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Sample records for ultrahigh-precision g-factor measurements

  1. Development of an experiment for ultrahigh-precision g-factor measurements in a Penning-trap setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso Otamendi, J.

    2007-07-13

    This thesis is concerned with the design and construction of an experimental setup aiming to perform ultrahigh-precision g-factor measurements on a bound electron in highly-charged ions. The g-factor of a particle is a dimensionless constant which determines the strength of its interaction with a magnetic field. In the case of an electron bound to a highly-charged ion, it serves as one of the most stringent tests of bound-state quantum electrodynamics (BS-QED). The measurement is based on a triple-Penning-trap system and the continuous Stern-Gerlach effect. The first part of the thesis is devoted to the current knowledge on magnetic moments and motivates the techniques and experimental setup used during the work described. As a major challenge to overcome, the charge breeding of the ions is dealt with in detail, along with the solution found, based on a field-emission-point array. The tools included allow for the measurement of ionization cross-sections by electron impact. The last part of the thesis is dedicated to the design and operation of the triple-Penning-trap setup and the detection schemes implemented. At present, all the experimental setup for the production of highly-charged ions and the corresponding g-factor measurement is completely finalized, including the control system needed for the first measurement stages, so the ion-creation and charge-breeding processes will be the next steps to be taken. (orig.)

  2. Development of an experiment for ultrahigh-precision g-factor measurements in a Penning-trap setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Otamendi, J.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the design and construction of an experimental setup aiming to perform ultrahigh-precision g-factor measurements on a bound electron in highly-charged ions. The g-factor of a particle is a dimensionless constant which determines the strength of its interaction with a magnetic field. In the case of an electron bound to a highly-charged ion, it serves as one of the most stringent tests of bound-state quantum electrodynamics (BS-QED). The measurement is based on a triple-Penning-trap system and the continuous Stern-Gerlach effect. The first part of the thesis is devoted to the current knowledge on magnetic moments and motivates the techniques and experimental setup used during the work described. As a major challenge to overcome, the charge breeding of the ions is dealt with in detail, along with the solution found, based on a field-emission-point array. The tools included allow for the measurement of ionization cross-sections by electron impact. The last part of the thesis is dedicated to the design and operation of the triple-Penning-trap setup and the detection schemes implemented. At present, all the experimental setup for the production of highly-charged ions and the corresponding g-factor measurement is completely finalized, including the control system needed for the first measurement stages, so the ion-creation and charge-breeding processes will be the next steps to be taken. (orig.)

  3. Ultra-High Precision Half-Life Measurement for the Superallowed &+circ; Emitter ^26Al^m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, P.; Demand, G.; Garrett, P. E.; Leach, K. G.; Phillips, A. A.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Svensson, C. E.; Triambak, S.; Grinyer, G. F.; Leslie, J. R.; Andreoiu, C.; Cross, D.; Austin, R. A. E.; Ball, G. C.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Djongolov, M.; Ettenauer, S.; Hackman, G.; Pearson, C. J.; Williams, S. J.

    2009-10-01

    The calculated nuclear structure dependent correction for ^26Al^m (δC-δNS= 0.305(27)% [1]) is smaller by nearly a factor of two than the other twelve precision superallowed cases, making it an ideal case to pursue a reduction in the experimental errors contributing to the Ft value. An ultra-high precision half-life measurement for the superallowed &+circ; emitter ^26Al^m has been made at the Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC) facility at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada. A beam of ˜10^5 ^26Al^m/s was delivered in October 2007 and its decay was observed using a 4π continuous gas flow proportional counter as part of an ongoing experimental program in superallowed Fermi β decay studies. With a statistical precision of ˜0.008%, the present work represents the single most precise measurement of any superallowed half-life to date. [4pt] [1] I.S. Towner and J.C. Hardy, Phys. Rev. C 79, 055502 (2009).

  4. Ultrahigh precision nonlinear reflectivity measurement system for saturable absorber mirrors with self-referenced fluence characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsila, Lasse; Härkönen, Antti; Hyyti, Janne; Guina, Mircea; Steinmeyer, Günter

    2014-08-01

    Measurement of nonlinear optical reflectivity of saturable absorber devices is discussed. A setup is described that enables absolute accuracy of reflectivity measurements better than 0.3%. A repeatability within 0.02% is shown for saturable absorbers with few-percent modulation depth. The setup incorporates an in situ knife-edge characterization of beam diameters, making absolute reflectivity estimations and determination of saturation fluences significantly more reliable. Additionally, several measures are discussed to substantially improve the reliability of the reflectivity measurements. At its core, the scheme exploits the limits of state-of-the-art digital lock-in technology but also greatly benefits from a fiber-based master-oscillator power-amplifier source, the use of an integrating sphere, and simultaneous comparison with a linear reflectivity standard.

  5. Profile measurement of a bent neutron mirror using an ultrahigh precision non-contact measurement system with an auto focus laser probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, S; Guo, J; Yamagata, Y; Yamada, N L; Torikai, N; Takeda, S; Furusaka, M

    2016-01-01

    A bent neutron mirror has been considered as one of the best solutions for focusing neutron beams from the viewpoint of cost-benefit performance. Although the form deviation of the bent profile is expected because of the large spot size, it is difficult to measure due to its geometric limitation. Here, we propose a non-contact measurement system using an auto focus (AF) laser probe on an ultrahigh precision machine tool to precisely evaluate the form deviation of the bent mirror. The AF laser probe is composed of a diode laser, a position sensitive sensor, a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera and a microscope objective lens which is actuated by an electromagnetic motor with 1 nm resolution for position sensing and control. The sensor enables a non-contact profile measurement of a high precision surface without any surface damage in contrast with contact-type ultrahigh precision coordinate measurement machines with ruby styli. In the on-machine measurement system, a personal computer simultaneously acquires a displacement signal from the AF laser probe and 3-axis positional coordinates of the ultrahigh machine tool branched between the linear laser scales and the numerical controller. The acquisition rate of the 4-axis positional data in 1 nm resolution is more than 10 Hz and the simultaneity between the axes is negligible. The profile of a neutron bent mirror was measured from a transparent side using the developed system, and the result proves that the form deviation of the mirror enlarged the the spot size of focused neuron beam. (paper)

  6. Lifetime and g-factor measurements in 44Sc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, A.; Chavallier, J.; Gross, J.L.; Haas, B.; Schulz, N.; Styczen, J.; Toulemonde, M.

    1975-01-01

    The lifetimes of the 235 keV, 2 - state and 350 keV, 4 + state in 44 Sc have been measured via the 44 Ca(p, n) 44 Sc reaction with a pulsed proton beam. The time integral perturbed angular distribution technique with an external field was used to measure the precession angles of the 2 - and 4 + states populated by the 30 Si( 16 O, pnγ) 44 Sc reaction. The following values for the mean-lives and g-factors were obtained: π(2 - ) = 8.83(33) ns, g(2 - ) = 0.30(13) and π(4 + ) = 4.52(27)ns, g(4 + ) = 0.90(12). The results for the 2 - state support a rotational description of the negative parity states in 44 Sc. The magnetic moment of the 4 + state is compared to shell model predictions. (orig.) [de

  7. Pushing the limits of excited-state g-factor measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuchbery, Andrew E.; McCormick, Brendan P.; Gray, Timothy J.; Coombes, Ben J.

    2018-05-01

    Current developments in excited-state g-factor measurements are discussed with an emphasis on cases where the experimental methodology is being extended into new regimes. The transient-field technique, the recoil in vacuum method, and moment measurements with LaBr3 detectors are discussed.

  8. Lifetime and g-factor measurements of excited states using Coulomb excitation and alpha transfer reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guevara, Z. E., E-mail: zjguevaram@unal.edu.co; Torres, D. A., E-mail: datorresg@unal.edu.co [Physics Department, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá D.C. (Colombia)

    2016-07-07

    In this contribution the challenges in the use of a setup to simultaneously measure lifetimes and g-factor values will be presented. The simultaneous use of the transient field technique and the Doppler Shift Attenuation Method, to measure magnetic moments and lifetimes respectively, allows to obtain a complete characterization of the currents of nucleons and the deformation in excited states close to the ground state. The technique is at the moment limited to Coulomb excitation and alpha-transfer reactions, what opens an interesting perspective to consider this type of experiments with radioactive beams. The use of deep-inelastic and fusion-evaporation reactions will be discussed. An example of a setup that makes use of a beam of {sup 106}Cd to study excited states of {sup 110}Sn and the beam nuclei itself will be presented.

  9. A direct measurement of g-factors in II-VI and III-V core-shell nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradkin, L.; Langof, L.; Lifshitz, E.; Gaponik, N.; Rogach, A.; Eychmüller, A.; Weller, H.; Micic, O. I.; Nozik, A. J.

    2005-02-01

    This study describes a direct measurement of spectroscopic g-factors of photo-generated carriers in InP/ZnS and HgTe/Hg xCd 1-xTe(S) core-shell nanocrystals. The g-factor of trapped electrons and their spin-lattice versus radiative relaxation ratio ( T1/ τ) were measured by the use of continuous-wave and time-resolved optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) spectroscopy. The g-factors of excitons and donor-hole pairs were derived by the use of field-induced circular-polarized photoluminescence (CP-PL) spectroscopy. The combined information enabled to determine the g-factors of the individual band-edge electrons and holes. The results suggested an increase of the g-factor of the exciton and conduction electron with a decrease of the nanocrystal size.

  10. g-factor of the KeV 5/2- state in 197Pt measured by the TDPAC method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, R.N.; Soares, J.C.

    1981-09-01

    The g-factor of the 53 keV state in 197 Pt has been measured using the gamma-gamma time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) method in an external magnetic field of 25.1 kG. The measurements were performed by utilizing the 346-53 keV gamma cascade in the decay of 95.4 min 197 Pt. The value of the g-factor was obtained to be + 0.335 +- 0.010. This result is compared with the g-factors of similar states in 195 Pt and sup(197,199)Hg. (Author) [pt

  11. Measurement of g factors of excited states in radioactive beams by the transient field technique: 132Te

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benczer-Koller, N.; Kumbartzki, G.; Gurdal, G; Gross, Carl J; Krieger, B; Hatarik, Robert; O'Malley, Patrick; Pain, S. D.; Segen, L.; Baktash, Cyrus; Bingham, C. R.; Danchev, M.; Grzywacz, R.; Mazzocchi, C.

    2008-01-01

    The g factor of the 2 1 + state in 52 132 Te, E(2 1 + ) = 0.9739 MeV, r = 2.6 ps, was measured by the transient field technique applied to a radioactive beam. The development of an experimental approach necessary for work in radioactive beam environments is described. The result g = 0.28(15) agrees with the previous measurement by the recoil-in-vacuum technique, but here the sign of the g factor is measured as well

  12. Application of the high-spin isomer beams to the secondary fusion reaction and the measurement of g-factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, H.; Asahi, K.; Kishida, T.; Ueno, H.; Sato, W.; Yoshimi, A.; Kobayashi, Y.; Kameda, D.; Miyoshi, H.; Fukuchi, T.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Sasaki, T.; Kibe, M.; Hokoiwa, N.; Odahara, A.; Cederwall, B.; Lagergren, K.; Podolyak, Zs.; Ishihara, M.; Gono, Y.

    2004-01-01

    A technique for providing high-spin isomers as probes of the fusion reaction and the measurement of g-factor has been worked out at RIKEN. In the study of the fusion reaction 12 C( 145m Sm,xn) 157-x Er, the γ rays emitted from the fusion-evaporation residue 154 Er have been successfully observed. The nuclear g-factor of the T 1/2 = 28 ns high-spin isomer in 149 Dy has been measured with the γ-ray TDPAD method

  13. The g-factor of the first excited 4+ state in 20Ne from transient field precession measurement in gadolinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandon, P.N.; Speidel, K.H.; Mertens, V.; Trolenberg, W.; Kumbartzki, G.S.; Ayres de Campos, N.; Goldberg, M.B.; Gerber, J.; Toulemonde, M.

    1981-01-01

    The g-factor of the 4 + state in 20 Ne at 4.25 MeV has been obtained to be g = +0.08(20) from transient field precession measurements in Gd in agreement with the present authors' earlier reported value of g =- 0.10(19) (1980). The significant reduction in the value of the g- factor, g = -0.01(14), relative to that of the 2 + state (g = + 0.54(4))(1975) is in complete disagreement with theory. In addition the life time of the 4 + state has been measured to be tau = 95(13) fs. (author)

  14. Physics of Eclipsing Binaries: Modelling in the new era of ultra-high precision photometry

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlovski, K.; Bloemen, S.; Degroote, P.; Conroy, K.; Hambleton, Kelly; Giammarco, J.M.; Pablo, H.; Prša, A.; Tkachenko, A.; Torres, G.

    2013-01-01

    Recent ultra-high precision observations of eclipsing binaries, especially data acquired by the Kepler satellite, have made accurate light curve modelling increasingly challenging but also more rewarding. In this contribution, we discuss low-amplitude signals in light curves that can now be used to derive physical information about eclipsing binaries but that were unaccessible before the Kepler era. A notable example is the detection of Doppler beaming, which leads to an increase in flux when...

  15. CHEOPS: a space telescope for ultra-high precision photometry of exoplanet transits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cessa, V.; Beck, T.; Benz, W.; Broeg, C.; Ehrenreich, D.; Fortier, A.; Peter, G.; Magrin, D.; Pagano, I.; Plesseria, J.-Y.; Steller, M.; Szoke, J.; Thomas, N.; Ragazzoni, R.; Wildi, F.

    2017-11-01

    The CHaracterising ExOPlanet Satellite (CHEOPS) is a joint ESA-Switzerland space mission dedicated to search for exoplanet transits by means of ultra-high precision photometry whose launch readiness is expected end 2017. The CHEOPS instrument will be the first space telescope dedicated to search for transits on bright stars already known to host planets. By being able to point at nearly any location on the sky, it will provide the unique capability of determining accurate radii for a subset of those planets for which the mass has already been estimated from ground-based spectroscopic surveys. CHEOPS will also provide precision radii for new planets discovered by the next generation ground-based transits surveys (Neptune-size and smaller). The main science goals of the CHEOPS mission will be to study the structure of exoplanets with radii typically ranging from 1 to 6 Earth radii orbiting bright stars. With an accurate knowledge of masses and radii for an unprecedented sample of planets, CHEOPS will set new constraints on the structure and hence on the formation and evolution of planets in this mass range. To reach its goals CHEOPS will measure photometric signals with a precision of 20 ppm in 6 hours of integration time for a 9th magnitude star. This corresponds to a signal to noise of 5 for a transit of an Earth-sized planet orbiting a solar-sized star (0.9 solar radii). This precision will be achieved by using a single frame-transfer backside illuminated CCD detector cool down at 233K and stabilized within {10 mK . The CHEOPS optical design is based on a Ritchey-Chretien style telescope with 300 mm effective aperture diameter, which provides a defocussed image of the target star while minimizing straylight using a dedicated field stop and baffle system. As CHEOPS will be in a LEO orbit, straylight suppression is a key point to allow the observation of faint stars. The telescope will be the only payload on a spacecraft platform providing pointing stability of

  16. Concept of modular flexure-based mechanisms for ultra-high precision robot design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Richard

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new concept of modular flexure-based mechanisms to design industrial ultra-high precision robots, which aims at significantly reducing both the complexity of their design and their development time. This modular concept can be considered as a robotic Lego, where a finite number of building bricks is used to quickly build a high-precision robot. The core of the concept is the transformation of a 3-D design problem into several 2-D ones, which are simpler and well-mastered. This paper will first briefly present the theoretical bases of this methodology and the requirements of both types of building bricks: the active and the passive bricks. The section dedicated to the design of the active bricks will detail the current research directions, mainly the maximisation of the strokes and the development of an actuation sub-brick. As for the passive bricks, some examples will be presented, and a discussion regarding the establishment of a mechanical solution catalogue will conclude the section. Last, this modular concept will be illustrated with a practical example, consisting in the design of a 5-degree of freedom ultra-high precision robot.

  17. Direct observation of a single proton in a Penning trap. Towards a direct measurement of the proton g-factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreim, Susanne Waltraud

    2009-08-25

    This PhD thesis presents experiments performed on a single proton stored in a Penning trap. The eigenmotion of an isolated, free proton could be detected electronically via a coupling to a resonance circuit. This represents a non-destructive measurement, i.e. the particle is not lost during the measurement. The free cyclotron frequency emerging from the measured eigenfrequencies is one of the two frequencies required for the determination of the magnetic moment. This enables a direct determination of the g-factor contrary to already existing works. Design, developing, and commissioning of the experimental setup have been accomplished within the scope of this work leading to a measuring accuracy of 10{sup -7}. The technical challenges for the determination of the second frequency (the Larmor frequency) arising from the smallness of the magnetic moment were mastered. Since the spin state required for this measurement is an internal degree of freedom, it can only be accessed through a coupling of the magnetic moment to the eigenmotion. A novel, hybrid penning trap is presented in this work, which imprints the spin information onto the eigenmotion, thus, realizing a quantum jump spectrometer. Therewith, the frequency shift of the two spin states resulting from the magnetic coupling reaches for the first time an electronically detectable range. (orig.)

  18. Direct observation of a single proton in a Penning trap. Towards a direct measurement of the proton g-factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreim, Susanne Waltraud

    2009-01-01

    This PhD thesis presents experiments performed on a single proton stored in a Penning trap. The eigenmotion of an isolated, free proton could be detected electronically via a coupling to a resonance circuit. This represents a non-destructive measurement, i.e. the particle is not lost during the measurement. The free cyclotron frequency emerging from the measured eigenfrequencies is one of the two frequencies required for the determination of the magnetic moment. This enables a direct determination of the g-factor contrary to already existing works. Design, developing, and commissioning of the experimental setup have been accomplished within the scope of this work leading to a measuring accuracy of 10 -7 . The technical challenges for the determination of the second frequency (the Larmor frequency) arising from the smallness of the magnetic moment were mastered. Since the spin state required for this measurement is an internal degree of freedom, it can only be accessed through a coupling of the magnetic moment to the eigenmotion. A novel, hybrid penning trap is presented in this work, which imprints the spin information onto the eigenmotion, thus, realizing a quantum jump spectrometer. Therewith, the frequency shift of the two spin states resulting from the magnetic coupling reaches for the first time an electronically detectable range. (orig.)

  19. Time-differential observation of α-particle perturbed angular distribution: g-factor measurements for 217Acsup(gs) and 217Acsup(m)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, K.H.; Decman, D.J.; Grawe, H.; Kluge, H.

    1981-01-01

    The g-factor measurements of the ground state and an isomeric level in 217 Ac using the DPAD method with α-decay are described in this work. The results of γ-ray g-factor measurements for the isomer and a tentative decay scheme produced by α-γ and γ-γ coincidence experiments are also presented. An analysis of the α-particle angular distributions suggests that nuclear deformation affects the observed anisotropy. (orig.)

  20. Time-differential observation of alpha -particle perturbed angular distribution; g-factor measurements for /sup 217/Ac/sup gs/ and /sup 217/Ac/sup m/

    CERN Document Server

    Maier, K H; Grawe, H; Kluge, H

    1981-01-01

    The g-factor measurements of the ground state and an isomeric level in /sup 217/Ac using the DPAD method with alpha -decay are described. The results of gamma -ray g-factor measurements for the isomer and a tentative decay scheme produced by alpha - gamma and gamma - gamma coincidence experiments are also presented. An analysis of the alpha - particle angular distributions suggests that nuclear deformation affects the observed anisotropy. (13 refs).

  1. Measurement of the g factor of the 3.1232 MeV 19/2- level in 43Sc by perturbed angular distribution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shengyun; Li Anli; Gou Zhenghui; Zheng Shengnan; Li Guangsheng

    1994-01-01

    The g-factor hence the magnetic moment, of the isomeric state 43 Sc(19/2 - , 3.1232 MeV) has been measured by the time differential perturbed angular distribution method. The measured values are g = 0.3279(19) and μ/μN = 3.108(18) nm

  2. Transient field measurements of g-factors in 194,196,198Pt; g(21+) systematics in transitional W, Os, Pt nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuchbery, A.E.; Lampard, G.J.; Bolotin, H.H.

    1991-01-01

    Transient field processions were measured simultaneously for levels in the nuclei 182,184,186 W and 194,196,198 Pt as their ions traversed polarized Gd hosts. These results allow a critical evaluation of conflicting g-factor values reported previously for the even Pt isotopes. Mass variations of g(2 1 + ) in the even W, Os, Pt nuclei are examined using the proton-neutron interacting boson model (IBM-2). The measured g-factors depart from the simplest IBM-2 description perhaps due to subshell effects and/or small contributions from non-collective configurations which cause the neutron-boson g-factor to vary with mass. 46 refs., 5 tabs., 7 figs

  3. High-precision measurement of the electron spin g factor of trapped atomic nitrogen in the endohedral fullerene N@C60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, J. J.; Can, T. V.; Eckardt, M.; Harneit, W.; Griffin, R. G.; Corzilius, B.

    2018-05-01

    The electronic g factor carries highly useful information about the electronic structure of a paramagnetic species, such as spin-orbit coupling and dia- or paramagnetic (de-)shielding due to local fields of surrounding electron pairs. However, in many cases, a near "spin-only" case is observed, in particular for light elements, necessitating accurate and precise measurement of the g factors. Such measurement is typically impeded by a "chicken and egg situation": internal or external reference standards are used for relative comparison of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) Larmor frequencies. However, the g factor of the standard itself usually is subject to a significant uncertainty which directly limits the precision and/or accuracy of the sought after sample g factor. Here, we apply an EPR reference-free approach for determining the g factor of atomic nitrogen trapped within the endohedral fullerene C60:N@C60 in its polycrystalline state by measuring the 1H NMR resonance frequency of dispersing toluene at room temperature. We found a value of g = 2.00204 (4) with a finally reached relative precision of ∼20 ppm. This accurate measurement allows us to directly compare the electronic properties of N@C60 to those found in atomic nitrogen in the gas phase or trapped in other solid matrices at liquid helium temperature. We conclude that spin-orbit coupling in N@C60 at room temperature is very similar in magnitude and of same sign as found in other inert solid matrices and that interactions between the quartet spin system and the C60 molecular orbitals are thus negligible.

  4. Magnetism of an Excited Self-Conjugate Nucleus: Precise Measurement of the g Factor of the 21+ State in Mg24

    CERN Document Server

    Kusoglu, A; Georgiev, G; Brown, B  A; Goasduff, A; Atanasova, L; Balabanski, D  L; Bostan, M; Danchev, M; Detistov, P; Gladnishki, K  A; Ljungvall, J; Matea, I; Radeck, D; Sotty, C; Stefan, I; Verney, D; Yordanov, D  T

    2015-01-01

    A precise measurement of the g factor of the first-excited state in the self-conjugate (N=Z) nucleus Mg24 is performed by a new time-differential recoil-in-vacuum method based on the hyperfine field of hydrogenlike ions. Theory predicts that the g factors of such states, in which protons and neutrons occupy the same orbits, should depart from 0.5 by a few percent due to configuration mixing and meson-exchange effects. The experimental result, g=0.538±0.013, is in excellent agreement with recent shell-model calculations and shows a departure from 0.5 by almost 3 standard deviations, thus achieving, for the first time, the precision and accuracy needed to test theory. Proof of the new method opens the way for wide applications including measurements of the magnetism of excited states of exotic nuclei produced as radioactive beams.

  5. A tewlve detector coincidence spectrometer for on-line and off-line measurements of nuclear g-factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfter, I.; Bodenstedt, E.; Hamer, B.; Hoff, J. van den; Knichel, W.; Muenning, H.; Piel, S.; Schueth, J.; Sajok, R.

    1992-01-01

    A twelve detector γ-γ directional correlation setup is described which has been designed and constructed for high precision on-line and off-line IPAC measurements. A ring of twelve BaF 2 detectors which may be replaced by Ge detectors is arranged around a superconducting magnet providing a maximum magnetic field of 4.5 T. In on-line experiments the magnetic field has the direction of the beam which passes through a central bore of the magnet. The data acquisition system stores directly the Esub(γ 1 )-Esub(γ 2 ) coincidence matrices for all 66 two-detector combinations in two 8 Mbyte RAMs, one for each of the two field directions. This allows a very fast data evaluation with a small on-line computer. The apparatus got into operation one-and-a-halve years ago and revealed excellent properties. (orig.)

  6. g-Factor measurements of first 2+ states of heavy Te isotopes based on nuclear spin de orientation for nuclei recoiling in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danchev, M.; Pavan, J.; Stone, N.J.; Stuchbery, A.E.; Baktash, C.; Beene, J.; Benczer-Koller, N.; Bingham, C.R.; Dupak, J.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gross, C.J.; Kumbartzki, G.; Radford, D.C.; Stone, J.R.; Timlin, C.L.; Yu, C.-H.; Zamfir, N.V.

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate that the recoil-in-vacuum (RIV) method can be used to determine the g-factor of the Coulumb excited first 2 + state of 132 Te. This was possible owing to advantages provided by CLARION (ORNL clover multi-detector array) and the segmented charged particle detector HyBall. Calibratory experiments were performed with 122,126,13 Te and a g-factor of 132 Te was deduced g = (+)0.35(5)

  7. A new Time-of-Flight mass measurement project for exotic nuclei and ultra-high precision detector development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Bao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The time-of-flight (TOF mass spectrometry (MS, a high-resolution magnetic spectrometer equipped with a fast particle tracking system, is well recognized by its ability in weighing the most exotic nuclei. Currently such TOF-MS can achieve a mass resolution power of about 2×10−4. We show that the mass resolution can be further improved by one order of magnitude with augmented timing and position detectors. We report the progress in developing ultra-fast detectors to be used in TOF-MS.

  8. Measurements of the spin-orbit interaction and Landé g factor in a pure-phase InAs nanowire double quantum dot in the Pauli spin-blockade regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiyin; Huang, Shaoyun, E-mail: hqxu@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: syhuang@pku.edu.cn; Lei, Zijin [Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices and Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Pan, Dong; Zhao, Jianhua [State Key Laboratory of Superlattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Xu, H. Q., E-mail: hqxu@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: syhuang@pku.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices and Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Division of Solid State Physics, Lund University, Box 118, S-22100 Lund (Sweden)

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate direct measurements of the spin-orbit interaction and Landé g factors in a semiconductor nanowire double quantum dot. The device is made from a single-crystal pure-phase InAs nanowire on top of an array of finger gates on a Si/SiO{sub 2} substrate and the measurements are performed in the Pauli spin-blockade regime. It is found that the double quantum dot exhibits a large singlet-triplet energy splitting of Δ{sub ST} ∼ 2.3 meV, a strong spin-orbit interaction of Δ{sub SO} ∼ 140 μeV, and a large and strongly level-dependent Landé g factor of ∼12.5. These results imply that single-crystal pure-phase InAs nanowires are desired semiconductor nanostructures for applications in quantum information technologies.

  9. Fundamental performance determining factors of the ultrahigh-precision space-borne optical metrology system for the LISA Pathfinder mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechenblaikner, Gerald; Flatscher, Reinhold

    2013-05-01

    The LISA Pathfinder mission to space employs an optical metrology system (OMS) at its core to measure the distance and attitude between two freely floating test-masses to picometer and nanorad accuracy, respectively, within the measurement band of [1 mHz, 30 mHz]. The OMS is based upon an ultra-stable optical bench with 4 heterodyne interferometers from which interference signals are read-out and processed by a digital phase-meter. Laser frequency noise, power fluctuations and optical path-length variations are suppressed to uncritical levels by dedicated control loops so that the measurement performance approaches the sensor limit imposed by the phasemeter. The system design is such that low frequency common mode noise which affects the read-out phase of all four interferometers is generally well suppressed by subtraction of a reference phase from the other interferometer signals. However, high frequency noise directly affects measurement performance and its common mode rejection depends strongly on the relative signal phases. We discuss how the data from recent test campaigns point towards high frequency phase noise as a likely performance limiting factor which explains some important performance features.

  10. g-factor of the ground state of 73Se

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Katsuhiko; Ohya, Susumu; Mutsuro, Naoshi

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance on oriented 73 Se in an iron host has been observed at about 7mK. From resonance-shift measurement, the magnetic hyperfine-splitting frequency μ M , g-factor and magnetic hyperfine field were derived as μ M =102.61(3)MH z , |g(9/2 + )|=0.188(16) and B HF ( 73 SeFe)=716(81)kG. The experimental values of the g-factors of the g 9/2 neutron states, in the neighborhood of the neutron number 40, are compared with the theoretical values based on the core-polarization model. (author)

  11. Effects of hydrostatic pressure on the electron g|| factor and g-factor anisotropy in GaAs-(Ga, Al)As quantum wells under magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porras-Montenegro, N; Duque, C A; Oliveira, L E; Reyes-Gomez, E

    2008-01-01

    The hydrostatic-pressure effects on the electron-effective Lande g || factor and g-factor anisotropy in semiconductor GaAs-Ga 1-x Al x As quantum wells under magnetic fields are studied. The g || factor is computed by considering the non-parabolicity and anisotropy of the conduction band through the Ogg-McCombe effective Hamiltonian, and numerical results are displayed as functions of the applied hydrostatic pressure, magnetic fields, and quantum-well widths. Good agreement between theoretical results and experimental measurements in GaAs-(Ga, Al)As quantum wells for the electron g factor and g-factor anisotropy at low values of the applied magnetic field and in the absence of hydrostatic pressure is obtained. Present results open up new possibilities for manipulating the electron-effective g factor in semiconductor heterostructures.

  12. Probing the N = 14 subshell closure: g factor of the 26Mg (21+) state

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, B. P.; Stuchbery, A. E.; Kibédi, T.; Lane, G. J.; Reed, M. W.; Eriksen, T. K.; Hota, S. S.; Lee, B. Q.; Palalani, N.

    2018-04-01

    The first-excited state g factor of 26Mg has been measured relative to the g factor of the 24Mg (21+) state using the high-velocity transient-field technique, giving g = + 0.86 ± 0.10. This new measurement is in strong disagreement with the currently adopted value, but in agreement with the sd-shell model using the USDB interaction. The newly measured g factor, along with E (21+) and B (E 2) systematics, signal the closure of the νd5/2 subshell at N = 14. The possibility that precise g-factor measurements may indicate the onset of neutron pf admixtures in first-excited state even-even magnesium isotopes below 32Mg is discussed and the importance of precise excited-state g-factor measurements on sd shell nuclei with N ≠ Z to test shell-model wavefunctions is noted.

  13. In beam test of a transient magnetic field based g factor setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, Mansi; Mandal, S.; Siwal, Davinder; Kumar, Chandan; Goyal, Savi; Garg, Ritika; Khushboo; Rohilla, Aman; Kumar, Naveen; Kumar, S.; Chamoli, S.; Mandal, A.; Kumar, Rajesh; Barua, P.; Kumar, R.; Gujjar, R.; Bala, Indu; Singh, R.P.; Muralithar, S.; Rehman, Anisur; Roy, Minakshi

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic moments or g factors provide substantial information on the microscopic structure of the nuclei. Since the g factor is very different in sign and magnitude for neutrons and protons, therefore they can serve as a good indicator as to which nucleon contributes most to the wave function of that state. There are different techniques available for measuring g factors depending on the lifetime of the state involved. Using transient field technique we can measure the g factor of nuclei having a lifetime of the order of several hundreds of femto seconds. To measure the g factor of such low lifetime states we have designed and fabricated a setup based on the Transient Field Technique Measurement

  14. Nuclear-polarization correction to the bound-electron g factor in heavy hydrogenlike ions

    OpenAIRE

    Nefiodov, A. V.; Plunien, G.; Soff, G.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of nuclear polarization on the bound-electron $g$ factor in heavy hydrogenlike ions is investigated. Numerical calculations are performed for the K- and L-shell electrons taking into account the dominant virtual nuclear excitations. This determines the ultimate limit for tests of QED utilizing measurements of the bound-electron $g$ factor in highly charged ions.

  15. Nuclear-polarization correction to the bound-electron g factor in heavy hydrogenlike ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefiodov, A V; Plunien, G; Soff, G

    2002-08-19

    The influence of nuclear polarization on the bound-electron g factor in heavy hydrogenlike ions is investigated. Numerical calculations are performed for the K- and L-shell electrons taking into account the dominant virtual nuclear excitations. This determines the ultimate limit for tests of QED utilizing measurements of the bound-electron g factor in highly charged ions.

  16. A superconducting magnet for g-factor studies at JOSEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgs, J.W.; Chatzipetros, J.; Lawin, H.; Menzen, G.; Sistemich, K.; Wolf, A.

    1987-01-01

    A superconducting magnet has been constructed for the determination of excited-state g-factors of fission products through perturbed angular correlation measurements at the separator JOSEF. The system contains a channel at room temperature which allows the rapid transport of radioactive samples with a tape device into the centre of the magnet. Thus experiments on the γ radiation from short-lived β/sup -/ decaying nuclei are possible. The coils of the magnet have been built by Oxford Instruments Ltd while the cryostat has been designed and manufactured in the central workshop of the Kernforschungsanlage Julich. The maximum field strength is 6.54 T at a current of 59 A and the homogeneity is better than one percent for an area with a radius of 0.5 cm at the centre of the magnet. The liquid helium consumption is only 0.3 1/h. The magnet has been used for the determination of the g-factors of the 2/sub 1//sup +/ states in /sup 102/Mo and /sup 104/Mo

  17. g-Factors in the (sdg) boson model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, I.

    1986-07-01

    The role of the g-boson in producing first-order variations in the g-factors of states in rotational nuclei is investigated. It is shown that the g-boson is unlikely to contribute directly to any observed g-factor variations in the ground-state band.

  18. G-factors in the (sdg) boson model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, I.

    1986-07-24

    The role of the g-boson in producing first-order variations in the g-factors of states in rotational nuclei is investigated. It is shown that the g-boson is unlikely to contribute directly to any observed g-factor variations in the ground-state band.

  19. The g-factor of the K=25 isomer in sup 182 Os

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alderson, A.; Fallon, P.; Goldring, G.; Roberts, J.; Sharpey-Schafer, J.; Twin P. (Liverpool Univ. (UK). Oliver Lodge Lab.); Bentley, M.; Bruce, A. (Science and Engineering Research Council, Daresbury (UK). Daresbury Lab.); Broude, C. (Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovoth (Israel). Dept. of Nuclear Physics); Dafni, E. (Rochester Univ., NY (USA). Nuclear Structure Research Lab.); Hass, M. (Argonne National Lab. (USA)); Nyberg, J.; Sletten, G. (Niels Bohr Inst., Roskilde (Denmark))

    1989-09-28

    The g-factor of the K=I=25 isomer in {sup 182}Os has been measured by observing the angular precession of the decay {gamma}-ray angular distribution in an external magnetic field as g=+0.425(8). This result is compared with predictions based on experimental g-factors of single-particle Nilsson orbitals in this mass region. (orig.).

  20. The g-factor of the bound electron in hydrogenic ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quint, Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    We report on the measurement of the g-factor of the electron bound in an atomic ion. A single hydrogenic ion ( 12 C 5+ ) is stored in a Penning trap. The electronic spin state of the ion is monitored via the continuous Stern-Gerlach effect in a quantum non-demolition measurement. Quantum jumps between the two spin states (spin up and spin down) are induced by a microwave field at the spin precession frequency of the bound electron. The g-factor of the bound electron is obtained by varying the microwave frequency and counting the number of spin flips for a fixed time interval. Applications of the continuous Stern-Gerlach effect include high-accuracy tests of bound-state quantum electrodynamics (QED), the measurement of the atomic mass of the electron, the determination of the fine structure constant α, and the measurement of nuclear g-factors

  1. Electrically Tunable g Factors in Quantum Dot Molecular Spin States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, M. F.; Scheibner, M.; Ponomarev, I. V.; Stinaff, E. A.; Bracker, A. S.; Korenev, V. L.; Reinecke, T. L.; Gammon, D.

    2006-11-01

    We present a magnetophotoluminescence study of individual vertically stacked InAs/GaAs quantum dot pairs separated by thin tunnel barriers. As an applied electric field tunes the relative energies of the two dots, we observe a strong resonant increase or decrease in the g factors of different spin states that have molecular wave functions distributed over both quantum dots. We propose a phenomenological model for the change in g factor based on resonant changes in the amplitude of the wave function in the barrier due to the formation of bonding and antibonding orbitals.

  2. g-factor of the 9/2+ isomeric state in 65Ni from transfer reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, G.; Matea, I.; Balabanski, D.L.; Daugas, J.M.; Meot, V.; Morel, P.; Oliveira Santos, F. de; Lewitowicz, M.; Franchoo, S.; Ibrahim, F.; Le Blanc, F.; Sorlin, O.; Stanoiu, M.; Verney, D.; Lo Bianco, G.; Saltarelli, A.; Lukyanov, S.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.E.; Neyens, G.; Vermeulen, N.; Yordanov, D.; Tarisien, M.

    2006-01-01

    We report a measurement of the g-factor of the I π =9/2 + , t 1/2 =22 ns isomer in 65 Ni. The state of interest was populated and spin-oriented using a single-neutron transfer on an enriched 64 Ni target. The value, which was obtained, g(9/2 + , 65m Ni)=-0.296(3) is well in agreement with the g-factors of the other 9/2 + states in the region and with large-basis shell model calculations. The known g-factor of the 9/2 + isomer in 63 Ni was used in order to verify the strength of the hyperfine field of Ni(Ni) at room temperature. (orig.)

  3. Studies of the g factors and the superhyperfine parameters for Ni3+ ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the g factors and the hyperfine structure constants of central metal ions. How- .... and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements have ver- ified that the ..... [9] S R Zhang, H G Liu, G Q Qu and W C Zheng, Phys. Stat.

