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Sample records for ultrasonic cleaning process

  1. Optimization of Ultrasonic Fabric Cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, T.E.

    1998-05-13

    The fundamental purpose of this project was to research and develop a process that would reduce the cost and improve the environmental efficiency of the present dry-cleaning industry. This second phase of research (see report KCP-94-1006 for information gathered during the first phase) was intended to allow the optimal integration of all factors of ultrasonic fabric cleaning. For this phase, Garment Care performed an extensive literature search and gathered data from other researchers worldwide. The Garment Care-AlliedSignal team developed the requirements for a prototype cleaning tank for studies and acquired that tank and the additional equipment required to use it properly. Garment Care and AlliedSignal acquired the transducers and generators from Surftran Martin-Walter in Sterling Heights, Michigan. Amway's Kelly Haley developed the test protocol, supplied hundreds of test swatches, gathered the data on the swatches before and after the tests, assisted with the cleaning tests, and prepared the final analysis of the results. AlliedSignal personnel, in conjunction with Amway and Garment Care staff, performed all the tests. Additional planning is under way for future testing by outside research facilities. The final results indicated repeatable performance and good results for single layered fabric swatches. Swatches that were cleaned as a ''sandwich,'' that is, three or more layers.

  2. Ultrasonic cleaning of electrodes of wire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnov, V.A.; Kurepin, A.B.; Razin, V.I.

    1980-01-01

    A technological process of cleaning electrodes and working volume surfaces of wire chambers from contaminations by the simultaneous mechanical action of the energy of ultrasonic oscillations and the chemical action of detergents is discussed. A device for cleaning wire electrodes of proportional chambers of 0.3x0.4 m is described. The device uses two ultrasonic generators with a total power of 0.5 kW. As a detergent use is made of a mixture of ethyl alcohol, gasoline and freon. In the process of cleaning production defects can be detected in the wire chambers which makes it possible to timely remove the defects. Measurements of the surface resistance of fiberglass laminate of printed drift chamber electrodes at a voltage of 2 kV showed that after completing the cleaning process the resistance increases 15-20%

  3. Bubble size distribution analysis and control in high frequency ultrasonic cleaning processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauptmann, M; Struyf, H; Mertens, P; Heyns, M; Gendt, S De; Brems, S; Glorieux, C

    2012-01-01

    In the semiconductor industry, the ongoing down-scaling of nanoelectronic elements has lead to an increasing complexity of their fabrication. Hence, the individual fabrication processes become increasingly difficult to handle. To minimize cross-contamination, intermediate surface cleaning and preparation steps are inevitable parts of the semiconductor process chain. Here, one major challenge is the removal of residual nano-particulate contamination resulting from abrasive processes such as polishing and etching. In the past, physical cleaning techniques such as megasonic cleaning have been proposed as suitable solutions. However, the soaring fragility of the smallest structures is constraining the forces of the involved physical removal mechanisms. In the case of 'megasonic' cleaningcleaning with ultrasound in the MHz-domain – the main cleaning action arises from strongly oscillating microbubbles which emerge from the periodically changing tensile strain in the cleaning liquid during sonication. These bubbles grow, oscillate and collapse due to a complex interplay of rectified diffusion, bubble coalescence, non-linear pulsation and the onset of shape instabilities. Hence, the resulting bubble size distribution does not remain static but alternates continuously. Only microbubbles in this distribution that show a high oscillatory response are responsible for the cleaning action. Therefore, the cleaning process efficiency can be improved by keeping the majority of bubbles around their resonance size. In this paper, we propose a method to control and characterize the bubble size distribution by means of 'pulsed' sonication and measurements of acoustic cavitation spectra, respectively. We show that the so-obtained bubble size distributions can be related to theoretical predictions of the oscillatory responses of and the onset of shape instabilities for the respective bubbles. We also propose a mechanism to explain the enhancement of both acoustic and cleaning

  4. Advances in ultrasonic fuel cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blok, J.; Frattini, P.; Moser, T.

    2002-01-01

    The economics of electric generation is requiring PWR plant operators to consider higher fuel duty and longer cycles. As a result, sub-cooled nucleate boiling is now an accepted occurrence in the upper spans of aggressively driven PWR cores. Thermodynamic and hydraulic factors determine that the boiling surfaces of the fuel favor deposition of corrosion products. Thus, the deposits on high-duty fuel tend to be axially distributed in an inhomogeneous manner. Axial offset anomaly (AOA) is the result of axially non-homogeneous distribution of boron compounds in these axially variable fuel deposits. Besides their axial asymmetry, fuel deposits in boiling cores tend to be qualitatively different from deposits on non-boiling fuel. Thus, deposits on moderate-duty PWR fuel are generally iron rich, predominating in nickel ferrites. Deposits on cores with high boiling duty, on the other hand, tend to be rich in nickel, with sizeable fractions of NiO or elemental nickel. Other unexpected compounds such as m-ZrO 2 and Ni-Fe oxy-borates have been found in significant quantity in deposits on boiling cores. This paper describes the ultrasonic fuel cleaning technology developed by EPRI. Data will be presented to confirm that the method is effective for removing fuel deposits from both high-duty and normal-duty fuel. The report will describe full-core fuel cleaning using the EPRI technology for Callaway Cycle 12 reload fuel. The favorable impact of fuel cleaning on Cycle 12 AOA performance will also be presented. (authors)

  5. Ultrasonic aqueous cleaning as a replacement for chlorinated solvent cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, L.M.; Simandl, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has been involved in the replacement of chlorinated solvents since 1982. One of the most successful replacement efforts has been the substitution of vapor degreasers or soak tanks using chlorinated solvents with ultrasonic cleaning using aqueous detergents. Recently, funding was obtained from the Department of Energy Office (DOE) of Technology Development to demonstrate this technology. A unit has been procured and installed in the vacuum pump shop area to replace the use of a solvent soak tank. Initially, the solvents used in the shop were CFC-113 and a commercial brand cleaner which contained both perchloroethylene and methylene chloride. While the ultrasonic unit was being procured, a terpene-based solvent was used. Generally, parts were soaked overnight in order to soften baked-on vanish. Many times, wire brushing was used to help remove remaining contamination. Initial testing with the ultrasonic cleaner indicated cleaning times of 20 min were as effective as the overnight solvent soaks in removing contamination. Wire brushing was also not required following the ultrasonic cleaning as was sometimes required with the solvent soak

  6. Ultrasonic Cleaning of Nuclear Steam Generator by Micro Bubble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Woo Tae [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Tae; Yoon, Sang Jung [Sae-An Engineering Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    In this paper, we present ultrasonic cleaning technology for a nuclear steam generator using micro bubble. We could extend the boundary of ultrasonic cleaning by using micro bubbles in water. Ultrasonic energy measured was increased about 5 times after the generation of micro bubbles in water. Furthermore, ultrasound energy was measured to be strong enough to create cavitation even though the ultrasound sensor was about 2 meters away from the ultrasonic transducer

  7. Ultrasonic and immersion cleaning: a comparison using aqueous and fluorocarbon solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, R.D.; Kearsey, A.

    1984-11-01

    Decontamination is a necessary process in reducing radiation levels in the working environment in the nuclear industry. Components from active areas which require decontamination for re-use or maintenance operations. In this report, a typical chemical cleaning process using liquid pumping, airagitation and physical movement for agitation is compared with ultrasonic cleaning, now an established cleaning process in many industries. The chosen traditional method is immersion in an agitated solution of warm SDG.3 solution; an established decontaminating reagent. The decontamination effect of this process is compared with the effect of cleaning in an ultrasonic bath containing the same reagent at the same concentration and temperature. Fluorocarbon reagents are of particular interest to the nuclear industry for they offer the ability to clean electrical components without damage, and can clean product contaminated material without the risk of criticality. Such reagents are based on 1,1,2-trichloro, 1,2,2-trifluoroethane and azeotropic mixtures. This reagent and one mixture with 6% methanol were tested under agitation and ultrasonic immersion at the same temperature. Parallel control experiments were conducted using demineralised water as the cleaning media in an agitated bath. SGG3 is a good reagent for general purpose cleaning (it can remove 99% of particulate contamination) using scrubbing, immersion or spraying techniques. There is little evidence to show that ultrasonic cleaning increases its effectiveness. For special purpose fluorocarbon solvents will give satisfactory results when used in an ultrasonic system. (author)

  8. Effect of design and technology on the efficiency of ultrasonic facilities for sheet cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubyanitskij, G.D.

    1977-01-01

    Various techniques are reviewed for enhancing the efficiency of ultrasonic cleaning of various items, such as sheets, and for lowering the energy consumption of the process. It is important to maintain a specified spacing between the item to be cleaned and the supersound projector, to remove the contaminants accumulating in the surface layer of the solution and to provide an adequate combination between the ultrasonic and the mechanical cleaning means. It is noted that the injection of the surfactants directly into the cleaning zone lowers the intensity of foaming without affecting the quality of cleaning. In some cases the cleaning is even speeded up due to an improvement in conditions for the transmission of acoustic waves in areas at some distance from the converter

  9. Cleaning Process Development for Metallic Additively Manufactured Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramel, Terri L.; Welker, Roger; Lowery, Niki; Mitchell, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing of metallic components for aerospace applications offers many advantages over traditional manufacturing techniques. As a new technology, many aspects of its widespread utilization remain open to investigation. Among these are the cleaning processes that can be used for post finishing of parts and measurements to verify effectiveness of the cleaning processes. Many cleaning and drying processes and measurement methods that have been used for parts manufactured using conventional techniques are candidates that may be considered for cleaning and verification of additively manufactured parts. Among these are vapor degreasing, ultrasonic immersion and spray cleaning, followed by hot air drying, vacuum baking and solvent displacement drying. Differences in porosity, density, and surface finish of additively manufactured versus conventionally manufactured parts may introduce new considerations in the selection of cleaning and drying processes or the method used to verify their effectiveness. This presentation will review the relative strengths and weaknesses of different candidate cleaning and drying processes as they may apply to additively manufactured metal parts for aerospace applications. An ultrasonic cleaning technique for exploring the cleanability of parts will be presented along with an example using additively manufactured Inconel 718 test specimens to illustrate its use. The data analysis shows that this ultrasonic cleaning approach results in a well-behaved ultrasonic cleaning/extraction behavior. That is, it does not show signs of accelerated cavitation erosion of the base material, which was later confirmed by neutron imaging. In addition, the analysis indicated that complete cleaning would be achieved by ultrasonic immersion cleaning at approximately 5 minutes, which was verified by subsequent cleaning of additional parts.

  10. Ultrasonic characterization of yogurt fermentation process

    OpenAIRE

    IZBAIM , DRIS; FAIZ , BOUAZZA; MOUDDEN , ALI; MALAININE , MOHAMED; ABOUDAOUD , Idriss

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The objective of this work is to characterize the fermentation of yogurt based on an ultrasonic technique. Conventionally, the acidity of the yogurt is measured by a pH meter to determine the progress of fermentation. However, the pH meter should be cleaned and calibrated for each measurement and, therefore, this method is not practical. In this regard, ultrasonic techniques are fast, non-invasive and inexpensive. The measurement of ultrasonic parameters such as amplit...

  11. High-power ultrasonic processing: Recent developments and prospective advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Juarez, Juan A.

    2010-01-01

    Although the application of ultrasonic energy to produce or to enhance a wide variety of processes have been explored since about the middle of the 20th century, only a reduced number of ultrasonic processes have been established at industrial level. However, during the last ten years the interest in ultrasonic processing has revived particularly in industrial sectors where the ultrasonic technology may represent a clean and efficient tool to improve classical existing processes or an innovation alternative for the development of new processes. Such seems to be the case of relevant sectors such as food industry, environment, pharmaceuticals and chemicals manufacture, machinery, mining, etc where power ultrasound is becoming an emerging technology for process development. The possible major problem in the application of high-intensity ultrasound on industrial processing is the design and development of efficient power ultrasonic systems (generators and reactors) capable of large scale successful operation specifically adapted to each individual process. In the area of ultrasonic processing in fluid media and more specifically in gases, the development of the steppedplate transducers and other power ge with extensive radiating surface has strongly contributed to the implementation at semi-industrial and industrial stage of several commercial applications, in sectors such as food and beverage industry (defoaming, drying, extraction, etc), environment (air cleaning, sludge filtration, etc...), machinery and process for manufacturing (textile washing, paint manufacture, etc). The development of different cavitational reactors for liquid treatment in continuous flow is helping to introduce into industry the wide potential of the area of sonochemistry. Processes such as water and effluent treatment, crystallization, soil remediation, etc have been already implemented at semi-industrial and/or industrial stage. Other single advances in sectors like mining or energy have

  12. FAILURE MODE EFFECTS AND CRITICALITY ANALYSIS (FMECA AS A QUALITY TOOL TO PLAN IMPROVEMENTS IN ULTRASONIC MOULD CLEANING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Fragassa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Inside the complex process used for tire production, ultrasonic cleaning treatment probably represents the best solution to preserve the functionality of tire moulds, by removing residuals from moulds and keeping an unaltered quality for their surfaces. Ultrasonic Mould Cleaning Systems (UMCS is, however, a complicated technology that combines ultrasonic waves, high temperature and a succession of acid and basic attacks. At the same time, an UMCS plant, as part of a long productive chain, has to guarantee the highest productivity reducing failures and maintenances. This article describes the use of Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA as a methodology for improving quality in cleaning process. In particular, FMECA was utilized to identify potential defects in the original plant design, to recognize the inner causes of some failures actually occurred during operations and, finally, to suggest definitive re-design actions. Changes were implemented and the new UMCS offers a better quality in term of higher availability and productivity.

  13. [Research on cleaning rate of the C-shaped canal treated by manual or rotary endodontic file combined with ultrasonic rinsing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Gao, Yan; Wang, Qing-shan; Zhang, Yan; Rong, Li; Wang, Jiu

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the cleaning effect of the C-shaped canal treated by manual K file and ProTaper rotary endodontic file combined with ultrasonic cleaning, and find a better cleaning program for the C-shaped root canal. Fifty mandibular second molars were randomly divided into 5 groups: K file group, K file+ultrasonic rinsing group, ProTaper group, ProTaper+ultrasonic rinsing group and the control group. After initial shaping and cleaning, the mandibular second molars were soaked in formalin and stained. Under microscopy, the cleaning rate of necrotic tissue and cutting area were observed and analyzed. The data was processed with SPSS 17.0 software package. The cleaning rates of the treated groups were significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05); In each treatment group, the cleaning rate of the apex was significantly lower than that of the crown and central part (P<0.05); The cutting score of ProTaper+ultrasonic cleaning group was lower than that of the other treatment groups; The cutting score of the K file+ultrasonic rinsing group was significantly lower than that of the K file group (P<0.05); The cutting score and cleaning rate were negatively correlated (r=-0.712, P=0.000 ), the linear regression was the cleaning rate =98.325-4.325 × wall cutting score (R=0.454, P<0.05). In the process of shaping and cleaning of C-shaped canal, it is recommended that the ProTaper nickel-titanium rotary endodontic file should be chosen to clean the top of the taproot pipe and combined with ultrasonic rinsing to achieve better results.

  14. Waste processing air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Waste processing and preparing waste to support waste processing relies heavily on ventilation. Ventilation is used at the Hanford Site on the waste storage tanks to provide confinement, cooling, and removal of flammable gases

  15. Pilot-scale continuous ultrasonic cleaning equipment reduces Listeria monocytogenes levels on conveyor belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolvanen, Riina; Lundén, Janne; Hörman, Ari; Korkeala, Hannu

    2009-02-01

    Ultrasonic cleaning of a conveyor belt was studied by building a pilot-scale conveyor with an ultrasonic cleaning bath. A piece of the stainless steel conveyor belt was contaminated with meat-based soil and Listeria monocytogenes strains (V1, V3, and B9) and incubated for 72 h to allow bacteria to attach to the conveyor belt surfaces. The effect of ultrasound with a potassium hydroxide-based cleaning detergent was determined by using the cleaning bath at 45 and 50 degrees C for 30 s with and without ultrasound. The detachment of L. monocytogenes from the conveyor belt caused by the ultrasonic treatment was significantly greater at 45 degrees C (independent samples t test, P conveyor belt is effective even with short treatment times.

  16. Ultrasonic cleaning of conveyor belt materials using Listeria monocytogenes as a model organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolvanén, Riina; Lunden, Janne; Korkeala, Hannu; Wirtanen, Gun

    2007-03-01

    Persistent Listeria monocytogenes contamination of food industry equipment is a difficult problem to solve. Ultrasonic cleaning offers new possibilities for cleaning conveyors and other equipment that are not easy to clean. Ultrasonic cleaning was tested on three conveyor belt materials: polypropylene, acetal, and stainless steel (cold-rolled, AISI 304). Cleaning efficiency was tested at two temperatures (30 and 45 degrees C) and two cleaning times (30 and 60 s) with two cleaning detergents (KOH, and NaOH combined with KOH). Conveyor belt materials were soiled with milk-based soil and L. monocytogenes strains V1, V3, and B9, and then incubated for 72 h to attach bacteria to surfaces. Ultrasonic cleaning treatments reduced L. monocytogenes counts on stainless steel 4.61 to 5.90 log units; on acetal, 3.37 to 5.55 log units; and on polypropylene, 2.31 to 4.40 log units. The logarithmic reduction differences were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. The logarithmic reduction was significantly greater in stainless steel than in plastic materials (P conveyor belt materials.

  17. Cleaning of OPR1000 Steam Generator by Ultrasonic Cavitation in Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Wootae [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sangtae; Yoon, Sangjung; Choi, Yongseok [Saean Engineering Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Magnetic wheels are attached to the transducers to prevent tube damage which may be caused by wear between the transducers and SG tubes. To remove heat generated by transducers, we used water to water heat exchanger. Sludge removed from tube sheet area of the steam generator was pumped to filtering station for removing impurities in it. We designed an ultrasonic cleaning system for application to OPR1000 S/G. The technology was developed for removing sludge in OPR1000 S/G. However, the technology could easily be applied to other types of S/Gs. For cleaning OPR1000 SG, we designed an ultrasonic cleaning system with 12 transducers, 15 generators, a WRS, and a water treatment system. An experiment with a single transducer and the full scale OPR1000 S/G mock-up did not show very satisfactory result in ultrasound energy level. However, we expect sufficient effects if we apply 12 or more transducers in this case considering our previous experimental results as shown in the references. The ultrasonic cleaning system will be ready in August this year for performance test. After several experiments and the experiments followed, we are planning to apply this cleaning system for removing sludge in Korean OPR1000 S/Gs.

  18. Design of segmental ultrasonic cleaning equipment for removing the sludge in a steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seok Tae; Jeong, Woo Tae; Byeon, Min Suk; Lee, Ho One

    2010-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, the water in the coolant system is managed to be clean but metallic sludge is accumulated on the top of tube-sheet in a steam generator. The sludge causes the corrosion of the tubesheet. The electric utility company in Korea removes the sludge with a lancing system for every outage of nuclear power plants. But the sludge is not perfectly removed with lancing system because the pressurized water of the lancing system cannot reach all area in a steam generator. Therefore the steam generator cleaning system with ultrasonic energy has been developed in KEPCO Research Institute. In this paper, the ultrasonic cleaning system is designed for removing the sludge on the steam generator

  19. Ultrasonic process for detoxification of groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jiann M.; Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of an investigation of the ultrasonic irradiation of carbon tetrachloride at various pH values, temperatures, and power intensities. Kinetic data and selected chemical mechanism are discussed and proposed. To study oxidant efficiency, chemical oxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide, are also considered. This work is part of a project entitled ''Ultrasonic Process for Detoxification of Groundwater and Soil,'' sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Office of Technology Development, to develop an innovative process for the effective destruction of chlorinated organics in soil and groundwater

  20. Method of noncontacting ultrasonic process monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Gabriel V.; Walter, John B.; Telschow, Kenneth L.

    1992-01-01

    A method of monitoring a material during processing comprising the steps of (a) shining a detection light on the surface of a material; (b) generating ultrasonic waves at the surface of the material to cause a change in frequency of the detection light; (c) detecting a change in the frequency of the detection light at the surface of the material; (d) detecting said ultrasonic waves at the surface point of detection of the material; (e) measuring a change in the time elapsed from generating the ultrasonic waves at the surface of the material and return to the surface point of detection of the material, to determine the transit time; and (f) comparing the transit time to predetermined values to determine properties such as, density and the elastic quality of the material.

  1. Toward the development of erosion-free ultrasonic cavitation cleaning with gas-supersaturated water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Tatsuya; Ando, Keita

    2015-11-01

    In ultrasonic cleaning, contaminant particles attached at target surfaces are removed by liquid flow or acoustic waves that are induced by acoustic cavitation bubbles. However, the inertial collapse of such bubbles often involve strong shock emission or water hammer by re-entrant jets, thereby giving rise to material erosion. Here, we aim at developing an erosion-free ultrasonic cleaning technique with the aid of gas-supersaturated water. The key idea is that (gaseous) cavitation is triggered easily even with low-intensity sonication in water where gases are dissolved beyond Henry's saturation limit, allowing us to buffer violent bubble collapse. In this presentation, we report on observations of the removal of micron/submicron-sized particles attached at glass surfaces by the action of gaseous cavitation bubbles under low-intensity sonication.

  2. A new approach involving a multi transducer ultrasonic system for cleaning turbine engines' oil filters under practical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dinh Duc; Ngo, Huu Hao; Yoon, Yong Soo; Chang, Soon Woong; Bui, Hong Ha

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a green technology that can clean turbine engine oil filters effectively in ships using ultrasound, with ultrasonic devices having a frequency of 25kHz and different powers of 300W and 600W, respectively. The effects of temperature, ultrasonic cleaning times, pressure losses through the oil filter, solvent washing, and ultrasonic power devices were investigated. In addition, the cleaning efficiency of three modes (hand washing, preliminary washing and ultrasonic washing) were compared to assess their relative effectiveness. Experimental results revealed that the necessary ultrasonic time varied significantly depending on which solvent was used for washing. For instance, the optimum ultrasonic cleaning time was 50-60min when the oil filter was cleaned in a solvent of kerosene oil (KO) and over 80min when in a solvent of diesel oil (DO) using the same ultrasonic generator device (25kHz, 600W) and experimental conditions. Furthermore, microscopic examination did not reveal any damage or breakdown on or within the structure of the filter after ultrasonic cleaning, even in the filter's surfaces at a constantly low frequency of 25kHz and power specific capacity (100W/gal). Overall, it may be concluded that ultrasound-assisted oil filter washing is effective, requiring a significantly shorter time than manual washing. This ultrasonic method also shows promise as a green technology for washing oil filters in turbine engines in general and Vietnamese navy ships in particular, because of its high cleaning efficiency, operational simplicity and savings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ultrasonic-assisted manufacturing processes: Variational model and numerical simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiq, Amir; El Sayed, Tamer

    2012-01-01

    We present a computational study of ultrasonic assisted manufacturing processes including sheet metal forming, upsetting, and wire drawing. A fully variational porous plasticity model is modified to include ultrasonic softening effects

  4. Process monitoring using optical ultrasonic wave detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telschow, K.L.; Walter, J.B.; Garcia, G.V.; Kunerth, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    Optical ultrasonic wave detection techniques are being developed for process monitoring. An important limitation on optical techniques is that the material surface, in materials processing applications, is usually not a specular reflector and in many cases is totally diffusely reflecting. This severely degrades the light collected by the detection optics, greatly reducing the intensity and randomly scattering the phase of the reflected light. A confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer, which is sensitive to the Doppler frequency shift resulting from the surface motion and not to the phase of the collected light, is well suited to detecting ultrasonic waves in diffusely reflecting materials. This paper describes the application of this detector to the real-time monitoring of the sintering of ceramic materials. 8 refs., 5 figs

  5. STADUS - Ultrasonic data acquisition and processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saglio, Robert; Birac, A.M.; Frappier, J.C.

    1982-05-01

    The CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) has developed a system for the acquisition and analysis of data recorded during ultrasonic testing. Initially this system was designed and built for the needs of in-service inspection of PWR type power reactors. It is in far wider use today for miscellaneous automatic ultrasonic inspection procedures. This system records, in digital form, the ultrasonic data supplied by the transducers (maximum 16 simultaneous channels), and the geometric coordinates defining the position of the inspection tool. Based on these data, which are recorded on floppy disk, this system helps to display data in the form of A SCAN, B SCAN and C SCAN images. In addition, processing programs of data transfer from the STADUS floppy disks have been developed and inserted on computers more powerful than the one used in the STADUS system. These programs serve to obtain different fault charts on an adjustable scale, as well as listings concerning the defect positions and dimensions [fr

  6. Exhaust gas clean up process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R.J.

    1988-06-16

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ is described. The method involves prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO/sub x/ and SO/sub 2/, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO/sub x/ is removed as N/sub 2/ gas or nitrogen sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a valuable sulfate salt. 4 figs.

  7. Ultrasonic stir welding process and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An ultrasonic stir welding device provides a method and apparatus for elevating the temperature of a work piece utilizing at least one ultrasonic heater. Instead of relying on a rotating shoulder to provide heat to a workpiece an ultrasonic heater is utilized to provide ultrasonic energy to the workpiece. A rotating pin driven by a motor assembly performs the weld on the workpiece. A handheld version can be constructed as well as a fixedly mounted embodiment.

  8. Alternative, Green Processes for the Precision Cleaning of Aerospace Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Phillip R.; Grandelli, Heather Eilenfield; Devor, Robert; Hintze, Paul E.; Loftin, Kathleen B.; Tomlin, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    weighed again showing typical contaminant deposition levels of approximately 0.00300g per part. They were then cleaned by the solvent or process being tested and then weighed a third time which allowed for the calculation of the cleaning efficiency of the test solvent or process.Based on preliminary experiments, five solvents (ethanol, isopropanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, and tert-butyl acetate) were down selected for further testing. When coupled with ultrasonic agitation, these solvents removed hydrocarbon contaminants as well as Vertrel MCA and showed improved removal of perfluorinated greases. Supercritical carbon dioxide did an excellent job dissolving each of the five contaminants but did a poor job of removing Teflon particles found in the perfluorinated greases. Plasma cleaning efficiency was found to be dependent on which supply gas was used, exposure time, and gas pressure. Under optimized conditions it was found that breathing air, energized to the plasma phase, was able to remove nearly 100% of the contamination.These findings indicate that alternative cleaning methods are indeed able to achieve precision levels of cleanliness. Currently, our team is working with a commercial cleaning company to get independent verification of our results. We are also evaluating the technical and financial aspects of scaling these processes to a size capable of supporting the future cleaning needs of KSC.

  9. Ultrasonic-assisted manufacturing processes: Variational model and numerical simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiq, Amir

    2012-04-01

    We present a computational study of ultrasonic assisted manufacturing processes including sheet metal forming, upsetting, and wire drawing. A fully variational porous plasticity model is modified to include ultrasonic softening effects and then utilized to account for instantaneous softening when ultrasonic energy is applied during deformation. Material model parameters are identified via inverse modeling, i.e. by using experimental data. The versatility and predictive ability of the model are demonstrated and the effect of ultrasonic intensity on the manufacturing process at hand is investigated and compared qualitatively with experimental results reported in the literature. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Recent progress in online ultrasonic process monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Szu-Sheng L.; Chen, Tzu-Fang; Ramos-Franca, Demartonne; Nguyen, Ky T.; Jen, Cheng-Kuei; Ihara, Ikuo; Derdouri, A.; Garcia-Rejon, Andres

    1998-03-01

    On-line ultrasonic monitoring of polymer co-extrusion and gas-assisted injection molding are presented. During the co- extrusion of high density polyethylene and Santoprene ultrasonic sensors consisting of piezoelectric transducers and clad ultrasonic buffer rods are used to detect the interface between these two polymers and the stability of the extrusion. The same ultrasonic sensor also measures the surface temperature of the extruded polymer. The results indicate that temperature measurements using ultrasound have a faster response time than those obtained by conventional thermocouple. In gas-assisted injection molding the polymer and gas flow front positions are monitored simultaneously. This information may be used to control the plunger movement.

  11. Ultrasonic Low-Friction Containment Plate for Thermal and Ultrasonic Stir Weld Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Karl; Short, Matt

    2013-01-01

    The thermal stir welding (TSW) process is finding applications in fabrication of space vehicles. In this process, workpieces to be joined by TSW are drawn, by heavy forces, between "containment plates," past the TSW tool that then causes joining of the separate plates. It is believed that the TSW process would be significantly improved by reducing the draw force, and that this could be achieved by reducing the friction forces between the workpieces and containment plates. Based on use of high-power ultrasonics in metal forming processes, where friction reduction in drawing dies has been achieved, it is believed that ultrasonic vibrations of the containment plates could achieve similar friction reduction in the TSW process. By applying ultrasonic vibrations to the containment plates in a longitudinal vibration mode, as well as by mounting and holding the containment plates in a specific manner such as to permit the plates to acoustically float, friction between the metal parts and the containment plates is greatly reduced, and so is the drawing force. The concept was to bring in the ultrasonics from the sides of the plates, permitting the ultrasonic hardware to be placed to the side, away from the equipment that contains the thermal stir tooling and that applies clamping forces to the plates. Tests demonstrated that one of the major objectives of applying ultrasonics to the thermal stir system, that of reducing draw force friction, should be achievable on a scaled-up system.

  12. Ultrasonic flow measurements for irrigation process monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziani, Elmostafa; Bennouna, Mustapha; Boissier, Raymond

    2004-02-01

    This paper presents the state of the art of the general principle of liquid flow measurements by ultrasonic method, and problems of flow measurements. We present an ultrasonic flowmeter designed according to smart sensors concept, for the measurement of irrigation water flowing through pipelines or open channels, using the ultrasonic transit time approach. The new flowmeter works on the principle of measuring time delay differences between sound pulses transmitted upstream and downstream in the flowing liquid. The speed of sound in the flowing medium is eliminated as a variable because the flowrate calculations are based on the reciprocals of the transmission times. The transit time difference is digitally measured by means of a suitable, microprocessor controlled logic. This type of ultrasonic flowmeter will be widely used in industry and water management, it is well studied in this work, followed by some experimental results. For pressurized channels, we use one pair of ultrasonic transducer arranged in proper positions and directions of the pipe, in this case, to determine the liquid velocity, a real time on-line analysis taking account the geometries of the hydraulic system, is applied to the obtained ultrasonic data. In the open channels, we use a single or two pairs of ultrasonic emitter-receiver according to the desired performances. Finally, the goals of this work consist in integrating the smart sensor into irrigation systems monitoring in order to evaluate potential advantages and demonstrate their performance, on the other hand, to understand and use ultrasonic approach for determining flow characteristics and improving flow measurements by reducing errors caused by disturbances of the flow profiles.

  13. Process for cleaning radioactively contaminated metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihram, R.G.; Snyder, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    A process is described for removing radioactive scale from a ferrous metal surface, including the steps of initially preconditioning the surface by contacting it with an oxidizing solution (such as an aqueous solution of an alkali metal permanganate or hydrogen peroxide), then, after removal or decomposition of the oxidizing solution, the metallic surface is contacted with a cleaning solution which is a mixture of a mineral acid and a complexing agent (such as sulfuric acid and oxalic acid), and which preferably contains a corrosion inhibitor. A final step in the process is the treatment of the spent cleaning solution containing radioactive waste materials in solution by adding a reagent selected from the group consisting of calcium hydroxide or potassium permanganate and an alkali metal hydroxide to thereby form easily recovered metallic compounds containing substantially all of the dissolved metals and radioactivity. (auth)

  14. Development of an ultrasonic process for soil remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J.M.; Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    An ultrasonic process for the detoxification of carbon tetrachloride- (CCl 4 - ) contaminated soil was investigated in the laboratory by using a batch irradiation reactor equipped with a 600-W ultrasonic power supply operated at a frequency of 20 kHz. Key parameters studied included soil characteristics, irradiation time, CCl 4 concentration, steady-state operating temperature, applied ultrasonic-wave energy, and the ratio of soil to water in the system. The results of the experiments showed that (1) residual CCl 4 concentrations could be decreased with longer irradiation periods and (2) detoxification efficiency was proportional to steady-state operating temperature and applied ultrasonic-wave energy. The characteristics of the contaminated soil were found to be an important factor in the design of an ultrasonic detoxification system. A soil-phase CCl 4 concentration below 1 ppm (initial concentration of 56 ppm) was achieved through this process, indicating that the application of ultrasonic irradiation is feasible and effective in the detoxification of soil contaminated by organic compounds. On the basis of the experimental results, a schematic of a full-scale ultrasonic soil-detoxification system was developed. Improvements to this novel process are discussed

  15. Waste processing of chemical cleaning solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on chemical cleaning solutions containing high concentrations of organic chelating wastes that are difficult to reduce in volume using existing technology. Current methods for evaporating low-level radiative waste solutions often use high maintenance evaporators that can be costly and inefficient. The heat transfer surfaces of these evaporators are easily fouled, and their maintenance requires a significant labor investment. To address the volume reduction of spent, low-level radioactive, chelating-based chemical cleaning solutions, ECOSAFE Liquid Volume Reduction System (LVRS) has been developed. The LVRS is based on submerged combustion evaporator technology that was modified for treatment of low-level radiative liquid wastes. This system was developed in 1988 and was used to process 180,000 gallons of waste at Oconee Nuclear Station

  16. ANALYSIS ON TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES CLEANING OIL PIPELINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana PǍTRAŞCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the researches are presented concerning the technological processes of oil pipelines.We know several technologies and materials used for cleaning the sludge deposits, iron and manganese oxides, dross, stone, etc.de on the inner walls of drinking water pipes or industries.For the oil industry, methods of removal of waste materials and waste pipes and liquid and gas transport networks are operations known long, tedious and expensive. The main methods and associated problems can be summarized as follows: 1 Blowing with compressed air.2 manual or mechanical brushing, sanding with water or dry.3 Wash with water jet of high pressure, solvent or chemical solution to remove the stone and hard deposits.4 The combined methods of cleaning machines that use water jets, cutters, chains, rotary heads cutters, etc.

  17. Optimization of the ultrasonic processing in a melt flow

    OpenAIRE

    Tzanakis, I; Lebon, GSB; Eskin, DG; Pericleous, K

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic cavitation treatment of melt significantly improves the downstream properties and quality of conventional and advanced metallic materials. However, the transfer of this technology to treating large melt volumes has been hindered by a lack of fundamental knowledge, allowing for the ultrasonic processing in the melt flow. In this study, we present the results of experimental validation of an advanced numerical model applied to the acoustic cavitation treatment of liquid aluminum duri...

  18. Numerical processing of ultrasonic holographic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenberg, K.J.; Kiefer, R.; Wosnitza, M.; Schmitz, V.; Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Foerderung der Angewandten Forschung e.V., Saarbruecken

    1980-01-01

    Reconstructing ultrasonic holographic data numerically, the well-known Fresnel approximation is a first step in evaluating the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction formula, that is to say, a one- or two-dimensional Fourier-transform of the holographic data multiplied by a complex phase factor has to be computed. The present contribution investigates the relation between flaw depth and aperture size yielding the more advantageous use of the spatial frequency approach where the advantage is in terms of the number of samples and hence computation time in evaluating Fourier transforms numerically. (orig.) [de

  19. Ultrasonic processing for recovery of chicken erythrocyte hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemoglobin from chicken blood has been shown to be a good substitute for synthetic polymeric flocculants. One stage of processing the blood entails breaking open the cells and releasing the cytoplasmic contents; in the present study, we investigate the use of ultrasonic processing at this stage. Was...

  20. Processing method of radioactive cleaning drain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Shigemitsu; Murakami, Tadashi; Kitao, Hideo

    1998-01-01

    Upon processing of radioactive cleaning drains, contained Co-60 is removed by a selectively adsorbing adsorbent. In addition, after removing suspended materials by a filtering device, Co-60 as predominant nuclides in the drain is selectively adsorbed. The concentration of objective Co-60 is in the order of 0.1 Bq/cc, and non-radioactive metal ions such as Na + ions are present in the order of ppm in addition to Co-60. A granular adsorbent for selectively adsorbing Co-60 is oxine-added activated carbon, and has a grain size of from 20 to 48 mesh. The granular adsorbent is used while being filled in an adsorbing tower. Since a relatively simple device comprising the filtering device and the adsorbing tower in combination is provided, the reduction of the construction cost can be expected. In addition, since no filtering aid is used in the filtering device, the amount of secondary wastes is small. (N.H.)

  1. Ultrasonic signal processing for sizing under-clad flaws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, R.; Paradiso, T.J.; Lane, S.S.; Quinn, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    Ultrasonic digital data were collected from underclad cracks in sample pressure vessel specimen blocks. These blocks were weld cladded under different processes to simulate actual conditions in US Pressure Water Reactors. Each crack was represented by a flaw-echo dynamic curve which is a plot of the transducer motion on the surface as a function of the ultrasonic response into the material. Crack depth sizing was performed by identifying in the dynamic curve the crack tip diffraction signals from the upper and lower tips. This paper describes the experimental procedure, digital signal processing methods used and algorithms developed for crack depth sizing

  2. An implementation of signal processing algorithms for ultrasonic NDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, L.; Stepinski, T.

    1994-01-01

    Probability of detection flaws during ultrasonic pulse-echo inspection is often limited by the presence of backscattered echoes from the material structure. A digital signal processing technique for removal of this material noise, referred to as split spectrum processing (SSP), has been developed and verified using laboratory experiments during the last decade. The authors have performed recently a limited scale evaluation of various SSP techniques for ultrasonic signals acquired during the inspection of welds in austenitic steel. They have obtained very encouraging results that indicate promising capabilities of the SSP for inspection of nuclear power plants. Thus, a more extensive investigation of the technique using large amounts of ultrasonic data is motivated. This analysis should employ different combinations of materials, flaws and transducers. Due to the considerable number of ultrasonic signals required to verify the technique for future practical use, a custom-made computer software is necessary. At the request of the Swedish nuclear power industry the authors have developed such a program package. The program provides a user-friendly graphical interface and is intended for processing of B-scan data in a flexible way. Assembled in the program are a number of signal processing algorithms including traditional Split Spectrum Processing and the more recent Cut Spectrum Processing algorithm developed by them. The program and some results obtained using the various algorithms are presented in the paper

  3. Modeling of ultrasonic processes utilizing a generic software framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, P.; Twiefel, J.; Wallaschek, J.

    2017-06-01

    Modeling of ultrasonic processes is typically characterized by a high degree of complexity. Different domains and size scales must be regarded, so that it is rather difficult to build up a single detailed overall model. Developing partial models is a common approach to overcome this difficulty. In this paper a generic but simple software framework is presented which allows to coupe arbitrary partial models by slave modules with well-defined interfaces and a master module for coordination. Two examples are given to present the developed framework. The first one is the parameterization of a load model for ultrasonically-induced cavitation. The piezoelectric oscillator, its mounting, and the process load are described individually by partial models. These partial models then are coupled using the framework. The load model is composed of spring-damper-elements which are parameterized by experimental results. In the second example, the ideal mounting position for an oscillator utilized in ultrasonic assisted machining of stone is determined. Partial models for the ultrasonic oscillator, its mounting, the simplified contact process, and the workpiece’s material characteristics are presented. For both applications input and output variables are defined to meet the requirements of the framework’s interface.

  4. Cleaning of spent solvent and method of processing cleaning liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Masaki; Kawada, Tomio; Tamura, Nobuhiko.

    1993-01-01

    Spent solvents discharged from a solvent extracting step mainly comprise n-dodecane and TBP and contain nuclear fission products and solvent degradation products. The spent solvents are cleaned by using a sodium chloride free detergent comprising hydrazine oxalate and hydrazine carbonate in a solvent cleaning device. Nitric acid is added to the cleaning liquid wastes containing spent detergents extracted from the solvent cleaning device, to control an acid concentration. The detergent liquid wastes of controlled acid concentration are sent to an electrolysis oxidation bath as electrolytes and electrochemically decomposed in carbonic acid gas, nitrogen gas and hydrogen gas. The decomposed gases are processed as off gases. The decomposed liquid wastes are processed as a waste nitric acid solution. This can provide more effective cleaning. In addition, the spent detergent can be easily decomposed in a room temperature region. Accordingly, the amount of wastes can be decreased. (I.N.)

  5. Processing method for cleaning water waste from cement kneader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soda, Kenzo; Fujita, Hisao; Nakajima, Tadashi.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of processing cleaning water wastes from a cement kneader in a case of processing liquid wastes containing radioactive wastes or deleterious materials such as heavy metals by means of cement solidification. Cleaning waste wastes from the kneader are sent to a cleaning water waste tank, in which gentle stirring is applied near the bottom and sludges are retained so as not to be coagulated. Sludges retained at the bottom of the cleaning water waste tank are sent after elapse of a predetermined time and then kneaded with cements. Thus, since the sludges in the cleaning water are solidified with cement, inhomogenous solidification products consisting only of cleaning sludges with low strength are not formed. The resultant solidification product is homogenous and the compression strength thereof reaches such a level as capable of satisfying marine disposal standards required for the solidification products of radioactive wastes. (I.N.)

  6. Preliminary Results of Cleaning Process for Lubricant Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, D.; Brasche, L.; Lopez, R.

    2006-03-01

    Fluorescent penetrant inspection (FPI) is widely used for aviation and other components for surface-breaking crack detection. As with all inspection methods, adherence to the process parameters is critical to the successful detection of defects. Prior to FPI, components are cleaned using a variety of cleaning methods which are selected based on the alloy and the soil types which must be removed. It is also important that the cleaning process not adversely affect the FPI process. There are a variety of lubricants and surface coatings used in the aviation industry which must be removed prior to FPI. To assess the effectiveness of typical cleaning processes on removal of these contaminants, a study was initiated at an airline overhaul facility. Initial results of the cleaning study for lubricant contamination in nickel, titanium and aluminum alloys will be presented.

  7. Preliminary Results of Cleaning Process for Lubricant Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenmann, D.; Brasche, L.; Lopez, R.

    2006-01-01

    Fluorescent penetrant inspection (FPI) is widely used for aviation and other components for surface-breaking crack detection. As with all inspection methods, adherence to the process parameters is critical to the successful detection of defects. Prior to FPI, components are cleaned using a variety of cleaning methods which are selected based on the alloy and the soil types which must be removed. It is also important that the cleaning process not adversely affect the FPI process. There are a variety of lubricants and surface coatings used in the aviation industry which must be removed prior to FPI. To assess the effectiveness of typical cleaning processes on removal of these contaminants, a study was initiated at an airline overhaul facility. Initial results of the cleaning study for lubricant contamination in nickel, titanium and aluminum alloys will be presented

  8. Processes of elimination of activated corrosion products. Chemical decontamination - fuel cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viala, C.; Brun, C.; Neuhaus, R.; Richier, S.; Bachet, M.

    2007-01-01

    The abatement of the individual and collective dose of a PWR imposes to control the source term through different processes implemented during the plant exploitation. When the limits of these different optimization processes are reached, the abatement of dose rates requires the implementation of curative processes. The objective is thus to eliminate the contaminated oxides and deposits present on surfaces free of radiation flux, and eventually on surfaces under radiation flux and on the fuel itself. The chemical decontamination of equipments and systems is the main and universal remedy implemented at different levels. On the other hand, the ultrasonic cleaning of fuel assemblies is a promising process. This paper aims at illustrating these different techniques using concrete examples of application in France and abroad (decontamination during steam generator replacement, decontamination of primary pump scroll in hot workshop, decontamination of loop sections, ultrasonic cleaning of fuel). The description of these different operations stresses on their efficiency in terms of dosimetric gain, duration of implementation, generation of wastes, and recontamination following their implementation. (J.S.)

  9. Improvement of landfill leachate biodegradability with ultrasonic process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Mahvi

    Full Text Available Landfills leachates are known to contain recalcitrant and/or non-biodegradable organic substances and biological processes are not efficient in these cases. A promising alternative to complete oxidation of biorecalcitrant leachate is the use of ultrasonic process as pre-treatment to convert initially biorecalcitrant compounds to more readily biodegradable intermediates. The objectives of this study are to investigate the effect of ultrasonic process on biodegradability improvement. After the optimization by factorial design, the ultrasonic were applied in the treatment of raw leachates using a batch wise mode. For this, different scenarios were tested with regard to power intensities of 70 and 110 W, frequencies of 30, 45 and 60 KHz, reaction times of 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes and pH of 3, 7 and 10. For determining the effects of catalysts on sonication efficiencies, 5 mg/l of TiO(2 and ZnO have been also used. Results showed that when applied as relatively brief pre-treatment systems, the sonocatalysis processes induce several modifications of the matrix, which results in significant enhancement of its biodegradability. For this reason, the integrated chemical-biological systems proposed here represent a suitable solution for the treatment of landfill leachate samples.

  10. SURFACE CAST IRON STRENGTHENING USING COMBINED LASER AND ULTRASONIC PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Devojno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an analysis of ultrasonic surface plastic deformation and subsequent laser thermal strengthening of gray cast iron parts in the regime of hardening from a solid state with the purpose to obtain strengthened surface layers of bigger depth and less roughness of the processed surface. Program complex ANSYS 11.0 has been used for calculation of temperature fields induced by laser exposure.  The appropriate regime of laser processing without surface fusion has been selected on the basis of the applied complex. The possibility of displacement in the bottom boundary of α–γ-transformation temperature  for СЧ20 with 900 °С up to 800 °С is confirmed due to preliminary ultrasonic surface plastic deformation of the surface that allows to expand technological opportunities of laser quenching  of gray  cast iron from a solid state. 

  11. Field experience with KWU SG chemical cleaning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odar, S.

    1989-01-01

    The ingress of corrosion products into PWR steam generators (SG's) their deposition and the subsequent concentration of salt impurities can induce a variety of mechanisms for corrosion attack on SG tubing. Already, some plants have had to replace their steam generators due to severe corrosion damage and others are seriously considering the same costly action in the near future. One of the most effective ways to counteract corrosion mechanisms and thus to reduce the likelihood of SG replacement becoming necessary is to clean the SG's and to keep them clean. For many years, the industry has been involved in developing different types of cleaning techniques. Among these, chemical cleaning has been shown to be especially effective. In this article, the KWU chemical cleaning process, for which there is considerable application experience, is described. The results of field applications will be presented together with material compatibility data and information on cleaning effectiveness. (author)

  12. The STADUS ultrasonic data acquisition and processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frappier, J.C.; Birac, A.M.; Saglio, R.

    1983-01-01

    The use of the PRODUS software for real-time system management results in definitely improved date acquisition, although signal arrival is, of course, a random process. As regards data processing and display; the STADUS-PRODUS combination provides the operator with a high degree of flexibility in changing the parameters from which the three standard A-SCAN, B-SCAN, and C-SCAN displays are generated. STADUS effectivity has been demonstrated in the field through the many reactor vessel inspections performed to date. The system has been a key element in the success of underclad cracking detection and evaluation methods. The STADUS equipment, designed and built by CEA, has the advantage of being capable of acquiring a large number of ultrasonic date simultaneously generated by several transducers (up to sixteen), and to immediately process the date for creating pictures of the zone under examination, as required by the operator. Through these improvements in ultrasonic data acquisition and interpretation, the STADUS system helps enhance the quality of automatic ultrasonic examinations

  13. Signal Processing Effects for Ultrasonic Guided Wave Scanning of Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, D.J.; Cosgriff, L.M.; Martin, R.E.; Burns, E.A.; Teemer, L.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this ongoing work is to optimize experimental variables for a guided wave scanning method to obtain the most revealing and accurate images of defect conditions in composite materials. This study focuses on signal processing effects involved in forming guided wave scan images. Signal processing is involved at two basic levels for deriving ultrasonic guided wave scan images. At the primary level, NASA GRC has developed algorithms to extract over 30 parameters from the multimode signal and its power spectral density. At the secondary level, there are many variables for which values must be chosen that affect actual computation of these parameters. In this study, a ceramic matrix composite sample having a delamination is characterized using the ultrasonic guided wave scan method. Energy balance and decay rate parameters of the guided wave at each scan location are calculated to form images. These images are compared with ultrasonic c-scan and thermography images. The effect of the time portion of the waveform processed on image quality is assessed by comparing with images formed using the total waveform acquired

  14. Electroacoustics modeling of piezoelectric welders for ultrasonic additive manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehr, Adam; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a recent 3D metal printing technology which utilizes ultrasonic vibrations from high power piezoelectric transducers to additively weld similar and dissimilar metal foils. CNC machining is used intermittent of welding to create internal channels, embed temperature sensitive components, sensors, and materials, and for net shaping parts. Structural dynamics of the welder and work piece influence the performance of the welder and part quality. To understand the impact of structural dynamics on UAM, a linear time-invariant model is used to relate system shear force and electric current inputs to the system outputs of welder velocity and voltage. Frequency response measurements are combined with in-situ operating measurements of the welder to identify model parameters and to verify model assumptions. The proposed LTI model can enhance process consistency, performance, and guide the development of improved quality monitoring and control strategies.

  15. Thickness measurement by using cepstrum ultrasonic signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Chul; Yoon, Chan Hoon; Choi, Heui Joo; Park, Jong Sun

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonic thickness measurement is a non-destructive method to measure the local thickness of a solid element, based on the time taken for an ultrasound wave to return to the surface. When an element is very thin, it is difficult to measure thickness with the conventional ultrasonic thickness method. This is because the method measures the time delay by using the peak of a pulse, and the pulses overlap. To solve this problem, we propose a method for measuring thickness by using the power cepstrum and the minimum variance cepstrum. Because the cepstrums processing can divides the ultrasound into an impulse train and transfer function, where the period of the impulse train is the traversal time, the thickness can be measured exactly. To verify the proposed method, we performed experiments with steel and, acrylic plates of variable thickness. The conventional method is not able to estimate the thickness, because of the overlapping pulses. However, the cepstrum ultrasonic signal processing that divides a pulse into an impulse and a transfer function can measure the thickness exactly.

  16. ARMA processing for NDE ultrasonic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pao, Y.H.; El-Sherbini, A.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter describes a new method for acoustic image reconstruction for an active multiple sensor system operating in the reflection mode in the Fresnel region. The method is based on the use of an ARMA model for the reconstruction process. Algorithms for estimating the model parameters are presented and computer simulation results are shown. The AR coefficients are obtained independently of the MA coefficients. It is shown that when the ARMA reconstruction method is augmented with the multifrequency approach, it can provide a three-dimensional reconstructed image with high lateral and range resolutions, high signal to noise ratio and reduced sidelobe levels. The proposed ARMA reconstruction method results in high quality images and better performance than that obtainable with conventional methods. The advantages of the method are very high lateral resolution with a limited number of sensors, reduced sidelobes level, and high signal to noise ratio

  17. Steady reconstruction process - development, testing and comparison in ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenberg, K.J.; Schmitz, V.

    1986-01-01

    The fault parameters can be extracted from a few data of high quality in steady test procedures. The boundary conditions for the successful use of such a process were researched and found, so that by using theoretical models for the elasto-dynamic interaction of fault and ultrasonics, a concentration of wavefronts instead of resonances and a wide band careful collection of data makes a physical interpretation in the form of specific geometry torques possible. Models of the interaction of ultrasonics and faults for two fault geometries (cracks and pores) were developed which permit the calculation of A scans of any bandwidth and with any angle of scatter for the direct and mode converted parts of the elastic ultrasonic scatter wave. The curved pressure and shear waves including the mode converted bending fields over an angular range of 360deg were experimentally recorded. Their agreement including the additional wavefronts caused by the close field of the crack bending field is close. Classification of torques is done on two examples (crack, cylinder) for evaluation purposes. It was found that a classification was possible according to the sign of the a 1 polynomial coefficient. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Innovative technologies on fuel assemblies cleaning for sodium fast reactors: First considerations on cleaning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, N.; Lorcet, H.; Beauchamp, F.; Guigues, E.; Lovera, P.; Fleche, J. L.; Lacroix, M.; Carra, O.; Dechelette, F.; Prele, G.; Rodriguez, G.

    2012-01-01

    Within the framework of Sodium Fast Reactor development, innovative fuel assembly cleaning operations are investigated to meet the GEN IV goals of safety and of process development. One of the challenges is to mitigate the Sodium Water Reaction currently used in these processes. The potential applications of aqueous solutions of mineral salts (including the possibility of using redox chemical reactions) to mitigate the Sodium Water Reaction are considered in a first part and a new experimental bench, dedicated to this study, is described. Anhydrous alternative options based on Na/CO 2 interaction are also presented. Then, in a second part, a functional study conducted on the cleaning pit is proposed. Based on experimental feedback, some calculations are carried out to estimate the sodium inventory on the fuel elements, and physical methods like hot inert gas sweeping to reduce this inventory are also presented. Finally, the implementation of these innovative solutions in cleaning pits is studied in regard to the expected performances. (authors)

  19. Instrument maintenance of ultrasonic influences parameters measurement in technological processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomal V. S.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The contact and non-contact vibration meters for intermittent and continuous control of the vibration amplitude in the ultrasonic technological equipment have been developed. And in order to estimate the cavitation intensity in liquids the authors have developed cavitation activity indicators and cavitation sensitivity meters, allowing to measure the magnitude of the signal level in the range of maximum spectral density of cavitation noise. The developed instruments allow to improve the quality of products, reduce the defect rate and power consumption of equipment by maintaining optimum conditions of the process.

  20. Airborne Power Ultrasonic Technologies for Intensification of Food and Environmental Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Enrique; Acosta, Víctor M.; Bon, José; Aleixandre, Manuel; Blanco, Alfonso; Andrés, Roque R.; Cardoni, Andrea; Martinez, Ignacio; Herranz, Luís E.; Delgado, Rosario; Gallego-Juárez, Juan A.

    Airborne power ultrasound is a green technology with a great potential for food and environmental applications, among others. This technology aims at producing permanent changes in objects and substances by means of the propagation of high-intensity waves through air and multiphase media. Specifically, the nonlinear effects produced in such media are responsible for the beneficial repercussions of ultrasound in airborne applications. Processing enhancement is achieved through minimizing the impedance mismatch between the ultrasonic radiator source and the medium by the generation of large vibration displacements and the concentration of energy radiation thus overcoming the high acoustic absorption of fluids, and in particular of gases such as air. Within this work the enhancing effects of airborne power ultrasound in various solid/liquid/gas applications including drying of solid and semi-solid substances, and the agglomeration of tiny particles in air cleaning processes are presented. Moreover, the design of new ultrasonic devices capable of generating these effects are described along with practical methods aimed at maintaining a stable performance of the tuned systems at operational powers. Hence, design strategies based on finite element modelling (FEM) and experimental methods consolidated through the years for material and tuned assembly characterizations are highlighted.

  1. Update-processing steam generator cleaning solvent at Palo Verde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, G.

    1996-01-01

    Framatome Technologies Inc.(FTI) recently completed the steam generator chemical cleanings at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station Units 1, 2 and 3. Over 500,000 gallons of low-level radioactive solvents were generated during these cleanings and were processed on-site. Chemical cleaning solutions containing high concentrations of organic chelating wastes are difficult to reduce in volume using standard technologies. The process that was ultimately used at Palo Verde involved three distinct processing steps: The evaporation step was conducted using FTI's submerged combustion evaporator (SCE) that has also been successfully used at Arkansas Nuclear One - Unit 1, Three Mile Island - Unit 1, and Oconee on similar waste. The polishing step of the distillate used ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) technology that was also used extensively by Ontario Hydro to assist in their processing of chemical cleaning solvent. This technology, equipment, and operations personnel were provided by Zenon Environmental, Inc. The concentrate from the evaporator was absorbed with a special open-quotes peat mossclose quotes based media that allowed it to be shipped and buried at the Environcare of Utah facility. This is the first time that this absorption media or burial site has been used for chemical cleaning solvent

  2. Study of effect of slime processed by ultrasonic on flotation reagent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, W.; Wang, H.; Hu, J. [Heilongjiang Institute of Science and Technology, Harbin (China)

    2006-12-15

    The changes of wetting heat, oil film thickness, contact angle and absorptive capacity of slime and kerosene before and after ultrasonic treatment were studied by Setaram calorimeter, DCAT21 gauge and a light meter. Batch flotation tests were made. The results show that: the wetting heat from slime and kerosene increases after ultrasonic treatment by 45.85%; the average oil film thickness is reduced by 38.84%; the contact angle of slime and kerosene decreases by 33.56{sup o}; and the absorptive capacity of slime in kerosene decreases by 30.40%. The consumption of flotation reagent after ultrasonic treatment was reduced by 75% while the yield of clean coal was the same. The study shows that ultrasonic treatment decreases the consumption of reagent and increases the efficiency and selectivity of flotation. 8 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Substitution of Organic Solvents in Selected Industrial Cleaning Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas; Rasmussen, Pia Brunn

    1997-01-01

    Volatile organic solvents (VOC)are becoming increasingly unwanted in industrial processes. Substitution of VOC with non-volatile, low-toxic compounds is a possibility to reduce VOC-use. It has been successfully demonstrated, that organic solvents used in cleaning processes in sheet offset printing...

  4. Chemical-cleaning process evaluation: Westinghouse steam generators. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleary, W.F.; Gockley, G.B.

    1983-04-01

    The Steam Generator Owners Group (SGOG)/Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Steam Generator Secondary Side Chemical Cleaning Program, under develpment since 1978, has resulted in a generic process for the removal of accumulated corrosion products and tube deposits in the tube support plate crevices. The SGOG/EPRI Project S150-3 was established to obtain an evaluation of the generic process in regard to its applicability to Westinghouse steam generators. The results of the evaluation form the basis for recommendations for transferring the generic process to a plant specific application and identify chemical cleaning corrosion guidelines for the materials in Westinghouse Steam Generators. The results of the evaluation, recommendations for plant-specific applications and corrosion guidelines for chemical cleaning are presented in this report

  5. New, clean handling process introduced to improve cable quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, C G

    1990-05-01

    The clean room system introduced by Canada Wire and Cable Limited in its Toronto plant for its cable manufacturing operation is described. While clean room technology is common in the food processing industry, optical and aerospace manufacturing processes, this is the first time it has been applied to wire and cable extrusion in North America. The purpose of the clean compound handling system is to prevent particle contamination in the shielding and cable insulation materials, as part of an effort to prevent premature underground electric cable failures. Two rooms are dedicated to handling different types of insulation compound, two are dedicated to receiving semi-conducting shielding material, and the fifth room functions as an air lock for the two insulation rooms. The atmosphere is highly regulated with programmable logic control. The air supply filters capture 99.97% of all particles 0.3 microns or larger. The system also maintains air temperature, relative humidity and static pressure. The life variability of cross-linked polyethylene primary distribution cable is dependant on five factors: material purity, extra clean compound handling, cable design, manufacturing process, and installation and operation practices. The clean room system is expected to result in cable that is more resistant to water treeing failures. 2 figs.

  6. Effect of acoustic softening on the thermal-mechanical process of ultrasonic welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kunkun; Zhang, Yansong; Wang, Hongze

    2017-03-01

    Application of ultrasonic energy can reduce the static stress necessary for plastic deformation of metallic materials to reduce forming load and energy, namely acoustic softening effect (ASE). Ultrasonic welding (USW) is a rapid joining process utilizing ultrasonic energy to form a solid state joint between two or more pieces of metals. Quantitative characterization of ASE and its influence on specimen deformation and heat generation is essential to clarify the thermal-mechanical process of ultrasonic welding. In the present work, experiments were set up to found out mechanical behavior of copper and aluminum under combined effect of compression force and ultrasonic energy. Constitutive model was proposed and numerical implemented in finite element model of ultrasonic welding. Thermal-mechanical analysis was put forward to explore the effect of ultrasonic energy on the welding process quantitatively. Conclusions can be drawn that ASE increases structural deformation significantly, which is beneficial for joint formation. Meanwhile, heat generation from both frictional work and plastic deformation is slightly influenced by ASE. Based on the proposed model, relationship between ultrasonic energy and thermal-mechanical behavior of structure during ultrasonic welding was constructed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. NICE3 SO3 Cleaning Process in Semiconductor Manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazek, Steve

    1999-01-01

    This fact sheet explains how Anon, Inc., has developed a novel method of removing photoresist--a light-sensitive material used to produce semiconductor wafers for computers--from the computer manufacturing process at reduced cost and greater efficiency. The new technology is technically superior to existing semiconductor cleaning methods and results in reduced use of hazardous chemicals

  8. Prioritizing substitution of organic solvents in industrial cleaning processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Pia Brunn; Jacobsen, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    A method for prioritizing the substitution of volatile organic compounds (VOC) used in industrial cleaning processes is developed. The result is a matrix, which, if all information can be obtained, gives a comprehensive description of the effects, exposure and emission of VOC, as well as the pros...

