultrasound (US) and fiducial marker (FM) software-assisted localization. In order to assess interchangeability between methods, US and FM localization were compared using established techniques for determination of agreement between measurement methods when a 'gold-standard' comparator does not exist, after performing both techniques daily on a sequential series of patients. At least 3 days prior to CT simulation, four gold seeds were placed within the prostate. FM software-assisted localization utilized the ExacTrac X-Ray 6D (BrainLab AG, Germany) kVp x-ray image acquisition system to determine prostate position; US prostate targeting was performed on each patient using the SonArray (Varian, Palo Alto, CA). Patients were aligned daily using laser alignment of skin marks. Directional shifts were then calculated by each respective system in the X, Y and Z dimensions before each daily treatment fraction, previous to any treatment or couch adjustment, as well as a composite vector of displacement. Directional shift agreement in each axis was compared using Altman-Bland limits of agreement, Lin's concordance coefficient with Partik's grading schema, and Deming orthogonal bias-weighted correlation methodology. 1019 software-assisted shifts were suggested by US and FM in 39 patients. The 95% limits of agreement in X, Y and Z axes were ±9.4 mm, ±11.3 mm and ±13.4, respectively. Three-dimensionally, measurements agreed within 13.4 mm in 95% of all paired measures. In all axes, concordance was graded as 'poor' or 'unacceptable'. Deming regression detected proportional bias in both directional axes and three-dimensional vectors. Our data suggest substantial differences between US and FM image-guided measures and subsequent suggested directional shifts. Analysis reveals that the vast majority of

  5. [Prostate cancer detection by assessing stiffness of different tissues using shear wave ultrasound elastog- raphy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glybochko, P V; Alyaev, Yu G; Amosov, A V; Krupinov, G E; Ganzha, T M; Vorobev, A V; Lumpov, I S; Semendyaev, R I

    2016-08-01

    Early detection of prostate cancer (PCa) remains a challenging issue. There are studies underway aimed to develop and implement new methods for prostate cancer screening by tumor imaging and obtaining tissue samples from suspicious areas for morphological examination. One of these new methods is shear wave ultrasound elastography (SWUE). The current literature is lacking sufficient coverage of informativeness and specificity of SWUE in the prostate cancer detection, there is no clear criteria for assessing tissue stiffness at different values of PSA and tumor grade, and in prostate hyperplasia and prostatitis. To evaluate the informativeness and specificity of SWUE compared with other diagnostic methods. SWUE has been used in the Clinic of Urology of Sechenov First MSMU since October 2015. During this period, 302 patients were examined using SWUE. SWUE was performed with Aixplorer ultrasound system (Super Sonic Imagine), which provides a single-stage SWUE imaging with both B-mode and real-time mode. The first group (prospective study) included 134 men aged 47 to 81 years with suspected prostate cancer scheduled to either initial or repeat prostate biopsy. PSA levels ranged from 4 to 24 ng/ml. The second group (retrospective study) comprised 120 men with confirmed prostate cancer and PSA levels between 4 and 90 ng/ml. The third group (the control group), comprised 48 healthy men whose PSA level did not exceed 3 ng/ml. All patients of the groups 1 and 2 underwent a standard comprehensive examination. Patients in group 1 were subsequently subjected to transrectal prostate biopsy guided by localization of areas with abnormal tissue stiffness. PCa was detected in 100 of 134 patients. 217 patients of groups 1 and 2 underwent radical prostatectomy. In 28 of them, the match between the cancer location and differentiation in the removed prostate and SWUE findings before surgery was examined. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of pelvic organs was performed in 63

  6. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and movement of the body's internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  7. A review of transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsies: Is there ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: We compared our institution's initial experience with transrectal ultrasound-guided (TRUS) prostate biopsies in a single arm prospective study to a historical cohort of finger guided (FG) biopsies. The primary outcome measure was prostate cancer detection. We documented our findings on TRUS including the ...

  8. High-intensity interstitial ultrasound for thermal ablation of focal cancer targets in prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgaonkar, Vasant A.; Scott, Serena; Kurhanewicz, John; Diederich, Chris J.

    2017-03-01

    Recent advances in image based techniques such as multi-parametric MRI (MP-MRI) can provide precise targeting of focal disease in the prostate. Thermal ablation of such cancer targets while avoiding rectum, urethra, neurovascular bundles (NVB) and sphincter is clinically challenging. The approach described here employs multi-element ultrasound linear arrays designed for transperineal placement within prostate. They consist of independently powered sectored tubular transducers (6.5 - 8.0 MHz) that provide spatial control of energy deposition in angle and length. Volumetric ablation strategies were investigated through patient-specific biothermal models based on Pennes bioheat transfer equation. The acoustic and heat transfer models used here have been validated in several previous simulation and experimental studies. Focal disease sites in prostate were identified through multi-parametric MR images of representative patient cases (n=3). Focal cancer lesions and critical anatomy (prostate, urethra, rectum, bladder, seminal vesicles) were manually segmented (Mimics, Materialise) and converted to 3D finite element meshes (3-Matic, Materialise). The chosen test cases consisted of patients with medium and large sized glands and models of bulk tissue ablation covered volumes in a single quadrant in posterior prostate, hemi-gland targets and "hockey-stick" targets (lesions in three quadrants). Ultrasound applicator placement was determined such that devices were positioned along the prostate periphery while avoiding surrounding anatomy. Transducer sector angles were chosen based on applicator location within limits of fabrication practicability. Thermal models were numerically solved using finite element methods (FEM) in COMSOL Multiphysics. Temperature and thermal dose distributions were calculated to determine treated volumes (> 240 CEM43C, >52 °C) and safety profiles (<10 CEM43C, <45 °C) for nerve, rectal and urethral sparing. Modeling studies indicated that focal

  9. GPU-Based Simulation of Ultrasound Imaging Artifacts for Cryosurgery Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keelan, Robert; Shimada, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    This study presents an efficient computational technique for the simulation of ultrasound imaging artifacts associated with cryosurgery based on nonlinear ray tracing. This study is part of an ongoing effort to develop computerized training tools for cryosurgery, with prostate cryosurgery as a development model. The capability of performing virtual cryosurgical procedures on a variety of test cases is essential for effective surgical training. Simulated ultrasound imaging artifacts include reverberation and reflection of the cryoprobes in the unfrozen tissue, reflections caused by the freezing front, shadowing caused by the frozen region, and tissue property changes in repeated freeze–thaw cycles procedures. The simulated artifacts appear to preserve the key features observed in a clinical setting. This study displays an example of how training may benefit from toggling between the undisturbed ultrasound image, the simulated temperature field, the simulated imaging artifacts, and an augmented hybrid presentation of the temperature field superimposed on the ultrasound image. The proposed method is demonstrated on a graphic processing unit at 100 frames per second, on a mid-range personal workstation, at two orders of magnitude faster than a typical cryoprocedure. This performance is based on computation with C++ accelerated massive parallelism and its interoperability with the DirectX-rendering application programming interface. PMID:26818026

  10. Correlation of endorectal coil magnetic resonance, transrectal ultrasound and radical prostatectomy findings in assessing extent of prostate cancer in referred urology patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavoipierre, A.; Little, A.F.; Greive, K.A.; Royce, P.L.; Snow, R.M.; Frydenberg, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The aim of this study was to compare findings at prostate MR to ultrasound findings and pathology specimens in patients who subsequently underwent radical prostatectomy. Of the 61 patients who underwent composite MR prostate imaging, 39 patients with elevated PSA levels and / or abnormal DRE findings were found to have cancer on transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and biopsy (random sextant and targeted biopsies). MRI was performed using composite phased array and endorectal coils, using axial T1 and axial, coronal and sagittal T2 weighted images through the prostate, together with axial T1 weighted imaging through the pelvis. Fifteen patients out the 39 patients with documented cancer then underwent radical prostatectomy. The resected specimen pathology was then compared with the MR and TRUS findings. Comparison of findings at MRI with those at prostatectomy indicated approximately 82.4% correlation comparing right side and left side disease (TRUS = 80%). There was a 13.3% false positive for seminal vesicle involvement on MR (TRUS = 0%) and a 10% false negative rate on MR (TRUS 10%) compared with pathology specimens.There was a 26.7% false positive rate of extracapsular extension on MR (TRUS = 0%) and a 6.6% false negative rate on MR (TRUS = 20%) compared with the pathology specimens. Of the 39 patients who had undergone TRUS and biopsy, the disease appeared more extensive on MRI than suspected at ultrasound in 14/39 (35.9%). High resolution MR imaging of the prostate is an acceptable method for assessing the presence of prostate cancer. However, our early experience, in this small series, suggests that there is a high mis-staging of disease on MR as is the case with TRUS, although MR is better than TRUS. The results underscore the need for additional assessment with MR spectroscopy. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  11. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... What are the limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? What is General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and ... be heard with every heartbeat. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Ultrasound ...

  12. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... Index A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce pictures of the inside of ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  13. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... gel. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... requested the exam. Usually, the referring physician or health care provider will share the results with you. ...

  14. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... gel. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... the best way to see if treatment is working or if a finding is stable or changed ...

  15. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... a follow-up exam is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or ... of soft tissues that do not show up well on x-ray images. Ultrasound causes no health ...

  16. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... requested the exam. Usually, the referring physician or health care provider will share the results with you. ... well on x-ray images. Ultrasound causes no health problems and may be repeated as often as ...

  17. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... rectum. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A transrectal ultrasound of the ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ...

  18. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... be necessary. Your doctor will explain the exact reason why another exam is requested. Sometimes a follow- ... Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding minimally invasive procedures such as ...

  19. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... echoes from the tissues in the body. The principles are similar to sonar used by boats and ... work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles involved in the sonar used by bats, ships ...

  20. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... gel. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... the transducer is pressed against the skin, it directs small pulses of inaudible, high-frequency sound waves ...

  1. The effect of androgen deprivation on the early changes in prostate volume following transperineal ultrasound guided interstitial therapy for localized carcinoma of the prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittington, Richard; Broderick, Gregory A; Arger, Peter; Malkowicz, S Bruce; Epperson, Robert D; Arjomandy, Bijan; Kassaee, Alireza

    1999-07-15

    Purpose: To determine the change in volume of the prostate as a result of neoadjuvant androgen deprivation prior to prostate implant and in the early postimplant period following transperineal ultrasound guided palladium-103 brachytherapy for early-stage prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Sixty-nine men received 3 to 6 months of androgen deprivation therapy followed by treatment planning ultrasound followed 4 to 8 weeks later by palladium-103 implant of the prostate. All patients had clinical and radiographic stage T1c-T2b adenocarcinoma of the prostate. A second ultrasound study was carried out 11 to 13 days following the implant to determine the change in volume of the prostate as a result of the implant. The prehormonal and preimplant volumes were compared to the postimplant volume to determine the effect of hormones and brachytherapy on prostate volume. Results: The median decrease in prostate volume as a result of androgen deprivation was 33% among the 54 patients with prostate volume determinations prior to hormonal therapy. The reduction in volume was greatest in the quartile of men with the largest initial gland volume (59%) and least in the quartile of men with smallest glands (10%). The median reduction in prostate volume between the treatment planning ultrasound and the follow-up study after implant was 3%, but 23 (33%) patients had an increase in prostate volume, including 16 (23%) who had an increase in volume >20%; 11 of these patients (16%) had an increase in volume >30%. The time course of development and resolution of this edema is not known. The severity of the edema was not related to initial or preimplant prostate volume or duration of hormonal therapy. Conclusions: Prostate edema may significantly affect the dose delivered to the prostate following transperineal ultrasound guided brachytherapy. The effect on the actual delivered dose will be greater when shorter lived isotopes are used. It remains to be observed whether this edema will

  2. Transrectal ultrasound applicator for prostate heating monitored using MRI thermometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Nadine Barrie; Buchanan, Mark T.; Hynynen, Kullervo

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: For potential localized hyperthermia treatment of tumors within the prostate, an ultrasound applicator consisting entirely of nonmagnetic materials for use with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been developed and tested on muscle tissue ex vivo and in vivo. Methods and Materials: A partial-cylindrical intracavitary transducer consisting of 16 elements in a 4 x 4 pattern was constructed. It produced a radially propagating acoustic pressure field. Each element of this array (1.5 x 0.75 cm), operating at 1.5 MHz, could be separately powered to produce a desired energy deposition pattern within a target volume. Spatial and temporal temperature elevations were determined using the temperature-dependent proton resonant frequency (PRF) shift and phase subtraction of MR images acquired during ultrasonic heating. Four rabbits were exposed to the ultrasound to raise the local tissue temperature to 45 deg. C for 25 minutes. Six experiments compared thermocouple temperature results to PRF shift temperature results. Results: The tests showed that the multi-element ultrasound applicator was MRI-compatible and allowed imaging during sonication. The induced temperature distribution could be controlled by monitoring the RF power to each transducer element. Therapeutic temperature elevations were easily achieved in vivo at power levels that were about 16% of the maximum system power. From the six thermocouple experiments, comparison between the thermocouple temperature and the PRF temperature yielded an average error of 0.34 ± 0.36 deg. C. Conclusions: The MRI-compatible intracavitary applicator and driving system was able to control the ultrasound field and temperature pattern in vivo. MRI thermometry using the PRF shift can provide adequate temperature accuracy and stability for controlling the temperature distribution

  3. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us ... in which a needle is used to sample cells (tissue) from an abnormal area in the prostate gland for later laboratory testing. ... Do you have a personal ...

  4. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... difficulty urinating or an elevated blood test result. It’s also used to investigate a nodule found during ... difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides real-time images, it also can be used to guide procedures such ...

  5. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is no radiation exposure to the ... tissues that do not show up well on x-ray images. Ultrasound causes no health problems and may ...

  6. Intravenous piperacillin/tazobactam plus fluoroquinolone prophylaxis prior to prostate ultrasound biopsy reduces serious infectious complications and is cost effective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remynse LC

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Louis C Remynse III, Patrick J Sweeney, Kevin A Brewton, Jay M LonswayUrology Associates of Battle Creek, PC, Battle Creek, MI, USAAbstract: Infectious complications related to prostate ultrasound and biopsy have increased in the past decade with the emergence of increasing fluoroquinolone bacterial resistance. We investigated the addition of intravenous (iv piperacillin/tazobactam immediately prior to prostate ultrasound and biopsy with standard fluoroquinolone prophylaxis to determine if it would decrease the incidence of serious infectious complications after prostate ultrasound and biopsy. Group 1 patients were a historic control of 197 patients who underwent prostate ultrasound and biopsy with standard fluoroquinolone prophylaxis. Group 2 patients, 104 patients, received standard fluoroquinolone prophylaxis and the addition of a single dose of iv piperacillin/tazobactam 30 minutes prior to prostate ultrasound and biopsy. There were ten serious bacterial infectious complications in group 1 patients. No patients in group 2 developed serious bacterial infections after prostate ultrasound and biopsy. There was approximately a 5% incidence of serious bacterial infection in group 1 patients. Subgroup analysis revealed an almost 2.5 times increased risk of infection in diabetes patients undergoing prostate ultrasound and biopsy. There was a 10% risk of serious bacterial infection in diabetics compared with a 3.8% risk group 1 nondiabetes patients. The addition of a single dose of iv piperacillin/tazobactam along with standard fluoroquinolone prophylaxis substantially reduces the risk of serious bacterial infection after prostate ultrasound and biopsy (P < 0.02.Keywords: piperacillin/tazobactam, fluoroquinolone, prostate biopsy, infectious complications

  7. A novel method for accurate needle-tip identification in trans-rectal ultrasound-based high-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dandan; Todor, Dorin A

    2011-01-01

    In real-time trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS)-based high-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy, the accurate identification of needle-tip position is critical for treatment planning and delivery. Currently, needle-tip identification on ultrasound images can be subject to large uncertainty and errors because of ultrasound image quality and imaging artifacts. To address this problem, we developed a method based on physical measurements with simple and practical implementation to improve the accuracy and robustness of needle-tip identification. Our method uses measurements of the residual needle length and an off-line pre-established coordinate transformation factor, to calculate the needle-tip position on the TRUS images. The transformation factor was established through a one-time systematic set of measurements of the probe and template holder positions, applicable to all patients. To compare the accuracy and robustness of the proposed method and the conventional method (ultrasound detection), based on the gold-standard X-ray fluoroscopy, extensive measurements were conducted in water and gel phantoms. In water phantom, our method showed an average tip-detection accuracy of 0.7 mm compared with 1.6 mm of the conventional method. In gel phantom (more realistic and tissue-like), our method maintained its level of accuracy while the uncertainty of the conventional method was 3.4mm on average with maximum values of over 10mm because of imaging artifacts. A novel method based on simple physical measurements was developed to accurately detect the needle-tip position for TRUS-based high-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy. The method demonstrated much improved accuracy and robustness over the conventional method. Copyright © 2011 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 3D conformal MRI-controlled transurethral ultrasound prostate therapy: validation of numerical simulations and demonstration in tissue-mimicking gel phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtnyk, Mathieu; N'Djin, William Apoutou; Kobelevskiy, Ilya; Bronskill, Michael; Chopra, Rajiv

    2010-11-21

    MRI-controlled transurethral ultrasound therapy uses a linear array of transducer elements and active temperature feedback to create volumes of thermal coagulation shaped to predefined prostate geometries in 3D. The specific aims of this work were to demonstrate the accuracy and repeatability of producing large volumes of thermal coagulation (>10 cc) that conform to 3D human prostate shapes in a tissue-mimicking gel phantom, and to evaluate quantitatively the accuracy with which numerical simulations predict these 3D heating volumes under carefully controlled conditions. Eleven conformal 3D experiments were performed in a tissue-mimicking phantom within a 1.5T MR imager to obtain non-invasive temperature measurements during heating. Temperature feedback was used to control the rotation rate and ultrasound power of transurethral devices with up to five 3.5 × 5 mm active transducer elements. Heating patterns shaped to human prostate geometries were generated using devices operating at 4.7 or 8.0 MHz with surface acoustic intensities of up to 10 W cm(-2). Simulations were informed by transducer surface velocity measurements acquired with a scanning laser vibrometer enabling improved calculations of the acoustic pressure distribution in a gel phantom. Temperature dynamics were determined according to a FDTD solution to Pennes' BHTE. The 3D heating patterns produced in vitro were shaped very accurately to the prostate target volumes, within the spatial resolution of the MRI thermometry images. The volume of the treatment difference falling outside ± 1 mm of the target boundary was, on average, 0.21 cc or 1.5% of the prostate volume. The numerical simulations predicted the extent and shape of the coagulation boundary produced in gel to within (mean ± stdev [min, max]): 0.5 ± 0.4 [-1.0, 2.1] and -0.05 ± 0.4 [-1.2, 1.4] mm for the treatments at 4.7 and 8.0 MHz, respectively. The temperatures across all MRI thermometry images were predicted within -0.3 ± 1.6 °C and 0

  9. Ultrasound probe and needle-guide calibration for robotic ultrasound scanning and needle targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chunwoo; Chang, Doyoung; Petrisor, Doru; Chirikjian, Gregory; Han, Misop; Stoianovici, Dan

    2013-06-01

    Image-to-robot registration is a typical step for robotic image-guided interventions. If the imaging device uses a portable imaging probe that is held by a robot, this registration is constant and has been commonly named probe calibration. The same applies to probes tracked by a position measurement device. We report a calibration method for 2-D ultrasound probes using robotic manipulation and a planar calibration rig. Moreover, a needle guide that is attached to the probe is also calibrated for ultrasound-guided needle targeting. The method is applied to a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) probe for robot-assisted prostate biopsy. Validation experiments include TRUS-guided needle targeting accuracy tests. This paper outlines the entire process from the calibration to image-guided targeting. Freehand TRUS-guided prostate biopsy is the primary method of diagnosing prostate cancer, with over 1.2 million procedures performed annually in the U.S. alone. However, freehand biopsy is a highly challenging procedure with subjective quality control. As such, biopsy devices are emerging to assist the physician. Here, we present a method that uses robotic TRUS manipulation. A 2-D TRUS probe is supported by a 4-degree-of-freedom robot. The robot performs ultrasound scanning, enabling 3-D reconstructions. Based on the images, the robot orients a needle guide on target for biopsy. The biopsy is acquired manually through the guide. In vitro tests showed that the 3-D images were geometrically accurate, and an image-based needle targeting accuracy was 1.55 mm. These validate the probe calibration presented and the overall robotic system for needle targeting. Targeting accuracy is sufficient for targeting small, clinically significant prostatic cancer lesions, but actual in vivo targeting will include additional error components that will have to be determined.

  10. A compact mechatronic system for 3D ultrasound guided prostate interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bax, Jeffrey; Smith, David; Bartha, Laura; Montreuil, Jacques; Sherebrin, Shi; Gardi, Lori; Edirisinghe, Chandima; Fenster, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Ultrasound imaging has improved the treatment of prostate cancer by producing increasingly higher quality images and influencing sophisticated targeting procedures for the insertion of radioactive seeds during brachytherapy. However, it is critical that the needles be placed accurately within the prostate to deliver the therapy to the planned location and avoid complications of damaging surrounding tissues. Methods: The authors have developed a compact mechatronic system, as well as an effective method for guiding and controlling the insertion of transperineal needles into the prostate. This system has been designed to allow guidance of a needle obliquely in 3D space into the prostate, thereby reducing pubic arch interference. The choice of needle trajectory and location in the prostate can be adjusted manually or with computer control. Results: To validate the system, a series of experiments were performed on phantoms. The 3D scan of the string phantom produced minimal geometric error, which was less than 0.4 mm. Needle guidance accuracy tests in agar prostate phantoms showed that the mean error of bead placement was less then 1.6 mm along parallel needle paths that were within 1.2 mm of the intended target and 1 deg. from the preplanned trajectory. At oblique angles of up to 15 deg. relative to the probe axis, beads were placed to within 3.0 mm along a trajectory that were within 2.0 mm of the target with an angular error less than 2 deg. Conclusions: By combining 3D TRUS imaging system to a needle tracking linkage, this system should improve the physician's ability to target and accurately guide a needle to selected targets without the need for the computer to directly manipulate and insert the needle. This would be beneficial as the physician has complete control of the system and can safely maneuver the needle guide around obstacles such as previously placed needles.

  11. Method comparison of ultrasound and kilovoltage x-ray fiducial marker imaging for prostate radiotherapy targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, Clifton David; Jr, Charles R Thomas; Schwartz, Scott; Golden, Nanalei; Ting, Joe; Wong, Adrian; Erdogmus, Deniz; Scarbrough, Todd J

    2006-01-01

    Several measurement techniques have been developed to address the capability for target volume reduction via target localization in image-guided radiotherapy; among these have been ultrasound (US) and fiducial marker (FM) software-assisted localization. In order to assess interchangeability between methods, US and FM localization were compared using established techniques for determination of agreement between measurement methods when a 'gold-standard' comparator does not exist, after performing both techniques daily on a sequential series of patients. At least 3 days prior to CT simulation, four gold seeds were placed within the prostate. FM software-assisted localization utilized the ExacTrac X-Ray 6D (BrainLab AG, Germany) kVp x-ray image acquisition system to determine prostate position; US prostate targeting was performed on each patient using the SonArray (Varian, Palo Alto, CA). Patients were aligned daily using laser alignment of skin marks. Directional shifts were then calculated by each respective system in the X, Y and Z dimensions before each daily treatment fraction, previous to any treatment or couch adjustment, as well as a composite vector of displacement. Directional shift agreement in each axis was compared using Altman-Bland limits of agreement, Lin's concordance coefficient with Partik's grading schema, and Deming orthogonal bias-weighted correlation methodology. 1019 software-assisted shifts were suggested by US and FM in 39 patients. The 95% limits of agreement in X, Y and Z axes were ±9.4 mm, ±11.3 mm and ±13.4, respectively. Three-dimensionally, measurements agreed within 13.4 mm in 95% of all paired measures. In all axes, concordance was graded as 'poor' or 'unacceptable'. Deming regression detected proportional bias in both directional axes and three-dimensional vectors. Our data suggest substantial differences between US and FM image-guided measures and subsequent suggested directional shifts. Analysis reveals that the vast majority of

  12. WE-B-210-02: The Advent of Ultrafast Imaging in Biomedical Ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanter, M.

    2015-01-01

    In the last fifteen years, the introduction of plane or diverging wave transmissions rather than line by line scanning focused beams has broken the conventional barriers of ultrasound imaging. By using such large field of view transmissions, the frame rate reaches the theoretical limit of physics dictated by the ultrasound speed and an ultrasonic map can be provided typically in tens of micro-seconds (several thousands of frames per second). Interestingly, this leap in frame rate is not only a technological breakthrough but it permits the advent of completely new ultrasound imaging modes, including shear wave elastography, electromechanical wave imaging, ultrafast doppler, ultrafast contrast imaging, and even functional ultrasound imaging of brain activity (fUltrasound) introducing Ultrasound as an emerging full-fledged neuroimaging modality. At ultrafast frame rates, it becomes possible to track in real time the transient vibrations – known as shear waves – propagating through organs. Such “human body seismology” provides quantitative maps of local tissue stiffness whose added value for diagnosis has been recently demonstrated in many fields of radiology (breast, prostate and liver cancer, cardiovascular imaging, …). Today, Supersonic Imagine company is commercializing the first clinical ultrafast ultrasound scanner, Aixplorer with real time Shear Wave Elastography. This is the first example of an ultrafast Ultrasound approach surpassing the research phase and now widely spread in the clinical medical ultrasound community with an installed base of more than 1000 Aixplorer systems in 54 countries worldwide. For blood flow imaging, ultrafast Doppler permits high-precision characterization of complex vascular and cardiac flows. It also gives ultrasound the ability to detect very subtle blood flow in very small vessels. In the brain, such ultrasensitive Doppler paves the way for fUltrasound (functional ultrasound imaging) of brain activity with unprecedented

  13. WE-B-210-02: The Advent of Ultrafast Imaging in Biomedical Ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanter, M. [Laboratoire Ondes et Acoustique (France)

    2015-06-15

    In the last fifteen years, the introduction of plane or diverging wave transmissions rather than line by line scanning focused beams has broken the conventional barriers of ultrasound imaging. By using such large field of view transmissions, the frame rate reaches the theoretical limit of physics dictated by the ultrasound speed and an ultrasonic map can be provided typically in tens of micro-seconds (several thousands of frames per second). Interestingly, this leap in frame rate is not only a technological breakthrough but it permits the advent of completely new ultrasound imaging modes, including shear wave elastography, electromechanical wave imaging, ultrafast doppler, ultrafast contrast imaging, and even functional ultrasound imaging of brain activity (fUltrasound) introducing Ultrasound as an emerging full-fledged neuroimaging modality. At ultrafast frame rates, it becomes possible to track in real time the transient vibrations – known as shear waves – propagating through organs. Such “human body seismology” provides quantitative maps of local tissue stiffness whose added value for diagnosis has been recently demonstrated in many fields of radiology (breast, prostate and liver cancer, cardiovascular imaging, …). Today, Supersonic Imagine company is commercializing the first clinical ultrafast ultrasound scanner, Aixplorer with real time Shear Wave Elastography. This is the first example of an ultrafast Ultrasound approach surpassing the research phase and now widely spread in the clinical medical ultrasound community with an installed base of more than 1000 Aixplorer systems in 54 countries worldwide. For blood flow imaging, ultrafast Doppler permits high-precision characterization of complex vascular and cardiac flows. It also gives ultrasound the ability to detect very subtle blood flow in very small vessels. In the brain, such ultrasensitive Doppler paves the way for fUltrasound (functional ultrasound imaging) of brain activity with unprecedented

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging-guided biopsies may improve diagnosis in biopsy-naive men with suspicion of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Mads Dochedahl; Balslev, Ingegerd; Boesen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate whether a short prostate biparametric magnetic resonance imaging (bp-MRI) protocol provides a valuable diagnostic addition for biopsy guidance in biopsy-naive men with a suspicion of prostate cancer (PCa). METHODS: A total of 62...... biopsy-naive patients referred to a systematic transrectal ultrasound biopsy (TRUS-bx) due to suspicion of PCa were prospectively enrolled. Bp-MRI was performed before biopsy. All lesions were scored according to the modified Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) version 2. All patients...

  15. Acute bacterial prostatitis after transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy: epidemiological, bacteria and treatment patterns from a 4-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campeggi, Alexandre; Ouzaid, Idir; Xylinas, Evanguelos; Lesprit, Philippe; Hoznek, Andras; Vordos, Dimitri; Abbou, Claude-Clément; Salomon, Laurent; de la Taille, Alexandre

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the incidence, and clinical and bacterial features of iatrogenic prostatitis within 1 month after transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy for detection of prostate cancer. From January 2006 to December 2009, 3000 patients underwent a 21-core transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy at Henri Mondor Hospital (Créteil, France) and were prospectively followed. All patients had a fluoroquinolone antimicrobial prophylaxis for 7 days. The primary study end-point was to evaluate the incidence of iatrogenic acute prostatitis within 1 month after the biopsy. The secondary end-point was to analyze the clinical and the bacterial features of the prostatitis. Overall, 20 patients of the entire study population (0.67%) had an acute bacterial prostatitis within 2.90 ± 1.77 days (range 1-7 days) after the transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy. The groups of patients with (n = 20) and without (n = 2980) infection were similar in terms of age, prostate-specific antigen level and prostate volume. Escherichia coli was the only isolated bacteria. The subsequent tests for antibiotic susceptibility showed a 95% resistance for fluroquinolone and amoxicillin. Resistance to amoxiclav, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, third generation cephalosporin and amikacin was 70%, 70%, 25% and 5% respectively. No resistance to imipenem was reported. They were all admitted for treatment without the need of intensive care unit referral. Complete recovery was achieved after 21.4 ± 7 days of antibiotic treatment. A fluroquinolone-based regimen still represents an appropriate prophylaxis protocol to minimize the risk of acute prostatitis secondary to prostate biopsy. Patients should be provided the appropriate care soon after the onset of the symptoms. An intravenous third generation cephalosporin or imipenem-based therapy seem to provide satisfying results. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  16. [Cost analysis of ultrasound-guided transrectal needle biopsy in prostatic carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissoli, E; Fandella, A; La Torre, E; Faggiano, L; Anselmo, G; Frasson, F

    1998-04-01

    The literature mortality and morbidity rates from prostatic carcinoma prompt to the better use of some routine diagnostic tools such as transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy. We evaluated the overall cost of transrectal ultrasound biopsy (TRUSB) of the prostate and investigated the economic impact of the procedures currently used to diagnose prostatic carcinoma. The total cost of TRUSB was calculated with reference to 247 procedures performed in 1996. The following cost factors were evaluated: personnel, materials, maintenance-equipment depreciation, energy consumption and hospital overheads. A literature review was also carried out to check if our extrapolated costs corresponded to those of other authors worldwide and to consider them in the wider framework of the cost effectiveness of the strategies for the early diagnosis of prostatic cancer. The overall cost of TRUSB was Itl. 249,000, obtained by adding together the costs of: personnel (Itl. 160,000); materials (Itl. 59,000); equipment maintenance and depreciation (Itl. 12,400); energy consumption (Itl. 100); hospital overheads (Itl. 17,500). The literature review points out TRUSB as a clinically invasive tool for diagnosing prostatic carcinoma whose cost-effectiveness is debated. Cadaver studies report the presence of cancer cells in the prostate of 50% of 70-year-old men, while extrapolations calculate a morbidity from prostatic carcinoma in 9.5% of 50-year-old men. It is therefore obvious that randomized prostatic biopsies, methods apart, are very likely to be positive. This probability varies with the patient's age, the level of prostate specific antigen (PSA), the density of PSA/cm3 of prostate volume (PSAD), and the positivity of exploration and/or transrectal ultrasound findings. Despite the strict application of all these criteria and the critical assessment of the patient's general conditions, TRUSB is indicated for 16% of the male population over 50, with obvious implications. It has been recently

  17. 3D non-rigid surface-based MR-TRUS registration for image-guided prostate biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yue; Qiu, Wu; Romagnoli, Cesare; Fenster, Aaron

    2014-03-01

    Two dimensional (2D) transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided prostate biopsy is the standard approach for definitive diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). However, due to the lack of image contrast of prostate tumors needed to clearly visualize early-stage PCa, prostate biopsy often results in false negatives, requiring repeat biopsies. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has been considered to be a promising imaging modality for noninvasive identification of PCa, since it can provide a high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of early stage PCa. Our main objective is to develop and validate a registration method of 3D MR-TRUS images, allowing generation of volumetric 3D maps of targets identified in 3D MR images to be biopsied using 3D TRUS images. Our registration method first makes use of an initial rigid registration of 3D MR images to 3D TRUS images using 6 manually placed approximately corresponding landmarks in each image. Following the manual initialization, two prostate surfaces are segmented from 3D MR and TRUS images and then non-rigidly registered using a thin-plate spline (TPS) algorithm. The registration accuracy was evaluated using 4 patient images by measuring target registration error (TRE) of manually identified corresponding intrinsic fiducials (calcifications and/or cysts) in the prostates. Experimental results show that the proposed method yielded an overall mean TRE of 2.05 mm, which is favorably comparable to a clinical requirement for an error of less than 2.5 mm.

  18. [Interest using 3D ultrasound and MRI fusion biopsy for prostate cancer detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marien, A; De Castro Abreu, A; Gill, I; Villers, A; Ukimura, O

    2017-09-01

    The strategic therapy for prostate cancer depends on histo-pronostics data, which could be upgraded by obtaining targeted biopsies (TB) with MRI (magnetic resonance imagery) fusion 3D ultrasound. To compare diagnostic yield of image fusion guided prostate biopsy using image fusion of multi-parametric MRI (mpMRI) with 3D-TRUS. Between January 2010 and April 2013, 179 consecutive patients underwent outpatient TRUS biopsy using the real-time 3D TRUS tracking system (Urostation™). These patients underwent MRI-TRUS fusion targeted biopsies (TB) with 3D volume data of the MRI elastically fused with 3D TRUS at the time of biopsy. A hundred and seventy-three patients had TBs with fusion. Mean biopsy core per patient were 11.1 (6-14) for SB and 2.4 (1-6) for TB. SBs were positive in 11% compared to 56% for TB (Pperform the higher level of MR/US fusion and should be use for active surveillance. 4. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Ultrasound imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, P.N.T.

    1983-01-01

    Ultrasound is a form of energy which consists of mechanical vibrations the frequencies of which are so high that they are above the range of human hearing. The lower frequency limit of the ultrasonic spectrum may generally be taken to be about 20 kHz. Most biomedical applications of ultrasound employ frequencies in the range 1-15 MHz. At these frequencies, the wavelength is in the range 1.5 - 0.1 mm in soft tissues, and narrow beams of ultrasound can be generated which propagate through such tissues without excessive attenuation. This chapter begins with brief reviews of the physics of diagnostic ultrasound pulse-echo imaging methods and Doppler imaging methods. The remainder of the chapter is a resume of the applications of ultrasonic imaging to physiological measurement

  20. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Imaging? Ultrasound waves are disrupted by air or gas; therefore ultrasound is not an ideal imaging technique ... with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes ...

  1. Antibiotic prophylaxis for transrectal ultrasound biopsy of the prostate in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smyth, L G

    2012-03-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common solid cancer affecting men in Ireland. Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) biopsies of the prostate are routinely performed to diagnose prostate cancer. They are, in general, a safe procedure but are associated with a significant risk of infective complications ranging from fever, urinary tract infection to severe urosepsis. At present, there are no recommended national guidelines on the use of antibiotic prophylaxis to minimise the risk of infective complications post-TRUS biopsy.

  2. A Workflow to Improve the Alignment of Prostate Imaging with Whole-mount Histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hidekazu; Nir, Dror; Vyas, Lona; Chang, Richard T; Popert, Rick; Cahill, Declan; Challacombe, Ben; Dasgupta, Prokar; Chandra, Ashish

    2014-08-01

    Evaluation of prostate imaging tests against whole-mount histology specimens requires accurate alignment between radiologic and histologic data sets. Misalignment results in false-positive and -negative zones as assessed by imaging. We describe a workflow for three-dimensional alignment of prostate imaging data against whole-mount prostatectomy reference specimens and assess its performance against a standard workflow. Ethical approval was granted. Patients underwent motorized transrectal ultrasound (Prostate Histoscanning) to generate a three-dimensional image of the prostate before radical prostatectomy. The test workflow incorporated steps for axial alignment between imaging and histology, size adjustments following formalin fixation, and use of custom-made parallel cutters and digital caliper instruments. The control workflow comprised freehand cutting and assumed homogeneous block thicknesses at the same relative angles between pathology and imaging sections. Thirty radical prostatectomy specimens were histologically and radiologically processed, either by an alignment-optimized workflow (n = 20) or a control workflow (n = 10). The optimized workflow generated tissue blocks of heterogeneous thicknesses but with no significant drifting in the cutting plane. The control workflow resulted in significantly nonparallel blocks, accurately matching only one out of four histology blocks to their respective imaging data. The image-to-histology alignment accuracy was 20% greater in the optimized workflow (P alignment was observed in the optimized workflow. Evaluation of prostate imaging biomarkers using whole-mount histology references should include a test-to-reference spatial alignment workflow. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Gynecologic Cancers Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page This page was reviewed on ... with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. ... Images related to Ultrasound - Pelvis Sponsored by Please ...