  4. The G-factor in molecular nitrogen, oxygen and air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mentzoni, M.

    1987-06-01

    The electron energy relaxation in molecular nitrogen and oxygen is found experimentally using the methods of microwave cross-modulation, transport coeffisients, and flowing afterglows. On the basis of these results the excess electron energy loss factor, the G-factor, has been computed for nitrogen, oxygen and air as a function of electron temperature for various published effective electron collision frequencies. It is shown that the lack of a definitive theory for rotational excitation of O 2 , and very conflicting experimental results for this gas, yield a G-factor in air with a large degree of uncertainty. In spite of this uncertanty it is shown that the formula G = 18.9xT -1.5 , with T being the electron temperature in deg. K, agrees within 15% of the results obtained from swarm data and microwave cross-modulation

  5. Systematics of first 2+ state g factors around mass 80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertzimekis, T.J.; Stuchbery, A.E.; Benczer-Koller, N.; Taylor, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    The systematics of the first 2 + state g factors in the mass 80 region are investigated in terms of an IBM-II analysis, a pairing-corrected geometrical model, and a shell-model approach. Subshell closure effects at N=38 and overall trends were examined using IBM-II. A large-space shell-model calculation was successful in describing the behavior for N=48 and N=50 nuclei, where single-particle features are prominent. A schematic truncated-space calculation was applied to the lighter isotopes. The variations of the effective boson g factors are discussed in connection with the role of F-spin breaking, and comparisons are made between the mass 80 and mass 180 regions

  6. g-Factors of magnetic-rotational states in {sup 85}Zr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Daqing; Zheng Yongnan; Zhou Dongmei; Zuo Yi; Fan Ping; Liu Meng; Wu Xiaoguang; Zhu Lihua; Li Guangsheng; Xu Guoji; Fan Qiewen; Zhang Xizhen; Zhu Shengyun, E-mail: zhusy@ciae.ac.cn [China Institute of Atomic Energy (China)

    2007-11-15

    The g-factors of the magnetic-rotational intra-band states in {sup 85}Zr have been measured by the TMF-IMPAD method for the first time. The configuration {pi} (g{sub 9/2}){sub 8}{sup 2} x {nu} ( f{sub 7/2}) is established for the band. The measured g-factors are in good agreement with those calculated by the semi-classical model. The decrease of both g-factors and shears angles along the band shows that the total angular momentum is generated by the sheras effect of a step-by-step alignment of the valence protons and neutrons. The rapid neutron alignment leads to a decrease of g-factors along the band. The shears angle of the band-head is great than 90{sup o}, which implies that the spin-dependent interaction as well as the residul interaction might be involved in the shears mechanism in {sup 85}Zr.

  7. g-factor calculations from the generalized seniority approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Bhoomika; Jain, Ashok Kumar

    2018-05-01

    The generalized seniority approach proposed by us to understand the B(E1)/B(E2)/B(E3) properties of semi-magic nuclei has been widely successful in the explanation of the same and has led to an expansion in the scope of seniority isomers. In the present paper, we apply the generalized seniority scheme to understand the behavior of g-factors in semi-magic nuclei. We find that the magnetic moment and the gfactors do show a particle number independent behavior as expected and the understanding is consistent with the explanation of transition probabilities.

  8. Dispersion of the electron g factor anisotropy in InAs/InP self-assembled quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belykh, V. V., E-mail: vasilii.belykh@tu-dortmund.de [Experimentelle Physik 2, Technische Universität Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany); P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Yakovlev, D. R.; Bayer, M. [Experimentelle Physik 2, Technische Universität Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany); Ioffe Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Schindler, J. J. [Experimentelle Physik 2, Technische Universität Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany); Bree, J. van; Koenraad, P. M.; Silov, A. Yu., E-mail: A.Y.Silov@tue.nl [Department of Applied Physics and COBRA Research Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Averkiev, N. S. [Ioffe Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-28

    The electron g factor in an ensemble of InAs/InP quantum dots with emission wavelengths around 1.4 μm is measured using time-resolved pump-probe Faraday rotation spectroscopy in different magnetic field orientations. Thereby, we can extend recent single dot photoluminescence measurements significantly towards lower optical transition energies through 0.86 eV. This allows us to obtain detailed insight into the dispersion of the recently discovered g factor anisotropy in these infrared emitting quantum dots. We find with decreasing transition energy over a range of 50 meV a strong enhancement of the g factor difference between magnetic field normal and along the dot growth axis, namely, from 1 to 1.7. We argue that the g factor cannot be solely determined by the confinement energy, but the dot asymmetry underlying this anisotropy therefore has to increase with increasing dot size.

  9. G-factor for the K-6, Jsup(π) = 6+ isomer in 178Hf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faestermann, T.; Haeusser, O.; Ward, D.; Andrews, H.R.; Alexander, T.K.; Horn, D.

    1978-01-01

    High-K isomers are prevalent towards the end of the rare-earth region of deformed nuclei where the valence particles fill high Ω orbitals. Very little is known about the g-factors for these isomers mainly because in the half-life range encountered, 50 ns-50 μs, quadrupole and paramagnetic relaxation effects can destroy the nuclear alignment very rapidly. In 178 Hf a Isub(π)K=6 + 6 isomer with a half-life of 78 ns has recently been found. It decays predominantly to the ground band (K=O) 6 + and 4 + levels with gamma rays of 921.8 keV and 1247.3 keV respectively. The authors have measured the g-factor of this isomer with the method of perturbed angular distributions. (Auth.)

  10. CI+MBPT calculations of Ar I energies, g factors, and transition line strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savukov, I. M.

    2018-03-01

    Excited states of noble gas atoms present certain challenges to atomic theory for several reasons: first, relativistic effects are important and LS coupling is not optimal; second, energy intervals can be quite small, leading to strong mixing of states; third, many-body perturbation theory for hole states does not converge well. Previously, some attempts were made to solve this problem, using for example the all-order coupled-cluster approach and particle-hole configuration-interaction many-body perturbation theory (CI-MBPT) with modified denominators. However, while these approaches were promising, the accuracy was still limited. In this paper, we calculate Ar I energies, g factors, and transition amplitudes using ab initio CI-MBPT with eight valence electrons to avoid the problem of slow convergence of MBPT due to strong interaction between 3p and 3s states. We also included in CI many dominant states obtained by double excitations of the ground state configuration. Thus perturbation corrections were needed only for 1s, 2s, 2p core electrons non-included in valence-valence CI, which are quite small. We found that energy, g factors, and electric dipole matrix elements are in reasonable agreement with experiments. It is noteworthy that the theory agreed well with accurately measured g factors. Experimental oscillator strengths have large uncertainty, so in some cases we made a comparison with average values.

  11. g-factor of the 7- isomeric state in 128Ba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, J.; Bansal, N.; Bhati, A.K.; Sharma, V.R.; Kumar, H.; Kumar, R.; Bhowmik, R.K.; Kumar, V.

    2014-01-01

    The time differential perturbed angular distribution technique (TDPAD) has been used to measure the g-factor of the 2396 keV, 7 - isomeric state in 128 Ba. The measured value of g(7 - ) is 1.21 ± 0.01. This value is about 80% higher than the value for the expected configuration of the state and also different in sign. This clearly shows that the configuration of the state does not correspond to the pure two quasineutron configuration that was assigned to it through previous results of in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy

  12. g-factor of the 7/2+ isomeric bandhead in 175 W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu-Bujor, M.; Iordachescu, A.; Marginean, N.; Brandolini, F.; Pavan, P.; Lenzi, S.M.; De Poli, M.; Gadea, A.; Martinez, T.; Medina, N.H.; Ribas, R.V.; Podolyak, Zs.

    2000-01-01

    Considerable effort is presently devoted to the investigation of the high-K isomers of multi-quasiparticle intrinsic structure systematically found in the deformed nuclei with Z=72-76 of the A ≅ 180 mass region. The configuration assignments for these isomers are based on measured static moments, as well as, on experimental branching ratios in the associated bands, from which (g K - g R )/Q 0 are derived. In the multi-quasiparticle state g-factor calculations, values taken from neighbouring odd-mass nuclei are generally used for the proton and neutron deformed single-particle g-factors. A good knowledge of these quantities is required for reliable high-K state g-factor evaluations. In the present work we report on the g-factor measurement for the low-lying J π = 7/2 + isomer bandhead in 175 W described by the neutron 7/2 + [633] Nilsson orbital. The isomeric state was populated in the 164 Dy( 16 O,5n) 175 W reaction using the 83 MeV pulsed 16 O beam (pulse width 1.5 ns, repetition period 800 ns) delivered by the LNL XTU-Tandem. The target consisted of 0.5 mg/cm 2 metallic 164 Dy on thick Pb backing which stopped the recoiling 175 W nuclei and the 16 O beam. The target was placed in an external magnetic field of 27.2(6) kG whose direction was periodically reversed. The 7/2 + isomeric state with T 1/2 = 216(6) ns and E x =234.9 keV de-excites by a dipole transition of 130.9 keV to the 5/2 - level. The angular distribution of the 130.9 keV gamma-ray has been observed time-differentially by using two planar Ge detectors placed at ± 135 angle with respect to the beam direction. The background corrected time spectra I(t,θ) obtained for the magnetic field direction up and down were used to form the experimental modulation ratio R exp (t)=[I↑(t,θ) - I ↓ (t,θ)]/[I↑(t,θ) + I ↓ (t,θ)]. The modulation pattern revealed Larmor oscillations with an amplitude strongly attenuated in time. The observed damping of the anisotropy has been attributed to quadrupole

  13. In-plane g factor of low-density two-dimensional holes in a Ge quantum well.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Tzu-Ming [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Harris, Charles Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Huang, Shih-Hsien [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan); Chuang, Yen [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan); Li, Jiun-Yun [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan); Liu, CheeWee [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan)

    2017-12-01

    High-mobility two-dimensional (2D) holes residing in a Ge quantum well are a new electronic system with potentials in quantum computing and spintronics. Since for any electronic material, the effective mass and the g factor are two fundamental material parameters that determine the material response to electric and magnetic fields, measuring these two parameters in this material system is thus an important task that needs to be completed urgently. Because of the quantum confinement in the crystal growth direction (z), the biaxial strain of epitaxial Ge on SiGe, and the valance band nature, both the effective mass and the g factor can show very strong anisotropy. In particular, the in-plane g factor (gip) can be vanishingly small while the perpendicular g factor (gz) can be much larger than 2. Here we report the measurement of gip at very low hole densities using in-plane magneto-resistance measurement performed at the NHMFL.

  14. g-factor of the Kπ = 14+ isomer in 176 W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu-Bujor, M.; Iordachescu, A.; Marginean, N.; Brandolini, F.; Pavan, P.; Lenzi, S.M.; De Poli, M.; Gadea, A.; Martinez, T.; Medina, N.H.; Ribas, R.V.; Podolyak, Zs.

    2000-01-01

    to the beam direction, respectively, were used. The target was placed in an external magnetic field of 27.2(6) kG whose direction was periodically reversed. The time spectra of the 240, 351, 440 and 558 keV transitions in the ground-state band of 176 W, which collects most of the isomer decay were analysed according to the TDPAD procedures. The modulation ratio corresponding to the total accumulated statistics is presented together with the least-squares fit. For the g-factor of the 14 + isomeric state in 176 W the value g = +0.475(15) has been determined. The sensitivity of the magnetic moment to the nature of the involved quasiparticles allowed a definite configuration assignment for the 14 + isomer. We estimated the g-factors for all four-quasiparticle configurations with J π = K π = 14 + by using g Ω values deduced from experimental g-factors of the deformed single-particle states in odd-mass neighbouring nuclei. The π7/2 + [404] x π 9/2 - [514] x ν7/2 + [633] x ν5/2 - [512] pure configuration has been assigned to the 14 + isomeric state based on the excellent agreement between the calculated g-factor g cal = +0.47 and the measured value. We note that this assignment is in accordance with Woods-Saxon calculations for multi-quasiparticle states in 176 W. Information concerning the isomer shape will be obtained from a static quadrupole moment measurement which is in progress. (authors)

  15. Purification and some properties of G-factor from the silk gland of silkworm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taira, H; Ejiri, S I; Shimura, K [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1972-12-01

    Purification of G-factor from the silk gland of silkworms and some of its properties have been studied in comparison with the G-factor from E. coli and rat liver transferase II. In the experiment, GTP-..gamma..-/sup 32/P was prepared from GDP and /sup 32/Pi by photophosphorylation with spinach chloroplasts, and purified by Dowex-1 chromatography. The purified G-factor was homogeneous on disc gel electrophoresis. Molecular weight of 80,000 was estimated from a calibrated Sephadex G-200 column. The purified G-factor exhibited uncoupled ribosome-dependent GTPase activity, and was inhibited by fusidic acid, SH inhibitor, and diphtheria toxin plus NAD. The G-factor from E. coli and that from the silk gland were not interchangeable in GTPase reaction.

  16. Purification and some properties of G-factor from the silk gland of silkworm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taira, Hideharu; Ejiri, Shin-ichiro; Shimura, Kensuke

    1972-01-01

    Purification of G-factor from the silk gland of silkworms and some of its properties have been studied in comparison with the G-factor from E. coli and rat liver transferase II. In the experiment, GTP-γ- 32 P was prepared from GDP and 32 Pi by photophosphorylation with spinach chloroplasts, and purified by Dowex-1 chromatography. The purified G-factor was homogeneous on disc gel electrophoresis. Molecular weight of 80,000 was estimated from a calibrated Sephadex G-200 column. The purified G-factor exhibited uncoupled ribosome-dependent GTPase activity, and was inhibited by fusidic acid, SH inhibitor, and diphtheria toxin plus NAD. The G-factor from E. coli and that from the silk gland were not interchangeable in GTPase reaction. (Yamanoto, Y.)

  17. The g-factor and the electric quadrupole moment of the 7/2+ isomer in 125Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alber, D.; Bertschat, H.H.; Grawe, H.; Haas, H.; Mahnke, H.E.; Menningen, M.; Semmler, W.; Sielemann, R.; Zeitz, W.D.; Freie Univ. Berlin

    1983-01-01

    The time differential perturbed angular distribution method (PAD) was used to measure the g-factor and the electric quadrupole interaction in a Cd single crystal for the tsub(1/2)=140 ns, Isup(π)=7/2 + isomer in 125 Xe. The g-factor is g=+0.264(10) and the quadrupole coupling constant e 2 Qq/h=122.1(6) MHz at 552 K. The lifetime of the Isup(π)=11/2 + state was measured to be tau=11.3(1.1) ps by the recoil distance method (RDM). From an analysis of the spectroscopic data using the triaxial-rotor-pulse-particle (TRPP) model the quadrupole moment of the 7/2 + isomer is deduced to be Q=1.40(15) b yielding an electric field gradient (efg) eq=3.6(4)x10 17 V/cm 2 for Xe Cd. (orig.)

  18. The g-factor and the electric quadrupole moment of the 7/2+ isomer in 125Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alber, D.; Bertschat, H.H.; Grawe, H.; Haas, H.; Mahnke, H.E.; Menningen, M.; Semmler, W.; Sielemann, R.; Zeitz, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    The time differential perturbed angular distribution method (PAD) was used to measure the g-factor and the electric quadrupole interaction in a Cd single crystal for the tsub(1/2) = 140 ns, Isup(π) = 7/2 + isomer in 125 Xe. The g-factor is g = +0.264(10) and the quadrupole coupling constant e 2 Qq/h = 122.1(6) MHz at 552 K. The lifetime of the Isup(π) = 11/2 + state was measured to be tau = 11.3(1.1) ps by the recoil distance method (RDM). From an analysis of the spectroscopic data using the triaxial-rotor-plus-particle (TRPP) model the quadrupole moment of the 7/2 + isomer is deduced to be Q = 1.40(15) b yielding an electric field gradient (efg) eq = 3.6(4)x10 17 V/cm 2 for Xe Cd. (orig.)

  19. Stark shift and g-factor tuning in nanowires with Rashba effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alhaddad, Iman; Habanjar, Khulud [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Beirut Arab University, P.O. Box 11, 5020 Riad El Solh, 11072809 - Beirut (Lebanon); Sakr, M.R., E-mail: msakr@alexu.edu.eg [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Beirut Arab University, P.O. Box 11, 5020 Riad El Solh, 11072809 - Beirut (Lebanon); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Moharram Bek, Alexandria 21511 (Egypt)

    2015-10-15

    We report on the Stark shift of the energy subbands and the possibility of tuning the g-factor of electrons in nanowires subjected to external magnetic field. The electric field is applied along the direction of quantum confinement. Our analysis is based on numerical and perturbation calculations in the weak Rashba regime. For in-plane magnetic fields, the Stark shift is rigid and depends on the square of the electric field. Such rigid shift results in a field independent g-factor. Perpendicular magnetic fields induce a similar Stark shift accompanied by a lateral displacement of the energy spectra that is linear in the electric field. In this case, the g-factor shows square dependence on weak electric fields that varies with the subband index. However, in strong electric fields, the g-factor becomes subband independent and varies linearly with the field. - Highlights: • Energy spectra of electrons in nanowires are calculated in the weak Rashba regime. • For in-plane magnetic field, the Stark shift is rigid and the g-factor cannot be tuned. • Perpendicular magnetic fields add lateral displacement to the Stark shift. • The g-factor can be tuned by external electric field in this case. • The tuning of the g-factor is linear and unique for all subbands at high fields.

  20. Stark shift and g-factor tuning in nanowires with Rashba effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alhaddad, Iman; Habanjar, Khulud; Sakr, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the Stark shift of the energy subbands and the possibility of tuning the g-factor of electrons in nanowires subjected to external magnetic field. The electric field is applied along the direction of quantum confinement. Our analysis is based on numerical and perturbation calculations in the weak Rashba regime. For in-plane magnetic fields, the Stark shift is rigid and depends on the square of the electric field. Such rigid shift results in a field independent g-factor. Perpendicular magnetic fields induce a similar Stark shift accompanied by a lateral displacement of the energy spectra that is linear in the electric field. In this case, the g-factor shows square dependence on weak electric fields that varies with the subband index. However, in strong electric fields, the g-factor becomes subband independent and varies linearly with the field. - Highlights: • Energy spectra of electrons in nanowires are calculated in the weak Rashba regime. • For in-plane magnetic field, the Stark shift is rigid and the g-factor cannot be tuned. • Perpendicular magnetic fields add lateral displacement to the Stark shift. • The g-factor can be tuned by external electric field in this case. • The tuning of the g-factor is linear and unique for all subbands at high fields

  1. Finite-lattice-spacing corrections to masses and g factors on a lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roskies, R.; Wu, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    We suggest an alternative method for extracting masses and g factors from lattice calculations. Our method takes account of more of the infrared and ultraviolet lattice effects. It leads to more reasonable results in simulations of QED on a lattice

  2. Effect of the anisotropy of the electron g-factor in spin polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M. Idrish, E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.au [Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh); Gray, E. MacA. [Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    Spin polarization in the presence of an external magnetic field and electric bias in quantum confined semiconductor structures has been studied by time- and polarization-resolved spectrometry. From measurements with angular variations of the magnetic field from the Voigt configuration (VC) it was found that both the frequency ({Omega}) and decay rate ({beta}) of the oscillatory component of the polarization increase with variation of the angle from the VC. Their dependences are discussed based on the electron spin dephasing related to the spread of the electron g-factor (g{sub e}) (i.e. unequal values of the longitudinal (g{sub e||}) and transverse (g{sub e}-perpendicular) components of g{sub e}) and the exchange interaction between the electron and hole spins. It is demonstrated that the increase in {Omega} upon deviation of the magnetic field from the VC relates to the anisotropy of g{sub e} (g{sub e||} and g{sub e}-perpendicular) resulting from the quantum confinement effect. However, the angular dependence on {beta} is related to the residual exchange interaction between the electron spin and rapidly relaxing hole spin.

  3. g-factors in deformed nuclei: Annual report, September 1, 1983-August 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krane, K.S.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes work performed for the period September 1, 1983 to August 31, 1984 under the contract DE-AT06-83ER40109, /open quotes/g-Factors in Deformed Nuclei./close quotes/ The literature survey has been completed and the first stage of the raw data analysis has been accomplished. A preliminary data summary prepared for publication is attached

  4. Systematic errors in the determination of the spectroscopic g-factor in broadband ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy: A proposed solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Fuentes, C.; Dumas, R. K.; García, C.

    2018-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study of the influence of small offsets of the magnetic field (δH) on the measurement accuracy of the spectroscopic g-factor (g) and saturation magnetization (Ms) obtained by broadband ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements is presented. The random nature of δH generates systematic and opposite sign deviations of the values of g and Ms with respect to their true values. A δH on the order of a few Oe leads to a ˜10% error of g and Ms for a typical range of frequencies employed in broadband FMR experiments. We propose a simple experimental methodology to significantly minimize the effect of δH on the fitted values of g and Ms, eliminating their apparent dependence in the range of frequencies employed. Our method was successfully tested using broadband FMR measurements on a 5 nm thick Ni80Fe20 film for frequencies ranging between 3 and 17 GHz.

  5. Thermal neutron capture cross sections resonance integrals and g-factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mughabghab, S.F.

    2003-02-01

    The thermal radiative capture cross sections and resonance integrals of elements and isotopes with atomic numbers from 1 to 83 (as well as 232 Th and 238 U) have been re-evaluated by taking into consideration all known pertinent data published since 1979. This work has been undertaken as part of an IAEA co-ordinated research project on 'Prompt capture gamma-ray activation analysis'. Westcott g-factors for radiative capture cross sections at a temperature of 300K were computed by utilizing the INTER code and ENDF-B/VI (Release 8) library files. The temperature dependence of the Westcott g-factor is illustrated for 113 Cd, 124 Xe and 157 Gd at temperatures of 150, 294 and 400K. Comparisons have also been made of the newly evaluated capture cross sections of 6 Li, 7 Li, 12 C and 207 Pb with those determined by the k 0 method. (author)

  6. Lifetime and g-factor of a new isomer in 130 La

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu-Bujor, M.; Iordachescu, A.; Brandolini, F.; Pavan, P.; Rossi Alvarez, C.; De Poli, M.; Medina, N.H.; Rao, M.N.

    1999-01-01

    Pulsed-beam measurements have been recently performed at the XTU-tandem of the National Laboratory of Legnaro with the aim to investigate short-lived isomeric states in neutron-deficient nuclei of the A∼130 region. Isotopically enriched tin targets were irradiated with a 70 MeV 16 O beam (pulse width of 3 ns at a repetition rate of 800 ns) and the γ-ray angular distributions perturbed in magnetic or electric interaction were observed time-differentially. Static electromagnetic moments were thus determined for several known short-lived isomers in 129,130,131 Ce and 129 Ba. In these experiments a new isomeric decay has been also identified and its properties are reported in the present work. The isomer has been observed on a target containing 116 Sn (87%), 117 Sn (8%) and 118 Sn (5%). The tin target of 0.6 mg/cm 2 thickness evaporated on a Pb foil was placed in an external magnetic field of 32 kG whose orientation was periodically reversed. Two planar HPGe detectors positioned at ±135 deg. with respect to the beam direction were used for the γ-ray detection. In the delayed spectra a γ-ray of 105.2 keV has been observed and a half-life of 32(5)ns has been determined for it. The experimental and calculated R(t) modulation ratios of the 105.2 keV γ-ray in the external magnetic field are given. From the derived Larmor frequency a value g = + 0.48(3) has been determined for the isomeric state g-factor. A dipole character has been established for the delayed 105.2 keV γ-transition based on the determined negative A 2 coefficient. The new isomer was tentatively assigned to the odd-odd 130 La populated in the 116,117,118 Sn ( 16 O,pxn) reaction. In this nucleus a state at (150.3 + x) keV de-excited by a 105.2 keV transition is known and it was identified with the isomer. Further experiments are in progress for the definite assignment and the elucidation of the isomer configuration. (authors)

  7. INTER, ENDF/B Thermal Cross-Sections, Resonance Integrals, G-Factors Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunford, Charles L.

    2007-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: INTER calculates thermal cross sections, g-factors, resonance integrals, fission spectrum averaged cross sections and 14.0 MeV (or other energy) cross sections for major reactions in an ENDF-6 or ENDF-5 format data file. Version 7.01 (Jan 2005): set success flag after return from beginning. 2 - Method of solution: INTER performs integrations by using the trapezoidal rule

  8. The relation between the photonuclear E1 sum rule and the effective orbital g-factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentz, Wolfgang E-mail: bentz@keyaki.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp; Arima, Akito

    2004-05-17

    The connection between the enhancement factor (1+{kappa}) of the photonuclear E1 sum rule and the orbital angular momentum g-factor (g{sub l}) of a bound nucleon is investigated in the framework of the Landau-Migdal theory for isospin asymmetric nuclear matter. Special emphasis is put on the role of gauge invariance to establish the {kappa}-g{sub l} relation. By identifying the physical processes which are taken into account in {kappa} and g{sub l}, the validity and limitations of this relation will be discussed. The connections to the collective excitations and to nuclear Compton scattering are also shown.

  9. Effective Mass and g Factor of Four-Flux-Quanta Composite Fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, A.S.; Tsui, D.C.; Stormer, H.L.; Pfeiffer, L.N.; Baldwin, K.W.; West, K.W.; Stormer, H.L.; Tsui, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the properties of composite fermions with four attached flux quanta through tilted-field experiments near Landau level filling factor ν=3/4 . The observed collapse of fractional quantum Hall gaps in the vicinity of this quarter-filling state can be comprehensively understood in terms of composite fermions with mass and spin. Remarkably, the effective mass and g factor of these four-flux-quanta composite fermions around ν=3/4 are very similar to those of two-flux-quanta composite fermions around ν=3/2 . copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  10. G-factors and diamagnetic coefficients of electrons, holes, and excitons in InAs/InP quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, van J.; Silov, A.Yu.; Koenraad, P.M.; Flatté, M.E.; Pryor, C.E.

    2012-01-01

    The electron, hole, and exciton g factors and diamagnetic coefficients have been calculated using envelope-function theory for cylindrical InAs/InP quantum dots in the presence of a magnetic field parallel to the dot symmetry axis. A clear connection is established between the electron g factor and

  11. Unified calculations of the optical band positions and EPR g factors for NaCrS2 crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, Yang; Zheng, Wen-Chen; Zhang, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Six optical band positions and EPR g factors g || , g ⊥ for the trigonal Cr 3+ octahedral clusters in NaCrS 2 crystal are calculated together through the complete diagonalization (of energy matrix) method based on the two-spin–orbit-parameter model, where besides the contribution due to the spin–orbit parameter of central d n ion in the conventional crystal-field theory, the contribution due to the spin–orbit parameter of ligand ion via the covalence effect is also considered. In the calculations, the crystal-field parameters B kl are obtained from the superposition model with the structural data of Cr 3+ octahedral clusters in NaCrS 2 crystal measured exactly by the X-ray diffraction method. The calculated optical and EPR spectral data are in a reasonable agreement with the observed values. So, the reliability of the superposition model in the studies of crystal-field parameters for d n ions in crystals is confirmed, and the complete diagonalization (of energy matrix) method based on the two-spin–orbit-model is effective in the unified calculations of optical and EPR spectral data for d n ions in crystals. - Highlights: • Six optical band positions and g factors g || , g ⊥ of NaCrS 2 are calculated together. • Calculation is using the complete diagonalization (of energy matrix) method. • The diagonalization method is based on the two-spin–orbit-parameter model. • Reliability of superposition model in the studies of CF parameters is confirmed

  12. Comprehensive quantification of signal-to-noise ratio and g-factor for image-based and k-space-based parallel imaging reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Philip M; Grant, Aaron K; Madhuranthakam, Ananth J; Lattanzi, Riccardo; Sodickson, Daniel K; McKenzie, Charles A

    2008-10-01

    Parallel imaging reconstructions result in spatially varying noise amplification characterized by the g-factor, precluding conventional measurements of noise from the final image. A simple Monte Carlo based method is proposed for all linear image reconstruction algorithms, which allows measurement of signal-to-noise ratio and g-factor and is demonstrated for SENSE and GRAPPA reconstructions for accelerated acquisitions that have not previously been amenable to such assessment. Only a simple "prescan" measurement of noise amplitude and correlation in the phased-array receiver, and a single accelerated image acquisition are required, allowing robust assessment of signal-to-noise ratio and g-factor. The "pseudo multiple replica" method has been rigorously validated in phantoms and in vivo, showing excellent agreement with true multiple replica and analytical methods. This method is universally applicable to the parallel imaging reconstruction techniques used in clinical applications and will allow pixel-by-pixel image noise measurements for all parallel imaging strategies, allowing quantitative comparison between arbitrary k-space trajectories, image reconstruction, or noise conditioning techniques. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Electrical Control of g-Factor in a Few-Hole Silicon Nanowire MOSFET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, B; Maurand, R; Barraud, S; Vinet, M; Jehl, X; Sanquer, M; Renard, J; De Franceschi, S

    2016-01-13

    Hole spins in silicon represent a promising yet barely explored direction for solid-state quantum computation, possibly combining long spin coherence, resulting from a reduced hyperfine interaction, and fast electrically driven qubit manipulation. Here we show that a silicon-nanowire field-effect transistor based on state-of-the-art silicon-on-insulator technology can be operated as a few-hole quantum dot. A detailed magnetotransport study of the first accessible hole reveals a g-factor with unexpectedly strong anisotropy and gate dependence. We infer that these two characteristics could enable an electrically driven g-tensor-modulation spin resonance with Rabi frequencies exceeding several hundred mega-Hertz.

  14. Relativistic and QED corrections to the g factor of Li-like ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazov, D.A.; Shabaev, V.M.; Volotka, A.V.; Tupitsyn, I.I.; Yerokhin, V.A.; Plunien, G.; Soff, G.

    2004-01-01

    Calculations of various corrections to the g factor of Li-like ions are presented, which result in a significant improvement of the theoretical accuracy in the region Z=6-92. The configuration-interaction Dirac-Fock method is employed for the evaluation of the interelectronic-interaction correction of order 1/Z 2 and higher. This correction is combined with the 1/Z interelectronic-interaction term derived within a rigorous QED approach. The one-electron QED correction of first order in α is obtained by employing our recent results for the self-energy term and by evaluating the vacuum-polarization contribution. The screening of QED corrections is taken into account to the leading orders in αZ and 1/Z

  15. The G-factor as a tool to learn more about bone structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerath, E

    1999-07-01

    In normal life on earth, the locomotor system is exposed to two types of stimulation: gravity (passive stimulation) and motion (active stimulation). Both permanently combine, and the interactions between locomotion and gravity induce an overall recruitment which is repeated daily and maintains the bone tissue structure within the range of constraints to which it is adapted. This range is one of the basic hypotheses underlying the mechanical concepts of bone structure control, and it has been considered as logical to assume that weightlessness of spaceflight should produce bone loss since astronauts are outside of the terrestrial gravitational field of forces, no longer relying on muscular work to change positions or move. But, thirty years after the first changes in phospho-calcium metabolism were observed in astronauts after spaceflight, current knowledge does not provide a full understanding of this pathogeny, and prove the G-factor is now considered as an essential component of the experimental tools available to study bone physiology. The study of the physiology of bone tissue usually consists in the investigation of its two fundamental roles, i.e. reservoir of inorganic elements (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium) and mechanical support for soft tissues. Together with the combined action of muscles, tendons, and ligaments, this support permits motion and locomotion. These two functions rely on a sophisticated bone tissue architecture, and on the adaptability of this structure, with modeling and remodeling processes, themselves associated with the coupled activity of specialized bone cell populations.

  16. Exchange enhancement of the electron g-factor in a two-dimensional semimetal in HgTe quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovkun, L. S., E-mail: bovkun@ipmras.ru; Krishtopenko, S. S.; Zholudev, M. S.; Ikonnikov, A. V.; Spirin, K. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation); Dvoretsky, S. A.; Mikhailov, N. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Teppe, F.; Knap, W. [Universite Montpellier II, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb (L2C), UMR CNRS 5221, GIS-TERALAB (France); Gavrilenko, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The exchange enhancement of the electron g-factor in perpendicular magnetic fields to 12 T in HgTe/CdHgTe quantum wells 20 nm wide with a semimetal band structure is studied. The electron effective mass and g-factor at the Fermi level are determined by analyzing the temperature dependence of the amplitude of Shubnikov–de Haas oscillation in weak fields and near odd Landau-level filling factors ν ≤ 9. The experimental values are compared with theoretical calculations performed in the one-electron approximation using the eight-band kp Hamiltonian. The found dependence of g-factor enhancement on the electron concentration is explained by changes in the contributions of hole- and electron-like states to exchange corrections to the Landau-level energies in the conduction band.

  17. Δg: The new aromaticity index based on g-factor calculation applied for polycyclic benzene rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucun, Fatih; Tokatlı, Ahmet

    2015-02-01

    In this work, the aromaticity of polycyclic benzene rings was evaluated by the calculation of g-factor for a hydrogen placed perpendicularly at geometrical center of related ring plane at a distance of 1.2 Å. The results have compared with the other commonly used aromatic indices, such as HOMA, NICSs, PDI, FLU, MCI, CTED and, generally been found to be in agreement with them. So, it was proposed that the calculation of the average g-factor as Δg could be applied to study the aromaticity of polycyclic benzene rings without any restriction in the number of benzene rings as a new magnetic-based aromaticity index.

  18. Energy levels and electron g-factor of spherical quantum dots with Rashba spin-orbit interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaseghi, B.; Rezaei, G.; Malian, M.

    2011-01-01

    We have studied simultaneous effects of Rashba spin-orbit interaction and external electric and magnetic fields on the subbands energy levels and electron g-factor of spherical quantum dots. It is shown that energy eigenvalues strongly depend on the combined effects of external electric and magnetic fields and spin-orbit interaction strength. The more the spin-orbit interaction strength increase, the more the energy eigenvalues increase. Also, we found that the electron g-factor sensitively differers from the bulk value due to the confinement effects. Furthermore, external fields and spin-orbit interaction have a great influence on this important quantity. -- Highlights: → Energy of spherical quantum dots depends on the spin-orbit interaction strength in external electric and magnetic fields. → Spin-orbit interaction shifts the energy levels. → Electron g-factor differs from the bulk value in spherical quantum dots due to the confinement effects. → Electron g-factor strongly depends on the spin-orbit interaction strength in external electric and magnetic fields.

  19. A relation between the rotational g-factor and the electric dipole moment of a diatomic molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    1998-01-01

    The relation between the rotational g-factor and the electric dipole moment of a diatomic molecule is investigated. An explicit expression for the irreducible nonadiabatic contribution in terms of excited electronic states is derived. The importance of this expression for the analysis of vibration...

  20. Toward lifetime and g factor measurements of short-lived states in the vicinity of 208Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralet, D; Georgiev, G; Stuchbery, A E; Clément, E; Lemasson, A; Michelagnoli, C; Rejmund, M; France, G de; Atanasova, L; Balabanski, D L; Bocchi, G; Carroll, R; Dewald, A; Fransen, C; Müller-Gatermann, C; Dudouet, J; Fornal, B; Franchoo, S; Goasduff, A; Gadea, A

    2017-01-01

    The multi-nucleon transfer reaction mechanism was used to produce and study nuclei in the vicinity of 208 Pb. This mass region is a test case for the nuclear shell model. The mass identification of the fragments was performed with the large acceptance magnetic spectrometer VAMOS++ coupled to the AGATA γ -tracking array. This experiment aimed to determine both lifetimes and gyromagnetic ratios of excited states with the Cologne plunger device. The analysis indicates promising results with the possibility to determine several new lifetimes in this region. (paper)

  1. g factors and the interplay of collective and single-particle degrees of freedom in superdeformed mass-190 nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yang; Zhang, Jing-ye; Guidry, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Interplay of collective and single-particle degrees of freedom is a common phenomenon in strongly correlated many-body systems. Despite many successful efforts in the study of superdeformed nuclei, there is still unexplored physics that can be best understood only through the nuclear magnetic properties. We point out that study of the gyromagnetic factor (g factor) may open a unique opportunity for understanding superdeformed structure. Our calculations suggest that investigation of the g-factor dependence on spin and particle number can provide important information on single-particle structure and its interplay with collective motion in the superdeformed mass-190 nuclei. Modern experimental techniques combined with the new generation of sensitive detectors should be capable of testing our predictions

  2. Effect of the moment of inertia of an electron shell on the rotational g factor of a molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebane, T.K.

    1988-01-01

    It is noted that electron currents induced by the rotation of a molecule make a contribution not only to the magnetic moment, but also to the angular momentum of a molecule and to its moment of inertia. An improved equation for the rotational g factor of a molecule, allowing for the contribution of electrons to the moment of inertia, is given. The B 1 summation + /sub u/ excited electronic state of the hydrogen molecule is used as an example to show that the electronic contribution to the moment of inertia amounts to 0.3 to 0.5% (for H 2 and D 2 molecules, respectively) of the value of the nuclear contribution, and its consideration in calculations of g factors is obligatory

  3. Structure of Os - Pt nuclei and g factors of 186-192Os isotopes at low spins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, A.

    1987-10-01

    Employing a pairing + quadrupole model interaction, especially suitable for the Os - Pt region, the ground state structure of these nuclei is investigated following a selfconsistent Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov (HFB) approach. Effects of the inclusion of hexadecapole degrees of freedom in the Hamiltonian are also studied. All the osmium isotopes considered here come out to be prolate in shape in the ground state. 186 Pt is triaxial with γ=12 deg. and with the increasing mass number they gradually go over to the oblate shape at A=190 itself. In view of recent experimental data on g factors of osmium isotopes which show interesting variations as a function of mass number as well as spin, we have calculated these following the methods of variation after exact angular momentum projection of axial HFB wave functions and the cranked HFB theory. The observed trend of the variation of g factor at I=2 with the mass number is reproduced with very minor adjustments of the force constants of the Hamiltonian in both the approaches. However, the variation of g factor with spin, which is sensitive to the interplay between collective and the single particle degrees of freedom, can be understood only in the cranking approach. (author). 52 refs, 8 figs, 6 tabs

  4. Spin polarization of a non-magnetic high g-factor semiconductor at low magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.; Back, J.; Kim, K.H.; Kim, S.U.; Joo, S.; Rhie, K.; Hong, J.; Shin, K.; Lee, B.C.; Kim, T.