  9. Determination of a cleaning and decontamination process using solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutot, P.; Schipfer, P.

    1967-03-01

    This work has been carried out on samples of the white cotton serge material of which most of the working overalls of the Nuclear Research Centre are made. The aims are: - to determine,from the decontamination and cleaning points of view, the efficiency of various solvents (white-spirit, trichloroethylene, perchlorethylene and tri-chloro-trifluoroethane) and the role of additives likely to improve the treatment; - to control the textile from the wear and shrinkage points of view; - to try to develop a basic cleaning and decontamination process as a function of the possibilities of each solvent considered. (authors) [fr

  10. Innovative technologies on fuel assemblies cleaning for sodium fast reactors: First considerations on cleaning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, N.; Lorcet, H.; Beauchamp, F.; Guigues, E. [CEA, DEN, DTN Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Lovera, P.; Fleche, J. L. [CEA, DEN, DPC Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lacroix, M. [CEA, DEN, DTN Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Carra, O. [AREVA / NP, 10 Rue Juliette Recamier, 69003 Lyon (France); Dechelette, F. [CEA, DEN, DTN Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Prele, G. [EDF/SEPTEN, 12-14 avenue Dutrievoz, 69628 Villeurbane Cedex (France); Rodriguez, G. [CEA, DEN, DTN Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2012-07-01

    Within the framework of Sodium Fast Reactor development, innovative fuel assembly cleaning operations are investigated to meet the GEN IV goals of safety and of process development. One of the challenges is to mitigate the Sodium Water Reaction currently used in these processes. The potential applications of aqueous solutions of mineral salts (including the possibility of using redox chemical reactions) to mitigate the Sodium Water Reaction are considered in a first part and a new experimental bench, dedicated to this study, is described. Anhydrous alternative options based on Na/CO{sub 2} interaction are also presented. Then, in a second part, a functional study conducted on the cleaning pit is proposed. Based on experimental feedback, some calculations are carried out to estimate the sodium inventory on the fuel elements, and physical methods like hot inert gas sweeping to reduce this inventory are also presented. Finally, the implementation of these innovative solutions in cleaning pits is studied in regard to the expected performances. (authors)

  11. Alternatives to Organic Solvents in Industrial Cleaning Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    To control chemical hazards in work places, substitution of harmful substances with less harmful or non-toxic products is now a method used in many countries and in many companies. It has previously been demonstrated that it is desirable and possible to use non-volatile, low-toxic vegetable...... cleaning agents in offset printing companies instead of volatile, toxic organic solvents. The present study is based on a project with the aim of defining other industrial processes, where organic solvents used for cleaning or degreasing can be replaced by non-volatile, low-toxic products, which are based...... on esters from fatty acids of vegetable origin (vegetable esters - VE).The study indicates that industrial cleaning/degreasing with organic solvents may be substituted with VEs on metal surfaces and on some coated surfaces, in manufacture of paints and inks, use of paints, use of inks (printing), metal...

  12. Occupational radon expositions during cleaning processes of water reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hingmann, H.; Ehret, V.; Hegenbart, L.; Krieg, K.

    2002-01-01

    According to the new German ''Strahlenschutzverordnung'' (Radiation Protection Directive) the annual dose due to the exposition to radon has to be estimated for employees of water works. This includes employees of service companies. While the job of employees of water works usually covers a broad spectrum of different activities, employees of service companies may spend a considerable amount of time of their total working hours cleaning water reservoirs. This investigation is concerned with this type of employees. The radon exposition of one or more cleaning processes were determined by passive dosimeters. The mean radon concentration was calculated for the duration of the cleaning process. In some cases, members of the project team accompanied cleaning processes and performed stationary radon measurements on site. Sometimes, parallel to the passive dosimeters, electronic dosimeters were used to measure personal exposure. The results - and results from additional laboratory reference measurements - are compared. All results until January 2002 are considered. The project still goes on and will end in summer of 2002. Experiences made during this investigation are described in the end of this report. (orig.)

  13. INVESTIGATION OF MATERIAL RESISTANCE TO PLASTIC DEFORMATION AT PROCESSING METALS BY PRESSURE WITH IMPOSING ULTRASONIC OSCILLATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Klubovich

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains substantiation for application of experimental technique in order to investigate material resistance to plastic deformation at processing metals by pressure with imposing ultrasonic oscillations while proceeding from laws of similarity. It is shown that at modeling any metal processing by pressure with imposing ultrasonic oscillations it is possible to consider that actual elastic and plastic metal properties remain constant during processing under ultrasound action. The second aspect that requires a special attention at modeling is pulse or vibration-shock deformation at processing metals by pressure with imposing ultrasonic oscillations.

  14. Ultrasonic and mechanical soil washing processes for the remediation of heavy-metal-contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seulgi; Lee, Wontae; Son, Younggyu

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasonic/mechanical soil washing process was investigated and compared with ultrasonic process and mechanical process using a relatively large lab-scale sonoreactor. It was found that higher removal efficiencies were observed in the combined processes for 0.1 and 0.3 M HCl washing liquids. It was due to the combination effects of macroscale removal for the overall range of slurry by mechanical mixing and microscale removal for the limited zone of slurry by cavitational actions.

  15. Characteristics of fuel CRUD from Ringhals Unit 4. A comparison of CRUD samples from ultrasonic fuel cleaning and fuel scrape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jiaxin; Eskhult, Jonas; Marks, Chuck; Dingee, John; Bengtsson, Bernt; Wells, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics and behaviour of PWR fuel CRUD are closely related to plant radiation field build-up and the risks of CRUD-Induced Power Shifts (CIPS, previously AOA) and CRUD-Induced Localized Corrosion (CILC). At Ringhals NPP fuel scrape technology has frequently been used to collect fuel CRUD samples as a part of plant water chemistry monitoring programs. In 2012, high efficiency ultrasonic fuel cleaning (HE-UFC) technology was first used at Ringhals Unit 4 to reduce the risk of CIPS, which was expected to increase due to steam generator replacement and a subsequent power uprate. In the HE-UFC system a “first-of-a-kind” CRUD sampling system was installed for collecting fuel CRUD. It is of interest to compare the fuel CRUD samples collected by the two different CRUD sampling methods and to understand if HE-UFC crud sampling could be used to replace or supplement the fuel scrape method. This paper presents some preliminary results on isotopic compositions, elemental compositions, and phase compositions of fuel CRUD samples collected from similar fuel rods and assemblies by both methods during the 2012 refueling outage, one cycle after steam generator replacement at Ringhals Unit 4. The results show that the characteristics of fuel CRUD sampled by HE-UFC and fuel scrape, although not always identical, were similar or correlated to some extent in terms of weight ratios of Ni to Fe and Cr to Fe as well as specific activities of Co-58, Co-60 and Cr-51. However, due to the limited experience with the HE-UFC sampling method, more consideration is required if the statistical significance of the obtained data and indications are to be verified. (author)

  16. Process Stability of Ultrasonic-Wave-Assisted Gas Metal Arc Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chenglei; Xie, Weifeng; Yang, Chunli; Lin, Sanbao; Fan, Yangyang

    2017-10-01

    As a newly developed arc welding method, ultrasonic-wave-assisted arc welding successfully introduced power ultrasound into the arc and weld pool, during which the ultrasonic acts on the top of the arc in the coaxial alignment direction. The advanced process for molten metals can be realized by using an additional ultrasonic field. Compared with the conventional gas metal arc welding (GMAW), the welding arc is compressed, the droplet size is decreased, and the droplet transfer frequency is increased significantly in ultrasonic-wave-assisted GMAW (U-GMAW). However, the stability of the metal transfer has deep influence on the welding quality equally, and the ultrasonic wave effect on the stability of the metal transfer is a phenomenon that is not completely understood. In this article, the stabilities of the short-circuiting transfer process and globular transfer process are studied systematically, and the effect of ultrasonic wave on the metal transfer is analyzed further. The transfer frequency and process stability of the U-GMAW process are much higher than those of the conventional GMAW. Analytical results show that the additional ultrasonic wave is helpful for improving welding stability.

  17. Flue Gas Cleaning With Alternative Processes and Reaction Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Birk; Huang, Jun; Riisager, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Alternative methods to the traditional industrial NOX and SOXflue gas cleaning processes working at lower temperatures and/orleading to useful products are desired. In this work we presentour latest results regarding the use of molten ionic media inelectrocatalytic membrane separation, ionic liquid...... reversibleabsorption and supported ionic liquid deNOX catalysis. Furtherdevelopment of the methods will hopefully make them suitable forinstallation in different positions in the flue gas duct ascompared to the industrial methods available today....

  18. Ultrasonic process for destruction of chlorinated organic compounds in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jiann M.; Huang, Hann S.

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory investigations of the ultrasonic process for destruction of low concentrations of carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) into nonhazardous end products were carried out in a bench-scale batch reactor, equipped with a 600-W ultrasonic power supply. Process parameters studied included irradiation time, concentration, steady-state operating temperature, pH, and the intensity of applied ultrasonic-wave energy. High destruction efficiencies of greater than 99% were achieved through this process, and the irradiation time and the intensity of applied energy were identified to be the most important process parameters. The irradiation time required for a given degree of destruction decreased with increasing intensity of the applied ultrasonic energy. In addition, a detailed chemical reaction mechanism for the destruction of CCl 4 in water was formulated. The agreement between the model and experimental results is generally good

  19. EPRI/Alberta Research Council Clean Soil Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spear, C.E.

    1992-12-01

    The EPRI/Alberta Research Council Clean Soil Process can remove hydrocarbon contamination from waste material from manufactured gas plants. The process uses coal as an absorbent to remove hydrocarbons. For petroleum contaminated soils, the process can bring residual concentration of petroleum below 0.1 percent and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentration to 1--5 ppM. For coal tar contaminated soils, the process can reduce tar concentrations to about 0.05-0.5 percent and the PAH concentration to about 10--60 ppM. Additional post-treatment may be required for some precleaned soils. The process yields by-product agglomerates suitable for combustion in industrial boilers. Light hydrocarbons such as benzene are vaporized from the soil, condensed and collected in the Process and disposed of off-site. The Clean Soil Process has been tested at pilot-plant scale. A conceptual design for a 200-tons-per-day plant yielded a capital cost estimated at $3.1 million with a per-ton operating cost of $40

  20. Improving productivity and quality in plastic and thin metallic plates manufacturing by using ultrasonic welding processes

    OpenAIRE

    Dehelean,D.; Oanca,O.

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of the research done at the Romanian National R&D Institute for Welding and Material Testing ISIM Timisoara in the field of ultrasonic process development. It starts with a general presentation of the value added by the welding sector in Europe. There are presented figures representing the size of the welding sector in Romania. The need of development of new high efficiency welding processes is mentioned, ultrasonic welding being one of the special welding proce...

  1. Sampling phased array a new technique for signal processing and ultrasonic imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Bulavinov, A.; Joneit, D.; Kröning, M.; Bernus, L.; Dalichow, M.H.; Reddy, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    Different signal processing and image reconstruction techniques are applied in ultrasonic non-destructive material evaluation. In recent years, rapid development in the fields of microelectronics and computer engineering lead to wide application of phased array systems. A new phased array technique, called "Sampling Phased Array" has been developed in Fraunhofer Institute for non-destructive testing. It realizes unique approach of measurement and processing of ultrasonic signals. The sampling...

  2. Sampling phased array - a new technique for ultrasonic signal processing and imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Verkooijen, J.; Boulavinov, A.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, the improvement in the field of microelectronics and computer engineering has led to significant advances in ultrasonic signal processing and image construction techniques that are currently being applied to non-destructive material evaluation. A new phased array technique, called 'Sampling Phased Array', has been developed in the Fraunhofer Institute for Non-Destructive Testing([1]). It realises a unique approach of measurement and processing of ultrasonic signals. Th...

  3. Sampling phased array, a new technique for ultrasonic signal processing and imaging now available to industry

    OpenAIRE

    Verkooijen, J.; Bulavinov, A.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 10 years the improvement in the field of microelectronics and computer engineering has led to significant advances in ultrasonic signal processing and image construction techniques that are currently being applied to non-destructive material evaluation. A new phased array technique, called "Sampling Phased Array" has been developed in the Fraunhofer Institute for non-destructive testing [1]. It realizes a unique approach of measurement and processing of ultrasonic signals. The s...

  4. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required under... seeds. (b) Seed consigned to a seed cleaning or processing establishment, for cleaning or processing for... pertaining to such seed show that it is “Seed for processing,” or, if the seed is in containers and in...

  5. The effect of austenitizing conditions in the ductile iron hardening process on longitudinal ultrasonic wave velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W. Orłowicz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of a research on the effect of austenitizing temperature and time adopted in the hardening operation on the ultrasonic wave velocity in ductile iron. It has been found that with increasing austenitizing temperature and with the passage of the austenitizing time, a monotonic decrease of the ultrasonic longitudinal wave velocity value occurred. Implementation of ultrasonic testing of results obtained in the course of the cast iron hardening process both in production and as-cast conditions, requires development of a test methodology that must take into account the influence of base material structure (degree of nodularization, graphite precipitation count on the ultrasound wave velocity.

  6. Apparatus and process for ultrasonic seam welding stainless steel foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    An ultrasonic seam welding apparatus having a head which is rotated to form contact, preferably rolling contact, between a metallurgically inert coated surface of the head and an outside foil of a plurality of layered foils or work materials. The head is vibrated at an ultrasonic frequency, preferably along a longitudinal axis of the head. The head is constructed to transmit vibration through a contacting surface of the head into each of the layered foils. The contacting surface of the head is preferably coated with aluminum oxide to prevent the head from becoming welded to layered stainless steel foils.

  7. Self Cleaning HEPA Filtration without Interrupting Process Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wylde, M.

    2009-01-01

    The strategy of protecting the traditional glass fibre HEPA filtration train from it's blinding contamination and the recovery of dust by the means of self cleaning, pre-filtration is a proven means in the reduction of ultimate disposal volumes and has been used within the Fuel Production Industry. However, there is an increasing demand in nuclear applications requiring elevated operating temperatures, fire resistance, moisture resistance and chemical composition that the existing glass fibre HEPA filtration cannot accommodate, which can be remedied by the use of a metallic HEPA filter media. Previous research (Bergman et al 1997, Moore et al 1992) suggests that the then costs to the DOE, based on a five year life cycle, was $29.5 million for the installation, testing, removal and disposal of glass fibre HEPA filtration trains. Within these costs, $300 was the value given to the filter and $4,450 was given to the peripheral activity. Development of a low cost, cleanable, metallic, direct replacement of the traditional filter train will the clear solution. The Bergman et al work has suggested that a 1000 ft 3 /min, cleanable, stainless HEPA could be commercially available for $5,000 each, whereas the industry has determined that the truer cost of such an item in isolation would be closer to $15,000. This results in a conflict within the requirement between 'low cost' and 'stainless HEPA'. By proposing a system that combines metallic HEPA filtration with the ability to self clean without interrupting the process flow, the need for a tradition HEPA filtration train will be eliminated and this dramatically reduces the resources required for cleaning or disposal, thus presenting a route to reducing ultimate costs. The paper will examine the performance characteristics, filtration efficiency, flow verses differential pressure and cleanability of a self cleaning HEPA grade sintered metal filter element, together with data to prove the contention. (authors)

  8. Enhancement of the automatic ultrasonic signal processing system using digital technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, In Soo; Park, H. Y.; Suh, Y. S.; Kim, D. Hoon; Huh, S.; Sung, S. H.; Jang, G. S.; Ryoo, S. G.; Choi, J. H.; Kim, Y. H.; Lee, J. C.; Kim, D. Hyun; Park, H. J.; Kim, Y. C.; Lee, J. P.; Park, C. H.; Kim, M. S.

    1999-12-01

    The objective of this study is to develop the automatic ultrasonic signal processing system which can be used in the inspection equipment to assess the integrity of the reactor vessel by enhancing the performance of the ultrasonic signal processing system. Main activities of this study divided into three categories such as the development of the circuits for generating ultrasonic signal and receiving the signal from the inspection equipment, the development of signal processing algorithm and H/W of the data processing system, and the development of the specification for application programs and system S/W for the analysis and evaluation computer. The results of main activities are as follows 1) the design of the ultrasonic detector and the automatic ultrasonic signal processing system by using the investigation of the state-of-the-art technology in the inside and outside of the country. 2) the development of H/W and S/W of the data processing system based on the results. Especially, the H/W of the data processing system, which have both advantages of digital and analog controls through the real-time digital signal processing, was developed using the DSP which can process the digital signal in the real-time, and was developed not only firmware of the data processing system in order for the peripherals but also the test algorithm of specimen for the calibration. The application programs and the system S/W of the analysis/evaluation computer were developed. Developed equipment was verified by the performance test. Based on developed prototype for the automatic ultrasonic signal processing system, the localization of the overall ultrasonic inspection equipment for nuclear industries would be expected through the further studies of the H/W establishment of real applications, developing the S/W specification of the analysis computer. (author)

  9. Numeric ultrasonic image processing method: application to non-destructive testing of stainless austenitic steel welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corneloup, G.

    1988-09-01

    A bibliographic research on the means used to improve the ultrasonic inspection of heterogeneous materials such as stainless austenitic steel welds has shown, taking into account the first analysis, a signal assembly in the form of an image (space, time) which carries an original solution to fault detection in highly noisy environments. A numeric grey-level ultrasonic image processing detection method is proposed based on the research of a certain determinism, in the way which the ultrasonic image evolves in space and time in the presence of a defect: the first criterion studies the horizontal stability of the gradients in the image and the second takes into account the time-transient nature of the defect echo. A very important rise in the signal-to-noise ratio obtained in welding inspections evidencing defects (real and artificial) is shown with the help of a computerized ultrasonic image processing/management system, developed for this application [fr

  10. Coal preparation and coal cleaning in the dry process; Kanshiki sentaku to coal cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Z; Morikawa, M; Fujii, Y [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-09-01

    Because the wet process has a problem such as waste water treatment, coal cleaning in the dry process was discussed. When a fluidized bed (using glass beads and calcium carbonate) is utilized instead of the heavy liquid, the fluidized bed will have apparent density as the liquid does, whereas the relative relationship therewith determines whether a substance having been put into the fluidized bed will float or sink. This is utilized for coals. In addition, two powder constituents of A and B may be wanted to be separated using the fluidized extraction process (similar to the liquid-liquid extraction process). In such a case, a fluidized bed in which both constituents are mixed is added with a third constituent C (which will not mix with A, but mix well with B), where the constituents are separated into A and (B + C), and the (B + C) constituent is separated further by using a sieve. If coal has the coal content mixed with ash content and pulverized, it turns into particle groups which have distributions in grain size and density. Groups having higher density may contain more ash, and those having lower density less ash. In addition, the ash content depends also on the grain size. The ash content may be classified by using simultaneously wind classification (for density and grain size) and a sieve (for grain size). This inference may be expanded to consideration of constructing a multi-stage fluidized bed classification tower. 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. [Assessment of decontamination processes: cleaning, disinfection and sterilization in dental practice in Poland in the years 2011-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhm-Rodowald, Ewa; Jakimiak, Bozenna; Chojecka, Agnieszka; Zmuda-Baranowska, Magdalena; Kanclerski, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    Effective decontamination of instruments is a key element of infection control and the provision of high quality in dental care. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficiency of decontamination procedures including cleaning, disinfection and sterilization of re-usable instruments in dental practices in Poland. The efficiency of disinfection and sterilization processes have been evaluated on the results of the questionnaires. The following information were taken into account: setting where disinfection and sterilization had been performed, preparation of dental equipment for sterilization (disinfection, washing and cleaning, packaging), the types of autoclaves and used types of sterilization cycles, routine monitoring and documentation of sterilization processes, treatment of handpieces and the frequency of surface decontamination. Data were collected from 43 dental practices (35 dental offices and 8 clinics). Disinfection and cleaning processes were performed manually in 63% of dental offices and ultrasonic baths were used in 53% of settings. Washer disinfectors were used in 23% of dental practices: in every researched clinic and in a few dental offices. All sterilization processes were performed in steam autoclaves, mainly in small steam sterilizers (81%). Dental handpieces were sterilized in 72% of practices, but only 33% of them performed sterilization in recommended cycle B. Sterilization processes were monitored with chemical indicators in 33% of practices. Biological monitoring of the processes was carried out at different intervals. Incorrect documentation of instruments and surfaces decontamination was recorded in several settings. There is still a need for improvement of decontamination processes in dental practice in Poland. Areas for improvement include: replacement of manual cleaning and disinfection processes with automatic processes, sterilization of dental handpieces after each patient, monitoring of a sterilization process with chemical and

  12. An Estimation of Wave Attenuation Factor in Ultrasonic Assisted Gravity Drainage Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Keshavarzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been proved that ultrasonic energy can considerably increase the amount of oil recovery in an immiscible displacement process. Although many studies have been performed on investigating the roles of ultrasonic waves, based on the best of our knowledge, little attention has been paid to evaluate wave attenuation parameter, which is an important parameter in the determination of the energy delivered to the porous medium. In this study, free fall gravity drainage process is investigated in a glass bead porous medium. Kerosene and Dorud crude oil are used as the wetting phases and air is used as the non-wetting phase. A piston-like displacement model with considering constant capillary pressure and applying Corey type approximation for relative permeabilities of both wetting and nonwetting phases is applied. A pressure term is considered to describe the presence of ultrasonic waves and the attenuation factor of ultrasonic waves is calculated by evaluating the value of external pressure applied to enhance the flow using the history matching of the data in the presence and absence of ultrasonic waves. The results introduce the attenuation factor as an important parameter in the process of ultrasonic assisted gravity drainage. The results show that only a low percentage of the ultrasonic energy (5.8% for Dorud crude oil and 3.3% for kerosene is delivered to the flow of the fluid; however, a high increase in oil recovery enhancement (15% for Dorud crude oil and 12% for Kerosene is observed in the experiments. This proves that the ultrasonic waves, even when the contribution is not substantial, can be a significantly efficient method for flow enhancement.

  13. Design of signal reception and processing system of embedded ultrasonic endoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Yu, Feng; Zhang, Ruiqiang; Li, Yan; Chen, Xiaodong; Yu, Daoyin

    2009-11-01

    Embedded Ultrasonic Endoscope, based on embedded microprocessor and embedded real-time operating system, sends a micro ultrasonic probe into coelom through the biopsy channel of the Electronic Endoscope to get the fault histology features of digestive organs by rotary scanning, and acquires the pictures of the alimentary canal mucosal surface. At the same time, ultrasonic signals are processed by signal reception and processing system, forming images of the full histology of the digestive organs. Signal Reception and Processing System is an important component of Embedded Ultrasonic Endoscope. However, the traditional design, using multi-level amplifiers and special digital processing circuits to implement signal reception and processing, is no longer satisfying the standards of high-performance, miniaturization and low power requirements that embedded system requires, and as a result of the high noise that multi-level amplifier brought, the extraction of small signal becomes hard. Therefore, this paper presents a method of signal reception and processing based on double variable gain amplifier and FPGA, increasing the flexibility and dynamic range of the Signal Reception and Processing System, improving system noise level, and reducing power consumption. Finally, we set up the embedded experiment system, using a transducer with the center frequency of 8MHz to scan membrane samples, and display the image of ultrasonic echo reflected by each layer of membrane, with a frame rate of 5Hz, verifying the correctness of the system.

  14. Theoretical and Experimental Study on Vibration Propagation in PMMA Components in Ultrasonic Bonding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibo Sun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic bonding has an increasing application in the micro assembly of polymeric micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS with high requirements for fusion precision. In the ultrasonic bonding process, the propagation of ultrasonic vibration in polymer components is related to the interfacial fusion, which can be used as a monitoring parameter to control ultrasonic energy. To study the vibration propagation in viscoelastic polymer components, finite element analysis on the bonding of poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA micro connector to substrate for microfluidic system is carried out. Curves of propagated vibration amplitude corresponding to interfacial temperatures are obtained. The ultrasonic vibration propagated in PMMA components are measured through experiments. The theoretical and experimental results are contrasted to analyze the change mechanism of vibration propagation related to temperature. Based on the ultrasonic bonding process controlled by the feedback of vibration propagation, interfacial fusions at different vibration propagation states are obtained through experiments. Interfacial fusion behavior is contrasted to the propagated vibration amplitude in theoretical and experimental studies. The relation between vibration propagation and fusion degree is established with the proper parameter range for the obtained high quality bonding.

  15. Noncontact COS charge analysis for in-line monitoring of wet cleaning processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiafang; Juang, Min; Tai, Sung-Shan; Chen, Kuo-in; Wossen, Ejigu; Horner, Gregory

    1998-08-01

    Contamination levels in chemical cleaning equipment and wafer cleanliness in general are very critical to semiconductor manufacturers. In this work, a Keithley Instruments non contact electrical tester (Quantox) is used to measure the mobile ion (Qm) contamination in a variety of cleaning processes. Results show that photoresist strip cleaning process has a higher mobile ion concentration than standard pre-diffusion cleaning process. RCA1, RCA2 and HF solutions mapping measured by the Quantox indicates some negative static charges on the surface after cleaning. This negative field appears to assist Qm removal during wet chemical cleaning. The dependence of flatband voltage and other oxide charges on various cleaning processes has also been investigated using the Quantox. The data suggests that a dipole layer has been formed by a surface reaction during chemical cleaning.

  16. Mathematical modeling of a single stage ultrasonically assisted distillation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Taha; Ahmad, Arshad; Ripin, Adnan; Abdullah, Tuan Amran Tuan; Nasef, Mohamed M; Ali, Mohamad W

    2015-05-01

    The ability of sonication phenomena in facilitating separation of azeotropic mixtures presents a promising approach for the development of more intensified and efficient distillation systems than conventional ones. To expedite the much-needed development, a mathematical model of the system based on conservation principles, vapor-liquid equilibrium and sonochemistry was developed in this study. The model that was founded on a single stage vapor-liquid equilibrium system and enhanced with ultrasonic waves was coded using MATLAB simulator and validated with experimental data for ethanol-ethyl acetate mixture. The effects of both ultrasonic frequency and intensity on the relative volatility and azeotropic point were examined, and the optimal conditions were obtained using genetic algorithm. The experimental data validated the model with a reasonable accuracy. The results of this study revealed that the azeotropic point of the mixture can be totally eliminated with the right combination of sonication parameters and this can be utilized in facilitating design efforts towards establishing a workable ultrasonically intensified distillation system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization for coating processes of imidazole powders using an ultrasonic atomizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jun Sik; Kim, Jun Ki [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Mok Soon [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Hyun [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    Imidazole-curing accelerator powders were coated with stearic acid to increase the pot life of anisotropic conductive adhesive (ACA) formulations. To accomplish an efficient coating process, the coating was tested using an ultrasonic atomizer after mixing imidazole powders with a molten coating agent. Design of experiments analysis was organized to elucidate the effect of process parameters and to determine the most crucial parameter. The final formulation incorporating well-processed imidazole loaded powders indicated longer pot life, higher shear strength, and excellent highly accelerated stress test (HAST) reliability. Results show that the coating process using an ultrasonic atomizer is effective in increasing the pot life of ACA formulations

  18. Application of laser ultrasonic method for on-line monitoring of friction stir spot welding process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kuanshuang; Zhou, Zhenggan; Zhou, Jianghua

    2015-09-01

    Application of a laser ultrasonic method is developed for on-line monitoring of the friction stir spot welding (FSSW) process. Based on the technology of FSSW, laser-generated ultrasonic waves in a good weld and nonweld area are simulated by a finite element method. The reflected and transmitted waves are analyzed to disclose the properties of the welded interface. The noncontact-laser ultrasonic-inspection system was established to verify the numerical results. The reflected waves in the good-weld and nonweld area can be distinguished by time-of-flight. The transmitted waves evidently attenuate in the nonweld area in contrast to signal amplitude in the good weld area because of interfacial impedance difference. Laser ultrasonic C-scan images can sufficiently evaluate the intrinsic character of the weld area in comparison with traditional water-immersion ultrasonic testing results. The research results confirm that laser ultrasonics would be an effective method to realize the characterization of FSSW defects.

  19. Characterization of the ultrasonic welding process in the production of women's health devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Elizondo, Jenniffer

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of the ultrasonic welding process in the area of women's health is performed to determine appropriate levels for the critical variables of the process to guarantee the quality specifications of the devices. The handle of the product A is detached. The assembly was made under pressure. Available technologies have been studied to comply with the regulations of medical industry to propose a change in process to a product B. The ultrasonic technology is used to weld the handle of the device to prevent the release of the two parts of the handle of the medical device. A variable characterization process was performed to determine which variables are critical to the process and define the operation parameters of ultrasonic welding. A number of designs of experiments is carried out, first the parameters behavior of the equipment is evaluated to analyze which have greater influence on the quality of the weld. A full factorial design was developed with all process input variables and input variables that are significant was performed another series of designs of experiments to determine the parameters of the process.The conclusion for the ultrasonic welding process in the product B has been that the critical variables or that have had a greater influence on the quality and appearance in experienced designs are: pressure and soldier collapse. The process of ultrasonic welded cycle has started to arrive at the value of driving force that tells the computer. The input variable is recommended to be the lowest possible to weld components using the ordering of particles product of ultrasonic welded avoiding compression component. (author) [es

  20. Adaptive Process Controls and Ultrasonics for High Temperature PEM MEA Manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walczyk, Daniel F. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2015-08-26

    The purpose of this 5-year DOE-sponsored project was to address major process bottlenecks associated with fuel cell manufacturing. New technologies were developed to significantly reduce pressing cycle time for high temperature PEM membrane electrode assembly (MEA) through the use of novel, robust ultrasonic (U/S) bonding processes along with low temperature (<100°C) PEM MEAs. In addition, greater manufacturing uniformity and performance was achieved through (a) an investigation into the causes of excessive variation in ultrasonically and thermally bonded MEAs using more diagnostics applied during the entire fabrication and cell build process, and (b) development of rapid, yet simple quality control measurement techniques for use by industry.

  1. Ultrasonic micro-burnishing in view of eco-materials processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, C.-H.; Kim, C.S.

    2002-01-01

    Surface finishing using ultrasonic vibration has been introduced as an eco-materials process in view of the fact that essentially no chemical lubricants of environmental impact are required for the process. An example of a recent application in manufacturing is given. Using a specially designed ultrasonic burnishing tool, we have carried out experiments on aluminum and steel, making surface roughness and hardness measurements and taking photographs of surface morphology using a scanning electron microscope These results are compared with those from ordinary burnishing. Based on the results, the contributions to the measured mechanical properties of each load from the total contact load onto the workpiece surface are discussed, and distinguishing features of surface finishing process using ultrasonic vibration have emerged. Copyright (2002) AD-TECH - International Foundation for the Advancement of Technology Ltd

  2. System and process for ultrasonic characterization of deformed structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panetta, Paul D [Williamsburg, VA; Morra, Marino [Richland, WA; Johnson, Kenneth I [Richland, WA

    2011-11-22

    Generally speaking, the method of the present invention is performed by making various ultrasonic scans at preselected orientations along the length of a material being tested. Data from the scans are then plotted together with various calculated parameters that are calculated from this data. Lines or curves are then fitted to the respective plotted points. Review of these plotted curves allows the location and severity of defects within these sections to be determined and quantified. With this information various other decisions related to how, when or whether repair or replacement of a particular portion of a structure can be made.

  3. Characterising the acoustoplastic effect in an ultrasonically assisted metal forming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, S A; Lucas, M

    2012-01-01

    An investigation through experiments and finite element analysis (FEA) has been carried out to study the effects of applying ultrasonic oscillations to the lower platen in forming tests for two different metals. Previous research has shown that by applying ultrasonic vibrations to the lower platen in compression tests on pure aluminium specimens, the resulting stress-strain relationship can be characterised by a temporary effective softening of the material properties during intervals of ultrasonic excitation. The current research demonstrates this effect in two different metal specimens and additionally shows that finite element simulations can be used to model the behaviour in terms of both volume and surface effects. In this study, the ultrasonic excitation was introduced both prior to and post yield and the process simulations were developed in the FEA software Abaqus. The data recorded from experiments and predicted by the FEA illustrate how ultrasonically assisted metal forming can result in a lowering of the static flow stress, consistent with the effective material softening proposed previously in studies of the acoustoplastic effect.

  4. A quality control method by ultrasonic vibration energy and diagnosis system at trimming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Chang Min; Song, Gil Ho; Pyoun, Young Shik

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the characteristics in mechanical properties of ultrasonic cold forging treatment (UCFT) used for the trimming knife and the effects of ultrasonic vibration energy (UVE) into the trimming process on the state of the strip cutting face were studied. And a diagnosis system to quality control for trimming knife and strip cutting face was developed and installed in plant. By the plant application of UCFT, service life of knife was more increased over 100% than that of conventional knife and using the developed diagnosis system, the knife breakage and saw ear have been perfectly detected and quality control of trimming face is effectively obtained

  5. Parameter analysis on the ultrasonic TSV-filling process and electrochemical characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuliang; Ren, Xinyu; Wang, Yan; Zeng, Peng; Zhou, Zhaohua; Xiao, Hongbin; Zhu, Wenhui

    2017-10-01

    As one of the key technologies in 3D packaging, through silicon via (TSV) interconnection technology has become a focus recently. In this paper, an electrodeposition method for TSV filling with the assistance of ultrasound and additives are introduced. Two important parameters i.e. current density and ultrasonic power are studied for TSV filling process and electrochemical properties. It is found that ultrasound can improve the quality of TSV-filling and change the TSV-filling mode. The experimental results also indicate that the filling rate enhances more significantly with decreasing current density under ultrasonic conditions than under silent conditions. In addition, according to the voltammetry curve, the increase of ultrasonic power can significantly increase the current density of cupric reduction, and decrease the thickness of diffusion layer. So that the reduction speed of copper ions is accelerated, resulting in a higher TSV-filling rate.

  6. Image processing applied to automatic detection of defects during ultrasonic examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moysan, J.

    1992-10-01

    This work is a study about image processing applied to ultrasonic BSCAN images which are obtained in the field of non destructive testing of weld. The goal is to define what image processing techniques can bring to ameliorate the exploitation of the data collected and, more precisely, what image processing can do to extract the meaningful echoes which enable to characterize and to size the defects. The report presents non destructive testing by ultrasounds in the nuclear field and it indicates specificities of the propagation of ultrasonic waves in austenitic weld. It gives a state of the art of the data processing applied to ultrasonic images in nondestructive evaluation. A new image analysis is then developed. It is based on a powerful tool, the co-occurrence matrix. This matrix enables to represent, in a whole representation, relations between amplitudes of couples of pixels. From the matrix analysis, a new complete and automatic method has been set down in order to define a threshold which separates echoes from noise. An automatic interpretation of the ultrasonic echoes is then possible. Complete validation has been done with standard pieces

  7. Digital signal processing in ultrasonic based navigation system for mobile robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stączek Paweł

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A system for estimating the coordinates of automated guided vehicles (AGV was presented in this article. Ultrasonic waves for distance measurement were applied. Used hardware was characterised, as well as signal processing algorithms. The system was tested on wheeled mobile robot in model 2D environment. The results of working range and errors of position estimation were discussed.

  8. Development of recycling processes for clean rejected MOX fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khot, P.M.; Singh, G.; Shelke, B.K.; Surendra, B.; Yadav, M.K.; Mishra, A.K.; Afzal, Mohd.; Panakkal, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Dry and wet (MWDD) methods were developed for 100% recycling of CRO (0.4–44% PuO 2 ). • Dry method showed higher productivity and comparable powder/product characteristics. • MWDD batches demonstrated improved powder/product characteristics to that of virgin. • Second/multiple recycling is possible with MWDD with better powder/product characteristics. • MWDD batches prepared by little milling showed better macroscopic homogeneity to that of virgin. - Abstract: The dry and wet recycling processes have been developed for 100% recycling of Clean Reject Oxide (CRO) generated during the fabrication of MOX fuel, as CRO contains significant amount of plutonium. Plutonium being strategic material need to be circumvented from its proliferation issues related to its storage for long period. It was difficult to recycle CRO containing higher Pu content even with multiple oxidation and reduction steps. The mechanical recycling comprising of jaw crushing and sieving has been coupled with thermal pulverization for recycling CRO with higher Pu content in dry recycling technique. In wet recycling, MicroWave Direct Denitration (MWDD) technique has been developed for 100% recycling of CRO. The powder prepared by dry and wet (MWDD) recycling techniques was characterized by XRD and BET techniques and their effects on the pellets were evaluated. (U,21%Pu)O 2 pellets fabricated from virgin powder and MWDD were characterized using optical microscopy and α-autoradiography and the results obtained were compared

  9. Dual Electrolytic Plasma Processing for Steel Surface Cleaning and Passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L.; Zhang, P.; Shi, J.; Liang, J.; Tian, W. B.; Zhang, Y. M.; Sun, Z. M.

    2017-10-01

    To remove the rust on rebars and passivate the fresh surfaces, electrodes reversing electrolytic plasma processing (EPP) was proposed and conducted in a 10 wt.% Na2CO3 aqueous solution. The morphology and the composition of the surface were investigated by SEM and XPS. Experimental results show that the rust on the surface was removed effectively by cathode EPP, and a passive film containing Cr2O3 was achieved by the succeeding anode EPP treatment, by a simple operation of reversing the bias. The corrosion resistance was evaluated in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl aqueous solution using an electrochemical workstation. In comparison, the corrosion resistance was improved by the succeeding anode EPP treatment, which is evidenced by a positive shift of the open-circuit potential, an increase in the electrochemical impedance representing the inner layer by 76.8% and the decrease in the corrosion current density by 49.6%. This is an effective and environment-friendly technique to clean and passivate rebars and similar steel materials.

  10. Improvement of the characterization of ultrasonic data by means of digital signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieth, M.; Romy, D.; Weigel, D.

    1985-01-01

    The digital signal processing method for averaging using minima developed by Framatome allows to improve signal-to-noise ratio up to 7 dB during ultrasonic testing of cast stainless steel structures (primary pipes of PWR power plants). Application of digital signal processing to industrial testing conditions requires the availability of a fast analog-digital converter capable of real time processings which has been developed by CGR [fr

  11. Material compatibility and corrosion control of the KWU chemical cleaning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odar, S.

    1994-01-01

    The concentrations of salt impurities within the deposits on the tube sheet and in the tube to tube-support-plate crevices can induce a variety of corrosion mechanisms on steam generator tubes. One of the most effective ways of counteracting corrosion mechanisms and thus of improving steam generator performance is to clean the steam generators and keep them in a clean condition. As shown by field results chemical cleaning is a way of removing hazardous deposits from steam generators. All available chemical cleaning processes use inhibitors to control the corrosion except the KWU chemical cleaning process. In this article the corrosion control technique of KWU Chemical Cleaning Process without using conventional inhibitors will be explained and the state of the field experience with respect to material compatibility will be presented. (author). 4 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs

  12. Steam generators secondary side chemical cleaning at Point Lepreau using the Siemen's high temperature process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, K.; MacNeil, C.; Odar, S.

    1996-01-01

    The secondary sides of all four steam generators at the Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Stations were cleaned during the 1995 annual outage run-down using the Siemens high temperature chemical cleaning process. Traditionally all secondary side chemical cleaning exercises in CANDU as well as the other nuclear power stations in North America have been conducted using a process developed in conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The Siemens high temperature process was applied for the first time in North America at the Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station (PLGS). The paper discusses experiences related to the pre and post award chemical cleaning activities, chemical cleaning application, post cleaning inspection results and waste handling activities. (author)

  13. Electro-membrane processes for flue gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, T. F.

    1997-12-31

    , the energy consumption for regeneration of 250 kJ/mole SO{sub 2}, at a current density of 150 mA/Cm{sup 2} and 200 kJ/mole SO{sub 2}, at a current density of 50 mA/cm{sup 2}, have been achieved. This may be compared to the energy consumption of about 1200 kJ/mole SO{sub 2} for the conventional process (steam stripping) for regeneration. The problems arising from fouling of membranes due to the presence of impurities in the liquid have also been studied. These studies have then been used for evaluating the requirement for cleaning of liquids before regeneration. (EG) EFP-94. 95 refs.

  14. Tests of an environmental and personnel safe cleaning process for BNL accelerator and storage ring components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, C.L.; Lanni, C.; Lee, R.; Mitchell, G.; Quade, W.

    1996-10-01

    A large measure of the successful operation of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for over a decade can be attributed to the cleaning of its UHV components during and after construction. A new UHV cleaning process, which had to be environmentally and personnel safe, was needed to replace the harsh, unfriendly process which was still in use. Dow Advanced Cleaning Systems was contracted to develop a replacement process without the use of harsh chemicals and which must clean vacuum surfaces as well as the existing process. Acceptance of the replacement process was primarily based on Photon Stimulated Desorption (PSD) measurements of beam tube samples run on NSLS beam line U10B. One meter long beam tube samples were fabricated from aluminum, 304 stainless steel and oxygen free copper. Initially, coupon samples were cleaned and passed preliminary testing for the proposed process. Next, beam tube samples of each material were cleaned, and the PSD measured on beam line U10B using white light with a critical energy of 487 ev. Prior to cleaning, the samples were contaminated with a mixture of cutting oils, lubricants, vacuum oils and vacuum grease. The contaminated samples were then baked. Samples of each material were also cleaned with the existing process after the same preparation. Beam tube samples were exposed to between 10 22 and 10 23 photons per meter for a PSD measurement. Desorption yields for H 2 , CO, CO 2 , CH 4 and H 2 O are reported for both the existing cleaning and for the replacement cleaning process. Preliminary data, residual gas scans, and PSD results are given and discussed. The new process is also compared with new cleaning methods developed in other laboratories

  15. Ultrasonic Spot and Torsion Welding of Aluminum to Titanium Alloys: Process, Properties and Interfacial Microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balle, Frank; Magin, Jens

    Hybrid lightweight structures shape the development of future vehicles in traffic engineering and the aerospace industry. For multi-material concepts made out of aluminum and titanium alloys, the ultrasonic welding technique is an alternative effective joining technology. The overlapped structures can be welded in the solid state, even without gas shielding. In this paper the conventional ultrasonic spot welding with longitudinal oscillation mode is compared to the recent ultrasonic torsion welding with a torsional mode at 20 kHz working frequency. For each technique the process parameters welding force, welding energy and oscillation amplitude were optimized for the hybrid joints using design of experiments. Relationships between the process parameters, mechanical properties and related welding zone should be understood. Central aspects of the research project are microscopic studies of the joining zone in cross section and extensive fracture surface analysis. Detailed electron microscopy and spectroscopy of the hybrid interface help to understand the interfacial formation during ultrasonic welding as well as to transfer the gained knowledge for further multi-metal joints.

  16. Process optimization for ultrasonic vibration assisted polishing of micro-structured surfaces on super hard material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhiyuan; Guo, Bing; Rao, Zhimin; Zhao, Qingliang

    2014-08-01

    In consideration of the excellent property of SiC, the ground micro-structured surface quality is hard to meet the requirement - consequently the ultrasonic vibration assisted polishing (UVAP) of micro-structures of molds is proposed in this paper. Through the orthogonal experiment, the parameters of UVAP of micro-structures were optimized. The experimental results show that, abrasive polishing process, the effect of the workpiece feed rate on the surface roughness (Ra), groove tip radius (R) and material removal rate (MRR) of micro-structures is significant. While, the UVAP, the most significant effect factor for Ra, R and MRR is the ultrasonic amplitude of the ultrasonic vibration. In addition, within the scope of the polishing process parameters selected by preliminary experiments, ultrasonic amplitude of 2.5μm, polishing force of 0.5N, workpiece feed rate of 5 mm·min-1, polishing wheel rotational speed of 50rpm, polishing time of 35min, abrasive size of 100nm and the polishing liquid concentration of 15% is the best technology of UVAP of micro-structures. Under the optimal parameters, the ground traces on the micro-structured surface were removed efficiently and the integrity of the edges of the micro-structure after grinding was maintained efficiently.

  17. Process of cleaning oil spills and the like

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breisford, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    A process of cleaning spills of toxic or hazardous materials such as oil, antifreeze, gasoline, and the like from bodies of water, garage floors, roadways and the like, comprising spraying unbonded shredded fiberglass blowing wool composition particles onto the spill, absorbing the spill into the shredded fiberglass blowing wool composition particles, and removing the soaked shredded fiberglass blowing wool composition particles and the spill absorbed therein. An absorbent composition for absorbing spills of toxic or hazardous materials such as oil, antifreeze, gasoline, and like, comprising shredded fiberglass blowing wool particles, and means for absorbing the spill and for stiffening the co-position so that the composition fights against being compressed so that less of the absorbed spill escapes from the composition when it is being removed from the spill, said means including cork particles dispersed in with the fiberglass blowing wool particles. An absorbent sock for absorbing or containing a spill of toxic or hazardous materials such as oil, antifreeze, gasoline, and the like, comprising a hollow tube, said tube being permeable to the toxic or hazardous materials and being made of nylon or polypropylene, and unbonded, shredded fiberglass blowing wool composition particles enclosed in the tube. Apparatus for controlling an oil slick on the surface of water, comprising a craft for traversing the slick, a supply of fiberglass blowing wool composition particles stored on the craft in position for being dispersed, shredding means on the craft for shredding the fiberglass blowing wool particles to form unbonded, shredded fiberglass blowing wool particles, and dispensing means on the craft for dispensing the unbonded, shredded fiberglass blowing wool particles onto the slick

  18. Cleaning and Processing RSS measurements for Location Fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2007-01-01

    Handling variations in sampled Received Signal Strength (RSS) is neassary for achieving robust location fingerprinting (LF). Current research has only proposed limited system-specific models for how to handle the cleaning of RSS variations. However, this paper propose a novel model for both...

  19. Development of computer-controlled ultrasonic image processing system for severe accidents research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Kil Mo; Kang, Kyung Ho; Kim, Jong Tai; Kim, Jong Whan; Cho, Young Ro; Ha, Kwang Soon; Park, Rae Jun; Kim, Sang Baik; Kim, Hee Dong; Sim, Chul Moo

    2000-07-01

    In order to verify in-vessel corium cooling mechanism, LAVA(Lower-plenum Arrested Vessel Attack) experiment is being performed as a first stage proof of principle test. The aims of this study are to find a gap formation between corium melt and reactor lower head vessel, to verify the principle of the gap formation and to analyze the effect of the gap formation on the thermal behavior of corium melt and the lower plenum. This report aims at developing a computer controlled image signal processing system which is able to improve visualization and to measure the gap distribution with 3-dimensional planar image using a time domain signal analysis method as a part of the ultrasonic pulse echo methods and a computerized position control system. An image signal processing system is developed by independently developing an ultrasonic image signal processing technique and a PC controlled position control system and then combining both systems

  20. Enhancement of crack detection in stud bolts of nuclear reactor by ultrasonic signal processing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Oh, W.D.; Choi, S.W.; Park, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    'Full-text:' The stud bolts is one of the most critical parts for safety of reactor vessels in the nuclear power plants. However, in the application of ultrasonic technique for crack detection in stud bolt, some difficulties encountered are classification of crack signal from the signals reflected from threads part in stud bolt. In this study, shadow effect technique combined with new signal processing method is Investigated to enhance the detectability of small crack initiated from root of thread in stud bolt. The key idea of signal processing is based on the fact that the shape of waveforms from the threads is uniform since the shape of the threads in a bolt is same. If some cracks exist in the thread, the flaw signals are different to the reference signals. It is demonstrated that the small flaws are efficiently detected by novel ultrasonic technique combined with this new signal processing concept. (author)

  1. Development of computer-controlled ultrasonic image processing system for severe accidents research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Kil Mo; Kang, Kyung Ho; Kim, Jong Tai; Kim, Jong Whan; Cho, Young Ro; Ha, Kwang Soon; Park, Rae Jun; Kim, Sang Baik; Kim, Hee Dong; Sim, Chul Moo

    2000-07-01

    In order to verify in-vessel corium cooling mechanism, LAVA(Lower-plenum Arrested Vessel Attack) experiment is being performed as a first stage proof of principle test. The aims of this study are to find a gap formation between corium melt and reactor lower head vessel, to verify the principle of the gap formation and to analyze the effect of the gap formation on the thermal behavior of corium melt and the lower plenum. This report aims at developing a computer controlled image signal processing system which is able to improve visualization and to measure the gap distribution with 3-dimensional planar image using a time domain signal analysis method as a part of the ultrasonic pulse echo methods and a computerized position control system. An image signal processing system is developed by independently developing an ultrasonic image signal processing technique and a PC controlled position control system and then combining both systems.

  2. Copper clean-up procedure for ultrasonic extraction and analysis of pyrethroid and phenylpyrazole pesticides in sediments by gas chromatography-electron capture detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jun; Lin Youjian; Lu Jian; Wilson, Chris

    2011-01-01

    A rapid ultrasonic extraction method coupled with a heated-copper clean-up procedure for removing interfering constituents was developed for analyzing pyrethroid and phenylpyrazole pesticides in sediments. Incubation of the 60 mL extract with 12 g copper granules at 60 o C for 2 h was determined to be the optimal conditions for removing the interfering constituents. Eleven pyrethroid and phenylpyrazole pesticides were spiked into sediment samples to determine the effectiveness of the ultrasonic extraction method. The average recoveries of pyrethroids and phenylpyrazoles in sediment at 4 o C storage on day 0, 1, 7, 14, and 21 ranged from 98.6 to 120.0%, 79.2 to 116.0%, 85.0 to 119.7%, 93.6 to 118.7%, and 92.1 to 118.2%, respectively, with all percent relative standard deviations less than 10% (most o C. Recoveries of the pesticides ranged from 98.6% to 120.0% for lowest fortification level (2-16 μg kg -1 ), from 97.8% to 117.9% for middle fortification level (10-80 μg kg -1 ), and from 94.3% to 118.1% for highest fortification level (20-160 μg kg -1 ). Relative standard deviations of pesticide recoveries were usually less than 7%. Method detection limits of target pesticides ranged from 0.22 μg kg -1 to 3.72 μg kg -1 . Furthermore, field sediment samples collected from four residential lakes during a three-month monitoring period were analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of this method. Bifenthrin was detected in all of sediment samples (highest concentration 260.33 ± 41.71 μg kg -1 , lowest concentration 5.68 ± 0.38 μg kg -1 ), and fipronil sulfone was detected at least once in sediment samples collected from three sites with concentrations ranging from 1.73 ± 0.53 to 7.53 ± 0.01 μg kg -1 . - Highlights: → A rapid extraction and copper-based clean-up method was developed. → Recoveries after storage at 4 o C for 21 d ranged from 79.2 to 120.0%. → Percent relative standard deviations less than 10% (most -1 to 3.72 μg kg -1 .

  3. Textile Dry Cleaning Using Carbon Dioxide : Process, Apparatus and Mechanical Action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutanto, S.

    2014-01-01

    Fabrics that are sensitive to water, may wrinkle or shrink when washed in regular washing machines and are usually cleaned by professional dry cleaners. Dry cleaning is a process of removing soils from substrate, in this case textile, using a non-aqueous solvent. The most common solvent in

  4. Effect of processing parameters of rotary ultrasonic machining on surface integrity of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfu Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Potassium dihydrogen phosphate is an important optical crystal. However, high-precision processing of large potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystal workpieces is difficult. In this article, surface roughness and subsurface damage characteristics of a (001 potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystal surface produced by traditional and rotary ultrasonic machining are studied. The influence of process parameters, including spindle speed, feed speed, type and size of sintered diamond wheel, ultrasonic power, and selection of cutting fluid on potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystal surface integrity, was analyzed. The surface integrity, especially the subsurface damage depth, was affected significantly by the ultrasonic power. Metal-sintered diamond tools with high granularity were most suitable for machining potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystal. Cutting fluid played a key role in potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystal machining. A more precise surface can be obtained in machining with a higher spindle speed, lower feed speed, and using kerosene as cutting fluid. Based on the provided optimized process parameters for machining potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystal, a processed surface quality with Ra value of 33 nm and subsurface damage depth value of 6.38 μm was achieved.

  5. Ultrasonic velocity measurements- a potential sensor for intelligent processing of austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkadesan, S.; Palanichamy, P.; Vasudevan, M.; Baldev Raj

    1996-01-01

    Development of sensors based on Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) techniques for on-line sensing of microstructure and properties requires a thorough knowledge on the relation between the sensing mechanism/measurement of an NDE technique and the microstructure. As a first step towards developing an on-line sensor for studying the dynamic microstructural changes during processing of austenitic stainless steels, ultrasonic velocity measurements have been carried out to study the microstructural changes after processing. Velocity measurements could follow the progress of annealing starting from recovery, onset and completion of recrystallization, sense the differences in the microstructure obtained after hot deformation and estimate the grain size. This paper brings out the relation between the sensing method based on ultrasonic velocity measurements and the microstructure in austenitic stainless steel. (author)

  6. Sonic versus ultrasonic activation for the cleaning of the root canal after post space preparation: an in vitro study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Carrasco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the efficacy of 3 intracanal cleaning protocols used before cementation of prosthetic posts. Material and Methods: 40 anterior teeth received endodontic treatment in hand, using lateral condensation technique. After two weeks, gutta-percha was appropriately removed from the teeth to get the necessary space to install a post. Then, teeth were randomly divided into groups; root surface was treated with chlorhexidine (CHX activated by ultrasound (US (group I, with chlorhexidine activated by sonic instrumentation (S (group II, chlorhexidine without activation (group III and without treatment (group IV. All teeth were fractured longitudinally getting 2 sections. The middle third of the root canal was microphotographed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM and the contaminated surface was measured using detritus with ImageJ 1.47. It was analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis-test using GraphPad Prism 5.01. Results: The median percentage of contaminated area of Group I was 20.06%, Group II, 19.3%; Group III, 36.05%; and Group IV, 56.45%. Conclusion: There are significant differences among different intracanal cleaning protocols in the removal efficiency of detritus from the root canal, being the activated protocols the most effective ones.

  7. Evaluation of Internal Cracks and Collapse in Poplar Wood (Populus nigra during a Conventional Drying Process with Ultrasonic Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid ESHAGHI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, internal cracks and collapse of wood, formed during drying process, were measured using ultrasonic inspection. For this purpose, seven poplar (Populus nigra small blocks were dried, according to a time-based schedule. Ultrasonic waves� propagation velocity was measured at both parallel and perpendicular to grain directions, using Sylvatest ultrasound device, during kiln drying process. Results showed that in all dried blocks, waves� propagation velocity in the parallel direction was higher than in the perpendicular direction to grain. Ultrasonic waves� propagation test for non-destructive identification of internal cracks, which occurs in wood during drying process in the parallel direction, was more successful compared to the perpendicular direction. Using ultrasonic waves� propagation test for detection of collapse that occurs in wood during drying process was not useful.

  8. Evaluation of Internal Cracks and Collapse in Poplar Wood (Populus nigra during a Conventional Drying Process with Ultrasonic Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid ESHAGHI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, internal cracks and collapse of wood, formed during drying process, were measured using ultrasonic inspection. For this purpose, seven poplar (Populus nigra small blocks were dried, according to a time-based schedule. Ultrasonic waves propagation velocity was measured at both parallel and perpendicular to grain directions, using Sylvatest ultrasound device, during kiln drying process. Results showed that in all dried blocks, waves propagation velocity in the parallel direction was higher than in the perpendicular direction to grain. Ultrasonic waves propagation test for non-destructive identification of internal cracks, which occurs in wood during drying process in the parallel direction, was more successful compared to the perpendicular direction. Using ultrasonic waves propagation test for detection of collapse that occurs in wood during drying process was not useful.

  9. Research results on productivity stabilization by ultrasonic camera (plant with membrane ceramic elements during vine processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. T. Antufyev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes solutions to the problems of declining productivity of ceramic membrane elements for wine processing on the final manufacturing phase. A relative stabilization of filtration velocity, venting efficiency and wine lightening were experimentally confirmed during contacts with oscillation waves of ultrasonic transmitter on the ceramic filter. Which significantly reduced the cost of various preservatives to increase periods storage. To study the processes of wine processing by the proposed method it was made an experimental installation on the basis of pilot machine MRp-1/2 for bottling of quiet liquids and an ultrasonic device "Volna– M" UZTA-1/22-OM with a firmly, waveguide which transmits sound, fixed filter frame on the ultrasound emitter. To stabilize the performance of ultrasonic units with ceramic membrane elements without quality deterioration of wines it was empirically determined rational parameters of power of ultrasound input and pressure in the system. The given derived dependencies and graphs allow to define the time of relatively stable operating filter regime. It was revealed a significant cost reduction on filtration, as it allows escape from the contamination of the product by various preservatives, and increasing of storage duration in a sealed container during aseptic filling without a thermal sterilization. Ultrasonic emitter contact by superposition wave vibrations on the ceramic filter increases not only the efficiency of gas removal, but also improves the organoleptic characteristics, stabilizes the filters, improves their productivity. Gas removal creates unfavorable conditions for development of the yeast, which in turn increases the shelf life of semisweet wine.

  10. Ultrasonic Real-Time Quality Monitoring Of Aluminum Spot Weld Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Regalado, Waldo Josue

    The real-time ultrasonic spot weld monitoring system, introduced by our research group, has been designed for the unsupervised quality characterization of the spot welding process. It comprises the ultrasonic transducer (probe) built into one of the welding electrodes and an electronics hardware unit which gathers information from the transducer, performs real-time weld quality characterization and communicates with the robot programmable logic controller (PLC). The system has been fully developed for the inspection of spot welds manufactured in steel alloys, and has been mainly applied in the automotive industry. In recent years, a variety of materials have been introduced to the automotive industry. These include high strength steels, magnesium alloys, and aluminum alloys. Aluminum alloys have been of particular interest due to their high strength-to-weight ratio. Resistance spot welding requirements for aluminum vary greatly from those of steel. Additionally, the oxide film formed on the aluminum surface increases the heat generation between the copper electrodes and the aluminum plates leading to accelerated electrode deterioration. Preliminary studies showed that the real-time quality inspection system was not able to monitor spot welds manufactured with aluminum. The extensive experimental research, finite element modelling of the aluminum welding process and finite difference modeling of the acoustic wave propagation through the aluminum spot welds presented in this dissertation, revealed that the thermodynamics and hence the acoustic wave propagation through an aluminum and a steel spot weld differ significantly. For this reason, the hardware requirements and the algorithms developed to determine the welds quality from the ultrasonic data used on steel, no longer apply on aluminum spot welds. After updating the system and designing the required algorithms, parameters such as liquid nugget penetration and nugget diameter were available in the ultrasonic data

  11. Cleaning of liquid LLW from decontamination processes using semipermeable membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulama, M.; Deneanu, N.; Pavelescu, M.

    2003-01-01

    Of the three processes, which have been used extensively for liquid radioactive waste purification, evaporation and ion exchange are costly and flocculation gives a low degree of purification. By comparison to that, reverse osmosis offers intermediate purification at reasonable cost. Present research is examining the potential of using a membrane filtration system for the removal of dissolved radionuclides, but chemical treatment showed as necessary to convert soluble radionuclides, organic traces and metals to insoluble, filterable species. Liquid wastes within a CANDU station are segregated into normal and low-activity waste streams. The normal-activity waste includes wastes from the laboratories, laundries, some service-building drains, upgrade drains, and decontamination center. The drains from the reactor building, the heavy-water area, the spent-fuel pool, and the resin storage area are also directed to this normal activity wastes from showers and building drains in areas of the service building that would not normally be contaminated. The aqueous liquid wastes from the decontamination center and the other collected wastes from the chemical drain system are currently treated by the membrane plant. Generally, the liquid waste streams are effectively volume-reduced by a combination of continuous crossflow microfiltration (MF), spiral wound reverse osmosis (SWRO) and tubular reverse osmosis membrane technologies. Backwash chemical cleaning wastes from the membrane plant are further volume-reduced by evaporation. The concentrate from the membrane plant is ultimately immobilized with bitumen. The ability of the MF/SWRO technology to remove impurities non-selectively makes it suitable for the treatment of radioactive effluents from operating nuclear plants, with proper membrane selection, feed characterization, system configuration and system chemistry control. The choice of polysulfonate material for membrane was based on the high flow rates achievable with this

  12. Implications of various dispersants on biofilm clean up processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beardwood, E.S.; Therrien, J.K.