  4. Real-time image-based B-mode ultrasound image simulation of needles using tensor-product interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mengchen; Salcudean, Septimiu E

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we propose an interpolation-based method for simulating rigid needles in B-mode ultrasound images in real time. We parameterize the needle B-mode image as a function of needle position and orientation. We collect needle images under various spatial configurations in a water-tank using a needle guidance robot. Then we use multidimensional tensor-product interpolation to simulate images of needles with arbitrary poses and positions using collected images. After further processing, the interpolated needle and seed images are superimposed on top of phantom or tissue image backgrounds. The similarity between the simulated and the real images is measured using a correlation metric. A comparison is also performed with in vivo images obtained during prostate brachytherapy. Our results, carried out for both the convex (transverse plane) and linear (sagittal/para-sagittal plane) arrays of a trans-rectal transducer indicate that our interpolation method produces good results while requiring modest computing resources. The needle simulation method we present can be extended to the simulation of ultrasound images of other wire-like objects. In particular, we have shown that the proposed approach can be used to simulate brachytherapy seeds.

  5. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Conventional ultrasound displays the images in thin, ...

  6. Medical ultrasound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2007-01-01

    The paper gives an introduction to current medical ultrasound imaging systems. The basics of anatomic and blood flow imaging are described. The properties of medical ultrasound and its focusing are described, and the various methods for two- and three-dimensional imaging of the human anatomy...

  7. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... those sound waves to create an image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in ... ultrasound study may be part of an ultrasound examination. Doppler ultrasound , also called color Doppler ultrasonography, is ...

  8. Reproducibility of contrast-enhanced transrectal ultrasound of the prostate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedelaar, J. P.; Goossen, T. E.; Wijkstra, H.; de la Rosette, J. J.

    2001-01-01

    Transrectal three-dimensional (3-D) contrast-enhanced power Doppler ultrasound (US) is a novel technique for studying possible prostate malignancy. Before studies can be performed to investigate the clinical validity of the technique, reproducibility of the contrast US studies must be proven.

  9. Value of contrast-enhanced sonographic micro flow imaging for prostate cancer detection with t-PSA level of 4–10 ng/mL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Yi-Fen; Li, Feng-Hua; Xie, Shao-Wei; Xia, Jian-Guo; Fang, Hua; Li, Hong-Li

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the efficiency of contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic micro flow imaging (MFI) with conventional transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) in detecting prostate cancer with serum total prostate-specific antigen (t-PSA) of 4.0–10.0 ng/mL. To evaluate the value of contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic MFI in detecting prostate cancer with t-PSA in diagnostic gray zone. Methods: 47 patients with t-PSA 4.0–10.0 ng/mL underwent gray scale, power Doppler TRUS and MFI examinations before ultrasound guided biopsies. Biopsies were performed at twelve sites in the base, the mid-gland and the apex of the prostate in each patient, when there was no abnormal ultrasound finding. When an abnormality was present at MFI, the biopsy specimen from the corresponding site was directed toward the abnormal finding. With histological results of prostate biopsy as reference standards, we assessed the cancer detection of these three methods. Results: 564 specimens were collected in this study, in which 101 were prostate cancer confirmed histologically. 152 of 564 specimens were demonstrated abnormal on MFI images, in which 71 were malignant and 81 were benign confirmed histologically. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for MFI in detecting prostate caner were 70.3%, 82.5%, 80.3%, 46.7% and 92.7%, respectively. The sensitivity and NPV for MFI were significantly better than gray scale (38.6%, 86.9%) and power Doppler (32.7%, 86.0%) (P < 0.001) TRUS. Conclusions: Contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic MFI could significantly improve the detection rate of prostate cancer with t-PSA in diagnostic gray zone (4–10 ng/mL) than conventional ultrasound.

  10. Early experience with multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging-targeted biopsies under visual transrectal ultrasound guidance in patients suspicious for prostate cancer undergoing repeated biopsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Lars; Noergaard, Nis; Chabanova, Elizaveta

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the detection rate of prostate cancer (PCa) by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging-targeted biopsies (mp-MRI-bx) in patients with prior negative transrectal ultrasound biopsy (TRUS-bx) sessions without previous experience of this......-RADS) and Likert classification. All underwent repeated TRUS-bx (10 cores) and mp-MRI-bx under visual TRUS guidance of any mp-MRI-suspicious lesion not targeted by systematic TRUS-bx. RESULTS: PCa was found in 39 out of 83 patients (47%) and mp-MRI identified at least one lesion with some degree of suspicion...

  11. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia-like ductal prostatic adenocarcinoma: A case suitable for active surveillance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroush Rais-Bahrami

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to typical prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN-like ductal adenocarcinoma is a rare variant of prostate cancer with low-grade clinical behavior. We report a case of a 66-year-old African-American male with an elevated serum prostate-specific antigen who underwent multiparametric prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and MRI/ultrasound fusion-guided biopsies. Pathology demonstrated low-volume Gleason score 3 + 3 = 6 (Grade Group 1, acinar adenocarcinoma involving one core and PIN-like ductal adenocarcinoma on a separate core. Herein, we discuss the potential role of active surveillance for patients with this rare variant of prostate cancer found in the era of advanced imaging with multiparametric MRI for prostate cancer.

  12. Ultrasonographic and cytopathologic aspects of prostate disease in 52 dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Cunha Lacreta Junior

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated 52 dogs, which were male, intact, varied in age, of pure or mixed breed, with clinical signs suggestive of prostatic disease. Each individual underwent an ultrasound examination and fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the prostate gland for cytological evaluation. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH was the most frequent prostatic disease, followed by cystic benign prostatic hyperplasia, bacterial prostatitis, abscesses, cysts, adenocarcinoma, nonbacterial prostatitis and paraprostatic cysts. The highest frequencies of prostate disorder were found in mixed breeds, followed by poodles and German shepherds. Ultrasound examination allowed the determination of prostate size, as well as the visualization of the diseases affecting the gland, and was effective in guiding aspiration biopsy. The cytological evaluation of the gland, especially when associated with changes in ultrasound images, revealed the presumptive diagnosis of the condition.

  13. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging ...

  14. Automated analysis and interpretation of transrectal ultrasonography images in patients with prostatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de la Rosette, J. J.; Giesen, R. J.; Huynen, A. L.; Aarnink, R. G.; van Iersel, M. P.; Debruyne, F. M.; Wijkstra, H.

    1995-01-01

    Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) offers a valuable complement to digital rectal examination (DRE) in diagnosing prostate diseases. However, in case of prostatitis syndromes, contradictions are found with regard to characteristic ultrasound features in these patients. Therefore we sought for better

  15. MRI of the prostate: potential role of robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fütterer, Jurgen J.; Misra, Sarthak; Macura, Katarzyna J.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in the male population. Transrectal ultrasound- guided biopsy is still the imaging modality of choice in detecting prostate cancer. However, with prostate cancer being detected at an earlier stage, most prostate cancers tend to be isoechoic

  16. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound images are reviewed. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? For ... in the region of the prostate. A biopsy will add time to the procedure. If a Doppler ...

  17. WE-A-17A-11: Implanted Brachytherapy Seed Movement Due to Transrectal Ultrasound Probe-Induced Prostate Deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, D; Usmani, N; Sloboda, R [Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Meyer, T; Husain, S; Angyalfi, S [Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Kay, I [Canterbury District Health Board, Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To characterize the movement of implanted brachytherapy seeds due to transrectal ultrasound probe-induced prostate deformation and to estimate the effects on prostate dosimetry. Methods: Implanted probe-in and probe-removed seed distributions were reconstructed for 10 patients using C-arm fluoroscopy imaging. The prostate was delineated on ultrasound and registered to the fluoroscopy seeds using a visible subset of seeds and residual needle tracks. A linear tensor and shearing model correlated the seed movement with position. The seed movement model was used to infer the underlying prostate deformation and to simulate the prostate contour without probe compression. Changes in prostate and surrogate urethra dosimetry were calculated. Results: Seed movement patterns reflecting elastic decompression, lateral shearing, and rectal bending were observed. Elastic decompression was characterized by anterior-posterior expansion and superior-inferior and lateral contractions. For lateral shearing, anterior movement up to 6 mm was observed for extraprostatic seeds in the lateral peripheral region. The average intra-prostatic seed movement was 1.3 mm, and the residual after linear modeling was 0.6 mm. Prostate D90 increased by 4 Gy on average (8 Gy max) and was correlated with elastic decompression. For selected patients, lateral shearing resulted in differential change in D90 of 7 Gy between anterior and posterior quadrants, and increase in whole prostate D90 of 4 Gy. Urethra D10 increased by 4 Gy. Conclusion: Seed movement upon probe removal was characterized. The proposed model captured the linear correlation between seed movement and position. Whole prostate dose coverage increased slightly, due to the small but systematic seed movement associated with elastic decompression. Lateral shearing movement increased dose coverage in the anterior-lateral region, at the expense of the posterior-lateral region. The effect on whole prostate D90 was smaller due to the subset

  18. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound ... computer or television monitor. The image is created based on the amplitude (loudness), frequency (pitch) and time ...

  19. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... testing. image the breasts and guide biopsy of breast cancer ( see the Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy page . diagnose ... Ultrasound is the preferred imaging modality for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnant women and their unborn ...

  20. Effect of using different U/S probe Standoff materials in image geometry for interventional procedures: the example of prostate

    OpenAIRE

    Dimos Baltas; George Sakas; Pawel Zogal; Vasiliki Kefala; Zaira Katsilieri; Saeed Butt; Natasa Milickovic; Stefanos Diamantopoulos

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study investigates the distortion of geometry of catheters and anatomy in acquired U/S images, caused by utilizing various stand-off materials for covering a transrectal bi-planar ultrasound probe in HDR and LDR prostate brachytherapy, biopsy and other interventional procedures. Furthermore, an evaluation of currently established water-bath based quality assurance (QA) procedures is presented. Material and methods Image acquisitions of an ultrasound QA setup were carried out at 5...

  1. Assessment of the feasibility of using transrectal ultrasound for postimplant dosimetry in low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, Rhian Siân, E-mail: rhian.s.davies@wales.nhs.uk; Perrett, Teresa; Powell, Jane; Barber, Jim; Tanguay, Jacob; Button, Michael; Cochlin, Dennis; Smith, Christian; Lester, Jason Francis

    2016-01-01

    A study was performed to establish whether transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-based postimplant dosimetry (PID) is both practically feasible and comparable to computed tomography (CT)-based PID, recommended in current published guidelines. In total, 22 patients treated consecutively at a single cancer center with low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy for early-stage prostate cancer had a transrectal ultrasound performed immediately after implant (d0-TRUS) and computed tomography scan 30 days after implant (d30-CT). Postimplant dosimetry planning was performed on both image sets and the results were compared. The interobserver reproducibility of the transrectal ultrasound postimplant dosimetry planning technique was also assessed. It was noticed that there was no significant difference in mean prostate D{sub 90} (136.5 Gy and 144.4 Gy, p = 0.2197), V{sub 100} (86.4% and 89.1%, p = 0.1480) and V{sub 150} (52.0% and 47.8%, p = 0.1657) for d30-CT and d0-TRUS, respectively. Rectal doses were significantly higher for d0-TRUS than d30-CT. Urethral doses were available with d0-TRUS only. We have shown that d0-TRUS PID is a useful tool for assessing the quality of an implant after low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy and is comparable to d30-CT PID. There are clear advantages to its use in terms of resource and time efficiency both for the clinical team and the patient.

  2. A Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seong Woo

    1999-01-01

    The ability to see the internal organs of the human body in a noninvasive way is a powerful diagnostic tool of modern medicine. Among these imaging modalities such as X-ray, MRI, and ultrasound. MRI and ultrasound are presenting much less risk of undesirable damage of both patient and examiner. In fact, no deleterious effects have been reported as a result of clinical examination by using MRI and ultrasound diagnostic equipment. As a result, their market volume has been rapidly increased. MRI has a good resolution. but there are a few disadvantages such as high price. non-real-time imaging capability. and expensive diagnostic cost. On the other hand, the ultrasound imaging system has inherently poor resolution as compared with X-ray and MRI. In spite of its poor resolution, the ultrasound diagnostic equipment is lower in price and has an ability of real-time imaging as compared with the others. As a result, the ultrasound imaging system has become general and essential modality for imaging the internal organs of human body. In this review various researches and developments to enhance the resolution of the ultrasound images are explained and future trends of the ultrasound imaging technology are described

  3. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... modality for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnant women and their unborn babies. Ultrasound provides real-time ...

  4. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Conventional ultrasound displays the images in thin, flat sections of the body. Advancements in ultrasound technology include three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound that formats ...

  5. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... D images. A Doppler ultrasound study may be part of an ultrasound examination. Doppler ultrasound , also called ... terms of the distance traveled per unit of time, rather than as a color picture. It can ...

  6. The effect of ultrasound-guided compression immediately after transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy on postbiopsy bleeding: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bong Hee; Kim, Jung Im; Bae, Sang Rak; Lee, Yong Seok; Kang, Sung Hak; Han, Chang Hee

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate whether ultrasound-guided compression performed immediately after transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy decreases bleeding complications. We prospectively evaluated a total of 148 consecutive patients who underwent TRUS-guided prostate biopsy between March 2015 and July 2016. Systematic 12-core prostate biopsy was performed in all patients. Of these, 100 patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: the compression group (n = 50) underwent TRUS-guided compression on bleeding biopsy tracts immediately after prostate biopsy, while the non-compression group (n = 50) underwent TRUS-guided prostate biopsy alone. The incidence rate and duration of hematuria, hematospermia, and rectal bleeding were compared between the two groups. The incidence rates of hematuria and hematospermia were not significantly different between the two groups (60 vs. 64%, p = 0.68; 22 vs. 30%, p = 0.362, respectively, for compression vs. non-compression group). The rectal bleeding incidence was significantly lower in the compression group as compared to the non-compression group (20 vs. 44%, p = 0.01). However, there were no significant differences in the median duration of hematuria, hematospermia, or rectal bleeding between the two groups (2, 8, and 2 days vs. 2, 10, and 1 days, p > 0.05, respectively, for compression vs. non-compression group). TRUS-guided compression [p = 0.004, odds ratio (OR) 0.25] and patient age (p = 0.013, OR 0.93) were significantly protective against the occurrence of rectal bleeding after prostate biopsy in multivariable analysis. Although it has no impact on other complications, ultrasound-guided compression on bleeding biopsy tracts performed immediately after TRUS-guided prostate biopsy is an effective and practical method to treat or decrease rectal bleeding.

  7. Prostate cancer in magnetic resonance imaging: diagnostic utilites of spectroscopic sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caivano, Rocchina; Cirillo, Patrizia; Lotumolo, Antonella; Fortunato, Giovanna; Zandolino, Alexis; Cammarota, Aldo; Balestra, Antonio; Macarini, Luca; Vita, Giulia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our work is to determine the efficacy of a combined study 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging (3T MRI), with phased-array coil, for the detection of prostate cancer using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and diffusion-weighted images (DWI) in identifying doubt nodules. In this study, we prospectively studied 46 patients who consecutively underwent digital-rectal exploration for high doses of prostate specific antigen (PSA), as well as a MRI examination and a subsequent rectal biopsy. The study of magnetic resonance imaging was performed with a Philips Achieva 3T scanner and phased-array coil. The images were obtained with turbo spin-echo sequences T2-weighted images, T1-weighted before and after the administration of contrast medium, DWI sequences and 3D spectroscopic sequences. The ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy was performed approximately 15 days after the MRI. The data obtained from MR images and spectroscopy were correlated with histological data. MRI revealed sensitivity and specificity of 88% and 61% respectively and positive predictive value (PPV) of 73%, negative predicted value (NPV) of 81% and accuracy of 76%. In identifying the location of prostate cancer, the sensitivity of 3T MRS was 92%, with a specificity of 89%, PPV of 87%, NPV of 88% and accuracy of 87%; DWI showed a sensitivity of 88%, specificity of 61%, PPV of 73%, NPV of 81% and accuracy of 76%. The 3T MR study with phased-array coil and the use of DWI and spectroscopic sequences, in addition to T2-weighted sequences, revealed to be accurate in the diagnosis of prostate cancer and in the identification of nodules to be biopsied. It may be indicated as a resolute way before biopsy in patients with elevated PSA value and can be proposed in the staging and follow-up.

  8. SU-F-T-40: Can CBCT Images Be Used for Volume Studies of Prostate Seed Implants for Boost Treatment?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, H; Lee, S; Diwanji, T; Amin, P; Krudys, K; Guerrero, M [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In our clinic, the planning CT is used for definitive and boost low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy treatments to determine the ultrasound volume in the operating room (OR) at the time of the implant. While the CT overestimation of OR volume is known, a larger estimation discrepancy has been observed for boost treatments. A possible reason is the prostate size reduction during EBRT for boost patients. Since cone-beam CT (CBCT) is often used as routine imaging guidance of EBRT, this prostate volume change may be captured. This study investigates if CBCT taken during EBRT includes the volume change information and therefore beats CT in estimating the prostate OR volumes. Methods: 9 prostate patients treated with EBRT (45Gy in 1.8Gy per fractions to the whole pelvis) and I-125 seed implants (108Gy) were involved in this study. During EBRT, CBCT image guidance was performed on a weekly basis. For each patient, the prostate volumes on the first and the last available CBCT images were manually contoured by a physician. These volumes were then compared to each other and with the contoured volumes from the planning CT and from the ultrasound images in the OR. Results: The first and the last CBCT images did not show significant prostate volume change. Their average +/− standard deviation of prostate volumes were 24.4cc+/−14.6cc and 29.9cc+/−16.1cc, respectively (T-test p=0.68). The ratio of the OR volume to the last CBCT (0.71+/−0.21) was not significantly different from the ratio of OR volumes to the planning CT (0.61+/−0.13) (p=0.25). Conclusion: In this study, CBCT does not show significant prostate volume changes during EBRT. CBCT and CT volumes are quite consistent and no improvement of volume estimation using CBCT is observed. The advantage of CBCT as a replacement of CT for volume study of boost LDR brachytherapy is limited.

  9. Portable Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    di Ianni, Tommaso

    This PhD project investigates hardware strategies and imaging methods for hand-held ultrasound systems. The overall idea is to use a wireless ultrasound probe linked to general-purpose mobile devices for the processing and visualization. The approach has the potential to reduce the upfront costs...... beamforming strategies are simulated from a system-level perspective. The quality of the B-mode image is evaluated and the minimum specifications are derived for the design of a portable probe with integrated electronics in-handle. The system is based on a synthetic aperture sequential beamforming approach...... that allows to significantly reduce the data rate between the probe and processing unit. The second part investigates the feasibility of vector flow imaging in a hand-held ultrasound system. Vector flow imaging overcomes the limitations of conventional imaging methods in terms of flow angle compensation...

  10. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then ... ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound waves are ...

  11. Inter- and Intra-Observer Variability in Prostate Definition With Tissue Harmonic and Brightness Mode Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandhu, Gurpreet Kaur; Dunscombe, Peter; Meyer, Tyler; Pavamani, Simon; Khan, Rao

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to compare the relative utility of tissue harmonic (H) and brightness (B) transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images of the prostate by studying interobserver and intraobserver variation in prostate delineation. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with early-stage disease were randomly selected. TRUS images of prostates were acquired using B and H modes. The prostates on all images were contoured by an experienced radiation oncologist (RO) and five equally trained observers. The observers were blinded to information regarding patient and imaging mode. The volumes of prostate glands and areas of midgland slices were calculated. Volumes contoured were compared among the observers and between observer group and RO. Contours on one patient were repeated five times by four observers to evaluate the intraobserver variability. Results: A one-sample Student t-test showed the volumes outlined by five observers are in agreement (p > 0.05) with the RO. Paired Student t-test showed prostate volumes (p = 0.008) and midgland areas (p = 0.006) with H mode were significantly smaller than that with B mode. Two-factor analysis of variances showed significant interobserver variability (p < 0.001) in prostate volumes and areas. Inter- and intraobserver consistency was quantified as the standard deviation of mean volumes and areas, and concordance indices. It was found that for small glands (≤35 cc) H mode provided greater interobserver consistency; however, for large glands (≥35 cc), B mode provided more consistent estimates. Conclusions: H mode provided superior inter- and intraobserver agreement in prostate volume definition for small to medium prostates. In large glands, H mode does not exhibit any additional advantage. Although harmonic imaging has not proven advantageous for all cases, its utilization seems to be judicious for small prostates.

  12. Sci-Thur AM: YIS – 03: Combining sagittally-reconstructed 3D and live-2D ultrasound for high-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy needle segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrinivich, Thomas; Hoover, Douglas; Surry, Kathleen; Edirisinghe, Chandima; D’Souza, David; Fenster, Aaron; Wong, Eugene [University of Western Ontario, London Regional Cancer Program/LHSC, London Regional Cancer Program/LHSC, Robarts Research Institute, London Regional Cancer Program/LHSC, Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Ultrasound-guided high-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) needle segmentation is performed clinically using live-2D sagittal images. Organ segmentation is then performed using axial images, introducing a source of geometric uncertainty. Sagittally-reconstructed 3D (SR3D) ultrasound enables both needle and organ segmentation, but suffers from shadow artifacts. We present a needle segmentation technique augmenting SR3D with live-2D sagittal images using mechanical probe tracking to mitigate image artifacts and compare it to the clinical standard. Seven prostate cancer patients underwent TRUS-guided HDR-BT during which the clinical and proposed segmentation techniques were completed in parallel using dual ultrasound video outputs. Calibrated needle end-length measurements were used to calculate insertion depth errors (IDEs), and the dosimetric impact of IDEs was evaluated by perturbing clinical treatment plan source positions. The proposed technique provided smaller IDEs than the clinical approach, with mean±SD of −0.3±2.2 mm and −0.5±3.7mm respectively. The proposed and clinical techniques resulted in 84% and 43% of needles with IDEs within ±3mm, and IDE ranges across all needles of [−7.7mm, 5.9mm] and [−9.3mm, 7.7mm] respectively. The proposed and clinical IDEs lead to mean±SD changes in the volume of the prostate receiving the prescription dose of −0.6±0.9% and −2.0±5.3% respectively. The proposed technique provides improved HDR-BT needle segmentation accuracy over the clinical technique leading to decreased dosimetric uncertainty by eliminating the axial-to-sagittal registration, and mitigates the effect of shadow artifacts by incorporating mechanically registered live-2D sagittal images.

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Children’s (pediatric) ultrasound imaging of the ... abdomen using ultrasound. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special ...

  14. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and treat medical conditions. Conventional ultrasound displays the images in thin, flat sections of the body. Advancements in ultrasound technology include three-dimensional (3- ...

  15. A Review of Imaging Methods for Prostate Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saradwata Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging is playing an increasingly important role in the detection of prostate cancer (PCa. This review summarizes the key imaging modalities–multiparametric ultrasound (US, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, MRI-US fusion imaging, and positron emission tomography (PET imaging–-used in the diagnosis and localization of PCa. Emphasis is laid on the biological and functional characteristics of tumors that rationalize the use of a specific imaging technique. Changes to anatomical architecture of tissue can be detected by anatomical grayscale US and T2-weighted MRI. Tumors are known to progress through angiogenesis–-a fact exploited by Doppler and contrast-enhanced US and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. The increased cellular density of tumors is targeted by elastography and diffusion-weighted MRI. PET imaging employs several different radionuclides to target the metabolic and cellular activities during tumor growth. Results from studies using these various imaging techniques are discussed and compared.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Kjaer, L; Thomsen, C

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging offers new possibilities in investigation of the prostate gland. Current results of imaging and tissue discrimination in the evaluation of prostatic disease are reviewed. Magnetic resonance imaging may be useful in the staging of carcinoma of the prostate....

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Children’s (pediatric) ultrasound imaging of the ... abdomen using ultrasound. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special ...

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Kjaer, L; Thomsen, C

    1987-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging offers new possibilities in the investigation of the prostate. The current results of imaging and tissue discrimination in the evaluation of prostatic disease are reviewed. Magnetic resonance imaging may be of value in the staging of carcinoma of the prostate....

  19. Inter- and intra-observer variability in prostate definition with tissue harmonic and brightness mode imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Gurpreet Kaur; Dunscombe, Peter; Meyer, Tyler; Pavamani, Simon; Khan, Rao

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the relative utility of tissue harmonic (H) and brightness (B) transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images of the prostate by studying interobserver and intraobserver variation in prostate delineation. Ten patients with early-stage disease were randomly selected. TRUS images of prostates were acquired using B and H modes. The prostates on all images were contoured by an experienced radiation oncologist (RO) and five equally trained observers. The observers were blinded to information regarding patient and imaging mode. The volumes of prostate glands and areas of midgland slices were calculated. Volumes contoured were compared among the observers and between observer group and RO. Contours on one patient were repeated five times by four observers to evaluate the intraobserver variability. A one-sample Student t-test showed the volumes outlined by five observers are in agreement (p > 0.05) with the RO. Paired Student t-test showed prostate volumes (p = 0.008) and midgland areas (p = 0.006) with H mode were significantly smaller than that with B mode. Two-factor analysis of variances showed significant interobserver variability (p standard deviation of mean volumes and areas, and concordance indices. It was found that for small glands (≤35 cc) H mode provided greater interobserver consistency; however, for large glands (≥35 cc), B mode provided more consistent estimates. H mode provided superior inter- and intraobserver agreement in prostate volume definition for small to medium prostates. In large glands, H mode does not exhibit any additional advantage. Although harmonic imaging has not proven advantageous for all cases, its utilization seems to be judicious for small prostates. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Disinfection of a probe used in ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, William A; Gergen, Maria F; Weber, David J

    2007-08-01

    Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsies are among the most common outpatient diagnostic procedures in urology clinics and carry the risk of introducing pathogens that may lead to infection. To investigate the effectiveness of procedures for disinfecting a probe used in ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy. The effectiveness of disinfection was determined by inoculating 10(7) colony forming units (cfu) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa at the following 3 sites on the probe: the interior lumen of the biopsy needle guide, the outside surface of the biopsy needle guide, and the interior lumen of the ultrasound probe where the needle guide passes through the transducer. Each site was investigated separately. After inoculation, the probe was immersed in 2% glutaraldehyde for 20 minutes and then assessed for the level of microbial contamination. The results demonstrated that disinfection (ie, a reduction in bacterial load of greater than 7 log(10) cfu) could be achieved if the needle guide was removed from the probe. However, if the needle guide was left in the probe channel during immersion in 2% glutaraldehyde, disinfection was not achieved (ie, the reduction was approximately 1 log(10) cfu). Recommendations for probe disinfection are provided and include disassembling the device and immersing the probe and the needle guide separately in a high-level disinfectant.

  1. Real-time virtual sonography for navigation during targeted prostate biopsy using magnetic resonance imaging data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagawa, Tomoaki; Ishikawa, Satoru; Kimura, Tomokazu; Suetomi, Takahiro; Tsutsumi, Masakazu; Irie, Toshiyuki; Kondoh, Masanao; Mitake, Tsuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the medical navigation technique, namely, Real-time Virtual Sonography (RVS), for targeted prostate biopsy. Eighty-five patients with suspected prostate cancer lesions using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were included in this study. All selected patients had at least one negative result on the previous transrectal biopsies. The acquired MRI volume data were loaded onto a personal computer installed with RVS software, which registers the volumes between MRI and real-time ultrasound data for real-time display. The registered MRI images were displayed adjacent to the ultrasonographic sagittal image on the same computer monitor. The suspected lesions on T2-weighted images were marked with a red circle. At first suspected lesions were biopsied transperineally under real-time navigation with RVS and then followed by the conventional transrectal and transperineal biopsy under spinal anesthesia. The median age of the patients was 69 years (56-84 years), and the prostate-specific antigen level and prostate volume were 9.9 ng/mL (4.0-34.2) and 37.2 mL (18-141), respectively. Prostate cancer was detected in 52 patients (61%). The biopsy specimens obtained using RVS revealed 45/52 patients (87%) positive for prostate cancer. A total of 192 biopsy cores were obtained using RVS. Sixty-two of these (32%) were positive for prostate cancer, whereas conventional random biopsy revealed cancer only in 75/833 (9%) cores (P<0.01). Targeted prostate biopsy with RVS is very effective to diagnose lesions detected with MRI. This technique only requires additional computer and RVS software and thus is cost-effective. Therefore, RVS-guided prostate biopsy has great potential for better management of prostate cancer patients. (author)

  2. Effect of using different U/S probe Standoff materials in image geometry for interventional procedures: the example of prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimos Baltas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study investigates the distortion of geometry of catheters and anatomy in acquired U/S images, caused by utilizing various stand-off materials for covering a transrectal bi-planar ultrasound probe in HDR and LDR prostatebrachytherapy, biopsy and other interventional procedures. Furthermore, an evaluation of currently established waterbathbased quality assurance (QA procedures is presented. Material and methods: Image acquisitions of an ultrasound QA setup were carried out at 5 MHz and 7 MHz. The U/Sprobe was covered by EA 4015 Silicone Standoff kit, or UA0059 Endocavity balloon filled either with water or one ofthe following: 40 ml of Endosgel®, Instillagel®, Ultraschall gel or Space OAR™ gel. The differences between imageswere recorded. Consequently, the dosimetric impact of the observed image distortion was investigated, using a tissueequivalent ultrasound prostate phantom – Model number 053 (CIRS Inc., Norfolk, VA, USA. Results: By using the EA 4015 Silicone Standoff kit in normal water with sound speed of 1525 m/s, a 3 mm needleshift was observed. The expansion of objects appeared in radial direction. The shift deforms also the PTV (prostate inour case and other organs at risk (OARs in the same way leading to overestimation of volume and underestimationof the dose. On the other hand, Instillagel® and Space OAR™ “shrinks” objects in an ultrasound image for 0.65 mm and0.40 mm, respectively. Conclusions: The use of EA 4015 Silicone Standoff kit for image acquisition, leads to erroneous contouring of PTVand OARs and reconstruction and placement of catheters, which results to incorrect dose calculation during prostatebrachytherapy. Moreover, the reliability of QA procedures lies mostly in the right temperature of the water used foraccurate simulation of real conditions of transrectal ultrasound imaging.

  3. Imaging of prostate cancer local recurrences: why and how?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouviere, Olivier; Lyonnet, Denis; Vitry, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    Because prostate cancer local recurrences can be efficiently treated by salvage therapies, it becomes critical to detect them early. The first alert is the rise of the prostate specific antigen (PSA) level after the post-treatment nadir, which can correspond to a distant recurrence, a local recurrence or both. This so-called biochemical failure (BF) is defined as PSA level >0.2 ng/ml after radical prostatectomy (RP) and PSA level > nadir+2 ng/ml after radiotherapy. There is no consensual definition of BF after cryotherapy, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation or brachytherapy. Local recurrences after RP are treated by radiotherapy, those after radiotherapy by RP, cryotherapy, brachytherapy or HIFU ablation. Recurrences after cryotherapy or HIFU ablation can be treated by a second session or radiotherapy. Recurrences after brachytherapy are difficult to treat. In patients with BF, MRI can detect local recurrences, whatever the initial treatment was. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI seems particularly accurate. The role of spectroscopy remains controversial. Ultrasound-based techniques are less accurate, but this may change with the advent of ultrasonic contrast media. These recent advances in imaging may improve the outcome of salvage therapies (by improving patient selection and treatment targeting) and should open the way to focal salvage treatments in the near future. (orig.)

  4. Imaging of prostate cancer local recurrences: why and how?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouviere, Olivier; Lyonnet, Denis [Universite de Lyon, Lyon (France); Universite Lyon 1, Faculte de Medecine Lyon Nord (France); Service d' Imagerie Urinaire et Vasculaire, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hopital Edouard Herriot, Lyon (France); INSERM U 556, Lyon (France); Vitry, Thierry [Service d' Imagerie Urinaire et Vasculaire, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hopital Edouard Herriot, Lyon (France)

    2010-05-15

    Because prostate cancer local recurrences can be efficiently treated by salvage therapies, it becomes critical to detect them early. The first alert is the rise of the prostate specific antigen (PSA) level after the post-treatment nadir, which can correspond to a distant recurrence, a local recurrence or both. This so-called biochemical failure (BF) is defined as PSA level >0.2 ng/ml after radical prostatectomy (RP) and PSA level > nadir+2 ng/ml after radiotherapy. There is no consensual definition of BF after cryotherapy, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation or brachytherapy. Local recurrences after RP are treated by radiotherapy, those after radiotherapy by RP, cryotherapy, brachytherapy or HIFU ablation. Recurrences after cryotherapy or HIFU ablation can be treated by a second session or radiotherapy. Recurrences after brachytherapy are difficult to treat. In patients with BF, MRI can detect local recurrences, whatever the initial treatment was. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI seems particularly accurate. The role of spectroscopy remains controversial. Ultrasound-based techniques are less accurate, but this may change with the advent of ultrasonic contrast media. These recent advances in imaging may improve the outcome of salvage therapies (by improving patient selection and treatment targeting) and should open the way to focal salvage treatments in the near future. (orig.)

  5. Granulomatous prostatitis after intravesical immunotherapy mimicking prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Białek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Intravesical immunotherapy with attenuated strains of Mycobacterium bovis is a widely used therapeutic option in patients with non-muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. A rare complication of intravesical therapy with the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine is granulomatous prostatitis, which due to increasing levels of prostate-specific antigen and abnormalities found in transrectal examination of the prostate may suggest concomitant prostate cancer. A case of extensive granulomatous prostatitis in a 61-year-old patient which occurred after the first course of a well-tolerated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy is presented. Due to abnormalities found in rectal examination and an abnormal transrectal ultrasound image of the prostate with extensive infiltration mimicking neoplastic hyperplasia a core biopsy of the prostate was performed. Histopathological examination revealed inflammatory infiltration sites of tuberculosis origin.

  6. Diagnostic Accuracy of Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Fusion Guided Targeted Biopsy Evaluated by Transperineal Template Saturation Prostate Biopsy for the Detection and Characterization of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortezavi, Ashkan; Märzendorfer, Olivia; Donati, Olivio F; Rizzi, Gianluca; Rupp, Niels J; Wettstein, Marian S; Gross, Oliver; Sulser, Tullio; Hermanns, Thomas; Eberli, Daniel

    2018-02-21

    We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging/transrectal ultrasound fusion guided targeted biopsy against that of transperineal template saturation prostate biopsy to detect prostate cancer. We retrospectively analyzed the records of 415 men who consecutively presented for prostate biopsy between November 2014 and September 2016 at our tertiary care center. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging was performed using a 3 Tesla device without an endorectal coil, followed by transperineal template saturation prostate biopsy with the BiopSee® fusion system. Additional fusion guided targeted biopsy was done in men with a suspicious lesion on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, defined as Likert score 3 to 5. Any Gleason pattern 4 was defined as clinically significant prostate cancer. The detection rates of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and fusion guided targeted biopsy were compared with the detection rate of transperineal template saturation prostate biopsy using the McNemar test. We obtained a median of 40 (range 30 to 55) and 3 (range 2 to 4) transperineal template saturation prostate biopsy and fusion guided targeted biopsy cores, respectively. Of the 124 patients (29.9%) without a suspicious lesion on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging 32 (25.8%) were found to have clinically significant prostate cancer on transperineal template saturation prostate biopsy. Of the 291 patients (70.1%) with a Likert score of 3 to 5 clinically significant prostate cancer was detected in 129 (44.3%) by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging fusion guided targeted biopsy, in 176 (60.5%) by transperineal template saturation prostate biopsy and in 187 (64.3%) by the combined approach. Overall 58 cases (19.9%) of clinically significant prostate cancer would have been missed if fusion guided targeted biopsy had been performed exclusively. The sensitivity of

  7. SU-F-T-42: MRI and TRUS Image Fusion as a Mode of Generating More Accurate Prostate Contours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petronek, M; Purysko, A; Balik, S; Ciezki, J; Klein, E; Wilkinson, D [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Transrectal Ultrasound (TRUS) imaging is utilized intra-operatively for LDR permanent prostate seed implant treatment planning. Prostate contouring with TRUS can be challenging at the apex and base. This study attempts to improve accuracy of prostate contouring with MRI-TRUS fusion to prevent over- or under-estimation of the prostate volume. Methods: 14 patients with previous MRI guided prostate biopsy and undergone an LDR permanent prostate seed implant have been selected. The prostate was contoured on the MRI images (1 mm slice thickness) by a radiologist. The prostate was also contoured on TRUS images (5 mm slice thickness) during LDR procedure by a urologist. MRI and TRUS images were rigidly fused manually and the prostate contours from MRI and TRUS were compared using Dice similarity coefficient, percentage volume difference and length, height and width differences. Results: The prostate volume was overestimated by 8 ± 18% (range: 34% to −25%) in TRUS images compared to MRI. The mean Dice was 0.77 ± 0.09 (range: 0.53 to 0.88). The mean difference (TRUS-MRI) in the prostate width was 0 ± 4 mm (range: −11 to 5 mm), height was −3 ± 6 mm (range: −13 to 6 mm) and length was 6 ± 6 (range: −10 to 16 mm). Prostate was overestimated with TRUS imaging at the base for 6 cases (mean: 8 ± 4 mm and range: 5 to 14 mm), at the apex for 6 cases (mean: 11 ± 3 mm and range: 5 to 15 mm) and 1 case was underestimated at both base and apex by 4 mm. Conclusion: Use of intra-operative TRUS and MRI image fusion can help to improve the accuracy of prostate contouring by accurately accounting for prostate over- or under-estimations, especially at the base and apex. The mean amount of discrepancy is within a range that is significant for LDR sources.