    2007-01-01

    We have studied the spin polarization of HgCdTe by measuring Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations. The magnetic field have been applied in parallel and perpendicular to the current. Relatively long spin relaxation time was observed since only spin conserved transition is allowed by selection rules. The electronic spin is completely polarized when the applied magnetic field is larger than 0.5 Tesla, which can be easily generated by micromagnets deposited on the surface of the specimen. Thus, the spin-manipulation such as spin up/down junction can be realized with this semiconductor. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Studies of the g factors of the ground 4A2 and the first excited 2E state of Cr 3+ ions in emerald

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qun; Guo, Li-Xin; Yang, Zi-Yuan; Wei, Bing

    2011-09-01

    By using complete diagonalization method, the zero-field splitting and g factors of the ground 4A2 and the first excited 2E states of Cr 3+ ions in emerald are calculated. The theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental data. The dependencies of the g factors on the crystal field parameters, including Dq, v, and v', have been studied. It is shown that, the g factors of the ground state varied with the crystal field parameters approximately in a linear way, but the g factors of the first excited state varied nonlinearly with these parameters.

  6. DFT studies for three Cu(II) coordination polymers: Geometrical and electronic structures, g factors and UV-visible spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chang-Chun; Wu, Shao-Yi; Xu, Yong-Qiang; Wu, Li-Na; Zhang, Li-Juan

    2018-05-01

    This work presents a systematic density functional theory (DFT) study for geometrical and electronic structures, g factors and UV-vis spectra of three Cu(II) coordination polymers (CPs) [Cu(XL)(NO3)2]n (1), {[Cu(XL)(4,4‧-bpy)(NO3)2]•CH3CN}n (2) and {[Cu(XL)3](NO3)2·3.5H2O}n (3) based on the ligand N,N‧-bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-7-ene-2,3,5,6-tetracarboxdiimide bi(1,2,4-triazole) (XL) with the linker triazole coordinated with copper to construct the CPs. For three CPs with distinct ligands, the optimized molecular structures with PBE0 hybrid functional and the 6-311g basis set agree well with the corresponding XRD data. Meanwhile, the electronic properties are also analyzed for all the systems. The calculated g factors are found sensitive to the (Hartree-Fock) HF character due to the significant hybridization between copper and ligand orbitals. The calculated UV-visible spectra reveal that the main electronic transitions for CP 1 contain d-d and CT transitions, while those for CPs 2 and 3 largely belong to CT ones. The present CPs seem difficult to adsorb small molecules, e.g., CP 1 with H2O and NO2 exhibit unfavorable adsorption and deformation structures near the Cu2+ site.

  7. Alignment measurements uncertainties for large assemblies using probabilistic analysis techniques

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2090816; Almond, Heather

    Big science and ambitious industrial projects continually push forward with technical requirements beyond the grasp of conventional engineering techniques. Example of those are ultra-high precision requirements in the field of celestial telescopes, particle accelerators and aerospace industry. Such extreme requirements are limited largely by the capability of the metrology used, namely, it’s uncertainty in relation to the alignment tolerance required. The current work was initiated as part of Maria Curie European research project held at CERN, Geneva aiming to answer those challenges as related to future accelerators requiring alignment of 2 m large assemblies to tolerances in the 10 µm range. The thesis has found several gaps in current knowledge limiting such capability. Among those was the lack of application of state of the art uncertainty propagation methods in alignment measurements metrology. Another major limiting factor found was the lack of uncertainty statements in the thermal errors compensatio...

  8. Consequences of Spin-Orbit Coupling at the Single Hole Level: Spin-Flip Tunneling and the Anisotropic g Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogan, A; Studenikin, S A; Korkusinski, M; Aers, G C; Gaudreau, L; Zawadzki, P; Sachrajda, A S; Tracy, L A; Reno, J L; Hargett, T W

    2017-04-21

    Hole transport experiments were performed on a gated double quantum dot device defined in a p-GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure with a single hole occupancy in each dot. The charging diagram of the device was mapped out using charge detection confirming that the single hole limit is reached. In that limit, a detailed study of the two-hole spin system was performed using high bias magnetotransport spectroscopy. In contrast to electron systems, the hole spin was found not to be conserved during interdot resonant tunneling. This allows one to fully map out the two-hole energy spectrum as a function of the magnitude and the direction of the external magnetic field. The heavy-hole g factor was extracted and shown to be strongly anisotropic, with a value of 1.45 for a perpendicular field and close to zero for an in-plane field as required for hybridizing schemes between spin and photonic quantum platforms.

  9. Optical absorption spectra and g factor of MgO: Mn2+explored by ab initio and semi empirical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreici Eftimie, E.-L.; Avram, C. N.; Brik, M. G.; Avram, N. M.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we present a methodology for calculations of the optical absorption spectra, ligand field parameters and g factor for the Mn2+ (3d5) ions doped in MgO host crystal. The proposed technique combines two methods: the ab initio multireference (MR) and the semi empirical ligand field (LF) in the framework of the exchange charge model (ECM) respectively. Both methods of calculations are applied to the [MnO6]10-cluster embedded in an extended point charge field of host matrix ligands based on Gellé-Lepetit procedure. The first step of such investigations was the full optimization of the cubic structure of perfect MgO crystal, followed by the structural optimization of the doped of MgO:Mn2+ system, using periodic density functional theory (DFT). The ab initio MR wave functions approaches, such as complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF), N-electron valence second order perturbation theory (NEVPT2) and spectroscopy oriented configuration interaction (SORCI), are used for the calculations. The scalar relativistic effects have also been taken into account through the second order Douglas-Kroll-Hess (DKH2) procedure. Ab initio ligand field theory (AILFT) allows to extract all LF parameters and spin-orbit coupling constant from such calculations. In addition, the ECM of ligand field theory (LFT) has been used for modelling theoptical absorption spectra. The perturbation theory (PT) was employed for the g factor calculation in the semi empirical LFT. The results of each of the aforementioned types of calculations are discussed and the comparisons between the results obtained and the experimental results show a reasonable agreement, which justifies this new methodology based on the simultaneous use of both methods. This study establishes fundamental principles for the further modelling of larger embedded cluster models of doped metal oxides.

  10. A g-factor metric for k-t SENSE and k-t PCA based parallel imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binter, Christian; Ramb, Rebecca; Jung, Bernd; Kozerke, Sebastian

    2016-02-01

    To propose and validate a g-factor formalism for k-t SENSE, k-t PCA and related k-t methods for assessing SNR and temporal fidelity. An analytical gxf -factor formulation in the spatiotemporal frequency domain is derived, enabling assessment of noise and depiction fidelity in both the spatial and frequency domain. Using pseudoreplica analysis of cardiac cine data the gxf -factor description is validated and example data are used to analyze the performance of k-t methods for various parameter settings. Analytical gxf -factor maps were found to agree well with pseudoreplica analysis for 3x, 5x, and 7x k-t SENSE and k-t PCA. While k-t SENSE resulted in lower average gxf values (gx (avg) ) in static regions when compared with k-t PCA, k-t PCA yielded lower gx (avg) values in dynamic regions. Temporal transfer was better preserved with k-t PCA for increasing undersampling factors. The proposed gxf -factor and temporal transfer formalism allows assessing noise performance and temporal depiction fidelity of k-t methods including k-t SENSE and k-t PCA. The framework enables quantitative comparison of different k-t methods relative to frame-by-frame parallel imaging reconstruction. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Highly Depleted Ethane and Slightly Depleted Methanol in Comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner: Application of Empirical g-Factors for CH3OH Near 50K

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSanti, Michael A.; Bonev, Boncho P.; Mumma, Michael J.; Villanueva, Geronimo L.

    2010-01-01

    We report high resolution (lambda/delta lambda approximately 24,000) observations of Comet 21 P/Giacobini-Zinner (21P) between approximately 2.85 -- 3.54 micrometers, obtained with NIRSPEC at Keck 2 on UT 2005 June 03 (R(sub h) = 1.12 AU, delta = 1.45 AU). These simultaneously sampled multiple emissions from the v7 band of C2H6 and the v2 and v3 bands of CH3OH, together with several hot bands of H2O, permitting a direct measure of parent volatile abundances in 21P. Our spectra reveal highly depleted C2H6 (0.13-0.14 percent relative to H2O) and CH3OH/C2H6 approximately 10, consistent with previously published abundances from observations in the IR [1,2] and millimeter sub-mm (reporting CH3OH/H2O [3]) during its previous apparition in 1998. We observed similarly high CH3OH/C2H6, and also similar rotational temperature to that measured for 21 P, in Comet 8P/Tuttle [4,5]. We used our (higher signal-to-noise) NIRSPEC observations of 8P to produce effective (empirical) CH3OH g-factors for several lines in the v2 band. These will be presented together with interpretation of our results, including constraints on the spin temperature of water. We acknowledge support from the NASA Planetary Atmospheres, Planetary Astronomy, and Astrobiology Programs and from the NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Research Grants Program.

  12. Examination of the 0.7(2e2/h) feature in the quantised conduction of a quantum point contact: varying the effective g-factor with hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirtz, R; Taylor, R.P.; Newbury, R.; Nicholls, J.T.; Tribe, W.R.; Simmons, M.Y.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The conductance of a quasi one-dimensional channel defined by a split-gate quantum point contact (QPC) on the surface of a AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructure shows quantised steps at n(2e 2 /h) where n is an integer. This experimental result is due to the reduction of the number of current carrying one-dimensional subbands caused by narrowing the QPC. The theoretical explanation however does not take electron-electron interactions into account. Recently Thomas et al. discovered a new feature at non-integral value of n ∼ 0.7 in very low-disorder samples (μ ∼ 450 m 2 V -1 s -1 ) which may originate from electron-electron interactions (e.g. spin polarisation at zero magnetic field). We are currently investigating the 0.7 feature as a function of applied hydrostatic pressure. Hydrostatic pressure affects the band structure and therefore the effective mass and the effective g-factor. In the case of bulk GaAs hydrostatic pressure reduces the magnitude of the effective g-factor, reaching a value of zero at approximately 1.7x10 9 Pa. Using a non-magnetic BeCu clamp-cell we achieve pressures up to 1 x 10 9 Pa, reducing the effective g-factor by more than 60%, in a temperature range 30mK to 300K and at magnetic fields up to 17T. We are therefore able to map the 0.7 feature as a function of p,T and B to assess the evidence for an electron-electron interaction driven origin of the 0.7 feature. We will present the preliminary results of our measurements

  13. g factor of the exotic N=21 isotope {sup 34}Al: probing the N=20 and N=28 shell gaps at the border of the 'island of inversion'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himpe, P. [K.U. Leuven, Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Neyens, G. [K.U. Leuven, Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)], E-mail: gerda.neyens@fys.kuleuven.be; Balabanski, D.L. [INRNE, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, BG-1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Belier, G.; Daugas, J.M. [CEA/DIF/DPTA/PN, BP 12, F-91680 Bruyeres le Chatel (France); Oliveira Santos, F. de [GANIL, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Rydt, M. de; Flanagan, K.T. [K.U. Leuven, Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Matea, I. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan-CENBG, F-33175 Gradignan (France); Morel, P. [CEA/DIF/DPTA/PN, BP 12, F-91680 Bruyeres le Chatel (France); Penionzhkevich, Yu.E. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, FLNR, Dubna 141980, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Perrot, L. [GANIL, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Smirnova, N.A. [Universiteit Gent, Vakgroep Subatomaire en Stralingsfysica, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Stodel, C.; Thomas, J.C. [GANIL, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Vermeulen, N.; Yordanov, D.T. [K.U. Leuven, Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Utsuno, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Otsuka, T. [Department of Physics and Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); RIKEN, Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2008-01-10

    For the first time the g factor of an isotope beyond N=20 near the 'island of inversion' has been measured. A {sup 34}Al radioactive beam was produced in a one-neutron pickup reaction on a {sup 36}S primary beam at 77.5 MeV/u, providing a large spin-polarization for application of the {beta}-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ({beta}-NMR) method. The measured g factor of {sup 34}Al, |g|=0.539(2), combined with results from earlier {beta}-decay studies, allows to firmly assign a ground state spin/parity 4{sup -}. Comparison to large scale shell model calculations reveals that a dominant amount of intruder components is needed in the {sup 34}Al wave function to account for the observed large magnetic moment {mu}=(+)2.156(16){mu}{sub N}. This reveals Z=13 to be a true 'transition number' between the normal Z=14 Si isotopes and the abnormal Z=12 Mg isotopes. The sensitivity of this odd-odd ground state dipole moment to the N=20, as well as the N=28 gap, reveals that both are significantly reduced, despite Z=13 being outside the conventional island of inversion.

  14. Studies of the g factors and the local structure of the orthorhombic Ni{sup +} center in KTaO{sub 3} crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Huaming, E-mail: huamingzhang66@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Nondestructive Testing, Ministry of Education, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Wan Xiong; Zhang Zhimin [Key Laboratory of Nondestructive Testing, Ministry of Education, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China)

    2012-06-15

    The local structure and the g factor (g{sub x}, g{sub y}, and g{sub z}) of the Ni{sup +} center in KTaO{sub 3} are theoretically studied using the perturbation formulas of the g factors for a 3d{sup 9} ion in orthorhombically elongated octahedra. The orthorhombic field parameters are determined from the superposition model and the local geometry of the system. In view of the covalency, the contributions from the ligand orbital and spin-orbit coupling interactions are taken into account from the cluster approach. In the calculations, the orthorhombic center is attributed to Ni{sup +} occupying the host Ta{sup 5+} site, associated with the nearest-neighboring oxygen vacancy V{sub O} along the c-axis. Furthermore, the planar Ni{sup +}-O{sup 2-} bonds are found to experience the relative variation {Delta}R (Almost-Equal-To 0.076 A) along the a- and b-axis, respectively, due to the Jahn-Teller effect and the size mismatching substitution of Ta{sup 5+} by Ni{sup +}. Meanwhile, the effectively positive V{sub O} can make the central Ni{sup +} displace away from V{sub O} along the c-axis by about 0.20 A. The calculated g factors based on the above local distortions show good agreement with the experimental data.

  15. Experimental determination of Rashba and Dresselhaus parameters and g *-factor anisotropy via Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, F.; Hardtdegen, H.; Schäpers, Th; Grundler, D.; Wilde, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    The spin splitting of conduction band electrons in inversion-asymmetric InGaAs/InP quantum wells (QWs) is studied by Shubnikov-de Haas measurements combining the analysis of beating patterns and coincidence measurements in doubly tilted magnetic fields. The method allows us to determine the absolute values of the Rashba and linear Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction (SOI) coefficients, their relative sign and the full Landé g-tensor. This is achieved by analyzing the anisotropy of the beat node positions with respect to both polar and azimuthal angles between the magnetic field direction and the QW normal. We show that the SOI is dominated by a large Rashba coefficient together with a linear Dresselhaus coefficient that is 10% of the Rashba coefficient. Their relative sign is found to be positive. The g-tensor is found to have a marked out-of-plane anisotropy and a smaller but distinct in-plane anisotropy due to SOI.

  16. Experimental determination of Rashba and Dresselhaus parameters and g *-factor anisotropy via Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, F; Grundler, D; Wilde, M A; Hardtdegen, H; Schäpers, Th

    2017-01-01

    The spin splitting of conduction band electrons in inversion-asymmetric InGaAs/InP quantum wells (QWs) is studied by Shubnikov-de Haas measurements combining the analysis of beating patterns and coincidence measurements in doubly tilted magnetic fields. The method allows us to determine the absolute values of the Rashba and linear Dresselhaus spin–orbit interaction (SOI) coefficients, their relative sign and the full Landé g-tensor. This is achieved by analyzing the anisotropy of the beat node positions with respect to both polar and azimuthal angles between the magnetic field direction and the QW normal. We show that the SOI is dominated by a large Rashba coefficient together with a linear Dresselhaus coefficient that is 10% of the Rashba coefficient. Their relative sign is found to be positive. The g-tensor is found to have a marked out-of-plane anisotropy and a smaller but distinct in-plane anisotropy due to SOI. (paper)

  17. The "g" Factor and Cognitive Test Session Behavior: Using a Latent Variable Approach in Examining Measurement Invariance Across Age Groups on the WJ III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisby, Craig L.; Wang, Ze

    2016-01-01

    Data from the standardization sample of the Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Battery--Third Edition (WJ III) Cognitive standard battery and Test Session Observation Checklist items were analyzed to understand the relationship between g (general mental ability) and test session behavior (TSB; n = 5,769). Latent variable modeling methods were used…

  18. The g-factor of the electron bound in {sup 28}Si{sup 13+}. The most stringent test of bound-state quantum electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturm, Sven

    2012-09-06

    This thesis describes the ultra-precise determination of the g-factor of the electron bound to hydrogenlike {sup 28}Si{sup 13+}. The experiment is based on the simultaneous determination of the cyclotron- and Larmor frequency of a single ion, which is stored in a triple Penning-trap setup. The continuous Stern-Gerlach effect is used to couple the spin of the bound electron to the motional frequencies of the ion via a magnetic bottle, which allows the non-destructive determination of the spin state. To this end, a highly sensitive, cryogenic detection system was developed, which allowed the direct, non-destructive detection of the eigenfrequencies with the required precision. The development of a novel, phase sensitive detection technique finally allowed the determination of the g-factor with a relative accuracy of 4 . 10{sup -11}, which was previously inconceivable. The comparison of the hereby determined value with the value predicted by quantumelectrodynamics (QED) allows the verification of the validity of this fundamental theory under the extreme conditions of the strong binding potential of a highly charged ion. The exact agreement of theory and experiment is an impressive demonstration of the exactness of QED. The experimental possibilities created in this work will allow in the near future not only further tests of theory, but also the determination of the mass of the electron with a precision that exceeds the current literature value by more than an order of magnitude.

  19. The g-factor of the electron bound in 28Si13+. The most stringent test of bound-state quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, Sven

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes the ultra-precise determination of the g-factor of the electron bound to hydrogenlike 28 Si 13+ . The experiment is based on the simultaneous determination of the cyclotron- and Larmor frequency of a single ion, which is stored in a triple Penning-trap setup. The continuous Stern-Gerlach effect is used to couple the spin of the bound electron to the motional frequencies of the ion via a magnetic bottle, which allows the non-destructive determination of the spin state. To this end, a highly sensitive, cryogenic detection system was developed, which allowed the direct, non-destructive detection of the eigenfrequencies with the required precision. The development of a novel, phase sensitive detection technique finally allowed the determination of the g-factor with a relative accuracy of 4 . 10 -11 , which was previously inconceivable. The comparison of the hereby determined value with the value predicted by quantumelectrodynamics (QED) allows the verification of the validity of this fundamental theory under the extreme conditions of the strong binding potential of a highly charged ion. The exact agreement of theory and experiment is an impressive demonstration of the exactness of QED. The experimental possibilities created in this work will allow in the near future not only further tests of theory, but also the determination of the mass of the electron with a precision that exceeds the current literature value by more than an order of magnitude.

  20. Theoretical calculation of the spectra, the EPR g-factors and the magnetic susceptibilities of Cu2+ ion in Cs2CuCl4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuen Wei Li.

    1991-08-01

    The crystal-field and spin-orbit matrix for d 1 or d 9 configuration with D 2 symmetry has been derived. By diagonalizing the matrix, the energy level of C 2+ u in Cs 2 CuCl 4 and its eigenfunctions have been obtained with the aid of the approximate SCF d-orbit. Furthermore, by suing the eigenfunctions, the EPR g-factors and the magnetic susceptibilities at different temperatures have been calculated. The calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental findings. The calculation only needs two adjustable parameters and can give more theoretical results than those of previous work which introduced 11 adjustable parameters. (author). 16 refs, 3 tabs

  1. Electronic structure and Landé g-factor of a quantum ring in the presence of spin-orbit coupling: Temperature and Zeeman effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A.; Setareh, F.; Azargoshasb, T.; Niknam, E.

    2017-10-01

    A wide variety of semiconductor nanostructures have been fabricated experimentally and both theoretical and experimental investigations of their features imply the great role they have in new generation technological devices. However, mathematical modeling provide a powerful means due to definitive goal of predicting the features and understanding of such structures behavior under different circumstances. Therefore, effective Hamiltonian for an electron in a quantum ring with axial symmetry in the presence of both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions (SOI) is derived. Here we report our study of the electronic structure and electron g-factor in the presence of spin-orbit (SO) couplings under the influence of external magnetic field at finite temperature. This investigation shows that, when Rashba and Dresselhaus couplings are simultaneously present, the degeneracy is removed and energy levels split into two branches. Furthermore, with enhancing the applied magnetic field, separation of former degenerate levels increases and also avoided crossings (anti-crossing) in the energy spectra is detected. It is also discussed how the energy levels of the system can be adjusted with variation of temperature as well as the magnetic field and geometrical sizes.

  2. A comprehensive study of g-factors, elastic, structural and electronic properties of III-V semiconductors using hybrid-density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Carlos M. O.; Sabino, Fernando P.; Sipahi, Guilherme M.; Da Silva, Juarez L. F.

    2018-02-01

    Despite the large number of theoretical III-V semiconductor studies reported every year, our atomistic understanding is still limited. The limitations of the theoretical approaches to yield accurate structural and electronic properties on an equal footing, is due to the unphysical self-interaction problem that mainly affects the band gap and spin-orbit splitting (SOC) in semiconductors and, in particular, III-V systems with similar magnitude of the band gap and SOC. In this work, we report a consistent study of the structural and electronic properties of the III-V semiconductors by using the screening hybrid-density functional theory framework, by fitting the α parameters for 12 different III-V compounds, namely, AlN, AlP, AlAs, AlSb, GaN, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InN, InP, InAs, and InSb, to minimize the deviation between the theoretical and experimental values of the band gap and SOC. Structural relaxation effects were also included. Except for AlP, whose α = 0.127, we obtained α values that ranged from 0.209 to 0.343, which deviate by less than 0.1 from the universal value of 0.25. Our results for the lattice parameter and elastic constants indicate that the fitting of α does not affect those structural parameters when compared with the HSE06 functional, where α = 0.25. Our analysis of the band structure based on the k ṡ p method shows that the effective masses are in agreement with the experimental values, which can be attributed to the simultaneous fitting of the band gap and SOC. Also, we estimate the values of g-factors, extracted directly from the band structure, which are close to experimental results, which indicate that the obtained band structure produced a realistic set of k ṡ p parameters.

  3. Calculated g-factors of 5d double perovskites Ba.sub.2./sub.NaOsO.sub.6./sub. and Ba.sub.2./sub.YOsO.sub.6./sub.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ahn, K.H.; Pajskr, K.; Lee, K.W.; Kuneš, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 6 (2017), s. 1-5, č. článku 064416. ISSN 2469-9950 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-25251S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : double perovskite * g-factor Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 3.836, year: 2016

  4. Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumans, M.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.

    2008-01-01

    Measurement theory takes measurement as the assignment of numbers to properties of an empirical system so that a homomorphism between the system and a numerical system is established. To avoid operationalism, two approaches can be distinguished. In the axiomatic approach it is asserted that if the

  5. Measuring $\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Jessica Sarah [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-01

    The MINOS Experiment consists of two steel-scintillator calorimeters, sampling the long baseline NuMI muon neutrino beam. It was designed to make a precise measurement of the ‘atmospheric’ neutrino mixing parameters, Δm2 atm. and sin2 (2 atm.). The Near Detector measures the initial spectrum of the neutrino beam 1km from the production target, and the Far Detector, at a distance of 735 km, measures the impact of oscillations in the neutrino energy spectrum. Work performed to validate the quality of the data collected by the Near Detector is presented as part of this thesis. This thesis primarily details the results of a vμ disappearance analysis, and presents a new sophisticated fitting software framework, which employs a maximum likelihood method to extract the best fit oscillation parameters. The software is entirely decoupled from the extrapolation procedure between the detectors, and is capable of fitting multiple event samples (defined by the selections applied) in parallel, and any combination of energy dependent and independent sources of systematic error. Two techniques to improve the sensitivity of the oscillation measurement were also developed. The inclusion of information on the energy resolution of the neutrino events results in a significant improvement in the allowed region for the oscillation parameters. The degree to which sin2 (2θ )= 1.0 could be disfavoured with the exposure of the current dataset if the true mixing angle was non-maximal, was also investigated, with an improved neutrino energy reconstruction for very low energy events. The best fit oscillation parameters, obtained by the fitting software and incorporating resolution information were: | Δm2| = 2.32+0.12 -0.08×10-3 eV2 and sin2 (2θ ) > 0.90(90% C.L.). The analysis provides the current world best measurement of the atmospheric neutrino mass

  6. Magnetic moments and lifetime measurements with a piezoelectrically driven plunger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutten, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments are described leading to precise values for magnetic dipole moments of excited nuclear states and their mean lifetimes. A plunger system is described especially developed for g-factor and lifetime measurements with the coincidence time-differential recoil-into-vacuum technique. Measurements of the g-factors and lifetimes for the 2 1 + state of 20 O and the 5/2 1 + state of 13 C are described. (Auth.)

  7. There are no sex differences on g factor and specific abilities in children from two Brazilian capitals / Inexistência de diferenças de sexo no fator g (inteligência geral e nas habilidades específicas em crianças de duas capitais brasileiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen E. Flores-Mendoza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper intended to verify sex differences on the g factor (general intelligence and specific abilities from a sample of children from two Brazilian cities: Belo Horizonte (BH and Porto Alegre (PA. The sample from BH (n=1.316 aged 5 to 11 years was examined with a battery of intelligence (CPM, Verbal Scale of WISC-III, R-2, psychomotor (Bender and school achievement tests. The sample from PA (n=779 aged 5 to 11 years was examined with Matrices Progressives Raven. The analysis from these tests shows that the majority of sex differences on specific abilities are not statistically significant. The use of Method Correlated Vectors, which is a most sophisticated method of analyzing general intelligence (g factor, indicates that there are no sex differences. These results support the international records about non-existence of cognitive difference relate to sex in childhood and adolescence.

  8. Societal Consequences of the g Factor in Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfredson, Linda S.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews and rebuts seven common arguments that intelligence (g) is of little or no practical importance in employment. Illustrates in several ways the profound effect that differences in intelligence in a work force may have on the structure and functioning of whole societies. (Author/ABB)

  9. Magnetic moment measurement of 140Ba nuclei using transient field technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, Mansi; Mandal, S.; Siwal, Davinder; Rainovski, G.; Danchev, M.; Damyanova, A.; Gladnishki, K.; Leske, J.; Bauer, C.; Bloch, T.; John, P.; Pietralla, N.; Wollersheim, H.J.; Kojouharov, I.; Pietri, S.; Schaffner, H.

    2011-01-01

    Mixed symmetry states have been identified in the neutron proton version of the Interacting Boson Model. The motivation of this experiment is to identify uniquely one phonon mixed symmetry states in 140 Ba nuclei by g factor measurement of the states. Magnetic moments measurements provide substantial information on the microscopic structure of the nuclei as the magnetic moment of a nuclei is described by the wave function of one state only. In this present paper we report the preliminary results of the g factor measurement of the first 2 + state of 140 Ba

  10. Inexistência de diferenças de sexo no fator g (inteligência geral e nas habilidades específicas em crianças de duas capitais brasileiras There are no sex differences on g factor and specific abilities in children from two Brazilian capitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen E. Flores-Mendoza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho pretendeu examinar diferenças relacionadas ao sexo no fator g (inteligência geral e em habilidades específicas em crianças de duas cidades brasileiras: Belo Horizonte e Porto Alegre. No caso da amostra mineira (n=1,316, a idade compreendeu entre 5 e 11 anos de idade examinada através de uma bateria de testes a qual incluiu instrumentos de inteligência (Raven, Escala Verbal WISC III, R-2, DFH, de avaliação psicomotora (Bender e de desempenho escolar (TDE. No caso da amostra gaúcha (n=779, a idade compreendeu entre 5 e 11 anos, utilizando-se o teste Raven - Escala Colorida. A análise individual dos testes aponta que a maioria das diferenças nas habilidades específicas não é estatisticamente significativa. Na utilização do Método dos Vetores Correlacionados, uma análise mais sofisticada da inteligência geral, observa-se inexistência de diferenças de sexo. Tais resultados corroboram os registros internacionais sobre inexistência de diferenças cognitivas relacionadas ao sexo em crianças e adolescentes.This paper intended to verify sex differences on the g factor (general intelligence and specific abilities from a sample of children from two Brazilian cities: Belo Horizonte (BH and Porto Alegre (PA. The sample from BH (n=1.316 aged 5 to 11 years was examined with a battery of intelligence (CPM, Verbal Scale of WISC-III, R-2, psychomotor (Bender and school achievement tests. The sample from PA (n=779 aged 5 to 11 years was examined with Matrices Progressives Raven. The analysis from these tests shows that the majority of sex differences on specific abilities are not statistically significant. The use of Method Correlated Vectors, which is a most sophisticated method of analyzing general intelligence (g factor, indicates that there are no sex differences. These results support the international records about non-existence of cognitive difference relate to sex in childhood and adolescence.

  11. What quantum measurements measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2017-09-01

    A solution to the second measurement problem, determining what prior microscopic properties can be inferred from measurement outcomes ("pointer positions"), is worked out for projective and generalized (POVM) measurements, using consistent histories. The result supports the idea that equipment properly designed and calibrated reveals the properties it was designed to measure. Applications include Einstein's hemisphere and Wheeler's delayed choice paradoxes, and a method for analyzing weak measurements without recourse to weak values. Quantum measurements are noncontextual in the original sense employed by Bell and Mermin: if [A ,B ]=[A ,C ]=0 ,[B ,C ]≠0 , the outcome of an A measurement does not depend on whether it is measured with B or with C . An application to Bohm's model of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen situation suggests that a faulty understanding of quantum measurements is at the root of this paradox.

  12. Sixfold improved single particle measurement of the magnetic moment of the antiproton

    CERN Document Server

    Nagahama, H; Sellner, S; Harrington, J; Higuchi, T; Borchert, M J; Tanaka, T; Besirli, M; Mooser, A; Schneider, G; Blaum, K; Matsuda, Y; Ospelkaus, C; Quint, W; Walz, J; Yamazaki, Y; Ulmer, S

    2017-01-01

    Our current understanding of the Universe comes, among others, from particle physics and cosmology. In particle physics an almost perfect symmetry between matter and antimatter exists. On cosmological scales, however, a striking matter/antimatter imbalance is observed. This contradiction inspires comparisons of the fundamental properties of particles and antiparticles with high precision. Here we report on a measurement of the g-factor of the antiproton with a fractional precision of 0.8 parts per million at 95% confidence level. Our value /2=2.7928465(23) outperforms the previous best measurement by a factor of 6. The result is consistent with our proton g-factor measurement gp/2=2.792847350(9), and therefore agrees with the fundamental charge, parity, time (CPT) invariance of the Standard Model of particle physics. Additionally, our result improves coefficients of the standard model extension which discusses the sensitivity of experiments with respect to CPT violation by up to a factor of 20.

  13. Measurement of the magnetic moment of the 2$^{+}$ state in neutron-rich radioactive $^{72,74}$Zn using the transient field technique in inverse kinematics

    CERN Multimedia

    Kruecken, R; Speidel, K; Voulot, D; Neyens, G; Gernhaeuser, R A; Fraile prieto, L M; Leske, J

    We propose to measure the sign and magnitude of the g-factors of the first 2$^{+}$ states in radioactive neutron-rich $^{72,74}$Zn applying the transient field (TF) technique in inverse kinematics. The result of this experiment will allow to probe the $\

  14. CPT-symmetry studies with antihydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnert, Ralf, E-mail: ralehner@indiana.edu [Indiana University Center for Spacetime Symmetries (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Various approaches to physics beyond the Standard Model can lead to small violations of CPT invariance. Since CPT symmetry can be measured with ultra-high precision, CPT tests offer an interesting phenomenological avenue to search for underlying physics. We discuss this reasoning in more detail, comment on the connection between CPT and Lorentz invariance, and review how CPT breaking would affect the (anti)hydrogen spectrum.

  15. Intelligence Is What the Intelligence Test Measures. Seriously

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han L. J. van der Maas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The mutualism model, an alternative for the g-factor model of intelligence, implies a formative measurement model in which “g” is an index variable without a causal role. If this model is accurate, the search for a genetic of brain instantiation of “g” is deemed useless. This also implies that the (weighted sum score of items of an intelligence test is just what it is: a weighted sum score. Preference for one index above the other is a pragmatic issue that rests mainly on predictive value.

  16. Prospects for Precise Measurements with Echo Atom Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brynle Barrett

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Echo atom interferometers have emerged as interesting alternatives to Raman interferometers for the realization of precise measurements of the gravitational acceleration g and the determination of the atomic fine structure through measurements of the atomic recoil frequency ω q . Here we review the development of different configurations of echo interferometers that are best suited to achieve these goals. We describe experiments that utilize near-resonant excitation of laser-cooled rubidium atoms by a sequence of standing wave pulses to measure ω q with a statistical uncertainty of 37 parts per billion (ppb on a time scale of ∼50 ms and g with a statistical precision of 75 ppb. Related coherent transient techniques that have achieved the most statistically precise measurements of atomic g-factor ratios are also outlined. We discuss the reduction of prominent systematic effects in these experiments using off-resonant excitation by low-cost, high-power lasers.

  17. Feasibility study for PTV measurement using x-ray holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uemura, Tomomasa; Yamamoto, Yasufumi; Murata, Shigeru; Nishio, Shigeru; Iguchi, Manabu; Uesugi, Kentaro

    2005-01-01

    Some X-ray imaging techniques are examined for a feasibility study for micro-PIV in this study. There are three X-ray imaging method, the absorption contrast method, the refraction contrast method, and the phase contrast method. The first one is a common method but its spatial resolution is rather poor. The 2nd method corresponds to the Schlieren method that utilizes refraction of parallel light. The characteristics of the method, edge enhancement, can be effective in extracting tracer images. The third method is a kind of holography methods, and this method can record fine tracer particles. Among the three methods, the second and the third method are seemed to be applicable to PIV imaging, and those methods need a parallel X-ray. The SPring-8, the synchrotron radiation facility in Harima, is utilized. There are some methods to realize phase contrast image, most of them requires ultra-high precision in optical alignment. In the present study, though a coherent source is indispensable, the simplest and robust holography method, the inline holography, is used to take phase contrast pictures. (author)

  18. Systematic Measurements of the Bohr-Weisskopf Effect at ISOLDE

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear electric and magnetic structure properties are measurable by high-resolution atomic spectroscopy through isotope shifts and the Bohr-Weisskopf effect (hyperfine structure anomalies). \\\\ \\\\ The greatest value of these measurements is when made systematically over a large number of isotopes. This has been done in the case of isotopes shifts most extensively by the experiment at ISOLDE. To date the magnetic distribution studies are few and isolated. Here we propose to intitiate a program at ISOLDE to measure hfs anomalies systematically. The experiments, requiring high-precision data on magnetic dipole constants as well as on nuclear g-factors, will be done by atomic-beam magnetic resonance with the use of laser excitation for polarization of the beam and a sixpole magnet acting as an analyser. \\\\ \\\\ The heavy alkali elements are the most promising candidates for hfs anomaly studies because of the large effect expected, the high production yields at ISOLDE and most importantly, the interesting variations...

  19. Importance measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Cobo, A.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the following: general concepts of importance measures; example fault tree, used to illustrate importance measures; Birnbaum's structural importance; criticality importance; Fussel-Vesely importance; upgrading function; risk achievement worth; risk reduction worth

  20. Formative (measurement)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fassott, G.; Henseler, Jörg; Cooper, C.; Lee, N.; Farrell, A.

    2015-01-01

    When using measurement models with multiple indicators, researchers need to decide about the epistemic relationship between the latent variable and its indicators. In this article, we describe the nature, the estimation, the characteristics, and the validity assessment of formative measurement

  1. Measurement evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Boros, A

    1990-01-01

    The information obtained about a measured object is called ``crude'' measurement information and must be related to the conditions under which the measurement took place. Using ``crude'' measurement information as a starting point, evaluation produces physically correctly interpreted data with their estimated (or corrected) error. Although a number of works deal with the evaluation of measurements, they either appeared a long time ago or serve essentially different aims. This book gives a comprehensive and current overview on the basic principles, aids, devices, and methods in the eval

  2. The measurement of magnetic moments of nuclear states of high angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldring, G.

    1978-01-01

    Two problems related to the measurement of the g-factor of relevant nuclear levels and their circumvention are discussed: a) the very high magnetic fields required for the measurements, available only as a hyperfine field of electrons or other charged particles moving very close to the nucleus; b) the large angular momentum of those nuclear states. The nuclei considered are those recoiling from a nuclear reaction at high speeds in either vacuum or gas. The environment of these nuclei are the isolated ions with which they are associated. The hyperfine interaction with such ions is primarily magnetic. (B.G.)

  3. Measurement of electron paramagnetic resonance using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozuki, Kohei; Nagashima, Takeshi; Hangyo, Masanori

    2011-12-05

    We present a frequency-domain electron spin resonance (ESR) measurement system using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. A crossed polarizer technique is utilized to increase the sensitivity in detecting weak ESR signals of paramagnets caused by magnetic dipole transitions between magnetic sublevels. We demonstrate the measurements of ESR signal of paramagnetic copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate with uniaxial anisotropy of the g-factor under magnetic fields up to 10 T. The lineshape of the obtained ESR signals agrees well with the theoretical predictions for a powder sample with the uniaxial anisotropy.

  4. Transient field measurements on 56Fe- and 80Se-ions using segmented Fe-layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, H.; Kremeyer, S.; Meens, A.; Maier-Komor, P.

    1996-01-01

    Measurements of transient magnetic fields (TF) were performed on swift heavy ions of 56 Fe and 80 Se, with Coulomb excitation of their first 2 + state as probe, traversing thin Fe layers with segmented and unsegmented structures. The 50 μm x 50 μm squares of the segments were accomplished applying the techniques of photolithography and ion etching. The magnitude of the TF deduced clearly shows that by segmentation of the targets the ion beam induced attenuations can be eliminated. This finding has direct applications to g-factor measurements. (orig.)

  5. Anomalous g-Factors for Charged Leptons in a Fractional Coarse-Grained Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helayël-Neto, J. A.; Weberszpil, J.