    1999-07-01

    A microbiologically fouled industrial cooling water system was investigated utilizing a portable corrosion and fouling monitor according to the NACE RP0189-951 Standard. Baseline data was established and at which time the monitor was subjected to various dispersants (3) typically used for organic and microbiological deposit removal. The results of this in-field, side stream, experiment on a dynamic system will be presented. A number of key points and factors influencing the performance of the foulant clean up will also be discussed.

  13. Application of Numerical Simulation for the Analysis of the Processes of Rotary Ultrasonic Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naď Milan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM is a hybrid process that combines diamond grinding with ultrasonic machining. It is most suitable to machine hard brittle materials such as ceramics and composites. Due to its excellent machining performance, RUM is very often applied for drilling of hard machinable materials. In the final phase of drilling, the edge deterioration of the drilled hole can occur, which results in a phenomenon called edge chipping. During hole drilling, a change in the thickness of the bottom of the drilled hole occurs. Consequently, the bottom of the hole as a plate structure is exposed to the transfer through the resonance state. This resonance state can be considered as one of the important aspects leading to edge chipping. Effects of changes in the bottom thickness and as well as the fillet radius between the wall and bottom of the borehole on the stress-strain states during RUM are analyzed.

  14. Application of Numerical Simulation for the Analysis of the Processes of Rotary Ultrasonic Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naď, Milan; Čičmancová, Lenka; Hajdu, Štefan

    2016-12-01

    Rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM) is a hybrid process that combines diamond grinding with ultrasonic machining. It is most suitable to machine hard brittle materials such as ceramics and composites. Due to its excellent machining performance, RUM is very often applied for drilling of hard machinable materials. In the final phase of drilling, the edge deterioration of the drilled hole can occur, which results in a phenomenon called edge chipping. During hole drilling, a change in the thickness of the bottom of the drilled hole occurs. Consequently, the bottom of the hole as a plate structure is exposed to the transfer through the resonance state. This resonance state can be considered as one of the important aspects leading to edge chipping. Effects of changes in the bottom thickness and as well as the fillet radius between the wall and bottom of the borehole on the stress-strain states during RUM are analyzed.

  15. Field deployable processing methods for stay-in-place ultrasonic transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malarich, Nathan; Lissenden, Cliff J.; Tittmann, Bernhard R.

    2018-04-01

    Condition monitoring provides key data for managing the operation and maintenance of mechanical equipment in the power generation, chemical processing, and manufacturing industries. Ultrasonic transducers provide active monitoring capabilities by wall thickness measurements, elastic property determination, crack detection, and other means. In many cases the components operate in harsh environments that may include high temperature, radiation, and hazardous chemicals. Thus, it is desirable to have permanently affixed ultrasonic transducers for condition monitoring in harsh environments. Spray-on transducers provide direct coupling between the active element and the substrate, and can be applied to curved surfaces. We describe a deposition methodology for ultrasonic transducers that can be applied in the field. First, piezoceramic powders mixed into a sol-gel are air-spray deposited onto the substrate. Powder constituents are selected based on the service environment in which the condition monitoring will be performed. Then the deposited coating is pyrolyzed and partially densified using an induction heating system with a custom work coil designed to match the substrate geometry. The next step, applying the electrodes, is more challenging than might be expected because of the porosity of the piezoelectric coating and the potential reactivity of elements in the adjacent layers. After connecting lead wires to the electrodes the transducer is poled and a protective coating can be applied prior to use. Processing of a PZT-bismuth titanate transducer on a large steel substrate is described along with alternate methods.

  16. Nonlinear signal processing for ultrasonic imaging of material complexity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dos Santos, S.; Vejvodová, Šárka; Převorovský, Zdeněk

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 2 (2010), s. 108-117 ISSN 1736-6046 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : nonlinear signal processing * TR-NEWS * symmetry analysis * DORT Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 0.464, year: 2010 www.eap.ee/proceedings

  17. TREATMENT TANK CORROSION STUDIES FOR THE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B.

    2011-08-24

    Radioactive waste is stored in high level waste tanks on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is aggressively seeking to close the non-compliant Type I and II waste tanks. The removal of sludge (i.e., metal oxide) heels from the tank is the final stage in the waste removal process. The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed and investigated by SRR to aid in Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) as an option for sludge heel removal. Corrosion rate data for carbon steel exposed to the ECC treatment tank environment was obtained to evaluate the degree of corrosion that occurs. These tests were also designed to determine the effect of various environmental variables such as temperature, agitation and sludge slurry type on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel. Coupon tests were performed to estimate the corrosion rate during the ECC process, as well as determine any susceptibility to localized corrosion. Electrochemical studies were performed to develop a better understanding of the corrosion mechanism. The tests were performed in 1 wt.% and 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with HM and PUREX sludge simulants. The following results and conclusions were made based on this testing: (1) In 1 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, carbon steel corroded at a rate of less than 25 mpy within the temperature and agitation levels of the test. No susceptibility to localized corrosion was observed. (2) In 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, the carbon steel corrosion rates ranged between 15 and 88 mpy. The most severe corrosion was observed at 75 C in the HM/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. Pitting and general corrosion increased with the agitation level at this condition. No pitting and lower general corrosion rates were observed with the PUREX/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. The electrochemical and coupon tests both indicated that carbon steel is more susceptible to localized corrosion in the HM/oxalic acid environment than

  18. Treatment Tank Corrosion Studies For The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiersma, B.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive waste is stored in high level waste tanks on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is aggressively seeking to close the non-compliant Type I and II waste tanks. The removal of sludge (i.e., metal oxide) heels from the tank is the final stage in the waste removal process. The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed and investigated by SRR to aid in Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) as an option for sludge heel removal. Corrosion rate data for carbon steel exposed to the ECC treatment tank environment was obtained to evaluate the degree of corrosion that occurs. These tests were also designed to determine the effect of various environmental variables such as temperature, agitation and sludge slurry type on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel. Coupon tests were performed to estimate the corrosion rate during the ECC process, as well as determine any susceptibility to localized corrosion. Electrochemical studies were performed to develop a better understanding of the corrosion mechanism. The tests were performed in 1 wt.% and 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with HM and PUREX sludge simulants. The following results and conclusions were made based on this testing: (1) In 1 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, carbon steel corroded at a rate of less than 25 mpy within the temperature and agitation levels of the test. No susceptibility to localized corrosion was observed. (2) In 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, the carbon steel corrosion rates ranged between 15 and 88 mpy. The most severe corrosion was observed at 75 C in the HM/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. Pitting and general corrosion increased with the agitation level at this condition. No pitting and lower general corrosion rates were observed with the PUREX/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. The electrochemical and coupon tests both indicated that carbon steel is more susceptible to localized corrosion in the HM/oxalic acid environment than

  19. Challenges with modifications of the McClean Lake mill to process midwest ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.T.; Backham, L.

    2010-01-01

    Midwest is a unique uranium deposit with exceptionally high arsenic content. The ore body is located 17 km west of the McClean Lake operation. The McClean Lake mill will be modified to process Midwest ore and handle solid wastes from the Midwest water treatment plant. This paper describes the modifications required of the McClean Lake mill, process challenges associated with treatment of the arsenic, and the possibility of recovering nickel and cobalt as a by-product. It also reviews the complexity in the design of the Midwest water treatment facility which incorporates reverse osmosis technology with conventional physical-chemical water treatment. (author)

  20. 7 CFR 361.8 - Cleaning of imported seed and processing of certain Canadian-origin screenings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cleaning of imported seed and processing of certain... SCREENINGS UNDER THE FEDERAL SEED ACT § 361.8 Cleaning of imported seed and processing of certain Canadian... compliance agreement for the cleaning of imported seed or processing of otherwise prohibited screenings from...

  1. Separation of mercury in industrial processes of Polish hard steam coals cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wierzchowski Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal use is regarded as one of main sources of anthropogenic propagation of mercury in the environment. The coal cleaning is listed among methods of the mercury emission reduction. The article concerns the statistical assessment of mercury separation between coal cleaning products. Two industrial processes employed in the Polish coal preparation plants are analysed: coal cleaning in heavy media vessels and coal cleaning in jigs. It was found that the arithmetic mean mercury content in coarse and medium coal size fractions for clean coal from heavy media vessels, amounts 68.9 μg/kg, and most of the results lay below the mean value, while for rejects it amounts 95.5 μg/kg. It means that it is for around 25 μg/kg greater than in the clean coal. The arithmetic mean mercury content in raw coal smalls amounts around 118 mg/kg. The cleaning of smalls in jigs results in clean coal and steam coal blends characterized by mean mercury content 96.8 μg/kg and rejects with mean mercury content 184.5 μg/kg.

  2. Monitoring of Lactic Fermentation Process by Ultrasonic Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alouache, B.; Touat, A.; Boutkedjirt, T.; Bennamane, A.

    The non-destructive control by using ultrasound techniques has become of great importance in food industry. In this work, Ultrasound has been used for quality control and monitoring the fermentation stages of yogurt, which is a highly consumed product. On the contrary to the physico-chemical methods, where the measurement instruments are directly introduced in the sample, ultrasound techniques have the advantage of being non-destructive and contactless, thus reducing the risk of contamination. Results obtained in this study by using ultrasound seem to be in good agreement with those obtained by physico-chemical methods such as acidity measurement by using a PH-meter instrument. This lets us to conclude that ultrasound method may be an alternative for a healthy control of yoghurt fermentation process.

  3. Processing surface sizing starch using oxidation, enzymatic hydrolysis and ultrasonic treatment methods--Preparation and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Tobias; Kiessler, Birgit; Radosta, Sylvia; Arndt, Tiemo

    2016-03-15

    The surface application of starch is a well-established method for increasing paper strength. In surface sizing, a solution of degraded starch is applied to the paper. Two procedures have proved valuable for starch degradation in the paper mill: enzymatic and thermo-oxidative degradation. The objective of this study was to determine achievable efficiencies of cavitation in preparing degraded starch for surface application on paper. It was found that ultrasonic-assisted starch degradation can provide a starch solution that is suitable for surface sizing. The molecular composition of starch solutions prepared by ultrasonic treatment differed from that of starch solutions degraded by enzymes or by thermo-oxidation. Compared to commercial degradation processes, this resulted in intensified film formation and in greater penetration during surface sizing and ultimately in a higher starch content of the paper. Paper sized with ultrasonically treated starch solutions show the same strength properties compared to commercially sized paper. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fine coal cleaning via the micro-mag process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klima, Mark S.; Maronde, Carl P.; Killmeyer, Richard P.

    1991-01-01

    A method of cleaning particulate coal which is fed with a dense medium slurry as an inlet feed to a cyclone separator. The coal particle size distribution is in the range of from about 37 microns to about 600 microns. The dense medium comprises water and ferromagnetic particles that have a relative density in the range of from about 4.0 to about 7.0. The ferromagnetic particles of the dense medium have particle sizes of less than about 15 microns and at least a majority of the particle sizes are less than about 5 microns. In the cyclone, the particulate coal and dense-medium slurry is separated into a low gravity product stream and a high gravity produce stream wherein the differential in relative density between the two streams is not greater than about 0.2. The low gravity and high gravity streams are treated to recover the ferromagnetic particles therefrom.

  5. PWR steam generator chemical cleaning. Phase I: solvent and process development. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larrick, A.P.; Paasch, R.A.; Hall, T.M.; Schneidmiller, D.

    1979-01-01

    A program to demonstrate chemical cleaning methods for removing magnetite corrosion products from the annuli between steam generator tubes and the tube support plates in vertical U-tube steam generators is described. These corrosion products have caused steam generator tube ''denting'' and in some cases have caused tube failures and support plate cracking in several PWR generating plants. Laboratory studies were performed to develop a chemical cleaning solvent and application process for demonstration cleaning of the Indian Point Unit 2 steam generators. The chemical cleaning solvent and application process were successfully pilot-tested by cleaning the secondary side of one of the Indian Point Unit 1 steam generators. Although the Indian Point Unit 1 steam generators do not have a tube denting problem, the pilot test provided for testing of the solvent and process using much of the same equipment and facilities that would be used for the Indian Point Unit 2 demonstration cleaning. The chemical solvent selected for the pilot test was an inhibited 3% citric acid-3% ascorbic acid solution. The application process, injection into the steam generator through the boiler blowdown system and agitation by nitrogen sparging, was tested in a nuclear environment and with corrosion products formed during years of steam generator operation at power. The test demonstrated that the magnetite corrosion products in simulated tube-to-tube support plate annuli can be removed by chemical cleaning; that corrosion resulting from the cleaning is not excessive; and that steam generator cleaning can be accomplished with acceptable levels of radiation exposure to personnel

  6. A study on hybrid split-spectrum processing technique for enhanced reliability in ultrasonic signal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Hyung; Koo, Kil Mo; Cheong, Yong Moo; Kim, G. J.

    1995-01-01

    Many signal-processing techniques have been found to be useful in ultrasonic and nondestructive evaluation. Among the most popular techniques are signal averaging, spatial compounding, matched filters, and homomorphic processing. One of the significant new process is split-spectrum processing(SSP), which can be equally useful in signal-to-noise ratio(SNR) improvement and grain characterization in several engineering materials. The purpose of this paper is to explore the utility of SSP in ultrasonic NDE. A wide variety of engineering problems are reviewed and suggestions for implementation of the technique are provided. SSP uses the frequency-dependent response of the interfering coherent noise produced by unresolvable scatters in the resolution range cell of a transducer. It is implemented by splitting the Sequency spectrum of the received signal by using Gaussian bandpass filters. The theoretical basis for the potential of SSP for grain characterization in SUS 304 material is discussed, and some experimental-evidence for the feasibility of the approach is presented. Results of SNR enhancement in signals obtained from real four samples of SUS 304. The influence of various processing parameters on the performance of the processing technique is also discussed. The minimization algorithm. which provides an excellent SNR enhancement when used either in conjunction with other SSP algorithms like polarity-check or by itself, is also presented.

  7. A Study on Hybrid Split-Spectrum Processing Technique for Enhanced Reliability in Ultrasonic Signal Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, H.; Koo, K. M.; Kim, G. J.

    1996-01-01

    Many signal-processing techniques have been found to be useful in ultrasonic and nondestructive evaluation. Among the most popular techniques are signal averaging, spatial compounding, matched filters and homomorphic processing. One of the significant new process is split-spectrum processing(SSP), which can be equally useful in signal-to-noise ratio(SNR) improvement and grain characterization in several specimens. The purpose of this paper is to explore the utility of SSP in ultrasonic NDE. A wide variety of engineering problems are reviewed, and suggestions for implementation of the technique are provided. SSP uses the frequency-dependent response of the interfering coherent noise produced by unresolvable scatters in the resolution range cell of a transducer. It is implemented by splitting the frequency spectrum of the received signal by using gaussian bandpass filter. The theoretical basis for the potential of SSP for grain characterization in SUS 304 material is discussed, and some experimental evidence for the feasibility of the approach is presented. Results of SNR enhancement in signals obtained from real four samples of SUS 304. The influence of various processing parameters on the performance of the processing technique is also discussed. The minimization algorithm, which provides an excellent SNR enhancement when used either in conjunction with other SSP algorithms like polarity-check or by itself, is also presented

  8. Copper clean-up procedure for ultrasonic extraction and analysis of pyrethroid and phenylpyrazole pesticides in sediments by gas chromatography-electron capture detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Jun; Lin Youjian; Lu Jian; Wilson, Chris, E-mail: pcwilson@ufl.edu

    2011-08-15

    A rapid ultrasonic extraction method coupled with a heated-copper clean-up procedure for removing interfering constituents was developed for analyzing pyrethroid and phenylpyrazole pesticides in sediments. Incubation of the 60 mL extract with 12 g copper granules at 60 {sup o}C for 2 h was determined to be the optimal conditions for removing the interfering constituents. Eleven pyrethroid and phenylpyrazole pesticides were spiked into sediment samples to determine the effectiveness of the ultrasonic extraction method. The average recoveries of pyrethroids and phenylpyrazoles in sediment at 4 {sup o}C storage on day 0, 1, 7, 14, and 21 ranged from 98.6 to 120.0%, 79.2 to 116.0%, 85.0 to 119.7%, 93.6 to 118.7%, and 92.1 to 118.2%, respectively, with all percent relative standard deviations less than 10% (most < 6%). This illustrated the stability of pyrethroids and phenylpyrazoles in sediment during sediment aging at 4 {sup o}C. Recoveries of the pesticides ranged from 98.6% to 120.0% for lowest fortification level (2-16 {mu}g kg{sup -1}), from 97.8% to 117.9% for middle fortification level (10-80 {mu}g kg{sup -1}), and from 94.3% to 118.1% for highest fortification level (20-160 {mu}g kg{sup -1}). Relative standard deviations of pesticide recoveries were usually less than 7%. Method detection limits of target pesticides ranged from 0.22 {mu}g kg{sup -1} to 3.72 {mu}g kg{sup -1}. Furthermore, field sediment samples collected from four residential lakes during a three-month monitoring period were analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of this method. Bifenthrin was detected in all of sediment samples (highest concentration 260.33 {+-} 41.71 {mu}g kg{sup -1}, lowest concentration 5.68 {+-} 0.38 {mu}g kg{sup -1}), and fipronil sulfone was detected at least once in sediment samples collected from three sites with concentrations ranging from 1.73 {+-} 0.53 to 7.53 {+-} 0.01 {mu}g kg{sup -1}. - Highlights: {yields} A rapid extraction and copper-based clean-up method was

  9. Ultrasonic testing of austenitic welds and its dependency on the welding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabatabaeipour, S.M.; Honarvar, F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the ultrasonic testing of austenitic welds prepared by two different welding processes. The tests were carried out by the ultrasonic Time-of-Flight Diffraction (ToFD) technique. Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) and Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) are the welding processes used for preparing the specimens. Identical artificial defects were implanted in both welds during the welding process. Both specimens were examined by the ToFD technique under similar conditions. Metallographic images were also obtained from the cross sectional plane of both the SMA and GTA welds. These images show that the grain orientation in the two welded specimens are different. D-scan images obtained by the ToFD technique from these welds indicates that inspecting the specimens prepared by the SMAW process is easier than the one made by the GTAW process. The results also show that the D-scan images cannot reveal the small vertical drilled holes implanted in the specimens. (author)

  10. A new cleaning process for the metallic contaminants on a post-CMP wafer's surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Baohong; Liu Yuling; Wang Chenwei; Wang Shengli; Zhou Qiang; Tan Baimei; Zhu Yadong

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new cleaning process using boron-doped diamond (BDD) film anode electrochemical oxidation for metallic contaminants on polished silicon wafer surfaces. The BDD film anode electrochemical oxidation can efficiently prepare pyrophosphate peroxide, pyrophosphate peroxide can oxidize organic contaminants, and pyrophosphate peroxide is deoxidized into pyrophosphate. Pyrophosphate, a good complexing agent, can form a metal complex, which is a structure consisting of a copper ion, bonded to a surrounding array of two pyrophosphate anions. Three polished wafers were immersed in the 0.01 mol/L CuSO 4 solution for 2 h in order to make comparative experiments. The first one was cleaned by pyrophosphate peroxide, the second by RCA (Radio Corporation of America) cleaning, and the third by deionized (DI) water. The XPS measurement result shows that the metallic contaminants on wafers cleaned by the RCA method and by pyrophosphate peroxide is less than the XPS detection limits of 1 ppm. And the wafer's surface cleaned by pyrophosphate peroxide is more efficient in removing organic carbon residues than RCA cleaning. Therefore, BDD film anode electrochemical oxidation can be used for microelectronics cleaning, and it can effectively remove organic contaminants and metallic contaminants in one step. It also achieves energy saving and environmental protection. (semiconductor technology)

  11. Two-Step Plasma Process for Cleaning Indium Bonding Bumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Harold F.; Vasquez, Richard P.; Jones, Todd J.; Hoenk, Michael E.; Dickie, Matthew R.; Nikzad, Shouleh

    2009-01-01

    A two-step plasma process has been developed as a means of removing surface oxide layers from indium bumps used in flip-chip hybridization (bump bonding) of integrated circuits. The two-step plasma process makes it possible to remove surface indium oxide, without incurring the adverse effects of the acid etching process.

  12. MSO spent salt clean-up recovery process; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, M G; Brummond, W A; Hipple, D L; Hsu, P C; Summers, L J; Von Holtz, E H; Wang, F T

    1997-01-01

    An effective process has been developed to separate metals, mineral residues, and radionuclides from spent salt, a secondary waste generated by Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO). This process includes salt dissolution, pH adjustment, chemical reduction and/or sulfiding, filtration, ion exchange, and drying. The process uses dithionite to reduce soluble chromate and/or sulfiding agent to suppress solubilities of metal compounds in water. This process is capable of reducing the secondary waste to less than 5% of its original weight. It is a low temperature, aqueous process and has been demonstrated in the laboratory[1

  13. Ultrasonic signal processing and B-SCAN imaging for nondestructive testing. Application to under - cladding - cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theron, G.

    1988-02-01

    Crack propagation under the stainless steel cladding of nuclear reactor vessels is monitored by ultrasonic testing. This work study signal processing to improve detection and sizing of defects. Two possibilities are examined: processing of each individual signal and simultaneous processing of all the signals giving a B-SCAN image. The bibliographic study of time-frequency methods shows that they are not suitable for pulses. Then decomposition in instantaneous frequency and envelope is used. Effect of interference of 2 close echoes on instantaneous frequency is studies. The deconvolution of B-SCAN images is obtained by the transducer field. A point-by-point deconvolution method, less noise sensitive, is developed. B-SCAN images are processed in 2 phases: interface signal processing and deconvolution. These calculations improve image accuracy and dynamics. Water-stell interface and ferritic-austenitic interface are separated. Echoes of crack top are visualized and crack-hole differentiation is improved [fr

  14. Ultrasonic sensor system to detect solids in a milk pasteurization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroeta Z., Carlos; Sanchez M., Fernando L.; Fernando R., G. Moreno; Montes P., Laura

    2002-11-01

    In the food industry, many products require a specific process. In the milk industry, the raw milk passes through several process stages before reaching the end user in a very qualitative and healthy way. One of the problems of the milk is that it can contain solids in suspension, result of contamination of the milk, or inherent to the pasteurization process itself. In order to control these solids, a solid detection system is being developed, which will detect the solids by the reflection and refraction of ultrasonic waves. The sensor must be set in the upper part of the milk containers, and with a grid array to allow the control system to prevent these solids from entering into the pipes of the processing plant. The sensing system may activate an acoustic alarm to indicate that a solid has been detected, and a visual one to indicate the affected part of the process. (To be presented in Spanish.)

  15. Study on the Influence of Refreshment/Activation Cycles and Irrigants on Mechanical Cleaning Efficiency During Ultrasonic Activation of the Irrigant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, Lucas W. M.; Vogels, Maikel P. J. M.; Verhaagen, Bram; Macedo, Ricardo; Wesselink, Paul R.

    Introduction: The aims of this study were to evaluate dentin debris removal from the root canal during ultrasonic activation of sodium hypochlorite (2% and 10%), carbonated water, and distilled water and to determine the influence of 3 ultrasonic refreshment/activation cycles of the irrigant by

  16. Study on the Influence of Refreshment/Activation Cycles and Irrigants on Mechanical Cleaning Efficiency During Ultrasonic Activation of the Irrigant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, Lucas W.M.; Vogels, Maikel P.J.M.; Verhaagen, B.; Macedo, Ricardo; Wesselink, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The aims of this study were to evaluate dentin debris removal from the root canal during ultrasonic activation of sodium hypochlorite (2% and 10%), carbonated water, and distilled water and to determine the influence of 3 ultrasonic refreshment/activation cycles of the irrigant by using

  17. Study on the influence of refreshment/activation cycles and irrigants on mechanical cleaning efficiency during ultrasonic activation of the irrigant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, L.W.M.; Vogels, M.P.J.M.; Verhaagen, B.; Macedo, R.; Wesselink, P.R.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The aims of this study were to evaluate dentin debris removal from the root canal during ultrasonic activation of sodium hypochlorite (2% and 10%), carbonated water, and distilled water and to determine the influence of 3 ultrasonic refreshment/activation cycles of the irrigant by

  18. Investigations on the performance of ultrasonic drilling process with special reference to precision machining of advanced ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adithan, M.; Laroiya, S.C.

    1997-01-01

    Advanced ceramics are assuming an important role in modern industrial technology. The applications and advantages of using advanced ceramics are many. There are several reasons why we should go in for machining of advanced ceramics after their compacting and sintering. These are discussed in this paper. However, precision machining of advanced ceramics must be economical. Critical technological issues to be addressed in cost effective machining of ceramics include design of machine tools, tooling arrangements, improved yield and precision, relationship of part dimensions and finish specifications to functional performance, and on-line inspection. Considering the above ultrasonic drilling is an important process used for the precision machining of advanced ceramics. Extensive studies on tool wear occurring in the ultrasonic machining of advanced ceramics have been carried out. In addition, production accuracy of holes drilled, surface finish obtained and surface integrity aspects in the machining of advanced ceramics have also been investigated. Some specific findings with reference to surface integrity are: a) there were no cracks or micro-cracks developed during or after ultrasonic machining of advanced ceramics, b) while machining Hexoloy alpha silicon carbide a recast layer is formed as a result of ultrasonic machining. This is attributed to the viscous heating resulting from high energy impacts during ultrasonic machining. While machining all other types of ceramics no such formation of recast layer was observed, and , c) there is no change in the microstructure of the advanced ceramics as a result of ultrasonic machining

  19. Effect of coffee reduction on constituent concentration in an energy-efficient process of ultrasonic extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Cheng-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coffee is one of the popular beverage; its constituents include caffeine, oxidation resistant aromatic constituents, protein, tannin, and fat. It is indicated in literatures that a proper amount of coffee stimulates the brain and enhances memory, but excessive coffee causes negative results, such as coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, heart disease and kidney disease. This study used high-performance ultrasonic process to discuss the effect of pulverized coffee reduction on the constituent concentration. It further compared the constituent concentrations obtained in different extraction periods. The experimental results show that the coffee aroma constituents can be extracted effectively by ultrasonic process without any organic solvent, and the constituent concentration does not decrease with the addition of pulverized coffee. Therefore, the consumption of pulverized coffee can be reduced greatly by using the proposed. The time of extraction process can be shortened, so as to save energy. The most important point is to reduce the enterprises manufacturing cost and to increase the profit.

  20. Ultrasonic transesterification of Jatrophacurcas L. oil to biodiesel by a two-step process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Xin; Fang, Zhen; Liu, Yun-hu [Biomass Group, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 88 Xuefulu, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650223 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Transesterification of high free fatty acid content Jatropha oil with methanol to biodiesel catalyzed directly by NaOH and high-concentrated H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or by two-step process were studied in an ultrasonic reactor at 60 C. If NaOH was used as catalyst, biodiesel yield was only 47.2% with saponification problem. With H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as catalyst, biodiesel yield was increased to 92.8%. However, longer reaction time (4 h) was needed and the biodiesel was not stable. A two-step, acid-esterification and base-transesterification process was further used for biodiesel production. It was found that after the first-step pretreatment with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} for 1 h, the acid value of Jatropha oil was reduced from 10.45 to 1.2 mg KOH/g, and subsequently, NaOH was used for the second-step transesterification. Stable and clear yellowish biodiesel was obtained with 96.4% yield after reaction for 0.5 h. The total production time was only 1.5 h that is just half of the previous reported. The two-step process with ultrasonic radiation is effective and time-saving for biodiesel production from Jatropha oil. (author)

  1. Ultrasonic transesterification of Jatrophacurcas L. oil to biodiesel by a two-step process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Xin [Biomass Group, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 88 Xuefulu, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650223 (China); Fang Zhen, E-mail: zhenfang@xtbg.ac.c [Biomass Group, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 88 Xuefulu, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650223 (China); Liu Yunhu [Biomass Group, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 88 Xuefulu, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650223 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Transesterification of high free fatty acid content Jatropha oil with methanol to biodiesel catalyzed directly by NaOH and high-concentrated H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or by two-step process were studied in an ultrasonic reactor at 60 deg. C. If NaOH was used as catalyst, biodiesel yield was only 47.2% with saponification problem. With H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as catalyst, biodiesel yield was increased to 92.8%. However, longer reaction time (4 h) was needed and the biodiesel was not stable. A two-step, acid-esterification and base-transesterification process was further used for biodiesel production. It was found that after the first-step pretreatment with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} for 1 h, the acid value of Jatropha oil was reduced from 10.45 to 1.2 mg KOH/g, and subsequently, NaOH was used for the second-step transesterification. Stable and clear yellowish biodiesel was obtained with 96.4% yield after reaction for 0.5 h. The total production time was only 1.5 h that is just half of the previous reported. The two-step process with ultrasonic radiation is effective and time-saving for biodiesel production from Jatropha oil.

  2. Ultrasonic transesterification of Jatrophacurcas L. oil to biodiesel by a two-step process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Xin; Fang Zhen; Liu Yunhu

    2010-01-01

    Transesterification of high free fatty acid content Jatropha oil with methanol to biodiesel catalyzed directly by NaOH and high-concentrated H 2 SO 4 or by two-step process were studied in an ultrasonic reactor at 60 deg. C. If NaOH was used as catalyst, biodiesel yield was only 47.2% with saponification problem. With H 2 SO 4 as catalyst, biodiesel yield was increased to 92.8%. However, longer reaction time (4 h) was needed and the biodiesel was not stable. A two-step, acid-esterification and base-transesterification process was further used for biodiesel production. It was found that after the first-step pretreatment with H 2 SO 4 for 1 h, the acid value of Jatropha oil was reduced from 10.45 to 1.2 mg KOH/g, and subsequently, NaOH was used for the second-step transesterification. Stable and clear yellowish biodiesel was obtained with 96.4% yield after reaction for 0.5 h. The total production time was only 1.5 h that is just half of the previous reported. The two-step process with ultrasonic radiation is effective and time-saving for biodiesel production from Jatropha oil.

  3. Ultrasonic Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyeong Jun; Kuk, Jeong Han

    2002-02-15

    This book introduces ultrasonic testing, which tells of outline of ultrasonic testing, principle of ultrasonic testing, prosperities of ultrasonic waves, radiographic test and ultrasonic test, basic theory on ultrasonic testing, mode conversion, transmission and diffraction, ultrasonic flaw detection and probe, standard test piece and reference test piece, like KS(JIS) ASME and ASTM, classification and properties of ultrasonic testing, straight beam method, angle beam method, ASME SEC.V.Art.5 ASTMA 388 and KS B 0817 Korean industrial standard.

  4. The role of ultrasonic cavitation in refining the microstructure of aluminum based nanocomposites during the solidification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Yang; Nastac, Laurentiu

    2018-02-01

    Recent studies showed that the microstructure and mechanical properties of aluminum based nanocomposites can be significantly improved when ultrasonic cavitation and solidification processing is used. This is because ultrasonic cavitation processing plays an important role not only in degassing and dispersion of the nanoparticles, but also in breaking up the dendritic grains and refining the as-cast microstructure. In the present study, A356 alloy and Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles are used as the matrix alloy and the reinforcement, respectively. Nanoparticles were added into the molten A356 alloy and dispersed via ultrasonic cavitation processing. Ultrasonic cavitation was applied over various temperature ranges during molten alloy cooling and solidification to investigate the grain structure formation and the nanoparticle dispersion behavior. Optical Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy were used to investigate in detail the differences in the microstructure characteristics and the nanoparticle distribution. Experimental results indicated that the ultrasonic cavitation processing and Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles play an important role for microstructure refinement. In addition, it was shown in this study that the Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles modified the eutectic phase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Clean Air Act Standards and Guidelines for Mineral Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the stationary sources of air pollution for the mineral processing industries, and their corresponding air pollution regulations. To learn more about the regulations for each industry, just click on the links below.

  6. How to Address the Data Quality Issues in Regression Models: A Guided Process for Data Cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Camilo Corrales

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Today, data availability has gone from scarce to superabundant. Technologies like IoT, trends in social media and the capabilities of smart-phones are producing and digitizing lots of data that was previously unavailable. This massive increase of data creates opportunities to gain new business models, but also demands new techniques and methods of data quality in knowledge discovery, especially when the data comes from different sources (e.g., sensors, social networks, cameras, etc.. The data quality process of the data set proposes conclusions about the information they contain. This is increasingly done with the aid of data cleaning approaches. Therefore, guaranteeing a high data quality is considered as the primary goal of the data scientist. In this paper, we propose a process for data cleaning in regression models (DC-RM. The proposed data cleaning process is evaluated through a real datasets coming from the UCI Repository of Machine Learning Databases. With the aim of assessing the data cleaning process, the dataset that is cleaned by DC-RM was used to train the same regression models proposed by the authors of UCI datasets. The results achieved by the trained models with the dataset produced by DC-RM are better than or equal to that presented by the datasets’ authors.

  7. Functionalization and Dispersion of Carbon Nanomaterials Using an Environmentally Friendly Ultrasonicated Ozonolysis Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Eudora S Y; Mathys, Gary I; Brack, Narelle; Thostenson, Erik T; Rider, Andrew N

    2017-05-30

    Functionalization of carbon nanomaterials is often a critical step that facilitates their integration into larger material systems and devices. In the as-received form, carbon nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) or graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs), may contain large agglomerates. Both agglomerates and impurities will diminish the benefits of the unique electrical and mechanical properties offered when CNTs or GNPs are incorporated into polymers or composite material systems. Whilst a variety of methods exist to functionalize carbon nanomaterials and to create stable dispersions, many the processes use harsh chemicals, organic solvents, or surfactants, which are environmentally unfriendly and may increase the processing burden when isolating the nanomaterials for subsequent use. The current research details the use of an alternative, environmentally friendly technique for functionalizing CNTs and GNPs. It produces stable, aqueous dispersions free of harmful chemicals. Both CNTs and GNPs can be added to water at concentrations up to 5 g/L and can be recirculated through a high-powered ultrasonic cell. The simultaneous injection of ozone into the cell progressively oxidizes the carbon nanomaterials, and the combined ultrasonication breaks down agglomerates and immediately exposes fresh material for functionalization. The prepared dispersions are ideally suited for the deposition of thin films onto solid substrates using electrophoretic deposition (EPD). CNTs and GNPs from the aqueous dispersions can be readily used to coat carbon- and glass-reinforcing fibers using EPD for the preparation of hierarchical composite materials.

  8. Magneto-acoustic intensification of the cleaning process phosphatidic concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Shestakova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In work propose an efficient technology and machine-instrumental scheme of purification of phosphatidic concentrate magneto-acoustic method with application of the distillation of the alcoholic solvent from the modified cuts of vegetable oil. Processing in ultrasound 10 W/cm2 in pulsed magnetic field of 2 T to provide high-quality lecythidaceae product in the form of granules insoluble in alcohol fraction and a fat part with the low value for waste, are absorbed by the silica gel. The research objective is to study the influence of hydrodynamic effects on the complex processes of Association and deassociation free fatty acids and other related lipids in the composition waste of deodorization of the sunflower oils, the rationale for the use of silica gel as an efficient neutralizing and adsorbing agent, the definition of rational modes of process of obtaining high-quality lecythidaceae product in vacuum molecular distillation. The relevance of the work «Improvement of process and equipment for distillation cuts of vegetable oils processed in ultrasound» is that now in Russia practically there are no domestic scientific works in this direction. The proposed technology of modified sunflower lecitinov, allows you to receive as graded lecithin with acetonrastvorimyh substances more than 60%, and fat-free egg lecithin with acetonnerastvorimyh substances to 95% with an increased content of physiologically valuable groups of phospholipids.

  9. The TEES process cleans waste and produces energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, D.C.; Silva, L.J.

    1995-02-01

    A gasification system is under development that can be used with most types of wet organic wastes. The system operates at 350 degrees C and 205 atm using a liquid water phase as the processing medium. Since a pressurized system is used, the wet waste can be fed as a solution or slurry to the reactor without drying. Through the development of catalysts, a useful processing system has been produced. The system has utility both for direct conversion of high-moisture biomass to fuel gas or as a wastewater cleanup system for wet organic wastes including unconverted biomass from bioconversion processes. By the use of this system >99% conversions of organic waste to medium-Btu fuel gas can be achieved

  10. Inline-process and quality control of spotwelds of car bodies - ultrasonic sensors integrated in resistance welding electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, G.; Rieger, D.; Koehler, C. [Vogt Werkstoffpruefsysteme, Burgwedel (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The self-developed inline ultrasonic testing system SPOTline is used for inspection and process control of resistant spot weldings. SPOTline provides with directly into the welding tong integrated ultrasonic sensors a 100% inspection during the welding process. The through transmission and pulse echo signals will be collected, stored and evaluated by means of fuzzy-logic and neuronal network technic. The results will be transmitted online from the spotline-client in the sql-data-base of the server for processing. World-wide SPOTline is the only ultrasonic inspection system, which is working under real production conditions in a network of welding robots. Test with 2 and 3 plates, high strength steels and all coatings demonstrate the accurately identification of discrepant welds. (orig.)

  11. Signal processing techniques for damage detection with piezoelectric wafer active sensors and embedded ultrasonic structural radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lingyu; Bao, Jingjing; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2004-07-01

    Embedded ultrasonic structural radar (EUSR) algorithm is developed for using piezoelectric wafer active sensor (PWAS) array to detect defects within a large area of a thin-plate specimen. Signal processing techniques are used to extract the time of flight of the wave packages, and thereby to determine the location of the defects with the EUSR algorithm. In our research, the transient tone-burst wave propagation signals are generated and collected by the embedded PWAS. Then, with signal processing, the frequency contents of the signals and the time of flight of individual frequencies are determined. This paper starts with an introduction of embedded ultrasonic structural radar algorithm. Then we will describe the signal processing methods used to extract the time of flight of the wave packages. The signal processing methods being used include the wavelet denoising, the cross correlation, and Hilbert transform. Though hardware device can provide averaging function to eliminate the noise coming from the signal collection process, wavelet denoising is included to ensure better signal quality for the application in real severe environment. For better recognition of time of flight, cross correlation method is used. Hilbert transform is applied to the signals after cross correlation in order to extract the envelope of the signals. Signal processing and EUSR are both implemented by developing a graphical user-friendly interface program in LabView. We conclude with a description of our vision for applying EUSR signal analysis to structural health monitoring and embedded nondestructive evaluation. To this end, we envisage an automatic damage detection application utilizing embedded PWAS, EUSR, and advanced signal processing.

  12. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF GRAFT COPOLYMERS OF POLY (BUTYL ACRYLATE AND CELLULOSE WITH ULTRASONIC PROCESSING AS A MATERIAL FOR OIL ABSORPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Qu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of materials used for oil absorption based on cellulose fiber grafted with butyl acrylate (BuAc have been prepared by radical polymerization under ultrasonic waves processing. Effects of ultrasonic dose for the maximum graft yield were considered. The dependency of optimum conditions for oil absorption rate on parameters such as ultrasonic processing time and ultrasonic power were also determined. Fourier infrared (FT-IR analysis was used to confirm the chemical reaction taking place between cellulose and butyl acrylate. The thermogravimetric behavior of the graft copolymer was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. Scanning electron microscope (SEM analysis was used to determine the surface structure of the grafted material. With the increase of the ultrasonic treatment dose, the surface of the ultrasonic processed material became more regular, and the material was transformed into a homogeneous network polymer having a good structure and good adsorbing ability.

  13. Ultrasonic Inspection of Cracks in Stud Bolts of Reactor Vessels in Nuclear Power Plants by Signal Processing of Differential Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sang Woo; Lee, Joon Hyun; Oh, Won Deok

    2005-01-01

    The stud bolt is one of crucial parts for safe operation of reactor vessels in nuclear power plants, Crack initiation and propagation were reported in stud bolts that arc used for closure of reactor vessel and head, Stud bolts are inspected by ultrasonic technique during overhaul periodically for the prevention of stud bolt failure which could induce radioactive leakage from nuclear reactor, In conventional ultrasonic testing for inspection of stud bolts, cracks are detected by using shadow effect It takes too much time to inspect stud bolts by using conventional ultrasonic technique. In addition, there were numerous spurious signals reflected from every oblique surfaces of thread, In this study, the signal processing technique for enhancing conventional ultrasonic technique was introduced for inspecting stud bolts. The signal processing technique provides removing spurious signal reflected from every oblique surfaces of thread and enhances detectability of defects. Detectability for small crack was enhanced by using this signal processing in ultrasonic inspection of stud bolts in Nuclear Power Plants

  14. [Optimization of ultrasonic extraction process for Xiaoqinglong granules by Box-Behnken in condition of medium scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng-Kuan; Shi, Xiao-Meng; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Qing-Fen; Wu, Jian-Xiong; Bi, Yu-An; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Xiao, Wei

    2016-02-01

    This paper is to investigate the optimization conditions of ultrasonic technique for extraction process of Xiaoqinglong granules in medium scale. First of all, single factor experiment was used to determine the overall impact tendency and range of each factor; secondly, Box-Behnken method was used for optimization and detecting the content of paeoniflorin, ephedrine hydrochloride, glycyrrhizic acid of the liquid medicine. Their respective extraction rate was calculated and the comprehensive evaluation was carried out. The results were used as the evaluation basis for the efficacy of Xiaoqinglong granules ultrasonic extraction. The test results showed that the optimum extraction process of Xiaoqinglong granules by ultrasonic extraction was under the following conditions: ultrasonic power 600 W, liquid-solid ratio 10∶1, extraction for 31 min. Under this condition, the predicted value of extraction rate for Xiaoqinglong granules was 85.90%, and the test value was 85.87%. The mathematical model(P<0.01) established in this paper was significant, and can be used for the analysis and prediction of the ultrasonic extraction process of Xiaoqinglong granules. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  15. Development of Statistical Process Control Methodology for an Environmentally Compliant Surface Cleaning Process in a Bonding Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Dale E.; Doan, Patrick A.; Boothe, Richard E.

    1997-01-01

    Bonding labs at both MSFC and the northern Utah production plant prepare bond test specimens which simulate or witness the production of NASA's Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). The current process for preparing the bonding surfaces employs 1,1,1-trichloroethane vapor degreasing, which simulates the current RSRM process. Government regulations (e.g., the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act) have mandated a production phase-out of a number of ozone depleting compounds (ODC) including 1,1,1-trichloroethane. In order to comply with these regulations, the RSRM Program is qualifying a spray-in-air (SIA) precision cleaning process using Brulin 1990, an aqueous blend of surfactants. Accordingly, surface preparation prior to bonding process simulation test specimens must reflect the new production cleaning process. The Bonding Lab Statistical Process Control (SPC) program monitors the progress of the lab and its capabilities, as well as certifies the bonding technicians, by periodically preparing D6AC steel tensile adhesion panels with EA-91 3NA epoxy adhesive using a standardized process. SPC methods are then used to ensure the process is statistically in control, thus producing reliable data for bonding studies, and identify any problems which might develop. Since the specimen cleaning process is being changed, new SPC limits must be established. This report summarizes side-by-side testing of D6AC steel tensile adhesion witness panels and tapered double cantilevered beams (TDCBs) using both the current baseline vapor degreasing process and a lab-scale spray-in-air process. A Proceco 26 inches Typhoon dishwasher cleaned both tensile adhesion witness panels and TDCBs in a process which simulates the new production process. The tests were performed six times during 1995, subsequent statistical analysis of the data established new upper control limits (UCL) and lower control limits (LCL). The data also demonstrated that the new process was equivalent to the vapor

  16. Study on the Optimization and Process Modeling of the Rotary Ultrasonic Machining of Zerodur Glass-Ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, James Daniel

    Rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM), a hybrid process combining ultrasonic machining and diamond grinding, was created to increase material removal rates for the fabrication of hard and brittle workpieces. The objective of this research was to experimentally derive empirical equations for the prediction of multiple machined surface roughness parameters for helically pocketed rotary ultrasonic machined Zerodur glass-ceramic workpieces by means of a systematic statistical experimental approach. A Taguchi parametric screening design of experiments was employed to systematically determine the RUM process parameters with the largest effect on mean surface roughness. Next empirically determined equations for the seven common surface quality metrics were developed via Box-Behnken surface response experimental trials. Validation trials were conducted resulting in predicted and experimental surface roughness in varying levels of agreement. The reductions in cutting force and tool wear associated with RUM, reported by previous researchers, was experimentally verified to also extended to helical pocketing of Zerodur glass-ceramic.

  17. 21 CFR 872.4850 - Ultrasonic scaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4850 Ultrasonic scaler. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic scaler is a device intended for use during dental cleaning and periodontal (gum) therapy to remove calculus deposits from teeth by application of an ultrasonic vibrating scaler tip to the teeth. (b...

  18. Tests of an environmental and personnel safe cleaning process for Brookhaven National Laboratory accelerator and storage ring components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, C.L.; Lanni, C.; Lee, R.; Mitchell, G.; Quade, W.

    1997-01-01

    A large measure of the successful operation of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for over a decade can be attributed to the cleaning of its ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) components during and after construction. A new UHV cleaning process, which has to be environmentally and personnel safe, is needed to replace the harsh, unfriendly process which is still in use. Dow Advanced Cleaning Systems was contracted to develop a replacement process without the use of harsh chemicals and which must clean vacuum surfaces as well as the existing process. Acceptance of the replacement process was primarily based on photon stimulated desorption (PSD) measurements of beam tube samples run on NSLS beam line U10B. One meter long beam tube samples were fabricated from aluminum, 304 stainless steel, and oxygen-free copper. Initially, coupon samples were cleaned and passed preliminary testing for the proposed process. Next, beam tube samples of each material were cleaned, and the PSD measured on beam line U10B using white light with a critical energy of 487 eV. Prior to cleaning, the samples were contaminated with a mixture of cutting oils, lubricants, vacuum oils, and vacuum grease. The contaminated samples were then baked. Samples of each material were also cleaned with the existing process after the same preparation. Beam tube samples were exposed to between 10 22 and 10 23 photons per meter for a PSD measurement. Desorption yields for H 2 , CO, CO 2 , CH 4 , and H 2 O are reported for both the existing cleaning and for the replacement cleaning process. Preliminary data, residual gas scans, and PSD results are given and discussed. The new process is also compared with new cleaning methods developed in other laboratories. After modification, the new UHV cleaning process was accepted by BNL

  19. A study on the chemical cleaning process and its qualification test by eddy current testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ki Seok; Cheon, Keun Young; Nam, Min Woo [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Min, Kyoung Mahn [UMI Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Steam Generator (SG) tube, as a barrier isolating the primary coolant system from the secondary side of nuclear power plants (NPP), must maintain the structural integrity for the public safety and their efficient power generation. So, SG tubes are subject to the periodic examination and the repairs if needed so that any defective tubes are not in service. Recently, corrosion related degradations were detected in the tubes of the domestic OPR-1000 NPP, as a form of axially oriented outer diameter stress corrosion cracking (ODSCC). According to the studies on the factors causing the heat fouling as well as developing corrosion cracking, densely scaled deposits on the secondary side of the SG tubes are mainly known to be problematic causing the adverse impacts against the soundness of the SG tubes. Therefore, the processes of various cleaning methods efficiently to dissolve and remove the deposits have been applied as well as it is imperative to maintain the structural integrity of the tubes after exposing to the cleaning agent. So qualification test (QT) should be carried out to assess the perfection of the chemical cleaning and QT is to apply the processes and to do ECT. In this paper, the chemical cleaning processes to dissolve and remove the scaled deposits are introduced and results of ECT on the artificial crack specimens to determine the effectiveness of those processes are represented.

  20. 2000 Annual report NATO/CCMS Pilot Study, Clean Products and Processes (Phase I)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Molin, Christine; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2001-01-01

    The NATO/Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society third Pilot Study meeting on Clean Products and Processes was held in Copenhagen, Denmark on May 7-12, 2000. This meeting maintained the momentum generated during the of the first two years of the pilot study, focusing on progress made on sev...... homepage....

  1. Challenges associated with the current processes for ultrasonic inspection of CANDU reactor feeder piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machowski, C. [Babcock & Wilcox Canada Ltd., Cambridge, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    CANDU® PHT Feeder Piping is generally constructed from SA106 Grade B carbon steel, which is known to be susceptible to flow accelerated corrosion when exposed to certain environmental conditions. The configuration of the CANDU reactor promotes thinning of the inside surface of the pipe walls, predominantly at the outlet feeders. Inspection of this piping is currently conducted using ultrasonic techniques and is governed by the requirements established by the CANDU Owners Group (COG). There are many challenges associated with these inspections as a result of the complexity of the reactor piping configuration. Geometrical anomalies on the surface of the pipe and non-circular geometries at the tight radius bends hinder the performance of conventional ultrasonic techniques. This can cause lost signals in areas of interest, which in turn often results in rework in order to satisfy the inspection requirements and justify fitness for service of these components. There are also many inspection sites which have limited access due to physical restrictions on the reactor face; therefore in order to maximize the performance of an inspection campaign, it is paramount that the inspection personnel and the inspection technology be well integrated through training simulations prior to execution. These inspection challenges increase the complexity of the analysis process as ultrasonic signals get distorted and lost as a result of non-circular pipe geometries. In order to ensure a high level of integrity in the analysis results, a conservative process is utilized in which two analysts independently examine the data, and a third analyst reviews their results and submits the final call. A Data Management Software application (DMS) is used to input and store the three analysis results. Another important function of the DMS is to provide a communication link between the different work-groups associated with the inspection activities. The focus of this presentation discusses:

  2. Influence of the relative deformation rate on tube processing by ultrasonic vibration drawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susan, M.; Bujoreanu, L. G.; Galusca, D. G.; Munteanu, C.; Lliescu, V.

    2004-01-01

    After a brief review of the friction reversion mechanism during ultrasonic vibration drawing of tubes (UVD), the paper introduces a method to determine the drawing force based on the theorem of total consumed power, in the case of tube processing. The experiments performed on tubes made from 10TiNiCr180 (AISI321) austenitic stainless steel confirm the superiority of UVD technology regarding the diminution of the drawing force, the increase of the plasticity and the improvement of the safety coefficient, tendencies that are enhanced with the decrease of the relative drawing rate. The best results were obtained for the relative drawing rate of 0.12 for which the drawing force decreased with 33%, plasticity increased with 9% and safety coefficient with 22%, as compared to CT. (Author) 10 refs

  3. Measurement system of bubbly flow using ultrasonic velocity profile monitor and video data processing unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aritomi, Masanori; Zhou, Shirong; Nakajima, Makoto; Takeda, Yasushi; Mori, Michitsugu; Yoshioka, Yuzuru.

    1996-01-01

    The authors have been developing a measurement system for bubbly flow in order to clarify its multi-dimensional flow characteristics and to offer a data base to validate numerical codes for multi-dimensional two-phase flow. In this paper, the measurement system combining an ultrasonic velocity profile monitor with a video data processing unit is proposed, which can measure simultaneously velocity profiles in both gas and liquid phases, a void fraction profile for bubbly flow in a channel, and an average bubble diameter and void fraction. Furthermore, the proposed measurement system is applied to measure flow characteristics of a bubbly countercurrent flow in a vertical rectangular channel to verify its capability. (author)

  4. Parametric optimization of ultrasonic machining process using gravitational search and fireworks algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debkalpa Goswami

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic machining (USM is a mechanical material removal process used to erode holes and cavities in hard or brittle workpieces by using shaped tools, high-frequency mechanical motion and an abrasive slurry. Unlike other non-traditional machining processes, such as laser beam and electrical discharge machining, USM process does not thermally damage the workpiece or introduce significant levels of residual stress, which is important for survival of materials in service. For having enhanced machining performance and better machined job characteristics, it is often required to determine the optimal control parameter settings of an USM process. The earlier mathematical approaches for parametric optimization of USM processes have mostly yielded near optimal or sub-optimal solutions. In this paper, two almost unexplored non-conventional optimization techniques, i.e. gravitational search algorithm (GSA and fireworks algorithm (FWA are applied for parametric optimization of USM processes. The optimization performance of these two algorithms is compared with that of other popular population-based algorithms, and the effects of their algorithm parameters on the derived optimal solutions and computational speed are also investigated. It is observed that FWA provides the best optimal results for the considered USM processes.

  5. Optimization of Multiple Responses of Ultrasonic Machining (USM Process: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Chakravorty

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic machining (USM process has multiple performance measures, e.g. material removal rate (MRR, tool wear rate (TWR, surface roughness (SR etc., which are affected by several process parameters. The researchers commonly attempted to optimize USM process with respect to individual responses, separately. In the recent past, several systematic procedures for dealing with the multi-response optimization problems have been proposed in the literature. Although most of these methods use complex mathematics or statistics, there are some simple methods, which can be comprehended and implemented by the engineers to optimize the multiple responses of USM processes. However, the relative optimization performance of these approaches is unknown because the effectiveness of different methods has been demonstrated using different sets of process data. In this paper, the computational requirements for four simple methods are presented, and two sets of past experimental data on USM processes are analysed using these methods. The relative performances of these methods are then compared. The results show that weighted signal-to-noise (WSN ratio method and utility theory (UT method usually give better overall optimisation performance for the USM process than the other approaches.

  6. New Ultrasonic Controller and Characterization System for Low Temperature Drying Process Intensification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, R. R.; Blanco, A.; Acosta, V. M.; Riera, E.; Martínez, I.; Pinto, A.

    Process intensification constitutes a high interesting and promising industrial area. It aims to modify conventional processes or develop new technologies in order to reduce energy needs, increase yields and improve product quality. It has been demonstrated by this research group (CSIC) that power ultrasound have a great potential in food drying processes. The effects associated with the application of power ultrasound can enhance heat and mass transfer and may constitute a way for process intensification. The objective of this work has been the design and development of a new ultrasonic system for the power characterization of piezoelectric plate-transducers, as excitation, monitoring, analysis, control and characterization of their nonlinear response. For this purpose, the system proposes a new, efficient and economic approach that separates the effect of different parameters of the process like excitation, medium and transducer parameters and variables (voltage, current, frequency, impedance, vibration velocity, acoustic pressure and temperature) by observing the electrical, mechanical, acoustical and thermal behavior, and controlling the vibrational state.

  7. Fabrication of metal-matrix composites and adaptive composites using ultrasonic consolidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, C.Y.; Soar, R.C.

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasonic consolidation (UC) has been used to embed thermally sensitive and damage intolerant fibres within aluminium matrix structures using high frequency, low amplitude, mechanical vibrations. The UC process can induce plastic flow in the metal foils being bonded, to allow the embedding of fibres at typically 25% of the melting temperature of the base metal and at a fraction of the clamping force when compared to fusion processes. To date, the UC process has successfully embedded Sigma silicon carbide (SiC) fibres, shape memory alloy wires and optical fibres, which are presented in this paper. The eventual aim of this research is targeted at the fabrication of adaptive composite structures having the ability to measure external stimuli and respond by adapting their structure accordingly, through the action of embedded active and passive functional fibres within a freeform fabricated metal-matrix structure. This paper presents the fundamental studies of this research to identify embedding methods and working range for the fabrication of adaptive composite structures. The methods considered have produced embedded fibre specimens in which large amounts of plastic flow have been observed, within the matrix, as it is deformed around the fibres, resulting in fully consolidated specimens without damage to the fibres. The microscopic observation techniques and macroscopic functionality tests confirms that the UC process could be applied to the fabrication of metal-matrix composites and adaptive composites, where fusion techniques are not feasible and where a 'cold' process is necessary

  8. Three-dimensional ultrasonic imaging of concrete elements using different SAFT data acquisition and processing schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schickert, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic testing systems using transducer arrays and the SAFT (Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique) reconstruction allow for imaging the internal structure of concrete elements. At one-sided access, three-dimensional representations of the concrete volume can be reconstructed in relatively great detail, permitting to detect and localize objects such as construction elements, built-in components, and flaws. Different SAFT data acquisition and processing schemes can be utilized which differ in terms of the measuring and computational effort and the reconstruction result. In this contribution, two methods are compared with respect to their principle of operation and their imaging characteristics. The first method is the conventional single-channel SAFT algorithm which is implemented using a virtual transducer that is moved within a transducer array by electronic switching. The second method is the Combinational SAFT algorithm (C-SAFT), also named Sampling Phased Array (SPA) or Full Matrix Capture/Total Focusing Method (TFM/FMC), which is realized using a combination of virtual transducers within a transducer array. Five variants of these two methods are compared by means of measurements obtained at test specimens containing objects typical of concrete elements. The automated SAFT imaging system FLEXUS is used for the measurements which includes a three-axis scanner with a 1.0 m × 0.8 m scan range and an electronically switched ultrasonic array consisting of 48 transducers in 16 groups. On the basis of two-dimensional and three-dimensional reconstructed images, qualitative and some quantitative results of the parameters image resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, measurement time, and computational effort are discussed in view of application characteristics of the SAFT variants

  9. Development and application of the ultrasonic technologies in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, Nikolay; Krasilnikov, Dmitry; Vasiliev, Albert; Dubinin, Gennady; Yurmanov, Viktor

    2012-09-01

    Efficiency of some traditional chemical technologies in different areas could be significantly increased by adding ultrasonic treatment. For example, ultrasonic treatment was found to improve make-up water systems, decontamination procedures, etc. Improvement of traditional chemical technologies with implementation of ultrasonic treatment has allowed to significantly reducing water waste, including harmful species and radioactive products. The report shows the examples of the recent ultrasonic technology development and application in Russian nuclear engineering. They are as follows: - Preliminary cleaning of surfaces of in-pile parts (e.g. control sensors) prior to their assemblage and welding - Decontamination of grounds and metal surfaces of components with a complex structure -Decrease in sliding friction between fuel rods and grids during VVER reactor fuel assembly manufacturing -Removal of deposits from reactor fuel surfaces in VVER-440s -Increasing the density and strength of pressed sintered items while making fuel pellets and fuel elements, especially mixed-oxide fuel Surface cleanness is very important for the fuel assembly manufacturing, especially prior to welding. An ultrasonic technology for surface cleaning (from graphite and other lubricants, oxides etc.) was developed and implemented. The ultrasonic cleaning is applicable to the parts having both simple shape and different holes. Ultrasonic technology has allowed to improve the surface quality and environmental safety. Ultrasonic treatment appears to be expedient to intensify the chemical decontamination of solid radioactive waste from grounds of different fractions to metallic components. Ultrasonic treatment reduces the decontamination process duration up to 100 times as much. Excellent decontamination factor was received even for the ground fractions below 1 mm. It should be noted that alternative decontamination techniques (e.g. hydraulic separation) are poorly applicable for such ground

  10. Optimizing a cleaning process for multilayer-dielectric- (MLD) diffraction gratings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashe, B. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Giacofei, C. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Myhre, G. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Schmid, A. W. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    2007-12-20

    An essential component for the OMEGA EP short-pulse petawatt laser system is the grating compressor chamber (GCC). This large (12,375 ft3) vacuum chamber contains critical optics where laser-pulse compression is performed at the output of the system on two 40-cm-sq-aperture, IR (1054-nm) laser beams. Critical to this compression, within the GCC, are four sets of tiled multilayer-dielectric- (MLD) diffraction gratings that provide the capability for producing 2.6-kJ output IR energy per beam at 10 ps. The primary requirements for these large-aperture (43-cm × 47-cm) gratings are diffraction efficiencies greater than 95%, peak-to-valley wavefront quality of less than λ/10 waves, and laser-induced-damage thresholds greater than 2.7 J/cm2 at 10-ps measured beam normal. Degradation of the grating laser-damage threshold due to adsorption of contaminants from the manufacturing process must be prevented to maintain system performance. In this paper we discuss an optimized cleaning process to achieve the OMEGA EP requirements. The fabrication of MLD gratings involves processes that utilize a wide variety of both organic materials (photoresist processes) and inorganic materials (metals and metal oxides) that can affect the final cleaning process. Finally, a number of these materials have significant optical absorbance; therefore, incomplete cleaning of these residues may result in the MLD gratings experiencing laser damage.