  8. SU-F-T-42: MRI and TRUS Image Fusion as a Mode of Generating More Accurate Prostate Contours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petronek, M; Purysko, A; Balik, S; Ciezki, J; Klein, E; Wilkinson, D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Transrectal Ultrasound (TRUS) imaging is utilized intra-operatively for LDR permanent prostate seed implant treatment planning. Prostate contouring with TRUS can be challenging at the apex and base. This study attempts to improve accuracy of prostate contouring with MRI-TRUS fusion to prevent over- or under-estimation of the prostate volume. Methods: 14 patients with previous MRI guided prostate biopsy and undergone an LDR permanent prostate seed implant have been selected. The prostate was contoured on the MRI images (1 mm slice thickness) by a radiologist. The prostate was also contoured on TRUS images (5 mm slice thickness) during LDR procedure by a urologist. MRI and TRUS images were rigidly fused manually and the prostate contours from MRI and TRUS were compared using Dice similarity coefficient, percentage volume difference and length, height and width differences. Results: The prostate volume was overestimated by 8 ± 18% (range: 34% to −25%) in TRUS images compared to MRI. The mean Dice was 0.77 ± 0.09 (range: 0.53 to 0.88). The mean difference (TRUS-MRI) in the prostate width was 0 ± 4 mm (range: −11 to 5 mm), height was −3 ± 6 mm (range: −13 to 6 mm) and length was 6 ± 6 (range: −10 to 16 mm). Prostate was overestimated with TRUS imaging at the base for 6 cases (mean: 8 ± 4 mm and range: 5 to 14 mm), at the apex for 6 cases (mean: 11 ± 3 mm and range: 5 to 15 mm) and 1 case was underestimated at both base and apex by 4 mm. Conclusion: Use of intra-operative TRUS and MRI image fusion can help to improve the accuracy of prostate contouring by accurately accounting for prostate over- or under-estimations, especially at the base and apex. The mean amount of discrepancy is within a range that is significant for LDR sources.

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... Imaging? Ultrasound waves are disrupted by air or gas; therefore ultrasound is not an ideal imaging technique ... with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of ... vomiting in young infants Because ultrasound provides real-time images, images that are renewed continuously, it also ...

  11. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... requested the exam. Usually, the referring physician or health care provider will share the results with you. ...

  12. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... move through vessels. The movement of blood cells causes a change in pitch of the reflected sound ...

  13. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... need to be returned to the transducer for analysis. Ultrasound has difficulty penetrating bone and, therefore, can ... ultrasound procedure View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric ...

  14. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Angioplasty and ...

  15. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... more extensive exams may take up to an hour. When the examination is complete, you may be ...

  16. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound is the preferred imaging modality for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnant women and their unborn ... needle biopsies and fluid aspiration. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on ...

  17. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... 3-D) ultrasound that formats the sound wave data into 3-D images. A Doppler ultrasound study ... to do the scanning. The transducer is a small hand-held device that resembles a microphone, attached ...

  18. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is no ... structure and movement of the body's internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. Ultrasound ...

  19. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... about this beforehand and be made aware of food and drink restrictions that may be needed prior ...

  20. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... the transducer is pressed against the skin, it directs small pulses of inaudible, high-frequency sound waves ...

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging-guided biopsies may improve diagnosis in biopsy-naive men with suspicion of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Mads Dochedahl; Balslev, Ingegerd; Boesen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate whether a short prostate biparametric magnetic resonance imaging (bp-MRI) protocol provides a valuable diagnostic addition for biopsy guidance in biopsy-naive men with a suspicion of prostate cancer (PCa). METHODS: A total of 62...... biopsy-naive patients referred to a systematic transrectal ultrasound biopsy (TRUS-bx) due to suspicion of PCa were prospectively enrolled. Bp-MRI was performed before biopsy. All lesions were scored according to the modified Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) version 2. All patients...... underwent TRUS-bx followed by bp-MRI-guided biopsies (bp-MRI-bx) under MRI/TRUS image fusion from any bp-MRI suspicious lesions not obviously targeted by TRUS-bx. RESULTS: PCa was found in 42 (68%) and 32 (52%) patients by TRUS-bx and bp-MRI-bx, respectively. Bp-MRI-bx de-tected PCa in one patient who had...

  2. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... 3-D) ultrasound that formats the sound wave data into 3-D images. A Doppler ultrasound study ... at these links. About Us | Contact Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | Site Map Copyright © 2018 ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... the patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of ... of vomiting in young infants Because ultrasound provides real-time images, images that are renewed continuously, it also ...

  4. Intraoperative registered transrectal ultrasound guidance for robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohareri, Omid; Ischia, Joseph; Black, Peter C; Schneider, Caitlin; Lobo, Julio; Goldenberg, Larry; Salcudean, Septimiu E

    2015-01-01

    To provide unencumbered real-time ultrasound image guidance during robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy, we developed a robotic transrectal ultrasound system that tracks the da Vinci® Surgical System instruments. We describe our initial clinical experience with this system. After an evaluation in a canine model, 20 patients were enrolled in the study. During each procedure the transrectal ultrasound transducer was manually positioned using a brachytherapy stabilizer to provide good imaging of the prostate. Then the transrectal ultrasound was registered to the da Vinci robot by a previously validated procedure. Finally, automatic rotation of the transrectal ultrasound was enabled such that the transrectal ultrasound imaging plane safely tracked the tip of the da Vinci instrument controlled by the surgeon, while real-time transrectal ultrasound images were relayed to the surgeon at the da Vinci console. Tracking was activated during all critical stages of the surgery. The transrectal ultrasound robot was easy to set up and use, adding 7 minutes (range 5 to 14) to the procedure. It did not require an assistant or additional control devices. Qualitative feedback was acquired from the surgeons, who found transrectal ultrasound useful in identifying the urethra while passing the dorsal venous complex suture, defining the prostate-bladder interface during bladder neck dissection, identifying the seminal vesicles and their location with respect to the rectal wall, and identifying the distal prostate boundary at the apex. Real-time, registered robotic transrectal ultrasound guidance with automatic instrument tracking during robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy is feasible and potentially useful. The results justify further studies to establish whether the approach can improve procedure outcomes. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Surface-based prostate registration with biomechanical regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Wendy J. M.; Hu, Yipeng; Barentsz, Jelle O.; Karssemeijer, Nico; Barratt, Dean; Huisman, Henkjan J.

    2013-03-01

    Adding MR-derived information to standard transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images for guiding prostate biopsy is of substantial clinical interest. A tumor visible on MR images can be projected on ultrasound by using MRUS registration. A common approach is to use surface-based registration. We hypothesize that biomechanical modeling will better control deformation inside the prostate than a regular surface-based registration method. We developed a novel method by extending a surface-based registration with finite element (FE) simulation to better predict internal deformation of the prostate. For each of six patients, a tetrahedral mesh was constructed from the manual prostate segmentation. Next, the internal prostate deformation was simulated using the derived radial surface displacement as boundary condition. The deformation field within the gland was calculated using the predicted FE node displacements and thin-plate spline interpolation. We tested our method on MR guided MR biopsy imaging data, as landmarks can easily be identified on MR images. For evaluation of the registration accuracy we used 45 anatomical landmarks located in all regions of the prostate. Our results show that the median target registration error of a surface-based registration with biomechanical regularization is 1.88 mm, which is significantly different from 2.61 mm without biomechanical regularization. We can conclude that biomechanical FE modeling has the potential to improve the accuracy of multimodal prostate registration when comparing it to regular surface-based registration.

  6. Prostate specific antigen, digital rectal examination, transrectal ultrasound: how accurate are they in determining prostate carcinoma?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, John Anthony M.; Pagdanganan, Ernest Jerome A.; Caedo, Florencio Gerardo O.; Magsino, Benjamin C.; Rivera, Eduardo Ll.; Songco, Jaime S.D.

    1998-01-01

    Prostate cancer is an increasing problem. It is the most frequent malignancy in men past the age of 65 years. In the Philippines, 10-20% of males operated for prostatic obstruction had prostate cancer. The potential for cure is optimized by early detection and treatment of organ confined disease. Digital rectal examination, serum prostatic specific antigen and transrectal ultrasound of the prostate have been advocated individually and collectively to determine prostatic cancer. Our study involved forty-nine males who underwent all three screening modalities. Results of the study showed a statistically significant association between the presence of a nodule and occurrence of prostate cancer, a statistically significant association between hardness in consistency and cancer, a statistically significant difference in mean weight between those with Ca and BPH; a statistically significant difference in mean PSA levels between those with Ca and with BPH; statistically significant association between abnormal PSA levels and Ca; and a statistically significant association between a composite positive result and cancer. On the other hand, there was no statistically significant difference in mean age between those with cancer and those with BPH; there is no statistically significant association between the presence of prostatism and whether the patient has Ca or BPH; and there is no statistically significant difference in the mean duration between those with cancer and those with BPH. The study advocates the use of DRE, serum PSA in determining prostatic Ca as well as TRUS for determining occult carcinoma. (Author)

  7. Adaptive Beamforming for Medical Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holfort, Iben Kraglund

    This dissertation investigates the application of adaptive beamforming for medical ultrasound imaging. The investigations have been concentrated primarily on the Minimum Variance (MV) beamformer. A broadband implementation of theMV beamformer is described, and simulated data have been used...... to demonstrate the performance. The MV beamformer has been applied to different sets of ultrasound imaging sequences; synthetic aperture ultrasound imaging and plane wave ultrasound imaging. And an approach for applying MV optimized apodization weights on both the transmitting and the receiving apertures...

  8. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound is safe, noninvasive, and does not use ionizing radiation. This procedure requires little to no special preparation. ... create an image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Children's (pediatric) abdominal ultrasound imaging produces pictures ...

  10. Molecular ultrasound imaging: current status and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, N.; Needles, A.; Willmann, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    Targeted contrast-enhanced ultrasound (molecular ultrasound) is an emerging imaging strategy that combines ultrasound technology with novel molecularly-targeted ultrasound contrast agents for assessing biological processes at the molecular level. Molecular ultrasound contrast agents are nano- or micro-sized particles that are targeted to specific molecular markers by adding high-affinity binding ligands onto the surface of the particles. Following intravenous administration, these targeted ultrasound contrast agents accumulate at tissue sites overexpressing specific molecular markers, thereby enhancing the ultrasound imaging signal. High spatial and temporal resolution, real-time imaging, non-invasiveness, relatively low costs, lack of ionising irradiation and wide availability of ultrasound systems are advantages compared to other molecular imaging modalities. In this article we review current concepts and future directions of molecular ultrasound imaging, including different classes of molecular ultrasound contrast agents, ongoing technical developments of pre-clinical and clinical ultrasound systems, the potential of molecular ultrasound for imaging different diseases at the molecular level, and the translation of molecular ultrasound into the clinic.

  11. Contrast-enhanced versus systematic transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate cancer detection: An overview of techniques and a systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijmink, Stijn W.T.P.J.; Barentsz, Jelle O.

    2007-01-01

    An overview is given of the current conventional and contrast-specific transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) techniques for prostate imaging that may be used for guiding biopsy. Subsequently, a systematic literature search resulted in inclusion of four studies that directly compared systematic and contrast-enhanced-targeted TRUS-guided biopsy of the prostate. All four studies revealed that contrast-enhanced-targeted TRUS-guided biopsy significantly improved the positive biopsy core rate. In the largest study, the mean Gleason score of the contrast-enhanced-targeted TRUS-guided biopsies was significantly higher than that of the systematic biopsies. Future randomized clinical trials, preferably in a non-academic multi-institutional set-up, will have to be performed to confirm the value of contrast-enhanced-targeted TRUS-guided biopsy in regular clinical practice

  12. Ultrasound imaging with a micromotor; Micromotor ni yoru choonpa imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshiro, O.; Salimuzzaman, M.; Matani, A.; Chihara, K. [Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Nara (Japan); Asao, M. [Osaka National Hospital, Osaka (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes a new ultrasound intravascular imaging system. In this system, an ultrasound probe consists of a micromotor, an ultrasound reflecting mirror attached with the micromotor and an ultrasound transducer. Ultrasound is scanned radially by a micromotor instead of a rotation transmitting wire and the rotation of the micromotor is performed and controlled by an external magnetic field. This ultrasound imaging system with a micromotor was applied to observe the inside of blood vessels through in vitro experiments. The preliminary results suggest that this system has the sufficient ability to define the blood vessel morphology and that the simple image processing enhances signal-to-noise ratio of the reconstructed image. 12 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... is used to evaluate the: bladder seminal vesicles prostate Transrectal ultrasound, a special study usually done to provide detailed evaluation of the prostate gland, involves inserting a specialized ultrasound transducer into ...

  14. Multidisciplinary Functional MR Imaging for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Kon; Jang, Yun Jin; Cho, Gyung Goo

    2009-01-01

    Various functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques are used for evaluating prostate cancer including diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast- enhanced MR imaging, and MR spectroscopy. These techniques provide unique information that is helpful to differentiate prostate cancer from non-cancerous tissue and have been proven to improve the diagnostic performance of MRI not only for cancer detection, but also for staging, post-treatment monitoring, and guiding prostate biopsies. However, each functional MR imaging technique also has inherent challenges. Therefore, in order to make accurate diagnoses, it is important to comprehensively understand their advantages and limitations, histologic background related with image findings, and their clinical relevance for evaluating prostate cancer. This article will review the basic principles and clinical significance of functional MR imaging for evaluating prostate cancer

  15. The progress in diagnostic imaging for staging of bladder and prostate cancer. Endorectal magnetic resonance imaging and magnetization transfer contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arima, Kiminobu; Hayashi, Norio; Yanagawa, Makoto; Kawamura, Juichi; Kobayashi, Shigeki; Takeda, Kan; Sugimura, Yoshiki

    1999-01-01

    We retrospectively studied the staging accuracy of endorectal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in comparison with transrectal ultrasound examination (TRUS) for 71 localized bladder cancers and 19 localized prostate cancers (PC) radically resected. The accuracy of clinical staging for bladder cancer in endorectal MRI and TRUS was 85.9% and 69.2%, respectively. The presence or absence of the continuity of submucosal enhancement on T2-weighted MRI images could be useful for the staging of bladder cancer. The accuracy of the seminal vesicular invasion for prostate cancer in endorectal MRI and TRUS was 95% and 63%, respectively. To determine whether magnetization transfer contrast (MTC) provides additional information in the diagnosis of prostate cancer, the magnetization transfer ratios (MTRs) were calculated in 22 patients with PC, 5 with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 4 controls. The mean MTR in the peripheral zone of the normal prostate (8.0%±3.4 [standard deviation]) showed a statistically significant decrease relative to that in the inner zone of the normal prostate (27.4%±3.4, p<0.01), BPH (25.5%±3.7, p<0.01), pre-treatment PC (30.6%±5.9, p<0.01), and PC after hormonal therapy (20.3%±6.3, p<0.01). The mean MTR in pre-treatment PC was significantly higher than that in BPH, or in PC after hormonal therapy (p<0.01). MTC was considered to be useful for conspicuity of prostate cancer lesion. (author)

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... radiation. Ultrasound scanning gives a clear picture of soft tissues that do not show up well on x-ray images. Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding ...

  17. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... to image by ultrasound because greater amounts of tissue attenuate (weaken) the sound waves as they pass deeper into the body and need to be returned to the transducer for analysis. Ultrasound has difficulty penetrating bone and, therefore, can only see the outer surface ...

  18. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... specific content. Related Articles and Media Sonohysterography Ultrasound - Abdomen Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Kidney and ...

  19. 18F-DCFBC Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen-Targeted PET/CT Imaging in Localized Prostate Cancer: Correlation With Multiparametric MRI and Histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkbey, Baris; Mena, Esther; Lindenberg, Liza; Adler, Stephen; Bednarova, Sandra; Berman, Rose; Ton, Anita T; McKinney, Yolanda; Eclarinal, Philip; Hill, Craig; Afari, George; Bhattacharyya, Sibaprasad; Mease, Ronnie C; Merino, Maria J; Jacobs, Paula M; Wood, Bradford J; Pinto, Peter A; Pomper, Martin G; Choyke, Peter L

    2017-10-01

    To assess the ability of (N-[N-[(S)-1,3-dicarboxypropyl]carbamoyl]-4-F-fluorobenzyl-L-cysteine) (F-DCFBC), a prostate-specific membrane antigen-targeted PET agent, to detect localized prostate cancer lesions in correlation with multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) and histopathology. This Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996-compliant, prospective, institutional review board-approved study included 13 evaluable patients with localized prostate cancer (median age, 62.8 years [range, 51-74 years]; median prostate-specific antigen, 37.5 ng/dL [range, 3.26-216 ng/dL]). Patients underwent mpMRI and F-DCFBC PET/CT within a 3 months' window. Lesions seen on mpMRI were biopsied under transrectal ultrasound/MRI fusion-guided biopsy, or a radical prostatectomy was performed. F-DCFBC PET/CT and mpMRI were evaluated blinded and separately for tumor detection on a lesion basis. For PET image analysis, MRI and F-DCFBC PET images were fused by using software registration; imaging findings were correlated with histology, and uptake of F-DCFBC in tumors was compared with uptake in benign prostatic hyperplasia nodules and normal peripheral zone tissue using the 80% threshold SUVmax. A total of 25 tumor foci (mean size, 1.8 cm; median size, 1.5 cm; range, 0.6-4.7 cm) were histopathologically identified in 13 patients. Sensitivity rates of F-DCFBC PET/CT and mpMRI were 36% and 96%, respectively, for all tumors. For index lesions, the largest tumor with highest Gleason score, sensitivity rates of F-DCFBC PET/CT and mpMRI were 61.5% and 92%, respectively. The average SUVmax for primary prostate cancer was higher (5.8 ± 4.4) than that of benign prostatic hyperplasia nodules (2.1 ± 0.3) or that of normal prostate tissue (2.1 ± 0.4) at 1 hour postinjection (P = 0.0033). The majority of index prostate cancers are detected with F-DCFBC PET/CT, and this may be a prognostic indicator based on uptake and staging. However, for detecting prostate cancer with high sensitivity, it

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Children's (pediatric) ... uterus Abdominal ultrasound images can be used to help diagnose appendicitis in children. Except for traumatic injury, ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of the body's ... kidneys bladder testicles ovaries uterus Abdominal ultrasound images can be used to help diagnose appendicitis in children. ...

  2. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... women and their unborn babies. Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding minimally invasive procedures such as needle biopsies and fluid aspiration. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the ...

  3. Stokes polarimetry imaging of dog prostate tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihoon; Johnston, William K., III; Walsh, Joseph T., Jr.

    2010-02-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States in 2009. Radical prostatectomy (complete removal of the prostate) is the most common treatment for prostate cancer, however, differentiating prostate tissue from adjacent bladder, nerves, and muscle is difficult. Improved visualization could improve oncologic outcomes and decrease damage to adjacent nerves and muscle important for preservation of potency and continence. A novel Stokes polarimetry imaging (SPI) system was developed and evaluated using a dog prostate specimen in order to examine the feasibility of the system to differentiate prostate from bladder. The degree of linear polarization (DOLP) image maps from linearly polarized light illumination at different visible wavelengths (475, 510, and 650 nm) were constructed. The SPI system used the polarization property of the prostate tissue. The DOLP images allowed advanced differentiation by distinguishing glandular tissue of prostate from the muscular-stromal tissue in the bladder. The DOLP image at 650 nm effectively differentiated prostate and bladder by strong DOLP in bladder. SPI system has the potential to improve surgical outcomes in open or robotic-assisted laparoscopic removal of the prostate. Further in vivo testing is warranted.

  4. Percutaneous cryoablation of prostate cancer guided by rectal ultrasound: a retrospectively analysis of 42 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Wenge; Guo Zhi; Wang Haitao; Liu Fang; Li Baoguo; Yu Haipeng; Li Yong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of rectal ultrasound-guided agon-hilium percutaneous cryoablation in treatment of patients with median and or late-stage prostate cancer patients. Methods: Retrospectively analysis of 42 cases of with stage C and D prostate cancer patients treated by rectal ultrasound-guided argon-hilium percutaneous cryoablation during the follow-up of 1-12 months. The prostate specific antigen (PSA), biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS), PSA objective response, transrectal ultrasound of the prostate (TRUS), TRUS-guided biopsy of the prostate, the maximum urinary flow rate(MFR), MRI examination at before, and 3,6,12 months after cryoablation were recorded and evaluated. The results were statistically evaluated by using variance analysis. Results: The PSA value at before and 3,6, 12 months after cryoablation were (4.48±1.35), (3.54±1.67), (3.18±1.76), (2.87±1.89) μg/L, respectively; TRUS-measured prostate volumes at before and 3, 6,12 months after cryoablation were (59.7± 8.2), (46.9±8.3), (26.2±3.9), (25.9±3.7) mm 3 , respectively; MFR before and 3, 6,12 months after cryoablation were (10.4±0.8), (14.3±1.2), (18.3±1.3), (18.9±1.3) ml/s, respectively; Compared with before cryoablation, the differences between before and after cryoablation was statistically significant (F= 53.93,747.92,3843.03, respectively, P<0.01). The bPFS rates in 3 months,6 months and 12 months were 95.2% (40/42), 95.2% (40/42), and 90.5% (38/42), respectively. According to the PSA response, the total effective rate (CR 16 cases, PR 15 cases) at 12 months was 73.8%, and SD was 16.7% (7/42), PD was 9.5% (4/42). Complications included temporary incontinence 2.4% (1/42), Penile tingling/numbness 2.4% (1/42), pelvic pain 4.9% (2/41) and Scrotum Edema 2.4% (1/42). There was no case with severe complications such as severe infection or urethrorectal fistula, etc. Conclusions: Rectal ultrasound-guided agon-hilium percutaneous cryoablation showed

  5. Interstitially implanted I125 for prostate cancer using transrectal ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenburg, S.; Petersen, J.; Hansen-Peters, I.; Baylinson, W.

    1990-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the third leading cause of death from cancer among men in the United States. Traditional treatments for prostate cancer are prostatectomy, external beam irradiation, and interstitial implantation of Iodine125 (I125) via laparotomy. These treatments are associated with significant morbidity and limitations. Based on experience with I125 interstitial implantation by transrectal ultrasound guidance for early-stage prostate cancer, it seems that this newer method of treatment has greater accuracy of placement and distribution of the isotope and has had few reported complications. The need for a surgical incision has been eliminated. Hospitalization time also has been decreased, creating the need for ambulatory and inpatient nurses to understand the importance of their respective roles in providing coordinated quality care for these patients. Nurses in these departments must have knowledge of the procedure, radiation safety, and common side effects related to the implant

  6. Where Do Transrectal Ultrasound- and Magnetic Resonance Imaging-guided Biopsies Miss Significant Prostate Cancer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Lars; Nørgaard, Nis; Løgager, Vibeke

    2017-01-01

    -guided biopsy (reTRUSbx) and targeted mpMRIbx (image fusion) of any suspicious lesion. Biopsy results were compared and the locations of missed sPCa lesions were registered. Cancer significance was defined as (1) any core with a Gleason score of >6, (2) cancer core involvement of ≥50% and for re......TRUSbx on patient level, and (3) the presence of ≥3 positive cores. RESULTS: Of the 289 patients, prostate cancer was detected in 128 (44%) with 88 (30%) having sPCa. Overall, 165 separate prostate cancer lesions were detected with 100 being sPCa. Of these, mpMRIbx and reTRUSbx detected 90% (90/100) and 68% (68...... TRUSbx and mpMRIbx missed sPCa lesions in specific segments of the prostate. Missed sPCa lesions at repeat biopsy were primarily located anteriorly for TRUSbx and posterolateral midprostatic for mpMRIbx. Localization of these segments may improve biopsy techniques in men undergoing repeat biopsies....

  7. PET/CT Imaging and Radioimmunotherapy of Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Tagawa, Scott T; Goldsmith, Stanley J

    2011-01-01

    disease (ideal for antigen access and antibody delivery). Furthermore, prostate cancer is also radiation sensitive. Prostate-specific membrane antigen is expressed by virtually all prostate cancers, and represents an attractive target for RIT. Antiprostate-specific membrane antigen RIT demonstrates......Prostate cancer is a common cancer in men and continues to be a major health problem. Imaging plays an important role in the clinical management of patients with prostate cancer. An important goal for prostate cancer imaging is more accurate disease characterization through the synthesis...... of anatomic, functional, and molecular imaging information. Positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in oncology is emerging as an important imaging tool. The most common radiotracer for PET/CT in oncology, (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), is not very useful in the imaging of prostate cancer...

  8. Comparison of prostate contours between conventional stepping transverse imaging and Twister-based sagittal imaging in permanent interstitial prostate brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Shogo; Ishiyama, Hiromichi; Satoh, Takefumi; Tsumura, Hideyasu; Sekiguchi, Akane; Takenaka, Kouji; Tabata, Ken-Ichi; Iwamura, Masatsugu; Hayakawa, Kazushige

    2017-08-01

    To compare prostate contours on conventional stepping transverse image acquisitions with those on twister-based sagittal image acquisitions. Twenty prostate cancer patients who were planned to have permanent interstitial prostate brachytherapy were prospectively accrued. A transrectal ultrasonography probe was inserted, with the patient in lithotomy position. Transverse images were obtained with stepping movement of the transverse transducer. In the same patient, sagittal images were also obtained through rotation of the sagittal transducer using the "Twister" mode. The differences of prostate size among the two types of image acquisitions were compared. The relationships among the difference of the two types of image acquisitions, dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters on the post-implant computed tomography (CT) analysis, as well as other factors were analyzed. The sagittal image acquisitions showed a larger prostate size compared to the transverse image acquisitions especially in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction ( p transverse image acquisitions was correlated to DVH parameters such as D 90 ( R = 0.518, p = 0.019), and V 100 ( R = 0.598, p = 0.005). There were small but significant differences in the prostate contours between the transverse and the sagittal planning image acquisitions. Furthermore, our study suggested that the differences between the two types of image acquisitions might correlated to dosimetric results on CT analysis.

  9. Augmented Reality Using Transurethral Ultrasound for Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy: Preclinical Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanchon, Cecilia; Custillon, Guillaume; Moreau-Gaudry, Alexandre; Descotes, Jean-Luc; Long, Jean-Alexandre; Fiard, Gaelle; Voros, Sandrine

    2016-07-01

    To guide the surgeon during laparoscopic or robot-assisted radical prostatectomy an innovative laparoscopic/ultrasound fusion platform was developed using a motorized 3-dimensional transurethral ultrasound probe. We present what is to our knowledge the first preclinical evaluation of 3-dimensional prostate visualization using transurethral ultrasound and the preliminary results of this new augmented reality. The transurethral probe and laparoscopic/ultrasound registration were tested on realistic prostate phantoms made of standard polyvinyl chloride. The quality of transurethral ultrasound images and the detection of passive markers placed on the prostate surface were evaluated on 2-dimensional dynamic views and 3-dimensional reconstructions. The feasibility, precision and reproducibility of laparoscopic/transurethral ultrasound registration was then determined using 4, 5, 6 and 7 markers to assess the optimal amount needed. The root mean square error was calculated for each registration and the median root mean square error and IQR were calculated according to the number of markers. The transurethral ultrasound probe was easy to manipulate and the prostatic capsule was well visualized in 2 and 3 dimensions. Passive markers could precisely be localized in the volume. Laparoscopic/transurethral ultrasound registration procedures were performed on 74 phantoms of various sizes and shapes. All were successful. The median root mean square error of 1.1 mm (IQR 0.8-1.4) was significantly associated with the number of landmarks (p = 0.001). The highest accuracy was achieved using 6 markers. However, prostate volume did not affect registration precision. Transurethral ultrasound provided high quality prostate reconstruction and easy marker detection. Laparoscopic/ultrasound registration was successful with acceptable mm precision. Further investigations are necessary to achieve sub mm accuracy and assess feasibility in a human model. Copyright © 2016 American Urological

  10. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is used to guide the biopsy to specific regions of the prostate gland. When the examination is ... is relatively insensitive to the pain in the region of the prostate. A biopsy will add time ...

  11. Theragnostic ultrasound using microbubbles in the treatment of prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hak Jong; Yoon, Young Il; Bae, Yun Jung [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    The use of gas-filled microbubbles in perfusion monitoring as intravascular ultrasound contrast agents has recently become more common. Additionally, microbubbles are employed as carriers of pharmaceutical substances or genes. Microbubbles have great potential to improve the delivery of therapeutic materials into cells and to modify vascular permeability, causing increased extravasation of drugs and drug carriers. Prostate cancer is the most common neoplasm in Europe and America, with an incidence twice to three times that of lung and colorectal cancer. Its incidence is still rising in Asian countries, including Japan and Korea. In this review, we present current strategies regarding the synthesis of microbubbles with targeted ligands on their surfaces, with a focus on prostate cancer.

  12. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty ... Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page This page was reviewed on ...

  13. Prostate resonance imaging: morphology and metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocantos, Jorge A.; Pietrani, Marcelo A.; Paganini, Lisandro

    2007-01-01

    The cancer of prostate is the most frequent neoplasms and the third cause of death in men, although the average of survival of patients it improved, the cancer of prostate is an important problem in health. The majority of these tumors are of slow growth and the early detection allows high probabilities of definitive treatment. The neoplasms of prostate detected at present are smaller than the detected ones 20 years ago behind, nevertheless exist big differences in the aggressiveness of these tumors. The images are very important in the management of prostate cancer, and the magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate is a new tool in the evaluation of prostate cancer [es

  14. Intrauterine photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Christopher; Barkley, Joel; Smith, Barbara S.

    2018-04-01

    Intrauterine photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging are probe-based imaging modalities with translational potential for use in detecting endometrial diseases. This deep-tissue imaging probe design allows for the retrofitting of commercially available endometrial sampling curettes. The imaging probe presented here has a 2.92-mm diameter and approximate length of 26 cm, which allows for entry into the human endometrial cavity, making it possible to use photoacoustic imaging and high-resolution ultrasound to characterize the uterus. We demonstrate the imaging probes' ability to provide structural information of an excised pig uterus using ultrasound imaging and detect photoacoustic signals at a radial depth of 1 cm.

  15. Interference-free ultrasound imaging during HIFU therapy, using software tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaezy, Shahram (Inventor); Held, Robert (Inventor); Sikdar, Siddhartha (Inventor); Managuli, Ravi (Inventor); Zderic, Vesna (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a method for obtaining a composite interference-free ultrasound image when non-imaging ultrasound waves would otherwise interfere with ultrasound imaging. A conventional ultrasound imaging system is used to collect frames of ultrasound image data in the presence of non-imaging ultrasound waves, such as high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). The frames are directed to a processor that analyzes the frames to identify portions of the frame that are interference-free. Interference-free portions of a plurality of different ultrasound image frames are combined to generate a single composite interference-free ultrasound image that is displayed to a user. In this approach, a frequency of the non-imaging ultrasound waves is offset relative to a frequency of the ultrasound imaging waves, such that the interference introduced by the non-imaging ultrasound waves appears in a different portion of the frames.

  16. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X- ... use high frequency sound waves to produce an image and do not expose the individual to radiation. ...

  17. Effect of low-frequency low-intensity ultrasound with microbubbles on prostate cancer hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Rui; Xu, Yanjun; Lu, Qijie; Zhang, Yang; Hu, Bing

    2017-10-01

    Angiogenesis plays an important role in tumor growth, invasiveness, and metastasis. It is well established that prostate cancer is exposed to fluctuating oxygen tensions and both acute and chronic hypoxia exist, and these conditions can upregulate angiogenesis-associated proteins such as hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor A. Low-frequency low-intensity ultrasound with microbubbles can induce obvious microvessel damage in tumors, cause cell necrosis or apoptosis. However, there is no information about whether the blocking blood effect of low-frequency low-intensity ultrasound with microbubbles has an influence on hypoxia environment of prostate cancer. Therefore, we investigated the impact of different low-frequency low-intensity ultrasound with microbubbles radiation times on prostate tumors, observed the change in the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor A protein levels, as well as cell proliferation, apoptosis, and tumor volume. The results indicated that as the radiation was repeated four times on each treatment day, the effects of interruption were durable, the cell proliferation was inhibited, and apoptosis was promoted, and the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor A expression levels were lower in the treatment group than in the control group. When the radiation was carried out once per treatment day, the hypoxia response was stimulated, the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor A expression levels were higher compared with the control group, and cell proliferation was promoted. In addition, the tumor volume increased obviously in the hypoxia-stimulated group, whereas tumors grew slowly in the hypoxia-suppressed group. The results of this work demonstrated that under the same conditions, different radiation times of low-frequency low-intensity ultrasound with microbubbles affect the hypoxia response differently, and the

  18. TH-AB-202-05: BEST IN PHYSICS (JOINT IMAGING-THERAPY): First Online Ultrasound-Guided MLC Tracking for Real-Time Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ipsen, S; Bruder, R; Schweikard, A [University of Luebeck, Luebeck, DE (United States); O’Brien, R; Keall, P [University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia); Poulsen, P [Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: While MLC tracking has been successfully used for motion compensation of moving targets, current real-time target localization methods rely on correlation models with x-ray imaging or implanted electromagnetic transponders rather than direct target visualization. In contrast, ultrasound imaging yields volumetric data in real-time (4D) without ionizing radiation. We report the first results of online 4D ultrasound-guided MLC tracking in a phantom. Methods: A real-time tracking framework was installed on a 4D ultrasound station (Vivid7 dimension, GE) and used to detect a 2mm spherical lead marker inside a water tank. The volumetric frame rate was 21.3Hz (47ms). The marker was rigidly attached to a motion stage programmed to reproduce nine tumor trajectories (five prostate, four lung). The 3D marker position from ultrasound was used for real-time MLC aperture adaption. The tracking system latency was measured and compensated by prediction for lung trajectories. To measure geometric accuracy, anterior and lateral conformal fields with 10cm circular aperture were delivered for each trajectory. The tracking error was measured as the difference between marker position and MLC aperture in continuous portal imaging. For dosimetric evaluation, 358° VMAT fields were delivered to a biplanar diode array dosimeter using the same trajectories. Dose measurements with and without MLC tracking were compared to a static reference dose using a 3%/3 mm γ-test. Results: The tracking system latency was 170ms. The mean root-mean-square tracking error was 1.01mm (0.75mm prostate, 1.33mm lung). Tracking reduced the mean γ-failure rate from 13.9% to 4.6% for prostate and from 21.8% to 0.6% for lung with high-modulation VMAT plans and from 5% (prostate) and 18% (lung) to 0% with low modulation. Conclusion: Real-time ultrasound tracking was successfully integrated with MLC tracking for the first time and showed similar accuracy and latency as other methods while holding the

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Children’s (pediatric) ultrasound imaging of ... 30 minutes. top of page What will my child experience during and after the procedure? Ultrasound examinations ...

  20. OSPACS: Ultrasound image management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessant Conrad

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ultrasound scanning uses the medical imaging format, DICOM, for electronically storing the images and data associated with a particular scan. Large health care facilities typically use a picture archiving and communication system (PACS for storing and retrieving such images. However, these systems are usually not suitable for managing large collections of anonymized ultrasound images gathered during a clinical screening trial. Results We have developed a system enabling the accurate archiving and management of ultrasound images gathered during a clinical screening trial. It is based upon a Windows application utilizing an open-source DICOM image viewer and a relational database. The system automates the bulk import of DICOM files from removable media by cross-validating the patient information against an external database, anonymizing the data as well as the image, and then storing the contents of the file as a field in a database record. These image records may then be retrieved from the database and presented in a tree-view control so that the user can select particular images for display in a DICOM viewer or export them to external media. Conclusion This system provides error-free automation of ultrasound image archiving and management, suitable for use in a clinical trial. An open-source project has been established to promote continued development of the system.

  1. Documenting the location of systematic transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsies: correlation with multi-parametric MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkbey, Baris; Xu, Sheng; Kruecker, Jochen; Locklin, Julia; Pang, Yuxi; Shah, Vijay; Bernardo, Marcelino; Baccala, Angelo; Rastinehad, Ardeshir; Benjamin, Compton; Merino, Maria J; Wood, Bradford J; Choyke, Peter L; Pinto, Peter A

    2011-03-29

    During transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsies, the actual location of the biopsy site is rarely documented. Here, we demonstrate the capability of TRUS-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) image fusion to document the biopsy site and correlate biopsy results with multi-parametric MRI findings. Fifty consecutive patients (median age 61 years) with a median prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of 5.8 ng/ml underwent 12-core TRUS-guided biopsy of the prostate. Pre-procedural T2-weighted magnetic resonance images were fused to TRUS. A disposable needle guide with miniature tracking sensors was attached to the TRUS probe to enable fusion with MRI. Real-time TRUS images during biopsy and the corresponding tracking information were recorded. Each biopsy site was superimposed onto the MRI. Each biopsy site was classified as positive or negative for cancer based on the results of each MRI sequence. Sensitivity, specificity, and receiver operating curve (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) values were calculated for multi-parametric MRI. Gleason scores for each multi-parametric MRI pattern were also evaluated. Six hundred and 5 systemic biopsy cores were analyzed in 50 patients, of whom 20 patients had 56 positive cores. MRI identified 34 of 56 positive cores. Overall, sensitivity, specificity, and ROC area values for multi-parametric MRI were 0.607, 0.727, 0.667, respectively. TRUS-MRI fusion after biopsy can be used to document the location of each biopsy site, which can then be correlated with MRI findings. Based on correlation with tracked biopsies, T2-weighted MRI and apparent diffusion coefficient maps derived from diffusion-weighted MRI are the most sensitive sequences, whereas the addition of delayed contrast enhancement MRI and three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopy demonstrated higher specificity consistent with results obtained using radical prostatectomy specimens.