    2014-01-01

    We here propose to extend the concept of helicity to include it in a fractional scenario and we write down the left- and the right-handed Weyl equations from first principles in this extended framework. Next, by coupling the different fractional Weyl sectors by means of a mass parameter, we arrive at the fractional version of Dirac's equation which, whenever coupled to an external electromagnetic field and reduced to the nonrelativistic regime, yields a fractional Pauli-type equation. From the latter, we are able to present an explicit expression for the gyromagnetic ratio of charged fermions in terms of the fractionality parameter. We then focus our efforts to relate the coarse-grained property of space-time to fractionality and to the (g-2) anomalies of the different leptonic species

  6. Revisiting the Latent Structure of ADHD: Is There a "g" Factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Michelle M.; von Eye, Alexander; Nigg, Joel T.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is presumed to be heterogeneous, but the best way to describe this heterogeneity remains unclear. Considerable evidence has accrued suggesting that inattention versus hyperactivity-impulsivity symptom domains predict distinct clinical outcomes and may have partially distinct etiological…

  7. Quantum measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Busch, Paul; Pellonpää, Juha-Pekka; Ylinen, Kari

    2016-01-01

    This is a book about the Hilbert space formulation of quantum mechanics and its measurement theory. It contains a synopsis of what became of the Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics since von Neumann’s classic treatise with this title. Fundamental non-classical features of quantum mechanics—indeterminacy and incompatibility of observables, unavoidable measurement disturbance, entanglement, nonlocality—are explicated and analysed using the tools of operational quantum theory. The book is divided into four parts: 1. Mathematics provides a systematic exposition of the Hilbert space and operator theoretic tools and relevant measure and integration theory leading to the Naimark and Stinespring dilation theorems; 2. Elements develops the basic concepts of quantum mechanics and measurement theory with a focus on the notion of approximate joint measurability; 3. Realisations offers in-depth studies of the fundamental observables of quantum mechanics and some of their measurement implementations; and 4....

  8. Measurement Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Michael

    Measurement uncertainty is one of the key issues in quality assurance. It became increasingly important for analytical chemistry laboratories with the accreditation to ISO/IEC 17025. The uncertainty of a measurement is the most important criterion for the decision whether a measurement result is fit for purpose. It also delivers help for the decision whether a specification limit is exceeded or not. Estimation of measurement uncertainty often is not trivial. Several strategies have been developed for this purpose that will shortly be described in this chapter. In addition the different possibilities to take into account the uncertainty in compliance assessment are explained.

  9. Measuring Colour

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, R W G

    2011-01-01

    The classic authority on colour measurement now fully revised and updated with the latest CIE recommendations The measurement of colour is of major importance in many commercial applications, such as the textile, paint, and foodstuff industries; as well as having a significant role in the lighting, paper, printing, cosmetic, plastics, glass, chemical, photographic, television, transport, and communication industries. Building upon the success of earlier editions, the 4th edition of Measuring Colour has been updated throughout with new chapters on colour rendering by light sources; colorimetry

  10. Mechanical measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Venkateshan, S P

    2015-01-01

    The first edition of this book was co-published by Ane Books India, and CRC Press in 2008. This second edition is an enlarged version of the web course developed by the author at IIT Madras, and also a modified and augmented version of the earlier book.  Major additions/modifications presented are in the treatment of errors in measurement, temperature measurement, measurement of thermo-physical properties, and data manipulation. Many new worked examples have been introduced in this new and updated second edition. 

  11. Horizon measures

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Eugene

    2016-11-28

    In this paper we seek to answer the following question: where do contour lines and visible contour lines (silhouette) tend to occur in a 3D surface. Our study leads to two novel shape descriptors, the horizon measure and the visible horizon measure, which we apply to the visualization of 3D shapes including archeological artifacts. In addition to introducing the shape descriptors, we also provide a closed-form formula for the horizon measure based on classical spherical geometry. To compute the visible horizon measure, which depends on the exact computation of the surface visibility function, we instead of provide an image-based approach which can process a model with high complexity within a few minutes.

  12. Lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletti, A.R.

    1976-01-01

    Recent developments in experimental methods of measuring the lifetimes of excited nuclear states is reviewed in three main areas. (a) Doppler Shift Attenuation Measurements (DSAM) Times: 10 -14 - 10 -11 sec.; (b) Recoil Distance Measurements (RDM) Times: 10 -9 - 10 -12 sec.; (c) Direct Electronic Timing Times: down to 10 -10 sec.; A measurement of an excited state lifetime can answer a large number of different questions. Two examples are discussed: (a) The determination of the lifetime of an isomeric transition in 93 Tc and its use in determining an upper limit for the magnitude of the parity non-conserving matrix element - /Hsub(PN)/17/2 + >. (b) The dependence of the strength of M2 transitions on isospin in nuclei in the 1dsub(3/2) -1fsub(7/2) region. (author)

  13. MEASURING CIRCUIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, J.R.

    1963-01-29

    A measuring and balancing arrangement for mass spectrometers permits the ready determination of isotopic ratios and mole and weight percentages by employing a selection of amplifier input resistors to vary sensitivity in a bridge arrangement. (AEC)

  14. Measuring colour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hunt, R. W. G; Pointer, Michael, Ph. D

    2011-01-01

    ... industries.Building upon the success of earlier editions, the 4th edition of [start italics]Measuring Colour[end italics] has been updated throughout with new chapters on colour rendering by light sources...

  15. Diversity Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Mentor Ademaj

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversity measures are a type of non-criminal measures foreseen in the Chapter IV of the Code of Juvenile Justice, which may be imposed on juvenile perpetrators of criminal acts. These measures can be applied in cases of minor offenses, for which is foreseen the criminal sanction with a fine or imprisonment up to three years or for criminal offenses committed by negligence for which is foreseen the sentence up to five years of imprisonment, except those cases that result in death. With the imposition of these measures is intended to prevent criminal proceedings against juveniles whenever is possible, rehabilitation and reintegration of juvenile in his/her community and the prevention of recidivist behaviour. Competent authority to impose them is the public prosecutor, the juvenile judge and juvenile court. And they are executed by the Kosovo Correctional Service.

  16. Lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossan, D.B.; Warburton, E.K.

    1974-01-01

    Lifetime measurements are discussed, concentrating on the electronic technique, the recoil distance method (RDM), and the Doppler shift attenuation method (DSAM). A brief review of several indirect timing techniques is given, and their specific advantages and applicability are considered. The relationship between lifetimes of nuclear states and the nuclear structure information obtained from them is examined. A short discussion of channeling and microwave methods of lifetime measurement is presented. (23 figures, 171 references) (U.S.)

  17. Anthropomorphic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.

    1998-01-01

    Based on decisions taken during the Research Coordination Meetings in Mito City 1988 and Bombay 1991, the participants were requested to provide data on physical measurement parameters of body height, body weight, sitting height, head circumference, neck circumference, chest circumference, chest width and chest depth which represented the age groups as newborn, 1 year, 5 years, 10 years, 15 years and adult 20-50 years. Accordingly, physical measurement data was obtained by participants from 9 countries

  18. Against 'measurement'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, John

    1990-01-01

    This author of this article rails against the term ''measurement'' as it is commonly used in quantum mechanics. Many terms such as this are full of common place, everyday associations which are entirely inappropriate to the quantum world and lead to misunderstanding even amongst physicists. Measurement implies, at least for laboratory experiments, that the complexities of the real world have been simplified to the minimum number of variables. This can never be so for quantum mechanics where the act of measurement is intrinsic to the result, where even the mind of the observer plays a part. Three books on quantum mechanics are reviewed in an attempt to present a more precise comprehension of the meaning inside quantum mechanics. (UK)

  19. Measurements of

    CERN Document Server

    Angerami, Aaron; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    A measurement is presented of $\\gamma \\gamma \\rightarrow \\mu^{+} \\mu^{-}$ in Pb+Pb collisions recorded by the ATLAS detector at the LHC at $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}=5.02$ TeV with an integrated luminosity of 0.49 nb$^{-1}$. The angular and transverse momentum correlations between the muons are measured as a function of collision centrality. The lepton pairs are produced from $\\gamma \\gamma$ through the interaction of the large electromagnetic fields of the nuclei. The contribution from background sources of muon pairs is removed using a template fit method. In peripheral collisions, the muons exhibit a strong back-to-back correlation consistent with previous measurements of muon pair production in ultra-peripheral collisions. The angular correlations are observed to broaden significantly in central collisions. The modifications are qualitatively consistent with rescattering of the muons while passing through the hot matter produced in the collision.

  20. Microwave Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Skinner, A D

    2007-01-01

    The IET has organised training courses on microwave measurements since 1983, at which experts have lectured on modern developments. Their lecture notes were first published in book form in 1985 and then again in 1989, and they have proved popular for many years with a readership beyond those who attended the courses. The purpose of this third edition of the lecture notes is to bring the latest techniques in microwave measurements to this wider audience. The book begins with a survey of the theory of current microwave circuits and continues with a description of the techniques for the measureme

  1. SAFETY MEASURES

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service; Tel. 75152

    2001-01-01

    Following the recent terrorist attacks, the French authorities have introduced increased-vigilance measures («Vigipirate renforcé») as part of their prevention of terrorism campaign and have expressed the wish to extend these measures to the French part of the CERN site. The Organization has acceded to this request with the understanding that its international status will be respectd and has granted the French Gendarmerie right of access to the Prévessin site and to the LEP/LHC sites on French territory.

  2. Measuring anhedonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer Thomsen, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    about pleasure, which is often, but not always accessible to conscious awareness." (Rømer Thomsen et al., 2015). This framework is in line with Treadway and Zald's (2011) proposal to differentiate between motivational and consummatory types of anhedonia, and stresses the need to combine traditional self......-report measures with behavioral measures or procedures. In time, this approach may lead to improved clinical assessment and treatment. In line with our reconceptualization, increasing evidence suggests that reward processing deficits are not restricted to impaired hedonic impact in major psychiatric disorders...

  3. Measuring Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Torben M.; Herbertsson, Tryggvi Thor

    2003-01-01

    The multivariate technique of factor analysis is used to combine several indicators of economic integration and international transactions into a single measure or index of globalization. The index is an alternative to the simple measure of openness based on trade, and it produces a ranking of countries over time for 23 OECD countries. Ireland is ranked as the most globalized country during the 1990?s, while the UK was at the top during the 1980?s. Some of the most notable changes in the rank...

  4. Radioactivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohme, R.F.; Lazerson, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    A problem with ore sorting arrangements is that radiation is difficult to measure accurately while particles are moving at speed past the detector. This is particulary so when dealing with ores such as gold ores which have weak emissions. A method of measuring radioactive emissions from moving radioactive material includes the steps of shielding the radiation detector(s) so that the angle of acceptance of the receptor surface is restricted, and further shielding the shielded portion of the detector with a second material which is less radiation emissive than the material of the first shield. This second shield is between the first shield and the detector

  5. AMS measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, E.M.

    1999-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) ia an ultrasensitive analysis technique using a system based on a nuclear particle accelerator and its beam transport system to detect and measure individual 14 C ions.. In AMS a 14 C abundance is obtained by comparing the measurement rates of 14 C and 13 C ions. This is not as simple as it sounds. The enormous difference in the numbers of the two isotopes makes it very hard to uniquely detect 14 C ions. For modern samples, those with the most 14 C, some 10 10 13 C ions leave the source for every 14 C ion. However, the use of an accelerator and various high energy techniques makes it possible to the detect the 14 C and to reject the 13 C. in order to achieve this high rejection efficiency the injection magnet is set to transmit only one isotope, namely 14 C. However, a subsequent measurement of 13 C must be made. The number and the rate of arrival of 13 C ions is such that individual ions cannot be measured, instead a 13 C current is measured in a Faraday cup. It is possible to alternate the injection magnet field between that to transmit 14 C and that to transmit 13 C. This method is known as slow cycling but suffers from significant dead (not useful) periods while the magnet field is changed and stabilises. Furthermore and more significantly, during this dead time changes in ion source output may occur distorting the 14 C/ 13 C ratio. We instead employ a method known as fast cycling which involves rapidly increasing the energy of the 13 C ions as they enter the injection magnet. This is achieved by the use of a high voltage (6.7 kV) pulser. We can also inject 12 C by this method although a 14.7 kV pulse is required. The switching time from one carbon isotope to another is only a fraction of a millisecond in this fast cycling method. Hence one has quasi-simultaneous measurement of 14 C and 13 C. Measurements of the 14 C/ 13 C ratio from a sample are always compared to the same ratio from an internationally accepted standard

  6. Transient-field strength measurements for 52Cr traversing Fe hosts at high velocity and polarization transfer mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuchbery, A.E.; Doran, C.E.; Byrne, A.P.; Bolotin, H.H.; Dracoulis, G.D.

    1986-12-01

    Transient-field strengths were measured for 52 Cr ions traversing polarized Fe hosts at velocities up to 12v>=o (v>=o = c/137 = Bohr velocity). The results are compared with predictions of various transient field parametrizations and discussed in terms of possible mechanisms by which polarization might be transferred from the Fe host to inner vacancies of the moving Cr ions. The g-factor of the first 2 + state of 52 Cr was also measured by the transient field technique and found to be in accord with shell-model calculations

  7. Measuring Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Glaeser, Edward Ludwig; Laibson, David I.; Scheinkman, Jose A.; Soutter, Christine L.

    2000-01-01

    We combine two experiments and a survey to measure trust and trustworthiness—two key components of social capital. Standard attitudinal survey questions about trust predict trustworthy behavior in our experiments much better than they predict trusting behavior. Trusting behavior in the experiments is predicted by past trusting behavior outside of the experiments. When individuals are closer socially, both trust and trustworthiness rise. Trustworthiness declines when partners are of differen...

  8. Radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Go, Sung Jin; Kim, Seung Guk; No, Gyeong Seok; Park, Myeong Hwan; Ann, Bong Seon

    1998-03-01

    This book explains technical terms about radiation measurement, which are radiation, radiation quantity and unit such as prefix of international unit, unit for defence purposes of radiation, coefficient of radiation and interaction, kinds and principles of radiation detector, ionization chamber, G-M counter, G-M tube, proportional counter, scintillation detector, semiconductor radiation detector, thermoluminescence dosimeter, PLD, others detector, radiation monitor, neutron detector, calibration of radiation detector, statistics of counting value, activation analysis and electronics circuit of radiation detector.

  9. Measuring phase with Stokes measurements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements Angela Dudley1, Giovanni Milione2, Robert Alfano2 and Andrew Forbes1. 1 CSIR National Laser Centre, Pretoria, South Africa. 2 Institute for Ultrafast Spectroscopy and Lasers, Physics Department, City College of New York,160 Convent Ave., New...

  10. Measuring circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, Rudolf F

    1996-01-01

    This series of circuits provides designers with a quick source for measuring circuits. Why waste time paging through huge encyclopedias when you can choose the topic you need and select any of the specialized circuits sorted by application?This book in the series has 250-300 practical, ready-to-use circuit designs, with schematics and brief explanations of circuit operation. The original source for each circuit is listed in an appendix, making it easy to obtain additional information.Ready-to-use circuits.Grouped by application for easy look-up.Circuit source listings

  11. Measuring progress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, sociological examinations of genetics, therapeutic cloning, neuroscience and tissue engineering have suggested that 'life itself' is currently being transformed through technique with profound implications for the ways in which we understand and govern ourselves and others...... in much the same way that mortality rates, life expectancy or morbidity rates can. By analysing the concrete ways in which human progress has been globally measured and taxonomised in the past two centuries or so, I will show how global stratifications of countries according to their states...

  12. Nuclear measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenkel, R.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear measurements play a fundamental role in the development of nuclear technology and the assurance of its peaceful use. They are also required in many non-power nuclear applications such as in nuclear medicine, agriculture, environmental protection, etc. This presentation will show examples of most recent advances in measurement methodology or technology in the areas described below. The Generation IV International Forum has selected six innovative reactor systems as candidates for a next generation of sustainable, economic and safe nuclear energy systems. The choice of the best options relies heavily on the availability of accurate nuclear data that can only be obtained, in an international effort, using highly specialised facilities. Significant efforts are being directed towards the partitioning and transmutation of highly active nuclear waste. Different concepts involving fast reactors or accelerator-driven systems are being studied in view of their transmutation capabilities. State of the art equipment has been developed to assess basic properties of nuclear fuel at very high burn-up; some fine examples of this work will be shown. Physical and chemical methods play a crucial role in the detection and identification of radioisotopes used in various stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. Radiation measurement techniques are used, for example, to monitor the quantities of uranium, plutonium and other actinide elements in fuel enrichment and reprocessing facilities. Another field of application of physical and chemical methods is the characterisation of nuclear material seized from illicit trafficking. Seized material has to be analysed in order to obtain clues on its origin and intended use and to prevent diversion of nuclear material from the same source in the future. A recent highlight in basic physics relates to nuclear fission and transmutation with high intensity lasers. Ultra-fast high intensity lasers can produce high energy (tens of MeV) photons through

  13. Measuring Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsby, Torben

    local differences in the quality of day care facilities in Denmark (Nordahl et al, 2012; Hansen et al, 2016) and also that we in fact have little knowledge of whether the desired politically determined targets are being met or not and what the quality is really like. In order to measure the quality......The Danish Day Care Facilities Act (2015), which provides the curriculum on which day care education is based, does not stipulate very clearly what children should learn and therefore how educational processes in preschools should be organised. This means that we must accept that there are large...... of preschool in Denmark a new research project using the ECERS 3 instrument has been launched. This could capture quality from a global quality standard’s perspective, building the basis for a further investigation of practice in Danish early childhood provisions and centers in a more narrow approach...

  14. Gyromagnetic ratios of excited states in 198Pt; measurements and interacting boson approximation model calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuchbery, A. E.; Ryan, C. G.; Bolotin, H. H.; Morrison, I.; Sie, S. H.

    1981-07-01

    The enhanced transient hyperfine field manifest at the nuclei of swiftly recoiling ions traversing magnetized ferromagnetic materials was utilized to measure the gyromagnetic ratios of the 2 +1, 2 +2 and 4 +1 states in 198Pt by the thin-foil technique. The states of interest were populated by Coulomb excitation using a beam of 220 MeV 58Ni ions. The results obtained were: g(2 +1) = 0.324 ± 0.026; g(2 +2) = 0.34 ± 0.06; g(4 +1) = 0.34 ± 0.06. In addition, these measurements served to discriminate between the otherwise essentially equally probable values previously reported for the E2/M1 ratio of the 2 +2 → 2 +1 transition in 198Pt. We also performed interacting boson approximation (IBA) model-based calculations in the O(6) limit symmetry, with and without inclusion of a small degree of symmetry breaking, and employed the M1 operator in both first- and second-order to obtain M1 selection rules and to calculate gyromagnetic ratios of levels. When O(6) symmetry is broken, there is a predicted departure from constancy of the g-factors which provides a good test of the nuclear wave function. Evaluative comparisons are made between these experimental and predicted g-factors.

  15. High-Precision Measurements of the Bound Electron’s Magnetic Moment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Sturm

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly charged ions represent environments that allow to study precisely one or more bound electrons subjected to unsurpassed electromagnetic fields. Under such conditions, the magnetic moment (g-factor of a bound electron changes significantly, to a large extent due to contributions from quantum electrodynamics. We present three Penning-trap experiments, which allow to measure magnetic moments with ppb precision and better, serving as stringent tests of corresponding calculations, and also yielding access to fundamental quantities like the fine structure constant α and the atomic mass of the electron. Additionally, the bound electrons can be used as sensitive probes for properties of the ionic nuclei. We summarize the measurements performed so far, discuss their significance, and give a detailed account of the experimental setups, procedures and the foreseen measurements.

  16. Electricity electron measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Jin; Sung, Rak Jin

    1985-11-01

    This book deals with measurement of electricity and electron. It is divided into fourteen chapters, which depicts basic of electricity measurement, unit and standard, important electron circuit for measurement, instrument of electricity, impedance measurement, power and power amount measurement, frequency and time measurement, waveform measurement, record instrument and direct viewing instrument, super high frequency measurement, digital measurement on analog-digital convert, magnetic measurement on classification by principle of measurement, measurement of electricity application with principle sensors and systematization of measurement.

  17. The newest precision measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jing Gu; Lee, Jong Dae

    1974-05-01

    This book introduces basic of precision measurement, measurement of length, limit gauge, measurement of angles, measurement of surface roughness, measurement of shapes and locations, measurement of outline, measurement of external and internal thread, gear testing, accuracy inspection of machine tools, three dimension coordinate measuring machine, digitalisation of precision measurement, automation of precision measurement, measurement of cutting tools, measurement using laser, and point of choosing length measuring instrument.

  18. Systems Engineering and Application of System Performance Modeling in SIM Lite Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshir, Mehrdad; Murphy, David W.; Milman, Mark H.; Meier, David L.

    2010-01-01

    The SIM Lite Astrometric Observatory will be the first space-based Michelson interferometer operating in the visible wavelength, with the ability to perform ultra-high precision astrometric measurements on distant celestial objects. SIM Lite data will address in a fundamental way questions such as characterization of Earth-mass planets around nearby stars. To accomplish these goals it is necessary to rely on a model-based systems engineering approach - much more so than most other space missions. This paper will describe in further detail the components of this end-to-end performance model, called "SIM-sim", and show how it has helped the systems engineering process.

  19. Practical precision measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Ho Chan; Lee, Hui Jun

    1999-01-01

    This book introduces basic knowledge of precision measurement, measurement of length, precision measurement of minor diameter, measurement of angles, measurement of surface roughness, three dimensional measurement, measurement of locations and shapes, measurement of screw, gear testing, cutting tools testing, rolling bearing testing, and measurement of digitalisation. It covers height gauge, how to test surface roughness, measurement of plan and straightness, external and internal thread testing, gear tooth measurement, milling cutter, tab, rotation precision measurement, and optical transducer.

  20. Measurement of the thorium absorption cross section shape near thermal energy (LWBR development program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, L.

    1976-11-01

    The shape of the thorium absorption cross section near thermal energies was investigated. This shape is dominated by one or more negative energy resonances whose parameters are not directly known, but must be inferred from higher energy data. Since the integral quantity most conveniently describing the thermal cross section shape is the Westcottg-factor, effort was directed toward establishing this quantity to high precision. Three nearly independent g-factor estimates were obtained from measurements on a variety of foils in three different neutron spectra provided by polyethylene-moderated neutrons from a 252 Cf source and from irradiations in the National Bureau of Standards ''Standard Thermal Neutron Density.'' The weighted average of the three measurements was 0.993 +- 0.004. This is in good agreement with two recent evaluations and supports the adequacy of the current cross section descriptions

  1. Measure and dimension functions: measurability and densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Pertti; Mauldin, R. Daniel

    1997-01-01

    During the past several years, new types of geometric measure and dimension have been introduced; the packing measure and dimension, see [Su], [Tr] and [TT1]. These notions are playing an increasingly prevalent role in various aspects of dynamics and measure theory. Packing measure is a sort of dual of Hausdorff measure in that it is defined in terms of packings rather than coverings. However, in contrast to Hausdorff measure, the usual definition of packing measure requires two limiting procedures, first the construction of a premeasure and then a second standard limiting process to obtain the measure. This makes packing measure somewhat delicate to deal with. The question arises as to whether there is some simpler method for defining packing measure and dimension. In this paper, we find a basic limitation on this possibility. We do this by determining the descriptive set-theoretic complexity of the packing functions. Whereas the Hausdorff dimension function on the space of compact sets is Borel measurable, the packing dimension function is not. On the other hand, we show that the packing dimension functions are measurable with respect to the [sigma]-algebra generated by the analytic sets. Thus, the usual sorts of measurability properties used in connection with Hausdorff measure, for example measures of sections and projections, remain true for packing measure.

  2. Fiscal 1998 research achievement report. Project for promoting development of super-advanced electronic technology; 1998 nendo chosentan denshi gijutsu kaihatsu sokushin jigyo seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    For the purpose of establishing super-advanced technologies two generations ahead in the field of electronics and information, research and development was carried out involving ultrafine machining process technology, technologies of ultimate measuring, analysis, and control, and technologies of electronic materials equipped with novel functions. In the study of writing systems in which writing is performed directly by an electron beam, writing technologies using electron beams under single-column and multi-column systems were taken up. In the study of ultrashort wavelength electromagnetic wave patterning systems, studies were made about equimultiple ultrashort wavelength and reduced ultrashort wavelength electromagnetic wave patterning. In the study of ultrahigh precision shielding systems, studies involved high precision in situ measurement and control of writing distortion, and ultrahigh precision and high current density electronic optical technologies. Also carried out were research and development of technologies of super-advanced plasma measurement, analysis, and control, technology of cleaning by ultrafine particle control, technology of ultrahigh sensitivity medium, and technologies of new functional elements and film fabrication. In the overall research and survey, surveys were conducted of the trends of development of technology of semiconductor related lithography. (NEDO)

  3. Measuring probe for measurement of local velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casal, V.; Arnold, G.; Kirchner, R.; Kussmaul, H.; Miller, H.

    1988-03-01

    The report describes a method for measurement of local velocities. It bases on the detection of the propagation of a temperature pulse induced into the fluid. The method can also be applied in flowing liquid metals with superimposed magnetic field; in this case common measuring principles fail application. The measuring system discussed consists of, a measuring head, a heating system, amplifiers and a PC. The latter performs process operation, data sampling, and evaluation of velocity. The measuring head itself includes a miniaturized heater (as a pulse marker) heated by the heating system in a short pulse, and a number of thermocouples (sensors) for detection of signals. The design, construction, and examination of a developed measuring device is described. (orig.) [de

  4. MEASURE FOR MEASURE: A THRICE TOLD TALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HALIMAH MOHAMED ALI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that Measure for Measure is a difficult play to perform because it has problematic themes, especially the theme of sexuality, that clash with the way of life and thinking of contemporary society. As such, any director who chooses to stage it must consider these difficulties and how to present them in a natural manner without making the audience feel that the whole production is contrived. The directors of the two major productions discussed in this paper tried their best to present a Measure for Measure that would be acceptable to the modern society. It is evident that there are many interpretations of the Duke and Isabella's characters and also of Isabella's reaction to the Duke's proposal at the end of the play. It can be concluded that no interpretation is wrong because each actor or director brings with him his own reading of the play, and every reading has been influenced by other performances and textual criticisms. Since Measure for Measure is a thematically rich play, it should not be confined to a single interpretation. The different performances of Measure for Measure have proven that theatre is experimental as well as ageless. Because it is a brilliant play with a myriad of interpretations, Measure for Measure will not cease to be a favourite for directors in times to come. It is not wrong to predict that fans of Shakespeare in general and of Measure for Measure in particular can look forward to many more productions.For experienced Shakespeare observers all performances are thrice-told tales. The perceiving eye absorbs the performance even as the mind's eye attends to the text. Both are augmented by the inner ear buzzing with those other voices, both critical and dramatic, carried by the observer into the theatre.(Crowl, Samuel 1992: 3

  5. Measuring transformers in energy measurement technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vock, E.

    2009-01-01

    This article takes a look at the use of measurement transformers in energy measurement installations in the light of electricity market liberalisation. Such equipment is quoted as being long living and capital-intensive. Increasing requirements on the installation of measurement equipment between partners in a liberalised market are examined. The requirements placed by electricity market legislation on the systems for the various grid voltage levels are discussed. Both current and voltage measurement transformers are looked at and the requirements placed on their accuracy are discussed in detail.

  6. The organizational measurement manual

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wealleans, David

    2001-01-01

    ... Relationship of process to strategic measurements Summary 37 36Contents 19/10/2000 1:23 pm Page vi vi THE ORGANIZATIONAL MEASUREMENT MANUAL 4 PART 2 ESTABLISHING A PROCESS MEASUREMENT PROGRAMME...

  7. Measurements on Hearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    1996-01-01

    Background material for measurements of hearing for grammar school pupils. The note gives the necessary background for the exercise 'Measurement on Hearing'. The topics comprise sound and decibel, the ear, basic psychoacoustics, hearing threshold, audiometric measurement methods, speech and speech...

  8. Software product quality measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Godliauskas, Eimantas

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses Ruby product quality measures, suggesting three new measures for Ruby product quality measurement tool Rubocop to measure Ruby product quality characteristics defined in ISO 2502n standard series. This paper consists of four main chapters. The first chapter gives a brief view of software product quality and software product quality measurement. The second chapter analyses object oriented quality measures. The third chapter gives a brief view of the most popular Ruby qualit...

  9. Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory is a research laboratory which complements the Optical Measurements Laboratory. The laboratory provides for Hall...

  10. Reconsidering formative measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Roy D; Breivik, Einar; Wilcox, James B

    2007-06-01

    The relationship between observable responses and the latent constructs they are purported to measure has received considerable attention recently, with particular focus on what has become known as formative measurement. This alternative to reflective measurement in the area of theory-testing research is examined in the context of the potential for interpretational confounding and a construct's ability to function as a point variable within a larger model. Although these issues have been addressed in the traditional reflective measurement context, the authors suggest that they are particularly relevant in evaluating formative measurement models. On the basis of this analysis, the authors conclude that formative measurement is not an equally attractive alternative to reflective measurement and that whenever possible, in developing new measures or choosing among alternative existing measures, researchers should opt for reflective measurement. In addition, the authors provide guidelines for researchers dealing with existing formative measures. Copyright 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Surface roughness when diamond turning RSA 905 optical aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otieno, T.; Abou-El-Hossein, K.; Hsu, W. Y.; Cheng, Y. C.; Mkoko, Z.

    2015-08-01

    Ultra-high precision machining is used intensively in the photonics industry for the production of various optical components. Aluminium alloys have proven to be advantageous and are most commonly used over other materials to make various optical components. Recently, the increasing demand from optical systems for optical aluminium with consistent material properties has led to the development of newly modified grades of aluminium alloys produced by rapid solidification in the foundry process. These new aluminium grades are characterised by their finer microstructures and refined mechanical and physical properties. However the machining database of these new optical aluminium grades is limited and more research is still required to investigate their machinability performance when they are diamond turned in ultrahigh precision manufacturing environment. This work investigates the machinability of rapidly solidified aluminium RSA 905 by varying a number of diamond-turning cutting parameters and measuring the surface roughness over a cutting distance of 4 km. The machining parameters varied in this study were the cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. The results showed a common trend of decrease in surface roughness with increasing cutting distance. The lowest surface roughness Ra result obtained after 4 km in this study was 3.2 nm. This roughness values was achieved using a cutting speed of 1750 rpm, feed rate of 5 mm/min and depth of cut equal to 25 μm.

  12. Perspectives on Measurement Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airasian, Peter W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper seeks to identify ways of making measurement more relevant to classroom teachers, and making classroom realities more apparent to measurement specialists. Measurement elements of teacher education textbooks and courses, nontraditional assessment topics, informal classroom measurement techniques, terminological issues, and three types of…

  13. Can Virtue Be Measured?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curren, Randall; Kotzee, Ben

    2014-01-01

    This article explores some general considerations bearing on the question of whether virtue can be measured. What is moral virtue? What are measurement and evaluation, and what do they presuppose about the nature of what is measured or evaluated? What are the prospective contexts of, and purposes for, measuring or evaluating virtue, and how would…

  14. Measuring Infant Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogartz, Richard S.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews three response rate measures (in a baseline measurement, immediately after acquisition, and at a long-term retention test) of infant memory that are used in experiments involving infants' conditioned kicking. Compares these measures to a new measure, the fraction of kicking rate remaining after the retention interval. Explains the…

  15. Measuring thermal neutron characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnstone, C.W.; Jacobson, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    A method for providing a background-compensated measurement of the level of inducted radiation within an earth formation is claimed. The formation is irradiated with a discrete burst of neutrons and the level of radiation in the formation measured. The level of background radiation is then measured. An average level of both measurements is obtained

  16. Radon flux measurement methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielson, K.K.; Rogers, V.C.

    1984-01-01

    Five methods for measuring radon fluxes are evaluated: the accumulator can, a small charcoal sampler, a large-area charcoal sampler, the ''Big Louie'' charcoal sampler, and the charcoal tent sampler. An experimental comparison of the five flux measurement techniques was also conducted. Excellent agreement was obtained between the measured radon fluxes and fluxes predicted from radium and emanation measurements

  17. Measurement of communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    This book is one of series of information communication, which deals with measurement of communication. It is divided into six chapters. The contents are foundation of measurement with classification and principle, Basic measurement on current, voltage, electric resistance, power and impedance, measurement of communication line with way by L3 tester, BW tester and pulse tester, measurement of optical fiber cable of equipment and method, Test and measurement of information communication equipment about test of modulator and use, measurement of cable broadcasting equipment on transmission level and main transmission equipment.

  18. Inspector measurement verification activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, R.S.; Crouch, R.

    e most difficult and complex activity facing a safeguards inspector involves the verification of measurements and the performance of the measurement system. Remeasurement is the key to measurement verification activities. Remeasurerements using the facility's measurement system provide the bulk of the data needed for determining the performance of the measurement system. Remeasurements by reference laboratories are also important for evaluation of the measurement system and determination of systematic errors. The use of these measurement verification activities in conjunction with accepted inventory verification practices provides a better basis for accepting or rejecting an inventory. (U.S.)

  19. Gyromagnetic ratios of low-lying excited states in the even 192-198Pt isotopes; experimental measurements and theoretical predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuchbery, A.E.; Ryan, C.G.; Morrison, I.; Bolotin, H.H.

    1981-01-01

    The gyromagnetic ratios of the 2 2 + and 4 1 + states in 196 Pt were measured relative to that of its 2 1 + level. The thin-foil IMPAC technique was employed utilizing the enhanced transient hyperfine magnetic field present at the nuclei of swiftly recoiling ions traversing magnetized ferromagetic materials. The states of interest were populated by Coulomb excitation using beams of 220-MeV 58 Ni ions. For g(2 1 + ) taken as 0.326+-0.014, the present measurements yielded g(2 2 + ) = 0.30+-0.06 and g(4 1 + ) 0.30+-0.05. These results and those reported by prior workers for the g-factors of corresponding levels in 192 Pt, 194 Pt, 198 Pt are used to trace the systematics of the magnetic moments of these low-lying levels in the even 192 - 198 Pt isotopes. Interacting Boson Approximation model-based calculations of the g-factors of these states were also carried out. The experimental theoretical results are compared

  20. Broadband Radiometric LED Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Eppeldauer, G. P.; Cooksey, C. C.; Yoon, H. W.; Hanssen, L. M.; Podobedov, V. B.; Vest, R. E.; Arp, U.; Miller, C. C.

    2016-01-01

    At present, broadband radiometric measurements of LEDs with uniform and low-uncertainty results are not available. Currently, either complicated and expensive spectral radiometric measurements or broadband photometric LED measurements are used. The broadband photometric measurements are based on the CIE standardized V(��) function, which cannot be used in the UV range and leads to large errors when blue or red LEDs are measured in its wings, where the realization is always poor. Reference irr...

  1. Temperature Measurements in the Magnetic Measurement Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-12-13

    Several key LCLS undulator parameter values depend strongly on temperature primarily because of the permanent magnet material the undulators are constructed with. The undulators will be tuned to have specific parameter values in the Magnetic Measurement Facility (MMF). Consequently, it is necessary for the temperature of the MMF to remain fairly constant. Requirements on undulator temperature have been established. When in use, the undulator temperature will be in the range 20.0 {+-} 0.2 C. In the MMF, the undulator tuning will be done at 20.0 {+-} 0.1 C. For special studies, the MMF temperature set point can be changed to a value between 18 C and 23 C with stability of {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure that the MMF temperature requirements are met, the MMF must have a system to measure temperatures. The accuracy of the MMF temperature measurement system must be better than the {+-}0.1 C undulator tuning temperature tolerance, and is taken to be {+-}0.01 C. The temperature measurement system for the MMF is under construction. It is similar to a prototype system we built two years ago in the Sector 10 alignment lab at SLAC. At that time, our goal was to measure the lab temperature to {+-}0.1 C. The system has worked well for two years and has maintained its accuracy. For the MMF system, we propose better sensors and a more extensive calibration program to achieve the factor of 10 increase in accuracy. In this note we describe the measurement system under construction. We motivate our choice of system components and give an overview of the system. Most of the software for the system has been written and will be discussed. We discuss error sources in temperature measurements and show how these errors have been dealt with. The calibration system is described in detail. All the LCLS undulators must be tuned in the Magnetic Measurement Facility at the same temperature to within {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure this, we are building a system to measure the temperature of the

  2. Power Curve Measurements REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Vesth, Allan

    This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here, the refere......This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here......, the reference wind speed used in the power curve is the equivalent wind speed obtained from lidar measurements at several heights between lower and upper blade tip, in combination with a hub height meteorological mast. The measurements have been performed using DTU’s measurement equipment, the analysis...

  3. Vessel size measurements in angiograms: Manual measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Kenneth R.; Dmochowski, Jacek; Nazareth, Daryl P.; Miskolczi, Laszlo; Nemes, Balazs; Gopal, Anant; Wang Zhou; Rudin, Stephen; Bednarek, Daniel R.

    2003-01-01

    Vessel size measurement is perhaps the most often performed quantitative analysis in diagnostic and interventional angiography. Although automated vessel sizing techniques are generally considered to have good accuracy and precision, we have observed that clinicians rarely use these techniques in standard clinical practice, choosing to indicate the edges of vessels and catheters to determine sizes and calibrate magnifications, i.e., manual measurements. Thus, we undertook an investigation of the accuracy and precision of vessel sizes calculated from manually indicated edges of vessels. Manual measurements were performed by three neuroradiologists and three physicists. Vessel sizes ranged from 0.1-3.0 mm in simulation studies and 0.3-6.4 mm in phantom studies. Simulation resolution functions had full-widths-at-half-maximum (FWHM) ranging from 0.0 to 0.5 mm. Phantom studies were performed with 4.5 in., 6 in., 9 in., and 12 in. image intensifier modes, magnification factor = 1, with and without zooming. The accuracy and reproducibility of the measurements ranged from 0.1 to 0.2 mm, depending on vessel size, resolution, and pixel size, and zoom. These results indicate that manual measurements may have accuracies comparable to automated techniques for vessels with sizes greater than 1 mm, but that automated techniques which take into account the resolution function should be used for vessels with sizes smaller than 1 mm

  4. Some mass measurement problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merritt, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    Concerning the problem of determining the thickness of a target, an uncomplicated approach is to measure its mass and area and take the quotient. This paper examines the mass measurement aspect of such an approach. (author)

  5. Developing Effective Performance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-14

    University When Performance Measurement Goes Bad Laziness Vanity Narcissism Too Many Pettiness Inanity 52 Developing Effective...Kasunic, October 14, 2014 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Narcissism Measuring performance from the organization’s point of view, rather than from

  6. AEROSOL AND GAS MEASUREMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements provide fundamental information for evaluating and managing the impact of aerosols on air quality. Specific measurements of aerosol concentration and their physical and chemical properties are required by different users to meet different user-community needs. Befo...