  11. Development of advanced coal cleaning process; Kodo sekitan kaishitsu gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osaka, S [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Akimoto, A; Yamashita, T [Idemitsu Kosan Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    This paper aims to develop a clean coal production process which excellently removes environmental pollutant, is low-costed, and need no particular systems for distribution of products. The result of the development was described paying attention to column flotation which is a technology to high-efficiently select particulate regions, particulate heavy media cyclone, magnetic separation, and the basic design of the process into which those above were integrated. The two-stage selection process, which is an integration of column flotation and particulate heavy media cyclone into the conventional coal preparation equipment, can produce low-ash clean coal at high separation efficiency and also suppress the rise in processing cost. This process was also effective for removal of sulfur content and trace metal elements. The use of clean coal at power plant can be effective for not only the reduction in ash treatment amount, but the aspect of boiler operation characteristics such as heat transfer efficiency of boiler furnace wall, ash related troubles, loads of electrostatic precipitator, loads of flue gas desulfurization facilities. 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Kinetics Studies on the Process of Zn Removal from Wastewater Using Ultrasonically Activated Sorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Flores

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals pollution in industrial wastewater is a great environmental challenge. Several techniques and materials have been recently proposed in order to overcome this problem, such as the adsorption process; however, in order to be competitive, new improved low-cost materials must be proposed or developed. In the present work, the remediation of Zn-contaminated water using fly ash and Tonsil was studied. Both materials are considered low-cost sorbents since they are a byproduct of an industrial process, or locally abundant in nature. To increase the Zn uptake, the materials were activated by applying ultrasonic energy. It was found that the pH is an important parameter to be controlled since the larger sorption capacity occurred at pH = 4. Also, the materials activated with ultrasound were able to adsorb greater Zn quantities at the studied experimental conditions. Finally, the kinetics of the adsorption process was analyzed, and several mathematical models were proposed to simulate the experimental data. After making some statistical discrimination, the Lagergren model was selected to represent the sorption of Zn on the different materials studied.

  13. Effectiveness of bone cleaning process using chemical and entomology approaches: time and cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Poh Soon; Khoo, Lay See; Mohd Hilmi, Saidin; Ahmad Hafizam, Hasmi; Mohd Shah, Mahmood; Nurliza, Abdullah; Nazni, Wasi Ahmad

    2015-08-01

    Skeletal examination is an important aspect of forensic pathology practice, requiring effective bone cleaning with minimal artefact. This study was conducted to compare between chemical and entomology methods of bone cleaning. Ten subjects between 20 and 40 years old who underwent uncomplicated medico-legal autopsies at the Institute of Forensic Medicine Malaysia were randomly chosen for this descriptive cross sectional study. The sternum bone was divided into 4 parts, each part subjected to a different cleaning method, being two chemical approaches i.e. laundry detergent and a combination of 6% hydrogen peroxide and powder sodium bicarbonate and two entomology approaches using 2nd instar maggots of Chrysomyia rufifacies and Ophyra spinigera. A scoring system for grading the outcome of cleaning was used. The effectiveness of the methods was evaluated based on average weight reduction per day and median number of days to achieve the average score of less than 1.5 within 12 days of the bone cleaning process. Using maggots was the most time-effective and costeffective method, achieving an average weight reduction of 1.4 gm per day, a median of 11.3 days to achieve the desired score and an average cost of MYR 4.10 per case to reach the desired score within 12 days. This conclusion was supported by blind validation by forensic specialists achieving a 77.8% preference for maggots. Emission scanning electron microscopy evaluation also revealed that maggots especially Chrysomyia rufifacies preserved the original condition of the bones better allowing improved elucidation of bone injuries in future real cases.

  14. Offgas system particulate cleaning test and evaluation for the process experimental pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayers, A.L. Jr.; Gale, L.G.; Stermer, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    The process experimental pilot plant (PREPP) incinerates mixed solid waste. The exhaust gas is processed through a wet offgas cleaning system. Rapid loading of the exhaust filters has been a problem and an important contributing factor is the use of quench solution containing a relatively high concentration of dissolved solids. The dissolved solids are released as a submicron particulate when the quench solution evaporates. A series of tests were performed to better identify the nature of the problem and explore solutions to the problem involving modifications to the quench process

  15. Offgas system particulate cleaning test and evaluation for the Process Experimental Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayers, A.L. Jr.; Gale, L.G.; Stermer, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    The Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) incinerates mixed solid waste. The exhaust gas is processed through a wet offgas cleaning system. Rapid loading of the exhaust filters has been a problem and an important contributing factor is the use of a quench solution containing a relatively high concentration of dissolved solids. The dissolved solids are released as a submicron particulate when the quench solution evaporates. A series of tests were performed to better identify the nature of the problem and explore solutions to the problem involving modifications to the quench process. 2 refs., 7 figs

  16. Non-destructive Inspection of Multi-layered Composite Using Ultrasonic Signal Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, S C; Ismail, N; Ali, Aidy; Sahari, Barkawi; Yusof, J M; Chu, B W

    2011-01-01

    Composites exhibit higher strength and stiffness, better design practice and greater corrosion resistance compare to metal material. However, composites are susceptible to impact damage and the typical damage behaviour in the laminated composites is fibre-breakage and delamination. Detection of failure in laminated composites is complicated compared with ordinary non-destructive testing for metal materials as they are sensitive to echoes drown in noise due to the properties of the constituent materials and the multi-layered structure of the composites. In the current study, the detection of failure in multi-layered composite materials is investigated. To obtain a high probability of defect detection in composite materials, signal processing algorithms were used to resolve echoes associated with defects in glass fibre-reinforced plastics (GRP) detected by using ultrasonic testing. Pulse-echo method with single transducer was used to transmit and receive ultrasound. The obtained signals were processed to reduce noise and to extract suitable features. Results were validated on GRP with and without defects in order to demonstrate the feasibility of the method on defect detection in composites.

  17. A transmission and reflection coupled ultrasonic process tomography based on cylindrical miniaturized transducers using PVDF films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, J.; Yang, H.; Fan, F.; Su, M.

    2017-12-01

    A transmission and reflection coupled ultrasonic process tomography has been developed, which is characterized by a proposed dual-mode (DM) reconstruction algorithm, as well as an adaptive search approach to determine an optimal image threshold during the image binarization. In respect of hardware, to improve the accuracy of time-of-flight (TOF) and extend the lowest detection limit of particle size, a cylindrical miniaturized transducer using polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) films is designed. Besides, the development of range-gating technique for the identification of transmission and reflection waves in scanning is discussed. A particle system with four iron particles is then investigated numerically and experimentally to evaluate these proposed methods. The sound pressure distribution in imaging area is predicted numerically, followed by the analysis of the relationship between the emitting surface width of transducer and particle size. After the processing of experimental data for effective waveform extraction and fusion, the comparison between reconstructed results from transmission-mode (TM), reflection-mode (RM), and dual-mode reconstructions is carried out and the latter manifests obvious improvements from the blurring reduction to the enhancement of particle boundary.

  18. Deformation processes in functional materials studied by in situ neutron diffraction and ultrasonic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sittner, P.; Novak, V.; Landa, M.; Lukas, P.

    2007-01-01

    The unique thermomechanical functions of shape memory alloys (hysteretic stress-strain-temperature responses) not their structural properties (as strength, fatigue, corrosion resistance, etc.) are primarily utilized in engineering applications. In order to better understand and predict the functional behavior, we have recently employed two dedicated non-invasive in situ experimental methods capable to follow the deformation/transformation processes in thermomechanically loaded polycrystalline samples. The in situ neutron diffraction method takes advantage of the ability of thermal neutrons to penetrate bulk samples. As a diffraction technique sensitive to interplanar spacings in crystalline solids, it provides in situ information on the changes in crystal structure, phase composition, phase stress and texture in the transforming samples. The combined in situ ultrasonic and electric resistance method follows variations of the electric resistance as well as speed and attenuation of acoustic waves propagating through the transforming sample. The acoustic waves are mainly sensitive to changes of elastic properties accompanying the deformation/transformation processes. The latter method thus follows the changes in interatomic bonds rather than changes in the interplanar lattice spacings focused in the neutron diffraction method. The methods are thus complementary. They are briefly described and selected experimental results obtained recently on NiTi alloys are presented and discussed

  19. Electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Songling; Li, Weibin; Wang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the fundamental theory of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves, together with its applications. It includes the dispersion characteristics and matching theory of guided waves; the mechanism of production and theoretical model of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves; the effect mechanism between guided waves and defects; the simulation method for the entire process of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave propagation; electromagnetic ultrasonic thickness measurement; pipeline axial guided wave defect detection; and electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave detection of gas pipeline cracks. This theory and findings on applications draw on the author’s intensive research over the past eight years. The book can be used for nondestructive testing technology and as an engineering reference work. The specific implementation of the electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave system presented here will also be of value for other nondestructive test developers.

  20. Benefits of integrating chemical and mechanical cleaning processes for steam generator sludge removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varrin, R.D.; Ferriter, A.M.; Oliver, T.W.; Le Surf, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the benefits of performing in-bundle tubesheet lancing in conjunction with chemical cleaning of PWR and PHWR steam generators in which a hard sludge pile is known to exist. The primary benefits of in-bundle lancing are to: (1) increase the exposed area of the sludge pile by cutting furrows in the surface thereby enhancing dissolution of sludge, (2) reduce the volume of solvents required since material removed by lancing does not have to be dissolved chemically, (3) improve rinsing and removal of residual solvent between iron and copper dissolution steps, and (4) allow for verification of process effectiveness by providing high quality in-bundle visual inspection. The reduction in solvent volumes can lead to a significant reduction in solvent costs and waste processing. A case study which includes an economic evaluation for a combined chemical and mechanical cleaning shows a potential cost saving of up to US$ 300,000 over use of chemical cleaning alone. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  1. Automated cleaning and pre-processing of immunoglobulin gene sequences from high-throughput sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miri eMichaeli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available High throughput sequencing (HTS yields tens of thousands to millions of sequences that require a large amount of pre-processing work to clean various artifacts. Such cleaning cannot be performed manually. Existing programs are not suitable for immunoglobulin (Ig genes, which are variable and often highly mutated. This paper describes Ig-HTS-Cleaner (Ig High Throughput Sequencing Cleaner, a program containing a simple cleaning procedure that successfully deals with pre-processing of Ig sequences derived from HTS, and Ig-Indel-Identifier (Ig Insertion – Deletion Identifier, a program for identifying legitimate and artifact insertions and/or deletions (indels. Our programs were designed for analyzing Ig gene sequences obtained by 454 sequencing, but they are applicable to all types of sequences and sequencing platforms. Ig-HTS-Cleaner and Ig-Indel-Identifier have been implemented in Java and saved as executable JAR files, supported on Linux and MS Windows. No special requirements are needed in order to run the programs, except for correctly constructing the input files as explained in the text. The programs' performance has been tested and validated on real and simulated data sets.

  2. Remediation of Diesel Fuel Contaminated Sandy Soil using Ultrasonic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulandari P.S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic cleaning has been used in industry for some time, but the application of ultrasonic cleaning in contaminated soil is just recently received considerable attention, it is a very new technique, especially in Indonesia. An ultrasonic cleaner works mostly by energy released from the collapse of millions of microscopic cavitations near the dirty surface. This paper investigates the use of ultrasonic wave to enhance remediation of diesel fuel contaminated sandy soil considering the ultrasonic power, soil particle size, soil density, water flow rate, and duration of ultrasonic waves application.

  3. Phenol degradation by advanced Fenton process in combination with ultrasonic irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.Z. Yehia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a successful degradation of phenol was achieved by means of coupling nano-sized zero-valent iron (NZVI, H2O2 and 20 kHz ultrasound irradiation. The effect of H2O2 concentration, initial pH, ultrasonic irradiation time and NZVI addition on the degradation efficiency was investigated and the kinetics of the process was discussed. The results showed that the degradation rate increased by increasing the H2O2 concentration and the irradiation time but decreased with the increase of the initial pH value. These results clearly indicate that the degradation of phenol is intensified in the presence of NZVI and H2O2, which can be attributed to enhanced production of ·−OH radicals in the system. The degradation rate in the presence of NZVI was faster than in its absence. Thus, an appropriate selection of operating conditions will lead to an economical and highly efficient technology with eventual large-scale commercial applications for the degradation of organic pollutants in aqueous effluents.

  4. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of cleaning procedures for synchrotron radiation beamline materials at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.; Ryding, D.; Liu, C.; Kuzay, T.M.; McDowell, M.W.; Rosenberg, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    TZM (a high temperature molybdenum alloy), machinable tungsten, and 304 stainless steel were cleaned using environmentally safe, commercially available cleaning detergents. The surface cleanliness was evaluated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that a simple alkaline detergent is very effective at removal of organic and inorganic surface contaminants or foreign particle residue from machining processes. The detergent can be used with ultrasonic agitation at 140 F to clean the TZM molybdenum, machinable tungsten, and 304 stainless steel. A citric-acid-based detergent was also found to be effective at cleaning metal oxides, such as iron oxide, molybdenum oxide, as well as tungsten oxides at mild temperatures with ultrasonic agitation, and it can be used to replace strong inorganic acids to improve cleaning safety and minimize waste disposal and other environmental problems. The efficiency of removing the metal oxides depends on both cleaning temperature and time

  5. Cleaning conveyor belts in the chicken-cutting area of a poultry processing plant with 45°c water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, V M; Pereira, J G; Zanette, C M; Nero, L A; Pinto, J P A N; Barcellos, V C; Bersot, L S

    2014-03-01

    Conveyor belts are widely used in food handling areas, especially in poultry processing plants. Because they are in direct contact with food and it is a requirement of the Brazilian health authority, conveyor belts are required to be continuously cleaned with hot water under pressure. The use of water in this procedure has been questioned based on the hypothesis that water may further disseminate microorganisms but not effectively reduce the organic material on the surface. Moreover, reducing the use of water in processing may contribute to a reduction in costs and emission of effluents. However, no consistent evidence in support of removing water during conveyor belt cleaning has been reported. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to compare the bacterial counts on conveyor belts that were or were not continuously cleaned with hot water under pressure. Superficial samples from conveyor belts (cleaned or not cleaned) were collected at three different times during operation (T1, after the preoperational cleaning [5 a.m.]; T2, after the first work shift [4 p.m.]; and T3, after the second work shift [1:30 a.m.]) in a poultry meat processing facility, and the samples were subjected to mesophilic and enterobacterial counts. For Enterobacteriaceae, no significant differences were observed between the conveyor belts, independent of the time of sampling or the cleaning process. No significant differences were observed between the counts of mesophilic bacteria at the distinct times of sampling on the conveyor belt that had not been subjected to continuous cleaning with water at 45°C. When comparing similar periods of sampling, no significant differences were observed between the mesophilic counts obtained from the conveyor belts that were or were not subjected to continuous cleaning with water at 45°C. Continuous cleaning with water did not significantly reduce microorganism counts, suggesting the possibility of discarding this procedure in chicken processing.

  6. Optimization of the process of pressing safflower seeds in an ultrasonic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Antipov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a mathematical description of the process of pressing safflower seeds in an ultrasonic field in the form of a regression equation found by static methods on the basis of experiments and described by a polynomial of the second degree. As the main factors influencing the efficiency of the process, the ultrasound frequency, the amplitude of the ultrasound, the pressure and the press created in the green chamber were selected. And as a criterion for assessing the effect of the selected parameters, the residual oil content of the cake is used. To assess the adequacy of the mathematical model, the variance analysis (ANOVA of the experiment in the Design Expert v. 10 and the regression equation is obtained, the analysis of which allowed us to identify the factors that most influenced the process under consideration. Found that when the pressure in the press to a value higher than 14 MPa, a further increase in efficiency was observed together with increased values as the ultrasound frequency and its amplitude. The maximum and most effective value residual oil content in oil cake obtained in the frequency 35-40 Hz and amplitude of more than 40 mm and the pressure in the press from 10 to 11 MPa. which are obviously directly dependent on the behavior of grain and movement of its internal parts during the supply of the ultrasound. Graphical interpretation of the equation is represented by curves of equal values and response surfaces for input parameters. A numerical and graphical optimization procedure is also proposed to predict the optimal level of input factors and to obtain the maximum yield of oil relative to the mass of the original feed. To test the adequacy of the model, the results of a number of parallel experiments are presented that fall within the calculated confidence intervals for all quality criteria.

  7. Industrial rag cleaning process for the environmentally safe removal of petroleum-based solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fierro, J.V.

    1993-01-01

    A process for the cleaning of industrial rags contaminated with environmentally unsafe petroleum-based solvent is described, comprising the step of: (a) placing a load of the industrial rags in a mechanically driven rotary drum; (b) revolving the drum at a high speed sufficient to physically extract liquid petroleum-based solvent contaminate from the industrial rags; (c) routing the extracted petroleum-based solvent contaminate from the rotary drum to a waste solvent collection line for environmentally safe disposal; (d) revolving the rotary drum to cause a tumbling of the industrial rags while maintaining the temperature within the drum at below the flash point of the petroleum-based solvent; (e) intermittently forcing cold air and hot air through the rotary drum to vaporize solvent from the industrial rags; (f) routing the vaporized petroleum-based solvent contaminant from the rotary drum to a condenser wherein the petroleum-based solvent contaminate is condensed and thereafter further routing said condensed solvent to a waste collection line for environmentally safe disposal; and (g) cleaning the industrial rags in the presence of a dry cleaning solvent to remove residual petroleum-based solvents and soil

  8. Self Cleaning High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filtration without Interrupting Process Flow - 59347

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The strategy of protecting the traditional glass fibre HEPA filtration train from it's blinding contamination and the recovery of dust by the means of self cleaning, pre-filtration is a proven means in the reduction of ultimate disposal volumes and has been used within the Fuel Production Industry. However, there is an increasing demand in nuclear applications requiring elevated operating temperatures, fire resistance, moisture resistance and chemical composition that the existing glass fibre HEPA filtration cannot accommodate, which can be remedied by the use of a metallic HEPA filter media. Previous research suggests that the then costs to the Department of Energy (DOE), based on a five year life cycle, was $29.5 million for the installation, testing, removal and disposal of glass fibre HEPA filtration trains. Within these costs, $300 was the value given to the filter and $4, 450 was given to the peripheral activity. Development of a low cost, cleanable, metallic, direct replacement of the traditional filter train will the clear solution. The Bergman et al work has suggested that a 1000 ft 3 /min, cleanable, stainless HEPA could be commercially available for $5, 000 each, whereas the industry has determined that the truer cost of such an item in isolation would be closer to $15, 000. This results in a conflict within the requirement between 'low cost' and 'stainless HEPA'. By proposing a system that combines metallic HEPA filtration with the ability to self clean without interrupting the process flow, the need for a tradition HEPA filtration train will be eliminated and this dramatically reduces the resources required for cleaning or disposal, thus presenting a route to reducing ultimate costs. The paper will examine the performance characteristics, filtration efficiency, flow verses differential pressure and cleanability of a self cleaning HEPA grade sintered metal filter element, together with data to prove the contention. (authors)

  9. Use of the ultrasonic cavitation in wool dyeing process: Effect of the dye-bath temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Actis Grande, G; Giansetti, M; Pezzin, A; Rovero, G; Sicardi, S

    2017-03-01

    The present work aims to study the effect of the liquid temperature on the performance of ultrasounds (US) in a dyeing process. The approach was both theoretical and experimental. In the theoretical part the simplified model of a single bubble implosion is used to demonstrate that the "maximum implosion pressure" calculated with the well known Rayleigh-Plesset equation for a single bubble can be correlated with the cavitation intensity experimentally measured with an Ultrasonic Energy Meter (by PPB Megasonics). In particular the model was used to study the influence of the fluid temperature on the cavitation intensity. The "relative" theoretical data calculated from the implosion pressure were satisfactorily correlated with the experimental ones and evidence a zone, between 50 and 60°C, were the cavitation intensity is almost constant and still sufficiently high. Hence an experimental part of wool dyeing was carried out both to validate the previous results and to verify the dyeing quality at low temperatures (40-70°C) in presence of US. A prototype dyeing equipment able to treat textile samples with US system of 600W power, was used. The dyeing performances in the presence and absence of US were verified by measuring ΔE (colour variation), R e,% (reflectance percentage), K/S (colour strength) and colour fastness. The US tests performed in the temperature range of 40-70°C were compared with the conventional wool dyeing at 98°C. The obtained results show that a temperature close to 60°C should be chosen as the recommended US dyeing condition, being a compromise between the cavitation intensity and the kinetics which rules the dyestuff diffusion within the fibres. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A Facile in Situ and UV Printing Process for Bioinspired Self-Cleaning Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina A. González Lazo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A facile in situ and UV printing process was demonstrated to create self-cleaning synthetic replica of natural petals and leaves. The process relied on the spontaneous migration of a fluorinated acrylate surfactant (PFUA within a low-shrinkage acrylated hyperbranched polymer (HBP and its chemical immobilization at the polymer-air interface. Dilute concentrations of 1 wt. % PFUA saturated the polymer-air interface within 30 min, leading to a ten-fold increase of fluorine concentration at the surface compared with the initial bulk concentration and a water contact angle (WCA of 108°. A 200 ms flash of UV light was used to chemically crosslink the PFUA at the HBP surface prior to UV printing with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS negative template of red and yellow rose petals and lotus leaves. This flash immobilization hindered the reverse migration of PFUA within the bulk HBP upon contacting the PDMS template, and enabled to produce texturized surfaces with WCA well above 108°. The synthetic red rose petal was hydrophobic (WCA of 125° and exhibited the adhesive petal effect. It was not superhydrophobic due to insufficient concentration of fluorine at its surface, a result of the very large increase of the surface of the printed texture. The synthetic yellow rose petal was quasi-superhydrophobic (WCA of 143°, roll-off angle of 10° and its self-cleaning ability was not good also due to lack of fluorine. The synthetic lotus leaf did not accurately replicate the intricate nanotubular crystal structures of the plant. In spite of this, the fluorine concentration at the surface was high enough and the leaf was superhydrophobic (WCA of 151°, roll-off angle below 5° and also featured self-cleaning properties.

  11. Researches in increase of efficiency of electrokinetic process of ground cleaning from radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prozorov, L.B.; Shcheglov, M.Y.; Nikolaevsky, V.B.; Tkachenko, A.V.

    2003-01-01

    Potentially perspective method of decontamination of ground is electrokinetic method, which basic advantage consists in an opportunity of its application for clearing ground with low filtering by ability directly on a place of local contaminated (in situ). Thus moving the large volumes of the contaminated ground is excluded. Base of this method is the processes of electromigration and electro-osmotic, proceeding in a contaminated ground lay at imposing an electrical field of a constant current. Electrokinetic method of cleaning of ground from radionuclides provides their transfer in water-soluble, mobile form, carry as positive or negative ions under influence of an electrical field into electrode chambers with their subsequent recycling.Electrokinetic method in practice can be realized as follows: in the contaminated ground establish special electrode devices, fill their electrolyte and connect to a source of a constant current. Formed in the anode device as a result of electrochemical decomposition of water the ions of hydrogen under action of an electrical field move to the cathode, thus cooperate with a ground and superside cations of radioactive elements. Desorbed cations of contaminate act in catholyte, which periodically or continuously is exposed to clearing, for example, on sorption column. Last years the experts MosNPO Radon carry out complex researches directed on development of electrokinetic technology of cleaning ground from radionuclides and heavy metals. To the present time laboratory and bench tests of electrokinetic method are carried out. The basic attention at study of process of cleaning was given to objects contaminated Cs-137, most difficult recovery an element, which is strongly fixed by clay minerals and can enter into crystal structure. (authors)

  12. Diamond-cleaning investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derry, T.E.

    Four parcels of diamonds which either had or had not been cleaned using the usual techniques, chiefly involving etch in molten potassium nitrate were supplied by De Beers Diamond Research Laboratories. Each parcel contained about 40 stones, amounting to about 10 carats. Half the diamonds in each parcel were cleaned by a standard procedure involving half an hours ultrasonic agitation in a 20% solution of the commercial detergent 'Contrad' which is effectively a surfactant and chelating agent. Visual comparisons by a number of observers who were not told the stones' histories, established that these diamonds generally had a more sparkling appearance after the cleaning procedure had been applied

  13. Contribution of the ultrasonic simulation to the testing methods qualification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Ber, L.; Calmon, P.; Abittan, E.

    2001-01-01

    The CEA and EDF have started a study concerning the simulation interest in the qualification of nuclear components control by ultrasonic methods. In this framework, the simulation tools of the CEA, as CIVA, have been tested on real control. The method and the results obtained on some examples are presented. (A.L.B.)

  14. Numerical modeling of the dispersion of ceramic nanoparticles during ultrasonic processing of aluminum-based nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daojie Zhang

    2014-10-01

    The modeling parametric study includes the effects of the fluid flow, the ultrasonic probe location, nanoparticle size distribution, and initial location where the nanoparticles are released into the molten alloy. It was determined that the nanoparticles can be distributed quickly and uniformly into the molten 6061 alloy.

  15. Immersion apparatus and process for an ultrasonic transducer in a liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Baud, P.

    1987-01-01

    The ultrasonic transducer is introduced in a casing. The coupling zone of the transducer is covered by a layer of liquid metal. This layer is solidified and then the transducer with his coating layer is introduced in the liquid metal under an inert atmosphere. The device for immersing the transducer is claimed [fr

  16. AN ELECTROLYTIC CIP-CLEANING PROCESS FOR REMOVING IMPURITIES FROM THE INNER SURFACE OF A METALLIC CONTAINER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to a novel electrolytic process for removing impurities from the inner surface of a metallic container. The process is particularly useful for cleaning process reactors used for culturing microorganisms, and storage tanks used for storing metabolites formed in the process...... reactor, as well as containers for dairy products....

  17. Fabrication of free standing anodic titanium oxide membranes with clean surface using recycling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xianhui; Lee, Tae-Young; Chen, Huiyu; Shin, Dong-Wook; Kwon, Kee-Won; Kwon, Sang Jik; Yoo, Ji-Beom

    2010-07-01

    Large area of self-organized, free standing anodic titanium oxide (ATO) nanotube membranes with clean surfaces were facilely prepared to desired lengths via electrochemical anodization of highly pure Ti sheets in an ethylene glycol electrolyte, with a small amount of NH4F and H2O at 50 V, followed by self-detachment of the ATO membrane from the Ti substrate using recycling processes. In the first anodization step, the nanowire oxide layer existed over the well-arranged ATO nanotube. After sufficiently rinsing with water, the whole ATO layer was removed from the Ti sheet by high pressure N2 gas, and a well-patterned dimple layer with a thickness of about 30 nm existed on the Ti substrate. By using these naturally formed nano-scale pits as templates, in the second and third anodization process, highly ordered, vertically aligned, and free standing ATO membranes with the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO)-like clean surface were obtained. The inter-pore distance and diameter was 154 +/- 2 nm and 91+/- 2 nm, the tube arrays lengths for 25 and 46 hours were 44 and 70 microm, respectively. The present study demonstrates a simple approach to producing high quality, length controllable, large area TiO2 membrane.

  18. Ultrasonic horn design for ultrasonic machining technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naď M.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Many of industrial applications and production technologies are based on the application of ultrasound. In many cases, the phenomenon of ultrasound is also applied in technological processes of the machining of materials. The main element of equipments that use the effects of ultrasound for machining technology is the ultrasonic horn – so called sonotrode. The performance of ultrasonic equipment, respectively ultrasonic machining technologies depends on properly designed of sonotrode shape. The dynamical properties of different geometrical shapes of ultrasonic horns are presented in this paper. Dependence of fundamental modal properties (natural frequencies, mode shapes of various sonotrode shapes for various geometrical parameters is analyzed. Modal analyses of the models are determined by the numerical simulation using finite element method (FEM design procedures. The mutual comparisons of the comparable parameters of the various sonotrode shapes are presented.

  19. Ultrasonic signature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borloo, E.; Crutzen, S.

    1974-12-01

    The unique and tamperproof identification technique developed at Ispra is based on ultrasonic Non-Destructive-Techniques. Reading fingerprints with ultrasonic requires high reproducibility of standard apparatus and transducers. The present report gives an exhaustive description of the ultrasonic technique developed for identification purposes. Different applications of the method are described

  20. Processing method for chemical cleaning liquid on the secondary side of steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, Yukio; Inagaki, Yuzo.

    1993-01-01

    Upon processing nitrilotriacetate (NTA), Fe liquid wastes mainly comprising Fe and Cu liquid wastes mainly comprising ethylene diamine and Cu generated upon chemical cleaning on the secondary side of a steam generator, pH of the Fe liquid wastes is lowered to deposit and separate NTA. Then, Fe ions in a filtrates are deposited on a cathode by electrolysis, as well as remaining NTA is decomposed by oxidation at an anode by O 2 gas. Cu liquid wastes are reacted with naphthalene disulfate and Ba ions and the reaction products are separated by deposition as sludges. Remaining Cu ions in the filtrates are deposited on the cathode by electrolysis. With such procedures, concentration of COD(NTA), Fe ions and Cu ions can greatly be reduced. Further, since capacity of the device can easily be increased in this method, a great amount of liquid wastes can be processed in a relatively short period of time. (T.M.)

  1. [Cleaning and disinfection of surfaces in hospitals: Data on structure, process and result in the Frankfurt/Main Metropolitan Area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausemann, A; Hofmann, H; Otto, U; Heudorf, Ursel

    2015-06-01

    In addition to hand hygiene and reprocessing of medical products, cleaning and disinfection of surfaces is also an important issue in the prevention of germ transmission and by implication infections. Therefore, in 2014, the quality of the structure, process and result of surface preparation of all hospitals in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, was monitored. All 17 hospitals transferred information on the quality of structure. Process quality was obtained through direct observation during cleaning and disinfection of rooms and their plumbing units. Result quality was gained using the fluorescent method, i.e. marking surfaces with a fluorescent liquid and testing if this mark has been sufficiently removed by cleaning. Structure quality: in all hospitals the employees were trained regularly. In 12 of them, the foremen had the required qualifications, in 6 hospitals unclarity as to the intersection of the cleaning and care services remained. In 14 hospitals only visible contamination was cleaned on the weekends, whereas complete cleaning was reported to take place in 12 hospitals on Saturdays and in 2 hospitals on Sundays. The contractually stipulated cleaning (observations specified in brackets) averaged 178 m(2)/h (148 m(2)/h) per patient room and 69 m(2)/h (33 m(2)/h) for bathrooms. Process quality: during process monitoring, various hand contact surfaces were prepared insufficiently. Result quality: 63 % of fluorescent markings were appropriately removed. The need for improvement is given especially in the area of the qualification of the foremen and a in a clear definition of the intersection between cleaning and care services, as well as in the regulations for weekends and public holidays.

  2. Cleaning and Disinfection of Biofilms Composed of Listeria monocytogenes and Background Microbiota from Meat Processing Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møretrø, Trond; Heir, Even; Briandet, Romain; Langsrud, Solveig

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Surfaces of food processing premises are exposed to regular cleaning and disinfection (C&D) regimes, using biocides that are highly effective against bacteria growing as planktonic cells. However, bacteria growing in surface-associated communities (biofilms) are typically more tolerant toward C&D than their individual free-cell counterparts, and survival of pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes may be affected by interspecies interactions within biofilms. In this study, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter were the most frequently isolated genera surviving on conveyor belts subjected to C&D in meat processing plants. In the laboratory, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, and L. monocytogenes dominated the community, both in suspensions and in biofilms formed on conveyor belts, when cultures were inoculated with eleven-genus cocktails of representative bacterial strains from the identified background flora. When biofilms were exposed to daily C&D cycles mimicking treatments used in food industry, the levels of Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas mandelii diminished, and biofilms were instead dominated by Pseudomonas putida (65 to 76%), Pseudomonas fluorescens (11 to 15%) and L. monocytogenes (3 to 11%). The dominance of certain species after daily C&D correlated with high planktonic growth rates at 12°C and tolerance to C&D. In single-species biofilms, L. monocytogenes developed higher tolerance to C&D over time, for both the peracetic acid and quaternary ammonium disinfectants, indicating that a broad-spectrum mechanism was involved. Survival after C&D appeared to be a common property of L. monocytogenes strains, as persistent and sporadic subtypes showed equal survival rates in complex biofilms. Biofilms established preferentially in surface irregularities of conveyor belts, potentially constituting harborage sites for persistent contamination. IMPORTANCE In the food industry, efficient production hygiene is a key measure to avoid the accumulation of spoilage bacteria and

  3. Cleaning and disinfection of biofilms composed of Listeria monocytogenes and background microbiota from meat processing surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerlund, Annette; Møretrø, Trond; Heir, Even; Briandet, Romain; Langsrud, Solveig

    2017-06-30

    Surfaces of food processing premises are exposed to regular cleaning and disinfection (C&D) regimes, using biocides that are highly effective against bacteria growing as planktonic cells. However, bacteria growing in surface associated communities (biofilms) are typically more tolerant towards C&D than their individual free cells counterparts, and survival of pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes may be affected by interspecies interactions within biofilms. In this study, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter were the most frequently isolated genera surviving on conveyor belts subjected to C&D in meat processing plants. In the laboratory, Pseudomonas , Acinetobacter and L. monocytogenes dominated the community both in suspensions and in biofilms formed on conveyor belts, when cultures were inoculated with eleven-genera cocktails of representative bacterial strains from the identified background flora. When biofilms were exposed to daily C&D cycles, mimicking treatments used in food industry, the levels of Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas mandelii diminished, and biofilms were instead dominated by Pseudomonas putida (65-76%), Pseudomonas fluorescens (11-15%) and L. monocytogenes (3-11%). The dominance of certain species after daily C&D correlated with high planktonic growth rates at 12°C and tolerance to C&D. In single-species biofilms, L. monocytogenes developed higher tolerance to C&D over time, both for the peracetic acid and quaternary ammonium disinfectant, indicating that a broad-spectrum mechanism was involved. Survival after C&D appeared to be a common property of L. monocytogenes strains, as both persistent and sporadic subtypes showed equal survival in complex biofilms. Biofilms established preferentially in surface irregularities of conveyor belts, potentially constituting harborage sites for persistent contamination. IMPORTANCE In food industry, efficient production hygiene is a key measure to avoid accumulation of spoilage bacteria and eliminate pathogens

  4. Application of rapid read-out cleaning indicators for improved process control in hospital sterile services departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, P G; Modi, T; McLeod, N; Bock, L J; Smith, C; Poolman, T M; Warburton, R; Meighan, P; Wells, P; Sutton, J M

    2013-05-01

    Heightened awareness of the importance of cleaning has led to an emphasis on automated systems for the decontamination of re-usable medical devices. The authors have previously described an enzymatic indicator system, based on thermostable adenylate kinases (tAK), for quantitative monitoring of automated cleaning processes within hospital sterile services departments (SSDs). To evaluate tAK indicators for routine process monitoring across a range of SSDs with different cleaning chemistries and different automated washer disinfectors (AWDs). tAK indicator devices and alternative industry test indicators were included in five independent cleaning cycles in each of eight different AWDs. Residual tAK post wash was determined by a coupled luciferase assay using a modified hygiene monitoring system. In all cases, with the exception of a single test, the alternative indicators showed that cleaning had been adequate. They were not able to discriminate between the performance of different processes. In contrast, the tAK indicators were able to resolve differences in the performance of processes across the different SSDs. Where the tAK indicators identified cleaning to the limits of detection of the assay, this demonstrated a log10 enzyme removal factor of >5.69. The results suggest that tAK indicators are suitable for providing improved process control for automated cleaning processes, being able to distinguish between wash performance in different hospital settings and between individual process runs. This technology is believed to be a useful addition to routine AWD performance qualification when used as a daily or weekly test. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Combined microfluidization and ultrasonication: a synergistic protocol for high-efficient processing of SWCNT dispersions with high quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Sida, E-mail: s.luo@buaa.edu.cn [Beihang University, School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation (China); Liu, Tao, E-mail: tliu@fsu.edu [Florida State University, High-Performance Materials Institute (United States); Wang, Yong; Li, Liuhe [Beihang University, School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation (China); Wang, Guantao; Luo, Yun [China University of Geosciences, Center of Safety Research, School of Engineering and Technology (China)

    2016-08-15

    High-efficient and large-scale production of high-quality CNT dispersions is necessary for meeting the future needs to develop various CNT-based electronic devices. Herein, we have designed novel processing protocols by combining conventional ultrasonication process with a new microfluidization technique to produce high-quality SWCNT dispersions with improved processing efficiency. To judge the quality of SWCNT dispersions, one critical factor is the degree of exfoliation, which could be quantified by both geometrical dimension of the exfoliated nanotubes and percentage of individual tubes in a given dispersion. In this paper, the synergistic effect of the combined protocols was systematically investigated through evaluating SWCNT dispersions with newly developed characterization techniques, namely preparative ultracentrifuge method (PUM) and simultaneous Raman scattering and photoluminescence spectroscopy (SRSPL). The results of both techniques draw similar conclusions that as compared with either of the processes operated separately, a low-pass microfluidization followed by a reasonable duration of ultrasonication could substantially improve the processing efficiency to produce high-quality SWCNT dispersions with averaged particle length and diameter as small as ~600 and ~2 nm, respectively.Graphical abstract.

  6. Si-compatible cleaning process for graphene using low-density inductively coupled plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yeong-Dae; Lee, Dae-Yeong; Shen, Tian-Zi; Ra, Chang-Ho; Choi, Jae-Young; Yoo, Won Jong

    2012-05-22

    We report a novel cleaning technique for few-layer graphene (FLG) by using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) of Ar with an extremely low plasma density of 3.5 × 10(8) cm(-3). It is known that conventional capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) treatments destroy the planar symmetry of FLG, giving rise to the generation of defects. However, ICP treatment with extremely low plasma density is able to remove polymer resist residues from FLG within 3 min at a room temperature of 300 K while retaining the carbon sp(2)-bonding of FLG. It is found that the carrier mobility and charge neutrality point of FLG are restored to their pristine defect-free state after the ICP treatment. Considering the application of graphene to silicon-based electronic devices, such a cleaning method can replace thermal vacuum annealing, electrical current annealing, and wet-chemical treatment due to its advantages of being a low-temperature, large-area, high-throughput, and Si-compatible process.

  7. Clean recycle and utilization of hazardous iron-bearing waste in iron ore sintering process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Min; Ji, Zhiyun; Fan, Xiaohui; Chen, Xuling; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Guojing; Tian, Ye; Jiang, Tao

    2018-04-18

    Applying recycled iron-bearing waste materials (RIM) into iron ore sintering process is the general disposal approach worldwide, while its use is still a thorny problem. Results showed that adding RIM increased contents of hazardous elements (K, Na, Pb, Zn, and Cl) in sinter product, and also enhanced emission concentration of PM 2.5 in flue gas; increasing reaction temperature, and contents of CaO & coke breeze in raw mixtures improved hazardous elements removal. Based on these features, a novel method through granulating natural iron ores and RIM separately and distributing granulated RIM in bottom sintering layers was proposed for clean RIM cycle. When recycling 5% RIM, granulating RIM separately with higher contents of CaO and coke breeze removed hazardous elements effectively, the contents of which in sinter were reduced to comparable level of the case without RIM. Moreover, distributing RIM in bottom sintering layer reached intensive release of hazardous elements and PM 2.5 during sintering, which reduced the flue gas volume needing purification by about 2/3. Through activated carbon purification, about 60% of PM 2.5 comprised high contents of hazardous elements was removed. Novel technique eliminated the negative impact of RIM and has the prospect to reach clean recycle in sinter-making plants. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Ultrasonic testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Sung Jin [Sungkwunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hyun Jo [Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    For the proper performance of ultrasonic testing of steel welded joints, and anisotropic material it is necessary to have sound understanding on the underlying physics. To provide such an understanding, it is beneficial to have simulation tools for ultrasonic testing. In order to address such a need, we develop effective approaches to simulate angle beam ultrasonic testing with a personal computer. The simulation is performed using ultrasonic measurement models based on the computationally efficient multi-Gaussian beams. This reach will describe the developed ultrasonic testing models together with the experimental verification of their accuracy.

  9. Alcohol sensing of tin oxide thin film prepared by sol–gel process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    variation of sensitivity and ethanol concentration has shown a linear relationship up to 1150 ppm and after ... The results obtained favour the sol–gel process as a low cost method for the preparation ... It was cleaned ultrasonically in methanol.

  10. Determination of properties of clean coal technology post-process residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Klupa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the possibilities of using modern measuring devices to determine the properties of process residues (Polish acronym: UPP. UPP was taken from the combustion process from a power plant in Silesia. Determining the properties of UPP is the basis for making decisions about its practical application, for example, as a raw material to obtain useful products such as: pozzolan, cenosphere or zeolite, for which there is demand. The development of advanced technology and science has given rise to modern and precise research tools that contribute to the development of appropriate methods to assess the properties of post-process residue. For this study the following were used: scanning electron microscope with EDS microanalysis and an analyzer for particle size-, shape- and number- analysis. The study conducted confirms the effectiveness of SEM analysis to determine the properties of post-process residue from Clean Coal Technologies (CCT. The results obtained are an introduction to further research on the determination of properties of CCT post-process residue. Research to determine the properties of CCT post-process residue only began relatively recently.

  11. Laser Peening Process and Its Impact on Materials Properties in Comparison with Shot Peening and Ultrasonic Impact Peening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujba, Abdullahi K.; Medraj, Mamoun

    2014-01-01

    The laser shock peening (LSP) process using a Q-switched pulsed laser beam for surface modification has been reviewed. The development of the LSP technique and its numerous advantages over the conventional shot peening (SP) such as better surface finish, higher depths of residual stress and uniform distribution of intensity were discussed. Similar comparison with ultrasonic impact peening (UIP)/ultrasonic shot peening (USP) was incorporated, when possible. The generation of shock waves, processing parameters, and characterization of LSP treated specimens were described. Special attention was given to the influence of LSP process parameters on residual stress profiles, material properties and structures. Based on the studies so far, more fundamental understanding is still needed when selecting optimized LSP processing parameters and substrate conditions. A summary of the parametric studies of LSP on different materials has been presented. Furthermore, enhancements in the surface micro and nanohardness, elastic modulus, tensile yield strength and refinement of microstructure which translates to increased fatigue life, fretting fatigue life, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and corrosion resistance were addressed. However, research gaps related to the inconsistencies in the literature were identified. Current status, developments and challenges of the LSP technique were discussed. PMID:28788284

  12. Separated reconstruction of images from ultrasonic holograms with tridimensional object by digital processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Because of much attractiveness, digital reconstruction of image from ultrasonic hologram by computer has been widely studied in recent years. But the method of digital reconstruction of image is displayed in the plain only, so study is done mainly of the hologram obtained from bidimensional objects. Many applications of the ultrasonic holography such as the non-distructive testing and the ultrasonic diagnosis are mostly of the tridimensional object. In the ordinary digital reconstruction of the image from the hologram obtained from tridimensional object, a question of hidden-image problem arises, and the separated reconstruction of the image for the considered part of the object is required. In this paper, multi-diffraction by tridimensional object is assumed to have linearity, ie. superposition property by each diffraction of bidimensional objects. And a new algorithm is proposed here, namely reconstructed image for considered one of bidimensional objects in tridimensional object obtained by means of operation from the two holograms tilted in unequal angles. Such tilted holograms are obtained from the tilted linear array receivers by scanning method. That images can be reconstructed by the operation from two holograms means that the new algorithm is verified. And another new method of the transformation of hologram, that is, transformation of a hologram to arbitrarily tilted hologram, has been proved valid. The reconstructed images obtained with the method of transformation and the method of operation, are the images reconstructed from one hologram by the tridimensional object and more distinctly separated that any images mentioned above. (author)

  13. Dry Phosphorus silicate glass etching and surface conditioning and cleaning for multi-crystalline silicon solar cell processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagilik, Ahmed S.

    2014-01-01

    As an alternative to the wet chemical etching method, dry chemical etching processes for Phosphorus silicate glass [PSG} layer removal using Trifluormethane/Sulfur Hexafluoride (CHF 3 / SF 6 ) gas mixture in commercial silicon-nitride plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (SiN-PECVD) system is applied. The dependence of the solar cell performance on the etching temperature is investigated and optimized. It is found that the SiN-PECVD system temperature variation has a significant impact on the whole solar cell characteristics. A dry plasma cleaning treatment of the Si wafer surface after the PSG removal step is also investigated and developed. The cleaning step is used to remove the polymer film which is formed during the PSG etching using both oxygen and hydrogen gases. By applying an additional cleaning step, the polymer film deposited on the silicon wafer surface after PSG etching is eliminated. The effect of different plasma cleaning conditions on solar cell performance is investigated. After optimization of the plasma operating conditions, the performance of the solar cell is improved and the overall gain in efficiency of 0.6% absolute is yielded compared to a cell without any further cleaning step. On the other hand, the best solar cell characteristics can reach values close to that achieved by the conventional wet chemical etching processes demonstrating the effectiveness of the additional O 2 /H 2 post cleaning treatment.(author)

  14. Investigation of the timesaver process for de-burring and cleaning the plate for the Atlas Tilecalorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarino, V.; Kocenko, L.; Wood, K.

    1997-01-01

    The Timesaver belt grinding machine has been selected by the Atlas collaboration for deburring the master and spacer plates after die stamping and laser cutting, respectively. However, the question has been raised as to whether or not the plates are sufficiently clean after going through the Timesaver machine to immediately be glued into a submodule assembly. This would greatly enhance the production of submodules because the task of cleaning individual master and spacer plates is labor intensive and time consuming as well as raises environmental issues with the detergent that is used. In order to investigate the possibility of using the Timesaver process to clean the plates as well as debur them, several plates were run through the machine and their cleanliness inspected before and after. In addition, several glue samples were subjected to the same process, glued, and then pulled apart in an attempt to gauge the cleanliness of the plates. From this series of tests it can be concluded that the wet Timesaver machine can adequately prepare the surface of the master and spacer plates as well as clean the plates for gluing. The machine was able to adequately remove all of the oil and grime from the test plates. Also, from the single test on the dry machine it appears that significant cleaning will be required to adequately clean the plates before gluing in order to remove the remaining grit

  15. Bench-scale testing of a micronized magnetite, fine-coal cleaning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suardini, P.J. [Custom Coals, International, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Custom Coals, International has installed and is presently testing a 500 lb/hr. micronized-magnetite, fine-coal cleaning circuit at PETC`s Process Research Facility (PRF). The cost-shared project was awarded as part of the Coal Preparation Program`s, High Efficiency Preparation Subprogram. The project includes design, construction, testing, and decommissioning of a fully-integrated, bench-scale circuit, complete with feed coal classification to remove the minus 30 micron slimes, dense medium cycloning of the 300 by 30 micron feed coal using a nominal minus 10 micron size magnetite medium, and medium recovery using drain and rinse screens and various stages and types of magnetic separators. This paper describes the project circuit and goals, including a description of the current project status and the sources of coal and magnetite which are being tested.

  16. Physicochemical changes and microbial inactivation after high-intensity ultrasound processing of prebiotic whey beverage applying different ultrasonic power levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Jonas T; Silva, Eric Keven; Alvarenga, Verônica O; Costa, Ana Letícia R; Cunha, Rosiane L; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Freitas, Monica Q; Meireles, M Angela A; Cruz, Adriano G

    2018-06-01

    In this work, we investigated the effects of the ultrasonic power (0, 200, 400 and 600 W) on non-thermal processing of an inulin-enriched whey beverage. We studied the effects of high-intensity ultrasound (HIUS) on microbial inactivation (aerobic mesophilic heterotrophic bacteria (AMHB), total and thermotolerant coliforms and yeasts and molds), zeta potential, microstructure (optical microscopy, particle size distribution), rheology, kinetic stability and color. The non-thermal processing applying 600 W of ultrasonic power was comparable to high-temperature short-time (HTST) treatment (75 °C for 15 s) concerning the inactivation of AMHB and yeasts and molds (2 vs 2 log and 0.2 vs 0.4 log, respectively), although HIUS has reached a lower output temperature (53 ± 3 °C). The HIUS was better than HTST to improve beverage kinetic stability, avoiding phase separation, which was mainly attributed to the decrease of particles size, denaturation of whey proteins and gelation of polysaccharides (inulin and gellan gum). Thus, non-thermal processing by HIUS seems to be an interesting technology for prebiotic dairy beverages production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cleaning Process Versus Laser-Damage Threshold of Coated Optical Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigatti, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    The cleaning of optical surfaces is important in the manufacture of high-laser-damage-threshold coatings, which are a key component on peak-power laser systems such as OMEGA located at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). Since cleaning adds time, labor, and ultimately cost to the final coated component, this experiment was designed to determine the impact of different cleaning protocols on the measured laser-damage performance

  18. Recovery of clean coal fines through a combination of gravity concentrator and flotation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, A.K.; Banerjee, P.K.; Dutta, A.; Mishra, A. [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur (India). Research & Development

    2007-07-01

    Flotation feed is a mixture of coarse and ultra-fine fractions. During conditioning of the flotation feed with collector and frother, the finer fraction consumes more reagents as compared to coarser particles. This is mainly due to more specific surface area of the ultra fine than the coarse fraction. This favors the adsorption of reagents toward ultra-finer fractions leads to less complete surface coverage of coarse particles and more entrainment of finer gangue particles. This results in the lower yield of coarse fractions from the flotation circuit and loss in selectivity. Hence, the major challenge is to improve the recovery of the coarser fraction and selectivity of ultra-fine fractions by improving flotation kinetics of all size fractions. This article deals with an approach to overcome the improper reagent adsorption by fine and coarse coal fractions in the flotation circuit through an innovative washing circuit containing gravity operation and flotation processes. Flotation performance between a new washing circuit having stub cyclone and flotation and normal single-stage reagent addition flotation process is compared in terms of selectivity, separation efficiency, rate constant, and size-wise recovery. The washing circuit having stub cyclone and flotation processes improves the fine clean coal yield by 10% and reduces the consumption of reagent compared to the normal single-stage reagent addition flotation process.

  19. Progress on Numerical Modeling of the Dispersion of Ceramic Nanoparticles During Ultrasonic Processing and Solidification of Al-Based Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Daojie; Nastac, Laurentiu

    2016-12-01

    In present study, 6061- and A356-based nano-composites are fabricated by using the ultrasonic stirring technology (UST) in a coreless induction furnace. SiC nanoparticles are used as the reinforcement. Nanoparticles are added into the molten metal and then dispersed by ultrasonic cavitation and acoustic streaming assisted by electromagnetic stirring. The applied UST parameters in the current experiments are used to validate a recently developed magneto-hydro-dynamics (MHD) model, which is capable of modeling the cavitation and nanoparticle dispersion during UST processing. The MHD model accounts for turbulent fluid flow, heat transfer and solidification, and electromagnetic field, as well as the complex interaction between the nanoparticles and both the molten and solidified alloys by using ANSYS Maxwell and ANSYS Fluent. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are conducted to analyze the complex interactions between the nanoparticle and the liquid/solid interface. The current modeling results demonstrate that a strong flow can disperse the nanoparticles relatively well during molten metal and solidification processes. MD simulation results prove that ultrafine particles (10 nm) will be engulfed by the solidification front instead of being pushed, which is beneficial for nano-dispersion.

  20. Void fraction measurement in two-phase flow processes via symbolic dynamic filtering of ultrasonic signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Subhadeep; Keller, Eric; Talley, Justin; Srivastav, Abhishek; Ray, Asok; Kim, Seungjin

    2009-01-01

    This communication introduces a non-intrusive method for void fraction measurement and identification of two-phase flow regimes, based on ultrasonic sensing. The underlying algorithm is built upon the recently reported theory of a statistical pattern recognition method called symbolic dynamic filtering (SDF). The results of experimental validation, generated on a laboratory test apparatus, show a one-to-one correspondence between the flow measure derived from SDF and the void fraction measured by a conductivity probe. A sharp change in the slope of flow measure is found to be in agreement with a transition from fully bubbly flow to cap-bubbly flow. (rapid communication)

  1. Automated ultrasonic inspection of IGSCC in DOE production reactor process water piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, J.M.; Sprayberry, R.; Ehrhart, W.

    1987-01-01

    Inspection of nuclear power components has always presented difficulties to the nondestructive testing (NDT) industry from a time consumption and radiation exposure standpoint. Recent advances in computerized NDT equipment have improved the situation to some extent; however, the need for high reliability, precision, reproducibility, and clear permanent documentation are indispensable requirements that can only be met by automatic inspection and recording systems. The Savannah River Plant's inspection program of over 1000 IGSCC-susceptible welds is one of the most complete in the country and offers educational insight into ultrasonic examination technology of thin-wall stainless steel pipe welds

  2. Holistic processes and practices for clean energy in strengthening bioeconomic strategies (INDO-NORDEN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurpali, Narasinha J.; Parameswaran, Binod; Raud, Merlin; Pumpanen, Jukka; Sippula, Olli; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Lusotarinen, Sari; Virkajarvi, Perttu

    2017-04-01

    We are proud to introduce the project, INDO-NORDEN, funded in response to the Science and Technology call of the INNO INDIGO Partnership Program (IPP) on Biobased Energy. The project is scheduled to begin from April 2017. The proposed project aims to address both subtopics of the call, Biofuels and From Waste to Energy with research partners from Finland (coordinating unit), India and Estonia. The EU and India share common objectives in enhancing energy security, promoting energy efficiency and energy safety, and the pursuit of sustainable development of clean and renewable energy source. The main objective of INDO-NORDEN is to investigate, evaluate and develop efficient processes and land use practices of transforming forest and agricultural biomass, agricultural residues and farm waste into clean fuels (solid, liquid or gas), by thermochemical or biochemical conversions. Forestry and agriculture are the major bioenergy sectors in Finland. Intensive forest harvesting techniques are being used in Finland to enhance the share of bioenergy in the total energy consumption in the future. However, there are no clear indications how environmentally safe are these intensive forestry practices in Finland. We address this issue through field studies addressing the climate impacts on the ecosystem carbon balance and detailed life cycle assessment. The role of agriculture in Finland is expected to grow significantly in the years to come. Here, we follow a holistic field experimental approach addressing several major issues relevant to Nordic agriculture under changing climatic conditions - soil nutrient management, recycling of nutrients, farm and agricultural waste management, biogas production potentials, greenhouse gas inventorying and entire production chain analysis. There is a considerable potential for process integration in the biofuel sector. This project plans to develop biofuel production processes adopted in Estonia and India with a major aim of enhancing biofuel

  3. Novel micronized woody biomass process for production of cost-effective clean fermentable sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yu; Gu, Bon-Jae; Wang, Jinwu; Gao, Johnway; Ganjyal, Girish M; Wolcott, Michael P

    2018-03-29

    Thermo-chemical pretreatments of biomass typically result in environmental impacts from water use and emission. The degradation byproducts in the resulting sugars can be inhibitory to the activities of enzymes and yeasts. The results of this study showed that combining existing commercial comminution technology can reduce total energy consumption with improved saccharification yield while eliminating chemical use. Impact mill was found to be the most efficient milling for size reduction of forest residual chips from ca. 2 mm to a specific value below 100 µm. The further micronization effectively disrupted the recalcitrance of the woody biomass and produced the highly saccharifiable substrates for downstream processing. In addition, extrusion can be integrated into a clean cellulosic sugar process for further fibrillation in place of the conventional mixing processing. The highest energy efficiency was observed on the impact-milled samples with 0.515 kg sugars kWh -1 . Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ultrasonic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, E G

    1962-01-01

    Ultrasonic Physics, Second Edition, provides an introduction to the fundamental principles of ultrasonic physics. The book opens with a discussion of the sources of ultrasound. This is followed by separate chapters on the properties and detection of ultrasonic radiation; measurement of propagation constants, i.e., the velocity and absorption, of ultrasound; ultrasound propagation in gases, liquids, and solids; and ultrasound propagation in aerosols, suspensions, and emulsions. The final chapter covers miscellaneous physical and physico-chemical actions, including dispersion and coagulation of

  5. Signal processing for ultrasonic testing of stainless steel with coarse structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlgren, Sven; Ericsson, Lars

    2000-03-01

    Ultrasonic testing of materials with coarse grains often gives poor signal-to-noise-ratio due to backscattering from the grain boundaries. The influence of the back-scattering, being strongly dependent on the size of the grains and the wavelength used, can be reduced by suitable choice of inspection frequencies used. The actual choice can be made flexible using broad band probes in combination with digital signal processing. Furthermore, with such an approach it might be possible both to detect and size defects from the same scan. One well-known signal processing method is Split Spectrum Processing (SSP). This method can significantly reduce grain noise, but finding the optimal choice of parameters involved is difficult. The introduction of the Consecutive Polarity Coincidence (CPC) as SSP target extraction algorithm more or less solved this problem but other draw-backs such as reduced temporal resolution is inherent in SSP. Based on the experiences with SSP a new approach to grain noise reduction, based on non coherent detection (NCD), was developed at Uppsala University. The technique is evaluated, in this investigation. The NCD algorithm has for a long time been used within the field of telecommunication and is based upon detection of bandpass signals in additive Gaussian noise. To adapt the algorithm for use in NDE a two parameter transient model is used. The construction of an NCD filter includes three steps: estimation of the autocorrelation of the noise; specification of the two parameters, lower and upper frequency, of the signal prototype; computation of the filter. During the project two algorithms, based on signal entropy and signal-to-noise-ratio enhancement (SNRE), have been developed to determine the two parameters in an automated procedure. UTdata to evaluate the NCD algorithm were collected in three phases: Phase 1: Manual scanning was performed on CSS-block with ideal reflectors (laboratory environment). Tuning of the two NCD parameters was done

  6. Numerical analysis of the influence of ultrasonic vibration on crystallization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubbenjans, B.; Nacke, B. [Institute of Electrotechnology, Hannover (Germany); Frank-Rotsch, C.; Rudolph, P. [Institute for Crystal Growth, Berlin (Germany); Virbulis, J. [University of Latvia, Laboratory for Mathematical Modelling of Environmental and Technological Processes, Riga (Latvia)

    2012-03-15

    The challenge in the future fabrication of semiconductor bulk crystals is the improvement of the crystal quality with a simultaneous increase of the yield. For that, a proper control of mass transfer within the fluid phase is required. Besides the damping of violent convective fluctuations, the thickness of the diffusion boundary layer, causing morphological instability, has to be decreased. The influence of ultrasound in molten Germanium was analyzed by numerical simulations. The simulations were provided by applying commercial software packages ANSYS {sup registered} and FLUENT {sup registered}. ANSYS {sup registered} was used to model the ultrasonic wave propagation in the whole growth system consisting of melt and crystal, crucible and surrounding media. As a result the sound pressure distribution in every point of the melt and the displacement in every point of the solid have been obtained. The melt flow and the temperature distribution were simulated with the help of FLUENT {sup registered}. The main focus was the analysis of Schlichting streams that occur at the crystallization front which affect the diffusion boundary layer. It was shown that ultrasonic treatment can help to reduce the harmful diffusion boundary layer very effectively. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Development of coatings for ultrasonic additive manufacturing sonotrode using laser direct metal deposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niyanth S, Niyanth [ORNL; Dehoff, Ryan R [ORNL; Jordan, Brian H [ORNL; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh [ORNL

    2016-10-01

    ORNL partnered with Fabrisonic, LLC to develop galling resistant hard facing coatings on sonotrodes used to fabricate 3D printed materials using ultrasonic additive manufacturing. The development and deployment of a coated sonotrode is expected to push the existing state of the art to facilitate the solidstate additive manufacturing of hard steels and titanium alloys. To this effect a structurally amorphous stainless steel material and cobalt chrome material were deposited on the sonotrode material. Both the deposits showed good adhesion to the substrate. The coatings made using the structurally amorphous steel materials showed cracking during the initial trials and cracking was eliminated by deposition on a preheated substrate. Both the coatings show hardness in excess of 600 HVN. Thus the phase 1 of this project has been used to identify suitable materials to use to coat the sonotrode. Despite the fact that successful deposits were obtained, the coatings need to be evaluated by performing detailed galling tests at various temperatures. In addition field tests are also necessary to test the stability of these coatings in a high cycle ultrasonic vibration mode. If awarded, phase 2 of the project would be used to optimize the composition of the deposit material to maximize galling resistance. The industrial partner would then use the coated sonotrode to fabricate builds made of austenitic stainless steel to test the viability of using a coated sonotrode.