  2. Prostate biopsy with image fusion: system validation and clinical results (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruecker, J.; Kadoury, S.; Xu, S.; Turkbey, B.; Choyke, P.; Pinto, P.; Wood, B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Prostate cancer (PCA) is the second most frequent cause of cancer-related death in men in the United States and Europe. Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided systematic prostate biopsy is the standard of care for detection and diagnosis of PCA. However, due to inadequate visualization of PCA

  3. Intrauterine photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Christopher; Barkley, Joel; Smith, Barbara

    2018-04-01

    Intrauterine photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging are probe-based imaging modalities with translational potential for use in detecting endometrial diseases. This deep-tissue imaging probe design allows for the retrofitting of commercially available endometrial sampling curettes. The imaging probe presented here has a 2.92-mm diameter and approximate length of 26 cm, which allows for entry into the human endometrial cavity, making it possible to use photoacoustic imaging and high-resolution ultrasound to characterize the uterus. We demonstrate the imaging probes' ability to provide structural information of an excised pig uterus using ultrasound imaging and detect photoacoustic signals at a radial depth of 1 cm. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  4. Quality control of system of imaging for rectal ultrasound for implants seed prostate low rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luquero Llopis, N.; Ferrer Gracia, C.; Huertas Martinez, C.; Huerga Cabrerizo, C.; Corredoira Silva, E.; Serrada Hierro, A.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the objective is the evaluation of the image system used in implants of prostate of low rate held at our hospital, for maximum control on the placement of the seeds in the patient and therefore carried out dosimetry. (Author)

  5. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to-use and less expensive than other imaging methods. Ultrasound imaging is extremely safe and does not ... barium exams, CT scanning , and MRI are the methods of choice in such a setting. Large patients ...

  6. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an example of a transrectal transducer (probe). A prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test, which measures the amount of PSA in the blood, may be administered to determine if a patient is at high risk for ... of the prostate gland. When the examination is complete, you may ...

  7. Accuracy of volume measurement using 3D ultrasound and development of CT-3D US image fusion algorithm for prostate cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Jihye; Huh, Jangyoung; Hyun An, So; Oh, Yoonjin; Kim, Myungsoo; Kim, DongYoung; Chung, Kwangzoo; Cho, Sungho; Lee, Rena

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of measuring volumes using three-dimensional ultrasound (3D US), and to verify the feasibility of the replacement of CT-MR fusion images with CT-3D US in radiotherapy treatment planning. Methods: Phantoms, consisting of water, contrast agent, and agarose, were manufactured. The volume was measured using 3D US, CT, and MR devices. A CT-3D US and MR-3D US image fusion software was developed using the Insight Toolkit library in order to acquire three-dimensional fusion images. The quality of the image fusion was evaluated using metric value and fusion images. Results: Volume measurement, using 3D US, shows a 2.8 ± 1.5% error, 4.4 ± 3.0% error for CT, and 3.1 ± 2.0% error for MR. The results imply that volume measurement using the 3D US devices has a similar accuracy level to that of CT and MR. Three-dimensional image fusion of CT-3D US and MR-3D US was successfully performed using phantom images. Moreover, MR-3D US image fusion was performed using human bladder images. Conclusions: 3D US could be used in the volume measurement of human bladders and prostates. CT-3D US image fusion could be used in monitoring the target position in each fraction of external beam radiation therapy. Moreover, the feasibility of replacing the CT-MR image fusion to the CT-3D US in radiotherapy treatment planning was verified.

  8. Giant prostatic utricle (utriculus masculinis): diagnostic imaging and surgical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopatina, O.A.; Berry, T.T.; Spottswood, S.E.

    2004-01-01

    The prostatic utricle is an embryological remnant of the Mullerian duct system. It is often revealed incidentally on voiding cystourethrography in young males undergoing evaluation for possible vesicoureteral reflux. We present the case of a very large prostatic utricle found incidentally on ultrasound evaluation in a 4-year-old boy with a history of recurrent urinary tract infections. (orig.)

  9. Co-registered photoacoustic, thermoacoustic, and ultrasound mouse imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, Daniel R.; Kruger, Robert A.; Lam, Richard B.; DelRio, Stephen P.

    2010-02-01

    We have constructed and tested a prototype test bed that allows us to form 3D photoacoustic CT images using near-infrared (NIR) irradiation (700 - 900 nm), 3D thermoacoustic CT images using microwave irradiation (434 MHz), and 3D ultrasound images from a commercial ultrasound scanner. The device utilizes a vertically oriented, curved array to capture the photoacoustic and thermoacoustic data. In addition, an 8-MHz linear array fixed in a horizontal position provides the ultrasound data. The photoacoustic and thermoacoustic data sets are co-registered exactly because they use the same detector. The ultrasound data set requires only simple corrections to co-register its images. The photoacoustic, thermoacoustic, and ultrasound images of mouse anatomy reveal complementary anatomic information as they exploit different contrast mechanisms. The thermoacoustic images differentiate between muscle, fat and bone. The photoacoustic images reveal the hemoglobin distribution, which is localized predominantly in the vascular space. The ultrasound images provide detailed information about the bony structures. Superposition of all three images onto a co-registered hybrid image shows the potential of a trimodal photoacoustic-thermoacoustic-ultrasound small-animal imaging system.

  10. MR diffusion weighted imaging of the prostate adenocarcinoma after endocrinotherapy: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhiqiang; Wang Xiaoying; Li Feiyu; Guo Xuemei; Jiang Xuexiang; Guo Yulin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the changes of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of cancerous and noncancerous regions of prostate peripheral zone in prostate cancer patients with and without endocrinotherapy. Methods: Diffusion-weighted echo-planar imaging (EPI) were performed in 32 patients with diagnosed prostate cancer, including 18 patients who were treated with endocrinotherapy over 6 months and 14 untreated matched control patients. According to the pathological results obtained by ultrasound guided biopsy, the locations of the prostate cancerous regions were marked at one or more of the sextants. The ADC values of the bladder and the obturator internus were also measured. Results: The mean ADC values of cancerous and noncancerous regions in 14 untreated controls were (1.22±0.25) x 10 -3 , (1.59 ± 0.19) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, respectively (t=7.03, P -3 mm 2 /s in noncancerous regions, but increased to (1.46 ± 0.30) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s in cancerous regions. There still had significant difference between the cancerous and the noncancerous regions (t=2.46, P 0.05), in bladder and the obturator internus (t=0.48, 1.64; P>0.05). Conclusion: Measurement of ADCs might be useful to evaluate the efficacy of endocrinotherapy for patients with prostate cancer. (authors)

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? What are some common uses of the procedure? How should we prepare for an ultrasound exam? What does the ultrasound equipment look like? How does the procedure work? How is the procedure performed? What will my ...

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... waves from passing into your body. The sonographer (ultrasound technologist) or radiologist then places the transducer on the skin in various locations, sweeping over the area of interest or angling the ... ultrasound images are reviewed. An ultrasound examination is usually ...

  13. Inhibition of prostate cancer growth using doxorubicin assisted by ultrasound-targeted nanobubble destruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan X

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Xiaozhou Fan,1,* Luofu Wang,2,* Yanli Guo,1 Xingyu Xiong,1 Lianhua Zhu,1 Kejing Fang1 1Department of Ultrasound, Southwest Hospital, 2Department of Urology, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Ultrasound (US-targeted microbubble destruction has been widely used as an effective drug-delivery system. However, nanobubbles (NBs have better stability and stronger penetration than microbubbles, and drug delivery assisted by US-targeted NB destruction (UTND still needs to be investigated. Our aim was to investigate the effect of doxorubicin (DOX on the inhibition of prostate cancer growth under UTND. Contrast-enhanced US imaging of transplanted PC3 prostate cancer in mice showed that under a combination of 1 W/cm2 US power and a 100 Hz intermittent pulse with a “5 seconds on, 5 seconds off” mode, NBs with an average size of (485.7±33 nm were effectively destroyed within 15 minutes in the tumor location. PC3 cells and 20 tumor-bearing mice were divided into four groups: a DOX group, a DOX + NB group, a DOX + US group, and a DOX + NB + US group. The cell growth-inhibition rate and DOX concentration of xenografts in the DOX + NB + US group were highest. Based on another control group and these four groups, another 25 tumor-bearing mice were used to observe the treatment effect of nine DOX injections under UTND. The xenografts in the DOX + NB + US group decreased more obviously and had more cellular apoptosis than other groups. Finally, electron microscopy was used to estimate the cavitation effect of NBs under US irradiation in the control group, NB group, US group, and NB + US group. The results of scanning electron microscopy showed that PC3 cells in the DOX + NB + US group had more holes and significantly increased cell-surface folds. Meanwhile, transmission electric microscopy confirmed that more lanthanum nitrate particles entered

  14. Passive cavitation imaging with ultrasound arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgaonkar, Vasant A; Datta, Saurabh; Holland, Christy K; Mast, T Douglas

    2009-12-01

    A method is presented for passive imaging of cavitational acoustic emissions using an ultrasound array, with potential application in real-time monitoring of ultrasound ablation. To create such images, microbubble emissions were passively sensed by an imaging array and dynamically focused at multiple depths. In this paper, an analytic expression for a passive image is obtained by solving the Rayleigh-Sommerfield integral, under the Fresnel approximation, and passive images were simulated. A 192-element array was used to create passive images, in real time, from 520-kHz ultrasound scattered by a 1-mm steel wire. Azimuthal positions of this target were accurately estimated from the passive images. Next, stable and inertial cavitation was passively imaged in saline solution sonicated at 520 kHz. Bubble clusters formed in the saline samples were consistently located on both passive images and B-scans. Passive images were also created using broadband emissions from bovine liver sonicated at 2.2 MHz. Agreement was found between the images and source beam shape, indicating an ability to map therapeutic ultrasound beams in situ. The relation between these broadband emissions, sonication amplitude, and exposure conditions are discussed.

  15. Enhancement characteristics of benign and malignant focal peripheral nodules in the peripheral zone of the prostate gland studied using contrast-enhanced transrectal ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, J.; Yang, J.-C.; Luo, Y.; Li, J.; Li, Y.; Shi, H.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To assess the value of contrast-enhanced grey-scale transrectal ultrasound (CETRUS) in predicting the nature of peripheral zone hypoechoic lesions of the prostate. Materials and Methods: Ninety-one patients with peripheral zone hypoechoic lesions on ultrasound were evaluated with CETRUS followed by lesion-specific and sextant transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsies. The enhancement patterns of the lesions were observed and graded subjectively using adjacent peripheral zone tissue as the reference. Time to enhancement (AT), time to peak intensity (TTP) and peak intensity (PI) were quantified within each nodule. Ultrasound findings were correlated with biopsy findings. Results: Transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the hypoechoic lesions revealed prostate cancer in 44 patients and benign prostatic diseases in 47. The intensity of enhancement within the lesions were graded as no enhancement, increased, equal, or decreased compared with adjacent peripheral zone tissue in two, 30, five and seven in the prostate cancer group and 14, 15, four and 14 in the benign group, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The peak enhancement intensity was found to be the most optimal discriminatory parameter (area under curve AUC 0.70; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.82). Conclusion: Malignant hypoechoic nodules in the peripheral zone of the prostate are more likely to enhance early and more intensely on CETRUS. A non-enhanced hypoechoic peripheral zone lesion was more likely to be benign

  16. High definition ultrasound imaging for battlefield medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, K.S.; Morimoto, A.K.; Kozlowski, D.M.; Krumm, J.C.; Dickey, F.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rogers, B; Walsh, N. [Texas Univ. Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1996-06-23

    A team has developed an improved resolution ultrasound system for low cost diagnostics. This paper describes the development of an ultrasound based imaging system capable of generating 3D images showing surface and subsurface tissue and bone structures. We include results of a comparative study between images obtained from X-Ray Computed Tomography (CT) and ultrasound. We found that the quality of ultrasound images compares favorably with those from CT. Volumetric and surface data extracted from these images were within 7% of the range between ultrasound and CT scans. We also include images of porcine abdominal scans from two different sets of animal trials.

  17. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is no radiation exposure to the ... tissues that do not show up well on x-ray images. Ultrasound is the preferred imaging modality for ...

  18. Ultrasound and MR imaging of diabetic mastopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K.T.; Tse, G.M.K.; Yang, W.T.

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To review the imaging findings of diabetic mastopathy, and document the colour flow ultrasound and MR imaging features in this benign condition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diabetic mastopathy was clinically and histologically diagnosed in eight lesions in six women. All six women underwent conventional mammography and high frequency grey-scale ultrasound. Colour flow ultrasound was performed additionally in six lesions in four women and MR imaging in four lesions in three women before biopsy. The imaging findings were reviewed and correlated with final histological diagnosis. RESULTS: Mammography showed regional asymmetric increased opacity with ill-defined margins in all lesions. A heterogeneously hypoechoic mass with ill-defined margins was identified on high frequency grey-scale ultrasound in all lesions. Marked posterior acoustic shadowing was present in seven of eight (88%) lesions. Six lesions interrogated with colour flow ultrasound showed absence of Doppler signal. MR imaging in three women revealed non-specific stromal enhancement. CONCLUSION: Diabetic mastopathy shows absence of Doppler signal on colour flow ultrasound and non-specific stromal enhancement on MR imaging. Wong K.T. et al. (2002)

  19. Image processing in medical ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian

    This Ph.D project addresses image processing in medical ultrasound and seeks to achieve two major scientific goals: First to develop an understanding of the most significant factors influencing image quality in medical ultrasound, and secondly to use this knowledge to develop image processing...... multiple imaging setups. This makes the system well suited for development of new processing methods and for clinical evaluations, where acquisition of the exact same scan location for multiple methods is important. The second project addressed implementation, development and evaluation of SASB using...... methods for enhancing the diagnostic value of medical ultrasound. The project is an industrial Ph.D project co-sponsored by BK Medical ApS., with the commercial goal to improve the image quality of BK Medicals scanners. Currently BK Medical employ a simple conventional delay-and-sum beamformer to generate...

  20. Transrectal ultrasound in detecting prostate cancer compared with serum total prostate-specific antigen levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamsel, S.; Killi, R.; Demirpolat, G.; Hekimgil, M.; Soydan, S.; Altay, B.

    2008-01-01

    We carried out a retrospective study to review the efficiency of grey-scale transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) in detecting prostate cancer compared with the data in recent published work, including alternative imaging methods of the prostate gland. Our study group consisted of 830 patients who underwent TRUS-guided biopsy of the prostate between May 2000 and June 2004. The relation between abnormal TRUS findings and serum total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA) levels was evaluated in patients with prostate cancer who were divided into three different groups according to serum tPSA levels. Group I included patients with tPSA levels of 4-9.9 ng/mL, group II included tPSA levels of 10-19.9 ng/mL and group III included patients with tPSA levels of 20 ng/mL or more. In general, TRUS detected 185 (64%) of 291 cancers with a specificity of 89%, a PPV of 76% and an accuracy of 80%. TRUS findings enabled the correct identification of 22 (56%) of the 39 cancers in group I, 28 (30%) of the 93 cancers in group II and 135 (85%) of the 159 cancers in group III. In conclusion, TRUS alone has a limited potential to identify prostate cancer, especially in patients with tPSA levels lower than 20 ng/mL. Therefore, increased numbers of systematically placed biopsy cores must be taken or alternative imaging methods are required to direct TRUS-guided biopsy for improving prostate cancer detection.

  1. Multiparametric MR imaging in diagnosis of chronic prostatitis and its differentiation from prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Sah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic prostatitis is a heterogeneous condition with high prevalence rate. Chronic prostatitis has overlap in clinical presentation with other prostate disorders and is one of the causes of high serum prostate specific antigen (PSA level. Chronic prostatitis, unlike acute prostatitis, is difficult to diagnose reliably and accurately on the clinical grounds alone. Not only this, it is also challenging to differentiate chronic prostatitis from prostate cancer with imaging modalities like TRUS and conventional MR Imaging, as the findings can mimic those of prostate cancer. Even biopsy doesn't play promising role in the diagnosis of chronic prostatitis as it has limited sensitivity and specificity. As a result of this, chronic prostatitis may be misdiagnosed as a malignant condition and end up in aggressive surgical management resulting in increased morbidity. This warrants the need of reliable diagnostic tool which has ability not only to diagnose it reliably but also to differentiate it from the prostate cancer. Recently, it is suggested that multiparametric MR Imaging of the prostate could improve the diagnostic accuracy of the prostate cancer. This review is based on the critically published literature and aims to provide an overview of multiparamateric MRI techniques in the diagnosis of chronic prostatitis and its differentiation from prostate cancer.

  2. Bladder filling variation during radiation treatment of prostate cancer: Can the use of a bladder ultrasound scanner and biofeedback optimize bladder filling?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stam, Marcel R.; Lin, Emile N.J. Th. van; Vight, Lisette P. van der; Kaanders, Johannes; Visser, Andries G.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the use of a bladder ultrasound scanner in achieving a better reproducible bladder filling during irradiation of pelvic tumors, specifically prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: First, the accuracy of the bladder ultrasound scanner relative to computed tomography was validated in a group of 26 patients. Next, daily bladder volume variation was evaluated in a group of 18 patients. Another 16 patients participated in a biofeedback protocol, aiming at a more constant bladder volume. The last objective was to study correlations between prostate motion and bladder filling, by using electronic portal imaging device data on implanted gold markers. Results: A strong correlation between bladder scanner volume and computed tomography volume (r = 0.95) was found. Daily bladder volume variation was very high (1 Sd = 47.2%). Bladder filling and daily variation did not significantly differ between the control and the feedback group (47.2% and 40.1%, respectively). Furthermore, no linear correlations between bladder volume variation and prostate motion were found. Conclusions: This study shows large variations in daily bladder volume. The use of a biofeedback protocol yields little reduction in bladder volume variation. Even so, the bladder scanner is an easy to use and accurate tool to register these variations

  3. Preliminary timing measurements on a data acquisition chain for a SiPM-based detector for prostate imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, A.; Antonioli, P.; D'Antone, I.; Giorgi, F. M.; Lax, I.; Lolli, M.; De Leo, R.; De Robertis, G.; Foresta, M.; Loddo, F.; Ranieri, A.; Cosentino, G.; Finocchiaro, P.; Pappalardo, A. D.; Fonte, R.; Calvini, C.; Musico, P.; Ottonello, P.; Cusanno, F.; Garibaldi, F.; Gigli, T.; Giove, F.; Maraviglia, B.; Meddi, F.; Rivetti, A.

    2011-06-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the most common diseases in western countries and a leading cause of cancer death. A variety of treatment options are available but a precise disease characterization is needed: evaluation of cancer location, size, and extent and an indication of tumor aggressiveness. The current standard for diagnosing PC is transrectal ultrasound guided sextant biopsy. A novel multidisciplinary approach is required. Imaging may play a key role provided that dedicated prostate imagers and procedures are available: considerable improvements have been achieved in diagnosis with the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and nuclear medicine (Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT)) techniques. Nevertheless, due to sub-optimal prostate imaging geometries with these generic large instruments preventing separation of the signal from surrounding organs, the sensitivity, spatial resolution and lesion contrast detected are lower compared to what can be potentially achievable with optimized dedicated prostate imagers and procedures. Fully exploiting the Time Of Flight (TOF) capability would allow not only to increase the Signal-to-Noise ratio (SNR) / Noise Equivalent Count Rate (NECR) but also to get rid of the huge background coming from neighboring organs i.e. the bladder. Recently a new research project was initiated by a large INFN collaboration, and a "TOF-PET and MRI for prostate cancer diagnosis and follow up experiment" (TOPEM) was financed as a 3-year experiment by the Italian "INFN Commissione Scientifica Nazionale V" with the goal of designing, building and testing in phantom tests an endorectal PET-TOF probe compatible with MRI.

  4. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  5. Endorectal coil MRI and MR-spectroscopic imaging in patients with elevated serum prostate specific antigen with negative trus transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq Ahmad Ganie

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Prostatic biopsy directed with endorectal coil MRI and MR-spectroscopic imaging findings in patients with elevated serum PSA and prior negative biopsy, improves the early diagnosis of prostatic carcinoma and accurate localization of prostate cancer within the gland.

  6. Monophasic Synovial Sarcoma of Prostatic Fascia: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Olivetti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Synovial sarcoma (SS primarily occurs in the para-articular soft tissue of the lower extremities in young adults and it is extremely rare in the prostatic region. We report a case of a 46-year-old man who presented with urinary retention. Pelvic ultrasound (US examination, computed tomography (CT, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI demonstrated an 8.5 cm mass that appeared to originate in the prostatic fascia of the right lobe. Preoperative prostatic ultrasound transrectal needle biopsy revealed mesenchymal neoplastic tissue. Patient underwent surgery. The final pathologic findings were consistent with the diagnosis of monophasic synovial sarcoma.

  7. Monophasic Synovial Sarcoma of Prostatic Fascia: Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivetti, Lucio; Benecchi, Luigi; Corti, Serena; Del Boca, Carlo; Ferrari, Matteo; Sergio, Pietro; Bercich, Luisa; Tanzi, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma (SS) primarily occurs in the para-articular soft tissue of the lower extremities in young adults and it is extremely rare in the prostatic region. We report a case of a 46-year-old man who presented with urinary retention. Pelvic ultrasound (US) examination, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated an 8.5 cm mass that appeared to originate in the prostatic fascia of the right lobe. Preoperative prostatic ultrasound transrectal needle biopsy revealed mesenchymal neoplastic tissue. Patient underwent surgery. The final pathologic findings were consistent with the diagnosis of monophasic synovial sarcoma.

  8. In vivo cryoablation of prostate tissue with temperature monitoring by optoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Elena V.; Motamedi, Massoud; Oraevsky, Alexander A.; Ermilov, Sergey A.

    2016-03-01

    Cryoablation of prostate cancer is an FDA approved clinical procedure, which involves repetitive rapid cooling of a lesion to lethal temperatures of -40°C and below. The major drawback of the technique is the insufficient control over the fast thermal processes that may result in severe complications (impotence, incontinence, perforation of the rectal wall) and morbidity. The developed optoacoustic imaging technique provides non-invasive real-time temperature mapping of tissue adjacent to prostate and enables more efficient control over the procedure, which is necessary to reduce side effects and accelerate the physician's learning curve. In these studies we successfully demonstrated real-time transrectal optoacoustic imaging during prostate cryoablation in live canine model focused on optoacoustic thermography of the rectal wall within the depth of 1cm. Our method utilized previously discovered universal thermal dependence of the normalized optoacoustic response of blood. Nanosecond-pulse radiation of Ti-Sapphire laser tuned to the isosbestic point of hemoglobin (802+/-3 nm) was delivered via fiberoptic illuminators assembled on both sides of the linear array of the 128-channel transrectal ultrasound probe. Temperature readouts at discrete locations inside and nearby prostate were also performed using standard transperineal needle sensors. The effect of homeostasis on optoacoustic imaging in live tissue was examined during cooling and shown to be significant only within the range of +/-1.5°C in respect to the body temperature. Accuracy of in vivo optoacoustic temperature measurements was determined as +/-2°C for the range of temperature from +35 to -15°C, which is more than sufficient for tracking the essential isotherms in the course of clinical procedures.

  9. Intraoperative dynamic dosimetry for prostate implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todor, D A [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Zaider, M [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Cohen, G N [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Worman, M F [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Zelefsky, M J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021 (United States)

    2003-05-07

    This paper describes analytic tools in support of a paradigm shift in brachytherapy treatment planning for prostate cancer - a shift from standard pre-planning to intraoperative planning using dosimetric feedback based on the actual deposited seed positions within the prostate. The method proposed is guided by several desiderata: (a) bringing both planning and evaluation in the operating room (i.e. make post-implant evaluation superfluous) therefore making rectifications - if necessary - still achievable; (b) making planning and implant evaluation consistent by using the same imaging system (ultrasound); and (c) using only equipment commonly found in a hospital operating room. The intraoperative dosimetric evaluation is based on the fusion between ultrasound images and 3D seed coordinates reconstructed from fluoroscopic projections. Automatic seed detection and registration of the fluoroscopic and ultrasound information, two of the three key ingredients needed for the intraoperative dynamic dosimetry optimization (IDDO), are explained in detail. The third one, the reconstruction of 3D coordinates from projections, was reported in a previous article. The algorithms were validated using a custom-designed phantom with non-radioactive (dummy) seeds. Also, fluoroscopic images were taken at the conclusion of an actual permanent prostate implant and compared with data on the same patient obtained from radiographic-based post-implant evaluation. To offset the effect of organ motion the comparison was performed in terms of the proximity function of the two seed distributions. The agreement between the intra- and post-operative seed distributions was excellent.

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... imaging produces pictures of the internal organs and blood vessels located within a child's abdomen. A Doppler ultrasound study may be part of a child's abdominal ultrasound ...

  11. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Ultrasound is widely available, easy-to-use ... procedures such as needle biopsies and fluid aspiration. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known ...

  12. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Ultrasound exams in which the transducer ... in the sperm or urine following the procedure. After an ultrasound examination, you should be able to ...

  13. Multiparametric MRI in men with clinical suspicion of prostate cancer undergoing repeat biopsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Lars; Nørgaard, Nis; Løgager, Vibeke

    2018-01-01

    Background Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) can improve detection of clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa). Purpose To compare mpMRI score subgroups to systematic transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsies (TRUSbx) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based findings...

  14. Quantitative ultrasound characterization of tumor cell death: ultrasound-stimulated microbubbles for radiation enhancement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunjung Christina Kim

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of quantitative ultrasound imaging in characterizing cancer cell death caused by enhanced radiation treatments. This investigation focused on developing this ultrasound modality as an imaging-based non-invasive method that can be used to monitor therapeutic ultrasound and radiation effects. High-frequency (25 MHz ultrasound was used to image tumor responses caused by ultrasound-stimulated microbubbles in combination with radiation. Human prostate xenografts grown in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice were treated using 8, 80, or 1000 µL/kg of microbubbles stimulated with ultrasound at 250, 570, or 750 kPa, and exposed to 0, 2, or 8 Gy of radiation. Tumors were imaged prior to treatment and 24 hours after treatment. Spectral analysis of images acquired from treated tumors revealed overall increases in ultrasound backscatter intensity and the spectral intercept parameter. The increase in backscatter intensity compared to the control ranged from 1.9±1.6 dB for the clinical imaging dose of microbubbles (8 µL/kg, 250 kPa, 2 Gy to 7.0±4.1 dB for the most extreme treatment condition (1000 µL/kg, 750 kPa, 8 Gy. In parallel, in situ end-labelling (ISEL staining, ceramide, and cyclophilin A staining demonstrated increases in cell death due to DNA fragmentation, ceramide-mediated apoptosis, and release of cyclophilin A as a result of cell membrane permeabilization, respectively. Quantitative ultrasound results indicated changes that paralleled increases in cell death observed from histology analyses supporting its use for non-invasive monitoring of cancer treatment outcomes.

  15. Diagnostic Challenges in Prostate Cancer and 68Ga-PSMA PET Imaging: A Game Changer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Maseeh uz; Fatima, Nosheen; Zaman, Areeba; Sajid, Mahwsih; Zaman, Unaiza; Zaman, Sidra

    2017-10-26

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most frequent solid tumor in men and the third most common cause of cancer mortality among men in developed countries. Current imaging modalities like ultrasound (US), computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and choline based positron emission (PET) tracing have disappointing sensitivity for detection of nodal metastasis and small tumor recurrence. This poses a diagnostic challenge in staging of intermediate to high risk PC and restaging of patients with biochemical recurrence (PSA >0.2 ng/ml). Gallium-68 labeled prostate specific membrane antigen (68Ga-PSMA) PET imaging has now emerged with a higher diagnostic yield. 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT or PET/MRI can be expected to offer a one-stop-shop for staging and restaging of PC. PSMA ligands labeled with alpha and beta emitters have also shown promising therapeutic efficacy for nodal, bone and visceral metastasis. Therefore a PSMA based theranostics approach for detection, staging, treatment, and follow-up of PC would appear to be highly valuable to achieve personalized PC treatment. Creative Commons Attribution License

  16. MO-B-BRC-04: MRI-Based Prostate HDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourtada, F.

    2016-01-01

    Brachytherapy has proven to be an effective treatment option for prostate cancer. Initially, prostate brachytherapy was delivered through permanently implanted low dose rate (LDR) radioactive sources; however, high dose rate (HDR) temporary brachytherapy for prostate cancer is gaining popularity. Needle insertion during prostate brachytherapy is most commonly performed under ultrasound (U/S) guidance; however, treatment planning may be performed utilizing several imaging modalities either in an intra- or post-operative setting. During intra-operative prostate HDR, the needles are imaged during implantation, and planning may be performed in real time. At present, the most common imaging modality utilized for intra-operative prostate HDR is U/S. Alternatively, in the post-operative setting, following needle implantation, patients may be simulated with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Each imaging modality and workflow provides its share of benefits and limitations. Prostate HDR has been adopted in a number of cancer centers across the nation. In this educational session, we will explore the role of U/S, CT, and MRI in HDR prostate brachytherapy. Example workflows and operational details will be shared, and we will discuss how to establish a prostate HDR program in a clinical setting. Learning Objectives: Review prostate HDR techniques based on the imaging modality Discuss the challenges and pitfalls introduced by the three imagebased options for prostate HDR brachytherapy Review the QA process and learn about the development of clinical workflows for these imaging options at different institutions

  17. MO-B-BRC-03: CT-Based Prostate HDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoberi, J.

    2016-01-01

    Brachytherapy has proven to be an effective treatment option for prostate cancer. Initially, prostate brachytherapy was delivered through permanently implanted low dose rate (LDR) radioactive sources; however, high dose rate (HDR) temporary brachytherapy for prostate cancer is gaining popularity. Needle insertion during prostate brachytherapy is most commonly performed under ultrasound (U/S) guidance; however, treatment planning may be performed utilizing several imaging modalities either in an intra- or post-operative setting. During intra-operative prostate HDR, the needles are imaged during implantation, and planning may be performed in real time. At present, the most common imaging modality utilized for intra-operative prostate HDR is U/S. Alternatively, in the post-operative setting, following needle implantation, patients may be simulated with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Each imaging modality and workflow provides its share of benefits and limitations. Prostate HDR has been adopted in a number of cancer centers across the nation. In this educational session, we will explore the role of U/S, CT, and MRI in HDR prostate brachytherapy. Example workflows and operational details will be shared, and we will discuss how to establish a prostate HDR program in a clinical setting. Learning Objectives: Review prostate HDR techniques based on the imaging modality Discuss the challenges and pitfalls introduced by the three imagebased options for prostate HDR brachytherapy Review the QA process and learn about the development of clinical workflows for these imaging options at different institutions

  18. MO-B-BRC-04: MRI-Based Prostate HDR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourtada, F. [Christiana Care Hospital (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Brachytherapy has proven to be an effective treatment option for prostate cancer. Initially, prostate brachytherapy was delivered through permanently implanted low dose rate (LDR) radioactive sources; however, high dose rate (HDR) temporary brachytherapy for prostate cancer is gaining popularity. Needle insertion during prostate brachytherapy is most commonly performed under ultrasound (U/S) guidance; however, treatment planning may be performed utilizing several imaging modalities either in an intra- or post-operative setting. During intra-operative prostate HDR, the needles are imaged during implantation, and planning may be performed in real time. At present, the most common imaging modality utilized for intra-operative prostate HDR is U/S. Alternatively, in the post-operative setting, following needle implantation, patients may be simulated with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Each imaging modality and workflow provides its share of benefits and limitations. Prostate HDR has been adopted in a number of cancer centers across the nation. In this educational session, we will explore the role of U/S, CT, and MRI in HDR prostate brachytherapy. Example workflows and operational details will be shared, and we will discuss how to establish a prostate HDR program in a clinical setting. Learning Objectives: Review prostate HDR techniques based on the imaging modality Discuss the challenges and pitfalls introduced by the three imagebased options for prostate HDR brachytherapy Review the QA process and learn about the development of clinical workflows for these imaging options at different institutions.

  19. MO-B-BRC-03: CT-Based Prostate HDR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoberi, J. [Washington University School of Medicine (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Brachytherapy has proven to be an effective treatment option for prostate cancer. Initially, prostate brachytherapy was delivered through permanently implanted low dose rate (LDR) radioactive sources; however, high dose rate (HDR) temporary brachytherapy for prostate cancer is gaining popularity. Needle insertion during prostate brachytherapy is most commonly performed under ultrasound (U/S) guidance; however, treatment planning may be performed utilizing several imaging modalities either in an intra- or post-operative setting. During intra-operative prostate HDR, the needles are imaged during implantation, and planning may be performed in real time. At present, the most common imaging modality utilized for intra-operative prostate HDR is U/S. Alternatively, in the post-operative setting, following needle implantation, patients may be simulated with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Each imaging modality and workflow provides its share of benefits and limitations. Prostate HDR has been adopted in a number of cancer centers across the nation. In this educational session, we will explore the role of U/S, CT, and MRI in HDR prostate brachytherapy. Example workflows and operational details will be shared, and we will discuss how to establish a prostate HDR program in a clinical setting. Learning Objectives: Review prostate HDR techniques based on the imaging modality Discuss the challenges and pitfalls introduced by the three imagebased options for prostate HDR brachytherapy Review the QA process and learn about the development of clinical workflows for these imaging options at different institutions.

  20. Prostate histotripsy for BPH: initial canine results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, William W.; Hall, Timothy L.; Hempel, Christopher R.; Cain, Charles A.

    2009-02-01

    Histotripsy is an extracorporeal ablative technology that utilizes microsecond pulses of intense ultrasound (< 1% duty cycle) to produce nonthermal, mechanical fractionation of targeted tissue. We have previously demonstrated the feasibility of histotripsy prostate ablation. In this study we sought to assess the chronic tissue response, tolerability and safety of histotripsy in a chronic in vivo canine model. Five acute and thirteen chronic canine subjects were anesthetized and treated with histotripsy targeting the prostate. Pulses consisted of 3 cycle bursts of 750 kHz ultrasound at a repetition rate of 300 Hz delivered transabdominally from a highly focused 15 cm aperture array. Transrectal ultrasound imaging provided accurate targeting and real-time monitoring of histotripsy treatment. Prostates were harvested at 0, 7, 28, or 56 days after treatment. Consistent mechanical tissue fractionation and debulking of prostate tissue was seen acutely and at delayed time points without collateral injury. Urothelialization of the treatment cavity was apparent 28 days after treatment. Canine subjects tolerated histotripsy with minimal hematuria or discomfort. Only mild transient lab abnormalities were noted. Histotripsy is a promising non-invasive therapy for prostate tissue fractionation and debulking that appears safe and well tolerated without systemic side effects in the canine model.

  1. SU-E-T-12: A Comparative Dosimetric Study of Pre and Post Prostate Iodine-125 Permanent Seed Implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X; Rahimian, J; Goy, B; Cosmatos, H; Qian, Y [Kaiser Permanente, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Post-implant dosimetry has become the gold standard for prostate implant evaluation. The goal of this research is to compare the dosimetry between pre-plan and post-plan in permanent prostate seed implant brachytherapy. Methods: A retrospective study of 91 patients treated with Iodine-125 prostate seed implant between year 2012∼2014 were performed. All plans were created using a VariSeed 8.0 planning system. Pre-plan ultrasound images were acquired using 0.5 cm slice thickness. Post-plan CT images acquired about 1–4 weeks after implant, fused with the preplan ultrasound images. The prostate and urethra contours were generated using the fusion of ultrasound and CT images. Iodine-125 seed source activities varied between 0.382 to 0.414 mCi per seed. The loading patterns varied slightly between patients depending on the prostate size. Statistical analysis of pre and post plans for prostate and urethra volumes, V100%, V150% and D90, and urethra D10 were performed and reported. Results: The pre and post implant average prostate size was 36.90cc vs. 38.58cc; V100% was 98.33% vs. 96.89%; V150% was 47.09% vs. 56.95%; D90 was 116.35Gy vs. 116.12Gy, urethra volume was 1.72cc vs. 1.85cc, urethra D10% was 122.0% vs. 135.35%, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the pre and post-plan values for D90(p-value=0.43). However, there are significant differences between other parameters most likely due to post surgical edema; prostate size (p-value= 0.00015); V100% (p-value=3.7803E-07); V150% (p-value=1.49E-09); urethra volume (p-value= 2.77E-06); Urethra D10 (p-value=7.37E-11). Conclusion: The post-plan dosimetry using CT image set showed similar D90 dose coverage to the pre-plan using the ultrasound image dataset. The study showed that our prostate seed implants have consistently delivered adequate therapeutic dose to the prostate while sparing urethra. Future studies to correlate dose versus biochemical response using patients’ PSA

  2. About the Prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PCF: Many vs Cancer Contact Us About the Prostate Prostate Cancer Basics Risk Factors Prostate Cancer Prevention ... that connects to the anus. Ultrasound of the prostate Prostate Zones The prostate is divided into several ...