  7. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion ( ... a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived ...

  8. Estimation of measurement variances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaech, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    The estimation of measurement error parameters in safeguards systems is discussed. Both systematic and random errors are considered. A simple analysis of variances to characterize the measurement error structure with biases varying over time is presented

  9. Emissions & Measurements - Black Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions and Measurement (EM) research activities performed within the National Risk Management Research Lab NRMRL) of EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) support measurement and laboratory analysis approaches to accurately characterize source emissions, and near sour...

  10. How Is PTSD Measured?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public » Is it PTSD? » How is PTSD Measured? PTSD: National Center for PTSD Menu Menu PTSD PTSD Home For the Public ... code here Enter ZIP code here How is PTSD Measured? Public This section is for Veterans, General ...

  11. In praise of measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mermin, D.N.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: A quantum computer provides a toy universe in which to reexamine many aspects of quantum mechanics and quantum metaphysics. In particular measurement, against which John Bell unleashed one of his most elegant polemics, plays a transparent role. Since all measurements can be constructed out of identical 1-Qbit measurement gates, such obscurity as there is in the notion of measurement reduces to the obscurity, if any, of the elementary 1-Qbit gate. The 1-Qbit measurement gate is insufficiently celebrated. Without it the quantum computer has, in Abner Shimony's admirable words, 'no foreign policy'. Without it no computation has been done. without it no computation can begin. Without it there can be no error correction. Measurement takes coherence away but measurement also gives coherence. Praised be measurement. (author)

  12. Structural Measures - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of hospitals and the structural measures they report. A structural measure reflects the environment in which hospitals care for patients, for example, whether...

  13. MDS Quality Measures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of the quality measures displayed on Nursing Home Compare, excluding Measures of Rehospitalization, Emergency Room Visit, and Community Discharge. Each row...

  14. Measuring Pollution Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measuring results is an essential component of any successful P2 program and is one way to determine the success of a technical assistance or training effort. This page introduces the concept of P2 measurement.

  15. Spectrum and network measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Witte, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    This new edition of Spectrum and Network Measurements enables readers to understand the basic theory, relate it to measured results, and apply it when creating new designs. This comprehensive treatment of frequency domain measurements successfully consolidates all the pertinent theory into one text. It covers the theory and practice of spectrum and network measurements in electronic systems. It also provides thorough coverage of Fourier analysis, transmission lines, intermodulation distortion, signal-to-noise ratio and S-parameters.

  16. Temperature measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brixy, H.

    1977-01-01

    The temperature measuring device is equipped with an electric resistor installed within a metal shroud tube so as to be insulated from it, the noise voltage of which resistor is fed to a measuring unit. The measuring junctions of one or two thermocouples are connected with the electric resistor and the legs of one or both thermocouples can be connected to the measuring unit by means of a switch. (orig.) [de

  17. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Federici, Paolo

    This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2.......This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2....

  18. Strain measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 10 contributions are concerned with selected areas of application, such as strain measurements in wood, rubber/metal compounds, sets of strain measurements on buildings, reinforced concrete structures without gaps, pipes buried in the ground and measurements of pressure fluctuations. To increase the availability and safety of plant, stress analyses were made on gas turbine rotors with HT-DMS or capacitive HT-DMS (high temperature strain measurements). (DG) [de

  19. Foundations of measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Suppes, Patrick

    1989-01-01

    Foundations of Measurement offers the most coherently organized treatment of the topics and issues central to measurement. Much of the research involved has been scattered over several decades and a multitude of journals--available in many instances only to specialties. With the publication of Volumes two and three of this important work, Foundations of Measurement is the most comprehensive presentation in the area of measurement.

  20. Reconsidering Formative Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Roy D.; Breivik, Einar; Wilcox, James B.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between observable responses and the latent constructs they are purported to measure has received considerable attention recently, with particular focus on what has become known as formative measurement. This alternative to reflective measurement in the area of theory-testing research is examined in the context of the potential…

  1. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber

    This report describes the power curve measurements performed with a nacelle LIDAR on a given wind turbine in a wind farm and during a chosen measurement period. The measurements and analysis are carried out in accordance to the guidelines in the procedure “DTU Wind Energy-E-0019” [1]. The reporting...

  2. Power Curve Measurements, FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  3. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  4. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine...

  5. Standards for holdup measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Holdup measurement, needed for material balance, depend intensively on standards and on interpretation of the calibration procedure. More than other measurements, the calibration procedure using the standard becomes part of the standard. Standards practical for field use and calibration techniques have been developed. While accuracy in holdup measurements is comparatively poor, avoidance of bias is a necessary goal

  6. Coating thickness measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-12-01

    The standard specifies measurements of the coating thickness, which make use of beta backscattering and/or x-ray fluorescence. For commonly used combinations of coating material and base material the appropriate measuring ranges and radionuclides to be used are given for continuous as well as for discontinuous measurements

  7. Measuring agricultural policy bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    Measurement is a key issue in the literature on price incentive bias induced by trade policy. We introduce a general equilibrium measure of the relative effective rate of protection, which generalizes earlier protection measures. For our fifteen sample countries, results indicate that the agricul...

  8. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine...

  9. Estimation of measurement variances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    In the previous two sessions, it was assumed that the measurement error variances were known quantities when the variances of the safeguards indices were calculated. These known quantities are actually estimates based on historical data and on data generated by the measurement program. Session 34 discusses how measurement error parameters are estimated for different situations. The various error types are considered. The purpose of the session is to enable participants to: (1) estimate systematic error variances from standard data; (2) estimate random error variances from data as replicate measurement data; (3) perform a simple analysis of variances to characterize the measurement error structure when biases vary over time

  10. Measure and integration theory

    CERN Document Server

    Burckel, Robert B

    2001-01-01

    This book gives a straightforward introduction to the field as it is nowadays required in many branches of analysis and especially in probability theory. The first three chapters (Measure Theory, Integration Theory, Product Measures) basically follow the clear and approved exposition given in the author's earlier book on ""Probability Theory and Measure Theory"". Special emphasis is laid on a complete discussion of the transformation of measures and integration with respect to the product measure, convergence theorems, parameter depending integrals, as well as the Radon-Nikodym theorem. The fi

  11. Precision electroweak measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demarteau, M.

    1996-11-01

    Recent electroweak precision measurements fro e + e - and p anti p colliders are presented. Some emphasis is placed on the recent developments in the heavy flavor sector. The measurements are compared to predictions from the Standard Model of electroweak interactions. All results are found to be consistent with the Standard Model. The indirect constraint on the top quark mass from all measurements is in excellent agreement with the direct m t measurements. Using the world's electroweak data in conjunction with the current measurement of the top quark mass, the constraints on the Higgs' mass are discussed

  12. Measurement of true density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr-Brion, K.G.; Keen, E.F.

    1982-01-01

    System for determining the true density of a fluent mixture such as a liquid slurry, containing entrained gas, such as air comprises a restriction in pipe through which at least a part of the mixture is passed. Density measuring means such as gamma-ray detectors and source measure the apparent density of the mixture before and after its passage through the restriction. Solid-state pressure measuring devices are arranged to measure the pressure in the mixture before and after its passage through the restriction. Calculating means, such as a programmed microprocessor, determine the true density from these measurements using relationships given in the description. (author)

  13. Coordinate measuring machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with three exercises of 2 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercises concern three aspects of coordinate measuring: 1) Measuring and verification of tolerances on coordinate measuring machines, 2) Traceabilit...... and uncertainty during coordinate measurements, 3) Digitalisation and Reverse Engineering. This document contains a short description of each step in the exercise and schemes with room for taking notes of the results.......This document is used in connection with three exercises of 2 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercises concern three aspects of coordinate measuring: 1) Measuring and verification of tolerances on coordinate measuring machines, 2) Traceability...

  14. Performance Measurement und Environmental Performance Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Sturm, Anke

    2000-01-01

    Die Zielsetzung der vorliegenden Dissertationsschrift besteht in der Entwicklung einer systematisierten Vorgehensweise, eines Controllingmodells, zur unternehmensinternen Umweltleistungsmessung. Das entwickelte Environmental Performance Measurement (EPM)-Modell umfaßt die fünf Stufen Festlegung der Ziele der Umweltleistungsmessung (1. Stufe), Erfassung der Umwelteinflüsse nach der ökologischen Erfolgsspaltung (2. Stufe), Bewertung der Umwelteinflüsse auf der Grundlage des qualitätszielbezogen...

  15. Measurement control program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    A measurement control program for the model plant is described. The discussion includes the technical basis for such a program, the application of measurement control principles to each measurement, and the use of special experiments to estimate measurement error parameters for difficult-to-measure materials. The discussion also describes the statistical aspects of the program, and the documentation procedures used to record, maintain, and process the basic data. The purpose of the session is to enable participants to: (1) understand the criteria for this type of a measurement control program; (2) understand the kinds of physical standards required for the various measurement processes, e.g., weighing, analytical, NDA; (3) understand the need for and importance of a measurement control program; (4) understand the need for special experiments to provide an improved basis for the measurement of difficult-to-measure materials; (5) understand the general scope of the program's statistical aspects; and (6) understand the basis and scope of the documentation procedures

  16. Defect model of a tetragonal Sm sup 3 sup + center found from EPR measurements in CaF sub 2 and SrF sub 2 crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng Wen Chen; Wu Shao Yi; Tang Sheng

    2003-01-01

    The EPR parameters (g factors g sub p sub a sub r sub a sub l sub l sub e sub l , g sub p sub e sub r sub p sub e sub n sub d sub i sub c sub u sub l sub a sub r sub t sub o and hyperfine structure constants A sub p sub a sub r sub a sub l sub l sub e sub l , A sub p sub e sub r sub p sub e sub n sub d sub i sub c sub u sub l sub a sub r sub t sub o) of a tetragonal (C sub 4 sub v) Sm sup 3 sup + center in CaF sub 2 and SrF sub 2 crystals are calculated by considering the crystal-field J-mixing among the ground sup 6 H sub 5 sub / sub 2 , the first excited sup 6 H sub 7 sub / sub 2 and second excited sup 6 H sub 9 sub / sub 2 state multiplets. In the calculations the free-ion and crystal-field parameters of the tetragonal Sm sup 3 sup + -F sup - center obtained from polarized laser-selective excitation spectroscopy are used. The calculated results suggest that the tetragonal Sm sup 3 sup + -F sup - center is the Sm sup 3 sup + center found by later EPR measurements. The g factors g sub p sub a sub r sub a sub...

  17. Evaluation of accountability measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacic, C.G.

    1988-01-01

    The New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) is programmatically responsible to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Safeguards and Security (OSS) for providing independent review and evaluation of accountability measurement technology in DOE nuclear facilities. This function is addressed in part through the NBL Safegaurds Measurement Evaluation (SME) Program. The SME Program utilizes both on-site review of measurement methods along with material-specific measurement evaluation studies to provide information concerning the adequacy of subject accountability measurements. This paper reviews SME Program activities for the 1986-87 time period, with emphasis on noted improvements in measurement capabilities. Continued evolution of the SME Program to respond to changing safeguards concerns is discussed

  18. An approach to measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudder, S.P.

    1984-01-01

    A new approach to measurement theory is presented. The definition of measurement is motivated by direct laboratory procedures as they are carried out in practice. The theory is developed within the quantum logic framework. The work clarifies an important problem in the quantum logic approach; namely, where the Hilbert space comes from. The relationship between measurements and observables is considered, and a Hilbert space embedding theorem is presented. Charge systems are also discussed. (author)

  19. Decoherence and quantum measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Namiki, Mikio; Pascazio, Saverio

    1997-01-01

    The quantum measurement problem is one of the most fascinating and challenging topics in physics both theoretically and experimentally. It involves deep questions and the use of very sophisticated and elegant techniques. After analyzing the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics and of the Copenhagen interpretation, this book reviews the most important approaches to the measurement problem and rigorously reformulates the "collapse of the wave function" by measurement, as a dephasing process quantitatively characterized by an order parameter (called the decoherence parameter), according to

  20. Betatron tune measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinev, D.

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of the comparative review of the methods for the betatron tune measurement in cyclic accelerators of synchrotrons type, the research of these methods is carried out from the point of view of their applicability to Nuclotron. Both methods using measurement of the statistical fluctuations of the beam current (Schottky noise) and methods using coherent beam excitation have been discussed. The emphasis is on the final results of importance for the tune measurement practice. Signal processing is briefly discussed too

  1. Broadband radiometric LED measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppeldauer, G. P.; Cooksey, C. C.; Yoon, H. W.; Hanssen, L. M.; Podobedov, V. B.; Vest, R. E.; Arp, U.; Miller, C. C.

    2016-09-01

    At present, broadband radiometric LED measurements with uniform and low-uncertainty results are not available. Currently, either complicated and expensive spectral radiometric measurements or broadband photometric LED measurements are used. The broadband photometric measurements are based on the CIE standardized V(λ) function, which cannot be used in the UV range and leads to large errors when blue or red LEDs are measured in its wings, where the realization is always poor. Reference irradiance meters with spectrally constant response and high-intensity LED irradiance sources were developed here to implement the previously suggested broadband radiometric LED measurement procedure [1, 2]. Using a detector with spectrally constant response, the broadband radiometric quantities of any LEDs or LED groups can be simply measured with low uncertainty without using any source standard. The spectral flatness of filtered-Si detectors and low-noise pyroelectric radiometers are compared. Examples are given for integrated irradiance measurement of UV and blue LED sources using the here introduced reference (standard) pyroelectric irradiance meters. For validation, the broadband measured integrated irradiance of several LED-365 sources were compared with the spectrally determined integrated irradiance derived from an FEL spectral irradiance lamp-standard. Integrated responsivity transfer from the reference irradiance meter to transfer standard and field UV irradiance meters is discussed.

  2. Radioisotope measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva Ruibal, Jose

    2007-01-01

    A radioisotope measurement system installed at L.M.R. (Ezeiza Atomic Center of CNEA) allows the measurement of nuclear activity from a wide range of radioisotopes. It permits to characterize a broad range of radioisotopes at several activity levels. The measurement hardware as well as the driving software have been developed and constructed at the Dept. of Instrumentation and Control. The work outlines the system's conformation and its operating concept, describes design characteristics, construction and the error treatment, comments assay results and supplies use advices. Measuring tests carried out employing different radionuclides confirmed the system performing satisfactorily and with friendly operation. (author) [es

  3. Aperture area measurement facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NIST has established an absolute aperture area measurement facility for circular and near-circular apertures use in radiometric instruments. The facility consists of...

  4. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more help with what ...

  5. Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML) is one of the nation's leading research facilities for understanding aerosols, clouds, and their interactions. The AML...

  6. Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory is equipped to investigate and characterize the lasing properties of semiconductor diode lasers. Lasing features such...

  7. The attribute measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Langner, Diana; Smith, Morag; Thron, Jonathan; Razinkov, Sergey; Livke, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Any verification measurement performed on potentially classified nuclear material must satisfy two seemingly contradictory constraints. First and foremost, no classified information can be released. At the same time, the monitoring party must have confidence in the veracity of the measurement. An information barrier (IB) is included in the measurement system to protect the potentially classified information while allowing sufficient information transfer to occur for the monitoring party to gain confidence that the material being measured is consistent with the host's declarations, concerning that material. The attribute measurement technique incorporates an IB and addresses both concerns by measuring several attributes of the nuclear material and displaying unclassified results through green (indicating that the material does possess the specified attribute) and red (indicating that the material does not possess the specified attribute) lights. The attribute measurement technique has been implemented in the AVNG, an attribute measuring system described in other presentations at this conference. In this presentation, we will discuss four techniques used in the AVNG: (1) the 1B, (2) the attribute measurement technique, (3) the use of open and secure modes to increase confidence in the displayed results, and (4) the joint design as a method for addressing both host and monitor needs.

  8. Measuring School Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra L. Muller PhD

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes issues in measuring school contexts with an eye toward understanding students’ experiences and outcomes. I begin with an overview of the conceptual underpinnings related to measuring contexts, briefly describe the initiatives at the National Center for Education Statistics to measure school contexts, and identify possible gaps in those initiatives that if filled could provide valuable new data for researchers. Next, I discuss new approaches and opportunities for measurement, and special considerations related to diverse populations and youth development. I conclude with recommendations for future priorities.

  9. Luminosity measurement at AMY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Y.

    1995-01-01

    A precise measurement of a luminosity is required by experiments with high statistics. The largest sources of a systematic error of a luminosity measurement are an alignment of the tube chambers which measure a polar angle of Bhabha events and a higher order correction for the Bhabha cross section calculation. We describe a resent study for these uncertainties and how to reduce the systematic errors from these sources. The total systematic error of the luminosity measurement of 1.8% can be reduced to 1.0% by this study. (author)

  10. Young Measures and Compactness in Measure Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Florescu, Liviu C

    2012-01-01

    Many problems in science can be formulated in the language of optimization theory, in which case an optimal solution or the best response to a particular situation is required. In situations of interest, such classical optimal solutions are lacking, or at least, the existence of such solutions is far from easy to prove. So, non-convex optimization problems may not possess a classical solution because approximate solutions typically show rapid oscillations. This phenomenon requires the extension of such problems' solution often constructed by means of Young measures. This book is written to int

  11. The use of single-crystal iron frames in transient field measurements, ch. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalm, P.C.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental technique for measuring g-factors of short-lived states (tausub(m)=0.1-10 ps) is discussed. In this method, one uses the strong hyperfine interaction caused by the transient magnetic field. The transient field method dates from 1967. A gain in measuring time of at least a factor of four is shown to be obtained by the use of a single crystal iron frame as a ferromagnetic target backing in which the excited nuclei, formed in a nuclear reaction, recoil. Such frames can be fully magnetized with low external fields as shown by magneto-optical Kerr-effect measurements. The important improvement is that the associated magnetic fringing field near the target is negligible. This is in contrast to the conventional set-up in which strong external fields, with corresponding large disturbing fringing fields, were necessary. The single-crystal set-up is compared to the conventional set-up in several transient field experiments and proves to be successful

  12. Regularities of Multifractal Measures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First, we prove the decomposition theorem for the regularities of multifractal Hausdorff measure and packing measure in R R d . This decomposition theorem enables us to split a set into regular and irregular parts, so that we can analyze each separately, and recombine them without affecting density properties. Next, we ...

  13. Similarity Measure of Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Labriji

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The topic of identifying the similarity of graphs was considered as highly recommended research field in the Web semantic, artificial intelligence, the shape recognition and information research. One of the fundamental problems of graph databases is finding similar graphs to a graph query. Existing approaches dealing with this problem are usually based on the nodes and arcs of the two graphs, regardless of parental semantic links. For instance, a common connection is not identified as being part of the similarity of two graphs in cases like two graphs without common concepts, the measure of similarity based on the union of two graphs, or the one based on the notion of maximum common sub-graph (SCM, or the distance of edition of graphs. This leads to an inadequate situation in the context of information research. To overcome this problem, we suggest a new measure of similarity between graphs, based on the similarity measure of Wu and Palmer. We have shown that this new measure satisfies the properties of a measure of similarities and we applied this new measure on examples. The results show that our measure provides a run time with a gain of time compared to existing approaches. In addition, we compared the relevance of the similarity values obtained, it appears that this new graphs measure is advantageous and  offers a contribution to solving the problem mentioned above.

  14. Measures of Pleasures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J. Magala (Slawomir)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractMeasuring culture originated in cultural anthropology, but all social sciences contributed to comparative cultural studies. Tracing critical approaches towards a measurement of cultural values one is bound to strip the biases and stereotypes bare and to invade numerous academic fiefs.

  15. Measuring Mobile Phone Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boase, Jeff; Ling, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we examine how well two types of self-report measures adequately operationalize frequency of mobile phone use by comparing them to server log data. Our self-report measures of voice and SMS text messaging activity are drawn from a nationally representative survey of adults living...

  16. Mechanical Measurements Laboratory

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    The CERN mechanical measurements team check the sensors on one of the ATLAS inner detector end-caps using high precision measurement equipment. Remote checks like this must be made on these sensitive detector components before they can be transported to make sure that all systems are working correctly.

  17. Auditing measurement control programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, F.P.; Brouns, R.J.

    1979-10-01

    Requirements and a general procedure for auditing measurement control programs used in special nuclear material accounting are discussed. The areas of measurement control that need to be examined are discussed and a suggested checklist is included to assist in the preparation and performance of the audit

  18. Measuring Relational Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Patricia A.; Dumas, Denis; Grossnickle, Emily M.; List, Alexandra; Firetto, Carla M.

    2016-01-01

    Relational reasoning is the foundational cognitive ability to discern meaningful patterns within an informational stream, but its reliable and valid measurement remains problematic. In this investigation, the measurement of relational reasoning unfolded in three stages. Stage 1 entailed the establishment of a research-based conceptualization of…

  19. Measurement of surface roughness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with two 3 hours laboratory exercises that are part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The laboratories include a demonstration of the function of roughness measuring instruments plus a series of exercises illustrating roughness measurement...

  20. Measuring regional authority

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marks, G.W.; Hooghe, E.A.E.B.; Schakel, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    This article sets out a conceptual basis for measuring regional authority and engages basic measurement issues. Regional authority is disaggregated into two domains (self-rule and shared rule) and these are operationalised in eight dimensions. The article concludes by examining the robustness of

  1. Meteorological measurements. Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Y. Hollinger

    2008-01-01

    Environmental measurements are useful for detecting climatic trends, understanding how the environment influences biological processes, and as input to ecosystem models. Landscape-scale monitoring requires a suite of environmental measures for all of these purposes, including air and soil temperature, humidity, wind speed, precipitation and soil moisture, and different...

  2. Metrology Measurement Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Glen E. Gronniger

    2007-10-02

    This document contains descriptions of Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each measurement capability. Metrology provides NIST traceable precision measurements or equipment calibration for a wide variety of parameters, ranges, and state-of-the-art uncertainties. Metrology laboratories conform to the requirements of the Department of Energy Development and Production Manual Chapter 13.2, ANSI/ISO/IEC ANSI/ISO/IEC 17025:2005, and ANSI/NCSL Z540-1. FM&T Metrology laboratories are accredited by NVLAP for the parameters, ranges, and uncertainties listed in the specific scope of accreditation under NVLAP Lab code 200108-0. See the Internet at http://ts.nist.gov/Standards/scopes/2001080.pdf. These parameters are summarized. The Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Metrology Department has developed measurement technology and calibration capability in four major fields of measurement: (1) Mechanical; (2) Environmental, Gas, Liquid; (3) Electrical (DC, AC, RF/Microwave); and (4) Optical and Radiation. Metrology Engineering provides the expertise to develop measurement capabilities for virtually any type of measurement in the fields listed above. A strong audit function has been developed to provide a means to evaluate the calibration programs of our suppliers and internal calibration organizations. Evaluation includes measurement audits and technical surveys.

  3. Low Absorbance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, T. D.; Williams, A. M.

    1983-10-01

    The application of low absorption measurements to dilute solute determination requires specific instrumental characteristics. The use of laser intracavity absorption and thermal lens calorimetry to measure concentration is shown. The specific operating parameters that determine sensitivity are delineated along with the limits different measurement strategies impose. Finally areas of improvement in components that would result in improve sensitivity, accuracy, and reliability are discussed. During the past decade, a large number of methods have been developed for measuring the light absorbed by transparent materials. These include measurements on gases, liquids, and solids. The activity has been prompted by a variety of applications and a similar variety of disciplines. In Table 1 some representative examples of these methods is shown along with their published detection limits.1 It is clear that extraordinarily small absorbances can be measured. Most of the methods can be conveniently divided into two groups. These groups are those that measure the transmission of the sample and those that measure the light absorbed by the sample. The light absorbed methods are calorimetric in character. The advantages and disadvantages of each method varies depending on the principal application for which they were developed. The most prevalent motivation has been to characterize the bulk optical properties of transparent materials. Two examples are the development of extremely transparent glasses for use as fiber optic materials and the development of substrates for high power laser operation.

  4. Dynamics via measurability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Generators f for σ -algebras can be used to view the dynamics of an invertible measurable transformation T in terms of the range values of f ∘ T . Such generators are the norm rather than the exception. Related measurable and quantitative methods of estimating a function from the behavior of ergodic averages are also discussed.

  5. Global Precipitation Measurement Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarbarzin, Art

    2010-01-01

    This poster presents an overview of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) constellation of satellites which are designed to measure the Earth's precipitation. It includes the schedule of launches for the various satellites in the constellation, and the coverage of the constellation, It also reviews the mission capabilities, and the mission science objectives.

  6. Measuring internet skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Research that considers Internet skills often lacks theoretical justifications and does not go beyond basic button knowledge. There is a strong need for a measurement framework that can guide future research. In this article, operational definitions for measuring Internet skills are proposed,

  7. Measurement in Sustainable Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, Lara

    2018-01-01

    Measurement is a necessary aspect of planning and constructing buildings. However, recent attempts to integrate the social dimension of sustainable building into building design and specifications demand measurement of non-technical qualities, such as well-being. The Active House Alliance, in lieu...... and continued provision of sustainable buildings to market demand....

  8. Measuring bothersome menopausal symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Kamma Sundgaard; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The experience of menopausal symptoms is common and an adequate patient-reported outcome measure is crucial in studies where women are treated for these symptoms. The aims of this study were to identify a patient-reported outcome measure for bothersome menopausal symptoms and, in the ...

  9. Measuring Authoritative Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertesvag, Sigrun K.

    2011-01-01

    High quality measurements are important to evaluate interventions. The study reports on the development of a measurement to investigate authoritative teaching understood as a two-dimensional construct of warmth and control. Through the application of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modelling (SEM) the factor structure…

  10. Measuring innovative work behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J.; den Hartog, D.

    2010-01-01

    Both scientists and practitioners emphasize the importance of innovative work behaviour (IWB) of individual employees for organizational success, but the measurement of IWB is still at an evolutionary stage. This article is concerned with developed a measure of IWB with four potential dimensions:

  11. Measuring News Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksl, Adam; Ashley, Seth; Craft, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    News media literacy refers to the knowledge and motivations needed to identify and engage with journalism. This study measured levels of news media literacy among 500 teenagers using a new scale measure based on Potter's model of media literacy and adapted to news media specifically. The adapted model posits that news media literate individuals…

  12. Measures of Biochemical Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel; Marsh, Mitchell

    2008-01-01

    In a previous article, the authors introduced a new sub field in sociology that we labeled "biochemical sociology." We introduced the definition of a sociology that encompasses sociological measures, psychological measures, and biological indicators Snell & Marsh (2003). In this article, we want to demonstrate a research strategy that would assess…

  13. Measures of Student Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Beginning in the 2017-2018 school year, appraisal systems in Texas, whether the state-recommended system or a locally developed system, will need to include a measure of student growth at the individual teacher level. Student growth measures how much a student progresses academically during his or her time with a particular teacher. It takes into…

  14. Measuring irradiation creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelah, I.

    1981-03-01

    Simulation of fusion-neutron induced damage by beams of light ions is discussed. It is suggested that accelerated creep measurements to determine ''end of life'' of materials may be done by the application of thermal treatment and thermal creep measurements. (author)

  15. Aerial measurements in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, I.; Thomas, M.; Buchroeder, H.; Brummer, C. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin (Germany); Carloff, G. [German Federal Border Police, Grenzschutz-Fliegergruppe, Sankt Augustin (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Aerial measurements were performed to determine the {sup 137}Cs soil contamination in a given region to detect unknown radiation sources and to assess their activity. For these measurements a computerized gamma ray spectrometer, equipped with a high purity Ge-semiconductor detector and a 12 l volume Nal(Tl)-detector was used. HPGe-detector measurements from different altitudes over area I were done to test and re-calibrate the aerial measuring system. The known {sup 137}Cs contamination of (50.7 {+-} 5.2) kBq m{sup -2} could be confirmed by the measured value of (57 {+-} 10) kBq m{sup -2}. the Nal(Tl)-detector was re-calibrated at that site for further {sup 137}Cs measurements over area II. The area II was surveyed from an altitude of about 70 m and at a parallel line distance of 150 m at an flying speed of 100 km h{sup -1} to determine the {sup 137}Cs soil contamination. The measuring time was two seconds for the Nal(Tl)-detector. For the spectra measured with the HPGe-detector, a measuring time of 30 s each was chosen. From the Nal(Tl)-measurements, a mean {sup 137}Cs value of (60 {+-} 20) kBq m{sup -2} was determined with a maximum value of 90 kBq m{sup -2}. The corresponding values measured by HPGe-detector were (70 {+-} 20) kBq m{sup -2} and 120 kBq m{sup -2}, respectively. For the evaluation of the HPGe-spectra a depth distribution parameter {alpha}/{rho} = (0.44 {+-} 0.21) cm{sup 2} g{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs was used measured from soil samples. From data measured with the Nal(Tl)-detector during flights over area III, three{sup 60}Co-sources and one {sup 137}Cs source could be detected, localized and their activity assessed. By HPGe-detector measurements, only scattered {sup 192}lr radiation was registered. (au).

  16. Aerial measurements in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, I; Thomas, M; Buchroeder, H; Brummer, C [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin (Germany); Carloff, G [German Federal Border Police, Grenzschutz-Fliegergruppe, Sankt Augustin (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Aerial measurements were performed to determine the {sup 137}Cs soil contamination in a given region to detect unknown radiation sources and to assess their activity. For these measurements a computerized gamma ray spectrometer, equipped with a high purity Ge-semiconductor detector and a 12 l volume Nal(Tl)-detector was used. HPGe-detector measurements from different altitudes over area I were done to test and re-calibrate the aerial measuring system. The known {sup 137}Cs contamination of (50.7 {+-} 5.2) kBq m{sup -2} could be confirmed by the measured value of (57 {+-} 10) kBq m{sup -2}. the Nal(Tl)-detector was re-calibrated at that site for further {sup 137}Cs measurements over area II. The area II was surveyed from an altitude of about 70 m and at a parallel line distance of 150 m at an flying speed of 100 km h{sup -1} to determine the {sup 137}Cs soil contamination. The measuring time was two seconds for the Nal(Tl)-detector. For the spectra measured with the HPGe-detector, a measuring time of 30 s each was chosen. From the Nal(Tl)-measurements, a mean {sup 137}Cs value of (60 {+-} 20) kBq m{sup -2} was determined with a maximum value of 90 kBq m{sup -2}. The corresponding values measured by HPGe-detector were (70 {+-} 20) kBq m{sup -2} and 120 kBq m{sup -2}, respectively. For the evaluation of the HPGe-spectra a depth distribution parameter {alpha}/{rho} = (0.44 {+-} 0.21) cm{sup 2} g{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs was used measured from soil samples. From data measured with the Nal(Tl)-detector during flights over area III, three{sup 60}Co-sources and one {sup 137}Cs source could be detected, localized and their activity assessed. By HPGe-detector measurements, only scattered {sup 192}lr radiation was registered. (au).

  17. Dose measurements in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainberger, F.; Kallinger, W.

    1977-01-01

    Dose measurements at the mamma during mammography were carried out in the form of direct measurement with thermoluminescent dosimetry. Measurement was done for the in- and outcoming doses at the mamma, the dose exposure of the sternal region and the scattered rays above the symphysis, the latter as parameter for the genetic radiation exposure. As expected, the dose of the smooth radiation used for mammography showed a strong decrease at the outcome point in comparison with the income point. Surprisingly high was the scattered radiation in the sternal region. A corresponding protection by lead plates could be taken into consideration. Extremely low is the scattered radiation above the symphysis. Even measurements with the very sensitive calcium fluoride dosimeters did not reveal any practically important dose in the symphysis region. Most measurement values remained below the determinable dose of 0.3mR. Some maximal values varied in the range of 3-1 mR. (orig.) [de

  18. Solar cell efficiency measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostoja, P.

    1989-01-01

    Solar cells (and solar modules) have to be tested for their performance by means of sound reliable measurement procedures. The need for such measurements arises at various stages of research, of production, and of photovoltaic systems sizing and dimensioning. In fact, accurate measurements are necessary to the researcher, who studies new materials and new processes, to the manufacturer, who has to control his product and, finally, to the user, who needs sound measurements, in order to be in a position to make effective decisions about what kink of product will be needed and with what critical characteristics. In short, standard measurements that allow cells and modules to be characterized serve as a common language, allowing effective communication about products and requirements. 3 refs

  19. Measurement environments and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin, A. C.

    1991-06-01

    The various methods used to assess both the emission (interference generation) performance of electronic equipment and the immunity of electronic equipment to external electromagnetic interference are described. The measurement methods attempt to simulate realistic operating conditions for the equipment being tested, yet at the same time they must be repeatable and practical to operate. This has led to the development of a variety of test methods, each of which has its limitations. Concentration is on the most common measurement methods such as open-field test sites, screened enclosures and transverse electromagnetic (TEM) cells. The physical justification for the methods, their limitations, and measurement precision are described. Ways of relating similar measurements made by different methods are discussed, and some thoughts on future measurement improvements are presented.

  20. Standardization of radon measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuszek, J.M.; Hutchinson, J.A.; Lance, B.H.; Virgil, M.G.; Mahoney, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    Radon escaping from soil into homes appears to present the single greatest source of radiation exposure that most people will ever face. Measurement protocols for the relatively inert gas inextricably link the method of collection with the counting of the specimen. The most commonly used methods depend on the measurement of dislocation sites on plastic α-track detectors or on the adsorption of radon onto activated charcoal for subsequent counting of the γ-rays produced by decay of the radon progeny. The uncertainties inherent to the radon-measurement methods used commercially in the United States are far greater than those for measurements of other environmental radionuclides. The results of this preliminary study raise doubts as to whether existing proficiency-testing programs can provide assurance that radon-measurement methods are representative of actual conditions in any dwelling. 17 refs., 1 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Measurement uncertainty and probability

    CERN Document Server

    Willink, Robin

    2013-01-01

    A measurement result is incomplete without a statement of its 'uncertainty' or 'margin of error'. But what does this statement actually tell us? By examining the practical meaning of probability, this book discusses what is meant by a '95 percent interval of measurement uncertainty', and how such an interval can be calculated. The book argues that the concept of an unknown 'target value' is essential if probability is to be used as a tool for evaluating measurement uncertainty. It uses statistical concepts, such as a conditional confidence interval, to present 'extended' classical methods for evaluating measurement uncertainty. The use of the Monte Carlo principle for the simulation of experiments is described. Useful for researchers and graduate students, the book also discusses other philosophies relating to the evaluation of measurement uncertainty. It employs clear notation and language to avoid the confusion that exists in this controversial field of science.

  2. ORDERED WEIGHTED DISTANCE MEASURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeshui XU; Jian CHEN

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop an ordered weighted distance (OWD) measure, which is thegeneralization of some widely used distance measures, including the normalized Hamming distance, the normalized Euclidean distance, the normalized geometric distance, the max distance, the median distance and the min distance, etc. Moreover, the ordered weighted averaging operator, the generalized ordered weighted aggregation operator, the ordered weighted geometric operator, the averaging operator, the geometric mean operator, the ordered weighted square root operator, the square root operator, the max operator, the median operator and the min operator axe also the special cases of the OWD measure. Some methods depending on the input arguments are given to determine the weights associated with the OWD measure. The prominent characteristic of the OWD measure is that it can relieve (or intensify) the influence of unduly large or unduly small deviations on the aggregation results by assigning them low (or high) weights. This desirable characteristic makes the OWD measure very suitable to be used in many actual fields, including group decision making, medical diagnosis, data mining, and pattern recognition, etc. Finally, based on the OWD measure, we develop a group decision making approach, and illustrate it with a numerical example.

  3. DOAS urban pollution measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.K.; Vossler, T.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that during July and August of 1990, a differential optical absorption spectrometer (DOAS) made by OPSIS Inc., was used to measure gaseous air pollutants over three separate open paths in Atlanta, GA. Over path 1 and path 2, ozone (O 3 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitrous acid (HNO 2 ), formaldehyde (HCHO), benzene, toluene, and o-xylene were measured. Nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH 3 ) were monitored over path 3 (143 m). The data quality and data capture depended on the compound being measured and the path over which it was measured. Data quality criteria for each compound were chosen such that the average relative standard deviation would be less than 25%. Data capture ranged from 43% for o-xylene for path 1 to 95% for ozone for path 2. Benzene, toluene, and o-xylene concentrations measured over path 2, which crossed over an interstate highway, were higher than concentrations measured over path 1, implicating emissions from vehicles on the highway as a significant source of these compounds. Federal Reference Method (FRM) instruments were located near the DOAS light receivers and measurements of O 3 , NO 2 , and NO were made concurrently with the DOAS. Correlation coefficients greater than 0.85 were obtained between the DOAS and FRM's; however, there was a difference between the mean values obtained by the two methods for O 3 and NO. A gas chromatograph for measuring volatile organic compounds was operated next to the FRM's. Correlation coefficients of about 0.66 were obtained between the DOAS and GC measurements of benzene and o-xylene

  4. Mathematics and Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, R F; Donahue, M J; Lozier, D W; McMichael, R; Rust, B W

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we describe the role that mathematics plays in measurement science at NIST. We first survey the history behind NIST's current work in this area, starting with the NBS Math Tables project of the 1930s. We then provide examples of more recent efforts in the application of mathematics to measurement science, including the solution of ill-posed inverse problems, characterization of the accuracy of software for micromagnetic modeling, and in the development and dissemination of mathematical reference data. Finally, we comment on emerging issues in measurement science to which mathematicians will devote their energies in coming years.