  8. Effects of radiator shapes on the bubble diving and dispersion of ultrasonic argon process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan; Xue, Jilai; Zhao, Qiang; Le, Qichi; Zhang, Zhiqiang

    2018-03-01

    In this work, three ultrasonic radiators in different shapes have been designed in order to investigate the effects of radiator shapes on the argon bubble dispersion and diving as well as the degassing efficiency on magnesium melt. The radiator shape has a strong influence on the bubble diving and dispersion by ultrasound. A massive argon bubble slowly flows out from the radiator with the hemispherical cap, due to the covering hemispherical cap. Using a concave radiator can intensively crush the argon bubbles and drive them much deep into the water/melt, depending on the competition between the argon flow and opposite joint shear force from the concave surface. The evolution of wall bubbles involves the ultrasonic cavities carrying dissolved gas, migrating to the vessel wall, and escaping from the liquid. Hydrogen removal can be efficiently achieved using a concave radiator. The hydrogen content can be reduced from 22.3 μg/g down to 8.7 μg/g. Mechanical properties are significantly promoted, due to the structure refinement and efficient hydrogen removal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of the ultra-clean dry cleanup process for coal-based syngases: pilot-scale evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.B. Slimane; P.V. Bush; J.L. Aderhold, Jr.; B.G. Bryan; R.A. Newby; D. A. Horazak; S.C. Jain [Gas Technology Institute, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2005-07-01

    This paper reports on a recent successful pilot-scale evaluation of the Ultra-Clean Process performance at a 10-ton/day coal gasifier facility. In these tests, carbonaceous feedstocks were gasified, using GTI's fluidized bed U-GAS{reg_sign} gasification technology, to generate syngas. The raw syngas was then conditioned and fed to the UCP test section for deep cleaning to meet very stringent cleaning requirements for chemical feedstocks or liquid-fuel synthesis applications, or for fuel-cell power generation. Fine particle sorbents for sulfur, halide, and mercury removal were injected into the syngas upstream of two stages of particulate controlled devices, 'barrier filter-reactors', coupling efficient particle capture with an effective entrained and filter cake reaction environment for very effective multiple contaminant removal. The goal of the test program was to confirm sorbent selection, filter-reactor operating parameters and sorbent-to-contaminant ratios, which were previously determined in the laboratory to have potential to reduce contaminant concentrations to very low levels. The pilot-scale data developed are being used to update conceptual evaluations, which have shown the technical feasibility, cost effectiveness and commercial merit for the Ultra-Clean Process compared to conventional, Rectisol-based syngas cleaning. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Ultrasonic Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Sammy

    2015-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Ultrasonic Stir Welding (USW) to join large pieces of very high-strength metals such as titanium and Inconel. USW, a solid-state weld process, improves current thermal stir welding processes by adding high-power ultrasonic (HPU) energy at 20 kHz frequency. The addition of ultrasonic energy significantly reduces axial, frictional, and shear forces; increases travel rates; and reduces wear on the stir rod, which results in extended stir rod life. The USW process decouples the heating, stirring, and forging elements found in the friction stir welding process allowing for independent control of each process element and, ultimately, greater process control and repeatability. Because of the independent control of USW process elements, closed-loop temperature control can be integrated into the system so that a constant weld nugget temperature can be maintained during welding.

  11.   Ultrasonic monitoring of fish thawing process optimal time of thawing and effect of freezing/thawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kadi, Youssef Ait; Moudden, Ali; Faiz, Bouazza; Maze, Gerard; Decultot, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Fish quality is traditionally controlled by chemical and microbiological analysis. The non-destructive control presents an enormous professional interest thanks to the technical contribution and precision of the analysis to which it leads. This paper presents the results obtained from a characterisation of fish thaw-ing process by the ultrasonic technique, with monitoring thermal processing from frozen to defrosted states. The study was carried out on fish type red drum and salmon cut into fillets of 15 mm thickness. After being frozen at -20°C, the sample is enclosed in a plexiglas vessel with parallel walls at the ambient temperature 30°C and excited in perpendicular incidence at 0.5 MHz by an ultrasonic pulser-receiver Sofranel 5052PR. the technique of measurement consists to study the signals reflected by fish during its thawing, the specific techniques of signal processing are implemented to deduce informations characterizing the state of fish and its thawing process by examining the evolution of the position echoes reflected by the sample and the viscoelastic parameters of fish during its thawing. The obtained results show a relationship between the thermal state of fish and its acoustic properties, which allowed to deduce the optimal time of the first thawing in order to restrict the growth of microbial flora. For salmon, the results show a decrease of 36% of the time of the second thawing and an increase of 10.88% of the phase velocity, with a decrease of 65.5% of the peak-to-peak voltage of the signal reflected, thus a decrease of the acoustic impedance. This study shows an optimal time and an evolution rate of thawing specific to each type offish and a correlation between the acoustic behavior of fish and its thermal state which approves that this technique of ultrasonic monitoring can substitute the control using the destructive chemical analysis in order to monitor the thawing process and to know whether a fish has suffered an accidental thawing.

  12. The impact of temporal variability of excess sludge characteristics on the effects obtained in the process of its ultrasonic disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytła, Malwina; Zielewicz, Ewa

    2017-09-13

    This paper aimed to indicate the characteristics of excess sludge, which have the greatest impact on the effects obtained during its ultrasonic disintegration (UD). The direct and technological effects observed after sludge disintegration and anaerobic digestion (AD) depend on the factors affecting the quality of its matrix and simply on the parameters of a disintegrator. Sludge samples originate from a Central Waste Water Treatment Plant in Gliwice, and were collected after mechanical thickening by a monthly period. This approach allowed to observe the temporal changes of sludge characteristics, in a continuous manner. To evaluate the achieved disintegration effects, the following indicators were used: degree of disintegration (DD COD ) and the author's indicators describing the direct and technological effects of UD (ID i , IT i , IT d ), based on the changes in the sludge characteristics. Disintegration was carried out by means of an ultrasonic device equipped with a thin sonotrode. AD was conducted under mesophilic conditions for 20 days. Statistical analysis confirmed that the most important parameters of sludge, which determine obtained effects, were total and volatile solids, capillary suction time, concentration of chemical oxygen demand and pH value. The investigations have also showed that the increase in sludge temperature during its disintegration has a significant impact on the magnitude of other effects obtained in the process.

  13. Characterization and Treatment of Titanium Dioxide via Ultrasonic Process with Melastoma malabathricum as Sustainable Sensitizer for Photovoltaic Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anika Zafiah M. Rus

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Generation from the existing commercial devices costs about ten times more than the conventional methods. Therefore, this paper presents a thin-film dyed solar cell (DSC of natural dyes from Melastoma malabathricum fruits which consist of the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups of anthocyanin molecule that influences the performance of photosensitized effect due to its bound on the surface of filler. Experimental results comparing engineering grade (>99% purity of metal oxide; U1 and U2 with treated metal oxide; U3 and U4 using ultrasonic process, which is to break the particle agglomeration from 0.37 μm down to 0.15 μm; this treatment led to a more “sponge-like” consistency with high porosity, enabling enhanced absorption and anchorage of the dye sensitizer. The microstructures of metal oxide were observed using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM. Along with the highest performance of I-V measurement given by U4 with open circuit, Voc = 0.742 V, short circuit, Isc = 0.36 mA, fill factor, FF = 57.012 gives 0.039% efficiency the examples for the first outdoor application upon sunlight illumination of such DSC were also reported. Therefore, this ultrasonic treatment and novel dye from Melastoma malabathricum fruit are reliable to be used for further application.

  14. Effects of ultrasonication and conventional mechanical homogenization processes on the structures and dielectric properties of BaTiO3 ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbas, Hatice Zehra; Aydin, Zeki; Yilmaz, Onur; Turgut, Selvin

    2017-01-01

    The effects of the homogenization process on the structures and dielectric properties of pure and Nb-doped BaTiO 3 ceramics have been investigated using an ultrasonic homogenization and conventional mechanical methods. The reagents were homogenized using an ultrasonic processor with high-intensity ultrasonic waves and using a compact mixer-shaker. The components and crystal types of the powders were determined by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The complex permittivity (ε ' , ε″) and AC conductivity (σ') of the samples were analyzed in a wide frequency range of 20Hz to 2MHz at room temperature. The structures and dielectric properties of pure and Nb-doped BaTiO 3 ceramics strongly depend on the homogenization process in a solid-state reaction method. Using an ultrasonic processor with high-intensity ultrasonic waves based on acoustic cavitation phenomena can make a significant improvement in producing high-purity BaTiO 3 ceramics without carbonate impurities with a small dielectric loss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Case studies in ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, V.; Satheesh, C.; Varde, P.V.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic testing is widely used Non Destructive Testing (NDT) method and forms the essential part of In-service inspection programme of nuclear reactors. Main application of ultrasonic testing is for volumetric scanning of weld joints followed by thickness gauging of pipelines and pressure vessels. Research reactor Dhruva has completed the first In Service Inspection programme in which about 325 weld joints have been volumetrically scanned, in addition to thickness gauging of 300 meters of pipe lines of various sizes and about 24 nos of pressure vessels. Ultrasonic testing is also used for level measurements, distance measurements and cleaning and decontamination of tools. Two case studies are brought out in this paper in which ultrasonic testing is used successfully for identification of butterfly valve opening status and extent of choking in pipe lines in Dhruva reactor systems

  16. Chemical cleaning review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dow, B.L.; Thomas, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    Three main chemical processes for cleaning steam generators have evolved from the early work of the industry. Of the more than 50 chemical cleanings carried out to date most have been considered a success by the utilities performing them. (author)

  17. Pipeline defect prediction using long range ultrasonic testing and intelligent processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dino Isa; Rajprasad Rajkumar

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with efforts to improve nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques by using artificial intelligence in detecting and predicting pipeline defects such as cracks and wall thinning. The main emphasis here will be on the prediction of corrosion type defects rather than just detection after the fact. Long range ultrasonic testing will be employed, where a ring of piezoelectric transducers are used to generate torsional guided waves. Various defects such as cracks as well as corrosion under insulation (CUI) will be simulated on a test pipe. The machine learning algorithm known as the Support Vector Machine (SVM) will be used to predict and classify transducer signals using regression and large margin classification. Regression results show that the SVM is able to accurately predict future defects based on trends of previous defect. The classification performance was also exceptional showing a facility to detect defects at different depths as well as for distinguishing closely spaced defects. (author)

  18. Synthesis and characterization of polyurethane/CdS-SiO 2 nanocomposites via ultrasonic process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Zhou, Yu-Ming; Nan, Qiu-Li; Ye, Xiao-Yun; Sun, Yan-Qing; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Shi-Ming

    2008-12-01

    In this study, the high-intensity ultrasound was applied in the preparation of chiral polyurethane/CdS-SiO 2 nanocomposites. The polyurethane/CdS-SiO 2 nanocomposites were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), TEM and SEM. The results indicated that the heat stability of the nanocomposites was improved in the presence of CdS-SiO 2 core-shell nanoparticles. The infrared emissivity (8-14 μm) study revealed that the nanocomposites possessed much lower infrared values compared with those of the neat polymers and nanoparticles, respectively. A possible mechanism of ultrasonic induced composite reaction was proposed based on the experimental results.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of polyurethane/CdS-SiO2 nanocomposites via ultrasonic process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jing; Zhou Yuming; Nan Qiuli; Ye Xiaoyun; Sun Yanqing; Wang Zhiqiang; Zhang Shiming

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the high-intensity ultrasound was applied in the preparation of chiral polyurethane/CdS-SiO 2 nanocomposites. The polyurethane/CdS-SiO 2 nanocomposites were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), TEM and SEM. The results indicated that the heat stability of the nanocomposites was improved in the presence of CdS-SiO 2 core-shell nanoparticles. The infrared emissivity (8-14 μm) study revealed that the nanocomposites possessed much lower infrared values compared with those of the neat polymers and nanoparticles, respectively. A possible mechanism of ultrasonic induced composite reaction was proposed based on the experimental results.

  20. Indium oxide thin-film transistors processed at low temperature via ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    KAUST Repository

    Faber, Hendrik

    2015-01-14

    The use of ultrasonic spray pyrolysis is demonstrated for the growth of polycrystalline, highly uniform indium oxide films at temperatures in the range of 200-300 °C in air using an aqueous In(NO3)3 precursor solution. Electrical characterization of as-deposited films by field-effect measurements reveals a strong dependence of the electron mobility on deposition temperature. Transistors fabricated at ∼250 °C exhibit optimum performance with maximum electron mobility values in the range of 15-20 cm2 V -1 s-1 and current on/off ratio in excess of 106. Structural and compositional analysis of as-grown films by means of X-ray diffraction, diffuse scattering, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveal that layers deposited at 250 °C are denser and contain a reduced amount of hydroxyl groups as compared to films grown at either lower or higher temperatures. Microstructural analysis of semiconducting films deposited at 250 °C by high resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy reveals that as-grown layers are extremely thin (∼7 nm) and composed of laterally large (30-60 nm) highly crystalline In2O3 domains. These unique characteristics of the In2O3 films are believed to be responsible for the high electron mobilities obtained from transistors fabricated at 250 °C. Our work demonstrates the ability to grow high quality low-dimensional In2O3 films and devices via ultrasonic spray pyrolysis over large area substrates while at the same time it provides guidelines for further material and device improvements.

  1. The 3R anthracite clean coal technology: Economical conversion of brown coal to anthracite type clean coal by low temperature carbonization pre-treatment process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Someus Edward

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The preventive pre-treatment of low grade solid fuels is safer, faster, better, and less costly vs. the "end-of-the-pipe" post treatment solutions. The "3R" (Recycle-Reduce-Reuse integrated environment control technology provides preventive pre-treatment of low grade solid fuels, such as brown coal and contaminated solid fuels to achieve high grade cleansed fuels with anthracite and coke comparable quality. The goal of the 3R technology is to provide cost efficient and environmentally sustainable solutions by preventive pre-treatment means for extended operations of the solid fuel combustion power plants with capacity up to 300 MWe power capacities. The 3R Anthracite Clean Coal end product and technology may advantageously be integrated to the oxyfuel-oxy-firing, Foster Wheeler anthracite arc-fired utility type boiler and Heat Pipe Reformer technologies in combination with CO2 capture and storage programs. The 3R technology is patented original solution. Advantages. Feedstock flexibility: application of pre-treated multi fuels from wider fuel selection and availability. Improved burning efficiency. Technology flexibility: efficient and advantageous inter-link to proven boiler technologies, such as oxyfuel and arcfired boilers. Near zero pollutants for hazardous-air-pollutants: preventive separation of halogens and heavy metals into small volume streams prior utilization of cleansed fuels. >97% organic sulphur removal achieved by the 3R thermal pre-treatment process. Integrated carbon capture and storage (CCS programs: the introduction of monolitic GHG gas is improving storage safety. The 3R technology offers significant improvements for the GHG CCS conditions. Cost reduction: decrease of overall production costs when all real costs are calculated. Improved safety: application of preventive measures. For pre-treatment a specific purpose designed, developed, and patented pyrolysis technology used, consisting of a horizontally arranged externally

  2. Integrated hot fuel gas cleaning for advanced gasification combined cycle process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieminen, M.; Kangasmaa, K.; Laatikainen, J.; Staahlberg, P.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Gasification and Advanced Combustion

    1996-12-01

    The fate of halogens in pressurised fluidized-bed gasification and hot gas filtration is determined. Potential halogen removal sorbents, suitable for integrated hot gas cleaning, are screened and some selected sorbents are tested in bench scale. Finally, halogen removal results are verified using the PDU-scale pressurised fluidized-bed gasification and integrated hot gas cleaning facilities of VTT. The project is part of the JOULE II Extension programme of the European Union. (author)

  3. Influence of ultrasonic processing on the macromolecular properties of poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) alone and in its biocomposite with hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukomanović, Marija; Mitrić, Miodrag; Skapin, Sreco D; Zagar, Ema; Plavec, Janez; Ignjatović, Nenad; Uskoković, Dragan

    2010-06-01

    In this work poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and a poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)/hydroxyapatite (PLGA/HAp) composite processed in an ultrasonic field at higher (25 degrees C) and lower (8 degrees C) temperatures were studied with respect to the molecular properties of the obtained materials. The processing of the PLGA and the PLGA/HAp composite in an ultrasonic field resulted in a change of molar mass averages of the polymer/polymeric part of these materials, while an amorphous structure and a 50:50 lactide-to-glycolide co-monomer ratio were preserved without the formation of crystalline oligomers. However, mobility of polymeric chains obtained after ultrasonic processing was lower indicating ordering the structure of polymeric chains as a result of processing. Additionally, it was observed that the mobility of the PLGA macromolecules was lower within the composite in comparison with the mobility of the chains within the PLGA alone in the case when both were obtained after ultrasonic processing. This was a consequence of the structure formation through the interactions between the PLGA and the HAp. Based on these results different degradation rate of PLGA in composite can be expected, which is important in the application of this material for the controlled drug delivery of medicaments. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Optimization of the process of steel strip perforation and nickel platting for the purpose of elimination of trichloroethylene from the cleaning process of perforated steel strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Aleksandra B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the production of pocket type electrodes for Ni-Cd batteries perforation of proper steel strips and then nickel platting of perforated steel strips were made. In the nickel platting process, the organic solvent, trichloroethylene, has previously been used for cleaning. Due to the carcinogenic nature of trichloroethylene and the many operations previously required during cleaning, it was considered to do cleaning of perforated steel strips without use of the mentioned organic solvent. In the purpose of elimination of trichloroethylene from the cleaning process of perforated steel strips, the tests of perforation of steel strips with use of oils of different viscosity were made. It was shown that there was no dysfunction during the work of the perforation plants, meaning there was no additional heating of the strips, deterring of the steel filings, nor excessive wearing of the perforation apparatus. The perforation percent was the same irrelevant of the viscosity of the used oil. Before being perforated using the oils with different viscosity, the nickel platting steel strips were cleaned in different degreasers (based on NaOH as well as on KOH. It was shown that efficient cleaning without the use of trichloroethylene is possible with the use of oil with smaller viscosity in the perforated steel strips process and the degreaser based on KOH in the cleaning process, before nickel platting. It also appeared that the alkali degreaser based on KOH was more efficient, bath corrections were made less often and the working period of the baths was longer, which all in summary means less quantity of chemicals needed for degreasing of perforated steel strips.

  5. ULTRASONIC ASSEMBLY [REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PORAV Viorica

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper exposes the possibility of machine producesers to optimize the costs of clothes assembling. Ultrasonic systems being frequently utilized have many advantages on semi products of synthetic textile and technical textile. First of all, sewing – cutting process can be accomplished under high speeds and rate of losses can be minimized. Cutting seal applications are frequently used for underwear and sportswear. Slicing and unit cutting machines, as well as portable sealing machines are available for labeling sector. Products such as bag, pocket and cover can be sewed in a seamless manner for promotion purposes. All objects in terms of accessories are obtained in same standard. Our quilting machines are preferred in worldwide due to its threadless, high quality sealing. An alternative to the classic sewing assembly, with thread and needles is ultrasonic seaming. In ultrasonic welding, there are no connective bolts, nails, soldering materials, or adhesives necessary to bind the materials together. Ultrasonic is defined as acoustic frequencies above the range audible to the human ear. Ultrasonic frequencies are administered to the fabric from the sonotrode of bonding machine. The high frequency and powerful energy produced, when is release in one special environment, the ultrasound heating this environment. The ability to ultrasonic weld textiles and films depend on their thermoplastic contents and the desired end results. The paper defines the weld ability of more common textiles and films. The welding refers to all types of bonding and sealing, as in point bonding of fabric, or continuous sealing of film.

  6. Simultaneous determination of a variety of endocrine disrupting compounds in carrot, lettuce and amended soil by means of focused ultrasonic solid-liquid extraction and dispersive solid-phase extraction as simplified clean-up strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijangos, L; Bizkarguenaga, E; Prieto, A; Fernández, L A; Zuloaga, O

    2015-04-10

    The present study is focused on the development of an analytical method based on focused ultrasonic solid-liquid extraction (FUSLE) followed by dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) clean-up and liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) optimised for the simultaneous analysis of certain endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), including alkylphenols (APs), bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan (TCS) and several hormones and sterols in vegetables (lettuce and carrot) and amended soil samples. Different variables affecting the chromatographic separation, the electrospray ionisation and mass spectrometric detection were optimised in order to improve the sensitivity of the separation and detection steps. Under the optimised extraction conditions (sonication of 5min at 33% of power with pulse times on of 0.8s and pulse times off of 0.2s in 10mL of n-hexane:acetone (30:70, v:v) mixture using an ice bath), different dSPE clean-up sorbents, such as Florisil, Envi-Carb, primary-secondary amine bonded silica (PSA) and C18, or combinations of them were evaluated for FUSLE extracts before LC-MS/MS. Apparent recoveries and precision in terms of relative standard deviation (RSDs %) of the method were determined at two different fortification levels (according to the matrix and the analyte) and values in the 70-130% and 2-27% ranges, respectively, were obtained for most of the target analytes and matrices. Matrix-matched calibration approach and the use of labelled standards as surrogates were needed for the properly quantification of most analytes and matrices. Method detection limits (MDLs), estimated with fortified samples, in the ranges of 0.1-100ng/g for carrot, 0.2-152ng/g for lettuce and 0.9-31ng/g for amended soil were obtained. The developed methodology was applied to the analysis of 11 EDCs in both real vegetable bought in a local market and in compost (from a local wastewater treatment plant, WWTP) amended soil samples. Copyright © 2015

  7. Validation of cleaning method for various parts fabricated at a Beryllium facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Cynthia M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-15

    This study evaluated and documented a cleaning process that is used to clean parts that are fabricated at a beryllium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The purpose of evaluating this cleaning process was to validate and approve it for future use to assure beryllium surface levels are below the Department of Energy’s release limits without the need to sample all parts leaving the facility. Inhaling or coming in contact with beryllium can cause an immune response that can result in an individual becoming sensitized to beryllium, which can then lead to a disease of the lungs called chronic beryllium disease, and possibly lung cancer. Thirty aluminum and thirty stainless steel parts were fabricated on a lathe in the beryllium facility, as well as thirty-two beryllium parts, for the purpose of testing a parts cleaning method that involved the use of ultrasonic cleaners. A cleaning method was created, documented, validated, and approved, to reduce beryllium contamination.

  8. Ultrasonically enhanced disintegration. Polymers, sludge, and contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenroos, A.

    2010-05-15

    There are a great variety of potential applications of high-intensity ultrasonic energy. Of these, cleaning, plastic pounding, and at present also sludge disintegration and the remediation of contaminated soil are probably the best known and offer the most general market for high-intensity ultrasonics. All developments within the area of ultrasound applications lead to the creation of environmentally friendly processes and compounds, emphasizing the role of ultrasound in 'green chemistry'. Ultrasound technology is considered not easy to use in industrial processes, since devices providing high sonic energy are not easy to construct. This thesis investigates on a semi-pilot scale if it is possible to enhance the disintegration of three quite different samples: polymers, sludge, and contaminated soil by using ultrasound. The results indicate that it is possible to enhance the disintegration of polymers by means of ultrasonic power only when the cavitation threshold is exceeded. Above the cavitation threshold, the most extensive degradation took place at the lowest ultrasonic frequency used. The biggest decrease (from 115,000 g/mol to 30,000 g/mol) in relative molecular mass (RMM) was observed when the concentration of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was the lowest (1.0%). However, in the case of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) it was observed that when viscosity was not adjusted there is an optimum polymer concentration (1.5-2.0%) where degradation is most efficient. The thesis shows that the extent of ultrasonic depolymerization decreases with decreasing molecular mass of the CMC polymer. The study also reveals that ultrasonic irradiation causes narrowing of the molecular mass distribution. The degradation of CMC polymer proceeded linearly and the rate of ultrasonic depolymerization decreased with decreasing molecular mass. In cases where the initial dynamic viscosities of polymer solutions were not the same, the sonolytic degradation of CMC polymer mainly depended

  9. Smart ultrasonic flowmeter used for the operation support of water resource management in the agricultural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmostafa, Ziani; Mustapha, Bennouna; Boissier, Raymond

    2008-10-01

    Ultrasonic sensors transmit acoustic waves and receive them later. This is done by ultrasonic transducers, which transform an ultrasonic wave into an electrical signal and vice versa. Often, it is possible to use the same transducer for both transmitting and receiving. The most important parts of any ultrasonic sensor are the transducers. The spectral and spatial radiation characteristics of these components are the prime determinants of sensor performance. Such transducers must have a robust design, stable radiation pattern (high directivity) and good receiving sensitivity. Intelligent ultrasonic sensors have the possibility to extract the information about the variables to be measured, carried by the ultrasonic signals efficiently and with accuracy. To achieve this performance, the signals are processed by dedicated hardware (accurate electronic measuring devices). Ultrasound has the property, that its velocity is strongly affected by the flow velocity of the fluids in which it propagates. The ultrasonic flowmeters have gained a lot of attention over the past few years; they have several advantages over the differential pressure flowmeter, turbine meters, coriolis meters and vortex meters. They are widely used to measure the flow of liquids, first, they are either less intrusive (wetted flowmeter) or non-intrusive (clamp-on flowmeter), depending on the model. Also, they don't have moving parts that are subject to wear over time, and with minimum obstruction of the flow. Ultrasonic flowmeter are not limited to clean liquids (Transit time flowmeter), a special type of ultrasonic flowmeter can also accurately measure the flow of slurries and liquids with many impurities (Doppler flowmeter). This part of paper describes the intelligent ultrasonic sensor. The conception or the realization of intelligent ultrasonic sensor requires the synthesis of several technologies, a knowledge in the fields of sensor, digital ultrasonic signal processing, distributed system and

  10. Determination of the apparent porosity level of refractory concrete during a sintering process using an ultrasonic pulse velocity technique and image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJUBICA M. PAVLOVIĆ

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Concrete which undergoes a thermal treatment before (pre-casted concrete blocks and during (concrete embedded in-situ its life-service can be applied in plants operating at high temperature and as thermal insulation. Sintering is a process which occurs within a concrete structure in such conditions. Progression of sintering process can be monitored by the change of the porosity parameters determined with a nondestructive test method - ultrasonic pulse velocity and computer program for image analysis. The experiment has been performed on the samples of corundum and bauxite concrete composites. The apparent porosity of the samples thermally treated at 110, 800, 1000, 1300 and 1500 C was primary investigated with a standard laboratory procedure. Sintering parameters were calculated from the creep testing. The loss of strength and material degradation occurred in concrete when it was subjected to the increased temperature and a compressive load. Mechanical properties indicate and monitor changes within microstructure. The level of surface deterioration after the thermal treatment was determined using Image Pro Plus program. Mechanical strength was estimated using ultrasonic pulse velocity testing. Nondestructive ultrasonic mea¬surement was used as a qualitative description of the porosity change in specimens which is the result of the sintering process. The ultrasonic pulse velocity technique and image analysis proved to be reliable methods for monitoring of micro-structural change during the thermal treatment and service life of refractory concrete.

  11. Rapid formation of phase-clean 110 K (Bi-2223) powders derived via freeze-drying process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, U.

    1996-06-04

    A process for the preparation of amorphous precursor powders for Pb-doped Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2} Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (2223) includes a freeze-drying process incorporating a splat-freezing step. The process generally includes splat freezing a nitrate solution of Bi, Pb, Sr, Ca, and Cu to form flakes of the solution without any phase separation; grinding the frozen flakes to form a powder; freeze-drying the frozen powder; heating the dried powder to form a dry green precursor powders; denitrating the green-powders; heating the denitrated powders to form phase-clean Bi-2223 powders. The grain boundaries of the 2223 grains appear to be clean, leading to good intergrain contact between 2223 grains. 11 figs.

  12. Ultrasonic inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satittada, Gannaga

    1984-01-01

    Ultrasonic inspection is one of the most widely used methods for nondestructive inspection. The beam of high-frequency sound wave, ultrasonic wave, is introduced into the material. It travels through the material with some attendant loss of energy and can be reflected at interfaces. The reflected beam is detected and analyzed. Ultrasonic inspection is used to detect flaws in metal parts as well as in welded, brazed and bonded joints during research work and developing production and service. It is also used to detect and locate porosity, pipe, and flakes. In addition, it can be used for the measurement of metal thickness. Ultrasonic inspection is therefore used for quality control and material inspection in all major industries

  13. Digital processing of SEM images for the assessment of evaluation indexes of cleaning interventions on Pentelic marble surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moropoulou, A.; Delegou, E.T.; Vlahakis, V.; Karaviti, E.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, digital processing of scanning-electron-microscopy images utilized to assess cleaning interventions applied on the Pentelic marble surfaces of the National Archaeological Museum and National Library in Athens, Greece. Beside mineralogical and chemical characterization that took place by scanning-electron-microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, the image-analysis program EDGE was applied for estimating three evaluation indexes of the marble micro-structure. The EDGE program was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the evaluation of cleaning interventions applied on Philadelphia City Hall. This computer program analyzes scanning-electron-microscopy images of stone specimens cut in cross-section for measuring the fractal dimension of the exposed surfaces, the stone near-surface fracture density, the shape factor (a surface roughness factor) and the friability index which represents the physico-chemical and physico-mechanical stability of the stone surface. The results indicated that the evaluation of the marble surface micro-structure before and after cleaning is achieved by the suggested indexes, while the performance of cleaning interventions on the marble surfaces can be assessed

  14. Ultrasonic mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueneke, B.

    1982-01-01

    608 women are examined by means of ultrasonic mammography during the period of 1 year. 432 patients were examined with the compound method with the U.I. Octoson, a water tank scanner, and 176 patients with the real time method with a directly connected linear-array-scanner. The following results were obtained at the end of the examination period: In the ultrasonic and also in the X-ray mammogram tumour diameters can be determined with an error rate of +- 30%. In the diagnosing of carcinomas, a significant dependence of the exactness on the sice of the tumour is found for the combination of the five methods tested (clinical examination, X-ray mammography, ultrasonic mammography, thermography, cytology). Classifying the individual methods with regard to their exactness, X-ray mammography ranks in front of ultrasonic mammography. Mastopathic changes in the breast can be screened by means of ultrasonic mammography. The structure of the changes can be determined more exactly than with an X-ray picture which is due to the possibility of differentiating solid and cystic structures. In diagnosing fibro-adenomas and establishing diagnoses on young women with dense gland bodies, ultrasonic mammography is superior to radiology both in the ability of screening a finding of a fibro-adenoma (US=88%, X-ray=75%) and in the possibility of classifying it as ''more benign than malignant''. (orig./MG) [de

  15. Co-treatment of spent cathode carbon in caustic and acid leaching process under ultrasonic assisted for preparation of SiC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jie; Xiao, Jin; Li, Fachuang; Wang, Bingjie; Yao, Zhen; Yu, Bailie; Zhang, Liuyun

    2018-03-01

    Spent cathode carbon (SCC) from aluminum electrolysis has been treated in ultrasonic-assisted caustic leaching and acid leaching process, and purified SCC used as carbon source to synthesize silicon carbide (SiC) was investigated. Chemical and mineralogical properties have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry (TGA-DSC). Various experimental factors temperature, time, liquid-solid ratio, ultrasonic power, and initial concentration of alkali or acid affecting on SCC leaching result were studied. After co-treatment with ultrasonic-assisted caustic leaching and acid leaching, carbon content of leaching residue was 97.53%. SiC power was synthesized by carbothermal reduction at 1600 °C, as a result of yield of 76.43%, and specific surface area of 4378 cm 2 /g. This is the first report of using purified SCC and gangue to prepare SiC. The two industrial wastes have been used newly as secondary sources. Furthermore, ultrasonic showed significant effect in SCC leaching process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Morphological analysis of three wound-cleaning processes on potentially contamined wounds in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    d'Acampora Armando José

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the inflammatory response of potentially infected wounds treated with isotonic saline solution, chlorhexidine and PVP-I, seven days after surgery. METHODS: Thirty-two male rats were used, divided into 4 groups. All animals had their surgical wounds infected with a standard bacterial inoculum. Control group (A: animals had their surgical wounds sutured without any kind of cleaning. Saline solution group (B: animals had their wounds cleaned with saline solution. Chlorhexidine group (C: animals had their wounds cleaned with chlorhexidine. PVP-I group (D: animals had their wounds cleaned with PVP-I. Seven days after surgery, all the animals had their skin submitted to microscopic and macroscopic evaluation. RESULTS: Edema was found on all histological slices analyzed, as well as vascular proliferation and congestion. Groups A and D showed presence of mild neutrophilic infiltrate, and moderate lymphocytic and macrophage infiltrate. Group B showed severe neutrophilic, macrophage, and lymphocytic infiltrate. Group C showed moderate neutrophilic, macrophage, and lymphocytic infiltrate. CONCLUSION: Group D was the group which showed inflammatory infiltrate most similar to the group that was not submitted to treatment.

  17. Improvement to defect detection by ultrasonic data processing: the DTVG method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, D.

    1995-10-01

    The cast elbows of the pipes of the principal primary circuit of French PWR, made of austenitic-ferritic stainless steel, pose problems to control. In order to improve the ultrasonic detection of defects in coarse-grained materials, we propose a method (called DTVG) based on the statistic study of the spatial stability of events contained in temporal signals. At the Beginning, the method was developed during a thesis (G. Corneloup, 1998) to improve the detection of cracks in thin thickness austenitic welds. Here, we propose to adapt the DTVG method and estimate its performances in detection of defects in thick materials representative of cast austenitic-ferritic elbows steels. The first objective of the study is adapting the original treatment applied to the thin thickness austenitic welds for the detection of defects in thick thickness austenitic-ferritic cast steels. The second objective consist of improving the algorithm to take in account the difference between thin and thick material and estimating the performances of the DTVG method in detection in specimen block with artificial defects. This work has led to adapt the original DTVG method to control thick cast austenitic-ferritic specimen (80 mm) under normal and oblique incidence. More, the study has allowed to make the the treatment automatic (automatic research of parameters). The results have shown that the DTVG method is fitted to detect artificial defects in thick cast austenitic-ferritic sample steel. All the defects in the specimen block have been detected without revealing false indication. (author). 4 refs., 4 figs

  18. FY1995 development of a clean CVD process by evaluation and control of gas phase nucleation phenomena; 1995 nendo kisokaku seisei gensho no hyoka to seigyo ni yoru clean CVD process no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a high-rate and clean chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process as a breakthrough technique to overcome the problems that particles generated in the gas phase during CVD process for preparation of functional thin films cause reduced product yield and deterioration of the films. In the CVD process proposed here, reactant gas and generated particles are electrically charged to control the motion of them with an electric field. In this study, gas-phase nucleation phenomena are evaluated both theoretically and experimentally. A high-rate, ionized CVD method is first developed, in which reactant gas and generated particles are charged with negative ions generated from a radioisotope source and the UV/photoelectron method, and the motion of the charged gas and particles is controlled with an electric field. Charging and transport processes of fine particles are then investigated experimentally and theoretically to develop a clean CVD method in which generated particles are removed with the electric forces. As a result, quantitative evaluation of the charging and transport process was made possible. We also developed devices for measuring the size distribution and concentration of fine particles in low pressure gas such as those found in plasma CVD processes. In addition, numerical simulation and experiments in this study for a TEOS/O{sub 3} CVD process to prepare thin films could determine reaction rates which have not been known so far and give information on selecting good operation conditions for the process. (NEDO)

  19. [Effects of rice cleaning and cooking process on the residues of flutolanil, fenobucarb, silafluofen and buprofezin in rice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Motoaki; Sakaguchi, Masayuki; Kobata, Masakazu; Sakaguchi, Yoko; Tanizawa, Haruna; Miura, Yuri; Sasano, Ryoichi; Nakanishi, Yutaka

    2003-02-01

    We studied the effect of cleaning and cooking on the residues of flutolanil, fenobucarb, silafluofen and buprofezin in rice. The rice had been sprayed in a paddy field in Wakayama city, with 3 kinds of pesticide application protocols: spraying once at the usual concentration of pesticides, repeated spraying (3 times) with the usual concentration of pesticides and spraying once with 3 times the usual concentration of pesticides. The residue levels of pesticide decreased during the rice cleaning process. Silafluofen, which has a higher log Pow value, remained in the hull of the rice. Fenobucarb, which has a lower log Pow value, penetrated inside the rice. The residue concentration of pesticide in polished rice was higher than that in pre-washed rice processed ready for cooking. During the cooking procedure, the reduction of pesticides in polished rice was higher than that in brown rice.

  20. Plasma Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  1. The progress in the researches for uranium mill tailings cleaning treatment and no-waste uranium ore milling processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jintang

    1990-01-01

    The production of uranium mill tailings and their risk assessment are described. The moethods of uranium mill tailings disposal and management are criticized and the necessity of the researches for uranium mill tailings cleaning treatment and no-wasle uranium ore milling process are demonstrated. The progress for these researches in China and other countries with uranium production is reviewed, and the corresponding conclusions are reported

  2. Quantitative Evaluation of Contamination on Dental Zirconia Ceramic by Silicone Disclosing Agents after Different Cleaning Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Wille

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of cleaning procedures for air-abraded zirconia after contamination with two silicone disclosing agents. Air-abraded zirconia ceramic specimens (IPS e.max ZirCAD were contaminated with either GC Fit Checker white or GC Fit Checker II. Untreated zirconia specimens were used as control. Afterwards the surfaces were cleaned either with waterspray or ultrasonically in 99% isopropanol or using a newly developed cleaning paste (Ivoclean. After cleaning X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS was performed and the relative peak intensities of Zr, C and Si were used for a qualitative comparison of the residuals. There was no significant difference between the two different silicone disclosing agents. An additional cleaning step with isopropanol led to a significantly lower amount of residuals on the surface, but an additional cleaning process with Ivoclean did not reduce the amount of carbon residuals in comparison to the isopropanol cleaning. Just the silicone amount on the surface was reduced. None of the investigated cleaning processes removed all residuals from the contaminated surface. Standard cleaning processes do not remove all residuals of the silicone disclosing agent from the surface. This may lead to a failure of the resin-ceramic bonding.

  3. Effect of Ultrasonic Frequency on Lactic Acid Fermentation Promotion by Ultrasonic Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Tadayuki; Ohdaira, Etsuzo; Masuzawa, Nobuyoshi

    2004-05-01

    The authors have been researching the promotion of lactic acid fermentation by ultrasonic irradiation. In the past research, it was proven that ultrasonic irradiation is effective in the process of fermentation, and the production of yoghurt and kefir was promoted. In this study, the effect of the ultrasonic frequency in this fermentation process was examined. In the frequency range of this study, it was found that the action of fermentation promotion was exponentially proportionate to the irradiated ultrasonic frequency.

  4. Influences of ultrasonic irradiation on the morphology and structure of nanoporous Co nanoparticles during chemical dealloying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Co-61.8 wt% Al nanoparticles of 45 nm were prepared by hydrogen plasma-metal reaction (HPMR method. The nanoparticles display core shell structure with Al13Co4 and CoAl core and aluminum oxide shell (about 2 nm. Under ultrasonic irradiation, nanoporous fcc-Co nanoparticles were produced successfully by chemically dealloying the Co-Al nanoparticles at room temperature, whereas, without ultrasonic irradiation CoAl phase could hardly react with sodium hydroxide solution. At 323 K the Co-Al nanoparticles could be dealloyed to fcc-Co and hcp-Co phases even without ultrasonic irradiation. The surface area of the dealloyed nanoparticles under ultrasonic irradiation was larger than that of the dealloyed sample without ultrasonic irradiation at the same temperature. It is believed that the microjet and shock-wave induced by ultrasonic irradiation give rise to particles size reduction, interparticle collision and surface cleaning, and accelerate the dealloying process and the phase transformation.

  5. Alternative Solvents and Technologies for Precision Cleaning of Aerospace Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandelli, Heather; Maloney, Phillip; DeVor, Robert; Hintze, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Precision cleaning solvents for aerospace components and oxygen fuel systems, including currently used Vertrel-MCA, have a negative environmental legacy, high global warming potential, and have polluted cleaning sites. Thus, alternative solvents and technologies are being investigated with the aim of achieving precision contamination levels of less than 1 mg/sq ft. The technologies being evaluated are ultrasonic bath cleaning, plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide cleaning.

  6. Photocatalytic Graphene-TiO2 Thin Films Fabricated by Low-Temperature Ultrasonic Vibration-Assisted Spin and Spray Coating in a Sol-Gel Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Zabihi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we communicate a facile and low temperature synthesis process for the fabrication of graphene-TiO2 photocatalytic composite thin films. A sol-gel chemical route is used to synthesize TiO2 from the precursor solutions and spin and spray coating are used to deposit the films. Excitation of the wet films during the casting process by ultrasonic vibration favorably influences both the sol-gel route and the deposition process, through the following mechanisms. The ultrasound energy imparted to the wet film breaks down the physical bonds of the gel phase. As a result, only a low-temperature post annealing process is required to eliminate the residues to complete the conversion of precursors to TiO2. In addition, ultrasonic vibration creates a nanoscale agitating motion or microstreaming in the liquid film that facilitates mixing of TiO2 and graphene nanosheets. The films made based on the above-mentioned ultrasonic vibration-assisted method and annealed at 150 °C contain both rutile and anatase phases of TiO2, which is the most favorable configuration for photocatalytic applications. The photoinduced and photocatalytic experiments demonstrate effective photocurrent generation and elimination of pollutants by graphene-TiO2 composite thin films fabricated via scalable spray coating and mild temperature processing, the results of which are comparable with those made using lab-scale and energy-intensive processes.

  7. Utility of optical heterodyne displacement sensing and laser ultrasonics as in situ process control diagnostic for additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Anthony J.; Helvajian, Henry

    2018-04-01

    An in situ process control monitor is presented by way of experimental results and simulations, which utilizes a pulsed laser ultrasonic source as a probe and an optical heterodyne displacement meter as a sensor. The intent is for a process control system that operates in near real time, is nonintrusive, and in situ: A necessary requirement for a serial manufacturing technology such as additive manufacturing (AM). We show that the diagnostic approach has utility in characterizing the local temperature, the area of the heat-affected zone, and the surface roughness (Ra ˜ 0.4 μm). We further demonstrate that it can be used to identify solitary defects (i.e., holes) on the order of 10 to 20 μm in diameter. Moreover, the technique shows promise in measuring properties of materials with features that have a small radius of curvature. We present results for a thin wire of ˜650 μm in diameter. By applying multiple pairs of probe-sensor systems, the diagnostic could also measure the local cooling rate on the scale of 1 μs. Finally, while an obvious application is used in AM technology, then all optical diagnostics could be applied to other manufacturing technologies.

  8. Dynamics Analysis of Castor Hulling in the Process of Air-and-Screen Cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Ruitao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The air-and-screen cleaning mechanism of castor hulling is analyzed in this paper. And the numeric expression equations of the castor dynamics analysis are established. The correlation of floating speeds vp, air speeds w, the direction angle of airflow velocity β, the direction angle of vibration δ, the friction angle ϕ, the slip coefficient, the fell coefficient and the jumping coefficient are analyzed.

  9. Dynamics Analysis of Castor Hulling in the Process of Air-and-Screen Cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Gao Ruitao; Cao Yuhua; Yao Liangliang; Jin Hong

    2016-01-01

    The air-and-screen cleaning mechanism of castor hulling is analyzed in this paper. And the numeric expression equations of the castor dynamics analysis are established. The correlation of floating speeds vp, air speeds w, the direction angle of airflow velocity β, the direction angle of vibration δ, the friction angle ϕ, the slip coefficient, the fell coefficient and the jumping coefficient are analyzed.

  10. Development of a Post-Processing Algorithm for Accurate Human Skull Profile Extraction via Ultrasonic Phased Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ansary, Mariam Luay Y.

    Ultrasound Imaging has been favored by clinicians for its safety, affordability, accessibility, and speed compared to other imaging modalities. However, the trade-offs to these benefits are a relatively lower image quality and interpretability, which can be addressed by, for example, post-processing methods. One particularly difficult imaging case is associated with the presence of a barrier, such as a human skull, with significantly different acoustical properties than the brain tissue as the target medium. Some methods were proposed in the literature to account for this structure if the skull's geometry is known. Measuring the skull's geometry is therefore an important task that requires attention. In this work, a new edge detection method for accurate human skull profile extraction via post-processing of ultrasonic A-Scans is introduced. This method, referred to as the Selective Echo Extraction algorithm, SEE, processes each A-Scan separately and determines the outermost and innermost boundaries of the skull by means of adaptive filtering. The method can also be used to determine the average attenuation coefficient of the skull. When applied to simulated B-Mode images of the skull profile, promising results were obtained. The profiles obtained from the proposed process in simulations were found to be within 0.15lambda +/- 0.11lambda or 0.09 +/- 0.07mm from the actual profiles. Experiments were also performed to test SEE on skull mimicking phantoms with major acoustical properties similar to those of the actual human skull. With experimental data, the profiles obtained with the proposed process were within 0.32lambda +/- 0.25lambda or 0.19 +/- 0.15mm from the actual profile.

  11. Ultrasonic neuromodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naor, Omer; Krupa, Steve; Shoham, Shy

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasonic waves can be non-invasively steered and focused into mm-scale regions across the human body and brain, and their application in generating controlled artificial modulation of neuronal activity could therefore potentially have profound implications for neural science and engineering. Ultrasonic neuro-modulation phenomena were experimentally observed and studied for nearly a century, with recent discoveries on direct neural excitation and suppression sparking a new wave of investigations in models ranging from rodents to humans. In this paper we review the physics, engineering and scientific aspects of ultrasonic fields, their control in both space and time, and their effect on neuronal activity, including a survey of both the field’s foundational history and of recent findings. We describe key constraints encountered in this field, as well as key engineering systems developed to surmount them. In closing, the state of the art is discussed, with an emphasis on emerging research and clinical directions.

  12. STUDY ON ULTRASONIC DEGREASING OF SHEEPSKIN WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BĂLĂU MÎNDRU Tudorel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Leather industry is a relatively large source of waste from raw material, so skin waste recovery is a goal of clean technologies. Capitalization of skin waste aims to obtain: chemical auxiliaries, technical articles, hydrolyzed protein, artificial leather, composite building materials, heat sources and collagen biomaterials with applications in medicine, cosmetics, etc. A first step in the recovery of skin waste is the degreasing operation. Ultrasound is an effective tool to improve the efficiency of the conventional degreasing affecting the chemical substances as well as the treated skin. In addition, the processing time is reduced. Ultrasound is known to enhance the emulsification and dispersion of oils/fat. The usual degreasing methods requires more emulsifier/solvent ratio and process time for emulsification and additional solvent for washing out the emulsified fat. This paper investigates the possibility of recovery through ecological processes of leather waste from finishing operations for further capitalization. The present study aims emulsification and subsequent removal of the fat present in the chamois powder waste from polishing operation with the aid of ultrasound by an aqueous ecofriendly method. The study also took into account the ultrasonic treatment of the leather waste using trichlorethylene as a medium of propagation-degreasing, and realized a comparative analysis of efficiency of fat extraction by Soxhlet method and via ultrasonication. IR-ATR and optical microscopy highlight both morphological and chemical-structural changes of treated materials by different degreasing methods

  13. The temporal evolution process from fluorescence bleaching to clean Raman spectra of single solid particles optically trapped in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhiyong; Pan, Yong-Le; Videen, Gorden; Wang, Chuji

    2017-12-01

    We observe the entire temporal evolution process of fluorescence and Raman spectra of single solid particles optically trapped in air. The spectra initially contain strong fluorescence with weak Raman peaks, then the fluorescence was bleached within seconds, and finally only the clean Raman peaks remain. We construct an optical trap using two counter-propagating hollow beams, which is able to stably trap both absorbing and non-absorbing particles in air, for observing such temporal processes. This technique offers a new method to study dynamic changes in the fluorescence and Raman spectra from a single optically trapped particle in air.

  14. Ultrasonic flowmeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittekind, W.D.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype ultrasonic flowmeter was assembled and tested. The theoretical basis of this prototype ultrasonic flowmeter is reviewed; the equipment requirements for a portable unit are discussed; the individual electronic modules contained in the prototype are described; the operating procedures and configuration are explained; and the data from preliminary calibrations are presented. The calibration data confirm that the prototype operates according to theoretical predictions and can indeed provide nonintrusive flow measurements to predicted accuracies for pipes larger than two inches, under single phase stable flow conditions

  15. Optimization design of high power ultrasonic circular ring radiator in coupled vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Long; Lin, Shuyu; Hu, Wenxu

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a new high power ultrasonic (HPU) radiator, which consists of a transducer, an ultrasonic horn, and a metal circular ring. Both the transducer and horn in longitudinal vibrations are used to drive a metal circular ring in a radial-axial coupled vibration. This coupled vibration cannot only generate ultrasound in both the radial and axial directions, but also focus the ultrasound inside the circular ring. Except for the radial-axial coupled vibration mode, the third longitudinal harmonic vibration mode with relative large vibration amplitude is also detected, which can be used as another operation mode. Overall, the HPU with these two vibration modes should have good potential to be applied in liquid processing, such as sonochemistry, ultrasonic cleaning, and Chinese herbal medicine extraction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhancement of the sludge disintegration and nutrients release by a treatment with potassium ferrate combined with an ultrasonic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Yu, Najiaowa; Liu, Qian; Li, Yiran; Ren, Nanqi; Xing, Defeng

    2018-09-01

    Sludge disintegration by ultrasound is a promising sludge treatment method. In order to enhance the efficiency of the sludge reduction and hydrolysis, potassium ferrate (K 2 FeO 4 ) (PF) was used. A novel method was developed to improve the sludge disintegration-sludge pretreatment by using PF in combination with an ultrasonic treatment (PF + ULT). After a short-term PF + ULT treatment, 17.23% of the volatile suspended solids (VSS) were reduced after a 900-min reaction time, which is 61.3% higher than the VSS reduction for the raw sludge. The supernatant soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), total nitrogen (TN), volatile fatty acids (VFAs), soluble protein and polysaccharides increased by 522.5%, 1029.4%, 878.4%, 2996.6% and 801.9%, respectively. The constituent parts of the dissolved organic matter of the sludge products were released efficiently, which demonstrated the positive effect caused by the PF + ULT. The enhanced sludge disintegration process further alleviates environmental risk and offers a more efficient and convenient method for utilizing sludge. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of electropulsing on surface mechanical properties and microstructure of AISI 304 stainless steel during ultrasonic surface rolling process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haibo [Advanced Materials Institute, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Song, Guolin [Advanced Materials Institute, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Tang, Guoyi, E-mail: tanggy@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Advanced Materials Institute, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-04-26

    The present work integrates 3D digital optical microscopy (OM), nano-indentation, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to systematically investigate the effect of electropulsing on the surface mechanical properties and microstructure of AISI 304 stainless steel during the ultrasonic surface rolling process (USRP). Compared with the original USRP, the introduction of electropulsing with optimal parameters can effectively facilitate surface crack healing and improve surface hardness and wear resistance dramatically, and the residual compressive stress is further enhanced. Meanwhile, more martensite phase and fewer deformation twins can be found in the strengthened layer. Rapid improvement of the surface mechanical properties should be attributed to the ultra-refined grains, accelerated martensitic phase transformation and suppressed deformation twining induced by the coupling effect of USRP and electropulsing. The high strain rate given by USRP, increased stacking fault energy and accelerated dislocation mobility caused by electropulsing are likely the primary intrinsic reasons for the observed phenomena.

  18. Optical study of the ultrasonic formation process of noble metal nanoparticles dispersed inside the pores of monolithic mesoporous silica

    CERN Document Server

    Fu Gan Hua; Kan Cai Xia; Li Cun Cheng; Fang Qi

    2003-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles dispersed inside the pores of monolithic mesoporous silica were prepared by soaking the silica in a gold (III) ion solution and subsequent ultrasound irradiation. The formation process of gold nanoparticles in the pores of mesoporous silica was investigated based on optical measurements of wrapped and naked soaked silica after ultrasonic irradiation, and the reduction rate effect in solution and pre-soaking effect. It has been shown that acoustic cavitation cannot occur in nano-sized pores. The gold nanoparticles in silica are not formed in situ within the pores but produced mainly by diffusion of the gold clusters formed in the solution during irradiation into the pores. The radicals formed in solution are exhausted before entering the pores of silica. There exists a critical reduction rate in solution, at which the yield of gold nanoparticles in silica reaches a maximum, and above which there is a decrease in the yield. This is attributed to too quick a growth or aggregation of gold clust...

  19. [Cleaning and disinfection in nursing homes. Data on quality of structure, process and outcome in nursing homes in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heudorf, U; Gasteyer, S; Samoiski, Y; Voigt, K

    2012-08-01

    Due to the Infectious Disease Prevention Act, public health services in Germany are obliged to check the infection prevention in hospitals and other medical facilities as well as in nursing homes. In Frankfurt/Main, Germany, standardized control visits have been performed for many years. In 2011 focus was laid on cleaning and disinfection of surfaces. All 41 nursing homes were checked according to a standardized checklist covering quality of structure (i.e. staffing, hygiene concept), quality of process (observation of the cleaning processes in the homes) and quality of output, which was monitored by checking the cleaning of fluorescent marks which had been applied some days before and should have been removed via cleaning in the following days before the final check. In more than two thirds of the homes, cleaning personnel were salaried, in one third external personnel were hired. Of the homes 85% provided service clothing and all of them offered protective clothing. All homes had established hygiene and cleaning concepts, however, in 15% of the homes concepts for the handling of Norovirus and in 30% concepts for the handling of Clostridium difficile were missing. Regarding process quality only half of the processes observed, i.e. cleaning of hand contact surfaces, such as handrails, washing areas and bins, were correct. Only 44% of the cleaning controls were correct with enormous differences between the homes (0-100%). The correlation between quality of process and quality of output was significant. There was good quality of structure in the homes but regarding quality of process and outcome there was great need for improvement. This was especially due to faults in communication and coordination between cleaning personnel and nursing personnel. Quality outcome was neither associated with the number of the places for residents nor with staffing. Thus, not only quality of structure but also quality of process and outcome should be checked by the public health

  20. Process, background and design criteria of the gas cleaning at Puertollano IGCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisa, J. [Elcogas, Madrid (Spain)

    1998-11-01

    The Puertollano IGCC plant selected cooling by a water-tube boiler with upstream quenching at high velocities that requires a dust-free cooling gas at not less than 250{degree}C in order not to penalise the heat recovery efficiency. A filtration system for gas dedusting in the 250{degree}C temperature range has been installed and will be commissioned at the end of 1997. The gas cleaning concept is completed with a Venturi Scrubber, a COS hydrolysis reactor and a MDEA column to strip the sulphuric acid to yield clean gas. The gasification island is based upon the PRENFLO system which is an entrained-flow system with dry feeding. The selection of the filter system arrangement considered the limited operational experience in comparable operating conditions and acknowledged the flexibility of the filter system versus the cyclone-scrubber as far as easier load variation operation, the reduction of residues needing deposition and increased slag flow, as well as easier maintenance. Additionally to the ceramic test filters in Furstenhausen (PRENFLO) and Deer Park near Houston (SHELL), ceramic candle-type filter were selected in Buggenum and at Wabash River, and for the KoBra plant. The main criteria for the selection of the filter system and the type of candle were: separation efficiency to match clean gas limits; uniform distribution of the dust-laden gas to the filters; wear-resistant routing of the dust-laden gas flow; need for a supporting structure which must cope with sudden pressure fluctuations; optimised pulse gas system; and maintenance and repair. Based upon the above criteria, the PRENFLO concept requirements and the gas turbine specification, an arrangement with two pressure filter vessels with LLB design and filter elements manufactured by Schumacher has been installed in Puertollano. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Device and process for cleaning a steam generator plate by a sludge lance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, D.; Berard, P.; Denuit, J.

    1995-01-01

    The cleaning system comprises a carriage which is able to move along a rail and is equipped with a serie of oscillating nozzles. The carriage is made up of a first subassembly with a reversible lance module carrying the nozzles and is equipped at each end with a male hydraulic coupling which is able to connect either with a pressurized water circuit. Its second subassembly comprises the module which connects with and rotates the nozzles, a reversible observation and detection unit and an independent drive mechanism with at least two toothed wheels able to engage with racks. 11 figs

  2. [The use of ultrasonic files in canal preparation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calas, P; Terrie, B

    1990-01-01

    The continuous high volume of irrigating solution delivered by the ultrasonic system facilitates the root canal debridement. An excellent cleaning of dentin wall is obtained even on surfaces unreached by the mechanical instrumentation. In order to obtain an efficacious preparation, the use of ultrasonic files were combined with instrumentation. This new technique is described in this article.

  3. Performance of ultrasonic and hydrogen peroxide technologies in removal of Bisphenol A from Aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Dehghani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:BPA is a non biodegradable antioxidant that has greatly hazardous for human and animals health. and Because of the eliminating alone fewness amount of the BPA during the wastewater treatment, wastewater that contains BPA can be source of pollution in aqueous solution. The objective of this study was Performance of ultrasonic and H2O2 technologies in removal of BPA from aqueous solution. Methods:Experiments of sonochemical was carried out with use of unit ultrasonicator (Elma, which in the two power 300 and 500W, frequencies at 35 and 130KHz. Hydrogen Peroxide in concentrations at 5, 15 and 30mg/lit was applied. Initial concentration BPA at limits 2, 5, 20 and 50 mg/lit which For measuring concentration of BPA used from Spectrometer UV/VIS Lambada 25 Perkin Elmer, Shelton unit. Results:The results demonstrated that hybrid ultrasonic and peroxide Hydrogen processes with Efficiency 98.65%,  has the highest efficiency in the removal of BPA. The most decomposition rate achieved at the frequency of 130 KHz and 500W assisted by 30mg/lit H2O2 at pH 11. Also the results demonstrated that with pH increase destruction rate BPA the increased by any three processes (ultrasonic, H2O2 and both hybrid. Conclusion:The results demonstrated that hybrid ultrasonic and peroxide Hydrogen processes can be used as a clean method and friendly environment for waters treatment are contains desirable BPA.

  4. Ecological effectiveness of oil spill countermeasures: how clean is clean?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper with 94 references examines background levels of hydrocarbons and the difficulty of defining clean. Processes and timescales for natural cleaning, and factors affecting natural cleaning timescales are considered. Ecological advantages and disadvantages of clean-up methods are highlighted, and five case histories of oil spills are summarised. The relationships between ecological and socio-economic considerations, and the need for a net environmental benefit analysis which takes into account the advantages and disadvantages of clean-up responses and natural clean-up are discussed. A decision tree for evaluating the requirement for shore clean-up is illustrated. (UK)

  5. Modelling de-novo formation of dioxins in the effluent gas cleaning tract of a zinc recycling process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordsieck, H.; Peche, R.

    2002-07-01

    Dioxins as well as other chloroaromatics are an unwanted by-product of most metallurgical processes, both in primary metal production and in recycling, such as at the re-use of high-zinc steel dust, as obtained in the second steel melting process using in electric arc furnaces, by extracting the included zinc. for achieving this purpose, the steel dust is treated in a rotary kiln. This resulting zinc oxide is offered to metal working companies in form of fine powder where it is used for galvanizing of components, for example, or for converting the powder pure metal. In the framework of the MINIDIP-project (Minimization of Dioxins in Thermal Industrial Processes: Mechanisms, Monitoring, Abatement) the formation of dioxins was studied as a function of temperature, time, oxygen, and inhibitor addition. The resulting kinetic data are introduced into a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, featuring geometric representations of the effluent gas cleaning tract components and the temperature and gas flow field as well as the trajectories and destination of particles different sizes calculated. This CFD model is used to estimate the de-novo formation of dioxins from the moment the gas leaves the rotary kiln until its cleaning, in order to define the role of this part of the plant in the formation of dioxins, as well as the identification and extent of possibilities for minimizing dioxin emissions. (Author)

  6. Hybrid Pressure Retarded Osmosis−Membrane Distillation (PRO−MD) Process for Osmotic Power and Clean Water Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Gang

    2015-05-20

    A novel pressure retarded osmosis−membrane distillation (PRO−MD) hybrid process has been experimentally conceived for sustainable production of renewable osmotic power and clean water from various waters. The proposed PRO−MD system may possess unique advantages of high water recovery rate, huge osmotic power generation, well controlled membrane fouling, and minimal environmental impacts. Experimental results show that the PRO−MD hybrid process is promising that not only can harvest osmotic energy from freshwater but also from wastewater. When employing a 2 M NaCl MD concentrate as the draw solution, ultrahigh power densities of 31.0 W/m2 and 9.3 W/m2 have been demonstrated by the PRO subsystem using deionized water and real wastewater brine as the feeds, respectively. Simultaneously, high purity potable water with a flux of 32.5−63.1 L/(m2.h) can be produced by the MD subsystem at 40−60 °C without any detrimental effects of fouling. The energy consumption in the MD subsystem might be further reduced by applying a heat exchanger in the hybrid system and using low-grade heat or solar energy to heat up the feed solution. The newly developed PRO−MD hybrid process would provide insightful guidelines for the exploration of alternative green technologies for renewable osmotic energy and clean water production.