  3. Analysis of the spatial and temporal accuracy of heating in the prostate gland using transurethral ultrasound therapy and active MR temperature feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, Rajiv; Tang, Kee; Burtnyk, Mathieu; Boyes, Aaron; Bronskill, Michael; Sugar, Linda; Appu, Sree; Klotz, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    A new MRI-guided therapy is being developed as a minimally invasive treatment for localized prostate cancer utilizing high-intensity ultrasound energy to generate a precise region of thermal coagulation within the prostate gland. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vivo the capability to produce a spatial heating pattern in the prostate that accurately matched the shape of a target region using transurethral ultrasound heating and active MR temperature feedback. Experiments were performed in a canine model (n = 9) in a 1.5 T MR imager using a prototype device comprising a single planar transducer operated under rotational control. The spatial temperature distribution, measured every 5 s with MR thermometry, was used to adjust the acoustic power and rotation rate in order to achieve a temperature of 55 0 C along the outer boundary of the target region. The results demonstrated the capability to produce accurate spatial heating patterns within the prostate gland. An average temperature of 56.2 ± 0.6 0 C was measured along the outer boundary of the target region across all experiments in this study. The average spatial error between the target boundary and the 55 0 C isotherm was 0.8 ± 0.7 mm (-0.2 to 3.2 mm), and the overall treatment time was ≤20 min for all experiments. Excellent spatial agreement was observed between the temperature information acquired with MRI and the pattern of thermal damage measured on H and E-stained tissue sections. This study demonstrates the benefit of adaptive energy delivery using active MR temperature feedback, and an excellent capability to treat precise regions within the prostate gland with this technology.

  4. Complications and risk factors in transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Márcio Nóbrega de Jesus

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Prostate biopsy is not a procedure without risk. There is concern about major complications and which antibiotics are best for routine use before these biopsies. The objective was to determine the rate of complications and the possible risk factors in prostate biopsies. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu. METHODS: Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS guided prostate biopsies were carried out in 174 patients presenting either abnormality in digital rectal examinations (DRE or levels higher than 4 ng/ml in prostate-specific antigen (PSA tests, or both. RESULTS: Hemorrhagic complications were the most common (75.3%, while infectious complications occurred in 19% of the cases. Hematuria was the most frequent type (56%. Urinary tract infection (UTI occurred in 16 patients (9.2%. Sepsis was observed in three patients (1.7%. The presence of an indwelling catheter was a risk factor for infectious complications (p < 0.05. Higher numbers of biopsies correlated with hematuria, rectal bleeding and infectious complications (p < 0.05. The other conditions investigated did not correlate with post-biopsy complications. CONCLUSIONS: Post-biopsy complications were mostly self-limiting. The rate of major complications was low, thus showing that TRUS guided prostate biopsy was safe and effective. Higher numbers of fragments taken in biopsies correlated with hematuria, rectal bleeding and infectious complications. An indwelling catheter represented a risk factor for infectious complications. The use of aspirin was not an absolute contraindication for TRUS.

  5. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  6. Resolution enhancement in medical ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploquin, Marie; Basarab, Adrian; Kouamé, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Image resolution enhancement is a problem of considerable interest in all medical imaging modalities. Unlike general purpose imaging or video processing, for a very long time, medical image resolution enhancement has been based on optimization of the imaging devices. Although some recent works purport to deal with image postprocessing, much remains to be done regarding medical image enhancement via postprocessing, especially in ultrasound imaging. We face a resolution improvement issue in the case of medical ultrasound imaging. We propose to investigate this problem using multidimensional autoregressive (AR) models. Noting that the estimation of the envelope of an ultrasound radio frequency (RF) signal is very similar to the estimation of classical Fourier-based power spectrum estimation, we theoretically show that a domain change and a multidimensional AR model can be used to achieve super-resolution in ultrasound imaging provided the order is estimated correctly. Here, this is done by means of a technique that simultaneously estimates the order and the parameters of a multidimensional model using relevant regression matrix factorization. Doing so, the proposed method specifically fits ultrasound imaging and provides an estimated envelope. Moreover, an expression that links the theoretical image resolution to both the image acquisition features (such as the point spread function) and a postprocessing feature (the AR model) order is derived. The overall contribution of this work is threefold. First, it allows for automatic resolution improvement. Through a simple model and without any specific manual algorithmic parameter tuning, as is used in common methods, the proposed technique simply and exclusively uses the ultrasound RF signal as input and provides the improved B-mode as output. Second, it allows for the a priori prediction of the improvement in resolution via the knowledge of the parametric model order before actual processing. Finally, to achieve the

  7. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... General ultrasound procedure View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. ...

  8. Effect of rectal enema on intrafraction prostate movement during image-guided radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youngmin; Kwak, Dong-Won; Lee, Hyung-Sik; Hur, Won-Joo; Cho, Won-Yeol; Sung, Gyung Tak; Kim, Tae-Hyo; Kim, Soo-Dong; Yun, Seong-Guk

    2015-04-01

    Rectal volume and movement are major factors that influence prostate location. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a rectal enema on intrafraction prostate motion. The data from 12 patients with localised prostate cancer were analysed. Each patient underwent image-guided radiotherapy (RT), receiving a total dose of 70 Gy in 28 fractions. Rectal enemas were administered to all of the patients before each RT fraction. The location of the prostate was determined by implanting three fiducial markers under the guidance of transrectal ultrasound. Each patient underwent preparation for IGRT twice before an RT fraction and in the middle of the fraction. The intrafraction displacement of the prostate was calculated by comparing fiducial marker locations before and in the middle of an RT fraction. The rectal enemas were well tolerated by patients. The mean intrafraction prostate movement in 336 RT fractions was 1.11 ± 0.77 mm (range 0.08-7.20 mm). Intrafraction motions of 1, 2 and 3 mm were observed in 56.0%, 89.0% and 97.6% of all RT fractions, respectively. The intrafraction movements on supero-inferior and anteroposterior axes were larger than on the right-to-left axes (P movement, calculated using the van Herk formula (2.5Σ + 0.7σ), was 1.50 mm. A daily rectal enema before each RT fraction was tolerable and yielded little intrafraction prostate displacement. We think the use of rectal enemas is a feasible method to reduce prostate movement during RT. © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  9. Effect of rectal enema on intrafraction prostate movement during image-guided radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Youngmin; Kwak, Dong-Won; Lee, Hyung-Sik; Hur, Won-Jooh; Cho, Won-Yeol; Sung, Gyung Tak; Kim, Tae-Hyo; Kim, Soo-Dong; Yun, Seong-Guk

    2015-01-01

    Rectal volume and movement are major factors that influence prostate location. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a rectal enema on intrafraction prostate motion. The data from 12 patients with localised prostate cancer were analysed. Each patient underwent image-guided radiotherapy (RT), receiving a total dose of 70 Gy in 28 fractions. Rectal enemas were administered to all of the patients before each RT fraction. The location of the prostate was determined by implanting three fiducial markers under the guidance of transrectal ultrasound. Each patient underwent preparation for IGRT twice before an RT fraction and in the middle of the fraction. The intrafraction displacement of the prostate was calculated by comparing fiducial marker locations before and in the middle of an RT fraction. The rectal enemas were well tolerated by patients. The mean intrafraction prostate movement in 336 RT fractions was 1.11 ± 0.77 mm (range 0.08–7.20 mm). Intrafraction motions of 1, 2 and 3 mm were observed in 56.0%, 89.0% and 97.6% of all RT fractions, respectively. The intrafraction movements on supero-inferior and anteroposterior axes were larger than on the right-to-left axes (P < 0.05). The CTV-to-PTV margin necessary to allow for movement, calculated using the van Herk formula (2.5Σ + 0.7σ), was 1.50 mm. A daily rectal enema before each RT fraction was tolerable and yielded little intrafraction prostate displacement. We think the use of rectal enemas is a feasible method to reduce prostate movement during RT.

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abdomen is a safe, noninvasive test that uses sound waves to produce a clear picture of the ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... requested the exam. Usually, the referring physician or health care provider will share the results with you. ...

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... children. Except for traumatic injury, appendicitis is the most common reason for emergency abdominal surgery. Ultrasound imaging ... of page How is the procedure performed? For most ultrasound exams, you will be positioned lying face- ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and produces pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound ... from the probe through the gel into the body. The transducer collects the sounds that bounce back ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... placement and fluid drainage for diagnosis and/or relief of patient discomfort. Doppler ultrasound images can help ... tenderness, your child may feel pressure or minor pain from the procedure. If a Doppler ultrasound study ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is no ... structure and movement of the body's internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. Ultrasound ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... the best way to see if treatment is working or if a finding is stable or changed ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... the transducer is pressed against the skin, it directs small pulses of inaudible, high-frequency sound waves ...

  18. Signal Processing in Medical Ultrasound B-mode Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Tai Kyong

    2000-01-01

    Ultrasonic imaging is the most widely used modality among modern imaging device for medical diagnosis and the system performance has been improved dramatically since early 90's due to the rapid advances in DSP performance and VLSI technology that made it possible to employ more sophisticated algorithms. This paper describes 'main stream' digital signal processing functions along with the associated implementation considerations in modern medical ultrasound imaging systems. Topics covered include signal processing methods for resolution improvement, ultrasound imaging system architectures, roles and necessity of the applications of DSP and VLSI technology in the development of the medical ultrasound imaging systems, and array signal processing techniques for ultrasound focusing

  19. Computer model for harmonic ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Zagzebski, J A

    2000-01-01

    Harmonic ultrasound imaging has received great attention from ultrasound scanner manufacturers and researchers. In this paper, we present a computer model that can generate realistic harmonic images. In this model, the incident ultrasound is modeled after the "KZK" equation, and the echo signal is modeled using linear propagation theory because the echo signal is much weaker than the incident pulse. Both time domain and frequency domain numerical solutions to the "KZK" equation were studied. Realistic harmonic images of spherical lesion phantoms were generated for scans by a circular transducer. This model can be a very useful tool for studying the harmonic buildup and dissipation processes in a nonlinear medium, and it can be used to investigate a wide variety of topics related to B-mode harmonic imaging.

  20. MR imaging of prostate. Preliminary experience with calculated imaging in 28 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gevenois, P.A.; Van Regemorter, G.; Ghysels, M.; Delepaut, A.; Van Gansbeke, D.; Struyven, J.

    1988-01-01

    The majority of studies with MR imaging in prostate disease are based on a semiology obtained using images weighted in T1 and T2. A study was carried out to evaluate effects of images calculated in T1 and T2 obtained at 0.5T. This preliminary study concerns 28 prostate examinations with spin-echo acquisition and inversion-recuperation parameters, and provided images calculated in T1, weighted and calculated in T2. Images allowed detection and characterization of prostate lesions. However, although calculated images accentuate discrimination of the method, the weighted images conserve their place because of their improved spatial resolution [fr

  1. Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... assistance of a nurse and an MR imaging technologist. As with the ultrasound procedure, you may receive antibiotics, sedatives and pain medication before the biopsy. The MRI-guided procedure may use contrast ... A nurse or technologist will insert an intravenous (IV) catheter into a ...

  2. Fast and Automatic Ultrasound Simulation from CT Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijian Cong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound is currently widely used in clinical diagnosis because of its fast and safe imaging principles. As the anatomical structures present in an ultrasound image are not as clear as CT or MRI. Physicians usually need advance clinical knowledge and experience to distinguish diseased tissues. Fast simulation of ultrasound provides a cost-effective way for the training and correlation of ultrasound and the anatomic structures. In this paper, a novel method is proposed for fast simulation of ultrasound from a CT image. A multiscale method is developed to enhance tubular structures so as to simulate the blood flow. The acoustic response of common tissues is generated by weighted integration of adjacent regions on the ultrasound propagation path in the CT image, from which parameters, including attenuation, reflection, scattering, and noise, are estimated simultaneously. The thin-plate spline interpolation method is employed to transform the simulation image between polar and rectangular coordinate systems. The Kaiser window function is utilized to produce integration and radial blurring effects of multiple transducer elements. Experimental results show that the developed method is very fast and effective, allowing realistic ultrasound to be fast generated. Given that the developed method is fully automatic, it can be utilized for ultrasound guided navigation in clinical practice and for training purpose.

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... within your child’s abdomen. Ultrasound does not use ionizing radiation, has no known harmful effects, and is particularly ... create an image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is ...

  4. Ultrasound imaging using coded signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misaridis, Athanasios

    Modulated (or coded) excitation signals can potentially improve the quality and increase the frame rate in medical ultrasound scanners. The aim of this dissertation is to investigate systematically the applicability of modulated signals in medical ultrasound imaging and to suggest appropriate...... methods for coded imaging, with the goal of making better anatomic and flow images and three-dimensional images. On the first stage, it investigates techniques for doing high-resolution coded imaging with improved signal-to-noise ratio compared to conventional imaging. Subsequently it investigates how...... coded excitation can be used for increasing the frame rate. The work includes both simulated results using Field II, and experimental results based on measurements on phantoms as well as clinical images. Initially a mathematical foundation of signal modulation is given. Pulse compression based...

  5. EPID detection of radio-opaque markers for the evaluation of prostate position during megavoltage irradiation: a clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigneault, E.; Pouliot, J.; Laverdiere, J.; Roy, J.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To assess daily prostatic apex motion relative to pelvic bone structures during megavoltage irradiation. Materials and Methods: Radio-opaque markers were implanted under ultrasound guidance near the prostatic apex of ten patients with localized prostatic carcinoma. Patients were subsequently treated with four field box technique at a beam energy of 23 MV. During treatment, on-line images were obtained with an Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID) for each field and fraction. The marker was easily identified, even on unprocessed images and the distance between the marker and a bony landmark was measured. Timelapse movie for the complete treatment of each patient were also reviewed. After the completion of treatment, a transrectal ultrasound examination was performed to verify the position of the marker relative to the apex. Results: Over 1000 digital portal images were acquired. Antero-posterior and lateral views of each fraction were analysed. The quality of portal images obtained with megavoltage irradiation was good. Even without image histogram equalization it was possible to evaluate pelvic bone structures. Moreover, the radio-opaque marker was easily visible on every on-line portal image. Qualitatively, the review of timelapse movies showed important interfraction motions of the marker while bone structures remained stable. Quantitatively, the position of the marker were measured for each fraction. Marker displacements of up to 1,4 cm were measured between two consecutive days of treatment. Important marker motions were predominately in the antero-posterior and cephalo-caudal directions. Position of the markers relative to the prostatic apex were verified with ultrasound at the end of the treatments and were found to remain globaly at their original position. Intratreatment images were reviewed in two cases and no change in marker positions was observed. Our results, obtained during the treatment courses, indicate similar or larger prostate motions

  6. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and movement of the body's internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  7. Classification of prostate cancer grade using temporal ultrasound: in vivo feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavidel, Sahar; Imani, Farhad; Khallaghi, Siavash; Gibson, Eli; Khojaste, Amir; Gaed, Mena; Moussa, Madeleine; Gomez, Jose A.; Siemens, D. Robert; Leveridge, Michael; Chang, Silvia; Fenster, Aaron; Ward, Aaron D.; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Mousavi, Parvin

    2016-03-01

    Temporal ultrasound has been shown to have high classification accuracy in differentiating cancer from benign tissue. In this paper, we extend the temporal ultrasound method to classify lower grade Prostate Cancer (PCa) from all other grades. We use a group of nine patients with mostly lower grade PCa, where cancerous regions are also limited. A critical challenge is to train a classifier with limited aggressive cancerous tissue compared to low grade cancerous tissue. To resolve the problem of imbalanced data, we use Synthetic Minority Oversampling Technique (SMOTE) to generate synthetic samples for the minority class. We calculate spectral features of temporal ultrasound data and perform feature selection using Random Forests. In leave-one-patient-out cross-validation strategy, an area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.74 is achieved with overall sensitivity and specificity of 70%. Using an unsupervised learning approach prior to proposed method improves sensitivity and AUC to 80% and 0.79. This work represents promising results to classify lower and higher grade PCa with limited cancerous training samples, using temporal ultrasound.

  8. 3D ultrasound imaging for prosthesis fabrication and diagnostic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, A.K.; Bow, W.J.; Strong, D.S. [and others

    1995-06-01

    The fabrication of a prosthetic socket for a below-the-knee amputee requires knowledge of the underlying bone structure in order to provide pressure relief for sensitive areas and support for load bearing areas. The goal is to enable the residual limb to bear pressure with greater ease and utility. Conventional methods of prosthesis fabrication are based on limited knowledge about the patient`s underlying bone structure. A 3D ultrasound imaging system was developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The imaging system provides information about the location of the bones in the residual limb along with the shape of the skin surface. Computer assisted design (CAD) software can use this data to design prosthetic sockets for amputees. Ultrasound was selected as the imaging modality. A computer model was developed to analyze the effect of the various scanning parameters and to assist in the design of the overall system. The 3D ultrasound imaging system combines off-the-shelf technology for image capturing, custom hardware, and control and image processing software to generate two types of image data -- volumetric and planar. Both volumetric and planar images reveal definition of skin and bone geometry with planar images providing details on muscle fascial planes, muscle/fat interfaces, and blood vessel definition. The 3D ultrasound imaging system was tested on 9 unilateral below-the- knee amputees. Image data was acquired from both the sound limb and the residual limb. The imaging system was operated in both volumetric and planar formats. An x-ray CT (Computed Tomography) scan was performed on each amputee for comparison. Results of the test indicate beneficial use of ultrasound to generate databases for fabrication of prostheses at a lower cost and with better initial fit as compared to manually fabricated prostheses.

  9. Piezoelectric Composite Micromachined Multifrequency Transducers for High-Resolution, High-Contrast Ultrasound Imaging for Improved Prostate Cancer Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    imaging system ( Verasonics Vantage , Kirkland, WA) was used to drive the array and acquire echoes. For this work, 19 TX elements were fired as a group...imaging was conducted with the Verasonics programmable ultrasound system ( Verasonics Vantage , Redmond, WA). The Verasonics sampling frequency...multi-channel research imaging system ( Verasonics Vantage , Kirkland, WA) was used to drive the array and acquire echoes. For this work, 19 TX elements

  10. SU-D-210-05: The Accuracy of Raw and B-Mode Image Data for Ultrasound Speckle Tracking in Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Shea, T; Bamber, J; Harris, E [The Institute of Cancer Research & Royal Marsden, Sutton and London (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: For ultrasound speckle tracking there is some evidence that the envelope-detected signal (the main step in B-mode image formation) may be more accurate than raw ultrasound data for tracking larger inter-frame tissue motion. This study investigates the accuracy of raw radio-frequency (RF) versus non-logarithmic compressed envelope-detected (B-mode) data for ultrasound speckle tracking in the context of image-guided radiation therapy. Methods: Transperineal ultrasound RF data was acquired (with a 7.5 MHz linear transducer operating at a 12 Hz frame rate) from a speckle phantom moving with realistic intra-fraction prostate motion derived from a commercial tracking system. A normalised cross-correlation template matching algorithm was used to track speckle motion at the focus using (i) the RF signal and (ii) the B-mode signal. A range of imaging rates (0.5 to 12 Hz) were simulated by decimating the imaging sequences, therefore simulating larger to smaller inter-frame displacements. Motion estimation accuracy was quantified by comparison with known phantom motion. Results: The differences between RF and B-mode motion estimation accuracy (2D mean and 95% errors relative to ground truth displacements) were less than 0.01 mm for stable and persistent motion types and 0.2 mm for transient motion for imaging rates of 0.5 to 12 Hz. The mean correlation for all motion types and imaging rates was 0.851 and 0.845 for RF and B-mode data, respectively. Data type is expected to have most impact on axial (Superior-Inferior) motion estimation. Axial differences were <0.004 mm for stable and persistent motion and <0.3 mm for transient motion (axial mean errors were lowest for B-mode in all cases). Conclusions: Using the RF or B-mode signal for speckle motion estimation is comparable for translational prostate motion. B-mode image formation may involve other signal-processing steps which also influence motion estimation accuracy. A similar study for respiratory-induced motion

  11. Use of shear waves for diagnosis and ablation monitoring of prostate cancer: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, A; Saffari, N; Rus, G

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer remains as a major healthcare issue. Limitations in current diagnosis and treatment monitoring techniques imply that there is still a need for improvements. The efficacy of prostate cancer diagnosis is still low, generating under and over diagnoses. High intensity focused ultrasound ablation is an emerging treatment modality, which enables the noninvasive ablation of pathogenic tissue. Clinical trials are being carried out to evaluate its longterm efficacy as a focal treatment for prostate cancer. Successful treatment of prostate cancer using non-invasive modalities is critically dependent on accurate diagnostic means and is greatly benefited by a real-time monitoring system. While magnetic resonance imaging remains the gold standard for prostate imaging, its wider implementation for prostate cancer diagnosis remains prohibitively expensive. Conventional ultrasound is currently limited to guiding biopsy. Elastography techniques are emerging as a promising real-time imaging method, as cancer nodules are usually stiffer than adjacent healthy prostatic tissue. In this paper, a new transurethral approach is proposed, using shear waves for diagnosis and ablation monitoring of prostate cancer. A finite-difference time domain model is developed for studying the feasibility of the method, and an inverse problem technique based on genetic algorithms is proposed for reconstructing the location, size and stiffness parameters of the tumour. Preliminary results indicate that the use of shear waves for diagnosis and monitoring ablation of prostate cancer is feasible. (paper)

  12. Fusion of Ultrasound Tissue-Typing Images with Multiparametric MRI for Image-guided Prostate Cancer Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    otherwise. Statement of Authorship Category 1 (a) Conception and Design Yuefeng Wang; Tian Liu; Peter J. Rossi; Deborah Watkins-Bruner; Wayland Hsiao...Group (N = 18) Age 62.3 (7.7) 60.7 (7.3) Gender Female 2 (12.5) 4 (22.2) Male 14 (87.5) 14 (77.8) Primary tumor site Head (orbit) 0 (0) 1 (5.6) Larynx 1... gender , primary tumor site, histol- ogy, stage, and chemotherapy—are summarized in Table 1 for both acute- and late-toxicity groups. Ultrasound Images and

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging-targeted, 3D transrectal ultrasound-guided fusion biopsy for prostate cancer: Quantifying the impact of needle delivery error on diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Peter R., E-mail: pmarti46@uwo.ca [Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Cool, Derek W. [Department of Medical Imaging, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada and Robarts Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Romagnoli, Cesare [Department of Medical Imaging, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Fenster, Aaron [Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Department of Medical Imaging, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Robarts Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Ward, Aaron D. [Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-targeted, 3D transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided “fusion” prostate biopsy intends to reduce the ∼23% false negative rate of clinical two-dimensional TRUS-guided sextant biopsy. Although it has been reported to double the positive yield, MRI-targeted biopsies continue to yield false negatives. Therefore, the authors propose to investigate how biopsy system needle delivery error affects the probability of sampling each tumor, by accounting for uncertainties due to guidance system error, image registration error, and irregular tumor shapes. Methods: T2-weighted, dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted, and diffusion-weighted prostate MRI and 3D TRUS images were obtained from 49 patients. A radiologist and radiology resident contoured 81 suspicious regions, yielding 3D tumor surfaces that were registered to the 3D TRUS images using an iterative closest point prostate surface-based method to yield 3D binary images of the suspicious regions in the TRUS context. The probabilityP of obtaining a sample of tumor tissue in one biopsy core was calculated by integrating a 3D Gaussian distribution over each suspicious region domain. Next, the authors performed an exhaustive search to determine the maximum root mean squared error (RMSE, in mm) of a biopsy system that gives P ≥ 95% for each tumor sample, and then repeated this procedure for equal-volume spheres corresponding to each tumor sample. Finally, the authors investigated the effect of probe-axis-direction error on measured tumor burden by studying the relationship between the error and estimated percentage of core involvement. Results: Given a 3.5 mm RMSE for contemporary fusion biopsy systems,P ≥ 95% for 21 out of 81 tumors. The authors determined that for a biopsy system with 3.5 mm RMSE, one cannot expect to sample tumors of approximately 1 cm{sup 3} or smaller with 95% probability with only one biopsy core. The predicted maximum RMSE giving P ≥ 95% for each

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging-targeted, 3D transrectal ultrasound-guided fusion biopsy for prostate cancer: Quantifying the impact of needle delivery error on diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Peter R; Cool, Derek W; Romagnoli, Cesare; Fenster, Aaron; Ward, Aaron D

    2014-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-targeted, 3D transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided "fusion" prostate biopsy intends to reduce the ∼23% false negative rate of clinical two-dimensional TRUS-guided sextant biopsy. Although it has been reported to double the positive yield, MRI-targeted biopsies continue to yield false negatives. Therefore, the authors propose to investigate how biopsy system needle delivery error affects the probability of sampling each tumor, by accounting for uncertainties due to guidance system error, image registration error, and irregular tumor shapes. T2-weighted, dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted, and diffusion-weighted prostate MRI and 3D TRUS images were obtained from 49 patients. A radiologist and radiology resident contoured 81 suspicious regions, yielding 3D tumor surfaces that were registered to the 3D TRUS images using an iterative closest point prostate surface-based method to yield 3D binary images of the suspicious regions in the TRUS context. The probabilityP of obtaining a sample of tumor tissue in one biopsy core was calculated by integrating a 3D Gaussian distribution over each suspicious region domain. Next, the authors performed an exhaustive search to determine the maximum root mean squared error (RMSE, in mm) of a biopsy system that gives P ≥ 95% for each tumor sample, and then repeated this procedure for equal-volume spheres corresponding to each tumor sample. Finally, the authors investigated the effect of probe-axis-direction error on measured tumor burden by studying the relationship between the error and estimated percentage of core involvement. Given a 3.5 mm RMSE for contemporary fusion biopsy systems,P ≥ 95% for 21 out of 81 tumors. The authors determined that for a biopsy system with 3.5 mm RMSE, one cannot expect to sample tumors of approximately 1 cm(3) or smaller with 95% probability with only one biopsy core. The predicted maximum RMSE giving P ≥ 95% for each tumor was consistently greater when using

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging-targeted, 3D transrectal ultrasound-guided fusion biopsy for prostate cancer: Quantifying the impact of needle delivery error on diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Peter R.; Cool, Derek W.; Romagnoli, Cesare; Fenster, Aaron; Ward, Aaron D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-targeted, 3D transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided “fusion” prostate biopsy intends to reduce the ∼23% false negative rate of clinical two-dimensional TRUS-guided sextant biopsy. Although it has been reported to double the positive yield, MRI-targeted biopsies continue to yield false negatives. Therefore, the authors propose to investigate how biopsy system needle delivery error affects the probability of sampling each tumor, by accounting for uncertainties due to guidance system error, image registration error, and irregular tumor shapes. Methods: T2-weighted, dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted, and diffusion-weighted prostate MRI and 3D TRUS images were obtained from 49 patients. A radiologist and radiology resident contoured 81 suspicious regions, yielding 3D tumor surfaces that were registered to the 3D TRUS images using an iterative closest point prostate surface-based method to yield 3D binary images of the suspicious regions in the TRUS context. The probabilityP of obtaining a sample of tumor tissue in one biopsy core was calculated by integrating a 3D Gaussian distribution over each suspicious region domain. Next, the authors performed an exhaustive search to determine the maximum root mean squared error (RMSE, in mm) of a biopsy system that gives P ≥ 95% for each tumor sample, and then repeated this procedure for equal-volume spheres corresponding to each tumor sample. Finally, the authors investigated the effect of probe-axis-direction error on measured tumor burden by studying the relationship between the error and estimated percentage of core involvement. Results: Given a 3.5 mm RMSE for contemporary fusion biopsy systems,P ≥ 95% for 21 out of 81 tumors. The authors determined that for a biopsy system with 3.5 mm RMSE, one cannot expect to sample tumors of approximately 1 cm 3 or smaller with 95% probability with only one biopsy core. The predicted maximum RMSE giving P ≥ 95% for each tumor was

  16. WE-AB-206-01: Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging Quality Assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagzebski, J. [University of Wisconsin (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The involvement of medical physicists in diagnostic ultrasound imaging service is increasing due to QC and accreditation requirements. The goal of this ultrasound hands-on workshop is to demonstrate quality control (QC) testing in diagnostic ultrasound and to provide updates in ACR ultrasound accreditation requirements. The first half of this workshop will include two presentations reviewing diagnostic ultrasound QA/QC and ACR ultrasound accreditation requirements. The second half of the workshop will include live demonstrations of basic QC tests. An array of ultrasound testing phantoms and ultrasound scanners will be available for attendees to learn diagnostic ultrasound QC in a hands-on environment with live demonstrations and on-site instructors. The targeted attendees are medical physicists in diagnostic imaging. Learning Objectives: Gain familiarity with common elements of a QA/QC program for diagnostic ultrasound imaging dentify QC tools available for testing diagnostic ultrasound systems and learn how to use these tools Learn ACR ultrasound accreditation requirements Jennifer Walter is an employee of American College of Radiology on Ultrasound Accreditation.

  17. WE-AB-206-01: Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging Quality Assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagzebski, J.

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of medical physicists in diagnostic ultrasound imaging service is increasing due to QC and accreditation requirements. The goal of this ultrasound hands-on workshop is to demonstrate quality control (QC) testing in diagnostic ultrasound and to provide updates in ACR ultrasound accreditation requirements. The first half of this workshop will include two presentations reviewing diagnostic ultrasound QA/QC and ACR ultrasound accreditation requirements. The second half of the workshop will include live demonstrations of basic QC tests. An array of ultrasound testing phantoms and ultrasound scanners will be available for attendees to learn diagnostic ultrasound QC in a hands-on environment with live demonstrations and on-site instructors. The targeted attendees are medical physicists in diagnostic imaging. Learning Objectives: Gain familiarity with common elements of a QA/QC program for diagnostic ultrasound imaging dentify QC tools available for testing diagnostic ultrasound systems and learn how to use these tools Learn ACR ultrasound accreditation requirements Jennifer Walter is an employee of American College of Radiology on Ultrasound Accreditation.

  18. Applicability and dosimetric impact of ultrasound-based preplanning in high-dose-rate brachytherapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aebersold, D.M.; Isaak, B.; Behrensmeier, F.; Kolotas, C.; Mini, R.; Greiner, R.H.; Thalmann, G.; Kranzbuehler, H.

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: analyses of permanent brachytherapy seed implants of the prostate have demonstrated that the use of a preplan may lead to a considerable decrease of dosimetric implant quality. The authors aimed to determine whether the same drawbacks of preplanning also apply to high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Patients and methods: 15 patients who underwent two separate HDR brachytherapy implants in addition to external-beam radiation therapy for advanced prostate cancer were analyzed. A pretherapeutic transrectal ultrasound was performed in all patients to generate a preplan for the first brachytherapy implant. For the second brachytherapy, a subset of patients were treated by preplans based on the ultrasound from the first brachytherapy implant. Preplans were compared with the respective postplans assessing the following parameters: coverage index, minimum target dose, homogeneity index, and dose exposure of organs at risk. The prostate geometries (volume, width, height, length) were compared as well. Results: at the first brachytherapy, the matching between the preplan and actual implant geometry was sufficient in 47% of the patients, and the preplan could be applied. The dosimetric implant quality decreased considerably: the mean coverage differed by -0.11, the mean minimum target dose by -0.15, the mean homogeneity index by -0.09. The exposure of organs at risk was not substantially altered. At the second brachytherapy, all patients could be treated by the preplan; the differences between the implant quality parameters were less pronounced. The changes of prostate geometry between preplans and postplans were considerable, the differences in volume ranging from -8.0 to 13.8 cm 3 and in dimensions (width, height, length) from -1.1 to 1.0 cm. Conclusion: preplanning in HDR brachytherapy of the prostate is associated with a substantial decrease of dosimetric implant quality, when the preplan is based on a pretherapeutic ultrasound. The implant quality

  19. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound procedure View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Angioplasty and Vascular Stenting ...

  20. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... biopsies , in which needles are used to sample cells from an abnormal area for laboratory testing. image the breasts and guide biopsy of breast cancer ( see the Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy page . diagnose ...

  1. Urinary morbidity following ultrasound-guided transperineal prostate seed implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelblum, Daphna Y.; Potters, Louis; Ashley, Richard; Waldbaum, Robert; Wang Xiaohong; Leibel, Steven

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the urinary morbidity experienced by patients undergoing ultrasound-guided, permanent transperineal seed implantation for adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Methods and Materials: Between September 1992 and September 1997, 693 consecutive patients presented with a diagnosis of clinically localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate, and were treated with ultrasound-guided transperineal interstitial permanent brachytherapy (TPIPB). Ninety-three patients are excluded from this review, having received neoadjuvant antiandrogen therapy. TPIPB was performed with 125 I in 165 patients and with 103 Pd in 435 patients. Patients treated with implant alone received 160 Gy with 125 I (pre TG43) or 120 Gy with 103 Pd. One hundred two patients received preimplant, pelvic external beam radiation (XRT) to a dose of either 41.4 or 45 Gy because of high-risk features including PSA ≥ 10 and/or Gleason score ≥ 7. Combined modality patients received 120 Gy and 90 Gy, respectively for 125 I or 103 Pd. All patients underwent postimplant cystoscopy and placement of an indwelling Foley catheter for 24-48 h. Follow-up was at 5 weeks after implant, every 3 months for the first 2 years, and then every 6 months for subsequent years. Patients completed AUA urinary symptom scoring questionnaires at initial consultation and at each follow-up visit. Urinary toxicity was classified by the RTOG toxicity scale with the following adaptations; grade 1 urinary toxicity was symptomatic nocturia or frequency requiring none or minimal medical intervention such as phenazopyridine; grade 2 urinary toxicity was early obstructive symptomatology requiring alpha-blocker therapy; and grade 3 toxicity was considered that requiring indwelling catheters or posttreatment transurethral resection of the prostate for symptom relief. Log-rank analysis and Chi-square testing was performed to assess AUA score, prostate size, isotope selection, and the addition of XRT as possible prognosticators of

  2. Differentiation of prostatitis and prostate cancer using the Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier-Schroers, Michael; Kukuk, Guido; Wolter, Karsten; Decker, Georges; Fischer, Stefan; Marx, Christian; Traeber, Frank; Sprinkart, Alois Martin; Block, Wolfgang; Schild, Hans Heinz; Willinek, Winfried

    2016-07-01

    To determine if prostate cancer (PCa) and prostatitis can be differentiated by using PI-RADS. 3T MR images of 68 patients with 85 cancer suspicious lesions were analyzed. The findings were correlated with histopathology. T2w imaging (T2WI), diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE), and MR-Spectroscopy (MRS) were acquired. Every lesion was given a single PI-RADS score for each parameter, as well as a sum score and a PI-RADS v2 score. Furthermore, T2-morphology, ADC-value, perfusion type, citrate/choline-level, and localization were evaluated. 44 of 85 lesions showed PCa (51.8%), 21 chronic prostatitis (24.7%), and 20 other benign tissue such as hyperplasia or fibromuscular tissue (23.5%). The single PI-RADS score for T2WI, DWI, DCE, as well as the aggregated score including and not including MRS, and the PI-RADS v2-score were all significantly higher for PCa than for prostatitis or other tissue (pprostatitis than for other tissue (p=0.029 and p=0.020), whereas the other parameters were not different. Prostatitis usually presented borderline pathological PI-RADS scores, showed restricted diffusion with ADC≥900mm(2)/s in 100% of cases, was more often indistinctly hypointense on T2WI (66.7%), and localized in the transitional zone (57.1%). An ADC≥900mm(2)/s achieved the highest predictive value for prostatitis (AUC=0.859). Prostatitis can be differentiated from PCa using PI-RADS, since all available parameters are more distinct in cases of cancer. However, there is significant overlap between prostatitis and other benign findings, thus PI-RADS is only suitable to a limited extent for the primary assessment of prostatitis. Restricted diffusion with ADC≥900mm(2)/s is believed to be a good indicator for prostatitis. MRS can help to distinguish between prostatitis and other tissue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... biopsies , in which needles are used to sample cells from an abnormal area for laboratory testing. image ... ultrasound, measures the direction and speed of blood cells as they move through vessels. The movement of ...

  4. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... image the breasts and guide biopsy of breast cancer ( see the Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy page . diagnose ... are sometimes the best way to see if treatment is working or if a finding is stable ...

  5. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... a follow-up exam is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or ... of soft tissues that do not show up well on x-ray images. Ultrasound is the preferred ...

  6. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... heartbeat. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Ultrasound examinations can help to ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ...

  7. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... needles are used to sample cells from an abnormal area for laboratory testing. image the breasts and ... of organs, tissues, and vessels or to detect abnormal masses, such as tumors. In an ultrasound examination, ...

  8. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... the transducer for analysis. Ultrasound has difficulty penetrating bone and, therefore, can only see the outer surface ... children or adults). For visualizing internal structure of bones or certain joints, other imaging modalities such as ...