  5. Nuclear lifetime measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaume, Georges

    Three direct techniques of lifetime measurement are emphasized: electronic methods and two methods based on the Doppler effect (the recoil distance methods or RDM, the Doppler shift attenuation methods or DSAM). Said direct methods are concerned with the direct measurement of the radioactive decay constants of nuclear excited states. They allow lifetimes of nucleus bound states whose deexcitations occur by electromagnetic transitions, to be determined. Other methods for measuring lifetimes are also examined: microwave techniques and those involving the blocking effect in crystals (direct methods) and also various indirect methods of obtaining lifetimes (γ resonance scattering, capture reactions, inelastic electron and nucleus scattering, and Coulomb deexcitation) [fr

  6. Spectroelectrochemical Instrument Measures TOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounaves, Sam

    2011-01-01

    A spectroelectrochemical instrument has been developed for measuring the total organic carbon (TOC) content of an aqueous solution. Measurements of TOC are frequently performed in environmental, clinical, and industrial settings. Until now, techniques for performing such measurements have included, various ly, the use of hazardous reagents, ultraviolet light, or ovens, to promote reactions in which the carbon contents are oxidized. The instrument now being developed is intended to be a safer, more economical means of oxidizing organic carbon and determining the TOC levels of aqueous solutions and for providing a low power/mass unit for use in planetary missions.

  7. Measurement of weak radioactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Theodorsson , P

    1996-01-01

    This book is intended for scientists engaged in the measurement of weak alpha, beta, and gamma active samples; in health physics, environmental control, nuclear geophysics, tracer work, radiocarbon dating etc. It describes the underlying principles of radiation measurement and the detectors used. It also covers the sources of background, analyzes their effect on the detector and discusses economic ways to reduce the background. The most important types of low-level counting systems and the measurement of some of the more important radioisotopes are described here. In cases where more than one type can be used, the selection of the most suitable system is shown.

  8. Measurement of plasma parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The physics issues of the measurements of the plasma properties necessary to provide both the control and science data for achieving the goals of the ITER device are discussed. The assessment of the requirements for these measurements is first discussed, together with priorities that relate to the experimental program. Subsequently, some of the proposed measurement techniques, the plasma diagnostics, are described with particular emphasis on their implementation on ITER and their capability to meet the requirements. A judgement on the present status of the diagnostic program on ITER is provided with some indication of the research and development program necessary to demonstrate viability of techniques or their implementation. (author)

  9. Measurements of smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, F.P.; Geusebroek, M.; Kos, G.P.A.; Van Egmond, B.F.

    2005-02-01

    For Euromate measurements are performed at 21 December 2004, in order to characterize their new smoking chamber 'rookabri S+G2'. At location gas analysis and particle measurements are performed. A number of off-line sampled organic smoke trace compounds were analysed at our laboratory. Sampling and measurements were performed at different smoke levels with 0, 2, 4 and 6 smoking volunteers. The smoke-abri is a specially designed space for smokers in which the environment is cleared from tobacco smoke and odor [nl

  10. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    In a method for performing a refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid such as chemical composition or temperature by observing an apparent angular shift in an interference fringe pattern produced by back or forward scattering interferometry, ambiguities in the measurement caused...... by the apparent shift being consistent with one of a number of numerical possibilities for the real shift which differ by 2n are resolved by combining measurements performed on the same sample using light paths therethrough of differing lengths....

  11. Cardiac output measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Möller Petrun

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, developments in the measuring of cardiac output and other haemodynamic variables are focused on the so-called minimally invasive methods. The aim of these methods is to simplify the management of high-risk and haemodynamically unstable patients. Due to the need of invasive approach and the possibility of serious complications the use of pulmonary artery catheter has decreased. This article describes the methods for measuring cardiac output, which are based on volume measurement (Fick method, indicator dilution method, pulse wave analysis, Doppler effect, and electrical bioimpedance.

  12. RF impedance measurement calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, P.J.; Song, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    The intent of this note is not to explain all of the available calibration methods in detail. Instead, we will focus on the calibration methods of interest for RF impedance coupling measurements and attempt to explain: (1). The standards and measurements necessary for the various calibration techniques. (2). The advantages and disadvantages of each technique. (3). The mathematical manipulations that need to be applied to the measured standards and devices. (4). An outline of the steps needed for writing a calibration routine that operated from a remote computer. For further details of the various techniques presented in this note, the reader should consult the references

  13. Sources of Variation in Sweat Chloride Measurements in Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Scott M.; Raraigh, Karen S.; Corvol, Harriet; Rommens, Johanna M.; Pace, Rhonda G.; Boelle, Pierre-Yves; McGready, John; Sosnay, Patrick R.; Strug, Lisa J.; Knowles, Michael R.; Cutting, Garry R.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Expanding the use of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) potentiators and correctors for the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) requires precise and accurate biomarkers. Sweat chloride concentration provides an in vivo assessment of CFTR function, but it is unknown the degree to which CFTR mutations account for sweat chloride variation. Objectives: To estimate potential sources of variation for sweat chloride measurements, including demographic factors, testing variability, recording biases, and CFTR genotype itself. Methods: A total of 2,639 sweat chloride measurements were obtained in 1,761 twins/siblings from the CF Twin-Sibling Study, French CF Modifier Gene Study, and Canadian Consortium for Genetic Studies. Variance component estimation was performed by nested mixed modeling. Measurements and Main Results: Across the tested CF population as a whole, CFTR gene mutations were found to be the primary determinant of sweat chloride variability (56.1% of variation) with contributions from variation over time (e.g., factors related to testing on different days; 13.8%), environmental factors (e.g., climate, family diet; 13.5%), other residual factors (e.g., test variability; 9.9%), and unique individual factors (e.g., modifier genes, unique exposures; 6.8%) (likelihood ratio test, P < 0.001). Twin analysis suggested that modifier genes did not play a significant role because the heritability estimate was negligible (H2 = 0; 95% confidence interval, 0.0–0.35). For an individual with CF, variation in sweat chloride was primarily caused by variation over time (58.1%) with the remainder attributable to residual/random factors (41.9%). Conclusions: Variation in the CFTR gene is the predominant cause of sweat chloride variation; most of the non-CFTR variation is caused by testing variability and unique environmental factors. If test precision and accuracy can be improved, sweat chloride measurement could be a valuable biomarker

  14. Parameter measurement of target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Dangzhong

    2001-01-01

    The progress of parameter measurement of target (ICF-15) in 1999 are presented, including the design and contract of the microsphere equator profiler, the precise air bearing manufacturing, high-resolution X-ray image of multi-layer shells and the X-ray photos processed with special image and data software, some plastic shells measured in precision of 0.3 μm, the high-resolution observation and photograph system of 'dew-point method', special fixture of target and its temperature distribution measuring, the dew-point temperature and fuel gas pressure of shells measuring with internal pressure of 5 - 15 (x10 5 ) Pa D 2 and wall thickness of 1.5∼3 μm

  15. Bioelectric Signal Measuring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadarrama-Santana, A.; Pólo-Parada, L.; García-Valenzuela, A.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a low noise measuring system based on interdigitated electrodes for sensing bioelectrical signals. The system registers differential voltage measurements in order of microvolts. The base noise during measurements was in nanovolts and thus, the sensing signals presented a very good signal to noise ratio. An excitation voltage of 1Vrms with 10 KHz frequency was applied to an interdigitated capacitive sensor without a material under test and to a mirror device simultaneously. The output signals of both devices was then subtracted in order to obtain an initial reference value near cero volts and reduce parasitic capacitances due to the electronics, wiring and system hardware as well. The response of the measuring system was characterized by monitoring temporal bioelectrical signals in real time of biological materials such as embryo chicken heart cells and bovine suprarenal gland cells.

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test is a simple way to measure relative intensity. ...

  17. Measuring Entrepreneurial Ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, F.C.

    How can entrepreneurial ecosystems and productive entrepreneurship can be traced empirically and how is entrepreneurship related to entrepreneurial ecosystems. The analyses in this chapter show the value of taking a systems view on the context of entrepreneurship. We measure entrepreneurial

  18. Dilepton Measurements with CERES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin,A.; Rehak, P. et al.

    2007-07-09

    We report on dilepton measurements for central Pb on Au collisions at the top CERN SPS energy with the upgraded CERES experiment. The dilepton mass spectrum of 2000 data with improved mass resolution shows an enhancement over the expectation from hadron decays that is well described by a model including a strong broadening of the {rho} spectral function. The measured excess yield excludes the dropping mass scenario. We also report on the {phi} meson measured simultaneously both in the K{sup +}K{sup -} and in the dilepton decay channel for the first time in high energy heavy-ion collisions. An excellent agreement is found between the rapidity densities and the shape of the measured transverse momentum spectrum. The data rule out a possible enhancement of the {phi} yield in the leptonic over hadronic channel by a factor larger than 1.6 at 95% CL. CERES results are in agreement with NA49 results.

  19. Measure Evaluation Dataverse

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The MEASURE Evaluation Dataverse is a collection of innovative evaluation data sets assembled in order to increase the evidence-base on program impact and evaluate...

  20. Littoral Measurements Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Barny units measure ocean currents and sea surface heights on continental shelves and in ocean straits. SEPTR units are similar to Barnys but also record...

  1. Measurement of leached hulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, T.D.

    1979-07-01

    Leached hulls are the short lengths of fuel rod cladding and fuel element hardware which constitute a major waste product of a reprocessing plant employing a chop-and-leach head-end process. The small, undissolved fuel residue (0.1 to 1.0% of original fuel content) which is discarded with this waste must be measured for safeguards, material accountability, and process control reasons. This report gives a critical analysis of hull measurement techniques involving the analysis of fission product gamma rays, spontaneous fission neutrons from curium, and delayed neutron activation. Major emphasis is given to the measurement of 2186-keV gamma rays from 144 Ce-- 144 Pr. A detailed description of typical leached hull characteristics is presented at the beginning of the report. An extensive review of experience gained from existing hull measurement systems in the United Kingdom, France, Japan, Germany, Italy, and the United States is presented

  2. Statistical Measures of Marksmanship

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Richard

    2001-01-01

    .... This report describes objective statistical procedures to measure both rifle marksmanship accuracy, the proximity of an array of shots to the center of mass of a target, and marksmanship precision...

  3. Pulse holographic measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Baik, Seong Hoon; Hong, Seok Kyung; Kim, Jeong Moog; Kim, Duk Hyun

    1992-01-01

    With the development of laser, remote inspection techniques using laser have been growing on. The inspection and measurement techniques by pulse holography are well-established technique for precise measurement, and widely used in various fields of industry now. In nuclear industry, this technology is practically used because holographic inspection is remote, noncontact, and precise measurement technique. In relation to remote inspection technology in nuclear industry, state-of-the art of pulse HNDT (Holographic non-destructive testing) and holographic measurement techniques are examined. First of all, the fundamental principles as well as practical problems for applications are briefly described. The fields of pulse holography have been divided into the HNDT, flow visualization and distribution study, and other application techniques. Additionally holographic particle study, bubble chamber holography, and applications to other visualization techniques are described. Lastly, the current status for the researches and applications of pulse holography to nuclear industry which are carried out actively in Europe and USA, is described. (Author)

  4. Measurement theory for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Gertsbakh, Ilya

    2003-01-01

    The emphasis of this textbook is on industrial applications of Statistical Measurement Theory. It deals with the principal issues of measurement theory, is concise and intelligibly written, and to a wide extent self-contained. Difficult theoretical issues are separated from the mainstream presentation. Each topic starts with an informal introduction followed by an example, the rigorous problem formulation, solution method, and a detailed numerical solution. Each chapter concludes with a set of exercises of increasing difficulty, mostly with solutions. The book is meant as a text for graduate students and a reference for researchers and industrial experts specializing in measurement and measurement data analysis for quality control, quality engineering and industrial process improvement using statistical methods. Knowledge of calculus and fundamental probability and statistics is required for the understanding of its contents.

  5. Measuring Agricultural Bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    The measurement issue is the key issue in the literature on trade policy-induced agri-cultural price incentive bias. This paper introduces a general equilibrium effective rate of protection (GE-ERP) measure, which extends and generalizes earlier partial equilibrium nominal protection measures...... shares and intersectoral linkages - are crucial for determining the sign and magnitude of trade policy bias. The GE-ERP measure is therefore uniquely suited to capture the full impact of trade policies on agricultural price incentives. A Monte Carlo procedure confirms that the results are robust....... For the 15 sample countries, the results indicate that the agricultural price incentive bias, which was generally perceived to exist during the 1980s, was largely eliminated during the 1990s. The results also demonstrate that general equilibrium effects and country-specific characteristics - including trade...

  6. Environmental Measurements and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental measurement is any data collection activity involving the assessment of chemical, physical, or biological factors in the environment which affect human health. Learn more about these programs and tools that aid in environmental decisions

  7. Polar measurements on profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Althaus, D.

    1985-03-01

    Wind tunnel models with a profile depth of t=0.5 m were measured in a laminar wind tunnel by the usual measuring processes. The profile resistance was determined by integration along the width of span. The smooth profiles were examined at Re=0.7/1.0 and 1.5 million. At Re=1.0 million, the position of the changeover points were determined with a stethoscope. Also at this Reynolds number measurements were taken with a trip wire of d=2 mm diameter, directly on the profile nose. The tables contain the co-ordinates of the profiles, the contours, the theoretical speed distributions for 4 different angles of attack, the csub(a)-csub(w) polar measurements and changeover points, and the torque coefficients around the t/4 point. (BR).

  8. Acceleration measurements in JEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Toshitami; Murakami, Keiji

    2000-01-01

    Since summer in 1996, National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) has continued a concept study for a microgravity measurement apparatus (MMA) to be installed in the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). The concept study was finished in 1998, and then we have been proceeding for a basic design. For experiments conducted with some of NASDA payloads in JEM-PM (Pressurized Module), measuring detailed microgravity environment was required. In addition, experiments to be performed with payload equipment attached on the JEM-EF (Exposed Facility) are requiring for obtaining the microgravity measurement data. Thus, we are adding some modification to the concept design of MMA in order to make the common hardware available for measurement of both environment in the JEM-PM and that of the JEM-EF. In this paper, the current development status of Japanese payloads and the modified concept of the MMA are introduced

  9. Essentials of measure theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kubrusly, Carlos S

    2015-01-01

    Classical in its approach, this textbook is thoughtfully designed and composed in two parts. Part I is meant for a one-semester beginning graduate course in measure theory, proposing an “abstract” approach to measure and integration, where the classical concrete cases of Lebesgue measure and Lebesgue integral are presented as an important particular case of general theory. Part II of the text is more advanced and is addressed to a more experienced reader. The material is designed to cover another one-semester graduate course subsequent to a first course, dealing with measure and integration in topological spaces. The final section of each chapter in Part I presents problems that are integral to each chapter, the majority of which consist of auxiliary results, extensions of the theory, examples, and counterexamples. Problems which are highly theoretical have accompanying hints. The last section of each chapter of Part II consists of Additional Propositions containing auxiliary and complementary results. Th...

  10. Control Measure Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Control Measure Dataset is a collection of documents describing air pollution control available to regulated facilities for the control and abatement of air...

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more help with what ... RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road ...

  12. Gas flowrate measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boure, Madeleine.

    1978-05-01

    The main types of gas flowmeters, especially those which are used for laboratory measurements are reviewed. Modeling, design recommendations, calibration methods and expected accuracy are discussed for each flowmeter. Different types and trademarks are given in two tables [fr

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4: ... ways to understand and measure the intensity of aerobic activity: relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity ...

  14. Soliton microcomb range measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Myoung-Gyun; Vahala, Kerry J.

    2018-02-01

    Laser-based range measurement systems are important in many application areas, including autonomous vehicles, robotics, manufacturing, formation flying of satellites, and basic science. Coherent laser ranging systems using dual-frequency combs provide an unprecedented combination of long range, high precision, and fast update rate. We report dual-comb distance measurement using chip-based soliton microcombs. A single pump laser was used to generate dual-frequency combs within a single microresonator as counterpropagating solitons. We demonstrated time-of-flight measurement with 200-nanometer precision at an averaging time of 500 milliseconds within a range ambiguity of 16 millimeters. Measurements at distances up to 25 meters with much lower precision were also performed. Our chip-based source is an important step toward miniature dual-comb laser ranging systems that are suitable for photonic integration.

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for ... Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical ...

  16. Measuring what's missing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel

    2016-01-01

    mass. Using the UNDP's Human Development Index, the empirical performance of such coverage metrics are compared to alternative measures of convergence. The former are advantageous -- they provide probabilistic estimates of simulation coverage and permit calculation of strict bounds on estimates...

  17. Wearable 3D measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Yoshitsugu; Imura, Masataka; Tsuchiya, Masanobu; Yasumuro, Yoshihiro; Chihara, Kunihiro

    2003-01-01

    Wearable 3D measurement realizes to acquire 3D information of an objects or an environment using a wearable computer. Recently, we can send voice and sound as well as pictures by mobile phone in Japan. Moreover it will become easy to capture and send data of short movie by it. On the other hand, the computers become compact and high performance. And it can easy connect to Internet by wireless LAN. Near future, we can use the wearable computer always and everywhere. So we will be able to send the three-dimensional data that is measured by wearable computer as a next new data. This paper proposes the measurement method and system of three-dimensional data of an object with the using of wearable computer. This method uses slit light projection for 3D measurement and user"s motion instead of scanning system.

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines ... Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend ...

  19. Measuring multifactor productivity growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wölfl, A.; Hájková, Dana

    -, 2007/5 (2007), s. 1-45 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : multifactor productivity growth * GDP growth * measuring Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/61/17/39522985.pdf

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 10 miles per hour or faster Jumping rope Heavy gardening (continuous digging or hoeing) Hiking uphill or with a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart ...

  1. Health System Measurement Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Health System Measurement Project tracks government data on critical U.S. health system indicators. The website presents national trend data as well as detailed...

  2. Uncertainty and measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberg, P.T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper explores how the quantum mechanics uncertainty relation can be considered to result from measurements. A distinction is drawn between the uncertainties obtained by scrutinising experiments and the standard deviation type of uncertainty definition used in quantum formalism. (UK)

  3. Improvement by GQM measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solingen, van D.M.; Veenendaal, van E.P.W.M.; Trienekens, J.; Veenendaal, van E.

    1997-01-01

    Software development is a discipline with specific management difficulties. Collecting relevant data during development is a way to overcome these difficulties. Such data collectionfor software development is termed ‘Software Measurement’. Software measurement is a poweiful aid to quality

  4. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart ...

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hiking uphill or with a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated ... Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF ...

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hiking uphill or with a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated ... YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act ...

  7. Performance Measurement at Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lueg, Klarissa

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes empirical approaches to testing the reliability, validity, and organizational effectiveness of student evaluations of teaching (SET) as a performance measurement instrument in knowledge management at the institutional level of universities. Departing from Weber’s concept...

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion (Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale) Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter your email ... ...

  9. Dilepton measurements with CERES

    CERN Document Server

    Marin, A; Agakichiev, G; Andronic, A; Antonczyk, D; Appelshäuser, H; Bielcíkováe, V; Biel, J; Braun-Munzinger, P; Busch, O; Cherlin, A; Damjanovic, S; Dietel, T; Dietrich, L; Drees, A; Esumi, S I; Filimonov, K; Fomenko, K; Fraenkel, Zeev; Garabatos, C; Glässel, P; Hering, G; Holeczek, J; Kalisky, M; Kniege, S; Kushpil, V; Ludolphs, W; Maas, A; Milosevic, J; Miskowiec, D; Ortega, R; Panebratsev, Yu A; Petchenova, O; Petracek, V; Ploskon, M; Radomski, S; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Rehak, P; Sako, H; Schmitz, W; Schuchmann, S; Sedykh, S; Shimansky, S; Soualah, R; Stachel, J; Sumbera, M; Tilsner, H; Tserruya, Itzhak; Tsiledakis, G; Wessels, J P; Wienold, T; Wurm, J P; Yurevich, S; Yurevich, V

    2008-01-01

    We report on dilepton measurements for central Pb on Au collisions at the top CERN SPS energy with the upgraded CERES experiment. The dilepton mass spectrum of 2000 data with improved mass resolution shows an enhancement over the expectation from hadron decays that is well described by a model including a strong broadening of the $\\rho$ spectral function. The measured excess yield excludes the dropping mass scenario. We also report on the $\\phi$ meson measured simultaneously both in the $K^+K^-$ and in the dilepton decay channel for the first time in high energy heavy-ion collisions. An excellent agreement is found between the rapidity densities and the shape of the measured tranverse momentum spectrum. The data rule out a possible enhancement of the $\\phi$ yield in the leptonic over hadronic channel by a factor larger than 1.6 at 95% CL. CERES results are in agreement with NA49 results.

  10. Theory of Effectiveness Measurement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bullock, Richard K

    2006-01-01

    Effectiveness measures provide decision makers feedback on the impact of deliberate actions and affect critical issues such as allocation of scarce resources, as well as whether to maintain or change existing strategy...

  11. Photovoltaic spectral responsivity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, K.; Dunlavy, D.; Field, H.; Moriarty, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    This paper discusses the various elemental random and nonrandom error sources in typical spectral responsivity measurement systems. The authors focus specifically on the filter and grating monochrometer-based spectral responsivity measurement systems used by the Photovoltaic (PV) performance characterization team at NREL. A variety of subtle measurement errors can occur that arise from a finite photo-current response time, bandwidth of the monochromatic light, waveform of the monochromatic light, and spatial uniformity of the monochromatic and bias lights; the errors depend on the light source, PV technology, and measurement system. The quantum efficiency can be a function of he voltage bias, light bias level, and, for some structures, the spectral content of the bias light or location on the PV device. This paper compares the advantages and problems associated with semiconductor-detector-based calibrations and pyroelectric-detector-based calibrations. Different current-to-voltage conversion and ac photo-current detection strategies employed at NREL are compared and contrasted.

  12. Nuclear measurements in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozsa, S.

    1989-01-01

    In this book the author provides a description of nuclear measurements in industry, covering the physical principles, methods, instruments and equipment, and industrial applications. One of the great advantages of industrial nuclear measurements is that their use ensures the optimum use of raw material. The increasing cost of raw materials makes it essential to adhere strictly to the standards and prescriptions related to the product and this is possible only by the application of continuous and accurate measurements. As a result, the importance of nuclear instruments is rapidly growing particularly in fields where the application of alternative methods is not possible. This is illustrated by several practical examples described in the book. Similarly important are nuclear measuring the process control equipment which serve to optimize the use of energy in industrial processes

  13. Wake field measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palumbo, L.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the concept of Wakefields and Machine Impedance are introduced. Several measurements technique of these quantities either in the laboratory before installation or from beam observation are presented

  14. Tomographic multiphase flow measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sætre, C.; Johansen, G.A.; Tjugum, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of multiphase flow of gas, oil and water is not at all trivial and in spite of considerable achievements over the past two decades, important challenges remain (). These are related to reducing measurement uncertainties arising from variations in the flow regime, improving long term stability and developing new means for calibration, adjustment and verification of the multiphase flow meters. This work focuses on the first two issues using multi gamma beam (MGB) measurements for identification of the type of flow regime. Further gamma ray tomographic measurements are used for reference of the gas/liquid distribution. For the MGB method one Am-241 source with principal emission at 59.5 keV is used because this relatively low energy enables efficient collimation and thereby shaping of the beams, as well as compact detectors. One detector is placed diametrically opposite the source whereas the second is positioned to the side so that this beam is close to the pipe wall. The principle is then straight forward to compare the measured intensities of these detectors and through that identify the flow pattern, i.e. the instantaneous cross-sectional gas-liquid distribution. The measurement setup also includes Compton scattering measurements, which can provide information about the changes in the water salinity for flow segments with high water liquid ratio and low gas fractions. By measuring the transmitted intensity in short time slots (<100ms), rapid regime variations are revealed. From this we can select the time sections suitable for salinity measurements. Since the salinity variations change at the time scale of hours, a running average can be performed to increase the accuracy of the measurements. Recent results of this work will be presented here. - Highlights: ► Multiphase flow gas-fraction and flow regime measurements by multi gamma ray beams. ► High-speed gamma ray tomograph as reference for the flow pattern and gas fraction. ► Dual modality

  15. Tomographic multiphase flow measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saetre, C., E-mail: camilla@ift.uib.no [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); Michelsen Centre for Industrial Measurement Science and Technology (Norway); Johansen, G.A. [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); Michelsen Centre for Industrial Measurement Science and Technology (Norway); Tjugum, S.A. [Michelsen Centre for Industrial Measurement Science and Technology (Norway); Roxar Flow Measurement, Bergen (Norway)

    2012-07-15

    Measurement of multiphase flow of gas, oil and water is not at all trivial and in spite of considerable achievements over the past two decades, important challenges remain (). These are related to reducing measurement uncertainties arising from variations in the flow regime, improving long term stability and developing new means for calibration, adjustment and verification of the multiphase flow meters. This work focuses on the first two issues using multi gamma beam (MGB) measurements for identification of the type of flow regime. Further gamma ray tomographic measurements are used for reference of the gas/liquid distribution. For the MGB method one Am-241 source with principal emission at 59.5 keV is used because this relatively low energy enables efficient collimation and thereby shaping of the beams, as well as compact detectors. One detector is placed diametrically opposite the source whereas the second is positioned to the side so that this beam is close to the pipe wall. The principle is then straight forward to compare the measured intensities of these detectors and through that identify the flow pattern, i.e. the instantaneous cross-sectional gas-liquid distribution. The measurement setup also includes Compton scattering measurements, which can provide information about the changes in the water salinity for flow segments with high water liquid ratio and low gas fractions. By measuring the transmitted intensity in short time slots (<100ms), rapid regime variations are revealed. From this we can select the time sections suitable for salinity measurements. Since the salinity variations change at the time scale of hours, a running average can be performed to increase the accuracy of the measurements. Recent results of this work will be presented here. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multiphase flow gas-fraction and flow regime measurements by multi gamma ray beams. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-speed gamma ray tomograph as reference for the flow

  16. Measuring Entrepreneurial Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Stam, F.C.

    2017-01-01

    How can entrepreneurial ecosystems and productive entrepreneurship can be traced empirically and how is entrepreneurship related to entrepreneurial ecosystems. The analyses in this chapter show the value of taking a systems view on the context of entrepreneurship. We measure entrepreneurial ecosystem elements and use these to compose an entrepreneurial ecosystem index. Next, we measure the output of entrepreneurial ecosystems with different indicators of high-growth firms. We use the 12 provi...

  17. Safeguards and physics measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carchon, R

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's programme on safeguards and physics measurements involves gamma and neutron dosimetry, calibrations and irradiations, electronic support, metrology of various samples including internal contamination of human beings, of waste barrels and of fissile materials, neutron activation analysis, and radioisotope source preparation. The document reports on the main activities and achievements of the sections 'Instrumentation, Calibration and Dosimetry' and 'Safeguards and Nuclear Physics Measurements'.

  18. Lebesgue measure and gambling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanovei, V G; Linton, Tom; Uspensky, Vladimir A

    2008-01-01

    Lebesgue measure of point sets is characterized in terms of the existence of various strategies in a certain coin-flipping game. 'Rational' and 'discrete' modifications of this game are investigated. We prove that if one of the players has a winning strategy in a game of this type depending on a given set P subset or equal [0,1], then this set is measurable. Bibliography: 11 titles.

  19. Lebesgue measure and gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoveĭ, V. G.; Linton, Tom; Uspensky, Vladimir A.

    2008-12-01

    Lebesgue measure of point sets is characterized in terms of the existence of various strategies in a certain coin-flipping game. 'Rational' and 'discrete' modifications of this game are investigated. We prove that if one of the players has a winning strategy in a game of this type depending on a given set P\\subseteq \\lbrack 0,1 \\rbrack , then this set is measurable. Bibliography: 11 titles.

  20. Modulated Current Drive Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, C.C.; Lohr, J.; Luce, T.C.; Prater, R.; Cox, W.A.; Forest, C.B.; Jayakumar, R.J.; Makowski, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    A new measurement approach is presented which directly determines the noninductive current profile from the periodic response of the motional Stark effect (MSE) signals to the slow modulation of the external current drive source. A Fourier transform of the poloidal magnetic flux diffusion equation is used to analyze the MSE data. An example of this measurement technique is shown using modulated electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) discharges from the DIII-D tokamak

  1. Measurement of optical glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolau-Rebigan, S.

    1978-11-01

    The possibilities of measurement of the optical glasses parameters needed in building optical devices especially in lasers devices are presented. In the first chapter the general features of the main optical glasses as well as the modalities of obtaining them are given. Chapter two defines the optical glass parameters, and the third chapter describes the measuring methods of the optical glass parameters. Finally, the conclusions which point out the utilization of this paper are presented. (author)

  2. Measuring fluid pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for measuring the pressure of a fluid having characteristics that make it unsuitable for connection directly to a pressure gauge. The method is particularly suitable for the periodic measurement of the pressure of a supply of liquid Na to Na-lubricated bearings of pumps for pumping Na from a reservoir to the bearing via a filter, the reservoir being contained in a closed vessel containing an inert blanket gas, such as Ar, above the Na. (UK)

  3. Radiation dose measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    About 200 scientists from 28 countries and 5 international organizations met at a symposium on radiation dosimetry held by the International Atomic Energy Agency in June 1960. The aim of the symposium was not so much the description of a large number of measuring instruments as a discussion of the methods used, with special emphasis on those problems which had become important in the context of recent developments, such as the measurement of mixed or very large doses

  4. Temperature measurement and control

    CERN Document Server

    Leigh, JR

    1988-01-01

    This book treats the theory and practice of temperature measurement and control and important related topics such as energy management and air pollution. There are no specific prerequisites for the book although a knowledge of elementary control theory could be useful. The first half of the book is an application oriented survey of temperature measurement techniques and devices. The second half is concerned mainly with temperature control in both simple and complex situations.

  5. Safeguards and physics measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carchon, R.

    2002-01-01

    SCK-CEN's programme on safeguards and physics measurements involves gamma and neutron dosimetry, calibrations and irradiations, electronic support, metrology of various samples including internal contamination of human beings, of waste barrels and of fissile materials, neutron activation analysis, and radioisotope source preparation. The document reports on the main activities and achievements of the sections 'Instrumentation, Calibration and Dosimetry' and 'Safeguards and Nuclear Physics Measurements'

  6. 4. Measuring technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    It is noted that in nuclear medicine a most widely the scintillation detectors are applying. Action of these detectors is based on registration of light flares in visible and ultraviolet field arising in scintillator under ionizing radiation action. In the chapter following subchapters are included: gamma-spectrometer and gamma radiation detectors; counter of whole body; measuring of accumulated activity (uptake measurements); scanner; scintillation chamber; single-photon emission computed tomography; positron emission computed tomography; magnet resonance tomography; computer technique, images making

  7. Soil conservation measures: exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Tomás de; Fonseca, Felícia

    2009-01-01

    Exercises proposed under the topic of Soil Conservation Measures addresses to the design of structural measure, namely waterways in the context of a soil conservation plan. However, to get a better insight on the actual meaning of soil loss as a resource loss, a prior exercise is proposed to students. It concerns calculations of soil loss due to sheet (interrill) erosion and to gully erosion, and allows the perception through realistic number of the impact of these mechanism...

  8. Thermal power measurement apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Thermal power measurements are important in nuclear power plants, fossil-fuel plants and other closed loop systems such as heat exchangers and chemical reactors. The main object of this invention is to determine the enthalpy of a fluid using only acoustically determined sound speed and correlating the speed with enthalpy. An enthalpy change is measured between two points in the fluid flow: the apparatus is described in detail. (U.K.)

  9. ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) time-of-flight (ToF) detector: construction & existing experiences

    CERN Document Server

    Sykora, Tomas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    In 2017 the ATLAS collaboration successfully completed the installation of the ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector to measure diffractive protons leaving under very small angles (hundreds of micro radians) the ATLAS proton-proton interaction point. The AFP tags and measures forward protons scattered in single diffraction or hard central diffraction, where two protons are emitted and a central system is created. In addition, the AFP has a potential to measure two-photon exchange processes, and to be sensitive to eventual anomalous quartic couplings of Vector Bosons: γγW+W−, γγZZ, and γγγγ. Such measurements at high luminosities will be possible only due the combination of high resolution tracking (semi-edgeless 3D Silicon pixel) detectors and ultra-high precision ToF (Quartz-Cherenkov) detectors at both sides of the ATLAS detector. The ToF detector construction and experiences with its operation represent the subject of the talk.

  10. Pressure Measurement Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    System 8400 is an advanced system for measurement of gas and liquid pressure, along with a variety of other parameters, including voltage, frequency and digital inputs. System 8400 offers exceptionally high speed data acquisition through parallel processing, and its modular design allows expansion from a relatively inexpensive entry level system by the addition of modular Input Units that can be installed or removed in minutes. Douglas Juanarena was on the team of engineers that developed a new technology known as ESP (electronically scanned pressure). The Langley ESP measurement system was based on miniature integrated circuit pressure-sensing transducers that communicated pressure information to a minicomputer. In 1977, Juanarena formed PSI to exploit the NASA technology. In 1978 he left Langley, obtained a NASA license for the technology, introduced the first commercial product, the 780B pressure measurement system. PSI developed a pressure scanner for automation of industrial processes. Now in its second design generation, the DPT-6400 is capable of making 2,000 measurements a second and has 64 channels by addition of slave units. New system 8400 represents PSI's bid to further exploit the 600 million U.S. industrial pressure measurement market. It is geared to provide a turnkey solution to physical measurement.

  11. Precision lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, C.E.

    1994-01-01

    Precision measurements of atomic lifetimes provide important information necessary for testing atomic theory. The authors employ resonant laser excitation of a fast atomic beam to measure excited state lifetimes by observing the decay-in-flight of the emitted fluorescence. A similar technique was used by Gaupp, et al., who reported measurements with precisions of less than 0.2%. Their program includes lifetime measurements of the low lying p states in alkali and alkali like systems. Motivation for this work comes from a need to test the atomic many-body-perturbation theory (MBPT) that is necessary for interpretation of parity nonconservation experiments in atomic cesium. The authors have measured the cesium 6p 2 P 1/2 and 6p 2 P 3/2 state lifetimes to be 34.934±0.094 ns and 30.499±0.070 ns respectively. With minor changes to the apparatus, they have extended their measurements to include the lithium 2p 2 P 1/2 and 2p 2 P 3/2 states

  12. Measurement quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhower, E.H.

    1988-01-01

    The quality of a radiation protection program can be no better than the quality of the measurements made to support it. In many cases, that quality is unknown and is merely implied on the basis of a calibration of a measuring instrument. If that calibration is inappropriate or is performed improperly, the measurement result will be inaccurate and misleading. Assurance of measurement quality can be achieved if appropriate procedures are followed, including periodic quality control actions that demonstrate adequate performance. Several national measurement quality assurance (MQA) programs are operational or under development in specific areas. They employ secondary standards laboratories that provide a high-quality link between the National Bureau of Standards and measurements made at the field use level. The procedures followed by these secondary laboratories to achieve MQA will be described, as well as plans for similar future programs. A growing general national interest in quality assurance, combined with strong specific motivations for MQA in the area of ionizing radiation, will provide continued demand for appropriate national programs. Such programs must, however, employ procedures that are cost effective and must be developed with participation by all affected parties

  13. Critique of protective measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hari Dass, N.D.; Qureshi, T.

    1999-01-01

    The recently proposed idea of open-quotes protectiveclose quotes measurement of a quantum state is critically examined, and generalized. Earlier criticisms of the idea are discussed, and their relevance to the proposal assessed. Several constraints on measuring apparatus required by open-quotes protectiveclose quotes measurements are discussed, with emphasis on how they may restrict their experimental feasibility. Though open-quotes protectiveclose quotes measurements result in an unchanged system state and a shift of the pointer proportional to the expectation value of the measured observable in the system state, the actual reading of the pointer position gives rise to several subtleties. We propose several schemes for reading the pointer position, both when the apparatus is treated as a classical system as well as when its quantum aspects are taken into account, that address these issues. The tiny entanglement which is always present due to deviation from extreme adiabaticity in realistic situations is argued to be the weakest aspect of the proposal. Because of this, one can never perform a protective measurement on a single quantum system with absolute certainty. This clearly precludes an ontological status for the wave function. Several other conceptual issues are also discussed. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  14. Measure problem in cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, G. W.; Turok, Neil

    2008-01-01

    The Hamiltonian structure of general relativity provides a natural canonical measure on the space of all classical universes, i.e., the multiverse. We review this construction and show how one can visualize the measure in terms of a 'magnetic flux' of solutions through phase space. Previous studies identified a divergence in the measure, which we observe to be due to the dilatation invariance of flat Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker universes. We show that the divergence is removed if we identify universes which are so flat they cannot be observationally distinguished. The resulting measure is independent of time and of the choice of coordinates on the space of fields. We further show that, for some quantities of interest, the measure is very insensitive to the details of how the identification is made. One such quantity is the probability of inflation in simple scalar field models. We find that, according to our implementation of the canonical measure, the probability for N e-folds of inflation in single-field, slow-roll models is suppressed by of order exp(-3N) and we discuss the implications of this result.

  15. Radiation ray measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Tatsuyuki; Ida, Masaki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a chained-radiation ray monitoring system which can be applied to an actual monitoring system of a nuclear power plant or the like. Namely, this device comprises a plurality of scintillation detectors. Each of the detectors has two light take-out ports for emitting light corresponding to radiation rays irradiated from the object of the measurement to optical fibers. In addition, incident light from the optical fiber by way of one of the light take-out optical ports is transmitted to the other of the ports and sent from the other optical port to the fibers. Plurality sets of measuring systems are provided in which each of the detectors are disposed corresponding to a plurality of objects to be measured. A signal processing device is (1) connected with optical fibers of plurality sets of measuring systems in conjunction, (2) detects the optical pulses inputted from the optical fibers to identify the detector from which the optical pulses are sent and (3) measures the amount of radiation rays detected by the identified detector. As a result, the device of the present invention can form a measuring system with redundancy. (I.S.)