  7. Steam generators secondary side chemical cleaning at Point Lepreau using the Siemens high temperature process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, K.; MacNeil, C.; Odar, S.; Kuhnke, K.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the chemical cleaning of the four steam generators at the Point Lepreau facility, which was accomplished as a part of a normal service outage. The steam generators had been in service for twelve years. Sludge samples showed the main elements were Fe, P and Na, with minor amounts of Ca, Mg, Mn, Cr, Zn, Cl, Cu, Ni, Ti, Si, and Pb, 90% in the form of Magnetite, substantial phosphate, and trace amounts of silicates. The steam generators were experiencing partial blockage of broached holes in the TSPs, and corrosion on tube ODs in the form of pitting and wastage. In addition heat transfer was clearly deteriorating. More than 1000 kg of magnetite and 124 kg of salts were removed from the four steam generators

  8. Is dry cleaning all wet?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical solvents from dry cleaning, particularly perchloroethylene (perc), have contributed to groundwater contamination, significant levels of air pollution in and around cleaners, and chemical accumulation in food. Questions are being raised about the process of cleaning clothes with chemical, and other less toxic cleaning methods are being explored. The EPA has focused attention on the 50 year old Friedburg method of cleaning, Ecoclean, which uses no dangerous chemicals and achieves comparable results. Unfortunately, the cleaning industry is resistant to change, so cutting back on amount of clothes that need dry cleaning and making sure labels aren't exaggerating when they say dry clean only, is frequently the only consumer option now

  9. Clean data

    CERN Document Server

    Squire, Megan

    2015-01-01

    If you are a data scientist of any level, beginners included, and interested in cleaning up your data, this is the book for you! Experience with Python or PHP is assumed, but no previous knowledge of data cleaning is needed.

  10. Computer automation of ultrasonic testing. [inspection of ultrasonic welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, B. G. W.; Kerlin, E. E.; Gardner, A. H.; Dunmyer, D.; Wells, T. G.; Robinson, A. R.; Kunselman, J. S.; Walker, T. C.

    1974-01-01

    Report describes a prototype computer-automated ultrasonic system developed for the inspection of weldments. This system can be operated in three modes: manual, automatic, and computer-controlled. In the computer-controlled mode, the system will automatically acquire, process, analyze, store, and display ultrasonic inspection data in real-time. Flaw size (in cross-section), location (depth), and type (porosity-like or crack-like) can be automatically discerned and displayed. The results and pertinent parameters are recorded.

  11. Processing ultrasonic inspection data from multiple scan patterns for turbine rotor weld build-up evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xuefei; Rasselkorde, El Mahjoub; Abbasi, Waheed; Zhou, S. Kevin

    2015-03-01

    The study presents a data processing methodology for weld build-up using multiple scan patterns. To achieve an overall high probability of detection for flaws with different orientations, an inspection procedure with three different scan patterns is proposed. The three scan patterns are radial-tangential longitude wave pattern, axial-radial longitude wave pattern, and tangential shear wave pattern. Scientific fusion of the inspection data is implemented using volume reconstruction techniques. The idea is to perform spatial domain forward data mapping for all sampling points. A conservative scheme is employed to handle the case that multiple sampling points are mapped to one grid location. The scheme assigns the maximum value for the grid location to retain the largest equivalent reflector size for the location. The methodology is demonstrated and validated using a realistic ring of weld build-up. Tungsten balls and bars are embedded to the weld build-up during manufacturing process to represent natural flaws. Flat bottomed holes and side drilled holes are installed as artificial flaws. Automatic flaw identification and extraction are demonstrated. Results indicate the inspection procedure with multiple scan patterns can identify all the artificial and natural flaws.

  12. Development of an ultrasonic weld inspection system based on image processing and neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca Barceló, Fernando; Jaén del Hierro, Pedro; Ribes Llario, Fran; Real Herráiz, Julia

    2018-04-01

    Several types of discontinuities and defects may be present on a weld, thus leading to a considerable reduction of its resistance. Therefore, ensuring a high welding quality and reliability has become a matter of key importance for many construction and industrial activities. Among the non-destructive weld testing and inspection techniques, the time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) arises as a very safe (no ionising radiation), precise, reliable and versatile practice. However, this technique presents a relevant drawback, associated to the appearance of speckle noise that should be addressed. In this regard, this paper presents a new, intelligent and automatic method for weld inspection and analysis, based on TOFD, image processing and neural networks. The developed system is capable of detecting weld defects and imperfections with accuracy, and classify them into different categories.

  13. The ultrasonic wave pattern analysis and the frequency diversity signal processing in multi-layered gap measurement for in-vessel corium retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, K. M.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, H. D.

    1999-01-01

    A gap between a molten material and a lower head vessel is formed in the LAVA experiment, a phase 1 study of SONATA-IV program. In this paper, the quantitative results of the gap measurement using an off-line ultrasonic pulse echo method by frequency diversity signal processing are presented. However, the gap measurement signal using an ordinary ultrasonic test would be lack of reliability due to the structural complexity of the specimen. The structural complexity may result from the external reason from the shape and the internal reason from the material characteristics. This paper aims at the development of an appropriate ultrasonic test method, by analyzing the problems from the internal characteristic reason. In this test, the signal of the propagational direction and reflectional direction through solid-liquid-solid specimen was analyzed to understand the behavior of the reflectional signal in a multi-layered structure by filling the gap with water between the melt and the lower head vessel

  14. Experimental assessment of the influence of welding process parameters on Lamb wave transmission across ultrasonically welded thermoplastic composite joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochôa, Pedro; Fernandez Villegas, Irene; Groves, Roger M.; Benedictus, Rinze

    2018-01-01

    One of the advantages of thermoplastic composites relative to their thermoset counterparts is the possibility of assembling components through welding. Ultrasonic welding in particular is very promising for industrialization. However, uncertainty in the fatigue and fracture behaviour of composites is still an obstacle to the full utilisation of these materials. Health monitoring is then of vital importance, and Lamb wave techniques have been widely recognised as some of the most promising approaches for that end. This paper presents the first experimental study about the influence of welding travel on the transmission of Lamb waves across ultrasonically welded thermoplastic composite joints in single-lap configuration. The main aim of this research is to start to understand how guided waves interact with the internal structure of ultrasonic welds, so that benign, manufacturing-related structural features can be distinguished from damaging ones in signal interpretation. The power transmission coefficient and the correlation coefficient proved to be suitable for analysing the wave propagation phenomena, allowing quantitative identification of small variations of weld-line thickness and intermolecular diffusion at the weld interface. The conclusions are used to develop a tentative damage detection criterion which can later on assist the design of a Lamb wave based structural health monitoring system for thermoplastic composite structures. The Lamb wave test results are backed up by phased-array inspections, which also provide some extra insight on the internal structure of ultrasonic welds.

  15. Automation of the radiological survey process: USRADS ultrasonic ranging and data system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berven, B.A.; Blair, M.S.; Little, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Radiological Survey Activities (RASA) program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) serves as the Inclusion Survey Contractor (ISC) in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action project (UMTRAP). The ISC is to identify properties in the vicinity of 24 inactive uranium mill sites suspected of having 226 Ra-bearing uranium mill tailings by-product material originating from the processing of uranium ore contamination. Mobile gamma scanning was the primary method used to identify these properties. Once identified, the ISC conducts an inclusion survey. This survey performs sufficient radiological measurements to determine if uranium mill tailing contamination is present, and, if so, if it is in excess of relevant Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) criteria. Radon emanating from 226 Ra is the primary pathway of exposure to human occupants at these sites. EPA criteria focus on controlling 226 Ra concentration in soil. The concentration of 226 Ra in soil can be measured directly by soil sampling and subsequent gamma spectrographic analysis of the sample, or by direct measurement of the gamma exposure rate at the soil surface using portable instrumentation in the field. In both methods, the concentration of 226 Ra is inferred by examining the frequency of gamma emission of 214 Bi, a radioactive decay product in the 238 U decay chain

  16. Automated cleaning of electronic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drotning, W.; Meirans, L.; Wapman, W.; Hwang, Y.; Koenig, L.; Petterson, B.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental and operator safety concerns are leading to the elimination of trichloroethylene and chlorofluorocarbon solvents in cleaning processes that remove rosin flux, organic and inorganic contamination, and particulates from electronic components. Present processes depend heavily on these solvents for manual spray cleaning of small components and subassemblies. Use of alternative solvent systems can lead to longer processing times and reduced quality. Automated spray cleaning can improve the quality of the cleaning process, thus enabling the productive use of environmentally conscious materials, while minimizing personnel exposure to hazardous materials. We describe the development of a prototype robotic system for cleaning electronic components in a spray cleaning workcell. An important feature of the prototype system is the capability to generate the robot paths and motions automatically from the CAD models of the part to be cleaned, and to embed cleaning process knowledge into the automatically programmed operations

  17. Inhibition of the Nitrification Process of Activated Sludge Micro-Organism by Scrubber Water from an Industrial Flue Gas Cleaning Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jens Peter

    2007-01-01

    the nitrogen removal. A major sewage cleaning plant in the southern part of Denmark is a recipient of industrial sewage from a major fish meal industry. Severe nitrification inhibition was observed in scrubber water from an incineration of process air, and the processes that lead to the production were stopped......The microbial transformation of ammonia to nitrate, the nitrification, is a central process in the nitrogen biogeochemical cycle. In a modern wastewater treatment plant, the nitrification process is a key process in the removal of nitrogen and inhibitory compounds in sewage can seriously affect....... In order to investigate the relation between incineration temperatures and the production of inhibitory compounds, the process air was burned at temperatures from 800°C to 1000°C. The termically affected condensate was collected and the nitrification inhibition effect of the condensate was tested using...

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY INITIATIVE: CHEMICAL-FREE CLEANING OF SEMICONDUCTORS BY THE RADIANCE PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Radiance Process is a patented dry process for removing contaminants from surfaces. It uses light, usually from a pulsed laser and a gas inert to the surface, to entrain released contaminants. The focus of this effort is to assess the applicability of the Radiance Process t...

  19. Ultrasonic Bat Deterrent Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinzie, Kevin; Rominger, Kathryn M.

    2017-12-14

    turbines. Additionally, a unique 3D bat flight path visualization system was utilized to monitor for and identify any changes in bat activity caused by the operation of the deterrent system. Both the carcass search and flight path visualization data indicated that the pulsed deterrent system was effective, but not more effective, than the steady system tested in prior years. The pulsed deterrent system was effective at reducing bat fatalities by 38% for all species and 54% effective at reducing fatalities if Eastern Red bats were excluded from the data. However, an unanticipated byproduct of the pulsing system was the emission of intermittent water vapor from the deterrent devices due to the air compression process that powered the devices. This water vapor may have altered the ultrasonic signal and obscured the results in an unknown way. While a qualitative analysis of the effect of the water vapor on the deterrent signal had indicated there was not dramatic change in the expected ultrasonic signal, it was not possible to conclusively determine if the pulse signal would have been more effective in the absence of the water vapor.

  20. Plasma cleaning for waste minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, P.P.

    1993-07-01

    Although plasma cleaning is a recognized substitute for solvent cleaning in removing organic contaminants, some universal problems in plasma cleaning processes prevent wider use of plasma techniques. Lack of understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of the process, unreliable endpoint detection techniques, and slow process times make plasma cleaning processes less than desirable. Our approach to address these plasma cleaning problems is described. A comparison of plasma cleaning rates of oxygen and oxygen/sulfur hexafluoride gases shows that fluorine-containing plasmas can enhance etch rates by 400% over oxygen alone. A discussion of various endpoint indication techniques is discussed and compared for application suitability. Work toward a plasma cleaning database is discussed. In addition to the global problems of plasma cleaning, an experiment where the specific mixed-waste problem of removal of machine oils from radioactive scrap metal is discussed.

  1. The digital ultrasonic test unit for automatic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, T.; Matsuyama, H.

    1976-01-01

    The operations and features of the ultrasonic test unit used and the digital data processing techniques employed are described. This unit is used for a few hundred multi-channel automatic ultrasonic test equipment

  2. Ultrasonic extraction of flavonoids and phenolics from loquat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-08

    Jun 8, 2011 ... ultrasonic pharmaceutical managing machine (Sinobest electronic. Co. Ltd., Jining, Shangdong ... During the ultrasonic treatment, the temperature ..... essential oil extraction by a hydrodistillation process using a 2(4) complete ...

  3. Defect detection and sizing in ultrasonic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moysan, J.; Benoist, P.; Chapuis, N.; Magnin, I.

    1991-01-01

    This paper introduces imaging processing developed with the SPARTACUS system in the field of ultrasonic testing. The aim of the imaging processing is to detect and to separate defects echoes from background noise. Image segmentation and particularities of ultrasonic images are the base of studied methods. 4 figs.; 6 refs [fr

  4. A new multiple channel data recording system for mechanised ultrasonic testing of pipes and nozzles by A-scan processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heumueller, R.; Rathgeb, W.; Szafarska, E.; Bertus, N.; Erhard, A.; Montag, H.J.; Wuestenberg, H.

    1989-01-01

    A system of equipment for ultrasonic testing in nuclear technique is introduced. This is a four channel ultrasonic equipment, which consists of a manipulator suitable for components, up to four conventional test heads, a test head connection box connected with them via 20 metres of coaxial cable, a documentation unit for signal detection and conversion, a data collection computer for parametricising the equipment, measurement display and representation and a disc memory. The advantages of this test system lie in its easy use because of the compact equipment dimensions, in the data collection of the complete A picture by the documentation unit and in the flexible evaluation of the collected data by the computer. (MM) [de

  5. Towards defect free EUVL reticles: carbon and particle removal by single dry cleaning process and pattern repair by HIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, N. B.; Molkenboer, F. T.; van Veldhoven, E.; Oostrom, S.

    2011-04-01

    We report on our findings on EUVL reticle contamination removal, inspection and repair. We show that carbon contamination can be removed without damage to the reticle by our plasma process. Also organic particles, simulated by PSL spheres, can be removed from both the surface of the absorber as well as from the bottom of the trenches. The particles shrink in size during the plasma treatment until they are vanished. The determination of the necessary cleaning time for PSL spheres was conducted on Ru coated samples and the final experiment was performed on our dummy reticle. Finally we show that the Helium Ion Microscope in combination with a Gas Injection System is capable of depositing additional lines and squares on the reticle with sufficient resolution for pattern repair.

  6. A novel zeolite process for clean end use of hydrocarbon products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskinen, K M [Neste Oy, Porvoo (Finland). Technology Centre

    1997-12-31

    In recent years zeolites such as ZSM-5 have attracted considerable interest for the catalysis of a wide range of hydrocarbon transformations. A novel process developed by Neste converts light olefins to higher molecular weight hydrocarbon products. A wide range of high quality diesel, solvents and lube oils can be produced by the new NESKO process. Hydrotreated products have excellent properties; negligible sulphur or nitrogen compounds, very low aromatic content and pour point lower than -50 deg C. Proprietary technology is used in this olefin oligomerization process. (author) (7 refs.)

  7. A novel zeolite process for clean end use of hydrocarbon products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskinen, K.M. [Neste Oy, Porvoo (Finland). Technology Centre

    1996-12-31

    In recent years zeolites such as ZSM-5 have attracted considerable interest for the catalysis of a wide range of hydrocarbon transformations. A novel process developed by Neste converts light olefins to higher molecular weight hydrocarbon products. A wide range of high quality diesel, solvents and lube oils can be produced by the new NESKO process. Hydrotreated products have excellent properties; negligible sulphur or nitrogen compounds, very low aromatic content and pour point lower than -50 deg C. Proprietary technology is used in this olefin oligomerization process. (author) (7 refs.)

  8. Ultrasonic hydrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoboda, Carl A.

    1984-01-01

    The disclosed ultrasonic hydrometer determines the specific gravity (density) of the electrolyte of a wet battery, such as a lead-acid battery. The hydrometer utilizes a transducer that when excited emits an ultrasonic impulse that traverses through the electrolyte back and forth between spaced sonic surfaces. The transducer detects the returning impulse, and means measures the time "t" between the initial and returning impulses. Considering the distance "d" between the spaced sonic surfaces and the measured time "t", the sonic velocity "V" is calculated with the equation "V=2d/t". The hydrometer also utilizes a thermocouple to measure the electrolyte temperature. A hydrometer database correlates three variable parameters including sonic velocity in and temperature and specific gravity of the electrolyte, for temperature values between 0.degree. and 40.degree. C. and for specific gravity values between 1.05 and 1.30. Upon knowing two parameters (the calculated sonic velocity and the measured temperature), the third parameter (specific gravity) can be uniquely found in the database. The hydrometer utilizes a microprocessor for data storage and manipulation. The disclosed modified battery has a hollow spacer nub on the battery side wall, the sonic surfaces being on the inside of the nub and the electrolyte filling between the surfaces to the exclusion of intervening structure. An accessible pad exposed on the nub wall opposite one sonic surface allows the reliable placement thereagainst of the transducer.

  9. Clean and efficient energy conversion processes (Cecon-project). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The objectives of the work programme reported are the development and testing of two optimised energy conversion processes, both consisting of a radiant surface gas burner and a ceramic heat exchanger. The first sub-objective of the programme is related to industrial heating, drying and curing processes requireing low and medium heat fluxes. It is estimated that around one tenth of the total EC industrial energy use is associated with such processes. The majority of these processes currently use convection and conduction as the main heat transfer mechanisms and overall energy efficiencies are typically below 25%. For many drying and finishing processes (such as curing powder coatings and drying paints, varnishes, inks, and for the fabrication of paper and textiles), radiant heating can achieve much faster dyring rates and higher energy efficiency than convective heating. In the project new concepts of natural gas fired radiant heating have been investigated which would be much more efficient than the existing processes. One element of the programme was the evelopment of gas burners having enhanced radiant efficiencies. A second concerned the investigation of the safety of gas burners containing significant volumes of mixed gas and air. Finally the new gas burners were tested in combination with the high temperature heat exchanger to create highly efficient radiant heating systems. The second sub-objective concerned the development of a compact low cost heat exchanger capable of achieving high levels of heat recovery (up to 60%) which could be easily installed on industrial processes. This would make heat recovery a practical proposition on processes where existing heat recovery technology is currently not cost effective. The project will have an impact on industrial processes consuming around 80 MTOE of energy per year within EU countries (1 MTOE equals 41.8 PJ). The overall energy saving potential of the project is estimated to be around 22 MTOE which is around 10

  10. Internal ultrasonic inspection of flexible pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltzersen, O. (IKU Petroleumsforskning A/S, Trondheim (Norway) Norwegian Inst. of Tech., Trondheim (Norway). Div. of Petroleum Engineering and Applied Geophysics); Waag, T.I. (IKU Petroleumsforskning A/S, Trondheim (Norway))

    1993-10-01

    Methods for internal ultrasonic inspection of flexible pipe have been investigated through experiments with a short sample of Coflexip pipe. Ultrasonic backscatter methods using normal and non-normal incidence have been used for qualitative high contrast ultrasonic imaging of the inner surface of the pipe. Analysis of the internal cross-section has been performed based on the use of a non-contact ultrasonic caliper, and processing procedures which enable calculation of, and compensation for, eccentricity of the tool in the pipe. The methods developed can be used to quantitatively estimate the thickness of the internal carcass, and perform high resolution topographic mapping of the inner surface. (Author)

  11. Procedures for Efficient and Economic Recovery of Heat for Reuse in Batch Processes for Cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    2005-01-01

    The expenditure of primary energy can be reduced and the economics of process plants in the food industry can be improved by intelligent application of Process Integration (PI). Since a greater part of the products in the food industry is processed in batches, the use of Thermal- Energy Storage...... are often encountered in the food industry. However, the extent to which PI is utilized is much smaller than the number of potential applications. The present paper will address this topic, give some reasons for the underuse of PI, and indicate some principles, methods, and directions that, when applied......, could increase the use and usefulness of PI by incorporating TES, thus fulfilling PI’s promises of improved operation, reduced energy consumption, reduced environmental impact, and improved economics. The application of these procedures is illustrated through the description of two cases. Keywords: Heat...

  12. A 100-Year Review: A century of dairy processing advancements-Pasteurization, cleaning and sanitation, and sanitary equipment design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, S A; Bradley, R L; Miller, G; Mildenhall, K B

    2017-12-01

    Over the past century, advancements within the mainstream dairy foods processing industry have acted in complement with other dairy-affiliated industries to produce a human food that has few rivals with regard to safety, nutrition, and sustainability. These advancements, such as milk pasteurization, may appear commonplace in the context of a modern dairy processing plant, but some consideration of how these advancements came into being serve as a basis for considering what advancements will come to bear on the next century of processing advancements. In the year 1917, depending on where one resided, most milk was presented to the consumer through privately owned dairy animals, small local or regional dairy farms, or small urban commercial dairies with minimal, or at best nascent, processing capabilities. In 1917, much of the retail milk in the United States was packaged and sold in returnable quart-sized clear glass bottles fitted with caps of various design and composition. Some reports suggest that the cost of that quart of milk was approximately 9 cents-an estimated $2.00 in 2017 US dollars. Comparing that 1917 quart of milk to a quart of milk in 2017 suggests several differences in microbiological, compositional, and nutritional value as well as flavor characteristics. Although a more comprehensive timeline of significant processing advancements is noted in the AppendixTable A1 to this paper, we have selected 3 advancements to highlight; namely, the development of milk pasteurization, cleaning and sanitizing technologies, and sanitary specifications for processing equipment. Finally, we provide some insights into the future of milk processing and suggest areas where technological advancements may need continued or strengthened attention and development as a means of securing milk as a food of high safety and value for the next century to come. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Modeling and optimization of processes for clean and efficient pulverized coal combustion in utility boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belošević Srđan V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulverized coal-fired power plants should provide higher efficiency of energy conversion, flexibility in terms of boiler loads and fuel characteristics and emission reduction of pollutants like nitrogen oxides. Modification of combustion process is a cost-effective technology for NOx control. For optimization of complex processes, such as turbulent reactive flow in coal-fired furnaces, mathematical modeling is regularly used. The NOx emission reduction by combustion modifications in the 350 MWe Kostolac B boiler furnace, tangentially fired by pulverized Serbian lignite, is investigated in the paper. Numerical experiments were done by an in-house developed three-dimensional differential comprehensive combustion code, with fuel- and thermal-NO formation/destruction reactions model. The code was developed to be easily used by engineering staff for process analysis in boiler units. A broad range of operating conditions was examined, such as fuel and preheated air distribution over the burners and tiers, operation mode of the burners, grinding fineness and quality of coal, boiler loads, cold air ingress, recirculation of flue gases, water-walls ash deposition and combined effect of different parameters. The predictions show that the NOx emission reduction of up to 30% can be achieved by a proper combustion organization in the case-study furnace, with the flame position control. Impact of combustion modifications on the boiler operation was evaluated by the boiler thermal calculations suggesting that the facility was to be controlled within narrow limits of operation parameters. Such a complex approach to pollutants control enables evaluating alternative solutions to achieve efficient and low emission operation of utility boiler units. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-33018: Increase in energy and ecology efficiency of processes in pulverized coal-fired furnace and optimization of utility steam boiler air preheater by using in

  14. AQUEOUS CLEANING OF PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD STENCILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA through NRMRL has partnered with the California Dept. of Toxic Substance Control under an ETV Pilot Project to verigy polllution prevention, recycling and waste treatment technologies. One of the projects selected for verification was the ultrasonic aqueous cleaning tec...

  15. Development and Application of an Ultrasonic Gas Flowmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won Ho; Jeong, Hee Don; Park, Sang Gug; Jhang, Kyung Young

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the development and the field application of the ultrasonic gas flowmeter for accurate measurement of the volumetric flow rate of gases in a harsh environmental conditions in iron and steel making company. This ultrasonic flowmeter is especially suited for measuring LDG, COG, BFG gases produced in iron and steel making process. This is a transit time type ultrasonic flowmeter. We have developed the transmitting and receiving algorithm of ultrasonic wave and the ultrasonic signal processing algorithm to develope a transit time type ultrasonic flowmeter. We have evaluated the performance of ultrasonic flowmeter by the calibration system with Venturi type standard flowmeter. We has confirmed its reliability by extensive field tests for a year in POSCO, iron and steel making company. Now we have developed the commercial model of ultrasonic flowmeter and applied to the POSCO gas line

  16. Recleaning of HEPA filters by reverse flow - evaluation of the underlying processes and the cleaning technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibold, H.; Leiber, T.; Doeffert, I.; Wilhelm, J.G.

    1993-08-01

    HEPA filter operation at high concentrations of fine dusts requires the periodic recleaning of the filter units in their service locations. Due to the low mechanical stress induced during the recleaning process the regenration via low pressure reverse flow is a very suitable technique. Recleanability of HEPA filter had been attained for particle diameter >0,4 μm at air velocities up to 1 m/s, but filter clogging occurred in case of smaller particles. The recleaning forces are too weak for particles [de

  17. Laser surface cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiwald, J.G.; Freiwald, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this work is a laboratory demonstration that red-lead primer and two-part epoxy paints can be stripped from concrete and metal surfaces using surface cleaning systems based on pulsed-repetition CO 2 lasers. The three goals are to: (1) demonstrate coatings removal, including surface pore cleaning; (2) demonstrate that there is negligible release of ablated contaminants to the environment; and (3) demonstrate that the process will generate negligible amounts of additional waste compared to competing technologies. Phase 1 involved site visits to RMI and Fernald to assess the cleaning issues for buildings and parts. In addition, Phase 1 included detailed designs of a more powerful system for industrial cleaning rates, including laser, articulating optics, ablated-material capture suction nozzle attached to a horizontal raster scanner for floor cleaning, and filtration system. Some concept development is also being done for using robots, and for parts cleaning. In Phase 2 a transportable 6 kW system will be built and tested, with a horizontal surface scanner for cleaning paint from floors. The laboratory tests will again be instrumented. Some concept development will continue for using robots, and for parts cleaning. This report describes Phase 1 results

  18. Ultrasonic Abrasive Removal Of EDM Recast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Johnny L.; Jacobson, Marlowe S.

    1990-01-01

    Ultrasonic abrasive process removes layer of recast material generated during electrical-discharge machining (EDM) of damper pocket on turbine blade. Form-fitted tool vibrated ultrasonically in damper pocket from which material removed. Vibrations activate abrasive in pocket. Amount of material removed controlled precisely.

  19. New process of the preparation of catalyzed gas diffusion electrode for PEM fuel cells based on ultrasonic direct solution spray reaction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oishi, K.; Savadogo, O. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Laboratoire de nouveaux materiaux pour l' energie et l' electrochimie

    2008-07-01

    This paper reported on a newly developed process for in-situ catalyst deposition on gas diffusion electrodes (GDE) for polymer electrolyte fuel cells. This process has the potential to reduce the number of steps for catalyzed GDE fabrication. In addition, the process offers economic advantages for the fuel cell commercialization. In this study, a home-made catalyst maker with ultrasonic spray method was used to prepare a solution of the carbon supported platinum catalyst on the GDL. The sprayed catalyst powder consisted of carbon support. The catalyst particles did not prevent gas flow channels on the GDL. The catalyst layer was shown to be located only on the top surface of the GDL and was not packed into its flow channel. Results of Cross-section SEM image, crystallization, micro structure and electro-catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction were also discussed. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  20. Under sodium ultrasonic imaging system for PFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patankar, V.H.; Lalwani, S.K.; Agashe, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Under Sodium UltraSonic Scanner (USUSS) has been developed to detect the growth and protrusion of fuel sub-assemblies of PFBR, submerged in liquid sodium by using the ultrasonic imaging technique during reactor shut-down when liquid sodium is at 180 ℃. The imaging is carried out prior to every Fuel handling operation. Electronics Division, BARC has designed and developed an 8-Channel Ultrasonic Imaging System (UIS) which consists of 4 downward viewing and 4 side viewing ultrasonic transducers alongwith pulser-receiver, signal processing electronics hardware and software. An automated mechanical scanner developed by IGCAR houses sodium immersible transducers to image the fuel sub assemblies. The system has been successfully tested with dummy protruding and grown FSAs, submerged under liquid sodium. Such ultrasonic imaging systems are not available to India from international market. The USUSS developed indigenously has all the features available in similar systems developed by other countries. After every imaging campaign, the mechanical scanner containing ultrasonic transducers is stored in the Argon filled storage-pit. Before every campaign of USUSS, it is necessary to check the healthiness of the sodium immersible and contaminated ultrasonic transducers, as the under-sodium scanner is decontaminated once in five years. For this purpose, a novel Non Contact Ultrasonic Inspection System (NCUIS) has been designed and developed by Electronics Division, BARC to check the functionality of the high-temperature and contaminated transducers of USUSS, using air-coupled ultrasonic technique. (author)

  1. Comparison of Fenton process and adsorption method for treatment of industrial container and drum cleaning industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güneş, Elçin; Çifçi, Deniz İzlen; Çelik, Suna Özden

    2018-04-01

    The present study aims to explore the characterization of industrial container and drum cleaning (ICDC) industry wastewater and treatment alternatives of this wastewater using Fenton and adsorption processes. Wastewater derived from ICDC industry is usually treated by chemical coagulation and biological treatment in Turkey and then discharged in a centralized wastewater treatment facility. It is required that the wastewater COD is below 1500 mg/L to treat in a centralized wastewater treatment facility. The wastewater samples were characterized for parameters of pH, conductivity, COD, BOD 5 , TSS, NH 3 -N, TN, TOC, TP, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Hg. Initial COD values were in the range of 11,300-14,200 mg/L. The optimum conditions for Fenton treatment were 35-40 g/L for H 2 O 2 , 2-5 g/L for Fe 2+ , and 13-36 for H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ molar ratio. The optimum conditions of PAC doses and contact times in adsorption studies were 20-30 g/L and 5-12 h, respectively. Removal efficiencies of characterized parameters for the three samples were compared for both Fenton and adsorption processes under optimum conditions. The results suggest that these wastewaters are suitable for discharge to a centralized wastewater treatment plant.

  2. New procedure for extraction of algal lipids from wet biomass: a green clean and scalable process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejoye Tanzi, Celine; Abert Vian, Maryline; Chemat, Farid

    2013-04-01

    A new procedure, called Simultaneous Distillation and Extraction Process (SDEP), for lipid extraction from wet microalgae (Nannochloropsis oculata and Dunaliella salina) was reported. This method does not require a pre-drying of the biomass and employs alternative solvents such as d-limonene, α-pinene and p-cymene. This procedure has been compared with Soxhlet extraction (Sox) and Bligh & Dyer method (B&D). For N. oculata, results showed that SDEP-cymene provided similar lipid yields to B&D (21.45% and 23.78%), while SDEP-limonene and pinene provided lower yields (18.73% and 18.75% respectively). For D. salina, SDEP-pinene provided the maximum lipid yield (3.29%) compared to the other solvents, which is quite close to B&D result (4.03%). No significant differences in terms of distribution of lipid classes and fatty acid composition have been obtained for different techniques. Evaluation of energy consumption indicates a substantial saving in the extraction cost by SDEP compared to the conventional extraction technique, Soxhlet. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigation on clean-up of Zr and HDBP in PUREX process with UDMH oxalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Youzhi; Wang Xuanjun; Li Zhengli; Liu Xiangxuan

    2007-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the interracial crud formation is related to the complex formation of Zr with degradation products of TBP, such as DBP and MBP, in PUREX process, especially in the first cycle. The crud seriously deteriorates the operation of extraction column and therefore must be properly cleared up. Various clear up methods were studied and those with salt-free washing agents were recently focused. In this paper a new scrubbing agent 1,1- dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) oxalate was proposed, the optimized experimental conditions were described, and the possible mechanism was discussed. The influence of different factors, including reaction temperature, UDMH oxalate concentration, organic-to-aqueous phase ratio, and free UDMH concentration, on the decontamination factors were examined with simulated Zr- and/or DBP-loaded solvents. The optical experimental parameters are found as follows: temperature 40-60 degree C, phase ratio V (o) /V (a) =1, concentration of UDMH oxalate solution 0.4-0.6 mol/L. Especialy some UDMH was added into the UDMH oxalate queues solution to make the concentration of free UDMH 0.2-0.3 mol/L. Under these conditions, the decontaminator factor of Zr from the corresponding simulated solvent with UDMH oxalate is up to 143, slightly higher than that with sodium carbonate. The decontamination factor of HDBP from the corresponding simulated solvent with UDMH oxalate is up to 100, similar to sodium carbonate. (authors)

  4. Ultrasound cleaning of microfilters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Jens; Bjørnø, Irina; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to develop, design, and manufacture a high-power ultrasound transducer module to be used for preventing the blocking of plastic-based microfilters by organic materials, and possibly to prolong the lifetime of the filters in industry using the cavitation on the surface...... suitable for cleaning of microfilters without damaging the filter structure. The filter surface was studied using an optical microscope before and after the experiment. When high-power ultrasound (max. 75 W/cm2) was applied to the surface of some microfilters, no visible damage was found, while others...... of the filter. A numerical, FE- and BE-based model for calculation of the response of ultrasonic transducers of various geometries formed the basis for the design of such transducers. During laboratory experiments frequency and output power have been varied in order to find the optimal transducer design...

  5. Analysis of Cleaning Process for Several Kinds of Soil by Probability Density Functional Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Akihiro; Tanaka, Terumasa; Oya, Masaru

    2017-10-01

    A method of analyzing the detergency of various soils by assuming normal distributions for the soil adhesion and soil removal forces was developed by considering the relationship between the soil type and the distribution profile of the soil removal force. The effect of the agitation speed on the soil removal was also analyzed by this method. Washing test samples were prepared by soiling fabrics with individual soils such as particulate soils, oily dyes, and water-soluble dyes. Washing tests were conducted using a Terg-O-Tometer and four repetitive washing cycles of 5 min each. The transition of the removal efficiencies was recorded in order to calculate the mean value (μ rl ) and the standard deviation (σ rl ) of the removal strength distribution. The level of detergency and the temporal alteration in the detergency can be represented by μ rl and σ rl , respectively. A smaller σ rl indicates a smaller increase in the detergency with time, which also indicates the existence of a certain amount of soil with a strong adhesion force. As a general trend, the values of σ rl were the greatest for the oily soils, followed by those of the water-soluble soils and particulate soils in succession. The relationship between the soil removal processes and the soil adhesion force was expressed on the basis of the transition of the distribution of residual soil. Evaluation of the effects of the agitation speed on µ rl and ơ rl showed that σ rl was not affected by the agitation speed; the value of µ rl for solid soil and oily soil increased with increasing agitation, and the µ rl of water-soluble soil was not specifically affected by the agitation speed. It can be assumed that the parameter ơ rl is related to the characteristics of the soil and the adhesion condition, and can be applied to estimating the soil removal mechanism.

  6. Ultrasonic techniques for fluids characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Povey, Malcolm J W

    1997-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive and practical guide to the use of ultrasonic techniques for the characterization of fluids. Focusing on ultrasonic velocimetry, the author covers the basic topics and techniques necessaryfor successful ultrasound measurements on emulsions, dispersions, multiphase media, and viscoelastic/viscoplastic materials. Advanced techniques such as scattering, particle sizing, and automation are also presented. As a handbook for industrial and scientific use, Ultrasonic Techniques for Fluids Characterization is an indispensable guide to chemists and chemical engineers using ultrasound for research or process monitoring in the chemical, food processing, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, biotechnology,and fuels industries. Key Features * Appeals to anyone using ultrasound to study fluids * Provides the first detailed description of the ultrasound profiling technique for dispersions * Describes new techniques for measuring phase transitions and nucleation, such as water/ice and oil/fat * Presents the l...

  7. Controlling the cost of clean air - A new clean coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindig, J.K.; Godfrey, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    This article presents the authors' alternative to expensive coal combustion products clean-up by cleaning the coal, removing the sulfur, before combustion. Topics discussed include sulfur in coal and the coal cleaning process, the nature of a new coal cleaning technology, the impact on Clean Air Act compliance, and the economics of the new technology

  8. Enhancement of a-IGZO TFT Device Performance Using a Clean Interface Process via Etch-Stopper Nano-layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jae-Moon; Zhang, Xiaokun; Shang, Fei; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Wang, Xiao-Lin; Liu, Shuai; Yang, Baoguo; Xiang, Yong

    2018-05-01

    To overcome the technological and economic obstacles of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO)-based display backplane for industrial production, a clean etch-stopper (CL-ES) process is developed to fabricate a-IGZO-based thin film transistor (TFT) with improved uniformity and reproducibility on 8.5th generation glass substrates (2200 mm × 2500 mm). Compared with a-IGZO-based TFT with back-channel-etched (BCE) structure, a newly formed ES nano-layer ( 100 nm) and a simultaneous etching of a-IGZO nano-layer (30 nm) and source-drain electrode layer are firstly introduced to a-IGZO-based TFT device with CL-ES structure to improve the uniformity and stability of device for large-area display. The saturation electron mobility of 8.05 cm2/V s and the V th uniformity of 0.72 V are realized on the a-IGZO-based TFT device with CL-ES structure. In the negative bias temperature illumination stress and positive bias thermal stress reliability testing under a ± 30 V bias for 3600 s, the measured V th shift of CL-ES-structured device significantly decreased to - 0.51 and + 1.94 V, which are much lower than that of BCE-structured device (- 3.88 V, + 5.58 V). The electrical performance of the a-IGZO-based TFT device with CL-ES structure implies that the economic transfer from a silicon-based TFT process to the metal oxide semiconductor-based process for LCD fabrication is highly feasible.

  9. Enhancement of a-IGZO TFT Device Performance Using a Clean Interface Process via Etch-Stopper Nano-layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jae-Moon; Zhang, Xiaokun; Shang, Fei; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Wang, Xiao-Lin; Liu, Shuai; Yang, Baoguo; Xiang, Yong

    2018-05-29

    To overcome the technological and economic obstacles of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO)-based display backplane for industrial production, a clean etch-stopper (CL-ES) process is developed to fabricate a-IGZO-based thin film transistor (TFT) with improved uniformity and reproducibility on 8.5th generation glass substrates (2200 mm × 2500 mm). Compared with a-IGZO-based TFT with back-channel-etched (BCE) structure, a newly formed ES nano-layer (~ 100 nm) and a simultaneous etching of a-IGZO nano-layer (30 nm) and source-drain electrode layer are firstly introduced to a-IGZO-based TFT device with CL-ES structure to improve the uniformity and stability of device for large-area display. The saturation electron mobility of 8.05 cm 2 /V s and the V th uniformity of 0.72 V are realized on the a-IGZO-based TFT device with CL-ES structure. In the negative bias temperature illumination stress and positive bias thermal stress reliability testing under a ± 30 V bias for 3600 s, the measured V th shift of CL-ES-structured device significantly decreased to - 0.51 and + 1.94 V, which are much lower than that of BCE-structured device (- 3.88 V, + 5.58 V). The electrical performance of the a-IGZO-based TFT device with CL-ES structure implies that the economic transfer from a silicon-based TFT process to the metal oxide semiconductor-based process for LCD fabrication is highly feasible.

  10. The effectiveness of chemical denture cleansers and ultrasonic device in biofilm removal from complete dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Costa Cruz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Adequate denture hygiene can prevent and treat infection in edentulous patients. They are usually elderly and have difficulty for brushing their teeth. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the efficacy of complete denture biofilm removal using chemical (alkaline peroxide-effervescent tablets, mechanical (ultrasonic and combined (association of the effervescent and ultrasonic methods. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty complete denture wearers participated in the experiment for 21 days. They were distributed into 4 groups (n=20: (1 Brushing with water (Control; (2 Effervescent tablets (Corega Tabs; (3 Ultrasonic device (Ultrasonic Cleaner, model 2840 D; (4 Association of effervescent tablets and ultrasonic device. All groups brushed their dentures with a specific brush (Bitufo and water, 3 times a day, before applying their treatments. Denture biofilm was collected at baseline and after 21 days. To quantify the biofilm, the internal surfaces of the maxillary complete dentures were stained and photographed at 45º. The photographs were processed and the areas (total internal surface stained with biofilm quantified (Image Tool 2.02. The percentage of the biofilm was calculated by the ratio between the biofilm area multiplied by 100 and the total area of the internal surface of the maxillary complete denture. RESULTS: The Kruskal-Wallis test was used for comparison among groups followed by the Dunn multiple-comparison test. All tests were performed respecting a significance level of 0.05. Significant difference was found among the treatments (KW=21.18; P<0.001, the mean ranks for the treatments and results for Dunn multiple comparison test were: Control (60.9; Chemical (37.2; Mechanical (35.2 and Combined (29.1. CONCLUSION: The experimental methods were equally effective regarding the ability to remove biofilm and were superior to the control method (brushing with water. Immersion in alkaline peroxide and ultrasonic vibration can be used as auxiliary agents

  11. Thermalhydraulic assessment of the Pickering NGS 'B' feed and bleed system for the hot boiler chemical clean (Siemens Process)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorencez, Carlos M.

    2000-01-01

    The Hot Boiler Chemical Clean (HBCC) process from Siemens, to be used in PNGS, requires that the Heat Transport System (HTS) temperature be maintained in the range 160 to 170 o C for several days. To achieve these thermalhydraulic condition, the core decay power and the pump power of the main circulating pumps in a 3-3 configuration are employed to warm up the HTS from approximately 38 o C to 170 o C. At this point, high Bleed bias is applied to the signal of the HTS pressure controller to provide high Feed and Bleed flows, which are used to control the HTS temperature by means of the Bleed Cooler. To address any concern posed by these infrequently used HTS thermalhydraulic conditions, a detailed thermalhydraulic model of the Feed and Bleed System, that also includes the Gland Supply, Gland Return and Purification systems, was developed for the TUF code to determine the suitability of the Feed and Bleed System to conduct the HBCC. The model was then used to estimate the parameters such as Feed and Bleed flows, valve openings, pressure and temperature distributions throughout the Feed and Bleed System required for the application of HBCC. (author)

  12. Development of a software and hardware system for monitoring the air cleaning process using a cyclone-separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaeva, B. K.; Borisov, A. P.; Zlochevskiy, V. L.

    2017-08-01

    The article is devoted to the development of a hardware-software complex for monitoring and controlling the process of air purification by means of a cyclone-separator. The hardware of this complex is the Arduino platform, to which are connected pressure sensors, air velocities, dustmeters, which allow monitoring of the main parameters of the cyclone-separator. Also, a frequency converter was developed to regulate the rotation speed of an asynchronous motor necessary to correct the flow rate, the control signals of which come with Arduino. The program part of the complex is written in the form of a web application in the programming language JavaScript and inserts into CSS and HTML for the user interface. This program allows you to receive data from sensors, build dependencies in real time and control the speed of rotation of an asynchronous electric drive. The conducted experiment shows that the cleaning efficiency is 95-99.9%, while the airflow at the cyclone inlet is 16-18 m/s, and at the exit 50-70 m/s.

  13. A new multiple-stage electrocoagulation process on anaerobic digestion effluent to simultaneously reclaim water and clean up biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiguo; Stromberg, David; Liu, Xuming; Liao, Wei; Liu, Yan

    2015-03-21

    A new multiple-stage treatment process was developed via integrating electrocoagulation with biogas pumping to simultaneously reclaim anaerobic digestion effluent and clean up biogas. The 1st stage of electrocoagulation treatment under the preferred reaction condition led to removal efficiencies of 30%, 81%, 37% and >99.9% for total solids, chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen and total phosphorus, respectively. Raw biogas was then used as a reactant and pumped into the effluent to simultaneously neutralize pH of the effluent and remove H2S in the biogas. The 2nd stage of electrocoagulation treatment on the neutralized effluent showed that under the selected reaction condition, additional 60% and 10% of turbidity and chemical oxygen demand were further removed. The study concluded a dual-purpose approach for the first time to synergistically combine biogas purification and water reclamation for anaerobic digestion system, which well addresses the downstream challenges of anaerobic digestion technology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Patterning of gold nano-octahedra using electron irradiation combined with thermal treatment and post-cleaning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Nam; Kum, Jong Min [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyeok Moo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Research Division for Industry and Environment (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sung Oh, E-mail: socho@kaist.ac.kr [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    A novel approach to pattern nanocrystalline gold (Au) octahedra is presented based on electron irradiation combined with thermal treatment and post-cleaning process using HAuCl{sub 4}-loaded poly(styrene-b-2-vinyl pyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) block copolymer (BCP) as a precursor material. The BCP tends to cross-link under electron irradiation, and thus a patterned film can be prepared by selectively irradiating an electron beam onto a precursor film using a shadow mask. A post-thermal treatment leads to the formation of crystalline Au nano-octahedra inside the patterned film with a help of the BCP acting as a capping agent. Subsequently, the BCP can be removed by O{sub 2} plasma etching combined with oxidative degradation, with the Au nanoparticles remaining. As a result, a patterned film consisting of high-purity nanocrystalline Au octahedra is fabricated. The sizes of the Au octahedral nanoparticles can be readily controlled from 49 to 101 nm by changing the thickness of the precursor film. The patterned Au nano-octahedra films exhibit excellent surface-enhanced Raman scattering behavior with the maximum enhancement factor of {approx}10{sup 6}.

  15. Clean Air Act : historical information on EPA's process for reviewing California waiver requests and making waiver determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Emissions from mobile sources, such as automobiles and trucks, contribute to air quality degradation and can threaten public health and the environment. Under the Clean Air Act, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates these emissions. The...

  16. Heat exchanger cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatewood, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    A survey covers the various types of heat-exchange equipment that is cleaned routinely in fossil-fired generating plants, the hydrocarbon-processing industry, pulp and paper mills, and other industries; the various types, sources, and adverse effects of deposits in heat-exchange equipment; some details of the actual procedures for high-pressure water jetting and chemical cleaning of some specific pieces of equipment, including nuclear steam generators. (DN)

  17. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanyan, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    According to the World Energy Council (WEC), at the beginning of the next century three main energy sources - coal, nuclear power and oil will have equal share in the world's total energy supply. This forecast is also valid for the USSR which possesses more than 40% of the world's coal resources and continuously increases its coal production (more than 700 million tons of coal are processed annually in the USSR). The stringent environmental regulations, coupled with the tendency to increase the use of coal are the reasons for developing different concepts for clean coal utilization. In this paper, the potential efficiency and environmental performance of different clean coal production cycles are considered, including technologies for coal clean-up at the pre-combustion stage, advanced clean combustion methods and flue gas cleaning systems. Integrated systems, such as combined gas-steam cycle and the pressurized fluidized bed boiler combined cycle, are also discussed. The Soviet National R and D program is studying new methods for coal utilization with high environmental performance. In this context, some basic research activities in the field of clean coal technology in the USSR are considered. Development of an efficient vortex combustor, a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier, advanced gas cleaning methods based on E-beam irradiation and plasma discharge, as well as new catalytic system, are are presented. In addition, implementation of technological innovations for retrofitting and re powering of existing power plants is discussed. (author)

  18. Non-Destructive Inspection of Impact Damage in Composite Aircraft Panels by Ultrasonic Guided Waves and Statistical Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Capriotti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a non-destructive evaluation (NDE technique for the detection of damage in composite aircraft structures following high energy wide area blunt impact (HEWABI from ground service equipment (GSE, such as heavy cargo loaders and other heavy equipment. The test structures typically include skin, co-cured stringers, and C-frames that are bolt-connected onto the skin with shear ties. The inspection exploits the waveguide geometry of these structures by utilizing ultrasonic guided waves and a line scan approach. Both a contact prototype and a non-contact prototype were developed and tested on realistic test panels subjected to impact in the laboratory. The results are presented in terms of receiver operating characteristic curves that show excellent probability of detection with low false alarm rates for defects located in the panel skin and stringers.

  19. Non-Destructive Inspection of Impact Damage in Composite Aircraft Panels by Ultrasonic Guided Waves and Statistical Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriotti, Margherita; Kim, Hyungsuk E; Scalea, Francesco Lanza di; Kim, Hyonny

    2017-06-04

    This paper discusses a non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique for the detection of damage in composite aircraft structures following high energy wide area blunt impact (HEWABI) from ground service equipment (GSE), such as heavy cargo loaders and other heavy equipment. The test structures typically include skin, co-cured stringers, and C-frames that are bolt-connected onto the skin with shear ties. The inspection exploits the waveguide geometry of these structures by utilizing ultrasonic guided waves and a line scan approach. Both a contact prototype and a non-contact prototype were developed and tested on realistic test panels subjected to impact in the laboratory. The results are presented in terms of receiver operating characteristic curves that show excellent probability of detection with low false alarm rates for defects located in the panel skin and stringers.

  20. PIV quantification of the flow induced by an ultrasonic horn and numerical modeling of the flow and related processing times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, M C; Pourquié, M J B M; Eskin, D G; Boersma, B J

    2013-01-01

    The flow in a confined container induced by an ultrasonic horn is measured by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). This flow is caused by acoustic streaming and highly influenced by the presence of cavitation. The jet-like experimentally observed flow is compared with the available theoretical solution for a turbulent free round jet. The similarity between both flows enables a simplified numerical model to be made, whilst the phenomenon is very difficult to simulate otherwise. The numerical model requires only two parameters, i.e. the flow momentum and turbulent kinetic energy at the position of the horn tip. The simulated flow is used as a basis for the calculation of the time required for the entire liquid volume to pass through the active cavitation region. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Modeling of ultrasonic wave propagation in composite materials obtained by the resin transfer molding process; Modelisation de la propagation ultrasonore dans les materiaux composites obtenus par le procede de fabrication RTM (Resin Transfer Molding)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lonne, S.

    2003-11-01

    The Resin Transfer Molding process for manufacturing composite materials is used to produce parts of complex shape. During the ultrasonic examination of such parts, attenuation is measured to characterize possible porosity content (a potential defect in this material). However, strong variation of attenuation is observed including on sound plates. The present study aims at explaining this by developing a model for ultrasonic propagation and attenuation in such parts which complex microstructure exhibits a multiple-scale aspect. An original model has been developed to predict attenuation at the elementary scale of an unidirectional layer of carbon fibers in an epoxy matrix. It couples multiple scattering by fibers and viscoelastic losses phenomena. It has been experimentally validated and applies to arbitrary two-phase fiber reinforced composites whatever the fiber volume fraction. At the upper scale of a ply made of several elementary layers of various orientations, the anisotropic behavior of ultrasonic waves and their attenuation are obtained by a homogenization procedure. An actual plate is made of several plies separated by pure resin layers. Plies and layers thicknesses are highly variable. A statistical study has been conducted to evaluate the influence of these geometrical variations on the ultrasonic transmission predicted by a model derived from Thomson-Haskell formalism. Ultrasonic attenuation variability practically observed is quantitatively reproduced and explained as resulting from the geometrical irregularity of the microstructure. (author)

  2. The successful of finite element to invent particle cleaning system by air jet in hard disk drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jai-Ngam, Nualpun; Tangchaichit, Kaitfa

    2018-02-01

    Hard Disk Drive manufacturing has faced very challenging with the increasing demand of high capacity drives for Cloud-based storage. Particle adhesion has also become increasingly important in HDD to gain more reliability of storage capacity. The ability to clean on surfaces is more complicated in removing such particles without damaging the surface. This research is aim to improve the particle cleaning in HSA by using finite element to develop the air flow model then invent the prototype of air cleaning system to remove particle from surface. Surface cleaning by air pressure can be applied as alternative for the removal of solid particulate contaminants that is adhering on a solid surface. These technical and economic challenges have driven the process development from traditional way that chemical solvent cleaning. The focus of this study is to develop alternative way from scrub, ultrasonic, mega sonic on surface cleaning principles to serve as a foundation for the development of new processes to meet current state-of-the-art process requirements and minimize the waste from chemical cleaning for environment safety.

  3. Ultrasonic filtration of industrial chemical solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosma, T.

    1974-01-01

    The practical results obtained as a result of filtering industrial chemical solutions under continuous flow conditions with the aid of an ultrasonic filter are presented. The main part of the assembly consists of an ultrasonic generator with an output power of about 400 W and the filtration assembly, in which there is a magnetostrictive amplifier constructed for 20.5 kHz. In addition to ensuring a continuous flow of filtered solution, ultrasonic filters can be replaced or cleaned at intervals of time that are 8-10 times greater than in the case of mechanical filters. They yield considerably better results as far as the size of the filtered particles is concerned. The parameters on which filtration quality depends are also presented.

  4. Synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanorods for application in water defluoridation and optimization of process variables: Advantage of ultrasonication with precipitation method over conventional method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Dhiraj; Mondal, Poonam; Saharan, Virendra Kumar; George, Suja

    2017-07-01

    This research work presents the synthesis of hydroxyapatite (Hap) nanorods for defluoridation of drinking water by using both conventional (CM) and ultrasonication with precipitation (USPM) methods. Calcium nitrate was reacted with potassium phosphate in presence of ammonia for controlled pH to synthesize Hap nanorods, which was characterized using FTIR, XRD, SEM, TG-DTA, and TEM/EDS for determining its phase composition, structural and thermal decomposition behavior. When USPM method was used for synthesis, the yield of the Hap nanorods was improved from 83.24±1.0% to 90.2±1.0%, and complete phase transformation occurred with formation of elongated Hap nanorods. Effects of process parameters such as solution pH, contact time and adsorbent dose were studied through response surface methodology (RSM). A simple quadratic model was developed using Central Composite Design (CCD) and optimum parameters for fluoride adsorption process were determined to be pH 7, contact time 3h and adsorbent dose 7g/L for maximum removal capacity. Fluoride removal efficiency was predicted to be 93.64% which was very close to the experimental value obtained at 92.86% using ultrasonically prepared Hap. Fluoride adsorption isotherms fitted the Freundlich isotherm with an adsorption capacity of 1.49mg/g, while the kinetic studies revealed that the process followed pseudo-second order model. The treated water quality parameters such as residual fluoride, calcium leached, total hardness and alkalinity was investigated, and it was observed that all these parameters were within the permissible limits as per WHO and BIS standards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ultrasonic wave propagation in powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Lashi, R. S.; Povey, M. J. W.; Watson, N. J.

    2018-05-01

    Powder clumps (cakes) has a significant effect on the flowability and stability of powders. Powder caking is mainly caused by moisture migration due to wetting and environmental (temperature and humidity) changes. The process of moisture migration caking involves creating liquid bridges between the particles during condensation which subsequently harden to form solid bridges. Therefore, an effective and reliable technique is required to quantitatively and non-invasively monitor caking kinetics and effective stiffness. This paper describes two ultrasonic instruments (ultrasonic velocity pulse and airborne ultrasound systems) that have been used to monitor the caking phenomenon. Also, it discusses the relationship between the ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements and tracking caking kinetics and the effective stiffness of powders.

  6. The Dynamic Performance of Flexural Ultrasonic Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Feeney

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexural ultrasonic transducers are principally used as proximity sensors and for industrial metrology. Their operation relies on a piezoelectric ceramic to generate a flexing of a metallic membrane, which delivers the ultrasound signal. The performance of flexural ultrasonic transducers has been largely limited to excitation through a short voltage burst signal at a designated mechanical resonance frequency. However, a steady-state amplitude response is not generated instantaneously in a flexural ultrasonic transducer from a drive excitation signal, and differences in the drive characteristics between transmitting and receiving transducers can affect the measured response. This research investigates the dynamic performance of flexural ultrasonic transducers using acoustic microphone measurements and laser Doppler vibrometry, supported by a detailed mechanical analog model, in a process which has not before been applied to the flexural ultrasonic transducer. These techniques are employed to gain insights into the physics of their vibration behaviour, vital for the optimisation of industrial ultrasound systems.

  7. Comparison of high-resolution ultrasonic resonator technology and Raman spectroscopy as novel process analytical tools for drug quantification in self-emulsifying drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillhart, Cordula; Kuentz, Martin

    2012-02-05

    Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) are complex mixtures in which drug quantification can become a challenging task. Thus, a general need exists for novel analytical methods and a particular interest lies in techniques with the potential for process monitoring. This article compares Raman spectroscopy with high-resolution ultrasonic resonator technology (URT) for drug quantification in SEDDS. The model drugs fenofibrate, indomethacin, and probucol were quantitatively assayed in different self-emulsifying formulations. We measured ultrasound velocity and attenuation in the bulk formulation containing drug at different concentrations. The formulations were also studied by Raman spectroscopy. We used both, an in-line immersion probe for the bulk formulation and a multi-fiber sensor for measuring through hard-gelatin capsules that were filled with SEDDS. Each method was assessed by calculating the relative standard error of prediction (RSEP) as well as the limit of quantification (LOQ) and the mean recovery. Raman spectroscopy led to excellent calibration models for the bulk formulation as well as the capsules. The RSEP depended on the SEDDS type with values of 1.5-3.8%, while LOQ was between 0.04 and 0.35% (w/w) for drug quantification in the bulk. Similarly, the analysis of the capsules led to RSEP of 1.9-6.5% and LOQ of 0.01-0.41% (w/w). On the other hand, ultrasound attenuation resulted in RSEP of 2.3-4.4% and LOQ of 0.1-0.6% (w/w). Moreover, ultrasound velocity provided an interesting analytical response in cases where the drug strongly affected the density or compressibility of the SEDDS. We conclude that ultrasonic resonator technology and Raman spectroscopy constitute suitable methods for drug quantification in SEDDS, which is promising for their use as process analytical technologies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cavitation occurrence around ultrasonic dental scalers

    OpenAIRE

    Felver, Bernhard; King, David C; Lea, Simon C; Price, Gareth J; Damien Walmsley, A

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasonic scalers are used in dentistry to remove calculus and other contaminants from teeth. One mechanism which may assist in the cleaning is cavitation generated in cooling water around the scaler. The vibratory motion of three designs of scaler tip in a water bath has been characterised by laser vibrometry, and compared with the spatial distribution of cavitation around the scaler tips observed using sonochemiluminescence from a luminol solution. The type of cavitation was confirmed by a...

  9. Further Investigations on Simultaneous Ultrasonic Coal Flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safak Gokhan Ozkan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the flotation performance of a representative hard coal slime sample (d80 particle size of minus 0.2 mm obtained from the Prosper-Haniel coal preparation plant located in Bottrop, Germany. Flotation was carried out with a newly designed flotation cell refurbished from an old ultrasonic cleaning bath (2.5 L volume equipped with a single frequency (35 kHz and two different power levels (80–160 W and a sub-aeration-type flotation machine operating at a stable impeller speed (1200 rpm and air rate (2.5 L/min. The reagent combination for conventional and simultaneous ultrasonic coal flotation tests was Ekofol-440 at variable dosages (40–300 g/t with controlling water temperature (20–25 °C at natural pH (6.5–7.0. The batch coal flotation results were analyzed by comparing the combustible recovery (% and separation efficiency (% values, taking mass yield and ash concentrations of the froths and tailings into account. It was found that simultaneous ultrasonic coal flotation increased yield and recovery values of the floated products with lower ash values than the conventional flotation despite using similar reagent dosages. Furthermore, particle size distribution of the ultrasonically treated and untreated coals was measured. Finely distributed coal particles seemed to be agglomerated during the ultrasonic treatment, while ash-forming slimes were removed by hydrodynamic cavitation.