  9. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... be necessary. Your doctor will explain the exact reason why another exam is requested. Sometimes a follow- ... Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding minimally invasive procedures such as ...

  10. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of the body's ... time, rather than as a color picture. It can also convert blood flow information into a distinctive ...

  11. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of ... terms of the distance traveled per unit of time, rather than as a color picture. It can ...

  12. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... echoes from the tissues in the body. The principles are similar to sonar used by boats and ... work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles involved in the sonar used by bats, ships ...

  13. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... consist of a console containing a computer and electronics, a video display screen and a transducer that ... the preferred imaging modality for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnant women and their unborn babies. Ultrasound ...

  14. Prefraction displacement and intrafraction drift of the prostate due to perineal ultrasound probe pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Minglun; Hegemann, Nina-Sophie; Manapov, Farkhad; Kolberg, Anne; Thum, Patrick Dominik; Ganswindt, Ute; Belka, Claus [LMU Munich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Ballhausen, Hendrik [LMU Munich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); University Hospital of LMU Munich, Munich (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    In image-guided EBRT of the prostate, transperineal ultrasound (US) probes exert pressure on the perineum both during planning and treatment. Through tissue deformation and relaxation, this causes target and risk organ displacement and drift. In this study, prefraction shift and intrafraction drift of the prostate are quantified during robotic transperineal 4DUS. The position of the prostate was recorded for different positions of the probe before treatment in 10 patients (16 series of measurements). During treatment (15 patients, 273 fractions), intrafraction motion of the prostate was tracked (total of 27 h and 24 min) with the transperineal probe in place. Per 1 mm shift of the US probe in the cranial direction, a displacement of the prostate by 0.42 ± 0.09 mm in the cranial direction was detected. The relationship was found to be linear (R{sup 2} = 0.97) and highly significant (p < 0.0001). After initial contact of the probe and the perineum (no pressure), a shift of the probe of about 5-10 mm was typically necessary to achieve good image quality, corresponding to a shift of the prostate of about 2-4 mm in the cranial direction. Tissue compression and prostate displacement were well visible. During treatment, the prostate drifted at an average rate of 0.075 mm/min in the cranial direction (p = 0.0014). The pressure applied by a perineal US probe has a quantitatively similar impact on prostate displacement as transabdominal pressure. Shifts are predominantly in the cranial direction (typically 2-4 mm) with some component in the anterior direction (typically <1 mm). Slight probe pressure can improve image quality, but excessive probe pressure can distort the surrounding anatomy and potentially move risk organs closer to the high-dose area. (orig.) [German] In der bildgefuehrten Strahlentherapie der Prostata ueben perineale Ultraschallkoepfe waehrend Planung und Behandlung Druck auf das Perineum aus. Durch Gewebedeformation verursacht dies Verschiebungen von

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging in prostate disease. Review of 58 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevenois, P.A.; Van Regemorter, G.; Van Gansbeke, D.; Delcour, C.; Corbusier, A.; Struyven, J.

    1987-03-01

    Forty-eight patients with prostatic disease (benign prostatic hyperplasia (B.P.H.), carcinoma, cysts, myoma and prostatitis) and 10 normal volunteers underwent magnetic resonance imaging (M.R.I) of the prostate. The prostatic parenchyma was best evaluated by a T2-weighted spin-echo pulse sequence. The prostate in patients with B.P.H. often had an homogeneous or more rarely a nodular appearance on T2-weighted images. In most cases, a peripheral dark rim is observed. All prostate in patients with carcinoma had an heterogeneous appearance on T2-weighted images. While most of the prostatic carcinomas appeared hypointense relative to adjacent prostatic parenchyma, some of the neoplasms had a high or mixed-high and low signal. The myoma showed a low-signal nodule like carcinoma. The cyst appears as a liquid tumor. The prostatitis had an homogeneous bright signal. With the used methodology, MRI can differentiate prostatic diseases in many cases. Nevertheless the technique has to be optimalized to improve its accuracy.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging in prostate disease. Review of 58 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gevenois, P.A.; Van Regemorter, G.; Van Gansbeke, D.; Delcour, C.; Corbusier, A.; Struyven, J.

    1987-01-01

    Forty-eight patients with prostatic disease (benign prostatic hyperplasia (B.P.H.), carcinoma, cysts, myoma and prostatitis) and 10 normal volunteers underwent magnetic resonance imaging (M.R.I) of the prostate. The prostatic parenchyma was best evaluated by a T2-weighted spin-echo pulse sequence. The prostate in patients with B.P.H. often had an homogeneous or more rarely a nodular appearance on T2-weighted images. In most cases, a peripheral dark rim is observed. All prostate in patients with carcinoma had an heterogeneous appearance on T2-weighted images. While most of the prostatic carcinomas appeared hypointense relative to adjacent prostatic parenchyma, some of the neoplasms had a high or mixed-high and low signal. The myoma showed a low-signal nodule like carcinoma. The cyst appears as a liquid tumor. The prostatitis had an homogeneous bright signal. With the used methodology, MRI can differentiate prostatic diseases in many cases. Nevertheless the technique has to be optimalized to improve its accuracy [fr

  17. Musculoskeletal ultrasound and other imaging modalities in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrndorf, Sarah; Werner, Stephanie G; Finzel, Stephanie; Backhaus, Marina

    2013-05-01

    This review refers to the use of musculoskeletal ultrasound in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) both in clinical practice and research. Furthermore, other novel sensitive imaging modalities (high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography and fluorescence optical imaging) are introduced in this article. Recently published ultrasound studies presented power Doppler activity by ultrasound highly predictive for later radiographic erosions in patients with RA. Another study presented synovitis detected by ultrasound being predictive of subsequent structural radiographic destruction irrespective of the ultrasound modality (grayscale ultrasound/power Doppler ultrasound). Further studies are currently under way which prove ultrasound findings as imaging biomarkers in the destructive process of RA. Other introduced novel imaging modalities are in the validation process to prove their impact and significance in inflammatory joint diseases. The introduced imaging modalities show different sensitivities and specificities as well as strength and weakness belonging to the assessment of inflammation, differentiation of the involved structures and radiological progression. The review tries to give an answer regarding how to best integrate them into daily clinical practice with the aim to improve the diagnostic algorithms, the daily patient care and, furthermore, the disease's outcome.

  18. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... is General Ultrasound Imaging? What are some common uses of the procedure? How should I prepare? What does the equipment look like? How does the procedure work? How is the procedure performed? What will I ...

  19. SU-G-JeP3-03: Effect of Robot Pose On Beam Blocking for Ultrasound Guided SBRT of the Prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, S; Schlaefer, A [Hamburg University of Technology, Hamburg (Germany); Kuhlemann, I; Ernst, F [Universitaet zu Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Fuerweger, C [European Cyberknife Center Munich, Munich (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Ultrasound presents a fast, volumetric image modality for real-time tracking of abdominal organ motion. How-ever, ultrasound transducer placement during radiation therapy is challenging. Recently, approaches using robotic arms for intra-treatment ultrasound imaging have been proposed. Good and reliable imaging requires placing the transducer close to the PTV. We studied the effect of a seven degrees of freedom robot on the fea-sible beam directions. Methods: For five CyberKnife prostate treatment plans we established viewports for the transducer, i.e., points on the patient surface with a soft tissue view towards the PTV. Choosing a feasible transducer pose and using the kinematic redundancy of the KUKA LBR iiwa robot, we considered three robot poses. Poses 1 to 3 had the elbow point anterior, superior, and inferior, respectively. For each pose and each beam starting point, the pro-jections of robot and PTV were computed. We added a 20 mm margin accounting for organ / beam motion. The number of nodes for which the PTV was partially of fully blocked were established. Moreover, the cumula-tive overlap for each of the poses and the minimum overlap over all poses were computed. Results: The fully and partially blocked nodes ranged from 12% to 20% and 13% to 27%, respectively. Typically, pose 3 caused the fewest blocked nodes. The cumulative overlap ranged from 19% to 29%. Taking the minimum overlap, i.e., considering moving the robot’s elbow while maintaining the transducer pose, the cumulative over-lap was reduced to 16% to 18% and was 3% to 6% lower than for the best individual pose. Conclusion: Our results indicate that it is possible to identify feasible ultrasound transducer poses and to use the kinematic redundancy of a 7 DOF robot to minimize the impact of the imaging subsystem on the feasible beam directions for ultrasound guided and motion compensated SBRT. Research partially funded by DFG grants ER 817/1-1 and SCHL 1844/3-1.

  20. SU-G-JeP3-03: Effect of Robot Pose On Beam Blocking for Ultrasound Guided SBRT of the Prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlach, S; Schlaefer, A; Kuhlemann, I; Ernst, F; Fuerweger, C

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Ultrasound presents a fast, volumetric image modality for real-time tracking of abdominal organ motion. How-ever, ultrasound transducer placement during radiation therapy is challenging. Recently, approaches using robotic arms for intra-treatment ultrasound imaging have been proposed. Good and reliable imaging requires placing the transducer close to the PTV. We studied the effect of a seven degrees of freedom robot on the fea-sible beam directions. Methods: For five CyberKnife prostate treatment plans we established viewports for the transducer, i.e., points on the patient surface with a soft tissue view towards the PTV. Choosing a feasible transducer pose and using the kinematic redundancy of the KUKA LBR iiwa robot, we considered three robot poses. Poses 1 to 3 had the elbow point anterior, superior, and inferior, respectively. For each pose and each beam starting point, the pro-jections of robot and PTV were computed. We added a 20 mm margin accounting for organ / beam motion. The number of nodes for which the PTV was partially of fully blocked were established. Moreover, the cumula-tive overlap for each of the poses and the minimum overlap over all poses were computed. Results: The fully and partially blocked nodes ranged from 12% to 20% and 13% to 27%, respectively. Typically, pose 3 caused the fewest blocked nodes. The cumulative overlap ranged from 19% to 29%. Taking the minimum overlap, i.e., considering moving the robot’s elbow while maintaining the transducer pose, the cumulative over-lap was reduced to 16% to 18% and was 3% to 6% lower than for the best individual pose. Conclusion: Our results indicate that it is possible to identify feasible ultrasound transducer poses and to use the kinematic redundancy of a 7 DOF robot to minimize the impact of the imaging subsystem on the feasible beam directions for ultrasound guided and motion compensated SBRT. Research partially funded by DFG grants ER 817/1-1 and SCHL 1844/3-1.

  1. Endorectal magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate and bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimura, Yoshiki; Hayashi, Norio; Yamashita, Atsushi; Kinbara, Hiroyuki; Arima, Kiminobu; Tochigi, Hiromi; Kawamura, Juichi

    1994-01-01

    Endorectal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using an endorectal surface coil has been evaluated basically and clinically. This new modality obtained increased resolution magnetic resonance images of the pathologic conditions of the prostate and bladder. Compared with images obtained with a body coil, the surface coil images clearly demonstrate prostatic intraglandular zonal anatomy. The clear images of prostatic capsule and neurovascular bundle seen on the surface coil may contribute to the local staging of prostate cancer. The staging diagnosis of bladder tumor located in the bladder neck will be the best candidate for endorectal MRI. Enhancement with gadolinium may improve the ability to differentiate superficial from deep bladder-wall tumors. We concluded that endorectal MRI is safely performed and is extremely useful for the local staging of prostate cancer and bladder neck tumor. Further studies will be required to evaluate the clinical significance of this new modality. (author)

  2. Malignant paraganglioma of the prostate: case report, depiction by meta-iodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, B.; Gonzalez, E.; Weissman, A.; Ann Arbor, Univ. of Michigan; McHugh, T.; Markel, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    Objective: to describe the 123-I-MIBG scintigraphic, CT, MRI, operative and pathological findings in a case of malignant prostatic paraganglioma and to review the literature on this very rare tumor. Experimental design: clinical imaging and pathological correlation of data in a referred patient. Setting: regional referral center and tertiary referral academic medical center. Patient: 17 year old man presenting with painless hematuria and a large prostatic mass. Interventions and measures: renal ultrasound, transrectal ultrasound, ultrasound guided prostatic biopsy, pelvic CT and MRI, planar and SPECT 123-I-MIBG scintigraphy, and surgical exploration. Results: the patient had a significant hydronephrosis of the left kidney and marked enlargement (120 ml) of the prostate gland by ultrasound. Ultrasound guided biopsies of the prostate and a left pelvic lymph node revealed a neuroendocrine tumor staining positive for chromogranin. CT and MRI revealed a large tumor of the prostate invading the seminal vesicles, bladder and rectum with extensive pelvic lymph node spread. The primary tumor and one of the nodes were shown to be 123-I-MIBG avid confirming the neuroendocrine nature of the tumor. The lesion was unresponsive to chemotherapy and unresectable at surgical exploration. Conclusions: today there have only been 5 reports of prostatic paragangliomas. To our knowledge this is the first to have been studied by MIBG scintigraphy and like most paragangliomas it was MIBG-avid

  3. Transrectal ultrasound of the prostate bed after collagen injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomon, C.G.; Dudiak, C.M.; Pyle, J.M.; Wheeler, J.S.; Waters, W.B.; Flanigan, R.C. [Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Transurethral injection of collagen (TCI) may be used to treat urinary incontinence following radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer. The transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) findings after TCI are described in this report. TRUS exams of four postprostatectomy patients who had undergone TCI were reviewed. Findings were correlated with pathologic specimens obtained at TRUS-guided core biopsy. These histologic specimens were compared with others from postprostatectomy patients who had not undergone TCI. Well defined bladder apex masses of uniform echogenicity, hypoechoic to adjacent fat and muscle, were identified sonographically in all TCI patients. Masses from which positive biopsies were obtained were similar in appearance to those with no malignant. Hypocellular fibrous tissue and foci of acellular loose connective tissue were identified in the biopsies of those patients who had undergone TCI No acellular areas were identified in specimens from patients who had not had TCI. Sequelae of to should be included in the differential diagnosis of perianastomotic masses in postprostatectomy patients. However, the need for biopsy is not obviated as residual or recurrent prostate carcinoma may coexist. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  4. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... the patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of ... by a computer, which in turn creates a real-time picture on the monitor. One or more frames ...

  5. Dosimetric impact of image-guided 3D conformal radiation therapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaly, B; Song, W; Bauman, G S; Battista, J J; Van Dyk, J

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this work is to quantify the impact of image-guided conformal radiation therapy (CRT) on the dose distribution by correcting patient setup uncertainty and inter-fraction tumour motion. This was a retrospective analysis that used five randomly selected prostate cancer patients that underwent approximately 15 computed tomography (CT) scans during their radiation treatment course. The beam arrangement from the treatment plan was imported into each repeat CT study and the dose distribution was recalculated for the new beam setups. Various setup scenarios were then compared to assess the impact of image guidance on radiation treatment precision. These included (1) daily alignment to skin markers, thus representing a conventional beam setup without image guidance (2) alignment to bony anatomy for correction of daily patient setup error, thus representing on-line portal image guidance, and (3) alignment to the 'CTV of the day' for correction of inter-fraction tumour motion, thus representing on-line CT or ultrasound image guidance. Treatment scenarios (1) and (3) were repeated with a reduced CTV to PTV margin, where the former represents a treatment using small margins without daily image guidance. Daily realignment of the treatment beams to the prostate showed an average increase in minimum tumour dose of 1.5 Gy, in all cases where tumour 'geographic miss' without image guidance was apparent. However, normal tissue sparing did not improve unless the PTV margin was reduced. Daily realignment to the tumour combined with reducing the margin size by a factor of 2 resulted in an average escalation in tumour dose of 9.0 Gy for all five static plans. However, the prescription dose could be escalated by 13.8 Gy when accounting for changes in anatomy by accumulating daily doses using nonlinear image registration techniques. These results provide quantitative information on the effectiveness of image-guided radiation treatment of prostate cancer and demonstrate that

  6. MRI tracing non-invasive TiO2-based nanoparticles activated by ultrasound for multi-mechanism therapy of prostatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Pu; Song, Dongkui

    2018-03-01

    To reduce the side effects of chemotherapy and achieve effective and safe therapy for prostate cancer, herein a simple but multi-functional TiO2:Gd@DOX/FA system activated by ultrasound was developed for the MRI-guided multi-mechanism therapy of prostate cancer. TiO2 nanoparticles served as a sonosensitizer as well as a nanocarrier with the pH-responsive release of DOX. The doping of Gd was not only able to endow the TiO2 with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ability, but also further improve the sonodynamic ability of the TiO2. The characterization of the as-prepared TiO2:Gd@DOX/FA showed sensitive pH-responsive drug release, high reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, T 1-MRI contrast performance and excellent biocompatibility. The cytotoxicity assay in vitro showed cell death up to 91.68% after 48 h incubation induced by the TiO2:Gd@DOX + ultrasound group. Meanwhile, in the in vivo synergistic therapy studies, the tumor sizes of all the nanomedicine groups were smaller than for the free DOX (V:V 0 = 4.2). More importantly, the body showed nearly no weight loss. This safety was also confirmed by the H&E staining, biodistribution experiment and serum biochemistry results. Altogether, TiO2:Gd@DOX/FA significantly reduced the side effects of DOX, augmented the levels of ROS and achieved effective and safe therapy, indicating its potential for the multi-mechanism therapy of prostate cancer. There is no conflict of interest in this study and no funding has been received for it. We received the approval of the Research Ethics Committee before conducting this study.

  7. Analysis of intra-fraction prostate motion and derivation of duration-dependent margins for radiotherapy using real-time 4D ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Pei Ping Pang

    2018-01-01

    be applied in the presence of prolonged imaging and verification time. Keywords: Prostate, Intra-fraction movement, 4D Clarity ultrasound system, Real-time tracking, Margins

  8. Motion Detection in Ultrasound Image-Sequences Using Tensor Voting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inba, Masafumi; Yanagida, Hirotaka; Tamura, Yasutaka

    2008-05-01

    Motion detection in ultrasound image sequences using tensor voting is described. We have been developing an ultrasound imaging system adopting a combination of coded excitation and synthetic aperture focusing techniques. In our method, frame rate of the system at distance of 150 mm reaches 5000 frame/s. Sparse array and short duration coded ultrasound signals are used for high-speed data acquisition. However, many artifacts appear in the reconstructed image sequences because of the incompleteness of the transmitted code. To reduce the artifacts, we have examined the application of tensor voting to the imaging method which adopts both coded excitation and synthetic aperture techniques. In this study, the basis of applying tensor voting and the motion detection method to ultrasound images is derived. It was confirmed that velocity detection and feature enhancement are possible using tensor voting in the time and space of simulated ultrasound three-dimensional image sequences.

  9. Prevalence of fluoroquinolone-resistant rectal flora in patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate needle biopsy: A prospective multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ho Seok; Hwang, Eu Chang; Yu, Ho Song; Jung, Seung Il; Lee, Sun Ju; Lim, Dong Hoon; Cho, Won Jin; Choe, Hyun Sop; Lee, Seung-Ju; Park, Sung Woon

    2018-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence of fluoroquinolone-resistant rectal flora in patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate needle biopsy and to identify the high-risk groups. From January 2015 to March 2016, rectal swabs of 557 men who underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate needle biopsy were obtained from five institutions. Clinical variables, including demographics, rectal swab culture results and infectious complications, were evaluated. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to identify the risk factors for fluoroquinolone resistance of rectal flora and infectious complications. The incidence of fluoroquinolone-resistant and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production was 48.1 and 11.8%, respectively. The most common fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria was Escherichia coli (81% of total fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria, 39% of total rectal flora), and 16 (2.9%) patients had infectious complications. Univariable and multivariable analysis of clinical parameters affecting fluoroquinolone resistance showed no factor associated with fluoroquinolone resistance of rectal flora. The clinical parameter related to infectious complications after prostate biopsy was a history of operation within 6 months (relative risk 6.60; 95% confidence interval 1.99-21.8, P = 0.002). These findings suggest that a risk-based approach by history taking cannot predict antibiotic resistance of rectal flora, and physicians should consider targeted antibiotic prophylaxis or extended antibiotic prophylaxis for Korean patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy because of high antibiotic resistance of rectal flora. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  10. Ultrasound-guided delivery of siRNA and a chemotherapeutic drug by using microbubble complexes: In vitro and in vivo evaluations in a prostate cancer model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Yun Jung; Yoon, Young Il; Lee, Hak Jong [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Tae Jong [Dept. of Applied Bioscience, College of Life Science, CHA University, Pocheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    To evaluate the effectiveness of ultrasound and microbubble-liposome complex (MLC)-mediated delivery of siRNA and doxorubicin into prostate cancer cells and its therapeutic capabilities both in vitro and in vivo. Microbubble-liposome complexes conjugated with anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (Her2) antibodies were developed to target human prostate cancer cell lines PC-3 and LNCaP. Intracellular delivery of MLC was observed by confocal microscopy. We loaded MLC with survivin-targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA) and doxorubicin, and delivered it into prostate cancer cells. The release of these agents was facilitated by ultrasound application. Cell viability was analyzed by MTT assay after the delivery of siRNA and doxorubicin. Survivin-targeted siRNA loaded MLC was delivered into the xenograft mouse tumor model. Western blotting was performed to quantify the expression of survivin in vivo. Confocal microscopy demonstrated substantial intracellular uptake of MLCs in LNCaP, which expresses higher levels of Her2 than PC-3. The viability of LNCaP cells was significantly reduced after the delivery of MLCs loaded with siRNA and doxorubicin (85.0 ± 2.9%), which was further potentiated by application of ultrasound (55.0 ± 3.5%, p = 0.009). Survivin expression was suppressed in vivo in LNCaP tumor xenograft model following the ultrasound and MLC-guided delivery of siRNA (77.4 ± 4.90% to 36.7 ± 1.34%, p = 0.027). Microbubble-liposome complex can effectively target prostate cancer cells, enabling intracellular delivery of the treatment agents with the use of ultrasound. Ultrasound and MLC-mediated delivery of survivin-targeted siRNA and doxorubicin can induce prostate cell apoptosis and block survivin expression in vitro and in vivo.

  11. Ultrasound-Guided Delivery of siRNA and a Chemotherapeutic Drug by Using Microbubble Complexes: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluations in a Prostate Cancer Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Yun Jung [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam 13620 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Young Il [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam 13620 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Program in Nano Science and Technology, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Seoul National University Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Suwon 16229 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Tae-Jong [Department of Applied Bioscience, College of Life Science, CHA University, Pocheon 11160 (Korea, Republic of); College of Pharmacy, Ajou University, Suwon 16499 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hak Jong [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam 13620 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Program in Nano Science and Technology, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Seoul National University Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Suwon 16229 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of ultrasound and microbubble-liposome complex (MLC)-mediated delivery of siRNA and doxorubicin into prostate cancer cells and its therapeutic capabilities both in vitro and in vivo. Microbubble-liposome complexes conjugated with anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (Her2) antibodies were developed to target human prostate cancer cell lines PC-3 and LNCaP. Intracellular delivery of MLC was observed by confocal microscopy. We loaded MLC with survivin-targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA) and doxorubicin, and delivered it into prostate cancer cells. The release of these agents was facilitated by ultrasound application. Cell viability was analyzed by MTT assay after the delivery of siRNA and doxorubicin. Survivin-targeted siRNA loaded MLC was delivered into the xenograft mouse tumor model. Western blotting was performed to quantify the expression of survivin in vivo. Confocal microscopy demonstrated substantial intracellular uptake of MLCs in LNCaP, which expresses higher levels of Her2 than PC-3. The viability of LNCaP cells was significantly reduced after the delivery of MLCs loaded with siRNA and doxorubicin (85.0 ± 2.9%), which was further potentiated by application of ultrasound (55.0 ± 3.5%, p = 0.009). Survivin expression was suppressed in vivo in LNCaP tumor xenograft model following the ultrasound and MLC-guided delivery of siRNA (77.4 ± 4.90% to 36.7 ± 1.34%, p = 0.027). Microbubble-liposome complex can effectively target prostate cancer cells, enabling intracellular delivery of the treatment agents with the use of ultrasound. Ultrasound and MLC-mediated delivery of survivin-targeted siRNA and doxorubicin can induce prostate cell apoptosis and block survivin expression in vitro and in vivo.

  12. Ultrasound-Guided Delivery of siRNA and a Chemotherapeutic Drug by Using Microbubble Complexes: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluations in a Prostate Cancer Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Yun Jung; Yoon, Young Il; Yoon, Tae-Jong; Lee, Hak Jong

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of ultrasound and microbubble-liposome complex (MLC)-mediated delivery of siRNA and doxorubicin into prostate cancer cells and its therapeutic capabilities both in vitro and in vivo. Microbubble-liposome complexes conjugated with anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (Her2) antibodies were developed to target human prostate cancer cell lines PC-3 and LNCaP. Intracellular delivery of MLC was observed by confocal microscopy. We loaded MLC with survivin-targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA) and doxorubicin, and delivered it into prostate cancer cells. The release of these agents was facilitated by ultrasound application. Cell viability was analyzed by MTT assay after the delivery of siRNA and doxorubicin. Survivin-targeted siRNA loaded MLC was delivered into the xenograft mouse tumor model. Western blotting was performed to quantify the expression of survivin in vivo. Confocal microscopy demonstrated substantial intracellular uptake of MLCs in LNCaP, which expresses higher levels of Her2 than PC-3. The viability of LNCaP cells was significantly reduced after the delivery of MLCs loaded with siRNA and doxorubicin (85.0 ± 2.9%), which was further potentiated by application of ultrasound (55.0 ± 3.5%, p = 0.009). Survivin expression was suppressed in vivo in LNCaP tumor xenograft model following the ultrasound and MLC-guided delivery of siRNA (77.4 ± 4.90% to 36.7 ± 1.34%, p = 0.027). Microbubble-liposome complex can effectively target prostate cancer cells, enabling intracellular delivery of the treatment agents with the use of ultrasound. Ultrasound and MLC-mediated delivery of survivin-targeted siRNA and doxorubicin can induce prostate cell apoptosis and block survivin expression in vitro and in vivo

  13. Identification, diagnostic assistance and planning methods that use multi-modality imaging for prostate cancer focal therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makni, Nasr

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of death from cancer among men. In In the last decade, new diagnosis procedures and treatment options have been developed and made possible thanks to the recent progress in prostate imaging modalities. The newest challenges in this field are to detect the smallest tumors and to treat locally to minimise the treatment morbidity. In this thesis, we introduce a set of automatic image processing methods for the guidance and assistance of diagnosis and treatment, in laser-based prostate cancer focal therapies. In the first part of this work, segmentation and computer-aided detection algorithms have been developed for the enhancement of image-based diagnosis of prostate cancer. First, we propose a novel approach that combines Markov Random Fields framework with an Active Shape Model, in order to extract three dimensional outlines of the gland from Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data. Second, prostate's MRI volume is segmented into peripheral and central zones: we introduce a method that explores features of multispectral MRI, and is based on belief functions and the modelling of an a priori knowledge as an additional source of information. Finally, computer-aided detection of prostate's peripheral zone tumors is investigated by experimenting novel texture features based on fractal geometry-based. These parameters, extracted from morphological MRI, were tested using both supervised and unsupervised classification methods. The results of these different approaches were studied and compared. The second part of this work addresses the guidance of laser-based focal ablation of prostate tumors. A novel non rigid registration method is introduced for fusion of pre-operative MRI and planning data, and per-operative ultrasound imaging. We test and evaluate our algorithms using simulated data and physical phantoms, which enable comparison to ground truth. Patients' data, combined to expert interpretation, are also used in the

  14. Advanced 3-D Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer

    The main purpose of the PhD project was to develop methods that increase the 3-D ultrasound imaging quality available for the medical personnel in the clinic. Acquiring a 3-D volume gives the medical doctor the freedom to investigate the measured anatomy in any slice desirable after the scan has...... been completed. This allows for precise measurements of organs dimensions and makes the scan more operator independent. Real-time 3-D ultrasound imaging is still not as widespread in use in the clinics as 2-D imaging. A limiting factor has traditionally been the low image quality achievable using...... a channel limited 2-D transducer array and the conventional 3-D beamforming technique, Parallel Beamforming. The first part of the scientific contributions demonstrate that 3-D synthetic aperture imaging achieves a better image quality than the Parallel Beamforming technique. Data were obtained using both...

  15. Update on ultrasound elastography: Miscellanea. Prostate, testicle, musculo-skeletal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correas, J.M.; Drakonakis, E.; Isidori, A.M.; Hélénon, O.; Pozza, C.; Cantisani, V.; Di Leo, N.; Maghella, F.; Rubini, A.; Drudi, F.M.; D’ambrosio, F.

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays ultrasound elastosonography is an established technique, although with limited clinical application, used to assess tissue stiffness, which is a parameter that in most cases is associated with malignancy. However, although a consistent number of articles have been published about several applications of elastosonography, its use in certain human body districts is still not well defined. In this paper we write on the use of elastosonography in prostate, testicle and musculo-skeletal apparatus. We report and compare the work of several authors, different type of elastosonography (shear wave, strain elastography, etc.) and instrumental data obtained in the study of both benign and malignant lesions

  16. Update on ultrasound elastography: Miscellanea. Prostate, testicle, musculo-skeletal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correas, J.M. [Descartes University and Necker University Hospital, Department of Adult Radiology, Paris (France); Drakonakis, E. [Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Oxford (United Kingdom); Isidori, A.M. [Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Experimental Medicine, Rome (Italy); Hélénon, O. [Descartes University and Necker University Hospital, Department of Adult Radiology, Paris (France); Pozza, C. [Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Experimental Medicine, Rome (Italy); Cantisani, V., E-mail: vito.cantisani@uniroma1.it [Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Di Leo, N.; Maghella, F.; Rubini, A.; Drudi, F.M.; D’ambrosio, F. [Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy)

    2013-11-01

    Nowadays ultrasound elastosonography is an established technique, although with limited clinical application, used to assess tissue stiffness, which is a parameter that in most cases is associated with malignancy. However, although a consistent number of articles have been published about several applications of elastosonography, its use in certain human body districts is still not well defined. In this paper we write on the use of elastosonography in prostate, testicle and musculo-skeletal apparatus. We report and compare the work of several authors, different type of elastosonography (shear wave, strain elastography, etc.) and instrumental data obtained in the study of both benign and malignant lesions.

  17. Ultrasound Imaging and its modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2002-01-01

    Modern medical ultrasound scanners are used for imaging nearly all soft tissue structures in the body. The anatomy can be studied from gray-scale B-mode images, where the reflectivity and scattering strength of the tissues are displayed. The imaging is performed in real time with 20 to 100 images...

  18. Extraction of prostatic lumina and automated recognition for prostatic calculus image using PCA-SVM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuocai; Xu, Xiangmin; Ding, Xiaojun; Xiao, Hui; Huang, Yusheng; Liu, Jian; Xing, Xiaofen; Wang, Hua; Liao, D Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Identification of prostatic calculi is an important basis for determining the tissue origin. Computation-assistant diagnosis of prostatic calculi may have promising potential but is currently still less studied. We studied the extraction of prostatic lumina and automated recognition for calculus images. Extraction of lumina from prostate histology images was based on local entropy and Otsu threshold recognition using PCA-SVM and based on the texture features of prostatic calculus. The SVM classifier showed an average time 0.1432 second, an average training accuracy of 100%, an average test accuracy of 93.12%, a sensitivity of 87.74%, and a specificity of 94.82%. We concluded that the algorithm, based on texture features and PCA-SVM, can recognize the concentric structure and visualized features easily. Therefore, this method is effective for the automated recognition of prostatic calculi.

  19. Extraction of Prostatic Lumina and Automated Recognition for Prostatic Calculus Image Using PCA-SVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuocai; Xu, Xiangmin; Ding, Xiaojun; Xiao, Hui; Huang, Yusheng; Liu, Jian; Xing, Xiaofen; Wang, Hua; Liao, D. Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Identification of prostatic calculi is an important basis for determining the tissue origin. Computation-assistant diagnosis of prostatic calculi may have promising potential but is currently still less studied. We studied the extraction of prostatic lumina and automated recognition for calculus images. Extraction of lumina from prostate histology images was based on local entropy and Otsu threshold recognition using PCA-SVM and based on the texture features of prostatic calculus. The SVM classifier showed an average time 0.1432 second, an average training accuracy of 100%, an average test accuracy of 93.12%, a sensitivity of 87.74%, and a specificity of 94.82%. We concluded that the algorithm, based on texture features and PCA-SVM, can recognize the concentric structure and visualized features easily. Therefore, this method is effective for the automated recognition of prostatic calculi. PMID:21461364

  20. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of prostate tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Yue; Huang, Lixiang; Zhang, Xiaodong; Ji, Qian; Shen, Wen [Dept. of Radiology, Tianjin First Central Hospital, Tianjin (China)

    2015-08-15

    To describe the multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of prostate tuberculosis. Six patients with prostate tuberculosis were analyzed retrospectively. The mean age of the patients was 60.5 years (range, 48-67 years). The mean prostate specific antigen concentration was 6.62 ng/mL (range, 0.54-14.57 ng/mL). All patients underwent a multiparametric MRI examination. The histopathological results were obtained from biopsies in four men and from transurethral resection of the prostate in two men after the MRI examination. Nodular (33%, 2/6 patients) and diffuse lesions (67%, 4/6 patients) were seen on MRI. The nodular lesions were featured by extremely low signal intensity (similar to that of muscle) on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI). The T2WI signal intensity of the diffuse lesions was low but higher than that of muscle, which showed high signal intensity on diffusion weighted imaging and low signal intensity on an apparent diffusion coefficient map. MR spectroscopic imaging of this type showed a normal-like spectrum. Abscesses were found in one patient with the nodular type and in one with the diffuse type. The appearance of prostate tuberculosis on MRI can be separated into multiple nodular and diffuse types. Multiparametric MRI may offer useful information for diagnosing prostate tuberculosis.

  1. SU-F-J-167: Use of MR for Permanent Prostate Implant Preplanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayana, V; McLaughlin, P [Assarian Cancer Center, Novi, MI (United States); University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Yao, B [Assarian Cancer Center, Novi, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To study the feasibility using MR imaging to improve target definition on ultrasound during permanent prostate implants and aid in source strength determination for treatment planning in the OR. Methods: Patients who receive permanent prostate implants undergo MR and CT imaging prior to the implant procedure to determine the volume of the prostate, bony restriction to the procedure, bladder extension, external sphincter length and neurovascular bundle. The volume of the prostate is generally used to order seeds for the procedure. In 10 patients, the MR was used as the preplanning study with the PTV defined as a 2 mm expansion of the MR prostate in all directions except the posterior. Various dose volume parameters for the MR prostate and the PTV were compared to the actual preplan developed and executed in the OR. In addition, there parameters were compared to the post implant dosimetry performed 3 weeks after the implant procedure. Results: The results show that the number of seeds used using MR and US (ultrasound) planning was generally with 2 seeds and the maximum difference was 7 seeds. There is no significant difference between any of the dose index parameters of V100, V150, V200, D99 and D90 parameters between MR planning, US planning and postimplant evaluation There was a significant difference between planned D99 (avg of 105%) and achieved D99 (avg 91%). Conclusion: MR imaging is an invaluable tool to improve target definition for permanent prostate implants. Use of MR images for preplanning improves the confidence with which source can be ordered for the procedure that is OR planned. Ordering a maximum of 10 seeds more than planned would be sufficient to deliver a plan in the OR using US. Moving ahead to non-rigid registration between MR ad US images could further increase the confidence level of MR planning.