  16. Lead Thickness Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucinski, R.

    1998-01-01

    The preshower lead thickness applied to the outside of D-Zero's superconducting solenoid vacuum shell was measured at the time of application. This engineering documents those thickness measurements. The lead was ordered in sheets 0.09375-inch and 0.0625-inch thick. The tolerance on thickness was specified to be +/- 0.003-inch. The sheets all were within that thickness tolerance. The nomenclature for each sheet was designated 1T, 1B, 2T, 2B where the numeral designates it's location in the wrap and 'T' or 'B' is short for 'top' or 'bottom' half of the solenoid. Micrometer measurements were taken at six locations around the perimeter of each sheet. The width,length, and weight of each piece was then measured. Using an assumed pure lead density of 0.40974 lb/in 3 , an average sheet thickness was calculated and compared to the perimeter thickness measurements. In every case, the calculated average thickness was a few mils thinner than the perimeter measurements. The ratio was constant, 0.98. This discrepancy is likely due to the assumed pure lead density. It is not felt that the perimeter is thicker than the center regions. The data suggests that the physical thickness of the sheets is uniform to +/- 0.0015-inch.

  17. Measurement of short bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.X.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in short electron bunches for different applications such as short wavelength FELs, linear colliders, and advanced accelerators such as laser or plasma wakefield accelerators. One would like to meet various requirements such as high peak current, low momentum spread, high luminosity, small ratio of bunch length to plasma wavelength, and accurate timing. Meanwhile, recent development and advances in RF photoinjectors and various bunching schemes make it possible to generate very short electron bunches. Measuring the longitudinal profile and monitoring bunch length are critical to understand the bunching process and longitudinal beam dynamics, and to commission and operate such short bunch machines. In this paper, several commonly used measurement techniques for subpicosecond bunches and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. As examples, bunch length related measurements at Jefferson Lab are presented. At Jefferson Lab, bunch lengths as short as 84 fs have been systematically measured using a zero-phasing technique. A highly sensitive Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detector has been developed to noninvasively monitor bunch length for low charge bunches. Phase transfer function measurements provide a means of correcting RF phase drifts and reproducing RF phases to within a couple of tenths of a degree. The measurement results are in excellent agreement with simulations. A comprehensive bunch length control scheme is presented. (author)

  18. Measurement of short bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.X.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in short electron bunches for different applications such as short wavelength FELs, linear colliders, and advanced accelerators such as laser or plasma wakefield accelerators. One would like to meet various requirements such as high peak current, low momentum spread, high luminosity, small ratio of bunch length to plasma wavelength, and accurate timing. Meanwhile, recent development and advances in RF photoinjectors and various bunching schemes make it possible to generate very short electron bunches. Measuring the longitudinal profile and monitoring bunch length are critical to understand the bunching process and longitudinal beam dynamics, and to commission and operate such short bunch machines. In this paper, several commonly used measurement techniques for subpicosecond bunches and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. As examples, bunch length related measurements at Jefferson lab are presented. At Jefferson Lab, bunch lengths s short as 84 fs have been systematically measured using a zero-phasing technique. A highly sensitive Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detector has been developed to noninvasively monitor bunch length for low charge bunches. Phase transfer function measurements provide a means of correcting RF phase drifts and reproducing RF phases to within a couple of tenths of a degree. The measurement results are in excellent agreement with simulations. A comprehensive bunch length control scheme is presented

  19. Thermal Testing Measurements Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wagner

    2002-09-26

    The purpose of the Thermal Testing Measurements Report (Scientific Analysis Report) is to document, in one report, the comprehensive set of measurements taken within the Yucca Mountain Project Thermal Testing Program since its inception in 1996. Currently, the testing performed and measurements collected are either scattered in many level 3 and level 4 milestone reports or, in the case of the ongoing Drift Scale Test, mostly documented in eight informal progress reports. Documentation in existing reports is uneven in level of detail and quality. Furthermore, while all the data collected within the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Thermal Testing Program have been submitted periodically to the Technical Data Management System (TDMS), the data structure--several incremental submittals, and documentation formats--are such that the data are often not user-friendly except to those who acquired and processed the data. The documentation in this report is intended to make data collected within the YMP Thermal Testing Program readily usable to end users, such as those representing the Performance Assessment Project, Repository Design Project, and Engineered Systems Sub-Project. Since either detailed level 3 and level 4 reports exist or the measurements are straightforward, only brief discussions are provided for each data set. These brief discussions for different data sets are intended to impart a clear sense of applicability of data, so that they will be used properly within the context of measurement uncertainty. This approach also keeps this report to a manageable size, an important consideration because the report encompasses nearly all measurements for three long-term thermal tests. As appropriate, thermal testing data currently residing in the TDMS have been reorganized and reformatted from cumbersome, user-unfriendly Input-Data Tracking Numbers (DTNs) into a new set of Output-DTNs. These Output-DTNs provide a readily usable data structure

  20. Optical fuel spray measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillamo, H.

    2011-07-01

    Diesel fuel sprays, including fuel/air mixing and the physics of two-phase jet formation, are discussed in the thesis. The fuel/air mixing strongly affects emissions formation in spray combustion processes where the local combustion conditions dictate the emission formation. This study comprises optical measurements both in pressurized spray test rigs and in a running engine.The studied fuel injection was arranged with a common rail injection system and the injectors were operated with a solenoid-based injection valve. Both marine and heavy-duty diesel engine injectors were used in the study. Optical fuel spray measurements were carried out with a laser-based double-framing camera system. This kind of equipments is usually used for flow field measurements with Particle Image Velocimetry technique (PIV) as well as for backlight imaging. Fundamental fuel spray properties and spray formation were studied in spray test rigs. These measurements involved studies of mixing, atomization, and the flow field. Test rig measurements were used to study the effect of individual injection parameters and component designs. Measurements of the fuel spray flow field, spray penetration, spray tip velocity, spray angle, spray structure, droplet accumulation, and droplet size estimates are shown. Measurement campaign in a running optically accessible large-bore medium-speed engine was also carried out. The results from engine tests were compared with equivalent test rig measurements, as well as computational results, to evaluate the level of understanding of sprays. It was shown that transient spray has an acceleration and a deceleration phase. Successive flow field measurements (PIV) in optically dense diesel spray resulted in local and average velocity data of diesel sprays. Processing fuel spray generates a flow field to surrounding gas and entrainment of surrounding gas into fuel jet was also seen at the sides of the spray. Laser sheet imaging revealed the inner structure of diesel

  1. Grid-Enabled Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Richard P.; Hesse, Bradford W.; Shaikh, Abdul R.; Courtney, Paul; Morgan, Glen; Augustson, Erik; Kobrin, Sarah; Levin, Kerry; Helba, Cynthia; Garner, David; Dunn, Marsha; Coa, Kisha

    2011-01-01

    Scientists are taking advantage of the Internet and collaborative web technology to accelerate discovery in a massively connected, participative environment —a phenomenon referred to by some as Science 2.0. As a new way of doing science, this phenomenon has the potential to push science forward in a more efficient manner than was previously possible. The Grid-Enabled Measures (GEM) database has been conceptualized as an instantiation of Science 2.0 principles by the National Cancer Institute with two overarching goals: (1) Promote the use of standardized measures, which are tied to theoretically based constructs; and (2) Facilitate the ability to share harmonized data resulting from the use of standardized measures. This is done by creating an online venue connected to the Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG®) where a virtual community of researchers can collaborate together and come to consensus on measures by rating, commenting and viewing meta-data about the measures and associated constructs. This paper will describe the web 2.0 principles on which the GEM database is based, describe its functionality, and discuss some of the important issues involved with creating the GEM database, such as the role of mutually agreed-on ontologies (i.e., knowledge categories and the relationships among these categories— for data sharing). PMID:21521586

  2. Measurements of fireball onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiner, Brett; Barnat, Edward V.; Baalrud, Scott D.; Hopkins, Matthew M.; Yee, Benjamin T.

    2018-04-01

    Laser-based measurements of the characteristic features of fireball onset and stabilization in response to a stepped voltage applied to an anode immersed in a low pressure (100 mTorr) helium afterglow are reported. These include spatial and temporal evolution of metastable species, electron density, and electric field magnitude as measured by planar laser induced fluorescence, laser-collision induced fluorescence, and laser-induced fluorescence-dip spectroscopy, respectively. These measurements are found to be in qualitative agreement with recent particle-in-cell simulations and theoretical models [Scheiner et al., Phys. Plasmas 24, 113520 (2017)]. The measurements validate the simulations and models in which fireball onset was predicted to follow from the trapping of electrons born from electron impact ionization within a potential well created by a buildup of ions in the sheath. The experimental measurements also demonstrate transient features following the onset that were not present in previous simulations. New simulation results are presented which demonstrate that these features are associated with the abruptness of the voltage step used to initiate fireball onset. An abrupt step in the anode bias causes rapid displacement of ions and an associated plasma potential response following the sheath and fireball expansion.

  3. Neutron fluence measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    For research reactor work dealing with such subjects as radiation effects on solids and such disciplines as radiochemistry and radiobiology, the radiation dose or neutron fluence is an essential parameter in evaluating results. Unfortunately it is very difficult to determine. Even when the measurements have been accurate, it is difficult to compare results obtained in different experiments because present methods do not always reflect the dependence of spectra or of different types of radiation on the induced processes. After considering the recommendations of three IAEA Panels, on 'In-pile dosimetry' held in July 1964, on 'Neutron fluence measurements' in October 1965, and on 'In-pile dosimetry' in November 1966, the Agency established a Working Group on Reactor Radiation Measurements. This group consisted of eleven experts from ten different Member States and two staff members of the Agency. In the measurement of energy absorbed by materials from neutrons and gamma rays, there are various reports and reviews scattered throughout the literature. The group, however, considered that the time was ripe for all relevant information to be evaluated and gathered together in the form of a practical guide, with the aim of promoting consistency in the measurement and reporting of reactor radiation. The group arranged for the material to be divided into two manuals, which are expected to be useful both for experienced workers and for beginners

  4. Inmate punishments: Disciplinary measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Ivan D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After the verdict has become formal and enforceable, and the defendant a convict, sentence execution procedure follows. If the defendant is sentenced to prison, the next step to be taken is the referral institution for execution of sentence of imprisonment. Rules of conduct in the institutions for execution of imprisonment are strictly regulated by legislation governing the rights and obligations of prisoners. Conducts that are prohibited in institutions shall be prescribed as a disciplinary offense, and appropriate disciplinary measures are to be imposed. The subject of this paper are disciplinary measures stipulated by the Law on Execution of Criminal Sanctions of the Republic of Serbia. The paper gives an overview of five disciplinary measures that can be imposed for serious or minor disciplinary offenses. In particular, author focuses his attention to indicating that the imposition and execution of disciplinary measures, are not regulated by Law in the best possible way, so that, in practice, certain problems arise in the application of these measures.

  5. Measuring past a micron...

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    Infinity: That is the name of the new ultra-precision machine used by CERN's Metrology Service to measure the copper components for the CLIC accelerating structures. This project is the result of a collaboration between CLIC and the EN Department. Curious to find out more? Read on because there’ll be an opportunity for you to get a very close look at Infinity!    Infinity, the new, ultra-precise, measuring machine, is currently in operation at the CERN Metrology Service. The CLIC (Compact LInear Collider) radiofrequency structures will operate under very high electric fields (100 MV/m). They should be manufactured within minimal mechanical tolerances. To validate the quality of these components, they have to be measured with a precision that far exceeds the machining tolerances, i.e. 0.3 microns. No “ordinary” measuring machine can achieve this precision, but Infinity, the newly developed high-precision three-dimensional measuring machine i...

  6. The performance measurement manifesto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, R G

    1991-01-01

    The leading indicators of business performance cannot be found in financial data alone. Quality, customer satisfaction, innovation, market share--metrics like these often reflect a company's economic condition and growth prospects better than its reported earnings do. Depending on an accounting department to reveal a company's future will leave it hopelessly mired in the past. More and more managers are changing their company's performance measurement systems to track nonfinancial measures and reinforce new competitive strategies. Five activities are essential: developing an information architecture; putting the technology in place to support this architecture; aligning bonuses and other incentives with the new system; drawing on outside resources; and designing an internal process to ensure the other four activities occur. New technologies and more sophisticated databases have made the change to nonfinancial performance measurement systems possible and economically feasible. Industry and trade associations, consulting firms, and public accounting firms that already have well-developed methods for assessing market share and other performance metrics can add to the revolution's momentum--as well as profit from the business opportunities it presents. Every company will have its own key measures and distinctive process for implementing the change. But making it happen will always require careful preparation, perseverance, and the conviction of the CEO that it must be carried through. When one leading company can demonstrate the long-term advantage of its superior performance on quality or innovation or any other nonfinancial measure, it will change the rules for all its rivals forever.

  7. Thermal Properties Measurement Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmack, Jon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Braase, Lori [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Papesch, Cynthia [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hurley, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tonks, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhang, Yongfeng [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gofryk, Krzysztof [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Harp, Jason [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Fielding, Randy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Knight, Collin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Meyer, Mitch [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The Thermal Properties Measurement Report summarizes the research, development, installation, and initial use of significant experimental thermal property characterization capabilities at the INL in FY 2015. These new capabilities were used to characterize a U3Si2 (candidate Accident Tolerant) fuel sample fabricated at the INL. The ability to perform measurements at various length scales is important and provides additional data that is not currently in the literature. However, the real value of the data will be in accomplishing a phenomenological understanding of the thermal conductivity in fuels and the ties to predictive modeling. Thus, the MARMOT advanced modeling and simulation capability was utilized to illustrate how the microstructural data can be modeled and compared with bulk characterization data. A scientific method was established for thermal property measurement capability on irradiated nuclear fuel samples, which will be installed in the Irradiated Material Characterization Laboratory (IMCL).

  8. Challenge Measurements For Authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitts, W. Karl

    2009-01-01

    Authentication of systems with an information barrier that protects sensitive information is difficult; in particular, the information barrier can allow a hidden switch to be implemented by the system fabricator and operator. The hidden switch is the operator's ability to subvert the measurement system and force it to produce a desired and false result. It is usually discussed in the context of an attribute measurement in which a faked item is presented in place of a real item regulated by an agreement, with the driving motivation being the ability to preserve a stock of valuable items. In simple terms, the hidden switch enables a shell game with assets, and the information barrier protects the switch. This presentation outlines challenge measurements that could be used to detect the implementation of a hidden switch and assist the authentication process.

  9. Electrochemical thermodynamic measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynier, Yvan [Meylan, FR; Yazami, Rachid [Los Angeles, CA; Fultz, Brent T [Pasadena, CA

    2009-09-29

    The present invention provides systems and methods for accurately characterizing thermodynamic and materials properties of electrodes and electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems. Systems and methods of the present invention are configured for simultaneously collecting a suite of measurements characterizing a plurality of interconnected electrochemical and thermodynamic parameters relating to the electrode reaction state of advancement, voltage and temperature. Enhanced sensitivity provided by the present methods and systems combined with measurement conditions that reflect thermodynamically stabilized electrode conditions allow very accurate measurement of thermodynamic parameters, including state functions such as the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of electrode/electrochemical cell reactions, that enable prediction of important performance attributes of electrode materials and electrochemical systems, such as the energy, power density, current rate and the cycle life of an electrochemical cell.

  10. Temperature measurement device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, Christian; Lions, Noel.

    1975-01-01

    The present invention relates to a temperature measuring system that can be applied in particular to monitoring the temperature of the cooling liquid metal of the outlet of the core assemblies of a fast reactor. Said device combines a long hollow metallic pole, at least partially dipped into the liquid metal and constituting a first thermocouple junction between said pole, and two metallic conductors of different nature, joined at one of their ends to constitute the second thermocouple junction. Said conductors suitably insulated are arranged inside a sheath. Said sheath made of the same metals as the pole extends inside the latter and is connected with the pole through a soldered joint. Said reliable system permits an instantaneous measurement of a quantity representing the variations in the recorded temperature and a measurement of the mean surrounding temperature that can be direcly used as a reference for calibrating the first one [fr

  11. Measuring Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Bjørnskov, Christian

    2007-01-01

    How to construct a robust measure of social capital? This paper contains two contributions. The first is an attempt to establish a broad social capital measure based on four indicators, the Freedom House Index, an index of perceived corruption from Transparency International, and scores on civic...... participation and generalized trust. This measure is then applied by comparing the level of social capital in 25 countries from Western and Eastern Europe. Our nine cluster analysis shows that Switzerland has the highest score, followed by the Netherlands and Scandinavia. At the other end of the continuum we...... find post-communist countries and Southern Italy. The findings for this specific sample suggest that institutions matter for social capital and the relationship between decentralization and social capital emerges as a promising line of inquiry. Thus, the highest scoring countries in the sample may...

  12. Neutron beam measurement dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaro, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes animal dosimetry studies and phantom measurements. During 1994, 12 dogs were irradiated at BMRR as part of a 4 fraction dose tolerance study. The animals were first infused with BSH and irradiated daily for 4 consecutive days. BNL irradiated 2 beagles as part of their dose tolerance study using BPA fructose. In addition, a dog at WSU was irradiated at BMRR after an infusion of BPA fructose. During 1994, the INEL BNCT dosimetry team measured neutron flux and gamma dose profiles in two phantoms exposed to the epithermal neutron beam at the BMRR. These measurements were performed as a preparatory step to the commencement of human clinical trials in progress at the BMRR

  13. Enterprise performance measurement systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milija Bogavac

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Performance measurement systems are an extremely important part of the control and management actions, because in this way a company can determine its business potential, its market power, potential and current level of business efficiency. The significance of measurement consists in influencing the relationship between the results of reproduction (total volume of production, value of production, total revenue and profit and investments to achieve these results (factors of production spending and hiring capital in order to achieve the highest possible quality of the economy. (The relationship between the results of reproduction and investment to achieve them quantitatively determines economic success as the quality of the economy. Measuring performance allows the identification of the economic resources the company has, so looking at the key factors that affect its performance can help to determine the appropriate course of action.

  14. Enhanced Microfluidic Electromagnetic Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovangrandi, Laurent (Inventor); Ricco, Antonio J. (Inventor); Kovacs, Gregory (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Techniques for enhanced microfluidic impedance spectroscopy include causing a core fluid to flow into a channel between two sheath flows of one or more sheath fluids different from the core fluid. Flow in the channel is laminar. A dielectric constant of a fluid constituting either sheath flow is much less than a dielectric constant of the core fluid. Electrical impedance is measured in the channel between at least a first pair of electrodes. In some embodiments, enhanced optical measurements include causing a core fluid to flow into a channel between two sheath flows of one or more sheath fluids different from the core fluid. An optical index of refraction of a fluid constituting either sheath flow is much less than an optical index of refraction of the core fluid. An optical property is measured in the channel.

  15. Structural power flow measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falter, K.J.; Keltie, R.F.

    1988-12-01

    Previous investigations of structural power flow through beam-like structures resulted in some unexplained anomalies in the calculated data. In order to develop structural power flow measurement as a viable technique for machine tool design, the causes of these anomalies needed to be found. Once found, techniques for eliminating the errors could be developed. Error sources were found in the experimental apparatus itself as well as in the instrumentation. Although flexural waves are the carriers of power in the experimental apparatus, at some frequencies longitudinal waves were excited which were picked up by the accelerometers and altered power measurements. Errors were found in the phase and gain response of the sensors and amplifiers used for measurement. A transfer function correction technique was employed to compensate for these instrumentation errors.

  16. Production measurements at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00392425

    2017-01-01

    The $\\text{LHC}b$ detector, with its excellent momentum resolution and flexible trigger strategy, is ideally suited for measuring heavy quark and quarkonia production properties. In addition, the new system of forward shower counters installed upstream and downstream has begun to be used, therefore the experiment is being suited to measure central exclusive production. The $\\text{LHC}b$ measurements of inclusive and differential cross-sections of the production of $J/\\psi$ resonance and $J/\\psi$ pairs, as well bottom quarks and $Z^0$ boson, based on Run 2 datasets are summarized. Finally, results on the prompt production of open charm hadrons and the exclusive production of charmonium are discussed.

  17. Traceability and Measurement Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2004-01-01

    . The project partnership aims (composed by 7 partners in 5 countries, thus covering a real European spread in high tech production technology) to develop and implement an advanced e-learning system that integrates contributions from quite different disciplines into a user-centred approach that strictly....... Machine tool testing 9. The role of manufacturing metrology for QM 10. Inspection planning 11. Quality management of measurements incl. Documentation 12. Advanced manufacturing measurement technology The present report (which represents the section 2 - Traceability and Measurement Uncertainty – of the e-learning......This report is made as a part of the project ‘Metro-E-Learn: European e-Learning in Manufacturing Metrology’, an EU project under the program SOCRATES MINERVA (ODL and ICT in Education), Contract No: 101434-CP-1-2002-1-DE-MINERVA, coordinated by Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen...

  18. Post Fukushima measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehra, V.K.

    2014-01-01

    'Stress test' of all nuclear power plants initiated in European Union examines robustness of the plant against extreme natural events coupled with loss of all electric power supplies and ultimate heat sink and ineffective counter measures. 'Complementary Safety Measures' suggested by the French Regulatory Authority have enhanced scope of the assessment of resistance to extreme natural events to all nuclear facilities. A truncated system of equipment and systems hardened against extreme events would evolve from such an exercise so that possibility of radioactive release and evacuation of people does not rise again. Computer simulation of the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi plant was initiated almost simultaneously with the accident. Apart from bench marking the analysis programs, such an exercise will help in quantitative implementation of counter measures and identification of research areas. Additional regulatory requirements are being proposed to prevent core damage or containment failure and to suppress dispersal of radioactive materials

  19. Measuring efficiency in logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Milovan Andrejić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic market and environmental changes greatly affect operating of logistics systems. Logistics systems have to realize their activities and processes in an efficient way. The main objective of this paper is to analyze different aspects of efficiency measurement in logistics and to propose appropriate models of measurement. Measuring efficiency in logistics is a complex process that requires consideration of all subsystems, processes and activities as well as the impact of various financial, operational, environmental, quality and other factors. The proposed models have a basis in the Data Envelopment Analysis method. They could help managers in decision making and corrective actions processes. The tests and results of the model show the importance of input and output variables selection.

  20. Measurement of complex surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.M.

    1993-05-01

    Several of the components used in coil fabrication involve complex surfaces and dimensions that are not well suited to measurements using conventional dimensional measuring equipment. Some relatively simple techniques that are in use in the SSCL Magnet Systems Division (MSD) for incoming inspection will be described, with discussion of their suitability for specific applications. Components that are submitted for MSD Quality Assurance (QA) dimensional inspection may be divided into two distinct categories; the first category involves components for which there is an approved drawing and for which all nominal dimensions are known; the second category involves parts for which 'reverse engineering' is required, the part is available but there are no available drawings or dimensions. This second category typically occurs during development of coil end parts and coil turn filler parts where it is necessary to manually shape the part and then measure it to develop the information required to prepare a drawing for the part

  1. Measuring ambivalence to science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, P. L.

    Ambivalence is a psychological state in which a person holds mixed feelings (positive and negative) towards some psychological object. Standard methods of attitude measurement, such as Likert and semantic differential scales, ignore the possibility of ambivalence; ambivalent responses cannot be distinguished from neutral ones. This neglect arises out of an assumption that positive and negative affects towards a particular psychological object are bipolar, i.e., unidimensional in opposite directions. This assumption is frequently untenable. Conventional item statistics and measures of test internal consistency are ineffective as checks on this assumption; it is possible for a scale to be multidimensional and still display apparent internal consistency. Factor analysis is a more effective procedure. Methods of measuring ambivalence are suggested, and implications for research are discussed.

  2. The measurement of sparkle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, A.; Bayón, S.

    2015-04-01

    Sparkle is a non-uniform texture effect consisting of very bright spots distributed on a dark surround. To date the only commercially-available instrument able to quantify sparkle is BYK-mac. This instrument allows sparkle parameters to be obtained, which should correlate with the visual experience. However, the measurands corresponding to these parameters are not clearly defined and they cannot be measured by any other instruments. In this article, we describe a procedure to measure quantities of well-defined sparkle measurands. We present experimental results at a combination of well-distributed illumination/viewing geometries within the incident plane. From this study, four descriptors are derived which may be correlated with visual attributes of sparkle. Finally, the procedure to estimate the perceived sparkle at any given surround luminance from the measured sparkle quantities is explained.

  3. B meson lifetime measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccolo, M.

    1989-01-01

    The lifetime of hadrons containing b-quark has been the subject of extensive experimental work and theoretical speculation; its importance is due to implications on some of the fundamental parameters of the Standard Model, such as the top quark mass and the mixing angles. Since the pioneer measurements of the MAC and MARK II collaborations at PEP in 1983 the progress has been impressive; but many issues still remain open and await further study. In this paper the field's present status is discussed. An overview of the theoretical motivations for this measurements in the Standard Model framework is done. Then the experimental techniques used are reviewed, emphasizing the most recent measurements. A comparison of the results obtained is done and systematic errors are discussed. In conclusion there are some remarks on the further developments foreseen in the near future

  4. Measuring marketing effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluckman, J; Michaelis, T

    1987-09-01

    The most frequent question about the marketing function in hospitals today is, What are we getting for our money? To answer this, marketing directors must convince the board first of the need for marketing, then of marketing's effectiveness. To measure marketing effectiveness, some basic needs are a staff, equipment, cooperation between departments, utilization data, and a research budget. Some steps to be followed include developing a marketing data base--consisting of demographic projections, demand projections, and market share--testing a marketing strategy through experimentation, documenting the expected results and measurement techniques, and calculating the expected return on investments. In dealing with those "impossible-to-measure" cases, such as a physician who is not advertising but finds that a competitor is, a decision tree can help determine whether to advertise and how much to spend by indicating what the return on investment might be.

  5. Workload measurement: diagnostic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuss, Wayne [The Prince Charles Hospital, Chermside, QLD (Australia). Dept. of Medical Imaging

    1993-06-01

    Departments of medical imaging, as with many other service departments in the health industry, are being asked to develop performance indicators. No longer are they assured that annual budget allocations will be forthcoming without justification or some output measurement indicators that will substantiate a claim for a reasonable share of resources. The human resource is the most valuable and the most expensive to any department. This paper provides a brief overview of the research and implementation of a radiographer workload measurement system that was commenced in the Brisbane North Health Region. 2 refs., 10 tabs.

  6. Probability and Measure

    CERN Document Server

    Billingsley, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition "It is, as far as I'm concerned, among the best books in math ever written....if you are a mathematician and want to have the top reference in probability, this is it." (Amazon.com, January 2006) A complete and comprehensive classic in probability and measure theory Probability and Measure, Anniversary Edition by Patrick Billingsley celebrates the achievements and advancements that have made this book a classic in its field for the past 35 years. Now re-issued in a new style and format, but with the reliable content that the third edition was revered for, this

  7. Preventive measures for emergencies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calliess, J.

    1990-01-01

    The meeting discussed the new provisions for civil defense on account of the amended Disaster Control Act which had been recently adopted by the Lower House of Parliament. In 6 working groups it was discussed how appropriate and sensible the attempt is to make provisions for civil defence in order to protect the population, and how adequate legislative measures are in the face of true threat and var scenarios. Ethical aspects and aspects of international law were considered, as well as the role of public health and free charitable institutions concering preventive measures in emergencies. (orig. HSCH) [de

  8. Measuring depth in boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodson, G.M.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to a method of determining the depth of rock strata and other features of a borehole. It may be employed with particular advantage when access to the top of the borehole is difficult, for example in underwater operations. A radioactive marker, such as a source of gamma rays, is positioned near the top of the riser of a sub-sea wellhead structure. A radiation detector is lowered between the marker and a radioactive stratum and the length of line supplied is measured on the floating platform. This enables the depth of the stratum to be measured irrespective of tidal variations of the height of the platform. (U.K.)

  9. Rectenna array measurement results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The measured performance characteristics of a rectenna array are reviewed and compared to the performance of a single element. It is shown that the performance may be extrapolated from the individual element to that of the collection of elements. Techniques for current and voltage combining were demonstrated. The array performance as a function of various operating parameters is characterized and techniques for overvoltage protection and automatic fault clearing in the array demonstrated. A method for detecting failed elements also exists. Instrumentation for deriving performance effectiveness is described. Measured harmonic radiation patterns and fundamental frequency scattered patterns for a low level illumination rectenna array are presented.

  10. Productivity and Performance Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft; Spring, Martin

    This study explores conceptually how performance measurement as discussed in the literature, enables or constrains the ability to manage and improve productivity. It uses an inter-disciplinary literature review to identify five areas of concern relating productivity accounting to the ability...... to improve productivity: “Productivity representation”; “productivity incentives”, “productivity intervention”; “productivity trade-off or synergy” and “productivity strategy and context”. The paper discusses these areas of concern and expands our knowledge of how productivity and performance measurement...

  11. Temperature measurement device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oltman, B.G.; Eckerman, K.F.; Romberg, G.P.; Prepejchal, W.

    1975-01-01

    Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) material is exposed to a known amount of radiation and then exposed to the environment where temperature measurements are to be taken. After a predetermined time period, the TLD material is read in a known manner to determine the amount of radiation energy remaining in the TLD material. The difference between the energy originally stored by irradiation and that remaining after exposure to the temperature ofthe environment is a measure of the average temperature of the environment during the exposure. (U.S.)

  12. Fission gas measuring technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyung Kwon; Kim, Eun Ka; Hwang, Yong Hwa; Lee, Eun Pyo; Chun, Yong Bum; Seo, Ki Seog; Park, Dea Gyu; Chu, Yong Sun; Ahn, Sang Bok.

    1998-02-01

    Safety and economy of nuclear plant are greatly affected by the integrity of nuclear fuels during irradiation reactor core. A series of post-irradiation examination (PIE) including non-destructive and destructive test is to be conducted to evaluate and characterize the nuclear performance. In this report, a principle of the examination equipment to measure and analyse fission gases existing nuclear fuels were described and features of the component and device consisting the fission gas measuring equipment are investigated. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  13. Fission gas measuring technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyung Kwon; Kim, Eun Ka; Hwang, Yong Hwa; Lee, Eun Pyo; Chun, Yong Bum; Seo, Ki Seog; Park, Dea Gyu; Chu, Yong Sun; Ahn, Sang Bok

    1998-02-01

    Safety and economy of nuclear plant are greatly affected by the integrity of nuclear fuels during irradiation reactor core. A series of post-irradiation examination (PIE) including non-destructive and destructive test is to be conducted to evaluate and characterize the nuclear performance. In this report, a principle of the examination equipment to measure and analyse fission gases existing nuclear fuels were described and features of the component and device consisting the fission gas measuring equipment are investigated. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  14. Residual-stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeilo, A N; Webster, G A [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P J [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  15. Creep Measurement Video Extensometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaster, Mark; Vickerman, Mary; Padula, Santo, II; Juhas, John

    2011-01-01

    Understanding material behavior under load is critical to the efficient and accurate design of advanced aircraft and spacecraft. Technologies such as the one disclosed here allow accurate creep measurements to be taken automatically, reducing error. The goal was to develop a non-contact, automated system capable of capturing images that could subsequently be processed to obtain the strain characteristics of these materials during deformation, while maintaining adequate resolution to capture the true deformation response of the material. The measurement system comprises a high-resolution digital camera, computer, and software that work collectively to interpret the image.

  16. Intercalibration of transuranic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukai, R.; Ballestra, S.; Thein, M.

    1982-01-01

    One of the major objectives of the coordinated research programme on Transuranic Cycling Behaviour in the Marine Environment has been to achieve the comparability of the measurement results among the laboratories from different countries participating in the programme. In order to fulfil this objective, the intercalibration exercises of transuranic measurements using sea water and sediment samples were organized by the Monaco Laboratory within the duration of the programme in 1979-1981. The sediment and sea water samples were collected respectively by the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre of India and the Hydrographic Institute of the Federal Republic of Germany. In the present report the results of these intercalibration exercises are surveyed

  17. Geometric multipartite entanglement measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz-Silva, Gerardo A.; Reina, John H.

    2007-01-01

    Within the framework of constructions for quantifying entanglement, we build a natural scenario for the assembly of multipartite entanglement measures based on Hopf bundle-like mappings obtained through Clifford algebra representations. Then, given the non-factorizability of an arbitrary two-qubit density matrix, we give an alternate quantity that allows the construction of two types of entanglement measures based on their arithmetical and geometrical averages over all pairs of qubits in a register of size N, and thus fully characterize its degree and type of entanglement. We find that such an arithmetical average is both additive and strongly super additive

  18. Measuring your radon risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackmurdo, R.

    1994-01-01

    In its annual report for 1992/93, the NRPB has warned that tens of thousands of UK employees may be exposed to high levels of radon at work. In addition to those who work underground, employees at risk of radon-induced lung cancer are typically those who spend long periods indoors. This article reviews the implications for all employers especially those in low or unknown levels of radon who resist taking measurements in the belief that by not measuring, they are not liable. (UK)

  19. Measuring pollution prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, D.G.; Bridges, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    To assess progress in pollution prevention, estimates or measurements of the amounts of pollution actually prevented have to be made. Such estimates or measurements tell us how far we have come and, possibly, how much farther there is to go in utilizing pollution prevention as a tool for improving environmental quality. They can, theoretically, be used to assess progress on a scale ranging from the individual facility or even the individual process or activity generation wastes to scale as large as a geographical area such as a county, a state or even the United States as a whole. 3 refs

  20. Measuring green jobs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Martinsen, Louise

    2012-01-01

    The report reviews the different initiatives aiming to measure aspects of “green” sectors, jobs and technologies. The report discusses whether the statistics collected under the present initiatives aimed at measuring these aspects increase insights into the fundamental questions motivating...... the initiatives. An alternative framework is suggested, as it appears fundamentally impossible to make consistent frameworks for a division of the economy into “green” and “non-green” activities. The analysis has been carried out during the period September 2011 – March 2012 by Vista Analysis AS, Gaia Consulting...

  1. Simulations with complex measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markham, J.K.; Kieu, T.D.

    1997-01-01

    A method is proposed to handle the sign problem in the simulation of systems having indefinite or complex-valued measures. In general, this new approach, which is based on renormalisation blocking, is shown to yield statistical errors smaller that the crude Monte Carlo method using absolute values of the original measures. The improved method is applied to the 2D Ising model with temperature generalised to take on complex values. It is also adapted to implement Monte Carlo Renormalisation Group calculations of the magnetic and thermal critical exponents. 10 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs

  2. Transverse betatron tune measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serio, M.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the concept of the betatron tune and the techniques to measure it are discussed. The smooth approximation is introduced along with the terminology of betatron oscillations, phase advance and tune. Single particle and beam spectra in the presence of synchro-betatron oscillations are treated with emphasis on the consequences of sampling the beam position. After a general presentation of various kinds of beam position monitors and transverse kickers, the time domain and frequency domain analysis of the beam response to a transverse excitation are discussed and several methods and applications of the tune measurements are listed

  3. Liquid metal level measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, J.C.; Leyland, K.S.

    1982-01-01

    A liquid metal level indicator is described which can be used to measure, in a stainless steel tank, the level of a nuclear reactor coolant such as sodium. The instrument, which is based on the eddy current induction effect, gives readings over substantially the full depth of the tank and indicates the sense of change of level. (U.K.)

  4. Health Physics Measurements Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carchon, R

    2001-04-01

    SCK-CEN's programme on health physics measurements includes various activities in dosimetry, calibration , instrumentation , gamma-ray spectrometry, whole body counting , the preparation of standard sources, non-destructive assay and the maintenance of Euratom Fork detectors. Main achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised.

  5. Dialogue scanning measuring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borodyuk, V.P.; Shkundenkov, V.N.

    1985-01-01

    The main developments of scanning measuring systems intended for mass precision processsing of films in nuclear physics problems and in related fields are reviewed. A special attention is paid to the problem of creation of dialogue systems which permit to simlify the development of control computer software

  6. NSR superstring measures revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, A.

    2008-01-01

    Review of remarkable progress in evaluation of NSR superstring measures, originated by E.D'Hoker and D.Phong. These recent results are presented in the old-fashioned form, what allows to highlight the options which have been overlooked in original considerations in late 1980's.

  7. Fire protection measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittner

    1997-01-01

    The presentation could only show a very brief overview of the analysis results of a wide study of the existing fire protection situation at Mochovce. As far not already done the next steps will be the selection of the final suppliers of the different measures, the detailed design and the implementation of the measures. As part of the further assistance in fire protection EUCOM will perform compliance checks of the DD and implementation and assist EMO for raising problems. Especially during the implementation of the measures the belonging quality checks have a high priority. Assuming that the implementation of measures will be in accordance with with the study results and the relevant basic design requirements it can be stated that safety level concerning fire protection will be in accordance with international requirement like IAEA 50 SG D2. The next step of our work will be the delta analysis for 2 unit and the relevant basic design as far as there are differences to unit 1. (author)

  8. Connectivity measures: a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kindlmann, Pavel; Burel, F.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2008), s. 879-890 ISSN 0921-2973 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6087301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Conservation biology * Habitat fragmentation * Landscape connectivity * Measures * Species extinction Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.453, year: 2008

  9. Measures for speed management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    Measures for speed management are essential for limiting the negative effects of driving too fast and at inappropriate speeds. To begin with, safe and credible speed limits need to be determined. Dynamic and variable speed limits that take into account the current circumstances, such as weather

  10. Measuring Cultural Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patsiurko, Natalka; Campbell, John L.; Hall, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Many claim that national economic success depends upon cultural homogeneity. We collect new time-series data and develop new measures of ethnic, linguistic and religious fractionalization for the OECD countries. We show that cultural diversity may vary by type across countries and over short peri...

  11. Position measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Shuichi; Maruyama, Mayumi

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a device capable of measuring accurate position and distance easily even at places where operator can not easily access, such as cell facilities for vitrifying radioactive wastes. Referring to a case of the vitrifying cell, an objective equipment settled in the cell is photographed by a photographing device. The image is stored in a position measuring device by way of an image input device. After several years, when the objective equipment is exchanged, a new objective equipment is photographed by a photographing device. The image is also stored in the position measuring device. The position measuring device compares the data of both of the images on the basis of pixel unit. Based on the image of the equipment before the exchange as a reference, extent of the displacement of the installation position of the equipment on the image after the exchange caused by installation error and manufacturing error is determined to decide the position of the equipment after exchange relative to the equipment before exchange. (I.S.)