  10. Cleaning Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpton, James L.

    This curriculum guide provides cleaning services instructional materials for a ninth- and tenth-grade Coordinated Vocational Education and Training: Home and Community Services program. It includes 2 sections and 11 instructional units. Each unit of instruction consists of eight basic components: performance objectives, teacher activities,…

  11. Real-time nondestructive monitoring of the gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process by combined airborne acoustic emission and non-contact ultrasonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Basantes-Defaz, Alexandra-Del-Carmen; Abbasi, Zeynab; Yuhas, Donald; Ozevin, Didem; Indacochea, Ernesto

    2018-03-01

    Welding is a key manufacturing process for many industries and may introduce defects into the welded parts causing significant negative impacts, potentially ruining high-cost pieces. Therefore, a real-time process monitoring method is important to implement for avoiding producing a low-quality weld. Due to high surface temperature and possible contamination of surface by contact transducers, the welding process should be monitored via non-contact transducers. In this paper, airborne acoustic emission (AE) transducers tuned at 60 kHz and non-contact ultrasonic testing (UT) transducers tuned at 500 kHz are implemented for real time weld monitoring. AE is a passive nondestructive evaluation method that listens for the process noise, and provides information about the uniformity of manufacturing process. UT provides more quantitative information about weld defects. One of the most common weld defects as burn-through is investigated. The influences of weld defects on AE signatures (time-driven data) and UT signals (received signal energy, change in peak frequency) are presented. The level of burn-through damage is defined by using single method or combine AE/UT methods.

  12. A Clean, Mild, and Efficient Preparation of Aryl 14H-benzo[a,j]xanthene leuco-dye Derivatives Via Nanocatalytic MCM-41-SO3H Under Ultrasonic Irradiation in Aqueous Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathollahi, Mostafa; Rostamizadeh, Shahnaz; Amani, Ali M

    2018-01-01

    The present study has developed an efficient and eco-friendly protocol for the synthesis of aryl-14-H-dibenzo[a,j] xanthenes through a one-pot condensation reaction of 2-naphthol and arylaldehydes in aqueous media using the nanocatalytic MCM-41-SO3H under ultrasonic illumination. Using SEM and XRD analyses, MCM-41-SO3H nanoparticles were characterized. Therefore, for high magnification, taking the SEM image, the mesoporous surface of MCM-41-SO3H nanoparticles coated with gold for 2 minutes was characterized. Moreover, at a scan rate of 0.02° (2θ)/sec, XRD analysis from 1.5° (2θ) to 10.0° (2θ) was performed. For our considered sample, some well-ordered XRD patterns with one main peak as well as three minor peaks equal to those of MCM-41 materials were observed. The suggested route demonstrates very promising properties like higher yields, decrease in the time of reaction (5-10 min), mild and straightforward conditions, low level of toxicity, and inclusion of a cost-efficient and ecofriendly catalyst having considerable reusability. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Mobilization Potential and Democratization Processes of the Coalition for Clean and Fair Elections (Bersih) in Malaysia: An Interview With Hishamuddin Rais

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Hooi Khoo

    2014-01-01

    "In recent years, protests and popular mobilization have become pronounced elements in Malaysian politics. Bersih (clean) demonstrations are notably the most outstanding protest events in Malaysian history. Bersih is a group of 89 non-governmental organizations (NGOs) pushing for a thorough reform of the electoral process in Malaysia through rallies and demonstrations. Five opposition parties initiated the idea of Bersih in 2005 and included several NGOs in the ‘project’ later on. After the f...

  14. Ultrasonic assisted hot metal powder compaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini, Rezvan; Abdullah, Amir; Alizadeh, Yunes

    2017-09-01

    Hot pressing of metal powders is used in production of parts with similar properties to wrought materials. During hot pressing processes, particle rearrangement, plastic deformation, creep, and diffusion are of the most effective powder densification mechanisms. Applying ultrasonic vibration is thought to result in great rates of densification and therefore higher efficiency of the process is expected. This paper deals with the effects of power ultrasonic on the densification of AA1100 aluminum powder under constant applied stress. The effects of particle size and process temperature on the densification behavior are discussed. The results show that applying ultrasonic vibration leads to an improved homogeneity and a higher relative density. Also, it is found that the effect of ultrasonic vibration is greater for finer particles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Surface cleaning in thin film technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattox, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    A ''clean surface'' is one that contains no significant amounts of undesirable material. This paper discusses the types and origin of various contaminants. Since cleaning is often equated with adhesion, the mechanisms of adhesion to oxide, metal, and organic surfaces are reviewed and cleaning processes for these surfaces are outlined. Techniques for monitoring surface cleaning are presented, and the importance of storage of clean surfaces is discussed. An extensive bibliography is given. 4 figs., 89 references

  16. Effects of ultrasonic and hydrodynamic cavitation on the treatment of cork wastewater by flocculation and Fenton processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhilin; Yuste-Córdoba, Francisco J; Cintas, Pedro; Wu, Zhansheng; Boffa, Luisa; Mantegna, Stefano; Cravotto, Giancarlo

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports that ultrasonic (US) and hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) are efficient strategies for the environmental remediation of cork wastewater (CW). It is necessary to remove toxic, inhibitory or refractory organic matter from CW using physical and chemical techniques (pre-treatment) prior to performing conventional biological treatment. After this biological treatment, it is also critical to further decontaminate (post-treatment) in order to meet the discharge limitation. The pre-treatment of diluted CW using Fenton oxidation (FE) alone led to COD and polyphenol (PP) removal values of 30% and 61%, respectively, while HC and US resulted in 83-90% increases in COD reduction and 26-33% increases in PP reduction. Whereas 55% and 91% COD and PP removal were achieved using flocculation (Floc) alone, COD elimination was increased by a further 7-18% under HC and US. No noticeable improvement in PP elimination was observed. US did not enhance the Floc decontamination of the original concentrated CW, however, considerable quantities of white biofilm were surprisingly generated on the CW surface after the pre-treatment, thus indicating the improvement of biodegradability of the resulting liquid. In fact, the post-treatment stage, using FE alone after having filtered the biofilms, led to reductions of 53% in COD and 90% in PP. The HC and US protocols resulted in 26-34% increases in COD elimination. HC further enhanced PP elimination caused by FE, while US resulted in lower levels of PP elimination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Advanced ultrasonic inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghia, S.

    1990-08-01

    Acoustic Emission (AE) continuous monitoring and periodical inspections by advanced ultrasonic have been applied to evaluate defect evolution within a PWR reduced scale (1:5) pressure vessel subjected to cyclic mechanical fatigue test. This experimental activity has been carried out in the frame of the Primary Circuit Component Life Prediction programme. In the time period covered by this report actions were performed as following: (1) Ultrasonic examination by multifrequency acoustic holography to evaluate defect evolution subsequently repair and heat treatment of the R2 vessel carried out in March 1988. For the purpose, measurements were performed both at 0 and 200 bar of internal pressure. As uniformity of the procedures adopted, for calibration and testing, made the results comparable with the previous ones no evidence for significant growing of the examined defects has been found. (2) Acoustic emission monitoring has then been carried out during fatigue test from 416000 to 565000 fatigue cycles. Analysis of a large amount of data has been performed paying particular attention to the distinction between friction phenomena and crack growth in order to obtain a correct diagnosis of flaw evolution. The signal duration distribution and the correlation of AE appearance time versus load cycle phase were considered to characterise stick-slip processes. A general intensification of AE activity has been recorded during this last period of monitoring and previous known AE sources were confirmed together with the appearance of new AE sources some of them correlable with real defects

  18. System for ultrasonic examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, S.A.; Kristensen, W.D.

    1987-01-01

    A computerized system for the recording of flaw images by ultrasonic examination according to the pulse-echo method includes at least one ultrasonic probe which can be moved in steps over the surface of an object along a rectilinear scanning path. Digital signals containing information on the successive positions of the sound beam, on echo amplitudes, and on the lengths of sound paths to reflectors inside the object, are processed and used for the accumulated storage of circular patterns of echo amplitude data in a matrix memory associated with a sectional plane through the object. A video screen terminal controls the system and transforms the accumulated data into displays of sectional flaw images of greatly improved precision and sharpness of definition. A gradual transfer of filtered data from a number of parallel sectional planes to three further matrix memories associated with projection planes at right angles to each other permits presentation in three dimensions of equally improved projection flaw images. (author) 2 figs

  19. Development of Cotton Fabrics with Durable UV Protective and Self-cleaning Property by Deposition of Low TiO2 Levels through Sol-gel Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Anu; Butola, Bhupendra Singh

    2018-01-19

    In this article, the deposition of TiO 2 on cotton fabric using sol-gel technique has been described. Various process routes (pad-dry-cure, pad-dry-hydrothermal and pad-dry-solvothermal) were examined to impart a stable coating of TiO 2 on fabric. The role of precursor concentration, process temperature and time of treatment were studied to aim at a wash durable, UV protective and self-cleaning property in the treated fabric. EDX and ICP-MS techniques were used to examine the add-on percentage of TiO 2 on cotton fabrics treated via different routes. It has been found that the TiO 2 remains largely amorphous and nondurable if it is given a short thermal treatment. To convert the deposited TiO 2 to its anatase crystal form, a prolonged hydrothermal treatment for at least 3 h needs to be given. TiO 2 deposition levels of less than 0.1% were found to be effective in imparting reasonable degree of UV protection and self-cleaning property to the cotton fabric. The self-cleaning ability of the treated fabric against coffee stain was also studied and was found to be related to the process route and the deposition levels of TiO 2 . © 2018 The American Society of Photobiology.

  20. Clean utilization of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yueruem, Y.

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains 23 lectures presented at the Advanced Study Institute on 'Chemistry and Chemical Engineering of Catalytic Solid Fuel Conversion for the Production of Clean Synthetic Fuels', which was held at Akcay, Edremit, Turkey, between 21 July and August 3, 1991. Three main subjects: structure and reactivity of coal; cleaning of coal and its products, and factors affecting the environmental balance of energy usage and solutions for the future, were discussed in the Institute and these are presented under six groups in the book: Part 1. Structure and reactivity of coal; Part 2. Factors affecting environmental balance; Part 3. Pre-usage cleaning operations and processes; Part 4. Upgrading of coal liquids and gases; Part 5. Oxygen enriched processes; and Part 6. Probable future solution for energy and pollution problems. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all the lectures

  1. Clean cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piffaretti, M.

    2008-07-01

    This well-illustrated presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by the Protoscar company takes a look at research, design, engineering and communication topics in the area of 'clean cars'. The present situation with electrically driven and hybrid-drive cars is reviewed and the chances and problems of the present-day vehicles are examined. New developments and a number of vehicles that should be on the market in the period from 2012 to 2015 are presented. Also, 'clean' specialist vehicles such as trucks and buses are reviewed. Battery systems and associated problems and new developments are looked at. The promotion scheme in Mendrisio, Switzerland is reviewed. Bottom-up and top-down approaches are discussed and future market developments are looked at, as are promotional activities in various countries.

  2. Design of ultrasonic probe and evaluation of ultrasonic waves on E.coli in Sour Cherry Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Hosseinzadeh Samani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The common method used for juice pasteurization is the thermal method since thermal methods contribute highly to inactivating microbes. However, applying high temperatures would lead to inefficient effects on nutrition and food value. Such effects may include vitamin loss, nutritional flavor loss, non-enzyme browning, and protein reshaping (Kuldiloke, 2002. In order to decrease the adverse effects of the thermal pasteurization method, other methods capable of inactivation of microorganisms can be applied. In doing so, non-thermal methods including pasteurization using high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP, electrical fields, and ultrasound waves are of interest (Chen and Tseng, 1996. The reason for diminishing microbial count in the presence of ultrasonic waves could be due to the burst of very tiny bubbles developed by ultrasounds which expand quickly and burst in a short time. Due to this burst, special temperature and pressure conditions are developed which could initiate or intensify several physical and/or chemical reactions. The aim of this study is to evaluate the non-thermal ultrasonic method and its effective factors on the E.coli bacteria of sour cherry. Materials and methods: In order to supply uniform ultrasonic waves, a 1000 W electric generator (Model MPI, Switzerland working at 20±1 kHz frequency was used. The aim of this study is to evaluate the non-thermal ultrasonic method and its effective factors on the E.coli bacteria of sour cherry. For this purpose, a certain amount of sour cherry fruit was purchased from local markets. First, the fruits were washed, cleaned and cored. The prepared fruits were then dewatered using an electric juicer. In order to separate pulp suspensions and tissue components, the extracted juice was poured into a centrifuge with the speed of 6000 rpm for 20 min. For complete separation of the remaining suspended particles, the transparent portion of the extract was passed through a

  3. Experimental study of defoaming by air-borne power ultrasonic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Germán; Riera, Enrique; Gallego-Juárez, Juan A.; Acosta, Víctor M.; Pinto, Alberto; Martínez, Ignacio; Blanco, Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    Foam is a dispersion of gas in a liquid in which the distances between the gas bubbles are very small. Foams are frequently generated in the manufacture of many products as result from the aeration and agitation of liquids, from the vaporization of the liquid and also from biological or chemical reactions. Foams are generally an unwanted product in industrial processes because they cause difficulties in process control and in equipment operation. The most efficient conventional method for defoaming is the use of chemical agents but they contaminate the product. High-intensity ultrasonic waves offer a clean procedure to break foam bubbles. The potential use of ultrasound for foam breaking that was known since many years has been recently reinforced by the application of a new type of ultrasonic defoamer based on the stepped-plate high-power transducers to generate air-borne ultrasound. This defoamer has been successfully applied in several industrial problems such as the control of excess foam produced during the filling operation of bottles and cans on high-speed canning lines and in fermenting vessels and other reactors of great dimensions. The treatment of such industrial problems requires the proper characterization and quantification of the main parameters involved in the mechanisms of the defoaming effect. This paper deals with an experimental study about the separate influence of such parameters with the aim of improving the application of the stepped-plate power ultrasonic generators for the production of the defoaming action on industrial processes

  4. Dichlorvos (DDVP residue removal from tomato by washing with tap and ozone water, a commercial detergent solution and ultrasonic cleaner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali HESHMATI

    Full Text Available Abstract Dichlorvos (DDVP is one of the most consumption chlorinated organophosphate insecticide used on tomato. The knowledge about the influence of postharvest household processes on the levels of DDVP residues in vegetables is required to estimate dietary exposure. In this study, the removal of sprayed dichlorvos (DDVP on tomato by washing with tap, ozonated water (in dosages of 2, 4 and 6 mg ozone/L, a commercial detergent solution (in concentration of 1, 2 and 3% and ultrasonic cleaner (with power of 100, 200 and 300 W was investigated. DDVP residue was determined by gas chromatography with electron capture detector. Washing processes led to the significant reduction of DDVP. The gradual increase in the percentage of the removal was observed due to increment of washing time, ozone dosage, and concentration of detergent solution as well as ultrasonic power. The maximum removal percentage of DDVP after 15 min of washing with tap and ozonated water, a detergent solution and ultrasonic cleaner was 30.7, 91.9, 70.7, and 88.9%, respectively. In general, results indicated washing with tap, ozonated water, a detergent solution and ultrasonic cleaning are effective methods for removal of DDVP from tomato and reduction of its dietary exposure without influence on product quality.

  5. Study of the petroleum schedules thermal cleaning process from asphalt, ressin and paraffin deposits using low- temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samigullin, A D; Galiakbarov, A T; Galiakbarov, R T

    2016-01-01

    Petroleum industry uses large amount of pumping and compression pipes. Carrying out the whole range of repair works requires cleaning of the pipe inner surface from deposits which appeared in it during operation [1]. The task of asphalt, resin and paraffin deposits control remains one of the most essential for the branch. The article deals with thermal method and device for asphalt, resin and paraffin deposits removal from pumping and compression pipes inner surface, describes and provides the device application scope for cleaning the pumping and compression pipes inner surface. To deal with borehole equipment and pipe systems waxing problem various deposit prevention and removal methods are used, including mechanical, thermal, chemical, combined and nonconventional methods. (paper)

  6. Ultrasonic testing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrie, W.E.

    1978-01-01

    The ultrasonic transmitter made of polarized ferroelectric ceramic material (lead zirconate titanate) is arranged in a strip carrier which allows it to be introduced between the fuel elements of a fuel subassembly in a water cooled nuclear reactor. The ultrasonic transmitter is insulated relative to the carrier. The echo of the ra dal ultrasonic pulse is recorded which changes as faulty water filled fuel elements are detected. (RW) [de

  7. Ultrasonic control of ceramic membrane fouling by particles: effect of ultrasonic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Weavers, Linda K; Walker, Harold W

    2006-07-01

    Ultrasound at 20 kHz was applied to a cross-flow ultrafiltration system with gamma-alumina membranes in the presence of colloidal silica particles to systematically investigate how ultrasonic factors affect membrane cleaning. Based on imaging of the ultrasonic cavitation region, optimal cleaning occurred when the membrane was outside but close to the cavitation region. Increasing the filtration pressure increased the compressive forces driving cavitation collapse and resulted in fewer cavitation bubbles absorbing and scattering sound waves and increasing sound wave penetration. However, an increased filtration pressure also resulted in greater permeation drag, and subsequently less improvement in permeate flux compared to low filtration pressure. Finally, pulsed ultrasound with short pulse intervals resulted in permeate flux improvement close to that of continuous sonication.

  8. Reduction of FFA in jatropha curcas oil via sequential direct-ultrasonic irradiation and dosage of methanol/sulfuric acid catalyst mixture on esterification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade-Tacca, Cesar Augusto; Chang, Chia-Chi; Chen, Yi-Hung; Ji, Dar-Ren; Wang, Yi-Yu; Yen, Yue-Quen; Chang, Ching-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ultrasonic irradiation (UI) can auto-induce temperature rise. • Esterification at higher temperature (T) by UI offers greater reduction of acid value. • Sequential UI and catalyst dosing enhance esterification conversion efficiency (η). • UR of jatropha oil at higher T results in less water content on ester as product. • A 99.35% of η is achievable via sequential UI and dosing of 5 mL per dose. - Abstract: Production of jatropha-ester (JO-ester) from jatropha oil (JO) under sequential direct-ultrasonic irradiation (UI) with auto-induced temperature rise followed by adding a mixture of methanol/sulfuric-acid catalyst (M/C) dose between high temperature intervals was studied. Comparisons with various doses of 5, 10, 16.6 and 25 mL at different temperature intervals of 108.9–120 °C, 100–120 °C, 85–120 °C and 75–120 °C respectively were performed. System parameters examined include: esterification times (t E ) for UI, settling time (t S ) after esterification and temperature (T). Properties of acid value (AV), iodine value (IV), kinematic viscosity (kV), density (ρ LO ) and water content (m w ) of JO and JO-ester product were measured. The esterification conversion efficiencies (η) were determined and assessed. An η of 99.35% was obtained at temperature interval of 108.9–120 °C with 5 mL per dose for 20 doses and t E of 167.39 min (denoted as Process U 120-5 ), which is slightly higher than η of 98.87% at temperature interval of 75–120 °C with 25 mL per dose for 4 doses and t E of 108.79 min (noted as Process U 120-25 ). The JO-ester obtained via sequential UI with adding doses of 5 mL possess AV of 0.24 mg KOH/g, IV of 124.77 g I 2 /100 g, kV of 9.89 mm 2 /s, ρ LO of 901.73 kg/m 3 and m w of 0.3 wt.% showing that sequential UI and dose at higher temperature interval can give higher reduction of AV compared with 36.56 mg KOH/g of original oil. The effects of t S and t E on AV are of minor and moderate importance

  9. The Antifouling of ACLW-CAR Based on Ultrasonic Cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guohua; Liu, Shixuan; Qin, Qingliang

    2017-10-01

    Equipped with ACLW-CAR, the buoy provided effective technical platform for on-site rapid monitoring of the chlorophyll and turbidity. Performance index and usage in the ocean buoy of ACLW-CAR was introduced. Ultrasonic cleaning method in seawater was developed for preventing ACLW-CAR from biofouling. Marine chlorophyll and turbidity data can serve for oceanographic research and marine resource exploitation.

  10. Acoustic streaming induced by an ultrasonically oscillating endodontic file

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaagen, B.; Boutsioukis, C.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.; Versluis, M.

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonically activated irrigation is an advanced dental technique for irrigation of the root canal system during a root canal treatment. The basic cleaning mechanism is a result of acoustic streaming induced by an oscillating file, leading to mixing of the irrigant and pressure and shear stresses

  11. Acoustic streaming induced by an ultrasonically oscillating endodontic file

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaagen, B.; Boutsioukis, C.; van der Sluis, L. W. M.; Versluis, M.

    Ultrasonically activated irrigation is an advanced dental technique for irrigation of the root canal system during a root canal treatment. The basic cleaning mechanism is a result of acoustic streaming induced by an oscillating file, leading to mixing of the irrigant and pressure and shear stresses

  12. Canyon solvent cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reif, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The HM Process at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) uses 7.5% tributylphosphate in n-paraffin as an extraction solvent. During use, the solvent is altered due to hydrolysis and radiolysis, forming materials that influence product losses, produce decontamination, and separation efficiencies. Laboratory studies to improve online solvent cleaning have shown the carbonate washing, although removing residual solvent activity does not remove binding ligands that hold fission products in the solvent. Treatment of solvent by an alumina adsorption process removes binding ligands and significantly improves recycle solvent performance. Both laboratory work defining a full-scale alumina adsorption process and the use of the process to clean HM Process first cycle solvent are presented

  13. Lessons learned from a rigorous peer-review process for building the Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness (CLEAN) collection of high-quality digital teaching materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, A. U.; Ledley, T. S.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Buhr, S. M.; Manduca, C. A.; Niepold, F.; Fox, S.; Howell, C. D.; Lynds, S. E.

    2010-12-01

    The topic of climate change permeates all aspects of our society: the news, household debates, scientific conferences, etc. To provide students with accurate information about climate science and energy awareness, educators require scientifically and pedagogically robust teaching materials. To address this need, the NSF-funded Climate Literacy & Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN) Pathway has assembled a new peer-reviewed digital collection as part of the National Science Digital Library (NSDL) featuring teaching materials centered on climate and energy science for grades 6 through 16. The scope and framework of the collection is defined by the Essential Principles of Climate Science (CCSP 2009) and a set of energy awareness principles developed in the project. The collection provides trustworthy teaching materials on these socially relevant topics and prepares students to become responsible decision-makers. While a peer-review process is desirable for curriculum developer as well as collection builder to ensure quality, its implementation is non-trivial. We have designed a rigorous and transparent peer-review process for the CLEAN collection, and our experiences provide general guidelines that can be used to judge the quality of digital teaching materials across disciplines. Our multi-stage review process ensures that only resources with teaching goals relevant to developing climate literacy and energy awareness are considered. Each relevant resource is reviewed by two individuals to assess the i) scientific accuracy, ii) pedagogic effectiveness, and iii) usability/technical quality. A science review by an expert ensures the scientific quality and accuracy. Resources that pass all review steps are forwarded to a review panel of educators and scientists who make a final decision regarding inclusion of the materials in the CLEAN collection. Results from the first panel review show that about 20% (~100) of the resources that were initially considered for inclusion

  14. High resolution ultrasonic densitometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dress, W.B.

    1983-01-01

    The velocity of torsional stress pulses in an ultrasonic waveguide of non-circular cross section is affected by the temperature and density of the surrounding medium. Measurement of the transit times of acoustic echoes from the ends of a sensor section are interpreted as level, density, and temperature of the fluid environment surrounding that section. This paper examines methods of making these measurements to obtain high resolution, temperature-corrected absolute and relative density and level determinations of the fluid. Possible applications include on-line process monitoring, a hand-held density probe for battery charge state indication, and precise inventory control for such diverse fluids as uranium salt solutions in accountability storage and gasoline in service station storage tanks

  15. The construction of a process line for high efficiency silicon solar cells under clean-room conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aberle, A.; Faller, C.; Grille, T.; Glunz, S.; Kamerewerd, F.J.; Kopp, J.; Knobloch, J.; Klussmann, S.; Lauby, E.; Noel, A.; Paul, O.; Schaeffer, E.; Schubert, U.; Seitz, S.; Sterk, S.; Voss, B.; Warta, W.; Wettling, W.

    1992-08-01

    The aim of this research project was to plan, construct and test a clean-room technology laboratory for the manufacturing of silicon solar cells with 20% efficiency (1.5AM). In addition to the establishment of the laboratory, there existed the case of establishing the material and technological fundamentals of high-efficiency solar cells, testing and optimizing all stages of production as well as constructing test stands for accompanying characterisation work. The following final report describes the construction of the laboratory and characterisation systems, the material elements of high-efficiency solar cells as well as the most important results of solar cell production and optimisation. (orig./BWI) [de

  16. System and technique for ultrasonic determination of degree of cooking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Leonard J [Richland, WA; Diaz, Aaron A [W. Richland, WA; Judd, Kayte M [Richland, WA; Pappas, Richard A [Richland, WA; Cliff, William C [Richland, WA; Pfund, David M [Richland, WA; Morgen, Gerald P [Kennewick, WA

    2007-03-20

    A method and apparatus are described for determining the doneness of food during a cooking process. Ultrasonic signal are passed through the food during cooking. The change in transmission characteristics of the ultrasonic signal during the cooking process is measured to determine the point at which the food has been cooked to the proper level. In one aspect, a heated fluid cooks the food, and the transmission characteristics along a fluid-only ultrasonic path provides a reference for comparison with the transmission characteristics for a food-fluid ultrasonic path.

  17. Physical cleaning by bubbly streaming flow in an ultrasound field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Tatsuya; Ando, Keita

    2017-11-01

    Low-intensity ultrasonic cleaning with gas-supersaturated water is a promising method of physical cleaning without erosion; we are able to trigger cavitation bubble nucleation by weak ultrasound under gas supersaturation and thus clean material surfaces by mild bubble dynamics. Here, we perform particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement of liquid flow and cavitation bubble translation in an ultrasonic cleaning bath driven at 28 kHz and then relate it to cleaning tests using glass slides at which silica particles are attached. The ultrasound pressure amplitude at the cleaning spot is set at 1.4 atm. We select the supersaturation level of dissolved oxygen (DO) as a parameter and control it by oxygen microbubble aeration. It follows from the PIV measurement that the liquid flow is enhanced by the cavitation bubble translation driven by acoustic radiation force; this trend becomes clearer when the bubbles appear more densely as the DO supersaturation increases. In the cleaning tests, the cleaned areas appear as straight streaks. This suggests that physical cleaning is achieved mainly by cavitation bubbles that translate in ultrasound fields.

  18. Numerical study on the splitting of a vapor bubble in the ultrasonic assisted EDM process with the curved tool and workpiece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shervani-Tabar, M T; Seyed-Sadjadi, M H; Shabgard, M R

    2013-01-01

    Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a powerful and modern method of machining. In the EDM process, a vapor bubble is generated between the tool and the workpiece in the dielectric liquid due to an electrical discharge. In this process dynamic behavior of the vapor bubble affects machining process. Vibration of the tool surface affects bubble behavior and consequently affects material removal rate (MRR). In this paper, dynamic behavior of the vapor bubble in an ultrasonic assisted EDM process after the appearance of the necking phenomenon is investigated. It is noteworthy that necking phenomenon occurs when the bubble takes the shape of an hour-glass. After the appearance of the necking phenomenon, the vapor bubble splits into two parts and two liquid jets are developed on the boundaries of the upper and lower parts of the vapor bubble. The liquid jet developed on the upper part of the bubble impinges to the tool and the liquid jet developed on the lower part of the bubble impinges to the workpiece. These liquid jets cause evacuation of debris from the gap between the tool and the workpiece and also cause erosion of the workpiece and the tool. Curved tool and workpiece affect the shape and the velocity of the liquid jets during splitting of the vapor bubble. In this paper dynamics of the vapor bubble after its splitting near the curved tool and workpiece is investigated in three cases. In the first case surfaces of the tool and the workpiece are flat, in the second case surfaces of the tool and the workpiece are convex and in the third case surfaces of the tool and workpiece are concave. Numerical results show that in the third case, the velocity of liquid jets which are developed on the boundaries of the upper and lower parts of the vapor bubble after its splitting have the highest magnitude and their shape are broader than the other cases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Advanced ultrasonic technology for natural gas measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    In recent years, due to rising environmental and safety concerns, increasing commodity prices, and operational inefficiencies, a paradigm shift has been taking place with respect to gas measurement. The price of natural gas depends on the location, time of the year, and type of consumer. There is wide uncertainty associated with an orifice meter. This paper presents the use of advanced ultrasonic technology for the measurement of natural gas. For many years, multi-path ultrasonic meters with intelligent sensor technology have been used for gas measurement. This paper gives the various applications of ultrasonic technology along with their advantages and a draws a comparison with orifice meters. From the study it can be concluded that extensive advances in the use of ultrasonic technology for gas measurement have widened the areas of application and that varying frequencies combined with sealed transducer designs make it possible to measure atmospheric and sour gas in custody transfer process control and flaring accurately.

  20. Ultrasonic testing of materials at level 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    Ultrasonic inspection is a nondestructive method in which high frequency sound waves are introduced into the material being inspected. Ultrasonic testing has a superior penetrating power to radiography and can detect flaws deep in the test specimen (say up to about 6 to 7 meters of steel). It is quite sensitive to small flaws and allows the precise determination of the location and size of the flaws. Basic ultrasonic test methods such as the through transmission method and the resonance method, sensors and testing techniques are described. Pulse echo type flaw detectors and their applications for inspection of welds are surveyed. Ultrasonic standards, calibration of the equipment and evaluation methods are presented. Examples of practical applications in welding, casting and forging processes are given. Figs and tabs

  1. Private Exploration Primitives for Data Cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Ge, Chang; Ilyas, Ihab F.; He, Xi; Machanavajjhala, Ashwin

    2017-01-01

    Data cleaning, or the process of detecting and repairing inaccurate or corrupt records in the data, is inherently human-driven. State of the art systems assume cleaning experts can access the data (or a sample of it) to tune the cleaning process. However, in many cases, privacy constraints disallow unfettered access to the data. To address this challenge, we observe and provide empirical evidence that data cleaning can be achieved without access to the sensitive data, but with access to a (no...

  2. Measurement system of bubbly flow using Ultrasonic Velocity Profile Monitor and Video Data Processing Unit. 3. Comparison of flow characteristics between bubbly cocurrent and countercurrent flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Shirong; Suzuki, Yumiko; Aritomi, Masanori; Matsuzaki, Mitsuo; Takeda, Yasushi; Mori, Michitsugu

    1998-01-01

    The authors have developed a new measurement system which consisted of an Ultrasonic Velocity Profile Monitor (UVP) and a Video Data Processing Unit (VDP) in order to clarify the two-dimensional flow characteristics in bubbly flows and to offer a data base to validate numerical codes for two-dimensional two-phase flow. In the present paper, the proposed measurement system is applied to fully developed bubbly cocurrent flows in a vertical rectangular channel. At first, both bubble and water velocity profiles and void fraction profiles in the channel were investigated statistically. In addition, the two-phase multiplier profile of turbulence intensity, which was defined as a ratio of the standard deviation of velocity fluctuation in a bubbly flow to that in a water single phase flow, were examined. Next, these flow characteristics were compared with those in bubbly countercurrent flows reported in our previous paper. Finally, concerning the drift flux model, the distribution parameter and drift velocity were obtained directly from both bubble and water velocity profiles and void fraction profiles, and their results were compared with those in bubbly countercurrent flows. (author)

  3. Detection of Lock on Radar System Based on Ultrasonic US 100 Sensor And Arduino Uno R3 With Image Processing GUI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskoro, F.; Reynaldo, B. R.

    2018-04-01

    The development of electronics technology especially in the field of microcontroller occurs very rapidly. There have been many applications and useful use of microcontroller in everyday life as well as in laboratory research. In this study used Arduino Uno R3 as microcontroller-based platform ATMega328 as a sensor distance meter to know the distance of an object with high accuracy. The method used is to utilize the function Timer / Counter in Arduino UNO R3. On the Arduino Uno R3 platform, there is ATMEL ATmega328 microcontroller which has a frequency generating speed up to 20 MHz, 16-bit enumeration capability and using C language as its programming. With the Arduino Uno R3 platform, the ATmega328 microcontroller can be programmed with Arduino IDE software that is simpler and easier because it has been supported by libraries and many support programs. The result of this research is distance measurement to know the location of an object using US ultrasonic wave sensor US 100 with Arduino Uno R3 based on ATMega328 microcontroller which then the result will be displayed using Image Processing.

  4. Ultrasonic Waves and Strength Reduction Indexes for the Assessment of the Advancement of Deterioration Processes in Travertines from Pamukkale and Hierapolis (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobrowska Alicja

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In constructions, the usefulness of modern technical diagnostics of stone as a raw material requires predicting the effects of long-term environmental impact of its qualities and geomechanical properties. The paper presents geomechanical research enabling presentation of the factors for strength loss of the stone and forecasting the rate of development of destructive phenomena on the stone structure on a long-time basis. As research material Turkish travertines were selected from the Denizli-Kaklık Basin (Pamukkale and Hierapolis quarries, which have been commonly used for centuries in global architecture. The rock material was subjected to testing of the impact of various environmental factors, as well as European standards recommended by the author of the research program. Their resistance to the crystallization of salts from aqueous solutions and the effects of SO2, as well as the effect of frost and high temperatures are presented. The studies allowed establishing the following quantitative indicators: the ultrasonic waves index (IVp and the strength reduction index (IRc. Reflections on the assessment of deterioration effects indicate that the most active factors decreasing travertine resistance in the aging process include frost and sulphur dioxide (SO2. Their negative influence is particularly intense when the stone material is already strongly weathered.

  5. Measurement system of bubbly flow using ultrasonic velocity profile monitor and video data processing unit. 2. Flow characteristics of bubbly countercurrent flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aritomi, Masanori; Zhou, Shirong; Nakajima, Makoto; Takeda, Yasushi; Mori, Michitsugu.

    1997-01-01

    The authors have developed a measurement system which is composed of an ultrasonic velocity profile monitor and a video data processing unit in order to clarify its multi-dimensional flow characteristics in bubbly flows and to offer a data base to validate numerical codes for multi-dimensional two-phase flow. In this paper, the measurement system was applied for bubbly countercurrent flows in a vertical rectangular channel. At first, both bubble and water velocity profiles and void fraction profiles in the channel were investigated statistically. Next, turbulence intensity in a continuous liquid phase was defined as a standard deviation of velocity fluctuation, and the two-phase multiplier profile of turbulence intensity in the channel was clarified as a ratio of the standard deviation of flow fluctuation in a bubbly countercurrent flow to that in a water single phase flow. Finally, the distribution parameter and drift velocity used in the drift flux model for bubbly countercurrent flows were calculated from the obtained velocity profiles of both phases and void fraction profile, and were compared with the correlation proposed for bubbly countercurrent flows. (author)

  6. Reduction of aerobic and lactic acid bacteria in dairy desludge using an integrated compressed CO2 and ultrasonic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Tim W; Lu, Tiejun; Bains, Narinder; Leeke, Gary A

    Current treatment routes are not suitable to reduce and stabilise bacterial content in some dairy process streams such as separator and bactofuge desludges which currently present a major emission problem faced by dairy producers. In this study, a novel method for the processing of desludge was developed. The new method, elevated pressure sonication (EPS), uses a combination of low frequency ultrasound (20 kHz) and elevated CO 2 pressure (50 to 100 bar). Process conditions (pressure, sonicator power, processing time) were optimised for batch and continuous EPS processes to reduce viable numbers of aerobic and lactic acid bacteria in bactofuge desludge by ≥3-log fold. Coagulation of proteins present in the desludge also occurred, causing separation of solid (curd) and liquid (whey) fractions. The proposed process offers a 10-fold reduction in energy compared to high temperature short time (HTST) treatment of milk.

  7. Development of OTM Syngas Process and Testing of Syngas Derived Ultra-clean Fuels in Diesel Engines and Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.T. Robinson; John Sirman; Prasad Apte; Xingun Gui; Tytus R. Bulicz; Dan Corgard; John Hemmings

    2005-05-01

    This final report summarizes work accomplished in the Program from January 1, 2001 through December 31, 2004. Most of the key technical objectives for this program were achieved. A breakthrough material system has lead to the development of an OTM (oxygen transport membrane) compact planar reactor design capable of producing either syngas or hydrogen. The planar reactor shows significant advantages in thermal efficiency and a step change reduction in costs compared to either autothermal reforming or steam methane reforming with CO{sub 2} recovery. Syngas derived ultra-clean transportation fuels were tested in the Nuvera fuel cell modular pressurized reactor and in International Truck and Engine single cylinder test engines. The studies compared emission and engine performance of conventional base fuels to various formulations of ultra-clean gasoline or diesel fuels. A proprietary BP oxygenate showed significant advantage in both applications for reducing emissions with minimal impact on performance. In addition, a study to evaluate new fuel formulations for an HCCI engine was completed.

  8. Ultrasonic flow meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lötters, Joost Conrad; Snijders, G.J.; Volker, A.W.F.

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to an ultrasonic flow meter comprising a flow tube for the fluid whose flow rate is to be determined. The flow meter comprises a transmitting element for emitting ultrasonic waves, which is provided on the outer jacket of the flow tube. A receiving element, which is provided on

  9. Bulk viscosity and ultrasonic attenuation in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awasthi, O.N.; Murthy, B.V.S.

    1984-11-01

    Ultrasonic attenuation in simple liquid metals has been investigated using the thermodynamic theory of relaxation processes incorporating the concept of a two state model for the liquid near the melting point. Agreement of the results with the experimental values of the ultrasonic attenuation and bulk viscosity indicates that this might be an appropriate approach to explain the excess attenuation of ultrasonic waves in liquid metals. (author)

  10. [Effects of ultrasonic pretreatment on drying characteristics of sewage sludge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Run-Dong; Yang, Yu-Ting; Li, Yan-Long; Niu, Hui-Chang; Wei, Li-Hong; Sun, Yang; Ke, Xin

    2009-11-01

    The high water content of sewage sludge has engendered many inconveniences to its treatment and disposal. While ultrasonic takes on unique advantages on the sludge drying because of its high ultrasonic power, mighty penetrating capability and the ability of causing cavitations. Thus this research studies the characteristics influences of ultrasonic bring to the sludge drying and effects of the exposure time, ultrasonic generator power, temperatures of ultrasonic and drying temperature on the drying characteristics of dewatered sludge. Results indicate that ultrasonic pretreatment could speed up evaporation of the free water in sludge surface and help to end the drying stage with constant speed. In addition, ultrasonic treatment can effectively improve the sludge drying efficiency which could be more evident with the rise of the ultrasonic power (100-250 W), ultrasonic temperature and drying temperature. If dried under low temperature such as 105 degrees C, sludge will have premium drying characteristics when radiated under ultrasound for a shorter time such as 3 min. In the end, the ultrasonic treatment is expected to be an effective way to the low-cost sludge drying and also be an important reference to the optimization of the sludge drying process because of its effects on the increase of sludge drying efficiency.

  11. Broadband phase difference method for ultrasonic velocimetry in molten glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikura, Hiroshige; Ihara, Tomonori

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to develop ultrasonic Doppler velocimetry in molten glass. Realization of such a technique has two difficulties: ultrasonic transmission into molten salt and Doppler signal processing. Buffer rod technique was developed in our research to transmit ultrasound into high temperature molten glass. This article discusses newly developed signal processing technique named broadband phase difference method. (J.P.N.)

  12. Ultrasonic decontamination robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patenaude, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    An ultrasonic decontamination robot removes radioactive contamination from the internal surface of the inlet and outlet headers, divider plate, tube sheet, and lower portions of tubes of a nuclear power plant steam generator. A programmable microprocessor controller guides the movement of a robotic arm mounted in the header manway. An ultrasonic transducer having a solvent delivery subsystem through which ultrasonic action is achieved is moved by the arm over the surfaces. A solvent recovery suction tube is positioned within the header to remove solvent therefrom while avoiding interference with the main robotic arm. The solvent composition, temperature, pressure, viscosity, and purity are controlled to optimize the ultrasonic scrubbing action. The ultrasonic transducer is controlled at a power density, frequency, and on-off mode cycle such as to optimize scrubbing action within the range of transducer-to-surface distance and solvent layer thickness selected for the particular conditions encountered. Both solvent and transducer control actions are optimized by the programmable microprocessor. (author)

  13. Contributions regarding calculus and design of an ultrasonic system used in plasma metallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amza, G.

    2015-11-01

    Paper presents the calculus elements and construction for the ultrasonic system used in reconditioning process by metallization. A series of necessary elements used in ultrasonic system dimensioning are given and an ultrasonic system used in reconditioning process by plasma and grain metallization are presented. Also, a calculated ultrasonic system is modelled to work in resonance regime at the frequency f = 22Khz. Stress map inside material, internal energy variation, lost energy variation on length and volume unit are presented.

  14. Ultrasonic examination of JBK-75 strip material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, K.V.; Cunningham, R.A. Jr.; Lewis, J.C.; McClung, R.W.

    1982-12-01

    An ultrasonic inspection system was assembled to inspect the JBK-75 stainless steel sheath material (for the Large Coil Project) for the Westinghouse-Airco superconducting magnet program. The mechanical system provided for handling the 180-kg (400-lb) coils of strip material [1.6 mm thick by 78 mm wide by 90 to 120 m long (0.064 by 3.07 in. by 300 to 400 ft)], feeding the strip through the ultrasonic inspection and cleaning stations, and respooling the coils. We inspected 54 coils of strip for both longitudinal and laminar flaws. Simulated flaws were used to calibrate both inspections. Saw-cut notches [0.28 mm deep (0.011 in., about 17% of the strip thickness)] were used to calibrate the longitudinal flaw inspections; 1.59-mm-diam (0.063-in.) flat-bottom holes drilled halfway through a calibration strip were used to calibrate the laminar flaw tests

  15. Demonstrating practical application of soil and groundwater clean-up and recovery technologies at natural gas processing facilities: Bioventing, air sparging and wetlands remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, B.

    1996-01-01

    This issue of the project newsletter described the nature of bioventing, air sparging and wetland remediation. It reviewed their effectiveness in remediating hydrocarbon contaminated soil above the groundwater surface. Bioventing was described as an effective, low cost treatment in which air is pumped below ground to stimulate indigenous bacteria. The bacteria then use the oxygen to consume the hydrocarbons, converting them to CO 2 and water. Air sparging involves the injection of air below the groundwater surface. As the air rises, hydrocarbons are stripped from the contaminated soil and water. The advantage of air sparging is that it cleans contaminated soil and water from below the groundwater surface. Hydrocarbon contamination of wetlands was described as fairly common. Conventional remediation methods of excavation, trenching, and bellholes to remove contamination often cause extreme harm to the ecosystem. Recent experimental evidence suggests that wetlands may be capable of attenuating contaminated water through natural processes. Four hydrocarbon contaminated wetlands in Alberta are currently under study. Results to date show that peat's high organic content promotes sorption and biodegradation and that some crude oil spills can been resolved by natural processes. It was suggested that assuming peat is present, a good clean-up approach may be to contain the contaminant source, monitor the lateral and vertical extent of contamination, and wait for natural processes to resolve the problem. 3 figs

  16. Computer simulation of ultrasonic testing for aerospace vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamawaki, H [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1, Sengen, 305-0047 Tsukuba (Japan); Moriya, S; Masuoka, T [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 1 Koganesawa, Kimigawa, 981-1525 Kakuda (Japan); Takatsubo, J, E-mail: yamawaki.hisashi@nims.go.jp [Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, AIST Tsukuba Central 2, 1-1-1 Umezono, 305-8568 Tsukuba (Japan)

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive testing techniques are developed to secure reliability of aerospace vehicles used repetitively. In the case of cracks caused by thermal stress on walls in combustion chambers of liquid-fuel rockets, it is examined by ultrasonic waves visualization technique developed in AIST. The technique is composed with non-contact ultrasonic generation by pulsed-laser scanning, piezoelectric transducer for the ultrasonic detection, and image reconstruction processing. It enables detection of defects by visualization of ultrasonic waves scattered by the defects. In NIMS, the condition of the detection by the visualization is investigated using computer simulation for ultrasonic propagation that has capability of fast 3-D calculation. The simulation technique is based on finite-difference method and two-step elastic wave equations. It is reported about the investigation by the calculation, and shows availability of the simulation for the ultrasonic testing technique of the wall cracks.

  17. Sonochemical and high-speed optical characterization of cavitation generated by an ultrasonically oscillating dental file in root canal models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macedo, R.G.; Verhaagen, B.; Fernandez Rivas, D.; Gardeniers, J.G.E.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.; Wesselink, P.R.; Versluis, M.

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonically Activated Irrigation makes use of an ultrasonically oscillating file in order to improve the cleaning of the root canal during a root canal treatment. Cavitation has been associated with these oscillating files, but the nature and characteristics of the cavitating bubbles were not yet

  18. High-resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Buckin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy (HR-US is an analytical technique for direct and non-destructive monitoring of molecular and micro-structural transformations in liquids and semi-solid materials. It is based on precision measurements of ultrasonic velocity and attenuation in analysed samples. The application areas of HR-US in research, product development, and quality and process control include analysis of conformational transitions of polymers, ligand binding, molecular self-assembly and aggregation, crystallisation, gelation, characterisation of phase transitions and phase diagrams, and monitoring of chemical and biochemical reactions. The technique does not require optical markers or optical transparency. The HR-US measurements can be performed in small sample volumes (down to droplet size, over broad temperature range, at ambient and elevated pressures, and in various measuring regimes such as automatic temperature ramps, titrations and measurements in flow.

  19. Ultrasonic inspection of austenitic welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomlinson, J R; Wagg, A R; Whittle, M J [N.D.T. Applications Centre, CEGB, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1980-11-01

    The metallurgical structure of austenitic welds is described and contrasted with that found in ferritic welds. It is shown that this structure imparts a marked elastic anisotropy in the ultrasonic propagation parameters. Measurements of variations in the apparent attenuation of sound and deviations in the beam direction are described. The measurements are interpreted in terms of the measured velocity anisotropy. Two applications of the fundamental work are described. In the first it is shown how, by using short pulse compression wave probes, and with major modification of the welding procedure, a stainless steel fillet weld in an AGR boiler can be inspected. In the second application, alternative designs of a transition butt weld have been compared for ease of ultrasonic inspection. The effects of two different welding processes on such an inspection are described. Finally, the paper examines the prospects for future development of inspection and defect-sizing techniques for austenitic welds. (author)

  20. Ultrasonic Mastering of Filter Flow and Antifouling of Renewable Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziuk, Darya; Möhwald, Helmuth

    2016-04-04

    Inadequate access to pure water and sanitation requires new cost-effective, ergonomic methods with less consumption of energy and chemicals, leaving the environment cleaner and sustainable. Among such methods, ultrasound is a unique means to control the physics and chemistry of complex fluids (wastewater) with excellent performance regarding mass transfer, cleaning, and disinfection. In membrane filtration processes, it overcomes diffusion limits and can accelerate the fluid flow towards the filter preventing antifouling. Here, we outline the current state of knowledge and technological design, with a focus on physicochemical strategies of ultrasound for water cleaning. We highlight important parameters of ultrasound for the delivery of a fluid flow from a technical perspective employing principles of physics and chemistry. By introducing various ultrasonic methods, involving bubbles or cavitation in combination with external fields, we show advancements in flow acceleration and mass transportation to the filter. In most cases we emphasize the main role of streaming and the impact of cavitation with a perspective to prevent and remove fouling deposits during the flow. We also elaborate on the deficiencies of present technologies and on problems to be solved to achieve a wide-spread application. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Mechanochemical degradation of potato starch paste under ultrasonic irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-bin; LI Lin; LI Bing; CHEN Ling; GUI Lin

    2006-01-01

    In the paper, changes in the molecular weight, the intrinsic viscosity and the polydispersity (molecular mass distribution) of treated potato starch paste were studied under different ultrasonic conditions which include irradiation time, ultrasonic intensity, potato starch paste concentration, and distance from probe tip on the degradation of potato starch paste. Intrinsic viscosity of potato starch paste was determined following the ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) standard practice for dilute solution viscosity of polymers. Molecular mass and polydispersity of potato starch paste were measured on GPC (Gel Permeation Chromatography). The results showed that the average molecular mass and the intrinsic viscosity of starch strongly depended on irradiation time. Degradation increased with prolonged ultrasonic irradiation time, and the increase of ultrasonic intensity could accelerate the degradation, resulting in a faster degradation rate, a lower limiting value and a higher degradation extent. Starch samples were degraded faster in dilute solutions than in concentrated solutions. The molecular mass and the intrinsic viscosity of starch increased with the increase of distance from probe tip. Our results also showed that the polydispersity decreased with ultrasonic irradiation under all ultrasonic conditions. Ultrasonic degradation of potato starch paste occured based on the mechanism of molecular relaxation of starch paste. In the initial stage, ultrasonic degradation of potato starch paste was a random process, and the molecular mass distribution was broad. After that, ultrasonic degradation of potato starch paste changed to a nonrandom process, and the molecular mass distribution became narrower. Finally, molecular mass distribution tended toward a saturation value.

  2. Ultrasonic hot powder compaction of Ti-6Al-4V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini, Rezvan; Abdullah, Amir; Alizadeh, Yunes

    2017-07-01

    Power ultrasonic has been recently employed in a wide variety of manufacturing processes among which ultrasonic assisted powder compaction is a promising powder materials processing technique with significant industrial applications. The products manufactured by the powder metallurgy commonly consist of residual porosities, material impurities, structural non-homogeneities and residual stress. In this paper, it is aimed to apply power ultrasonic to the hot consolidation process of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy powder in order to improve mechanical properties. To do this, the effects of ultrasonic power and process temperature and pressure were considered and then deeply studied through a series of experiments. It was shown that the addition of ultrasonic vibration leads to a significant improvement in the consolidation performance and the mechanical strength of the fabricated specimens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Manufacturing of NAA laboratory clean room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwoto; Hasibuan, Djaruddin

    2001-01-01

    The ''NAA laboratory clean room'' has been built in the Reactor Serba Guna G.A. Siwabessy building. The erection of ''AAN laboratory clean room'' doing by started of preparation of the ''manufacturing procedure'' refer to ''Design and manufacturing neutron activation analysis clean room laboratory''. Manufacturing process and erection doing refer to procedures makes. By providing of the ''AAN laboratory clean room'' can be cocluded that the research activity and the user sevises in P2TRR well meet to be done

  4. High-Yield Preparation and Electrochemical Properties of Few-Layer MoS2 Nanosheets by Exfoliating Natural Molybdenite Powders Directly via a Coupled Ultrasonication-Milling Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Huina; Chen, Deliang; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Rui

    2016-09-01

    Cost-effective and scalable preparation of two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has been the bottleneck that limits their applications. This paper reports a novel coupled ultrasonication-milling (CUM) process to exfoliate natural molybdenite powders to achieve few-layer MoS2 (FL-MoS2) nanosheets in the solvent of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) molecules. The synergistic effect of ultrasonication and sand milling highly enhanced the exfoliation efficiency, and the precursor of natural molybdenite powders minimizes the synthetic cost of FL-MoS2 nanosheets. The exfoliation of natural molybdenite powders was conducted in a home-made CUM system, mainly consisting of an ultrasonic cell disruptor and a ceramic sand mill. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-vis spectra, Raman spectra, FT-IR, SEM, TEM, AFM, and N2 adsorption-desorption. The factors that influence the exfoliation in the CUM process, including the initial concentration of natural molybdenite powders ( C in, 15-55 g L-1), ultrasonic power ( P u, 200-350 W), rotation speed of sand mill ( ω s, 1500-2250 r.p.m), exfoliation time ( t ex, 0.5-6 h), and the molar ratio of PVP unit to MoS2 ( R pm, 0-1), were systematically investigated. Under the optimal CUM conditions (i.e., C in = 45 g L-1, P u = 280 W, ω s = 2250 r.p.m and R pm = 0.5), the yield at t ex = 6 h reaches 21.6 %, and the corresponding exfoliation rate is as high as 1.42 g L-1 h-1. The exfoliation efficiency of the CUM mode is much higher than that of either the ultrasonication (U) mode or the milling (M) mode. The synergistic mechanism and influencing rules of the CUM process in exfoliating natural molybdenite powders were elaborated. The as-obtained FL-MoS2 nanosheets have a high specific surface area of 924 m2 g-1 and show highly enhanced electrocatalytic performance in hydrogen evolution reaction and good electrochemical sensing property in detecting ascorbic acid. The CUM process

  5. Ultrasonic colour Doppler imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, David H; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic colour Doppler is an imaging technique that combines anatomical information derived using ultrasonic pulse-echo techniques with velocity information derived using ultrasonic Doppler techniques to generate colour-coded maps of tissue velocity superimposed on grey-scale images of tissue...... anatomy. The most common use of the technique is to image the movement of blood through the heart, arteries and veins, but it may also be used to image the motion of solid tissues such as the heart walls. Colour Doppler imaging is now provided on almost all commercial ultrasound machines, and has been...

  6. Measurement of hydroxyl radical production in ultrasonic aqueous solutions by a novel chemiluminescence method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yufei; Zhang, Zhujun; Yang, Chunyan

    2008-07-01

    Measurement methods for ultrasonic fields are important for reasons of safety. The investigation of an ultrasonic field can be performed by detecting the yield of hydroxyl radicals resulting from ultrasonic cavitations. In this paper, a novel method is introduced for detecting hydroxyl radicals by a chemiluminescence (CL) reaction of luminol-hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-K5[Cu(HIO6)2](DPC). The yield of hydroxyl radicals is calculated directly by the relative CL intensity according to the corresponding concentration of H2O2. This proposed CL method makes it possible to perform an in-line and real-time assay of hydroxyl radicals in an ultrasonic aqueous solution. With flow injection (FI) technology, this novel CL reaction is sensitive enough to detect ultra trace amounts of H2O2 with a limit of detection (3sigma) of 4.1 x 10(-11) mol L(-1). The influences of ultrasonic output power and ultrasonic treatment time on the yield of hydroxyl radicals by an ultrasound generator were also studied. The results indicate that the amount of hydroxyl radicals increases with the increase of ultrasonic output power (< or = 15 W mL(-1)). There is a linear relationship between the time of ultrasonic treatment and the yield of H2O2. The ultrasonic field of an ultrasonic cleaning baths has been measured by calculating the yield of hydroxyl radicals.

  7. Efficient methods of nanoimprint stamp cleaning based on imprint self-cleaning effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng Fantao; Chu Jinkui [Key Laboratory for Micro/Nano Technology and System of Liaoning Province, Dalian University of Technology, 116024 Dalian (China); Luo Gang; Zhou Ye; Carlberg, Patrick; Heidari, Babak [Obducat AB, SE-20125 Malmoe (Sweden); Maximov, Ivan; Montelius, Lars; Xu, H Q [Division of Solid State Physics, Lund University, Box 118, S-22100 Lund (Sweden); Nilsson, Lars, E-mail: ivan.maximov@ftf.lth.se [Department of Food Technology, Engineering and Nutrition, Lund University, Box 117, S-22100 Lund (Sweden)

    2011-05-06

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a nonconventional lithographic technique that promises low-cost, high-throughput patterning of structures with sub-10 nm resolution. Contamination of nanoimprint stamps is one of the key obstacles to industrialize the NIL technology. Here, we report two efficient approaches for removal of typical contamination of particles and residual resist from stamps: thermal and ultraviolet (UV) imprinting cleaning-both based on the self-cleaning effect of imprinting process. The contaminated stamps were imprinted onto polymer substrates and after demolding, they were treated with an organic solvent. The images of the stamp before and after the cleaning processes show that the two cleaning approaches can effectively remove contamination from stamps without destroying the stamp structures. The contact angles of the stamp before and after the cleaning processes indicate that the cleaning methods do not significantly degrade the anti-sticking layer. The cleaning processes reported in this work could also be used for substrate cleaning.

  8. Monitoring of PHWR end cap weld quality by ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laxminarayana, B.

    1996-01-01

    In Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor fuel fabrication, the end cap welding is an important process. Till date about 16,000 welds have been studied ultrasonically. This paper discusses the experimental results and the design of a semi automatic ultrasonic equipment incorporating features for both backward and forward integration. (author)

  9. Contribution of the ultrasonic simulation to the testing methods qualification process; Contribution de la modelisation ultrasonore au processus de qualification des methodes de controle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Ber, L.; Calmon, P. [CEA/Saclay, STA, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Abittan, E. [Electricite de France (EDF-GDL), 93 - Saint-Denis (France)

    2001-07-01

    The CEA and EDF have started a study concerning the simulation interest in the qualification of nuclear components control by ultrasonic methods. In this framework, the simulation tools of the CEA, as CIVA, have been tested on real control. The method and the results obtained on some examples are presented. (A.L.B.)

  10. Process and device for the ultrasonic testing of slotted screws screwed into a head of a nuclear reactor fuel element for cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharpenberg, R.

    1986-01-01

    To achieve correct echo signals, a test head is set separately on each area limited by a slot of the top of the slotted screw and the screw head is ultrasonically sounded in the direction of the suspected cracks. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  12. Ultrasonic testing X gammagraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello Campos, A.M. de

    1989-01-01

    The experience of 10 years for substituting gammagraphy tests by ultrasonic tests is related. A comparative evaluation of data obtained from both techniques applied to welded butt joints is presented. (author)

  13. Ultrasonic grinding method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Shuji.

    1990-01-01

    An ultrasonic generator and a liquid supply nozzle are opposed to an object to be ground and a pump is started in this state to supply an organic solvent. Matters to be decontaminated which adheres to the surface of the object to be ground and are difficult to be removed by a mere mechanical removing method can be eliminated previously by the surface active effect of the organic solvent such as ethanol prior to the oscillation of the ultrasonic generator. Subsequently, when the ultrasonic generator is oscillated, scales in the floated state can be removed simply. Further, since the organic solvent can penetrate to provide the surface active effect even in such a narrow portion that the top end of the ultrasonic generator is difficult to the intruded at the surface of the object to be ground, the decontaminating treatment can be applied also to such a narrow portion. (T.M.)

  14. Pickering Unit 1 chemical cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smee, J.L.; Fiola, R.J.; Brennenstuhl, K.R.; Zerkee, D.D.; Daniel, C.M.

    1995-01-01

    The secondary sides of all 12 boilers at Pickering Unit 1 were chemically cleaned in 1994 by the team of Ontario Hydro, B and W International (Cambridge, Ontario) and B and W Nuclear Technologies (Lynchburg, Virginia). A multi-step EPRI/SGOG process was employed in a similar manner to previous clearings at Units 5 and 6 in 1992 and 1993, respectively. A major innovation with the Unit 1 cleaning was the incorporation of a crevice cleaning step, the first time this had been done on Ontario Hydro plants. In addition, six boilers were cleaned in parallel compared to three at a time in previous Pickering cleanings. This significantly reduced cleaning time. A total of 6,770 kg of sludge was removed through direct chemical dissolution. It consisted of 66% iron/nickel oxides and 28% copper metal. A total of 1,600,000 L (420,000 US gallons) of liquid waste was produced. It was processed through the spent solvent treatment facility located at the Bruce Nuclear Power Development site. Visual inspection performed after the cleaning indicated that the crevices between the boiler tubes and the tube support structure were completely clear of deposit and the general condition of the tubing and lattice bars appeared to be in 'as new' condition. (author)

  15. Characterization of nuclear graphite elastic properties using laser ultrasonic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fan W.; Han, Karen; Olasov, Lauren R.; Gallego, Nidia C.; Contescu, Cristian I.; Spicer, James B.