  2. Impact of Image Guidance on Outcomes After External Beam Radiotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupelian, Patrick A.; Willoughby, Twyla R.; Reddy, Chandana A.; Klein, Eric A.; Mahadevan, Arul

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To verify whether rectal distention at the time of planning impacts outcomes in patients with localized prostate cancer treated with daily image guidance. Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2002, a total of 488 prostate cancer patients were treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy. The radiation dose was 70 Gy delivered at 2.5 Gy per fraction in all cases. All cases were treated with a 4-mm margin posteriorly. In all cases the total rectal volume documented on the CT scan was used for treatment planning. No special bowel preparation instructions were given, either for the simulation or the daily treatments. Before each daily treatment, alignment of the prostate was performed with the B-mode acquisition and targeting (BAT) transabdominal ultrasound system. The median follow-up for all 488 patients was 60 months (range, 24-96 months). Results: For all patients the biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS) rate at 5 years was 86%. The 5-year bRFS rate for the rectal distention 3 , 50 to 3 , and ≥100 cm 3 groups was 90%, 83%, and 85%, respectively (p = 0.18). To adjust for other potential variables affecting bRFS rates, a multivariate time-to-failure analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model was performed. Rectal distention was not an independent predictor of biochemical failure on multivariate analysis (p = 0.80). Rectal distention was not a predictor of rectal or urinary toxicity. Conclusion: The use of daily image guidance eliminates errors such as rectal distention at the initial planning stage that can affect outcomes after radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer

  3. Ultrasound Imaging Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    texture mapping hardware," IEEE Tranactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine, Submitted. [14] C.R. Castro Pareja , J.M. Jagadeesh and R. Shekhar...modulation in real-time three-dimensional sparse synthetic aperture ultrasound imaging systems "* Carlos R. Castro Pareja , Masters of Science, The Ohio...C.R. Castro Pareja , "An architecture for real-time image registration," M.S. Thesis, The Ohio State University, March 2002. 14. C.R. Castro Pareja , R

  4. Proper Measurement of the Prostate Volume by Transrectal Ultrasound: Experimental Study about the Prostate with Focal Intravesical Protrusion of the Enlarged Central Gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sung Kyoung; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Lim, Joo Won; Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Young Tae [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    To evaluate the proper volume measurement of prostate with focal intravesical protrusion of enlarged central gland by comparison between methods using craniocaudal length from top of protruded central gland and from prostate base near bladder neck to prostate apex. We made 20 prostate models with focal intravesical protrusion (volume range: 20{approx}50 mL, height of protrusion: about 1 cm) using devil's tongue jelly. Two radiologists measured volume of models 3 times by two kinds of methods using craniocaudal length from top of protruded central gland (method 1) and from prostate base near bladder neck (method 2) by transrectal ultrasound. The accuracy of volume measurement of models was evaluated statistically by comparing their average volume to true volume. Intra- and interobserver agreement was also evaluated. Average true volume of models was 31.05 mL. Each average volume using method 1 by two observers was 37.07 mL and 38.56 mL. Each average volume using method 2 was 30.69 mL and 31.55 mL. Volume measurement using method 2 was approximated to true volume of prostate statistically (p = .654, .823). There was no significant inter- and intra-observer variation in both methods. To measure the accurate volume of prostate with focal intravesical protrusion of enlarged central gland, its craniocaudal length should be measured from prostate base near bladder neck

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abdomen, arms, legs, neck and/or brain (in infants and children) or within various body organs such ... abdomen help determine causes of vomiting in young infants Because ultrasound provides real-time images, images that ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to-use and less expensive than other imaging methods. Ultrasound imaging is extremely safe and does not ... barium exams, CT scanning , and MRI are the methods of choice in such a setting. Large patients ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... kidneys. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Abdominal ultrasound imaging is performed ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - ... computer or television monitor. The image is created based on the amplitude (loudness), frequency (pitch) and time ...

  9. Ultrasound elastographic techniques in focal liver lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Clara Benedetta; Cavalcoli, Federica; Fraquelli, Mirella; Conte, Dario; Massironi, Sara

    2016-03-07

    Elastographic techniques are new ultrasound-based imaging techniques developed to estimate tissue deformability/stiffness. Several ultrasound elastographic approaches have been developed, such as static elastography, transient elastography and acoustic radiation force imaging methods, which include point shear wave and shear wave imaging elastography. The application of these methods in clinical practice aims at estimating the mechanical tissues properties. One of the main settings for the application of these tools has been liver stiffness assessment in chronic liver disease, which has been studied mainly using transient elastography. Another field of application for these techniques is the assessment of focal lesions, detected by ultrasound in organs such as pancreas, prostate, breast, thyroid, lymph nodes. Considering the frequency and importance of the detection of focal liver lesions through routine ultrasound, some studies have also aimed to assess the role that elestography can play in studying the stiffness of different types of liver lesions, in order to predict their nature and thus offer valuable non-invasive methods for the diagnosis of liver masses.

  10. A 63 element 1.75 dimensional ultrasound phased array for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Nadine

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia are very common diseases in older American men, thus having a reliable treatment modality for both diseases is of great importance. The currently used treating options, mainly surgical ones, have numerous complications, which include the many side effects that accompany such procedures, besides the invasive nature of such techniques. Focused ultrasound is a relatively new treating modality that is showing promising results in treating prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Thus this technique is gaining more attention in the past decade as a non-invasive method to treat both diseases. Methods In this paper, the design, construction and evaluation of a 1.75 dimensional ultrasound phased array to be used for treating prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia is presented. With this array, the position of the focus can be controlled by changing the electrical power and phase to the individual elements for electronically focusing and steering in a three dimensional volume. The array was designed with a maximum steering angle of ± 13.5° in the transverse direction and a maximum depth of penetration of 11 cm, which allows the treatment of large prostates. The transducer piezoelectric ceramic, matching layers and cable impedance have been designed for maximum power transfer to tissue. Results To verify the capability of the transducer for focusing and steering, exposimetry was performed and the results correlated well with the calculated field. Ex vivo experiments using bovine tissue were performed with various lesion sizes and indicated the capability of the transducer to ablate tissue using short sonications. Conclusion A 1.75 dimensional array, that overcame the drawbacks associated with one-dimensional arrays, has been designed, built and successfully tested. Design issues, such as cable and ceramic capacitances, were taken into account when designing this

  11. Diagnostic performance of power doppler and ultrasound contrast agents in early imaging-based diagnosis of organ-confined prostate cancer: Is it possible to spare cores with contrast-guided biopsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Oliva, F; Arlandis Guzman, S; Bonillo García, M; Broseta Rico, E; Boronat Tormo, F

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of gray scale transrectal ultrasound-B-mode US (BMUS), power Doppler (PDUS), and sonographic contrast (CEUS) in early imaging-based diagnosis of localized prostate cancer (PCa) and to compare the diagnostic profitability of randomized biopsy (RB), US-targeted prostate biopsy by means of PDUS and CEUS. A single-center, prospective, transversal, epidemiological study was conducted from January 2010 to January 2014. We consecutively included patients who an imaging study of the prostate with BMUS, PDUS, and CEUS was performed, followed by prostate biopsy due to clinical suspicion of prostate cancer (PSA 4-20ng/mL and/or rectal exam suggestive of malignancy). The diagnostic performance of BMUS, PDUS, and CEUS was determined by calculating the Sensitivity (S), Specificity (Sp), Predictive values (PV), and diagnostic odds ratio (OR) of the diagnosis tests and, for these variables, in the population general and based on their clinical stage according to rectal exam (cT1 and cT2). PCa detection rates determined by means of a randomized 10-core biopsy scheme were compared with detection rates of CEUS-targeted (SonoVue) 2-core biopsies. Of the initial 984 patients, US contrast SonoVue was administered to 179 (18.2%). The PCa detection rate by organ of BMUS/PDUS in the global population was 38% versus 43% in the subpopulation with CEUS. The mean age of the patients was 64.3±7.01years (95% CI, 63.75-64.70); mean total PSA was 8.9±3.61ng/mL (95% CI, 8.67-9.13) and the mean prostate volume was 56.2±29cc (95% CI, 54.2-58.1). The detection rate by organ of targeted biopsy with BMUS, PDUS, and CEUS were as follows: Global population (10.6, 8.2, 24.5%), stage cT1 (5.6, 4.2, 16.4%), and stage cT2 (32.4, 22.3, 43.5%). Comparing the detection rates of the CEUS-targeted biopsy and randomized biopsy, the following results were obtained: Global population (24.5% vs. 41.8%), stage cT1 (16% vs. 35%), and stage cT2 (43.5% vs. 66.6%), with a p value0

  12. MLESAC Based Localization of Needle Insertion Using 2D Ultrasound Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Gao, Dedong; Wang, Shan; Zhanwen, A.

    2018-04-01

    In the 2D ultrasound image of ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle insertions, it is difficult to determine the positions of needle axis and tip because of the existence of artifacts and other noises. In this work the speckle is regarded as the noise of an ultrasound image, and a novel algorithm is presented to detect the needle in a 2D ultrasound image. Firstly, the wavelet soft thresholding technique based on BayesShrink rule is used to denoise the speckle of ultrasound image. Secondly, we add Otsu’s thresholding method and morphologic operations to pre-process the ultrasound image. Finally, the localization of the needle is identified and positioned in the 2D ultrasound image based on the maximum likelihood estimation sample consensus (MLESAC) algorithm. The experimental results show that it is valid for estimating the position of needle axis and tip in the ultrasound images with the proposed algorithm. The research work is hopeful to be used in the path planning and robot-assisted needle insertion procedures.

  13. Can Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System Version 2 reduce unnecessary prostate biopsies in men with PSA levels of 4-10 ng/ml?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ning; Wu, Yu-Peng; Chen, Dong-Ning; Ke, Zhi-Bin; Cai, Hai; Wei, Yong; Zheng, Qing-Shui; Huang, Jin-Bei; Li, Xiao-Dong; Xue, Xue-Yi

    2018-05-01

    To explore the value of Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System Version 2 (PI-RADS v2) for predicting prostate biopsy results in patients with prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels of 4-10 ng/ml. We retrospectively reviewed multi-parameter magnetic resonance images from 528 patients with PSA levels of 4-10 ng/ml who underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsies between May 2015 and May 2017. Among them, 137 were diagnosed with prostate cancer (PCa), and we further subdivided them according to pathological results into the significant PCa (S-PCa) and insignificant significant PCa (Ins-PCa) groups (121 cases were defined by surgical pathological specimen and 16 by biopsy). Age, PSA, percent free PSA, PSA density (PSAD), prostate volume (PV), and PI-RADS score were collected. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine predictors of pathological results. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to analyze the diagnostic value of PI-RADS v2 in PCa. Multivariate analysis indicated that age, PV, percent free PSA, and PI-RADS score were independent predictors of biopsy findings, while only PI-RADS score was an independent predictor of S-PCa (P PSA, and PI-RADS score were 0.570, 0.430, 0.589 and 0.836, respectively. The area under the curve for diagnosing S-PCa with respect to PI-RADS score was 0.732. A PI-RADS score of 3 was the best cutoff for predicting PCa, and 4 was the best cutoff for predicting S-PCa. Thus, 92.8% of patients with PI-RADS scores of 1-2 would have avoided biopsy, but at the cost of missing 2.2% of the potential PCa cases. Similarly, 83.82% of patients with a PI-RADS score ≤ 3 would have avoided biopsy, but at the cost of missing 3.3% of the potential S-PCa cases. PI-RADS v2 could be used to reduce unnecessary prostate biopsies in patients with PSA levels of 4-10 ng/ml.

  14. Feasibility study of CT perfusion imaging for prostate carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullu, Nesat; Kantarci, Mecit; Ogul, Hayri; Pirimoglu, Berhan; Karaca, Leyla; Kizrak, Yesim; Adanur, Senol; Koc, Erdem; Polat, Ozkan; Okur, Aylin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this feasibility study was to obtain initial data with which to assess the efficiency of perfusion CT imaging (CTpI) and to compare this with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of prostate carcinoma. This prospective study involved 25 patients with prostate carcinoma undergoing MRI and CTpI. All analyses were performed on T2-weighted images (T2WI), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps, diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and CTp images. We compared the performance of T2WI combined with DWI and CTp alone. The study was approved by the local ethics committee, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Tumours were present in 87 areas according to the histopathological results. The diagnostic performance of the T2WI+DWI+CTpI combination was significantly better than that of T2WI alone for prostate carcinoma (P < 0.001). The diagnostic value of CTpI was similar to that of T2WI+DWI in combination. There were statistically significant differences in the blood flow and permeability surface values between prostate carcinoma and background prostate on CTp images. CTp may be a valuable tool for detecting prostate carcinoma and may be preferred in cases where MRI is contraindicated. If this technique is combined with T2WI and DWI, its diagnostic value is enhanced. (orig.)

  15. Technical Note: Error metrics for estimating the accuracy of needle/instrument placement during transperineal magnetic resonance/ultrasound-guided prostate interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonmati, Ester; Hu, Yipeng; Villarini, Barbara; Rodell, Rachael; Martin, Paul; Han, Lianghao; Donaldson, Ian; Ahmed, Hashim U; Moore, Caroline M; Emberton, Mark; Barratt, Dean C

    2018-04-01

    Image-guided systems that fuse magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound (US) images for performing targeted prostate needle biopsy and minimally invasive treatments for prostate cancer are of increasing clinical interest. To date, a wide range of different accuracy estimation procedures and error metrics have been reported, which makes comparing the performance of different systems difficult. A set of nine measures are presented to assess the accuracy of MRI-US image registration, needle positioning, needle guidance, and overall system error, with the aim of providing a methodology for estimating the accuracy of instrument placement using a MR/US-guided transperineal approach. Using the SmartTarget fusion system, an MRI-US image alignment error was determined to be 2.0 ± 1.0 mm (mean ± SD), and an overall system instrument targeting error of 3.0 ± 1.2 mm. Three needle deployments for each target phantom lesion was found to result in a 100% lesion hit rate and a median predicted cancer core length of 5.2 mm. The application of a comprehensive, unbiased validation assessment for MR/US guided systems can provide useful information on system performance for quality assurance and system comparison. Furthermore, such an analysis can be helpful in identifying relationships between these errors, providing insight into the technical behavior of these systems. © 2018 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  16. MRI and contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging for evaluation of focal irreversible electroporation treatment: results from a phase I-II study in patients undergoing IRE followed by radical prostatectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, Willemien van den; Bruin, D.M. de; Randen, A. van; Engelbrecht, M.R.W.; Postema, A.W.; Muller, B.G.; Zondervan, P.J.; Laguna Pes, M.P.; Reijke, T.M. de; Rosette, J.J.M.C.H. de la; Varkarakis, I.M.; Skolarikos, A.; Savci-Heijink, C.D.; Jurhill, R.R.; Wijkstra, H.

    2016-01-01

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is an ablative therapy with a low side-effect profile in prostate cancer. The objective was: 1) To compare the volumetric IRE ablation zone on grey-scale transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) with histopathology findings; 2) To determine a reliable imaging modality to visualize the IRE ablation effects accurately. A prospective phase I-II study was performed in 16 patients scheduled for radical prostatectomy (RP). IRE of the prostate was performed 4 weeks before RP. Prior to, and 4 weeks after the IRE treatment, imaging was performed by TRUS, CEUS, and mpMRI. 3D-analysis of the ablation volumes on imaging and on H and E-stained whole-mount sections was performed. The volumes were compared and the correlation was calculated. Evaluation of the imaging demonstrated that with T2-weighted MRI, dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI, and CEUS, effects of IRE are visible. T2MRI and CEUS closely match the volumes on histopathology (Pearson correlation r = 0.88 resp. 0.80). However, IRE is not visible with TRUS. mpMRI and CEUS are appropriate for assessing IRE effects and are the most feasible imaging modalities to visualize IRE ablation zone. The imaging is concordant with results of histopathological examination. (orig.)

  17. SU-F-T-41: 3D MTP-TRUS for Prostate Implant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, P [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Prostate brachytherapy is an effective treatment for early prostate cancer. The current prostate implant is limited to using 2D transrectal ultrassound (TRUS) or machenical motor driven 2D array either in the end or on the side. Real-time 3D images can improve the accuracy of the guidance of prostate implant. The concept of our system is to allow realtime full visualization of the entire prostate with the multiple transverse scan. Methods: The prototype of 3D Multiple-Transverse-Plane Transrectal Ultrasound probe (MTP-TRUS) has been designed by us and manufactured by Blatek inc. It has 7 convex linear arrays and each array has 96 elements. It is connected to cQuest Fire bird research system (Cephasonics inc.) which is a flexible and configurable ultrasound-development platform. The size of cQuest Firebird system is compact and supports the real-time wireless image transferring. A relay based mux board is designed for the cQuest Firebird system to be able to connect 672 elements. Results: The center frequency of probe is 6MHz±10%. The diameter of probe is 3cm and the length is 20cm. The element pitch is 0.205 mm. Array focus is 30mm and spacing 1.6cm. The beam data for each array was measured and met our expectation. The interface board of MTP-TURS is made and able to connect to cQuest Firebird system. The image display interface is still under the development. Our real-time needle tracking algorithm will be implemented too. Conclusion: Our MTP-TRUS system for prostate implant will be able to acquire real-time 3D images of prostate and do the real-time needle segmentation and tracking. The system is compact and have wireless function.

  18. Comparative study of ultrasound imaging, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in gynecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Kenji; Kobayashi, Hisaaki; Hoshihara, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Mitsunao; Suda, Yoshio; Takenaka, Eiichi; Sasa, Hidenori.

    1989-01-01

    We studied 18 patients who were operated at the National Defense Medical College Hospital and confirmed by pathological diagnosis. We compared ultrasound imaging, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the patients. MRI was useful to diagnose enlargement of the uterine cavity and a small amount of ascites and to understand orientation of the pelvic organs. Ultrasound imaging is the most useful examination to diagnose gynecological diseases. But when it is difficult to diagnose by ultrasound imaging alone, we should employ either CT or MRI, or preferably both. (author)

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is no radiation exposure to the ... tissues that do not show up well on x-ray images. Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it ...

  20. Intracavitary ultrasound phased arrays for prostate thermal therapies: MRI compatibility and in vivo testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, E B; Hynynen, K

    1998-12-01

    A 62 element MRI-compatible linear phased array was designed and constructed to investigate the feasibility of using transrectal ultrasound for the thermal therapeutic treatment of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. An aperiodic design technique developed in a previous study was used in the design of this array, which resulted in reduced grating lobe levels by using an optimized random distribution of unequally sized elements. The element sizes used in this array were selected to be favorable for both grating lobe levels as determined by array aperiodicity and array efficiency as determined by width to thickness ratios. The heating capabilities and MRI compatibility of the array were tested with in vivo rabbit thigh muscle heating experiments using MRI temperature monitoring. The array produced therapeutic temperature elevations in vivo at depths of 3-6 cm and axial locations up to 3 cm off the central axis and increased the size of the heated volume with electronic scanning of a single focus. The ability of this array to be used for ultrasound surgery was demonstrated by creating necrosed tissue lesions in vivo using short high-power sonications. The ability of the array to be used for hyperthermia was demonstrated by inducing therapeutic temperature elevations for longer exposures. Based on the acoustic and heating performance of this array, it has the potential to be clinically useful for delivering thermal therapies to the prostate and other target volumes close to body cavities.

  1. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... most ultrasound exams, you will be positioned lying face-up on an examination table that can be ... region of the prostate. A biopsy will add time to the procedure. If a Doppler ultrasound study ...

  2. Simulation Study of Effects of the Blind Deconvolution on Ultrasound Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xingwu; You, Junchen

    2018-03-01

    Ultrasonic image restoration is an essential subject in Medical Ultrasound Imaging. However, without enough and precise system knowledge, some traditional image restoration methods based on the system prior knowledge often fail to improve the image quality. In this paper, we use the simulated ultrasound image to find the effectiveness of the blind deconvolution method for ultrasound image restoration. Experimental results demonstrate that the blind deconvolution method can be applied to the ultrasound image restoration and achieve the satisfactory restoration results without the precise prior knowledge, compared with the traditional image restoration method. And with the inaccurate small initial PSF, the results shows blind deconvolution could improve the overall image quality of ultrasound images, like much better SNR and image resolution, and also show the time consumption of these methods. it has no significant increasing on GPU platform.

  3. Spatial Angular Compounding Technique for H-Scan Ultrasound Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairalseed, Mawia; Xiong, Fangyuan; Kim, Jung-Whan; Mattrey, Robert F; Parker, Kevin J; Hoyt, Kenneth

    2018-01-01

    H-Scan is a new ultrasound imaging technique that relies on matching a model of pulse-echo formation to the mathematics of a class of Gaussian-weighted Hermite polynomials. This technique may be beneficial in the measurement of relative scatterer sizes and in cancer therapy, particularly for early response to drug treatment. Because current H-scan techniques use focused ultrasound data acquisitions, spatial resolution degrades away from the focal region and inherently affects relative scatterer size estimation. Although the resolution of ultrasound plane wave imaging can be inferior to that of traditional focused ultrasound approaches, the former exhibits a homogeneous spatial resolution throughout the image plane. The purpose of this study was to implement H-scan using plane wave imaging and investigate the impact of spatial angular compounding on H-scan image quality. Parallel convolution filters using two different Gaussian-weighted Hermite polynomials that describe ultrasound scattering events are applied to the radiofrequency data. The H-scan processing is done on each radiofrequency image plane before averaging to get the angular compounded image. The relative strength from each convolution is color-coded to represent relative scatterer size. Given results from a series of phantom materials, H-scan imaging with spatial angular compounding more accurately reflects the true scatterer size caused by reductions in the system point spread function and improved signal-to-noise ratio. Preliminary in vivo H-scan imaging of tumor-bearing animals suggests this modality may be useful for monitoring early response to chemotherapeutic treatment. Overall, H-scan imaging using ultrasound plane waves and spatial angular compounding is a promising approach for visualizing the relative size and distribution of acoustic scattering sources. Copyright © 2018 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Prostate implant reconstruction from C-arm images with motion-compensated tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehghan, Ehsan; Moradi, Mehdi; Wen, Xu; French, Danny; Lobo, Julio; Morris, W. James; Salcudean, Septimiu E.; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate localization of prostate implants from several C-arm images is necessary for ultrasound-fluoroscopy fusion and intraoperative dosimetry. The authors propose a computational motion compensation method for tomosynthesis-based reconstruction that enables 3D localization of prostate implants from C-arm images despite C-arm oscillation and sagging. Methods: Five C-arm images are captured by rotating the C-arm around its primary axis, while measuring its rotation angle using a protractor or the C-arm joint encoder. The C-arm images are processed to obtain binary seed-only images from which a volume of interest is reconstructed. The motion compensation algorithm, iteratively, compensates for 2D translational motion of the C-arm by maximizing the number of voxels that project on a seed projection in all of the images. This obviates the need for C-arm full pose tracking traditionally implemented using radio-opaque fiducials or external trackers. The proposed reconstruction method is tested in simulations, in a phantom study and on ten patient data sets. Results: In a phantom implanted with 136 dummy seeds, the seed detection rate was 100% with a localization error of 0.86 ± 0.44 mm (Mean ± STD) compared to CT. For patient data sets, a detection rate of 99.5% was achieved in approximately 1 min per patient. The reconstruction results for patient data sets were compared against an available matching-based reconstruction method and showed relative localization difference of 0.5 ± 0.4 mm. Conclusions: The motion compensation method can successfully compensate for large C-arm motion without using radio-opaque fiducial or external trackers. Considering the efficacy of the algorithm, its successful reconstruction rate and low computational burden, the algorithm is feasible for clinical use.

  5. Prostate implant reconstruction from C-arm images with motion-compensated tomosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehghan, Ehsan; Moradi, Mehdi; Wen, Xu; French, Danny; Lobo, Julio; Morris, W. James; Salcudean, Septimiu E.; Fichtinger, Gabor [School of Computing, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L-3N6 (Canada); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T-1Z4 (Canada); Vancouver Cancer Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z-1E6 (Canada); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T-1Z4 (Canada); School of Computing, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L-3N6 (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: Accurate localization of prostate implants from several C-arm images is necessary for ultrasound-fluoroscopy fusion and intraoperative dosimetry. The authors propose a computational motion compensation method for tomosynthesis-based reconstruction that enables 3D localization of prostate implants from C-arm images despite C-arm oscillation and sagging. Methods: Five C-arm images are captured by rotating the C-arm around its primary axis, while measuring its rotation angle using a protractor or the C-arm joint encoder. The C-arm images are processed to obtain binary seed-only images from which a volume of interest is reconstructed. The motion compensation algorithm, iteratively, compensates for 2D translational motion of the C-arm by maximizing the number of voxels that project on a seed projection in all of the images. This obviates the need for C-arm full pose tracking traditionally implemented using radio-opaque fiducials or external trackers. The proposed reconstruction method is tested in simulations, in a phantom study and on ten patient data sets. Results: In a phantom implanted with 136 dummy seeds, the seed detection rate was 100% with a localization error of 0.86 {+-} 0.44 mm (Mean {+-} STD) compared to CT. For patient data sets, a detection rate of 99.5% was achieved in approximately 1 min per patient. The reconstruction results for patient data sets were compared against an available matching-based reconstruction method and showed relative localization difference of 0.5 {+-} 0.4 mm. Conclusions: The motion compensation method can successfully compensate for large C-arm motion without using radio-opaque fiducial or external trackers. Considering the efficacy of the algorithm, its successful reconstruction rate and low computational burden, the algorithm is feasible for clinical use.

  6. The effects of hypnotherapy during transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate needle biopsy for pain and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hızlı, Fatih; Özcan, Osman; Selvi, İsmail; Eraslan, Pınar; Köşüş, Aydın; Baş, Okan; Yıkılmaz, Taha Numan; Güven, Oğuz; Başar, Halil

    2015-11-01

    Several studies evaluating the tolerance of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided needle biopsies showed that moderate-to-severe pain was associated with the procedure. Additionally, prebiopsy anxiety or rebiopsy as a result of a prior biopsy procedure is mentioned as factors predisposing to higher pain intensity. Thus, in this study, we investigated the effects of hypnotherapy during transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate needle biopsy for pain and anxiety. Sixty-four patients presenting for TRUS-guided prostate needle biopsy were randomly assigned to receive either 10-min presurgery hypnosis session (n = 32, mean age 63.5 ± 6.1, p = 0.289) or a presurgery control session (n = 32, mean age 61.8 ± 6.8, p = 0.289). The hypnosis session involved suggestions for increased relaxation and decreased anxiety. Presurgery pain and anxiety were measured using visual analog scales (VAS), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAS), respectively. In our statistics, p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Postintervention, and before surgery, patients in the hypnosis group had significantly lower mean values for presurgery VAS [mean 1 (0-8); p = 0.011], BAI (6.0 vs 2.0; p < 0.001), and HAS (11.0 vs 6.0; p < 0.001). The study results indicate that a brief presurgery hypnosis intervention can be an effective means of controlling presurgical anxiety, and therefore pain, in patients awaiting diagnostic prostate cancer surgery.

  7. Plane Wave Medical Ultrasound Imaging Using Adaptive Beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holfort, Iben Kraglund; Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the adaptive, minimum variance (MV) beamformer is applied to medical ultrasound imaging. The Significant resolution and contrast gain provided by the adaptive, minimum variance (MV) beamformer, introduces the possibility of plane wave (PW) ultrasound imaging. Data is obtained using...

  8. Ultrasound contrast-agent improves imaging of lower limb occlusive disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiberg, J P; Hansen, M A; Jensen, F

    2003-01-01

    to evaluate if ultrasound contrast-agent infusion could improve duplex-ultrasound imaging of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and increase the agreement with digital subtraction arteriography (DSA).......to evaluate if ultrasound contrast-agent infusion could improve duplex-ultrasound imaging of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and increase the agreement with digital subtraction arteriography (DSA)....

  9. Ultrasound strain imaging using Barker code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hui; Tie, Juhong; Guo, Dequan

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound strain imaging is showing promise as a new way of imaging soft tissue elasticity in order to help clinicians detect lesions or cancers in tissues. In this paper, Barker code is applied to strain imaging to improve its quality. Barker code as a coded excitation signal can be used to improve the echo signal-to-noise ratio (eSNR) in ultrasound imaging system. For the Baker code of length 13, the sidelobe level of the matched filter output is -22dB, which is unacceptable for ultrasound strain imaging, because high sidelobe level will cause high decorrelation noise. Instead of using the conventional matched filter, we use the Wiener filter to decode the Barker-coded echo signal to suppress the range sidelobes. We also compare the performance of Barker code and the conventional short pulse in simulation method. The simulation results demonstrate that the performance of the Wiener filter is much better than the matched filter, and Baker code achieves higher elastographic signal-to-noise ratio (SNRe) than the short pulse in low eSNR or great depth conditions due to the increased eSNR with it.

  10. DIFFICULTIES IN DETERMINING THE STAGE OF PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Lukianov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The choice of a technique of treatment of prostate cancer depends on the age of the patient, accompanying diseases and prevalence of tumoral process. The basic methods at an inspection stage at which the cancer stage is defined are: definition of prostate specific membrane antigen, rectal examination, results of the rectal ultrasound guided biopsy, prostate imaging methods and an estimation of a grade of a tumor. Nowadays one of the main directions of determining the treatment for various stages of tumor is the development of prognostic models based on the analysis of predictors for tumor expansion.

  11. MR imaging of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuck, A.; Scheidler, J.; Sommer, B.; Graser, A.; Mueller-Lisse, U.G.; Massmann, J.

    2003-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis and staging of prostate cancer (PC) is developing into an important health care issue in light of the high incidence of PC and the improvements in stage-adapted therapy. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview on the current role of MR imaging and MR spectroscopy in the diagnosis and staging of PC.Material and methods Pertinent literature was searched and evaluated to collect information on current clinical indications, study techniques, diagnostic value, and limitations of magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. Major indications for MR imaging of patients with supected PC are to define tumor location before biopsy when clinical or TRUS findings are inconclusive, and to provide accurate staging of histologically proven PC to ascertain effective therapy. Current MR imaging techniques for the evaluation of PC include multiplanar high-resolution T2-weighted FSE and T1-weighted SE sequences using combined endorectal and phased-array coils. Using these techniques, the reported accuracy of MR imaging for the diagnosis of extracapsular tumor extension ranges between 82 and 88% with sensitivities between 80 and 95%, and specificities between 82 and 93%. Typical MR findings of PC in different stages of disease, as well as diagnostic problems, such as chronic prostatitis, biopsy-related hemorrhage and therapy-related changes of prostatic tissue are discussed. In addition, the current perspectives and limitations of MR spectroscopy in PC are summarized. Current MR imaging techniques provide important diagnostic information in the pretherapeutic workup of PC including a high staging accuracy, and is superior to TRUS. (orig.) [de

  12. Prostate-specific membrane antigen-based imaging in prostate cancer: impact on clinical decision making process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirkol, Mehmet Onur; Acar, Ömer; Uçar, Burcu; Ramazanoğlu, Sultan Rana; Sağlıcan, Yeşim; Esen, Tarık

    2015-05-01

    There is an ongoing need for an accurate imaging modality which can be used for staging purposes, metastatic evaluation, predicting biologic aggresiveness and investigating recurrent disease in prostate cancer. Prostate specific membrane antigen, given its favorable molecular characteristics, holds a promise as an ideal target for prostate cancer-specific nuclear imaging. In this study, we evaluated our initial results of PSMA based PET/CT imaging in prostate cancer. A total of 22 patients with a median age and serum PSA level of 68 years and 4.15 ng/ml, respectively underwent Ga-68 PSMA PET/CT in our hospital between Februrary and August 2014. Their charts were retrospectively reviewed in order to document the clinical characteristics, the indications for and the results of PSMA based imaging and the impact of Ga-68 PSMA PET/CT findings on disease management. The most common indications were rising PSA after local ± adjuvant treatment followed by staging and metastatic evaluation before definitive or salvage treatment. All except 2 patients had prostatic ± extraprostatic PSMA positive lesions. For those who had a positive result; treatment strategies were tailored accordingly. Above the PSA level of 2 ng/ml, none of the PSMA based nuclear imaging studies revealed negative results. PSMA based nuclear imaging has significantly impacted our way of handling patients with prostate cancer. Its preliminary performance in different clinical scenarios and ability to detect lesions even in low PSA values seems fairly promising and deserves to be supplemented with further clinical studies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Evaluation of multiple image-based modalities for image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) of prostate carcinoma: A prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayyas, Essa; Chetty, Indrin J.; Chetvertkov, Mikhail; Wen, Ning; Neicu, Toni; Nurushev, Teamor; Ren Lei; Pradhan, Deepak; Movsas, Benjamin; Elshaikh, Mohamed A.; Lu Mei; Stricker, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Setup errors and prostate intrafraction motion are main sources of localization uncertainty in prostate cancer radiation therapy. This study evaluates four different imaging modalities 3D ultrasound (US), kV planar images, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), and implanted electromagnetic transponders (Calypso/Varian) to assess inter- and intrafraction localization errors during intensity-modulated radiation therapy based treatment of prostate cancer. Methods: Twenty-seven prostate cancer patients were enrolled in a prospective IRB-approved study and treated to a total dose of 75.6 Gy (1.8 Gy/fraction). Overall, 1100 fractions were evaluated. For each fraction, treatment targets were localized using US, kV planar images, and CBCT in a sequence defined to determine setup offsets relative to the patient skin tattoos, intermodality differences, and residual errors for each patient and patient cohort. Planning margins, following van Herk's formalism, were estimated based on error distributions. Calypso-based localization was not available for the first eight patients, therefore centroid positions of implanted gold-seed markers imaged prior to and immediately following treatment were used as a motion surrogate during treatment. For the remaining 19 patients, Calypso transponders were used to assess prostate intrafraction motion. Results: The means (μ), and standard deviations (SD) of the systematic (Σ) and random errors (σ) of interfraction prostate shifts (relative to initial skin tattoo positioning), as evaluated using CBCT, kV, and US, averaged over all patients and fractions, were: [μ CBCT = (−1.2, 0.2, 1.1) mm, Σ CBCT = (3.0, 1.4, 2.4) mm, σ CBCT = (3.2, 2.2, 2.5) mm], [μ kV = (−2.9, −0.4, 0.5) mm, Σ kV = (3.4, 3.1, 2.6) mm, σ kV = (2.9, 2.0, 2.4) mm], and [μ US = (−3.6, −1.4, 0.0) mm, Σ US = (3.3, 3.5, 2.8) mm, σ US = (4.1, 3.8, 3.6) mm], in the anterior–posterior (A/P), superior–inferior (S/I), and the left–right (L

  14. Evaluation of multiple image-based modalities for image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) of prostate carcinoma: A prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayyas, Essa; Chetty, Indrin J.; Chetvertkov, Mikhail; Wen, Ning; Neicu, Toni; Nurushev, Teamor; Ren Lei; Pradhan, Deepak; Movsas, Benjamin; Elshaikh, Mohamed A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, 2799 West Grand Boulevard, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Lu Mei [Department of Public Health Sciences, Henry Ford Health System, 2799 West Grand Boulevard, Detroit Michigan 48202 (United States); Stricker, Hans [Department of Urology, Henry Ford Health System, 2799 West Grand Boulevard, Detroit Michigan 48202 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Setup errors and prostate intrafraction motion are main sources of localization uncertainty in prostate cancer radiation therapy. This study evaluates four different imaging modalities 3D ultrasound (US), kV planar images, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), and implanted electromagnetic transponders (Calypso/Varian) to assess inter- and intrafraction localization errors during intensity-modulated radiation therapy based treatment of prostate cancer. Methods: Twenty-seven prostate cancer patients were enrolled in a prospective IRB-approved study and treated to a total dose of 75.6 Gy (1.8 Gy/fraction). Overall, 1100 fractions were evaluated. For each fraction, treatment targets were localized using US, kV planar images, and CBCT in a sequence defined to determine setup offsets relative to the patient skin tattoos, intermodality differences, and residual errors for each patient and patient cohort. Planning margins, following van Herk's formalism, were estimated based on error distributions. Calypso-based localization was not available for the first eight patients, therefore centroid positions of implanted gold-seed markers imaged prior to and immediately following treatment were used as a motion surrogate during treatment. For the remaining 19 patients, Calypso transponders were used to assess prostate intrafraction motion. Results: The means ({mu}), and standard deviations (SD) of the systematic ({Sigma}) and random errors ({sigma}) of interfraction prostate shifts (relative to initial skin tattoo positioning), as evaluated using CBCT, kV, and US, averaged over all patients and fractions, were: [{mu}{sub CBCT}= (-1.2, 0.2, 1.1) mm, {Sigma}{sub CBCT}= (3.0, 1.4, 2.4) mm, {sigma}{sub CBCT}= (3.2, 2.2, 2.5) mm], [{mu}{sub kV}= (-2.9, -0.4, 0.5) mm, {Sigma}{sub kV}= (3.4, 3.1, 2.6) mm, {sigma}{sub kV}= (2.9, 2.0, 2.4) mm], and [{mu}{sub US}= (-3.6, -1.4, 0.0) mm, {Sigma}{sub US}= (3.3, 3.5, 2.8) mm, {sigma}{sub US}= (4.1, 3.8, 3.6) mm], in the anterior

  15. Effectiveness of stress management in patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu LP

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Li-Pin Chiu,1,2 Heng-Hsin Tung,3 Kuan-Chia Lin,3 Yu-Wei Lai,1,4 Yi-Chun Chiu,1,4 Saint Shiou-Sheng Chen,1,4 Allen W Chiu1,4 1Division of Urology, Taipei City Hospital, 2University of Taipei, General Education Center, 3School of Nursing, Department of Care Management, National Taipei University of Nursing and Health Science, 4Department of Urology, National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China Background: To assess the utilization of stress management in relieving anxiety and pain among patients who undergo transrectal ultrasound (TRUS-guided biopsy of the prostate.  Methods: Eighty-two patients admitted to a community hospital for a TRUS biopsy of the prostate participated in this case-controlled study. They were divided into an experimental group that was provided with stress management and a control group that received only routine nursing care. Stress management included music therapy and one-on-one simulation education. Before and after the TRUS biopsy, the patients’ state-anxiety inventory score, pain visual analogue scale (VAS, respiratory rate, heart rate, and blood pressure were obtained.  Results: There were no differences in baseline and disease characteristics between the two groups. The VAS in both groups increased after the TRUS biopsy, but the difference in pre- and postbiopsy VAS scores was significantly lower in the experimental group (P=0.03. Patients in both groups experienced mild anxiety before and after the biopsy, but those in the experimental group displayed a significantly greater decrease in postbiopsy state-anxiety inventory score compared to the control group (P=0.02.Conclusion: Stress management can alleviate anxiety and pain in patients who received a TRUS biopsy of the prostate under local anesthesia. Keywords: anxiety, pain, stress management, transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate

  16. Evaluation of multimodality imaging using image fusion with ultrasound tissue elasticity imaging in an experimental animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprottka, P M; Zengel, P; Cyran, C C; Ingrisch, M; Nikolaou, K; Reiser, M F; Clevert, D A

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the ultrasound tissue elasticity imaging by comparison to multimodality imaging using image fusion with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and conventional grey scale imaging with additional elasticity-ultrasound in an experimental small-animal-squamous-cell carcinoma-model for the assessment of tissue morphology. Human hypopharynx carcinoma cells were subcutaneously injected into the left flank of 12 female athymic nude rats. After 10 days (SD ± 2) of subcutaneous tumor growth, sonographic grey scale including elasticity imaging and MRI measurements were performed using a high-end ultrasound system and a 3T MR. For image fusion the contrast-enhanced MRI DICOM data set was uploaded in the ultrasonic device which has a magnetic field generator, a linear array transducer (6-15 MHz) and a dedicated software package (GE Logic E9), that can detect transducers by means of a positioning system. Conventional grey scale and elasticity imaging were integrated in the image fusion examination. After successful registration and image fusion the registered MR-images were simultaneously shown with the respective ultrasound sectional plane. Data evaluation was performed using the digitally stored video sequence data sets by two experienced radiologist using a modified Tsukuba Elasticity score. The colors "red and green" are assigned for an area of soft tissue, "blue" indicates hard tissue. In all cases a successful image fusion and plan registration with MRI and ultrasound imaging including grey scale and elasticity imaging was possible. The mean tumor volume based on caliper measurements in 3 dimensions was ~323 mm3. 4/12 rats were evaluated with Score I, 5/12 rates were evaluated with Score II, 3/12 rates were evaluated with Score III. There was a close correlation in the fused MRI with existing small necrosis in the tumor. None of the scored II or III lesions was visible by conventional grey scale. The comparison of ultrasound tissue elasticity imaging enables a

  17. Prostatic MR imaging. Accuracy in differentiating cancer from other prostatic disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikonen, S.; Kivisaari, L.; Tervahartiala, P. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept of Radiology; Vehmas, T. [Finnish Inst. of Occupational Health, Helsinki (Finland); Taari, K.; Rannikko, S. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept of Urology

    2001-03-01

    Purpose: We assessed the accuracy of MR imaging in differentiating between cancer and other prostatic disorders, and evaluated the diagnostic criteria for various prostatic diseases. Material and Methods: A total of 74 endorectal coil MR studies were performed on 72 patients. Twenty patients had prostatic cancer, 20 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), 4 acute bacterial prostatitis, 5 chronic bacterial prostatitis (2 also belonging to the previous category), 19 chronic non-bacterial prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, and 6 were symptomless voluntary controls. All studies were interpreted by two experienced radiologists in random order. Radiologists were blinded to all clinical data including the age of the patients. Based on MR findings, both radiologists filled in a form covering diagnostic criteria and diagnosis. Results: Accuracy in diagnosing prostate cancer was 74%. Sensitivity was 50% and specificity 83%, and positive and negative predictive values were 53 and 82%, respectively. Bacterial prostatitis showed some features similar to carcinoma. Abundant BPH rendered cancer detection more difficult. No diagnostic criterion was clearly better than the others. Interobserver agreement on the MR diagnosis ranged from moderate to good. Conclusion: Without knowledge of accurate clinical data, MR seems to be too insensitive in detecting prostate cancer to be used as a primary diagnostic tool.

  18. 3D ultrasound imaging : Fast and cost-effective morphometry of musculoskeletal tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weide, Guido; Van Der Zwaard, Stephan; Huijing, Peter A.; Jaspers, Richard T.; Harlaar, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    The developmental goal of 3D ultrasound imaging (3DUS) is to engineer a modality to perform 3D morphological ultrasound analysis of human muscles. 3DUS images are constructed from calibrated freehand 2D B-mode ultrasound images, which are positioned into a voxel array. Ultrasound (US) imaging allows

  19. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This procedure requires little to no special preparation. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. ... BPH) , with measurements acquired as needed for any treatment planning. detect an abnormal growth within the prostate. ...

  20. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in which a needle is used to sample cells (tissue) from an abnormal area in the prostate ... needle insertion) is usually minimal because the rectal wall is relatively insensitive to the pain in the ...

  1. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... phased array) receiver coil. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate ... Send us your feedback Did you find the information you were looking for? Yes No Please type ...

  2. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty ... if a patient is at high risk for cancer. In this case, a biopsy is performed and ...

  3. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... nodule felt by a physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated ... requested the exam. Usually, the referring physician or health care provider will share the results with you. ...

  4. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... rectum into the prostate gland which is situated right in front of the rectum. top of page ... creates a real-time picture on the monitor. One or more frames of the moving pictures are ...

  5. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... probe sends and receives sound waves through the wall of the rectum into the prostate gland which ... needle insertion) is usually minimal because the rectal wall is relatively insensitive to the pain in the ...

  6. Tissue mimicking materials for a multi-imaging modality prostate phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, Warren D.; Madsen, Ernest L.; Unal, Orhan; Vigen, Karl K.; Frank, Gary R.; Thomadsen, Bruce R.

    2001-01-01

    Materials that simultaneously mimic soft tissue in vivo for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound (US), and computed tomography (CT) for use in a prostate phantom have been developed. Prostate and muscle mimicking materials contain water, agarose, lipid particles, protein, Cu ++ , EDTA, glass beads, and thimerosal (preservative). Fat was mimicked with safflower oil suffusing a random mesh (network) of polyurethane. Phantom material properties were measured at 22 deg. C. (22 deg. C is a typical room temperature at which phantoms are used.) The values of material properties should match, as well as possible, the values for tissues at body temperature, 37 deg. C. For MRI, the primary properties of interest are T1 and T2 relaxations times, for US they are the attenuation coefficient, propagation speed, and backscatter, and for CT, the x-ray attenuation. Considering the large number of parameters to be mimicked, rather good agreement was found with actual tissue values obtained from the literature. Using published values for prostate parenchyma, T1 and T2 at 37 deg. C and 40 MHz are estimated to be about 1100 and 98 ms, respectively. The CT number for in vivo prostate is estimated to be 45 HU (Hounsfield units). The prostate mimicking material has a T1 of 937 ms and a T2 of 88 ms at 22 deg. C and 40 MHz; the propagation speed and attenuation coefficient slope are 1540 m/s and 0.36 dB/cm/MHz, respectively, and the CT number of tissue mimicking prostate is 43 HU. Tissue mimicking (TM) muscle differs from TM prostate in the amount of dry weight agarose, Cu ++ , EDTA, and the quality and quantity of glass beads. The 18 μm glass beads used in TM muscle increase US backscatter and US attenuation; the presence of the beads also has some effect on T1 but no effect on T2. The composition of tissue-mimicking materials developed is such that different versions can be placed in direct contact with one another in a phantom with no long term change in US, MRI, or CT

  7. Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nikolov, Svetoslav; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the use of synthetic aperture (SA) imaging in medical ultrasound. SA imaging is a radical break with today's commercial systems, where the image is acquired sequentially one image line at a time. This puts a strict limit on the frame rate and the possibility of acquiring...... a sufficient amount of data for high precision flow estimation. These constrictions can be lifted by employing SA imaging. Here data is acquired simultaneously from all directions over a number of emissions, and the full image can be reconstructed from this data. The talk will demonstrate the many benefits...

  8. Robot-assisted ultrasound imaging: overview and development of a parallel telerobotic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfaredi, Reza; Wilson, Emmanuel; Azizi Koutenaei, Bamshad; Labrecque, Brendan; Leroy, Kristen; Goldie, James; Louis, Eric; Swerdlow, Daniel; Cleary, Kevin

    2015-02-01

    Ultrasound imaging is frequently used in medicine. The quality of ultrasound images is often dependent on the skill of the sonographer. Several researchers have proposed robotic systems to aid in ultrasound image acquisition. In this paper we first provide a short overview of robot-assisted ultrasound imaging (US). We categorize robot-assisted US imaging systems into three approaches: autonomous US imaging, teleoperated US imaging, and human-robot cooperation. For each approach several systems are introduced and briefly discussed. We then describe a compact six degree of freedom parallel mechanism telerobotic system for ultrasound imaging developed by our research team. The long-term goal of this work is to enable remote ultrasound scanning through teleoperation. This parallel mechanism allows for both translation and rotation of an ultrasound probe mounted on the top plate along with force control. Our experimental results confirmed good mechanical system performance with a positioning error of < 1 mm. Phantom experiments by a radiologist showed promising results with good image quality.

  9. Long-Term Results of a Phase II Trial of Ultrasound-Guided Radioactive Implantation of the Prostate for Definitive Management of Localized Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate (RTOG 98-05)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, Colleen A.; Hunt, Daniel; Lee, W. Robert; Gomella, Leonard; Grignon, David; Gillin, Michael; Morton, Gerard; Pisansky, Thomas M.; Sandler, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term effectiveness of transrectal ultrasound-guided permanent radioactive I 125 implantation of the prostate for organ confined adenocarcinoma of the prostate compared with historical data of prostatectomy and external beam radiotherapy within a cooperative group setting. Methods and Materials: Patients accrued to this study had histologically confirmed, locally confined adenocarcinoma of the prostate clinical stage T1b, T1c, or T2a; no nodal or metastatic disease; prostate-specific antigen level of ≤10 ng/ml; and a Gleason score of ≤6. All patients underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided radioactive I 125 seed implantation into the prostate. The prescribed dose was 145 Gy to the prostate planning target volume. Results: A total of 101 patients from 27 institutions were accrued to this protocol; by design, no single institution accrued more than 8 patients. There were 94 eligible patients. The median follow up was 8.1 years (range, 0.1-9.2 years). After 8 years, 8 patients had protocol-defined biochemical (prostate-specific antigen) failure (cumulative incidence, 8.0%); 5 patients had local failure (cumulative incidence, 5.5%); and 1 patient had distant failure (cumulative incidence, 1.1%; this patient also had biochemical failure and died of causes not related to prostate cancer). The 8-year overall survival rate was 88%. At last follow-up, no patient had died of prostate cancer or related toxicities. Three patients had maximum late toxicities of Grade 3, all of which were genitourinary. No Grade 4 or 5 toxicities were observed. Conclusions: The long-term results of this clinical trial have demonstrated that this kind of trial can be successfully completed through the RTOG and that results in terms of biochemical failure and toxicity compare very favorably with other brachytherapy published series as well as surgical and external beam radiotherapy series. In addition, the prospective, multicenter design highlights the probable

  10. Adaptation of a 3D prostate cancer atlas for transrectal ultrasound guided target-specific biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, R; Suri, J S; Werahera, P N; Barqawi, A; Crawford, E D; Shinohara, K; Simoneau, A R

    2008-01-01

    Due to lack of imaging modalities to identify prostate cancer in vivo, current TRUS guided prostate biopsies are taken randomly. Consequently, many important cancers are missed during initial biopsies. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential clinical utility of a high-speed registration algorithm for a 3D prostate cancer atlas. This 3D prostate cancer atlas provides voxel-level likelihood of cancer and optimized biopsy locations on a template space (Zhan et al 2007). The atlas was constructed from 158 expert annotated, 3D reconstructed radical prostatectomy specimens outlined for cancers (Shen et al 2004). For successful clinical implementation, the prostate atlas needs to be registered to each patient's TRUS image with high registration accuracy in a time-efficient manner. This is implemented in a two-step procedure, the segmentation of the prostate gland from a patient's TRUS image followed by the registration of the prostate atlas. We have developed a fast registration algorithm suitable for clinical applications of this prostate cancer atlas. The registration algorithm was implemented on a graphical processing unit (GPU) to meet the critical processing speed requirements for atlas guided biopsy. A color overlay of the atlas superposed on the TRUS image was presented to help pick statistically likely regions known to harbor cancer. We validated our fast registration algorithm using computer simulations of two optimized 7- and 12-core biopsy protocols to maximize the overall detection rate. Using a GPU, patient's TRUS image segmentation and atlas registration took less than 12 s. The prostate cancer atlas guided 7- and 12-core biopsy protocols had cancer detection rates of 84.81% and 89.87% respectively when validated on the same set of data. Whereas the sextant biopsy approach without the utility of 3D cancer atlas detected only 70.5% of the cancers using the same histology data. We estimate 10-20% increase in prostate cancer detection rates

  11. A Bayesian nonrigid registration method to enhance intraoperative target definition in image-guided prostate procedures through uncertainty characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pursley, Jennifer; Risholm, Petter; Fedorov, Andriy; Tuncali, Kemal; Fennessy, Fiona M.; Wells, William M. III; Tempany, Clare M.; Cormack, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study introduces a probabilistic nonrigid registration method for use in image-guided prostate brachytherapy. Intraoperative imaging for prostate procedures, usually transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), is typically inferior to diagnostic-quality imaging of the pelvis such as endorectal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MR images contain superior detail of the prostate boundaries and provide substructure features not otherwise visible. Previous efforts to register diagnostic prostate images with the intraoperative coordinate system have been deterministic and did not offer a measure of the registration uncertainty. The authors developed a Bayesian registration method to estimate the posterior distribution on deformations and provide a case-specific measure of the associated registration uncertainty. Methods: The authors adapted a biomechanical-based probabilistic nonrigid method to register diagnostic to intraoperative images by aligning a physician's segmentations of the prostate in the two images. The posterior distribution was characterized with a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method; the maximum a posteriori deformation and the associated uncertainty were estimated from the collection of deformation samples drawn from the posterior distribution. The authors validated the registration method using a dataset created from ten patients with MRI-guided prostate biopsies who had both diagnostic and intraprocedural 3 Tesla MRI scans. The accuracy and precision of the estimated posterior distribution on deformations were evaluated from two predictive distance distributions: between the deformed central zone-peripheral zone (CZ-PZ) interface and the physician-labeled interface, and based on physician-defined landmarks. Geometric margins on the registration of the prostate's peripheral zone were determined from the posterior predictive distance to the CZ-PZ interface separately for the base, mid-gland, and apical regions of the prostate. Results: The authors observed

  12. Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging With Cascaded Dual-Polarity Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Guo, Yuexin; Lee, Wei-Ning

    2018-04-01

    Ultrafast ultrasound imaging using plane or diverging waves, instead of focused beams, has advanced greatly the development of novel ultrasound imaging methods for evaluating tissue functions beyond anatomical information. However, the sonographic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of ultrafast imaging remains limited due to the lack of transmission focusing, and thus insufficient acoustic energy delivery. We hereby propose a new ultrafast ultrasound imaging methodology with cascaded dual-polarity waves (CDWs), which consists of a pulse train with positive and negative polarities. A new coding scheme and a corresponding linear decoding process were thereby designed to obtain the recovered signals with increased amplitude, thus increasing the SNR without sacrificing the frame rate. The newly designed CDW ultrafast ultrasound imaging technique achieved higher quality B-mode images than coherent plane-wave compounding (CPWC) and multiplane wave (MW) imaging in a calibration phantom, ex vivo pork belly, and in vivo human back muscle. CDW imaging shows a significant improvement in the SNR (10.71 dB versus CPWC and 7.62 dB versus MW), penetration depth (36.94% versus CPWC and 35.14% versus MW), and contrast ratio in deep regions (5.97 dB versus CPWC and 5.05 dB versus MW) without compromising other image quality metrics, such as spatial resolution and frame rate. The enhanced image qualities and ultrafast frame rates offered by CDW imaging beget great potential for various novel imaging applications.

  13. Quantitative ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging for the assessment of vascular parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Meiburger, Kristen M

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the development of quantitative techniques for ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging in the assessment of architectural and vascular parameters. It presents morphological vascular research based on the development of quantitative imaging techniques for the use of clinical B-mode ultrasound images, and preclinical architectural vascular investigations on quantitative imaging techniques for ultrasounds and photoacoustics. The book is divided into two main parts, the first of which focuses on the development and validation of quantitative techniques for the assessment of vascular morphological parameters that can be extracted from B-mode ultrasound longitudinal images of the common carotid artery. In turn, the second part highlights quantitative imaging techniques for assessing the architectural parameters of vasculature that can be extracted from 3D volumes, using both contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) imaging and photoacoustic imaging without the addition of any contrast agent. Sharing and...

  14. Dedicated mobile high resolution prostate PET imager with an insertable transrectal probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Proffitt, James

    2010-12-28

    A dedicated mobile PET imaging system to image the prostate and surrounding organs. The imaging system includes an outside high resolution PET imager placed close to the patient's torso and an insertable and compact transrectal probe that is placed in close proximity to the prostate and operates in conjunction with the outside imager. The two detector systems are spatially co-registered to each other. The outside imager is mounted on an open rotating gantry to provide torso-wide 3D images of the prostate and surrounding tissue and organs. The insertable probe provides closer imaging, high sensitivity, and very high resolution predominately 2D view of the prostate and immediate surroundings. The probe is operated in conjunction with the outside imager and a fast data acquisition system to provide very high resolution reconstruction of the prostate and surrounding tissue and organs.

  15. Prostate multimodality image registration based on B-splines and quadrature local energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Jhimli; Martí, Robert; Oliver, Arnau; Lladó, Xavier; Ghose, Soumya; Vilanova, Joan C; Meriaudeau, Fabrice

    2012-05-01

    Needle biopsy of the prostate is guided by Transrectal Ultrasound (TRUS) imaging. The TRUS images do not provide proper spatial localization of malignant tissues due to the poor sensitivity of TRUS to visualize early malignancy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has been shown to be sensitive for the detection of early stage malignancy, and therefore, a novel 2D deformable registration method that overlays pre-biopsy MRI onto TRUS images has been proposed. The registration method involves B-spline deformations with Normalized Mutual Information (NMI) as the similarity measure computed from the texture images obtained from the amplitude responses of the directional quadrature filter pairs. Registration accuracy of the proposed method is evaluated by computing the Dice Similarity coefficient (DSC) and 95% Hausdorff Distance (HD) values for 20 patients prostate mid-gland slices and Target Registration Error (TRE) for 18 patients only where homologous structures are visible in both the TRUS and transformed MR images. The proposed method and B-splines using NMI computed from intensities provide average TRE values of 2.64 ± 1.37 and 4.43 ± 2.77 mm respectively. Our method shows statistically significant improvement in TRE when compared with B-spline using NMI computed from intensities with Student's t test p = 0.02. The proposed method shows 1.18 times improvement over thin-plate splines registration with average TRE of 3.11 ± 2.18 mm. The mean DSC and the mean 95% HD values obtained with the proposed method of B-spline with NMI computed from texture are 0.943 ± 0.039 and 4.75 ± 2.40 mm respectively. The texture energy computed from the quadrature filter pairs provides better registration accuracy for multimodal images than raw intensities. Low TRE values of the proposed registration method add to the feasibility of it being used during TRUS-guided biopsy.

  16. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... procedure work? How is the procedure performed? What will I experience during and after the procedure? Who interprets the results and how do I get them? What are the benefits vs. risks? What are the limitations of Prostate ...

  17. Sexual potency following interactive ultrasound-guided brachytherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stock, Richard G.; Stone, Nelson N.; Iannuzzi, Christopher

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The effect of a therapeutic modality on sexual potency is often an important consideration for patients choosing a treatment for prostate cancer. We prospectively assessed patients' penile erectile function before and following interactive ultrasound-guided transperineal permanent radioactive seed implantation to determine its effect on sexual function. Methods and Materials: Eighty-nine patients underwent permanent radioactive seed implantation from June 1990 to April 1994 for localized prostate cancer (T1-T2) and were followed for a median of 15 months (1.5-52 months). 125 I seeds were implanted in 73 patients with a combined Gleason grade of 2-6, and 103 Pd seeds were implanted in 16 patients with higher grade lesions. The sexual potency of these patients was assessed prior to, at 3 and 6 months, and every 6 months after implantation. Erectile function was graded using a numerical score of 0 to 3 (0 = impotent (no erections), 1 = ability to have erections but insufficient for vaginal penetration, 2 = erectile function sufficient for vaginal penetration but suboptimal, 3 = normal erectile function). The pretreatment potency scores were as follows: 0 in 24 patients, 1 in 6 patients, 2 in 22 patients, and 3 in 37 patients. Results: The actuarial impotency rates (score = 0) following implantation for those patients possessing some degree of erectile function prior to implantation (65 patients) were 2.5% at 1 year and 6% at 2 years. The actuarial decrease in sexual function rates (a drop in score of at least one point) were 29% at 1 year and 39% at 2 years. Only two patients became impotent following treatment and this occurred at 1 year and 16 months. The time period for a decrease in erectile function to occur ranged from 1.8 months to 32.7 months, with a median of 6.8 months. Patients with higher grade tumors showed a greater decrease in potency score compared to patients with lower grade tumors. Conclusion: Interactive ultrasound-guided transperineal

  18. Comparison of Real-Time Intraoperative Ultrasound-Based Dosimetry With Postoperative Computed Tomography-Based Dosimetry for Prostate Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nag, Subir; Shi Peipei; Liu Bingren; Gupta, Nilendu; Bahnson, Robert R.; Wang, Jian Z.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether real-time intraoperative ultrasound (US)-based dosimetry can replace conventional postoperative computed tomography (CT)-based dosimetry in prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between December 2001 and November 2002, 82 patients underwent 103 Pd prostate brachytherapy. An interplant treatment planning system was used for real-time intraoperative transrectal US-guided treatment planning. The dose distribution was updated according to the estimated seed position to obtain the dose-volume histograms. Postoperative CT-based dosimetry was performed a few hours later using the Theraplan-Plus treatment planning system. The dosimetric parameters obtained from the two imaging modalities were compared. Results: The results of this study revealed correlations between the US- and CT-based dosimetry. However, large variations were found in the implant-quality parameters of the two modalities, including the doses covering 100%, 90%, and 80% of the prostate volume and prostate volumes covered by 100%, 150%, and 200% of the prescription dose. The mean relative difference was 38% and 16% for doses covering 100% and 90% of the prostate volume and 10% and 21% for prostate volumes covered by 100% and 150% of the prescription dose, respectively. The CT-based volume covered by 200% of the prescription dose was about 30% greater than the US-based one. Compared with CT-based dosimetry, US-based dosimetry significantly underestimated the dose to normal organs, especially for the rectum. The average US-based maximal dose and volume covered by 100% of the prescription dose for the rectum was 72 Gy and 0.01 cm 3 , respectively, much lower than the 159 Gy and 0.65 cm 3 obtained using CT-based dosimetry. Conclusion: Although dosimetry using intraoperative US-based planning provides preliminary real-time information, it does not accurately reflect the postoperative CT-based dosimetry. Until studies have determined whether US-based dosimetry or

  19. Synthetic tracked aperture ultrasound imaging: design, simulation, and experimental evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haichong K; Cheng, Alexis; Bottenus, Nick; Guo, Xiaoyu; Trahey, Gregg E; Boctor, Emad M

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasonography is a widely used imaging modality to visualize anatomical structures due to its low cost and ease of use; however, it is challenging to acquire acceptable image quality in deep tissue. Synthetic aperture (SA) is a technique used to increase image resolution by synthesizing information from multiple subapertures, but the resolution improvement is limited by the physical size of the array transducer. With a large F-number, it is difficult to achieve high resolution in deep regions without extending the effective aperture size. We propose a method to extend the available aperture size for SA-called synthetic tracked aperture ultrasound (STRATUS) imaging-by sweeping an ultrasound transducer while tracking its orientation and location. Tracking information of the ultrasound probe is used to synthesize the signals received at different positions. Considering the practical implementation, we estimated the effect of tracking and ultrasound calibration error to the quality of the final beamformed image through simulation. In addition, to experimentally validate this approach, a 6 degree-of-freedom robot arm was used as a mechanical tracker to hold an ultrasound transducer and to apply in-plane lateral translational motion. Results indicate that STRATUS imaging with robotic tracking has the potential to improve ultrasound image quality.

  20. Windowed time-reversal music technique for super-resolution ultrasound imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lianjie; Labyed, Yassin

    2018-05-01

    Systems and methods for super-resolution ultrasound imaging using a windowed and generalized TR-MUSIC algorithm that divides the imaging region into overlapping sub-regions and applies the TR-MUSIC algorithm to the windowed backscattered ultrasound signals corresponding to each sub-region. The algorithm is also structured to account for the ultrasound attenuation in the medium and the finite-size effects of ultrasound transducer elements.

  1. Tissue Harmonic Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Rasmussen, Joachim; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic aperture sequential beamforming (SASB) and tissue har- monic imaging (THI) are combined to improve the image quality of medical ultrasound imaging. The technique is evaluated in a compar- ative study against dynamic receive focusing (DRF). The objective is to investigate if SASB combined...... with THI improves the image qual- ity compared to DRF-THI. The major benet of SASB is a reduced bandwidth between the probe and processing unit. A BK Medical 2202 Ultraview ultrasound scanner was used to acquire beamformed RF data for oine evaluation. The acquisition was made interleaved between methods......, and data were recorded with and without pulse inversion for tissue harmonic imaging. Data were acquired using a Sound Technol- ogy 192 element convex array transducer from both a wire phantom and a tissue mimicking phantom to investigate spatial resolution and pen- etration. In-vivo scans were also...

  2. Ultrasound Vector Flow Imaging: Part II: Parallel Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov; Yu, Alfred C. H.

    2016-01-01

    The paper gives a review of the current state-of-theart in ultrasound parallel acquisition systems for flow imaging using spherical and plane waves emissions. The imaging methods are explained along with the advantages of using these very fast and sensitive velocity estimators. These experimental...... ultrasound imaging for studying brain function in animals. The paper explains the underlying acquisition and estimation methods for fast 2-D and 3-D velocity imaging and gives a number of examples. Future challenges and the potentials of parallel acquisition systems for flow imaging are also discussed....

  3. MR-guided pulsed high intensity focused ultrasound enhancement of docetaxel combined with radiotherapy for prostate cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu Zhaomei; Ma, C-M; Chen Xiaoming; Cvetkovic, Dusica; Chen Lili; Pollack, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of the enhancement of docetaxel by pulsed focused ultrasound (pFUS) in combination with radiotherapy (RT) for treatment of prostate cancer in vivo. LNCaP cells were grown in the prostates of male nude mice. When the tumors reached a designated volume by MRI, tumor bearing mice were randomly divided into seven groups (n = 5): (1) pFUS alone; (2) RT alone; (3) docetaxel alone; (4) docetaxel + pFUS; (5) docetaxel + RT; (6) docetaxel + pFUS + RT, and (7) control. MR-guided pFUS treatment was performed using a focused ultrasound treatment system (InSightec ExAblate 2000) with a 1.5T GE MR scanner. Animals were treated once with pFUS, docetaxel, RT or their combinations. Docetaxel was given by i.v. injection at 5 mg kg −1 before pFUS. RT was given 2 Gy after pFUS. Animals were euthanized 4 weeks after treatment. Tumor volumes were measured on MRI at 1 and 4 weeks post-treatment. Results showed that triple combination therapies of docetaxel, pFUS and RT provided the most significant tumor growth inhibition among all groups, which may have potential for the treatment of prostate cancer due to an improved therapeutic ratio. (paper)

  4. MR-guided pulsed high intensity focused ultrasound enhancement of docetaxel combined with radiotherapy for prostate cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Zhaomei; Ma, C.-M.; Chen, Xiaoming; Cvetkovic, Dusica; Pollack, Alan; Chen, Lili

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of the enhancement of docetaxel by pulsed focused ultrasound (pFUS) in combination with radiotherapy (RT) for treatment of prostate cancer in vivo. LNCaP cells were grown in the prostates of male nude mice. When the tumors reached a designated volume by MRI, tumor bearing mice were randomly divided into seven groups (n = 5): (1) pFUS alone; (2) RT alone; (3) docetaxel alone; (4) docetaxel + pFUS (5) docetaxel + RT (6) docetaxel + pFUS + RT, and (7) control. MR-guided pFUS treatment was performed using a focused ultrasound treatment system (InSightec ExAblate 2000) with a 1.5T GE MR scanner. Animals were treated once with pFUS, docetaxel, RT or their combinations. Docetaxel was given by i.v. injection at 5 mg kg-1 before pFUS. RT was given 2 Gy after pFUS. Animals were euthanized 4 weeks after treatment. Tumor volumes were measured on MRI at 1 and 4 weeks post-treatment. Results showed that triple combination therapies of docetaxel, pFUS and RT provided the most significant tumor growth inhibition among all groups, which may have potential for the treatment of prostate cancer due to an improved therapeutic ratio.

  5. Synthetic Aperture Imaging in Medical Ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Gammelmark, Kim; Pedersen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    with high precision, and the imaging is easily extended to real-time 3D scanning. This paper presents the work done at the Center for Fast Ultrasound Imaging in the area of SA imaging. Three areas that benefit from SA imaging are described. Firstly a preliminary in-vivo evaluation comparing conventional B...

  6. Contrast enhanced ultrasound in liver imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Bang, Nanna

    2004-01-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents were originally introduced to enhance the Doppler signals when detecting vessels with low velocity flow or when imaging conditions were sub-optimal. Contrast agents showed additional properties, it was discovered that a parenchymal enhancement phase in the liver followed the enhancement of the blood pool. Contrast agents have made ultrasound scanning more accurate in detection and characterization of focal hepatic lesions and the sensitivity is now comparable with CT and MRI scanning. Further, analysis of the transit time of contrast agent through the liver seems to give information on possible hepatic involvement, not only from focal lesions but also from diffuse benign parenchymal disease. The first ultrasound contrast agents were easily destroyed by the energy from the sound waves but newer agents have proved to last for longer time and hereby enable real-time scanning and make contrast enhancement suitable for interventional procedures such as biopsies and tissue ablation. Also, in monitoring the effect of tumour treatment contrast agents have been useful. A brief overview is given on some possible applications and on different techniques using ultrasound contrast agents in liver imaging. At present, the use of an ultrasound contrast agent that allows real-time scanning with low mechanical index is to be preferred

  7. MR-Guided Pulsed High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Enhancement of Gene Therapy Combined With Androgen Deprivation and Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    ultrasound . J. Acoust. Soc.Am. 72 1926-1932, (1982) (7) Neppiras E A. Acoustic cavitation . Physics reports 61(3): 159-251, (1980) (8) ter Haar G R, Daniels...Guided Pulsed High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Enhancement of 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0469 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...failing to This work is aimed to study MR guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU) enhancement of gene therapy for Prostate Cancer. The

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  9. Accelerated Air-coupled Ultrasound Imaging of Wood Using Compressed Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Fang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Air-coupled ultrasound has shown excellent sensitivity and specificity for the nondestructive imaging of wood-based material. However, it is time-consuming, due to the high scanning density limited by the Nyquist law. This study investigated the feasibility of applying compressed sensing techniques to air-coupled ultrasound imaging, aiming to reduce the number of scanning lines and then accelerate the imaging. Firstly, an undersampled scanning strategy specified by a random binary matrix was proposed to address the limitation of the compressed sensing framework. The undersampled scanning can be easily implemented, while only minor modification was required for the existing imaging system. Then, discrete cosine transform was selected experimentally as the representation basis. Finally, orthogonal matching pursuit algorithm was utilized to reconstruct the wood images. Experiments on three real air-coupled ultrasound images indicated the potential of the present method to accelerate air-coupled ultrasound imaging of wood. The same quality of ACU images can be obtained with scanning time cut in half.

  10. Multiplane wave imaging increases signal-to-noise ratio in ultrafast ultrasound imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiran, Elodie; Deffieux, Thomas; Correia, Mafalda; Maresca, David; Osmanski, Bruno-Felix; Pernot, Mathieu; Tanter, Mickael; Sieu, Lim-Anna; Bergel, Antoine; Cohen, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafast imaging using plane or diverging waves has recently enabled new ultrasound imaging modes with improved sensitivity and very high frame rates. Some of these new imaging modalities include shear wave elastography, ultrafast Doppler, ultrafast contrast-enhanced imaging and functional ultrasound imaging. Even though ultrafast imaging already encounters clinical success, increasing even more its penetration depth and signal-to-noise ratio for dedicated applications would be valuable.Ultrafast imaging relies on the coherent compounding of backscattered echoes resulting from successive tilted plane waves emissions; this produces high-resolution ultrasound images with a trade-off between final frame rate, contrast and resolution. In this work, we introduce multiplane wave imaging, a new method that strongly improves ultrafast images signal-to-noise ratio by virtually increasing the emission signal amplitude without compromising the frame rate. This method relies on the successive transmissions of multiple plane waves with differently coded amplitudes and emission angles in a single transmit event. Data from each single plane wave of increased amplitude can then be obtained, by recombining the received data of successive events with the proper coefficients.The benefits of multiplane wave for B-mode, shear wave elastography and ultrafast Doppler imaging are experimentally demonstrated. Multiplane wave with 4 plane waves emissions yields a 5.8  ±  0.5 dB increase in signal-to-noise ratio and approximately 10 mm in penetration in a calibrated ultrasound phantom (0.7 d MHz −1 cm −1 ). In shear wave elastography, the same multiplane wave configuration yields a 2.07  ±  0.05 fold reduction of the particle velocity standard deviation and a two-fold reduction of the shear wave velocity maps standard deviation. In functional ultrasound imaging, the mapping of cerebral blood volume results in a 3 to 6 dB increase of the contrast-to-noise ratio in

  11. Virtual ultrasound sources in high-resolution ultrasound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2002-01-01

    beamforming procedure for 3D ultrasound imaging. The position of the virtual source, and the created waveform are investigated with simulation, and with pulse-echo measurements. There is good agreement between the estimated wavefront and the theoretically tted one. Several examples of the use of virtual...... source elements are considered. Using SAF on data acquired for a conventional linear array imaging improves the penetration depth for the particular imaging situation from 80 to 110 mm. The independent use of virtual source elements in the elevation plane decreases the respective size of the point spread...

  12. Ablative efficiency of lithium triborate laser vaporization and conventional transurethral resection of the prostate: a comparison using transrectal three-dimensional ultrasound volumetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Oliver; Sulser, Tullio; Hefermehl, Lukas J.; Strebel, Daniel D.; Largo, Remo; Mortezavi, Ashkan; Poyet, Cédric; Eberli, Daniel; Zimmermann, Matthias; Müller, Alexander; Michel, Maurice S.; Müntener, Michael; Seifert, Hans-Helge; Hermanns, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Introduction and objectives: It is unknown if tissue ablation following 120W lithium triborate (LBO) laser vaporization (LV) of the prostate is comparable to that following transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Therefore, transrectal 3D-ultrasound volumetry of the prostate was performed to compare the efficiency of tissue ablation between LBO-LV and TURP. Methods: Between 03/2008 and 03/2010 110 patients underwent routine LBO-LV (n=61) or TURP (n=49). Transrectal 3D-ultrasound with planimetric volumetry of the prostate was performed pre-operatively, after catheter removal, 6 weeks and 6 months. Results: Median prostate volume was 52.5ml in the LV group and 46.9ml in the TURP group. After catheter removal, median absolute volume reduction (LV: 7.05ml, TURP: 15.8ml) and relative volume reduction (15.9% vs. 34.2%) were significantly lower in the LV group (p<0.001). After 6 weeks/ 6 months, the relative volume reduction but not the absolute remained significantly lower in the LV group. Conclusions: LBO-LV is an efficient procedure evidenced by an absolute tissue ablation not significantly different to that after TURP. However, TURP seems to be superior due to a higher relative tissue ablation. The differences in tissue ablation had no impact on the early clinical outcome. Delayed volume reduction indicates that prostatic swelling occurs early after LV and then decreases subsequently.

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... not use ionizing radiation, has no known harmful effects, and is particularly valuable for ... is no radiation exposure to the patient. Because ultrasound images are captured ...

  14. MO-AB-210-00: Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging Quality Control and High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Therapy Hands-On Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this ultrasound hands-on workshop is to demonstrate advancements in high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and to demonstrate quality control (QC) testing in diagnostic ultrasound. HIFU is a therapeutic modality that uses ultrasound waves as carriers of energy. HIFU is used to focus a beam of ultrasound energy into a small volume at specific target locations within the body. The focused beam causes localized high temperatures and produces a well-defined regions of necrosis. This completely non-invasive technology has great potential for tumor ablation and targeted drug delivery. At the workshop, attendees will see configurations, applications, and hands-on demonstrations with on-site instructors at separate stations. The involvement of medical physicists in diagnostic ultrasound imaging service is increasing due to QC and accreditation requirements. At the workshop, an array of ultrasound testing phantoms and ultrasound scanners will be provided for attendees to learn diagnostic ultrasound QC in a hands-on environment with live demonstrations of the techniques. Target audience: Medical physicists and other medical professionals in diagnostic imaging and radiation oncology with interest in high-intensity focused ultrasound and in diagnostic ultrasound QC. Learning Objectives: Learn ultrasound physics and safety for HIFU applications through live demonstrations Get an overview of the state-of-the art in HIFU technologies and equipment Gain familiarity with common elements of a quality control program for diagnostic ultrasound imaging Identify QC tools available for testing diagnostic ultrasound systems and learn how to use these tools List of supporting vendors for HIFU and diagnostic ultrasound QC hands-on workshop: Philips Healthcare Alpinion Medical Systems Verasonics, Inc Zonare Medical Systems, Inc Computerized Imaging Reference Systems (CIRS), Inc. GAMMEX, Inc., Cablon Medical BV Steffen Sammet: NIH/NCI grant 5R25CA132822, NIH/NINDS grant 5R25NS

  15. MO-AB-210-00: Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging Quality Control and High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Therap