    2015-05-01

    Laser ultrasonic methods have been used to characterize the elastic behaviors of commercially-available and legacy nuclear graphites. Since ultrasonic techniques are sensitive to various aspects of graphite microstructure including preferred grain orientation, microcrack orientation and porosity, laser ultrasonics is a candidate technique for monitoring graphite degradation and structural integrity in environments expected in high-temperature, gas-cooled nuclear reactors. Aspects of materials texture can be assessed by studying ultrasonic wavespeeds as a function of propagation direction and polarization. Shear wave birefringence measurements, in particular, can be used to evaluate elastic anisotropy. In this work, laser ultrasonic measurements of graphite moduli have been made to provide insight into the relationship between the microstructures and the macroscopic stiffnesses of these materials. In particular, laser ultrasonic measurements have been made using laser line sources to produce shear waves with specific polarizations. By varying the line orientation relative to the sample, shear wave birefringence measurements have been recorded. Results from shear wave birefringence measurements show that an isostatically molded graphite, such as PCIB, behaves isotropically, while an extruded graphite, such as H-451, displays significant ultrasonic texture. Graphites have complicated microstructures that depend on the manufacturing processes used, and ultrasonic texture in these materials could originate from grain orientation and preferred microcrack alignment. Effects on material isotropy due to service related microstructural changes are possible and the ultimate aim of this work is to determine the degree to which these changes can be assessed nondestructively using laser ultrasonics measurements.

  16. Fundamentals of Medical Ultrasonics

    CERN Document Server

    Postema, Michiel

    2011-01-01

    This book sets out the physical and engineering principles of acoustics and ultrasound as used for medical applications. It covers the basics of linear acoustics, wave propagation, non-linear acoustics, acoustic properties of tissue, transducer components, and ultrasonic imaging modes, as well as the most common diagnostic and therapeutic applications. It offers students and professionals in medical physics and engineering a detailed overview of the technical aspects of medical ultrasonic imaging, whilst serving as a reference for clinical and research staff.

  17. Assessing ultrasonic examination results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, V.; Vogt, M.

    1977-01-01

    Amongst nondestructive examination methods, the ultrasonic examination plays an important role. The reason why its scope of application is so wide is because the sound conducting capacity is the only property the material of a test specimen has to have. As the fields are so manifold, only main aspects can be described briefly. The list of references, however, is very extensive and gives plenty of information of all the problems concerning the assessment of ultrasonic examination results. (orig./RW) [de

  18. Determination of a cleaning and decontamination process using solvents; Determination d'une methode de nettoyage et de decontamination par solvant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutot, P; Schipfer, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Chusclan (France). Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule

    1967-03-15

    This work has been carried out on samples of the white cotton serge material of which most of the working overalls of the Nuclear Research Centre are made. The aims are: - to determine,from the decontamination and cleaning points of view, the efficiency of various solvents (white-spirit, trichloroethylene, perchlorethylene and tri-chloro-trifluoroethane) and the role of additives likely to improve the treatment; - to control the textile from the wear and shrinkage points of view; - to try to develop a basic cleaning and decontamination process as a function of the possibilities of each solvent considered. (authors) [French] Cette experimentation pratiquee sur des echantillons de tissu en serge de coton blanc, tissu dans lequel est confectionnee la majorite des tenues de travail du Centre, a pour but: - de determiner, sous l'angle decontamination et nettoyage, l'efficacite de differents solvants (white-spirit, trichlorethylene, perchlorethylene et trichlorotrifluoroethane) ainsi que le role des adjuvants susceptibles d'ameliorer le traitement; - de controler le textile du point de vue usure et retrecissement; - d'essayer de mettre au point un procede de nettoyage et de decontamination type en fonction des possibilites d'emploi de chacun des solvants consideres. (auteurs)

  19. Surface cleaning and preparation in AlGaN/GaN-based HEMT processing as assessed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Posada, Fernando; Bardwell, Jennifer A.; Moisa, Simona; Haffouz, Soufien; Tang, Haipeng; Brana, Alejandro F.; Munoz, Elias

    2007-01-01

    The chemical composition of the AlGaN/GaN surface during typical process steps in transistor fabrication was studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The steps studied included organic solvent cleaning, 1:1 HCl:H 2 O dip, buffered oxide etch dip, oxygen plasma descum and rapid thermal annealing (RTA). The surface composition was calculated after correction for the interference of the Ga Auger lines in the N 1s portion of the spectra. The buffered oxide etched (BOE) surface showed a greater tendency for Al (compared to Ga) to be oxidized in the surface, under a layer of adventitious carbon. Three different treatments were found to yield a combination of low C and O levels in the surface. Both plasma cleaning and RTA were highly effective at reducing the carbon contamination of the surface, but did increase the oxygen levels. The RTA treated surface was found to have low levels of oxygen incorporation to a depth of 2-6 nm

  20. Ultrasonic monitoring of yoghurt formation by using AT-cut quartz: lighting of casein micelles interactions process during the acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ould-Ehssein, C; Serfaty, S; Griesmar, P; Le Huérou, J-Y; Caplain, E; Martinez, L; Wilkie-Chancellier, N; Gindre, M

    2006-12-22

    The behavior of weak gels during their formation singularly attracts attention of dairy products factories. In our study we investigate acidified pre-heated milk gels formation that are fairly often used to product yoghurts. The gel formation requires a tight control of the first step of micelles modification process and the kinetics reaction parameters. The most current rheological parameters used to achieve the monitoring are the storage G' and the loss G'' shear moduli and the gelation time. The study of these parameters is commonly performed at very low frequencies (1 Hz). Our technique uses a 6 MHz AT-cut quartz crystal immersed in an acidified milk solution kept at a constant temperature. This method is singularly effective to ensure a complete and a reliable follow-up of the viscoelastic parameters of casein gels. A suitable new model enables a complete follow-up of the micelles evolution from the viscoelastic properties. The experimental results of the G' and G'' moduli versus temperature and versus glucono-delta-lactone (GDL) added to milk are analyzed. In order to understand the micelles modifications, an analysis of the viscoelastic evolution try to explain the validity of the various models of micelles modification. In addition a new accurate kinetics characteristic time is proposed. This time corresponds to the moment for which the elastic effect of material becomes significant. From the kinetics study of casein gels at various temperatures, the Arrhenius relationship and a modified Flory-Stockmayer relationship give us access to the activation energy. By using the proposed technique and the suitable models developed, the structure thus quality of dairy products may be better controlled.

  1. STUDY ON MORPHOLOGICAL AND STRUCTURAL CHANGES INDUCED BY ULTRASONIC DEGR EASING OF WOOL AND HUMAN HAIR WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BĂLĂU MÎNDRU Tudorel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recovery and reuse of wool and hair waste is a challenge with the ultimate goal environment protection. One of the early stages of the recovery process is the operation of scouring-degreasing wool and human hair waste. In recent decades the use of ultrasound technology has established an important place in different industrial processes and has started to revolutionize environmental protection. The power of ultrasound can enhance a wide variety of chemical and physical processes, mainly due to the phenomenon known as cavitation in a liquid medium. The objective of the present work is to develop eco-friendly effective degreasing system for keratin fiber waste with the aid of ultrasound, using distilled water and also trichlorethylene as a medium of propagation-degreasing, and realized a comparative analysis of efficiency of fat extraction by Soxhlet classical method and via ultrasonication. This work investigate the effect that ultrasonic irradiation has on the structure of wool and hair fibers. Thus were highlighted both morphological and structural changes of treated materials using optical microscopy, and FTIR spectroscopy. By using the unconventional method of cleaning and degreasing with an ultrasonic resonator tube are possible reductions in utility and solvents consumption together with changes in the cuticular layer of wool and hair fibers.

  2. Ultrasonic viewing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Juro.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the safety of reactor operation by enabling to detect the states and positions of fuel assemblies over a wide range with a set of ultrasonic viewing device comprising a rotatable ultrasonic transmitter-receiver and a reflector mounted with an adjustable angle. Constitution: A driving portion for a ultrasonic viewing device is provided to a rotary plug closing the opening of a reactor vessel and a guide pipe suspending below the coolant level is provided to the driving portion. An ultrasonic transmitter-receiver is provided at the end of the holder tube in the guide pipe. A reflector is provided at the upper position of the reactor core so as to correspond to the ultrasonic transmitter-receiver. The ultrasonic transmitter-receiver, positioned by the driving portion, performs horizontal movement for scanning the entire surface of the top of the reactor core, as well as vertical movement covering the gap between the upper mechanism on the reactor and the reactor core, whereby the confirmation for the separation of the control rod and the detection for the states of the reactor core can be conducted by the reflection waves from the reflector. (Moriyama, K.)

  3. Performances in Tank Cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanel-Viorel Panaitescu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There are several operations which must do to maximize the performance of tank cleaning. The new advanced technologies in tank cleaning have raised the standards in marine areas. There are many ways to realise optimal cleaning efficiency for different tanks. The evaluation of tank cleaning options means to start with audit of operations: how many tanks require cleaning, are there obstructions in tanks (e.g. agitators, mixers, what residue needs to be removed, are cleaning agents required or is water sufficient, what methods can used for tank cleaning. After these steps, must be verify the results and ensure that the best cleaning values can be achieved in terms of accuracy and reliability. Technology advancements have made it easier to remove stubborn residues, shorten cleaning cycle times and achieve higher levels of automation. In this paper are presented the performances in tank cleaning in accordance with legislation in force. If tank cleaning technologies are effective, then operating costs are minimal.

  4. FY1995 study to create the high density magnetic recording devices by using an ultra clean sputtering process; 1995 nendo choseijo sputter process ni yoru chokomitsudo jiki kiroku device no sosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    It is important to control microstructure of thin film magnetic devices such as recording heads and media, in order to induce excellent magnetic properties. Since the impurities in the sputtering atmosphere is easily thought to affect strongly on the initial film growth, we will develop the highly purified sputtering atmosphere to establish a fabrication technology of ultra thin metallic films with desirable microstructure. A specialized multi-sputtering system which has extremely clean atmosphere (impurity level: 1/10000 compared to conventional systems) were realized by (a) decreasing out-gassing rate from vacuum chamber, pumping system, cathode, robot, etc. and (b) using ultra-clean processing gas. The base pressure was 8 x 10{sup -12} Torr (XHV) and the build-up rate was less than 1 x 10{sup -8} Torrl/sec. From the correlation between the microstructure and magnetic properties of a part of spin-valve GMR films, the guiding principle for the microstructural design were clarified to induce the exchange coupling effectively at the ferro/antiferromagnetic interface and to enhance the GMR effect at the magnetic/non-magnetic interface. The mechanism of' Cr segregation on the grain boundaries was clarified, in thin film media deposited under ultra clean sputtering process. The material specification of the magnetic ultra thin film media for high density recording with low media noise were designed from view of the thermal agitation. (NEDO)

  5. Signal analysis approach to ultrasonic evaluation of diffusion bond quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Graham; Chinn, Diane

    1999-01-01

    Solid state bonds like the diffusion bond are attractive techniques for joining dissimilar materials since they are not prone to the defects that occur with fusion welding. Ultrasonic methods can detect the presence of totally unbonded regions but have difficulty sensing poor bonded areas where the substrates are in intimate contact. Standard ultrasonic imaging is based on amplitude changes in the signal reflected from the bond interface. Unfortunately, amplitude alone is not sensitive to bond quality. We demonstrated that there is additional information in the ultrasonic signal that correlates with bond quality. In our approach, we interrogated a set of dissimilar diffusion bonded samples with broad band ultrasonic signals. The signals were digitally processed and the characteristics of the signals that corresponded to bond quality were determined. These characteristics or features were processed with pattern recognition algorithms to produce predictions of bond quality. The predicted bond quality was then compared with the destructive measurement to assess the classification capability of the ultrasonic technique

  6. Efficient methods of piping cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the analysis of the efficient methods of piping cleaning of water supply and sanitation systems. Special attention is paid to the ice cleaning method, in course of which biological foil and various mineral and organic deposits are removed due to the ice crust buildup on the inner surface of water supply and drainage pipes. These impurities are responsible for the deterioration of the organoleptic properties of the transported drinking water or narrowing cross-section of drainage pipes. The co-authors emphasize that the use of ice compared to other methods of pipe cleaning has a number of advantages due to the relative simplicity and cheapness of the process, economical efficiency and lack of environmental risk. The equipment for performing ice cleaning is presented, its technological options, terms of cleansing operations, as well as the volumes of disposed pollution per unit length of the water supply and drainage pipelines. It is noted that ice cleaning requires careful planning in the process of cooking ice and in the process of its supply in the pipe. There are specific requirements to its quality. In particular, when you clean drinking water system the ice applied should be hygienically clean and meet sanitary requirements.In pilot projects, in particular, quantitative and qualitative analysis of sediments adsorbed by ice is conducted, as well as temperature and the duration of the process. The degree of pollution of the pipeline was estimated by the volume of the remote sediment on 1 km of pipeline. Cleaning pipelines using ice can be considered one of the methods of trenchless technologies, being a significant alternative to traditional methods of cleaning the pipes. The method can be applied in urban pipeline systems of drinking water supply for the diameters of 100—600 mm, and also to diversion collectors. In the world today 450 km of pipelines are subject to ice cleaning method.Ice cleaning method is simple

  7. Degradation of acephate using combined ultrasonic and ozonation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The degradation of acephate in aqueous solutions was investigated with the ultrasonic and ozonation methods, as well as a combination of both. An experimental facility was designed and operation parameters such as the ultrasonic power, temperature, and gas flow rate were strictly controlled at constant levels. The frequency of the ultrasonic wave was 160 kHz. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectroscopic and Raman spectroscopic techniques were used in the experiment. The UV-Vis spectroscopic results show that ultrasonication and ozonation have a synergistic effect in the combined system. The degradation efficiency of acephate increases from 60.6% to 87.6% after the solution is irradiated by a 160 kHz ultrasonic wave for 60 min in the ozonation process, and it is higher with the combined method than the sum of the separated ultrasonic and ozonation methods. Raman spectra studies show that degradation via the combined ultrasonic/ozonation method is more thorough than photocatalysis. The oxidability of nitrogen atoms is promoted under ultrasonic waves. Changes of the inorganic ions and degradation pathway during the degradation process were investigated in this study. Most final products are innocuous to the environment.

  8. Hybrid Pressure Retarded Osmosis−Membrane Distillation (PRO−MD) Process for Osmotic Power and Clean Water Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Gang; Zuo, Jian; Wan, Chunfeng; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2015-01-01

    unique advantages of high water recovery rate, huge osmotic power generation, well controlled membrane fouling, and minimal environmental impacts. Experimental results show that the PRO−MD hybrid process is promising that not only can harvest osmotic

  9. Ultrasonic measurement process of the ratio volume of gas in an enclosure containing a gas-liquid mixture to the total volume of the enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marini, J.; Heinrich, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    Ultrasonic waves with two different frequencies are sent through the fluid in the containment. Time of propagation are measured and the difference is calculated. If propagation times are identical the gas phase forms a layer on the top of the liquid phase and void fraction is determined from propagation speeds in the gas and in the liquid. If propagation times are different, part of the gas forms bubbles and void fraction is the sum of gas on top of the liquid and gas bubbles in the liquid determined separatly. Void fraction coming from the gas over the liquid is determined by waves reflected at the interface gas-liquid. Void fraction coming from the bubbles is determined by relations between the speed of ultrasonic waves and their frequency as a function of pressure and void fraction [fr

  10. Application of advanced oxidation processes for cleaning of industrial water generated in wet dedusting of shaft furnace gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplicka, Marianna; Kurowski, Ryszard; Jaworek, Katarzyna; Bratek, Łukasz

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents results of studies into advanced oxidation processes in 03 and 03/UV systems. An advanced oxidation process (AOP) was conducted to reduce the load of impurities in circulating waters from wet de-dusting of shaft furnace gases. Besides inorganic impurities, i.e. mainly arsenic compounds (16 g As L(-1) on average), lead, zinc, chlorides and sulphates, the waters also contain some organic material. The organic material is composed of a complex mixture that contains, amongst others, aliphatic compounds, phenol and its derivatives, pyridine bases, including pyridine, and its derivatives. The test results show degradation of organic and inorganic compounds during ozonation and photo-oxidation processes. Analysis of the solutions from the processes demonstrated that the complex organic material in the industrial water was oxidized in ozonation and in photo-oxidation, which resulted in formation of aldehydes and carboxylic acids. Kinetic degradation of selected pollutants is presented. Obtained results indicated that the O3/UV process is more effective in degradation of organic matter than ozonation. Depending on the process type, precipitation of the solid phase was observed. The efficiency of solid-phase formation was higher in photo-oxidation with ozone. It was found that the precipitated solid phase is composed mainly of arsenic, iron and oxygen.

  11. Chemical cleaning of UK AGR boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudge, A.; Turner, P.; Ghosh, A.; Clary, W.; Tice, D.

    2002-01-01

    For the first time in their operational lives, UK advanced gas-cooled reactor once-through boilers have been chemically cleaned. Chemical cleaning was necessary to avoid lost output resulting from boiler pressure drops, which had been increasing for a number of years. Chemical cleaning of these boilers presents a number of unique difficulties. These include lack of access to the boilers, highly sensitised 316H superheater sections that cannot be excluded from the cleaning flow path, relatively thin boiler tube walls and an intolerance to boiler tube failure because of the role of the boilers in nuclear decay heat removal. The difficulties were overcome by implementing the clean in a staged manner, starting with an extensive materials testwork programme to select and then to substantiate the cleaning process. The selected process was based on ammoniated citric acid plus formic acid for the principal acid cleaning stage. Materials testwork was followed by an in-plant trial clean of six boiler tubes, further materials testwork and the clean of a boiler tube in a full-scale test rig. An overview is presented of the work that was carried out to demonstrate that the clean could be carried out safely, effectively and without leading to unacceptable corrosion losses. Full-scale chemical cleaning was implemented by using as much of the existing plant as possible. Careful control and monitoring was employed to ensure that the cleaning was implemented according to the specified design, thus ensuring that a safe and effective clean was carried out. Full-scale cleaning has resulted in significant boiler pressure drop recovery, even though the iron burden was relatively low and cleaning was completed in a short time. (orig.)

  12. Overview of the ultrasonic instrumentation research in the MYRRHA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, M.; Leysen, W.; Van Dyck, D. [Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK.CEN (Belgium)

    2015-07-01

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK.CEN is in the process of developing MYRRHA, a new generation IV fast flux research reactor to replace the aging BR2. MYRRHA is conceptualized as an accelerator driven system cooled with lead bismuth eutectic mixture (LBE). As LBE is opaque to visual light, ultrasonic measurement techniques are employed as the main technology to provide feedback where needed. This paper we will give an overview of the R and D at SCK.CEN with respect to ultrasonic instrumentation in heavy liquid metals. High temperature ultrasonic transducers are deployed into the reactor to generate and receive the required ultrasonic signals. The ultrasonic waves are generated and sensed by means of a piezo-electric disc at the heart of the transducer. The acoustic properties of commonly used piezo-electric materials match rather well with the acoustic properties of heavy liquid metals, simplifying the design and construction of high bandwidth ultrasonic transducers for use in heavy liquid metals. The ultrasonic transducers will operate in a liquid metal environment, where radiation and high temperature limit the choice of materials for construction. Moreover, the high surface tension of the liquid metal hinders proper wetting of the transducer, required for optimal transmission and reception of the ultrasonic waves. In a first part of the paper, we will discuss the effect of these parameters on the performance of the overall ultrasonic system. In the second part of the paper, past, present and future ultrasonic experiments in LBE will be reviewed. We will show the results of an experiment where a transducer is scanned near the free surface of an LBE pool to render ultrasonic images of objects submerged in the heavy liquid metal. Additionally, the preliminary results of an ongoing experiment that measures the evolution of LBE wetting on different types of metals and various surface conditions will be reported. The evolution of wetting is an important

  13. Absorption and dispersion of ultrasonic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Herzfeld, Karl F; Massey, H S W; Brueckner, Keith A

    1959-01-01

    Absorption and Dispersion of Ultrasonic Waves focuses on the influence of ultrasonics on molecular processes in liquids and gases, including hydrodynamics, energy exchange, and chemical reactions. The book first offers information on the Stokes-Navier equations of hydrodynamics, as well as equations of motion, viscosity, formal introduction of volume viscosity, and linearized wave equation for a nonviscous fluid. The manuscript then ponders on energy exchange between internal and external degrees of freedom as relaxation phenomenon; effect of slow energy exchange on sound propagation; differe

  14. Determine bond strength by ultrasonic measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.M.

    1978-01-01

    Application of ultrasonic methods for the evaluation and measurement of bond strength has been the object of numerous investigations in the last fifteen years. Some investigators have reported good success (in limited application) while others have experienced dismal failure. One problem common to all investigations was the difficulty in extracting and isolating the many components which comprise the ultrasonic signal reflected from a bonded interface. Part of this problem was due to manually extracting individual parameters from large volumes of raw data. However, with the vast technology now available in the field of signal analysis and computerized data processing, it is feasible to isolate and analyze individual parameters within the ultrasonic signal for great volumes of raw data

  15. Electromagnetic and ultrasonic investigations on a roman marble slab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capizzi, Patrizia; Cosentino, Pietro L.

    2010-05-01

    The archaeological Museum of Rome (Museo delle Terme di Diocleziano) asked our group about the physical consistency of a marble slab (II - III century AD) that has recently fallen down during the transportation for an exhibition. In fact, due to insurance conflict, it was necessary to control the new fractures due to the recent accident and distinguish them from the ancient ones. The sculptured slab (today's size is 1280 x 70 x 9 cm), cut at the ends for a re-use as an inscription in the rear face, was restored (assemblage of different broken parts and cleaning) in contemporary times. We used different methodologies to investigate the slab: namely a pacometer (Protovale Elcometer) to individuate internal coupling pins, GPR (2000 MHz) and Ultrasonic (55 kHz) tomographic high-density surveys to investigate the internal extension of all the visible fractures and to search for the unknown internal ones. For every methodology used the quality of the acquired data was relatively high. They have been processed and compared to give a set of information useful for the bureaucratic problems of the Museum. Later on, the data have been processed in depth, for studying how to improve the data processing and for extracting all the information contained in the whole set of experimental data. Finally, the results of such a study in depth are exposed in detail.

  16. A multi-purpose ultrasonic streaming mixer for integrated magnetic bead ELISAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandhoff, Lukas; Lang, Walter; Vellekoop, Michael J; Zirath, Helene; Peham, Johannes; Wiesinger-Mayr, Herbert; Salas, Mariugenia; Haller, Anna; Spittler, Andreas; Schnetz, Guntram

    2015-01-01

    We present an ultrasonic streaming mixer for disposable and on-chip magnetic bead ELISAs. The ultrasonic transducer is placed at system-level to keep cost per chip as low as possible, and is coupled to the chip by means of a solid ultrasonic horn. The system provides mixing of liquids, as well as dispersion of the superparamagnetic beads in the ELISA. Additionally it can be used clean the chamber surface from nonspecifically bound proteins during the washing steps in the ELISA protocol. Using our system the time for the ELISA protocol has been greatly reduced down to 30 min. (paper)

  17. Ultrasonic dip seal maintenance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poindexter, A.M.; Ricks, H.E.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a system for removing impurities from the surfaces of liquid dip seals and for wetting the metal surfaces of liquid dip seals in nuclear components. The system comprises an ultrasonic transducer that transmits ultrasonic vibrations along an ultrasonic probe to the metal and liquid surfaces of the dip seal thereby loosening and removing those impurities

  18. Artificial Intelligence Assists Ultrasonic Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Lloyd A.; Willenberg, James D.

    1992-01-01

    Subtle indications of flaws extracted from ultrasonic waveforms. Ultrasonic-inspection system uses artificial intelligence to help in identification of hidden flaws in electron-beam-welded castings. System involves application of flaw-classification logic to analysis of ultrasonic waveforms.

  19. Effect of decision making on ultrasonic examination performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.H.

    1992-05-01

    A decision aid was developed to overcome examiner limitations in information processing and decision making during ultrasonic examinations. The aid provided a means of noting signal characteristics as they were observed during the examination, and of presenting them simultaneously for decision making. The aid also served as a way of providing detailed feedback on examination performance during training. The aid was incorporated into worksheets used for the conduct of practice examinations during ultrasonic examination training. To support the introduction and use of the decision aid, one hour of supplementary training was inserted in an existing 64-hour training course on ultrasonic detection of defects. This study represented a modest step in improving the performance of ultrasonic examinations in nuclear power plants. Findings indicated that aided decision making supported by limited training can significantly improve ultrasonic detection performance

  20. Ultrasonic nondestructive materials characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R. E., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A brief review of ultrasonic wave propagation in solid materials is presented with consideration of the altered behavior in anisotropic and nonlinear elastic materials in comparison with isotropic and linear elastic materials. Some experimental results are described in which ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements give insight into materials microstructure and associated mechanical properties. Recent developments with laser beam non-contact generation and detection of ultrasound are presented. The results of several years of experimental measurements using high-power ultrasound are discussed, which provide substantial evidence of the inability of presently accepted theories to fully explain the interaction of ultrasound with solid materials. Finally, a special synchrotron X-ray topographic system is described which affords the possibility of observing direct interaction of ultrasonic waves with the microstructural features of real crystalline solid materials for the first time.

  1. Ultrasonic colour Doppler imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, David H.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic colour Doppler is an imaging technique that combines anatomical information derived using ultrasonic pulse-echo techniques with velocity information derived using ultrasonic Doppler techniques to generate colour-coded maps of tissue velocity superimposed on grey-scale images of tissue...... anatomy. The most common use of the technique is to image the movement of blood through the heart, arteries and veins, but it may also be used to image the motion of solid tissues such as the heart walls. Colour Doppler imaging is now provided on almost all commercial ultrasound machines, and has been...... vectors. This review briefly introduces the principles behind colour Doppler imaging and describes some clinical applications. It then describes the basic components of conventional colour Doppler systems and the methods used to derive velocity information from the ultrasound signal. Next, a number of new...

  2. Ultrasonic tests. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goebbels, K.

    1980-01-01

    After a basic treatment of ultrasonic wave propagation, of the state-of-the-art methods and the technical background in the preceeding part, advanced ultrasonic NDT techniques are presented here. The discussion of new development includes - manipulation systems, - automation of ultrasonic testing methods, documentation and evaluation. In the middle of this part the main problem areas will be discussed: - detection of defects (e.g. in coarse grained structures and welds), - classification of defects (e.g. discrimination between crack-like and volumetric faults), - sizing of defects. Research in the field of acoustical holography, development of probes and phased arrays, electromagnetic acoustic transducers and signal enhancement are the main contributing parts to the report. (orig./RW)

  3. Technical support for the Ohio Clean Coal Technology Program. Volume 2, Baseline of knowledge concerning process modification opportunities, research needs, by-product market potential, and regulatory requirements: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olfenbuttel, R.; Clark, S.; Helper, E.; Hinchee, R.; Kuntz, C.; Means, J.; Oxley, J.; Paisley, M.; Rogers, C.; Sheppard, W.; Smolak, L. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1989-08-28

    This report was prepared for the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) under Grant Agreement No. CDO/R-88-LR1 and comprises two volumes. Volume 1 presents data on the chemical, physical, and leaching characteristics of by-products from a wide variety of clean coal combustion processes. Volume 2 consists of a discussion of (a) process modification waste minimization opportunities and stabilization considerations; (b) research and development needs and issues relating to clean coal combustion technologies and by-products; (c) the market potential for reusing or recycling by-product materials; and (d) regulatory considerations relating to by-product disposal or reuse.

  4. Basis for the life cycle assessment (LCA) of cleaning-in-place systems in milk processing plants; Bases para el analisis de ciclo de vida de los sistemas de limpieza in situ en plantas de la industria lactea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Barral, S.; Laca Perez, A.; Gutierrez Lavin, A.; Diaz Fernandez, M.; Rendueles de la Vega, M.; Iglesias Gonzalez, E.

    2006-07-01

    Milk processing requires high hygienic operations in order to assure safe products of high quality and suitable for human diet. The cleaning operations that take place during milk processing, do cause environmental impact, because of the high volume of wastewater generated, which is contaminated with rests of milk, detergents and other chemical products. The life cycle assessment of cleaning operations can be a powerful tool to evaluate the environmental impact associated with different operation methodologies. In this work, two current alternatives are studied, by means of operational data of a dairy plant. (Author) 7 refs.

  5. Proceedings of the specialists' meeting on reliability of the ultrasonic inspection of austenitic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The contributions of this meeting addressed several topics: the fundamentals of ultrasonic examination of austenitic materials (effect of anisotropy on propagation, improvement of ultrasonic testing to thick bimetallic welds, aspects of the ultrasonic testing of austenitic steel structures, utilization of a Fisher linear discriminant function in intergranular stress corrosion cracking or IGSCC detection, case of coarse grain austenitic welds, efforts of the Argonne National Laboratory), instruments and methods (longitudinal wave ultrasonic inspection, Grass echo suppression technique during the ultrasonic inspection of fuel cladding tubes, inspections of fillet and butt welds, improvement by signal averaging techniques, multiple bearing angle crack detector for cladded pipes examinations, flow-to-grain echo enhancement by split-spectrum processing, ultrasonic imaging techniques, ultrasonic inspection of pipe weldments for IGSCC), industrial practice (ultrasonic testing techniques for fabrication and in-service inspection, experiences in ultrasonic examination of austenitic steel components, experience and practice on nuclear piping in Spain, detection of underclad defects, sizing of cracks perpendicular to stainless overlay), and reliability (survey of ultrasonic testing in austenitic weld material, examination of electron beam welds, factors affecting the reliability of ultrasonic examination, detectability of IGSCC, ultrasonic inspection reliability for primary piping systems)

  6. Proceedings of the specialists' meeting on reliability of the ultrasonic inspection of austenitic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-07-01

    The contributions of this meeting addressed several topics: the fundamentals of ultrasonic examination of austenitic materials (effect of anisotropy on propagation, improvement of ultrasonic testing to thick bimetallic welds, aspects of the ultrasonic testing of austenitic steel structures, utilization of a Fisher linear discriminant function in intergranular stress corrosion cracking or IGSCC detection, case of coarse grain austenitic welds, efforts of the Argonne National Laboratory), instruments and methods (longitudinal wave ultrasonic inspection, Grass echo suppression technique during the ultrasonic inspection of fuel cladding tubes, inspections of fillet and butt welds, improvement by signal averaging techniques, multiple bearing angle crack detector for cladded pipes examinations, flow-to-grain echo enhancement by split-spectrum processing, ultrasonic imaging techniques, ultrasonic inspection of pipe weldments for IGSCC), industrial practice (ultrasonic testing techniques for fabrication and in-service inspection, experiences in ultrasonic examination of austenitic steel components, experience and practice on nuclear piping in Spain, detection of underclad defects, sizing of cracks perpendicular to stainless overlay), and reliability (survey of ultrasonic testing in austenitic weld material, examination of electron beam welds, factors affecting the reliability of ultrasonic examination, detectability of IGSCC, ultrasonic inspection reliability for primary piping systems)

  7. Sonochemical analysis of the output of ultrasonic dental descalers

    OpenAIRE

    King, David

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasonic descalers are used in dentistry to remove calculus and other contaminants from teeth. One mechanism which may assist in the cleaning is cavitation generated in cooling water around the descaler. The spatial distribution of cavitation around three designs of descaler tips and under three load conditions has been observed using sonochemiluminescence from a luminol solution and compared with the vibratory motion of the tips in a water bath, characterised by scanning laser vibrometry. ...

  8. National Ignition Facility Incorporates P2/E2 in Aqueous Parts Cleaning of Optics Hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabor, K

    2001-01-01

    optimize parts cleaning. The cleaning line is as follows: (1) Ultrasonic wash tank with an automatic feed to maintain surfactant concentration and pH. One hundred percent of the wash solution is filtered and reused. This wash bath needs changing only twice a year. (2) Pre-rinse spray area. Here an initial low-volume rinse removes most of the wash solution, preserving the cleanliness of the immersion rinse tank. Effluent from this process, less than 1% of the total volume used in a wash cycle, is the LMPPC's only regular discharge during a normal wash cycle. (3) Immersion rinse tank with ultrasonics. All of the deionized rinse water is filtered and re-polished for reuse. Reusing the deionized water also saves energy by taking advantage of previously heated water. (4) Final spray rinse. All of this water is filtered, re-polished and reused. Drying area. Hot, HEPA-filtered air, which dries the part, is filtered and re-circulated to conserve energy. The SMPGPC, essentially a scaled-down version of the LMPPC, handles parts weighing up to 300 kg. The SMPGPC has smaller tanks (200 gallons) and a small-parts gross-cleaning system at the front end of the cleaning line. Both the SMPGPC and LMPPC are surrounded by enclosures that reduce ambient room noise, provide a safety barrier, and help maintain the cleanliness of the area

  9. Catalase-positive microbial detection by using different ultrasonic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, S K; Durán, C; Elvira, L

    2012-01-01

    A method for rapid detection of catalase enzyme activity using ultrasonic parameters is presented in this work. It is based on the detection of the hydrolysis of hydrogen peroxide molecule into water and oxygen induced by the enzyme catalase. A special medium was made to amplify changes produced by catalase enzyme during the hydrolysis process. Enzymatic process can be monitored by means of ultrasonic parameters such as wave amplitude, time of flight (TOF), and backscattering measurements which are sensitive to oxygen bubble production. It is shown that catalase activity of the order of 10 −3 unit/ml can be detected using different ultrasonic parameters. The sensitivity provided by them is discussed.

  10. Application of ion scattering spectrometers for the observation of process of cleaning of surfaces of materials for vacuum vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akashi, Ken-ya; Miyahara, Akira; Sagara, Akio.

    1978-01-01

    The impurity gas emitted from the surfaces of vacuum vessels was investigated by using the shadowing effect of the covering atoms. The ion scattering spectrometer used for the experiment consists of an ion source, a test sample, an energy analyzer and an ion detector. The evacuation system comprises a turbomolecular pump, a Ti-sublimation pump and an ion pump. The achieved final gas pressure is 5 x 10 -10 Torr. The ion beam intensity to a sample is 10 micro ampere/cm 2 , and the ion energy is about 1 to 1.5 keV. The quantity of oxygen on the surface of a sample molybdenum was measured in the process of evacuation. The concentration of surface oxygen decreased with the gas pressure of the system. It was found that residual oxygen was observed after the sputter etching with Ar ion impact on the surface. The reason of this residual oxygen was considered. (Kato, T.)

  11. Dynamics of ultrasonic additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehr, Adam; Dapino, Marcelo J

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a solid-state technology for joining similar and dissimilar metal foils near room temperature by scrubbing them together with ultrasonic vibrations under pressure. Structural dynamics of the welding assembly and work piece influence how energy is transferred during the process and ultimately, part quality. To understand the effect of structural dynamics during UAM, a linear time-invariant model is proposed to relate the inputs of shear force and electric current to resultant welder velocity and voltage. Measured frequency response and operating performance of the welder under no load is used to identify model parameters. Using this model and in-situ measurements, shear force and welder efficiency are estimated to be near 2000N and 80% when welding Al 6061-H18 weld foil, respectively. Shear force and welder efficiency have never been estimated before in UAM. The influence of processing conditions, i.e., welder amplitude, normal force, and weld speed, on shear force and welder efficiency are investigated. Welder velocity was found to strongly influence the shear force magnitude and efficiency while normal force and weld speed showed little to no influence. The proposed model is used to describe high frequency harmonic content in the velocity response of the welder during welding operations and coupling of the UAM build with the welder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Deconvolution algorithms applied in ultrasonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrot, P.

    1993-12-01

    In a complete system of acquisition and processing of ultrasonic signals, it is often necessary at one stage to use some processing tools to get rid of the influence of the different elements of that system. By that means, the final quality of the signals in terms of resolution is improved. There are two main characteristics of ultrasonic signals which make this task difficult. Firstly, the signals generated by transducers are very often non-minimum phase. The classical deconvolution algorithms are unable to deal with such characteristics. Secondly, depending on the medium, the shape of the propagating pulse is evolving. The spatial invariance assumption often used in classical deconvolution algorithms is rarely valid. Many classical algorithms, parametric and non-parametric, have been investigated: the Wiener-type, the adaptive predictive techniques, the Oldenburg technique in the frequency domain, the minimum variance deconvolution. All the algorithms have been firstly tested on simulated data. One specific experimental set-up has also been analysed. Simulated and real data has been produced. This set-up demonstrated the interest in applying deconvolution, in terms of the achieved resolution. (author). 32 figs., 29 refs

  13. A thermomechanical crystal plasticity constitutive model for ultrasonic consolidation

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiq, Amir; El Sayed, Tamer S.

    2012-01-01

    We present a micromechanics-based thermomechanical constitutive model to simulate the ultrasonic consolidation process. Model parameters are calibrated using an inverse modeling approach. A comparison of the simulated response and experimental

  14. Comparative performance of anodic oxidation and electrocoagulation as clean processes for electrocatalytic degradation of diazo dye Acid Brown 14 in aqueous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassyouni, D G; Hamad, H A; El-Ashtoukhy, E-S Z; Amin, N K; El-Latif, M M Abd

    2017-08-05

    In this study, a laboratory scale for the treatment of a recalcitrant and toxic synthetic wastewater containing diazo dye, acid brown 14 (AB-14) has been comparatively performed by two electro-catalytic treatment processes, namely anodic oxidation (AO) and electrocoagulation (EC) using a new batch electrochemical cell. Additionally, the influence of several operating parameters such as; current density (j), initial dye concentration (C o ), NaCl concentration (C N ), and pH on the color removal efficiency and chemical oxygen demand (COD) are evaluated. The powerful capability of the AO and EC of AB-14 which related to the mechanistic reaction pathway is shown. The poor degradation is ascribed to higher C o and pH, while the enhancement of j and C N is responsible for better degradation of AB-14 dye. The results indicate that the EC is more effective than AO under the same operational condition. A kinetic model is developed for evaluation of the pseudo-first-order-rate constant (k app ) as a function of various operational parameters. The results emphasize the high efficiency of AO and EC and the clean processes which are hopeful alternative for the treatment of the large volume wastewater of the textile industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Clean thermal decomposition of tertiary-alkyl metal thiolates to metal sulfides: environmentally-benign, non-polar inks for solution-processed chalcopyrite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jungwoo; Kim, Gi-Hwan; Jeong, Jaeki; Yoon, Yung Jin; Seo, Jung Hwa; Walker, Bright; Kim, Jin Young

    2016-11-01

    We report the preparation of Cu2S, In2S3, CuInS2 and Cu(In,Ga)S2 semiconducting films via the spin coating and annealing of soluble tertiary-alkyl thiolate complexes. The thiolate compounds are readily prepared via the reaction of metal bases and tertiary-alkyl thiols. The thiolate complexes are soluble in common organic solvents and can be solution processed by spin coating to yield thin films. Upon thermal annealing in the range of 200-400 °C, the tertiary-alkyl thiolates decompose cleanly to yield volatile dialkyl sulfides and metal sulfide films which are free of organic residue. Analysis of the reaction byproducts strongly suggests that the decomposition proceeds via an SN1 mechanism. The composition of the films can be controlled by adjusting the amount of each metal thiolate used in the precursor solution yielding bandgaps in the range of 1.2 to 3.3 eV. The films form functioning p-n junctions when deposited in contact with CdS films prepared by the same method. Functioning solar cells are observed when such p-n junctions are prepared on transparent conducting substrates and finished by depositing electrodes with appropriate work functions. This method enables the fabrication of metal chalcogenide films on a large scale via a simple and chemically clear process.

  16. Mobilization Potential and Democratization Processes of the Coalition for Clean and Fair Elections (Bersih in Malaysia: An Interview With Hishamuddin Rais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Hooi Khoo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, protests and popular mobilization have become pronounced elements in Malaysian politics. Bersih (clean demonstrations are notably the most outstanding protest events in Malaysian history. Bersih is a group of 89 non-governmental organizations (NGOs pushing for a thorough reform of the electoral process in Malaysia through rallies and demonstrations. Five opposition parties initiated the idea of Bersih in 2005 and included several NGOs in the ‘project’ later on. After the first Bersih street protests in November 2007 (Bersih 1.0, the political parties and the NGOs reached the ‘compromise pact’ that led to the formation of Bersih 2.0 in 2010 as a non-partisan movement free from any political interference. This interview explores the linkages to the broader democratization process in Malaysia from the perspective of Hishamuddin Rais (Isham, a prominent grassroots activist. Isham spent 20 years in political exile after the Baling student protest of 1974. He became active again in 1998 after the ouster of then Deputy Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim, the current leader of the opposition coalition. Isham was a member of the Bersih Steering Committee for two years until he stepped down in 2012.

  17. Clean solutions to the incoming wafer quality impact on lithography process yield limits in a dynamic copper/low-k research and development environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaght, Patrick S.; Ybarra, Israel; Sax, Harry; Gupta, Gaurav; West, Michael; Doros, Theodore G.; Beach, James V.; Mello, Jim

    2000-06-01

    The continued growth of the semiconductor manufacturing industry has been due, in large part, to improved lithographic resolution and overlay across increasingly larger chip areas. Optical lithography continues to be the mainstream technology for the industry with extensions of optical lithography being employed to support 180 nm product and process development. While the industry momentum is behind optical extensions to 130 nm, the key challenge will be maintaining an adequate and affordable process latitude (depth of focus/exposure window) necessary for 10% post-etch critical dimension (CD) control. If the full potential of optical lithography is to be exploited, the current lithographic systems can not be compromised by incoming wafer quality. Impurity specifications of novel Low-k dielectric materials, plating solutions, chemical-mechanical planarization (CMP) slurries, and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) precursors are not well understood and more stringent control measures will be required to meet defect density targets as identified in the National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (NTRS). This paper identifies several specific poor quality wafer issues that have been effectively addressed as a result of the introduction of a set of flexible and reliable wafer back surface clean processes developed on the SEZ Spin-Processor 203 configured for processing of 200 mm diameter wafers. Patterned wafers have been back surface etched by means of a novel spin process contamination elimination (SpCE) technique with the wafer suspended by a dynamic nitrogen (N2) flow, device side down, via the Bernoulli effect. Figure 1 illustrates the wafer-chuck orientation within the process chamber during back side etch processing. This paper addresses a number of direct and immediate benefits to the MicraScan IIITM deep-ultraviolet (DUV) step-and-scan system at SEMATECH. These enhancements have resulted from the resolution of three significant problems: (1) back surface

  18. H2S and volatile fatty acids elimination by biofiltration: clean-up process for biogas potential use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Sáenz, D; Zarate-Segura, P B; Guerrero-Barajas, C; García-Peña, E I

    2009-04-30

    In the present work, the main objective was to evaluate a biofiltration system for removing hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) contained in a gaseous stream from an anaerobic digestor (AD). The elimination of these compounds allowed the potential use of biogas while maintaining the methane (CH(4)) content throughout the process. The biodegradation of H(2)S was determined in the lava rock biofilter under two different empty bed residence times (EBRT). Inlet loadings lower than 200 g/m(3)h at an EBRT of 81 s yielded a complete removal, attaining an elimination capacity (EC) of 142 g/m(3)h, whereas at an EBRT of 31 s, a critical EC of 200 g/m(3)h was reached and the EC obtained exhibited a maximum value of 232 g/m(3)h. For 1500 ppmv of H(2)S, 99% removal was maintained during 90 days and complete biodegradation of VFAs was observed. A recovery of 60% as sulfate was obtained due to the constant excess of O(2) concentration in the system. Acetic and propionic acids as a sole source of carbon were also evaluated in the bioreactor at different inlet loadings (0-120 g/m(3)h) obtaining a complete removal (99%) for both. Microcosms biodegradation experiments conducted with VFAs demonstrated that acetic acid provided the highest biodegradation rate.

  19. Ultrasonic weld testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-12-01

    The study was broken down into two phases. Phase I consisted of a laboratory investigation of test specimens to determine the reliability of the ultrasonic equipment and testing procedure. Phase II was a field study where the knowledge, skills and ab...

  20. Ultrasonic leak detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, R.V.

    1977-01-01

    A scanning ultrasonic microphone was used to detect the presence and locate the sources of hydraulic noises in piping systems in a reactor environment. The intensity changes of the noises correspond to changes of flow conditions within the system caused by throttled valves, flow rate changes, and leaks. (author)

  1. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... has been rented. This feature is not available right now. Please try again later. Published on May ... 34 How The Clean Hands - Safe Hands System Works - Duration: 3:38. Clean Hands-Safe Hands 5, ...

  2. An ultrasonic waveguide for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, R.D.; Gillespie, A.B.; Deighton, M.O.; Pike, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    The value of ultrasonic techniques in nuclear plants is well established. However, in most cases nuclear power plants present an extremely hostile environment for an ultrasonic transducer. The paper presents a novel technique for introducing an ultrasound into hostile liquid environments using a new form of ultrasonic waveguide. Using this approach, a standard transducer arrangement is sited in a hospitable area and conveys the ultrasound along the guide to the required beam-emission collection position. The design of a single-mode ultrasonic waveguide is described. The ultrasound is conveyed along a stainless steel strip of rectangular cross-section. The transference of energy between the strip and the liquid is achieved through a highly efficient mode-conversion process. This process overcomes the usual problems of mis-match of acoustic impedances of stainless steel and liquids, and also produces a highly collimated beam of ultrasound. Tests of a 10-m-long waveguide using these techniques are described, achieving signal-to-noise ratios in the region of 40 dB. (author)

  3. Remote consulting based on ultrasonic digital immages and dynamic ultrasonic sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margan, Anamarija; Rustemović, Nadan

    2006-03-01

    Telematic ultrasonic diagnostics is a relatively new tool in providing health care to patients in remote, islolated communities. Our project facility, "The Virtual Polyclinic - A Specialists' Consulting Network for the Islands", is located on the island of Cres in the Adriatic Sea in Croatia and has been extending telemedical services to the archipelago population since 2000. Telemedicine applications include consulting services by specialists at the University Clinical Hospital Center Rebro in Zagreb and at "Magdalena", a leading cardiology clinic in Croatia. After several years of experience with static high resolution ultrasonic digital immages for referral consulting diagnostics purposes, we now also use dynamic ultrasonic sequences in a project with the Department of Emmergency Gastroenterology at Rebro in Zagreb. The aim of the ongoing project is to compare the advantages and shortcomings in transmitting static ultrasonic digital immages and live sequences of ultrasonic examination in telematic diagnostics. Ultrasonic examination is a dynamic process in which the diagnostic accuracy is highly dependent on the dynamic moment of an ultrasound probe and signal. Our first results indicate that in diffuse parenchymal organ pathology the progression and the follow up of a disease is better presented to a remote consulting specialist by dynamic ultrasound sequences. However, the changes that involve only one part of a parenchymal organ can be suitably presented by static ultrasonic digital images alone. Furthermore, we need less time for digital imaging and such tele-consultations overall are more economical. Our previous telemedicine research and practice proved that we can greatly improve the level of medical care in remote healthcare facilities and cut healthcare costs considerably. The experience in the ongoing project points to a conclusion that we can further optimize remote diagnostics benefits by a right choice of telematic application thus reaching a

  4. Ultrasonic and radiographic evaluation of advanced aerospace materials: Ceramic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    1990-01-01

    Two conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques were used to evaluate advanced ceramic composite materials. It was shown that neither ultrasonic C-scan nor radiographic imaging can individually provide sufficient data for an accurate nondestructive evaluation. Both ultrasonic C-scan and conventional radiographic imaging are required for preliminary evaluation of these complex systems. The material variations that were identified by these two techniques are porosity, delaminations, bond quality between laminae, fiber alignment, fiber registration, fiber parallelism, and processing density flaws. The degree of bonding between fiber and matrix cannot be determined by either of these methods. An alternative ultrasonic technique, angular power spectrum scanning (APSS) is recommended for quantification of this interfacial bond.

  5. Cleaning the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegmann, R.

    1993-01-01

    Volume 6 of the Hamburg Reports contains contributions from scientists from the Special Research Field 188 'Cleaning up Contaminated Soils' of the Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg and the University of Hamburg and of experts from science and from the practical field. The soil science and analytical aspects of the biological and chemical/physical treatment processes are shown and open questions specific to processes are dealt with. Scientific results are compared with practical experience here. The evaluation of treated soils for reuse in the environment is a very important question, which is explained in the first articles here. Examples of case studies are shown in the last part of the volume. (orig.) [de

  6. Cracks assessment using ultrasonic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Maria Pia; Tomasella, Marcelo [OLDELVAL S.A. Oleoductos del Valle, Rio Negro (Argentina). Pipeline Integrity Dept.

    2005-07-01

    The goal of Oldelval Integrity Program is to prevent ruptures and leaks, developing strategies for a better handling of the integrity of our pipelines. In order to achieve it we have studied and modeled each process that involved in the integrity pipeline. Those processes are mainly based on defects reported by an internal inspection tool and supplied with field inspection and monitoring data. Years of evaluation, study and the continuous effort overturned towards a phenomenon that worries to the industry, as it is the SCC. Since 1998 up to 2004 SCC was included in the integrity program with some preventive maintenance programs. The accomplishment of the inspection based on ultrasound tools, is the culmination of years of evaluation and investigations supported by field digs and materials susceptibility. This paper describes Oldelval's results with ultrasonic crack detection tool, and how it can be reliably to detect SCC. (author)

  7. Quadrature demodulation based circuit implementation of pulse stream for ultrasonic signal FRI sparse sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoupeng, Song; Zhou, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Converting ultrasonic signal to ultrasonic pulse stream is the key step of finite rate of innovation (FRI) sparse sampling. At present, ultrasonic pulse-stream-forming techniques are mainly based on digital algorithms. No hardware circuit that can achieve it has been reported. This paper proposes a new quadrature demodulation (QD) based circuit implementation method for forming an ultrasonic pulse stream. Elaborating on FRI sparse sampling theory, the process of ultrasonic signal is explained, followed by a discussion and analysis of ultrasonic pulse-stream-forming methods. In contrast to ultrasonic signal envelope extracting techniques, a quadrature demodulation method (QDM) is proposed. Simulation experiments were performed to determine its performance at various signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). The circuit was then designed, with mixing module, oscillator, low pass filter (LPF), and root of square sum module. Finally, application experiments were carried out on pipeline sample ultrasonic flaw testing. The experimental results indicate that the QDM can accurately convert ultrasonic signal to ultrasonic pulse stream, and reverse the original signal information, such as pulse width, amplitude, and time of arrival. This technique lays the foundation for ultrasonic signal FRI sparse sampling directly with hardware circuitry. (paper)

  8. Cleaning Validation of Fermentation Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Satu; Friis, Alan; Wirtanen, Gun

    2008-01-01

    Reliable test methods for checking cleanliness are needed to evaluate and validate the cleaning process of fermentation tanks. Pilot scale tanks were used to test the applicability of various methods for this purpose. The methods found to be suitable for validation of the clenlinees were visula...

  9. Deriving site-specific soil clean-up values for metals and metalloids: rationale for including protection of soil microbial processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperman, Roman G; Siciliano, Steven D; Römbke, Jörg; Oorts, Koen

    2014-07-01

    Although it is widely recognized that microorganisms are essential for sustaining soil fertility, structure, nutrient cycling, groundwater purification, and other soil functions, soil microbial toxicity data were excluded from the derivation of Ecological Soil Screening Levels (Eco-SSL) in the United States. Among the reasons for such exclusion were claims that microbial toxicity tests were too difficult to interpret because of the high variability of microbial responses, uncertainty regarding the relevance of the various endpoints, and functional redundancy. Since the release of the first draft of the Eco-SSL Guidance document by the US Environmental Protection Agency in 2003, soil microbial toxicity testing and its use in ecological risk assessments have substantially improved. A wide range of standardized and nonstandardized methods became available for testing chemical toxicity to microbial functions in soil. Regulatory frameworks in the European Union and Australia have successfully incorporated microbial toxicity data into the derivation of soil threshold concentrations for ecological risk assessments. This article provides the 3-part rationale for including soil microbial processes in the development of soil clean-up values (SCVs): 1) presenting a brief overview of relevant test methods for assessing microbial functions in soil, 2) examining data sets for Cu, Ni, Zn, and Mo that incorporated soil microbial toxicity data into regulatory frameworks, and 3) offering recommendations on how to integrate the best available science into the method development for deriving site-specific SCVs that account for bioavailability of metals and metalloids in soil. Although the primary focus of this article is on the development of the approach for deriving SCVs for metals and metalloids in the United States, the recommendations provided in this article may also be applicable in other jurisdictions that aim at developing ecological soil threshold values for protection of

  10. Outsourcing Housekeeping: An insight into two cleaning companies, SOL and N-Clean, in Helsinki, Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Samra

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the author was to find to get an insight into the cleaning companies, in Helsin-ki, Finland, which the hotel industry is using as an external supplier for their housekeeping de-partment. The author has looked into the cleaning companies training process for the cleaning staff, employee demographics, quality control and process of handling complaints. The ad-vantages and disadvantages of outsourcing housekeeping in the hotel sector are also investi-gated. The research method...

  11. Auto-positioning ultrasonic transducer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Randy K. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An ultrasonic transducer apparatus and process for determining the optimal transducer position for flow measurement along a conduit outer surface. The apparatus includes a transmitting transducer for transmitting an ultrasonic signal, said transducer affixed to a conduit outer surface; a guide rail attached to a receiving transducer for guiding movement of a receiving transducer along the conduit outer surface, wherein the receiving transducer receives an ultrasonic signal from the transmitting transducer and sends a signal to a data acquisition system; and a motor for moving the receiving transducer along the guide rail, wherein the motor is controlled by a controller. The method includes affixing a transmitting transducer to an outer surface of a conduit; moving a receiving transducer on the conduit outer surface, wherein the receiving transducer is moved along a guide rail by a motor; transmitting an ultrasonic signal from the transmitting transducer that is received by the receiving transducer; communicating the signal received by the receiving transducer to a data acquisition and control system; and repeating the moving, transmitting, and communicating along a length of the conduit.

  12. Full-field ultrasonic inspection for a composite sandwich plate skin-core debonding detection using laser-based ultrasonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, See Yenn; Victor, Jared J.; Todd, Michael D.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a full-field ultrasonic guided wave method is proposed to inspect a composite sandwich specimen made for an aircraft engine nacelle. The back skin/core interface of the specimen is built with two fabricated disbond defects (diameters of 12.7 mm and 25.4 mm) by removing areas of the adhesive used to bond the back skin to the core. A laser ultrasonic interrogation system (LUIS) incorporated with a disbond detection algorithm is developed. The system consists of a 1-kHz laser ultrasonic scanning system and a single fixed ultrasonic sensor to interrogate ultrasonic guided waves in the sandwich specimen. The interest area of 400 mm × 400 mm is scanned at a 0.5 mm scan interval. The corresponding full-field ultrasonic data is obtained and generated in the three-dimensional (3-D) space-time domain. Then, the 3-D full-field ultrasonic data is Fourier transformed and the ultrasonic frequency spectra are analyzed to determine the dominant frequency that is sensitive to the disbond defects. Continuous wavelet transform (CWT) based on fast Fourier transform (FFT) is implemented as a single-frequency bandpass filter to filter the full-field ultrasonic data in the 3-D space-time domain at the selected dominant frequency. The LUIS has shown the ability to detect the disbond with diameters of 11 mm and 23 mm which match to the pre-determined disbond sizes well. For future research, a robust signal processing algorithm and a model-based matched filter will be investigated to make the detection process autonomous and improve detectability

  13. Ultrasonic calibration assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Ultrasonic transducers for in-service inspection of nuclear reactor vessels have several problems associated with them which this invention seeks to overcome. The first is that of calibration or referencing a zero start point for the vertical axis of transducer movement to locate a weld defect. The second is that of verifying the positioning (vertically or at a predetermined angle). Thirdly there is the problem of ascertaining the speed per unit distance in the operating medium of the transducer beam prior to the actual inspection. The apparatus described is a calibration assembly which includes a fixed, generally spherical body having a surface for reflecting an ultrasonic beam from one of the transducers which can be moved until the reflection from the spherical body is the highest amplitude return signal indicating radial alignment from the body. (U.K.)

  14. Ultrasonic Characterization And Micro-Structural Studies On 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel In Thermal Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernice Victoria

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Due to increasing concern on potential impact of materials on human health and environment the materials used in hygienic applications should be durable corrosion resistant clean surface etc. Type 2205 duplex stainless steel is a preferred material for use in biomedical pharmaceutical nuclear pressure vessels chemical tankers etc. it exhibits good mechanical strength and high resistance to corrosion. The strength toughness hardness of such materials are usually determined by destructive tests. However continuous destructive measurements are generally difficult to perform during the productive process which creates a need for a fast and easy nondestructive method of material characterization. Microstructural changes in duplex stainless steel due to changes in annealing temperature are characterized by ultrasonic pulse echo technique and optical microscopy. Type 2205 duplex stainless steel are heat treated at 1000 deg C 1050 deg C 1100 deg C 1150 deg C and 1200 deg C for 15 min and water quenched. There is an appreciable change in the morphology of all the heat treated samples and the ultrasonic velocity is dependent on both ferrite and austenite ratio and the grain size.

  15. Clean-room robot implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comeau, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    A robot has been incorporated in a clean room operation in which vacuum tube parts are cleaned just prior to final assembly with a 60 lb/in 2 blast of argon gas. The robot is programmed to pick up the parts, manipulate/rotate them as necessary in the jet pattern and deposit them in a tray precleaned by the robot. A carefully studied implementation plan was followed in the procurement, installation, modification and programming of the robot facility. An unusual configuration of one tube part required a unique gripper design. A study indicated that the tube parts processed by the robot are 12% cleaner than those manually cleaned by an experienced operator

  16. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  17. Cleaning and dewatering fine coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Eraydin, Mert K.; Freeland, Chad

    2017-10-17

    Fine coal is cleaned of its mineral matter impurities and dewatered by mixing the aqueous slurry containing both with a hydrophobic liquid, subjecting the mixture to a phase separation. The resulting hydrophobic liquid phase contains coal particles free of surface moisture and droplets of water stabilized by coal particles, while the aqueous phase contains the mineral matter. By separating the entrained water droplets from the coal particles mechanically, a clean coal product of substantially reduced mineral matter and moisture contents is obtained. The spent hydrophobic liquid is separated from the clean coal product and recycled. The process can also be used to separate one type of hydrophilic particles from another by selectively hydrophobizing one.

  18. Intensification of abamectin pesticide degradation using the combination of ultrasonic cavitation and visible-light driven photocatalytic process: Synergistic effect and optimization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosleh, Soleiman; Rahimi, Mahmood Reza

    2017-03-01

    Degradation of abamectin pesticide was carried out using visible light driven Cu 2 (OH)PO 4 -HKUST-1 MOF photocatalyst through the sonophotocatalytic technique. Cu 2 (OH)PO 4 -HKUST-1 MOF as a visible-light driven photocatalyst, was synthesized and characterized by XRD, SEM, EDS and DRS. The direct bang gaps of HKUST-1 MOF and Cu 2 (OH)PO 4 -HKUST-1 MOF were estimated about 2.63 and 2.59eV, respectively, which reveals that these photocatalysts can be activated under blue light illumination. All sonophotodegradation experiments were performed using a continuous flow-loop reactor. The central composite design (CCD) methodology was applied for modeling, optimization and investigation of influence of operational parameters, i.e. irradiation time, pH, solution flow rate, oxygen flow rate, initial concentration and photocatalyst dosage on the sonophotocatalytic degradation of abamectin. The maximum degradation efficiency of 99.93% was found at optimal values as 20min, 4, 90mL/min, 0.2mL/min, 30mg/L and 0.4g/L, for irradiation time, pH, solution flow rate, oxygen flow rate, initial concentration and photocatalyst dosage, respectively. Evaluation of the synergism in the combination of ultrasonic and photocatalysis lead to a synergistic index of 2.19, which reveals that coupling of ultrasonic and photocatalysis has a greater efficiency than the sum of individual procedures for degradation of abamectin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Pulsed ultrasonic stir welding system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An ultrasonic stir welding system includes a welding head assembly having a plate and a rod passing through the plate. The rod is rotatable about a longitudinal axis thereof. During a welding operation, ultrasonic pulses are applied to the rod as it rotates about its longitudinal axis. The ultrasonic pulses are applied in such a way that they propagate parallel to the longitudinal axis of the rod.

  20. Clean recovery of antioxidant compounds from plant foods, by-products and algae assisted by ultrasounds processing. Modeling approaches to optimize processing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roselló-Soto, Elena; Galanakis, Charis M.; Brnčić, Mladen

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound treatment is an alternative affordable, effective and reproducible method for the improved recovery of bioactive compounds from various processing streams. The objective of this review is to discuss the impact of ultrasound-assisted extraction on the recovery of polyphenols, carotenoid...