  12. Radiation flux measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corte, E.; Maitra, P.

    1977-01-01

    A radiation flux measuring device is described which employs a differential pair of transistors, the output of which is maintained constant, connected to a radiation detector. Means connected to the differential pair produce a signal representing the log of the a-c component of the radiation detector, thereby providing a signal representing the true root mean square logarithmic output. 3 claims, 2 figures

  13. Measurements for municipalities 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Kuhry; J.J.J. Jonker; with participation of M. Ras

    2007-01-01

    Original title: Maten voor gemeenten 2007. Measurements for municipalities 2007 presents a national picture of the performance delivered by local authorities and the costs of doing so. The analyses relate to the period 2000-2005. This is the fifth time this quantitative and integrated picture

  14. Measurements for municipalities 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Kuhry; J.J.J. Jonker; with cooperation of Bureau Zenc

    2006-01-01

    Original title: Maten voor gemeenten 2006. Measurements for municipalities 2006 (Maten voor gemeenten 2006) presents a national picture of the performance delivered by local authorities and the costs of doing so. The analyses relate to the period 1999-2004. This is the fourth time

  15. EBRII cask characterization measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haggard, D.L.; Brackenbush, L.W.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the measurements performed to provide the radionuclide content and verify the stated mass of special nuclear material (SNM) in Experimental Breeder Reactor EBRII casks stored in Trench 1, Burial Ground 4C, 218-WAC 200 West Area. this information is needed to characterize the curie content of each cask and the total curies in the storage area. Gamma assay techniques typically employed for nondestructive assay (NDA) were used to determine the gamma-emitting isotopes in each cask, which were fission and activation products from the spent fuel. Passive neutron counting was selected to verify the stated plutonium content because the fission and activation products masked any gamma emissions from plutonium. The fast neutrons emitted by plutonium are highly penetrating and easily detected through several inches of shielding. A slab neutron detector containing five 3 He proportional counters was used to determine the neutron emission rates and estimate the mass of plutonium present. The measurements followed the methods and procedures routinely used for nuclear waste assay and safeguard measurements. The measured neutron yields confirmed the declared plutonium content for the fuel elements, with the exception of several casks that contained recycled plutonium or americium target material. In these casks, the 244 Cm content masked the neutron emissions from any plutonium. For these casks, the plutonium content was estimated by correlation with the 244 Cm neutron emissions

  16. Electromagnetic distance measurement

    CERN Document Server

    1967-01-01

    This book brings together the work of forty-eight geodesists from twenty-five countries. They discuss various new electromagnetic distance measurement (EDM) instruments - among them the Tellurometer, Geodimeter, and air- and satellite-borne systems - and investigate the complex sources of error.

  17. Measuring Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. George; Josiassen, Alexander; Gillen, David

    2014-01-01

    Set in the airport industry, this paper measures firm performance using both desirable and bad outputs (i.e. airport delays). We first estimate a model that does not include the bad outputs and then a model that includes bad outputs. The results show important differences in the efficiency...

  18. Measuring the chargino parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    by measuring the cross-sections with polarized beams at e+e- collider ... is given by the fundamental SUSY parameters: the SU(2) gaugino mass Е¾, the higgsino .... two points in the plane which are symmetric under the interchange ¾Д ° ¾К.

  19. Measurement of Humidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regtien, Paulus P.L.

    2005-01-01

    The project COMET provides a multimedia training package for metrology and measurement. The package is developed by a consortium of 10 institutes from 7 European countries. It consists of 31 modules, each dealing with a particular aspect of metrology, and is available in English, German, French and

  20. Customer satisfaction measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maričić Branko R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Customer satisfaction is important in business management as a basis for long-term profitability of a single line of products and services and the company as a whole. Customer satisfaction in modern market conditions is characterized by a large number of alternatives that can satisfy the same need or desire of consumers, and are a prerequisite for the retention, loyalty, and positive verbal communication between companies and vendors on one hand and consumers on the other. Companies are investing more and more investment and management efforts in improving customer satisfaction. Improving customer satisfaction and its measurement involves the taking of appropriate marketing strategies and tactics, as well as corrective measures. This paper presents the well-known attempts to measure customers' satisfaction at the macro and micro level of marketing analysis. The index of consumer satisfaction is an important indicator of achieved quality and market performance of companies and can be measured on a micro and macro level. National customer satisfaction indexes are useful framework for analyzing the competitiveness of national economies, industries and individual companies and are used for a variety of other aspects of observation and analysis. Standardization of consumer satisfaction indexes in different countries allows comparability of the data, giving a new quality of analysis in the era of globalization and internationalization of business.

  1. AA magnet measurement team

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    Quickly improvised measurement equipment for the AA (Antiproton Accumulator) was all the tight schedule permitted, but the high motivation of the team made up for the lack of convenience. From left to right: Roy Billinge (Joint AA Project Leader, the other one was Simon van der Meer); Bruno Autin, Brian Pincott, Colin Johnson.

  2. Measuring Neurotic Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    An exploratory study concerned with the measurement of perseveration, or persistence, as a personality variable was based on the work of G.V. Hamilton, an early investigator in the field. Persistently maladaptive behavior was hypothesized to be a chief characteristic of neurosis. An experimental problem-solving situation was designed to…

  3. Measured attenuation correction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostertag, H.; Kuebler, W.K.; Doll, J.; Lorenz, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Accurate attenuation correction is a prerequisite for the determination of exact local radioactivity concentrations in positron emission tomography. Attenuation correction factors range from 4-5 in brain studies to 50-100 in whole body measurements. This report gives an overview of the different methods of determining the attenuation correction factors by transmission measurements using an external positron emitting source. The long-lived generator nuclide 68 Ge/ 68 Ga is commonly used for this purpose. The additional patient dose from the transmission source is usually a small fraction of the dose due to the subsequent emission measurement. Ring-shaped transmission sources as well as rotating point or line sources are employed in modern positron tomographs. By masking a rotating line or point source, random and scattered events in the transmission scans can be effectively suppressed. The problems of measured attenuation correction are discussed: Transmission/emission mismatch, random and scattered event contamination, counting statistics, transmission/emission scatter compensation, transmission scan after administration of activity to the patient. By using a double masking technique simultaneous emission and transmission scans become feasible. (orig.)

  4. Comparing Harmonic Similarity Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, W.B.; Robine, M.; Hanna, P.; Veltkamp, R.C.; Wiering, F.

    2010-01-01

    We present an overview of the most recent developments in polyphonic music retrieval and an experiment in which we compare two harmonic similarity measures. In contrast to earlier work, in this paper we specifically focus on the symbolic chord description as the primary musical representation and

  5. Measurement Science and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunderson, C. Victor

    The need for training and retraining is a central element in current discussions about the economy of the United States. This paper is designed to introduce training practitioners to some new concepts about how measurement science can provide a new framework for assessing progress and can add new discipline to the development, implementation, and…

  6. Fuzzy measures and integrals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mesiar, Radko

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 156 (2005), s. 365-370 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA402/04/1026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : fuzzy measures * fuzzy integral * regular fuzzy integral Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.039, year: 2005

  7. Precision measurements in supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Johnathan Lee [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Supersymmetry is a promising framework in which to explore extensions of the standard model. If candidates for supersymmetric particles are found, precision measurements of their properties will then be of paramount importance. The prospects for such measurements and their implications are the subject of this thesis. If charginos are produced at the LEP II collider, they are likely to be one of the few available supersymmetric signals for many years. The author considers the possibility of determining fundamental supersymmetry parameters in such a scenario. The study is complicated by the dependence of observables on a large number of these parameters. He proposes a straightforward procedure for disentangling these dependences and demonstrate its effectiveness by presenting a number of case studies at representative points in parameter space. In addition to determining the properties of supersymmetric particles, precision measurements may also be used to establish that newly-discovered particles are, in fact, supersymmetric. Supersymmetry predicts quantitative relations among the couplings and masses of superparticles. The author discusses tests of such relations at a future e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} linear collider, using measurements that exploit the availability of polarizable beams. Stringent tests of supersymmetry from chargino production are demonstrated in two representative cases, and fermion and neutralino processes are also discussed.

  8. Measuring Normative Risk Preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A.G. Alserda (Gosse)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe results of eliciting risk preferences depend on the elicitation method. Different methods of measuring the same variable tend to produce different results. This raises the question whether normative risk preferences can be elicited at all. Using two types of manipulation, I assess

  9. Inclusion: Conceptualization and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, W.S.; Otten, S.; Van der Zee, K.I.; Jans, L.

    2014-01-01

    n the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal

  10. Inclusion : Conceptualization and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Wiebren S.; Otten, Sabine; van der Zee, Karen I.; Jans, Lise

    In the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal

  11. Inclusion: Conceptualization and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansens, Wiebren S.; Otten, Sabine; van der Zee, Karen; Jans, Lise

    2014-01-01

    In the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal

  12. Temperature measurements by thermocouples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liermann, J.

    1975-01-01

    The measurement of a temperature (whatever the type of transducer used) raises three problems: the choice of transducer; where it should be placed; how it should be fixed and protected. These are the three main points examined, after a brief description of the most commonly used thermocouples [fr

  13. Health Physics Measurements Services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carchon, R.

    2001-01-01

    SCK-CEN's programme on health physics measurements includes various activities in dosimetry, calibration , instrumentation , gamma-ray spectrometry, whole body counting , the preparation of standard sources, non-destructive assay and the maintenance of Euratom Fork detectors. Main achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised

  14. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States)

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  15. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    In a method for performing a refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid such as chemical composition or temperature, a chirp in the local spatial frequency of interference fringes of an interference pattern is reduced by mathematical manipulation of the recorded light intensity...

  16. Measurement and Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkham, Harold

    2018-01-02

    This is a chapter for a book called the Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineering. Though it is not obvious from the title, the book deals mainly with power engineering. The first chapter (not mine) is about the fundamental quantities used in measurement. This chapter is about the process and the instrumentation.

  17. First Measurement of $\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomino Gallo, Jose Luis [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2012-12-01

    Understanding of the $\\pi^0$ production via anti-neutrino-nucleus charged current interaction in the neutrino energy region of 1-10 GeV is essential for neutrino oscillation experiments. In this thesis, we present a measurement of charged current $\\pi^0$ production from anti-muon neutrinos scattering on a polystyrene scintillator (CH) target in the MINER$\

  18. Benchmarking and Performance Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Town, J. Stephen

    This paper defines benchmarking and its relationship to quality management, describes a project which applied the technique in a library context, and explores the relationship between performance measurement and benchmarking. Numerous benchmarking methods contain similar elements: deciding what to benchmark; identifying partners; gathering…

  19. Measures against nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A select committee appointed by the Norwegian Ministry of Social Affairs put forward proposals concerning measures for the improvement of radiation protection preparedness in Norway. On the basis on an assessment of the potential radiation accident threat, the report examines the process of response, and identifies the organizational and management factors that influence that process

  20. EDITORIAL: Microwave Moisture Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatze, Udo; Kupfer, Klaus; Hübner, Christof

    2007-04-01

    Microwave moisture measurements refer to a methodology by which the water content of materials is non-invasively determined using electromagnetic fields of radio and microwave frequencies. Being the omnipresent liquid on our planet, water occurs as a component in most materials and often exercises a significant influence on their properties. Precise measurements of the water content are thus extremely useful in pure sciences, particularly in biochemistry and biophysics. They are likewise important in many agricultural, technical and industrial fields. Applications are broad and diverse, and include the quality assessment of foodstuffs, the determination of water content in paper, cardboard and textile production, the monitoring of moisture in sands, gravels, soils and constructions, as well as the measurement of water admixtures to coal and crude oil in reservoirs and in pipelines. Microwave moisture measurements and evaluations require insights in various disciplines, such as materials science, dielectrics, the physical chemistry of water, electrodynamics and microwave techniques. The cooperation of experts from the different fields of science is thus necessary for the efficient development of this complex discipline. In order to advance cooperation the Workshop on Electromagnetic Wave Interaction with Water and Moist Substances was held in 1993 in Atlanta. It initiated a series of international conferences, of which the last one was held in 2005 in Weimar. The meeting brought together 130 scientists and engineers from all over the world. This special issue presents a collection of some selected papers that were given at the event. The papers cover most topics of the conference, featuring dielectric properties of aqueous materials, electromagnetic wave interactions, measurement methods and sensors, and various applications. The special issue is dedicated to Dr Andrzej W Kraszewski, who died in July 2006 after a distinguished career of 48 years in the research of

  1. Strategic Measures of Teacher Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanowski, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Managing the human capital in education requires measuring teacher performance. To measure performance, administrators need to combine measures of practice with measures of outcomes, such as value-added measures, and three measurement systems are needed: classroom observations, performance assessments or work samples, and classroom walkthroughs.…

  2. Cross Section Measurements for Some Elements Suited as Thermal Spectrum indicators: Cd, Sm, Gd and Lu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolowski, E; Pekarek, H; Jonsson, E

    1964-05-15

    The effective cross sections of Cd, Sm, Gd and Lu have been measured by the oscillator technique in the spectrum of the central channel of the Swedish reactor R1. For Cd, Sm and Gd the 2200 m/s cross sections were deduced on the basis of Westcott's g and s factors. The values obtained were generally in agreement with other recent values obtained by integral methods, although a systematic trend indicated that the value T{sub n} - T{sub m} = 29 {+-} 10 deg C for the neutron spectrum, measured with a fast chopper, was slightly too high. A new value of T{sub n} - T{sub m} = 22.5 {+-} 3.5 deg C was deduced and new 2200 m/s cross sections were obtained by iteration. For natural Lu, the energy dependence of the cross section is not well known. Certain assumptions about the cross section function led to unreasonably high values for the 2200 m/s cross section. Complementary differential measurements of the cross sections of Cd, Sm and Gd were made with the Rl fast chopper. For Cd and Sm the 2200 m/s cross section thus obtained agreed within experimental error with those obtained from the integral measurements. For Gd, the chopper measured value was higher, confirming earlier findings and indicating that the Westcott g factor for Gd is too high. Cd: Integral meas. : {sigma}(2200) = 2,390 {+-} 45 b; Differential meas. : {sigma}(2200) = 2,445 {+-} 25 b; Sm: Integral meas. : {sigma}(2200) = 5,880 {+-} 90 b; Differential meas. : {sigma}(2200) = 5,740 {+-} 150 b; Gd: Integral meas. : {sigma}(2200) = 46,470 {+-} 550 b; Differential meas. : {sigma}(2200) = 47,900 {+-} 700 b.

  3. Cross Section Measurements for Some Elements Suited as Thermal Spectrum indicators: Cd, Sm, Gd and Lu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolowski, E.; Pekarek, H.; Jonsson, E.

    1964-05-15

    The effective cross sections of Cd, Sm, Gd and Lu have been measured by the oscillator technique in the spectrum of the central channel of the Swedish reactor R1. For Cd, Sm and Gd the 2200 m/s cross sections were deduced on the basis of Westcott's g and s factors. The values obtained were generally in agreement with other recent values obtained by integral methods, although a systematic trend indicated that the value T{sub n} - T{sub m} = 29 {+-} 10 deg C for the neutron spectrum, measured with a fast chopper, was slightly too high. A new value of T{sub n} - T{sub m} = 22.5 {+-} 3.5 deg C was deduced and new 2200 m/s cross sections were obtained by iteration. For natural Lu, the energy dependence of the cross section is not well known. Certain assumptions about the cross section function led to unreasonably high values for the 2200 m/s cross section. Complementary differential measurements of the cross sections of Cd, Sm and Gd were made with the Rl fast chopper. For Cd and Sm the 2200 m/s cross section thus obtained agreed within experimental error with those obtained from the integral measurements. For Gd, the chopper measured value was higher, confirming earlier findings and indicating that the Westcott g factor for Gd is too high. Cd: Integral meas. : {sigma}(2200) = 2,390 {+-} 45 b; Differential meas. : {sigma}(2200) = 2,445 {+-} 25 b; Sm: Integral meas. : {sigma}(2200) = 5,880 {+-} 90 b; Differential meas. : {sigma}(2200) = 5,740 {+-} 150 b; Gd: Integral meas. : {sigma}(2200) = 46,470 {+-} 550 b; Differential meas. : {sigma}(2200) = 47,900 {+-} 700 b.

  4. Deposition Measurements in NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, C. H.; Kugel, H. W.; Hogan, J. T.; Wampler, W. R.

    2004-11-01

    Two quartz microbalances have been used to record deposition on the National Spherical Torus Experiment. The experimental configuration mimics a typical diagnostic window or mirror. An RS232 link was used to acquire the quartz crystal frequency and the deposited thickness was recorded continuously with 0.01 nm resolution. Nuclear Reaction Analysis of the deposit was consistent with the measurement of the total deposited mass from the change in crystal frequency. We will present measurements of the variation of deposition with plasma conditions. The transport of carbon impurities in NSTX has been modelled with the BBQ code. Preliminary calculations indicated a negligible fraction of carbon generated at the divertor plates in quiescent discharges directly reaches the outer wall, and that transient events are responsible for the deposition.

  5. Measuring domestic water use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamason, Charlotte C.; Bessias, Sophia; Villada, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To present a systematic review of methods for measuring domestic water use in settings where water meters cannot be used. Methods: We systematically searched EMBASE, PubMed, Water Intelligence Online, Water Engineering and Development Center, IEEExplore, Scielo, and Science Direct...... databases for articles that reported methodologies for measuring water use at the household level where water metering infrastructure was absent or incomplete. A narrative review explored similarities and differences between the included studies and provide recommendations for future research in water use....... Results: A total of 21 studies were included in the review. Methods ranged from single-day to 14-consecutive-day visits, and water use recall ranged from 12 h to 7 days. Data were collected using questionnaires, observations or both. Many studies only collected information on water that was carried...

  6. Photothermal measurements of superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kino, G.S.; Wu, X.D.; Kapitulnik, A.; Fishman, I.

    1993-01-01

    The authors have developed a new photothermal technique to investigate electronic phase transitions of high temperature superconductors. The phase shift of the thermal wave yields the anisotropic thermal diffusivity coefficient of the sample. The amplitude of the photothermal signal is sensitive to electronic phase transitions of the second kind. The technique is completely noncontacting and nondestructive, and is well suited to measure small and fragile single-crystal high-T c superconductors. The measurements give good agreement with fluctuation theory near the transition temperature. They have studied diffusion in, and superconducting fluctuations of, single crystals of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ and Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 . Both systems show fluctuation effects beyond Gaussian fluctuations. While YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ behaves as a three-dimensional anisotropic superconductor, results on Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 indicate strong two-dimensional effects

  7. Coating thickness measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joffe, B.B.; Sawyer, B.E.; Spongr, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    A device especially adapted for measuring the thickness of coatings on small, complexly-shaped parts, such as, for example, electronic connectors, electronic contacts, or the like. The device includes a source of beta radiation and a radiation detector whereby backscatter of the radiation from the coated part can be detected and the thickness of the coating ascertained. The radiation source and detector are positioned in overlying relationship to the coated part and a microscope is provided to accurately position the device with respect to the part. Means are provided to control the rate of descent of the radiation source and radiation detector from its suspended position to its operating position and the resulting impact it makes with the coated part to thereby promote uniformity of readings from operator to operator, and also to avoid excessive impact with the part, thereby improving accuracy of measurement and eliminating damage to the parts

  8. External Measures of Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo eCairo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is undoubtedly the most impressive, complex and intricate organ that has evolved over time. It is also probably the least understood, and for that reason, the one that is currently attracting the most attention. In fact, the number of comparative analyses that focus on the evolution of brain size in Homo sapiens and other species has increased dramatically in recent years. In neuroscience, no other issue has generated so much interest and been the topic of so many heated debates as the difference in brain size between socially defined population groups, both its connotations and implications. For over a century, external measures of cognition have been related to intelligence. However, it is still unclear whether these measures actually correspond to cognitive abilities. In summary, this paper must be reviewed with this premise in mind.

  9. Measuring Idiosyncratic Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, Eva Rytter

    This paper offers two refinements of the traditional risk measure based on the volatility of growth. First, we condition GDP growth on structural characteristics of the host country that move only slowly and therefore can be partly predicted by an investor. Second, we adjust conditional risk...... for the systematic components due to the global and regional interdependence between alternative investment locations. The decomposition of conditional risk into its systematic and idiosyncratic components reveals that not only are African countries on average characterised by a larger conditional risk than Asian...... and Latin American countries, but the idiosyncratic risk factor also represents a larger share than in other developing countries. As a final contribution, we search the empirical literature on foreign direct investment and risk in order to determine which of the suggested risk measures provide the best...

  10. Measurement by phase severance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, H.P.

    1987-03-01

    It is claimed that the measurement process is more accurately described by ''quasi-local phase severance'' than by ''wave function collapse''. The approach starts from the observation that the usual route to quantum mechanics starting from the Hamilton-Jacobi equations throws away half the degrees of freedom, namely, the classical initial state parameters. To overcome this difficulty, the full set of Hamilton-Jacobi equations is interpreted as operator equations acting on a state vector. The measurement theory presented is based on the conventional S-matrix boundary condition of N/sub A/ free particles in the distant past and N/sub B/ free particles in the distant future and taking the usual free particle wave functions, multiplied by phase factors

  11. Three measures of longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    at birth increased from a level of 44 years in Sweden in 1840 to 82 years in Japan in 2005. The record median age at death shows increasing patterns similar to those observed in life expectancy at birth. However, the record modal age at death changes very little until the second half of the twentieth......This article examines the trend over time in the measures of "typical" longevity experienced by members of a population: life expectancy at birth, and the median and modal ages at death. The article also analyzes trends in record values observed for all three measures. The record life expectancy...... time from a dominance of child mortality reductions to a dominance of adult mortality reductions, which became evident by studying trends in the record modal age at death....

  12. Measuring children's food preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Annemarie; Kildegaard, Heidi; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if children’s food preferences can be reliable measured by using pictures of foods presented on a computer screen in a conjoint layout.We investigate reproducibility (test–retest) and infer validity by comparison with traditional hedonic evaluations...... juices (tangible products), chosen to span the preference spectrum, were hedonically evaluated for appearance and taste. Finally, an actual product choice was performed by having the children choose between two buns and two juices.Results showed that the computer evaluationswith pictures of foods...... provided reproducible information about the children’s visual food preferences, which were in concordance with both hedonic measures and products choices, and can thus be considered valid....

  13. Heat flux microsensor measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, J. P.; Hager, J. M.; Onishi, S.; Diller, T. E.

    1992-01-01

    A thin-film heat flux sensor has been fabricated on a stainless steel substrate. The thermocouple elements of the heat flux sensor were nickel and nichrome, and the temperature resistance sensor was platinum. The completed heat flux microsensor was calibrated at the AEDC radiation facility. The gage output was linear with heat flux with no apparent temperature effect on sensitivity. The gage was used for heat flux measurements at the NASA Langley Vitiated Air Test Facility. Vitiated air was expanded to Mach 3.0 and hydrogen fuel was injected. Measurements were made on the wall of a diverging duct downstream of the injector during all stages of the hydrogen combustion tests. Because the wall and the gage were not actively cooled, the wall temperature reached over 1000 C (1900 F) during the most severe test.

  14. Why measure patient satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskind, Patty; Fossey, Leslie; Brill, Kari

    2011-01-01

    A practice that consistently and continuously measures patient perceptions will be more efficient and effective in its daily operations. With pay-for-performance requirements on the horizon and consumer rating sites already publicizing impressions from physician encounters, a practice needs to know how it is performing through the eyes of the patients. Azalea Orthopedics has used patient feedback to coach its physicians on better patient communication. The Orthopaedic Institute has used patient satisfaction results to reduce wait times and measure the return on investment from its marketing efforts. Patient survey results that are put to work can enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of practice operations as well as position the practice for increased profitability.

  15. Measuring European selves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antalikova, Radka

    Taking the perspective of cross-cultural psychology, the current thesis sets out to investigate self in a European context. For this purpose, the thesis first thoroughly reviews the most prominent conceptualizations of self in cross-cultural psychology, specifically focusing on disentangling...... the term interdependence. Thereafter, the thesis critically examines the most common measures of self and appropriates some of these measures for use in the current empirical study. More concretely, the current study compares self-descriptions and autobiographical memories of individuals from post......-Communist Europe and Scandinavia. The study’s results exemplify participants’ interdependence, whether in the form of their relational and group self-descriptions or their autobiographical memories recalled to different interpersonal cue words. On the whole, the current thesis contributes with novel data...

  16. Measuring waste prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorpas, Antonis A; Lasaridi, Katia

    2013-05-01

    The Waste Framework Directive (WFD-2008/98/EC) has set clear waste prevention procedures, including reporting, reviewing, monitoring and evaluating. Based on the WFD, the European Commission and will offer support to Member States on how to develop waste prevention programmes through guidelines and information sharing on best practices. Monitoring and evaluating waste prevention activities are critical, as they constitute the main tools to enable policy makers, at the national and local level, to build their strategic plans and ensure that waste prevention initiatives are effective and deliver behaviour change. However, how one can measure something that is not there, remains an important and unresolved research question. The paper reviews and attempts to evaluate the methods that are being used for measuring waste prevention and the impact of relevant implemented activities at the household level, as the available data is still limited. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. High frequency energy measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stotlar, S.C.

    1981-01-01

    High-frequency (> 100 MHz) energy measurements present special problems to the experimenter. Environment or available electronics often limit the applicability of a given detector type. The physical properties of many detectors are frequency dependent and in some cases, the physical effect employed can be frequency dependent. State-of-the-art measurements generally involve a detection scheme in association with high-speed electronics and a method of data recording. Events can be single or repetitive shot requiring real time, sampling, or digitizing data recording. Potential modification of the pulse by the detector and the associated electronics should not be overlooked. This presentation will review typical applications, methods of choosing a detector, and high-speed detectors. Special considerations and limitations of some applications and devices will be described

  18. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid is measured in an apparatus comprising a variable wavelength coherent light source (16), a sample chamber (12), a wavelength controller (24), a light sensor (20), a data recorder (26) and a computation apparatus (28), by - directing...... coherent light having a wavelength along an input light path, - producing scattering of said light from each of a plurality of interfaces within said apparatus including interfaces between said fluid and a surface bounding said fluid, said scattering producing an interference pattern formed by said...... scattered light, - cyclically varying the wavelength of said light in said input light path over a 1 nm to 20nm wide range of wavelengths a rate of from 10Hz to 50 KHz, - recording variation of intensity of the interfering light with change in wavelength of the light at an angle of observation...

  19. Infrared Measurement Variability Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    collecting optics of the measurement system. The first equation for tile blackbody experiment has the form 4.0 pim _ Ae W ,T) r(X,D) 3.5 pm - 4.0 pm JrD2 f3.5...potential for noise reduction by identifying and reducing contributing system effects. The measurement variance ott . of an infinite population of possible...irradiance can be written 4.0 pm I r()A A+ A ) 2 4.0 X C1(, = W(XT + AT)d 3.5 pim I since c + Af =2 r +Ar I Using the two expressions juSt devclopCd

  20. Measuring mandibular ridge reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, W.H.A.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis investigates the mandibular reduction in height of complete denture wearers and overdenture wearers. To follow this reduction in the anterior region as well as in the lateral sections of the mandible, an accurate and reproducible measuring method is a prerequisite. A radiologic technique offers the best chance. A survey is given of the literature concerning the resorption process after the extraction of teeth. An oblique cephalometric radiographic technique is introduced as a promising method to measure mandibular ridge reduction. The reproducibility and the accuracy of the technique are determined. The reproducibility in the positioning of the mandible is improved by the introduction of a mandibular support which permits a precise repositioning of the edentulous jaw, even after long periods of investigation. (Auth.)

  1. Measurement of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    Intensive research has been going on in many countries to remove the uncertainties and to develop and perfect the methods of measuring the absolute value of the activity of a radionuclide. The importance of this research would be obvious in the context of the rapidly growing use of radioisotopes all over the world. The use of radionuclides had increased not only in regard to the variety of applications but also in respect of the quantities involved. Until recently these uses had been confined to a few scientifically advanced countries but now they were spreading to more and more countries of the world. Development in this direction was bound to continue, and this increased the importance of improving the measuring methods. The Scientific Advisory Committee of IAEA had expressed the view that it was important to attempt a synthesis of the experience in this field gained in different countries. The Vienna symposium was meant to serve that purpose

  2. Improvements in measuring apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, W.

    1976-01-01

    Measuring apparatus is described that is suitable for gauging the wall profiles of downwardly extending channels in nuclear reactors, but which is equally applicable to channels such as pipe bores and conduits in other types of plant. The apparatus comprises a probe carrying a measuring transducer giving an electrical output. The probe support may be moved stepwise along the channel along a track between end members. An electrical conductor is provided for transmitting the electrical output of the transducer to an indicator located remote from the probe. The probe support may consist of a cable attached at one end to a winding drum, and incorporating an electrical conductor connected to the transducer. Channel engaging means are provided on the probe that permits free upward movement of the probe when the latter is suspended by the cable and moves into gripping engagement with the channel wall when the tension in the cable is relaxed. (U.K.)

  3. Radiation measuring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genrich, V.

    1985-01-01

    A highly sensitive and compactly structured radiation measuring instrument for detecting ionizing radiation, in particular for measuring dose rates and contamination. The laminar structure of the associated counter tube, using only a few, simple plastic parts and a highly elastic counter wire, makes it possible to use the simplest manufacturing techniques. The service life of the counter tube construction, which is completely and permanently sealed and filled with gas, is expected to be more than 12 years. The described counter tube can be adapted in optimal fashion to the available space in a pocket instrument if it is used in combination with a specialized high-voltage generator which is low in interference voltage and with a pulse evaluation circuit having a means of compensating for interference voltage

  4. AMOS Seeing Quality Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Measurement Atmosphere Turbulence Propagation Observatory Acoustic Sounder Maui Optical Station Astronomy Microthermal Probe TEAL BLUE Degradation...presence of the site structures. Instruments used were an acoustic sounder (to probe the altitudes of 100 to 1000 ft), fine- wire microthermal probes...responsibility during the experiment for the microthermal probes. The report itself, while compiled and edited at RADC, may be considered as coming from

  5. On convex complexity measures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubeš, P.; Jukna, S.; Kulikov, A.; Pudlák, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 411, 16-18 (2010), s. 1842-1854 ISSN 0304-3975 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1019401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : boolean formula * complexity measure * combinatorial rectangle * convexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.838, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304397510000885

  6. Measuring Systemic Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acharya, Viral V.; Heje Pedersen, Lasse; Philippon, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We present an economic model of systemic risk in which undercapitalization of the financial sector as a whole is assumed to harm the real economy, leading to a systemic risk externality. Each financial institution’s contribution to systemic risk can be measured as its systemic expected shortfall...... of components of SES to predict emerging systemic risk during the financial crisis of 2007–2009....

  7. A power measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As, R. van.

    1985-01-01

    As a part of the klystron test facility of the Dutch NIKHEF-K accelerator, a sensitive power measuring device has been built. The high-frequency power of a klystron is stored in a water-cooled dummy load. Using a microcomputer, the increase of the water temperature and the water flow rate are transformed to a digital indication of the klystron power. (Auth.)

  8. Measurement in quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danos, M.; Kieu, T.D.; Columbia Univ., New York, NY

    1997-01-01

    The conceptual problems in quantum mechanics - including the collapse of the wave functions, the particle-wave duality, the meaning of measurement-arise from the need to ascribe particle character to the wave function, which describes only the wave aspects. It is demonstrated that all these problems can be resolved when working instead with quantum fields, which have both wave and particle character. The predictions of quantum physics, including Bell's inequalities, remain unchanged from the standard treatments of quantum mechanics. 16 refs

  9. Uniqueness in time measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzen, P.

    1981-01-01

    According to P. Janich a clock is defined as an apparatus in which a point ( hand ) is moving uniformly on a straight line ( path ). For the definition of uniformly first the scaling (as a constant ratio of velocities) is defined without clocks. Thereafter the uniqueness of the time measurement can be proved using the prove of scaling of all clocks. But the uniqueness can be defined without scaling, as it is pointed out here. (orig.) [de

  10. Geometric measure theory

    CERN Document Server

    Waerden, B

    1996-01-01

    From the reviews: "... Federer's timely and beautiful book indeed fills the need for a comprehensive treatise on geometric measure theory, and his detailed exposition leads from the foundations of the theory to the most recent discoveries. ... The author writes with a distinctive style which is both natural and powerfully economical in treating a complicated subject. This book is a major treatise in mathematics and is essential in the working library of the modern analyst." Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society.

  11. Temperature measuring device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauf, R.J.; Bible, D.W.; Sohns, C.W.

    1999-10-19

    Systems and methods are described for a wireless instrumented silicon wafer that can measure temperatures at various points and transmit those temperature readings to an external receiver. The device has particular utility in the processing of semiconductor wafers, where it can be used to map thermal uniformity on hot plates, cold plates, spin bowl chucks, etc. without the inconvenience of wires or the inevitable thermal perturbations attendant with them.

  12. Measurements of fission yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denschlag, H.O.

    2000-01-01

    After some historical introductory remarks on the discovery of nuclear fission and early fission yield determinations, the present status of knowledge on fission yields is briefly reviewed. Practical and fundamental reasons motivating the pursuit of fission yield measurements in the coming century are pointed out. Recent results and novel techniques are described that promise to provide new interesting insights into the fission process during the next century. (author)

  13. Radioactivity and its measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, W B; Garfinkel, S B

    1980-01-01

    Begins with a description of the discovery of radioactivity and the historic research of such pioneers as the Curies and Rutherford. After a discussion of the interactions of &agr;, &bgr; and &ggr; rays with matter, the energetics of the different modes of nuclear disintegration are considered in relation to the Einstein mass-energy relationship as applied to radioactive transformations. Radiation detectors and radioactivity measurements are also discussed

  14. Methods for measuring shrinkage

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Paul; Templar, Simon

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents findings from research amongst European grocery retailers into their methods for measuring shrinkage. The findings indicate that: there is no dominant method for valuing or stating shrinkage; shrinkage in the supply chain is frequently overlooked; data is essential in pinpointing where and when loss occurs and that many retailers collect data at the stock-keeping unit (SKU) level and do so every 6 months. These findings reveal that it is difficult to benc...

  15. Mass Customization Measurements Metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kjeld; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn

    2014-01-01

    A recent survey has indicated that 17 % of companies have ceased mass customizing less than 1 year after initiating the effort. This paper presents measurement for a company’s mass customization performance, utilizing metrics within the three fundamental capabilities: robust process design, choice...... navigation, and solution space development. A mass customizer when assessing performance with these metrics can identify within which areas improvement would increase competitiveness the most and enable more efficient transition to mass customization....

  16. Measuring the patient experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the complex issues of measuring the patient experience and evaluating the quality of health care. It discusses the use of surveys, patient stories and narrative methods of data collection in an attempt to define quality and how it should be measured. A recent Department of Health (DH) document insists that patients will be at the heart of decision making in the NHS by having greater control in informing strategic commissioning decisions (DH 2010c). The government aims to improve patient experience, enabling patients to rate services according to the quality of care they receive. This will be carried out using information generated by patients. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using surveys in gathering patient satisfaction data. It considers the value of surveys in measuring quality of care and appraises their usefulness in strengthening patients' collective voice. The paper investigates the use of another source of feedback - it examines the design of qualitative data collection methods as a means of gaining feedback from service users in encouraging providers of health care to be more responsive to their needs. Too often, patients are expected to fit the services, rather than services meeting the patients' needs. The most effective way of exploring and representing the patient's experience is by using a mixed-method approach. In other words, an integrated approach with the use of surveys and more narrative methods, such as patient stories, will effectively define quality and how it should be measured, ensuring that the focus is always on what matters most to patients.

  17. Optical absorption measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draggoo, V.G.; Morton, R.G.; Sawicki, R.H.; Bissinger, H.D.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a non-intrusive method for measuring the temperature rise of optical elements under high laser power optical loading to determine the absorption coefficient. The method comprises irradiating the optical element with a high average power laser beam, viewing the optical element with an infrared camera to determine the temperature across the optical element and calculating the absorption of the optical element from the temperature

  18. International Construction Measurement Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The International Construction Measurement Standard Coalition (the Coalition) was formed on 17 June 2015 after meeting at the International Monetary Fund in Washington DC, USA. The Coalition, comprising the organisations listed below at the date of publication, aims to bring about consistency in construction cost reporting standards internationally. This is achieved by the creation and adoption of this ICMS, an agreed international standard for the structuring and presentation of cost reports...

  19. Can We Measure Memes?

    OpenAIRE

    McNamara, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Memes are the fundamental unit of cultural evolution and have been left upon the periphery of cognitive neuroscience due to their inexact definition and the consequent presumption that they are impossible to measure. Here it is argued that although a precise definition of memes is rather difficult it does not preclude highly controlled experiments studying the neural substrates of their initiation and replication. In this paper, memes are termed as either internally or externally represented ...

  20. FK concentrator outdoor measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Sanz, Maikel; Vilaplana, J., J.; Benitez Gimenez, Pablo; Mohedano,, Rubén; Zamora Herranz, Pablo; Miñano Dominguez, Juan Carlos; Mendes Lopes, Joao

    2013-01-01

    The FK is a two-stage optical concentrator for CPV, composed by a Fresnel lens working as POE and a refractive element working as SOE. Both elements perform Köhler integration, for uniform irradiance purposes. The FK has demonstrated that compares very well with other Fresnel-based concentrator optics. Recent on-sun measurements carried out on an FK mono-module prototype have already shown outstanding results, achieving electrical efficiencies over 34%. Further optimization of optical design ...

  1. Handbook of mass measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Frank E

    2002-01-01

    "How much does it weigh?" seems a simple question. To scientists and engineers, however, the answer is far from simple, and determining the answer demands consideration of an almost overwhelming number of factors.With an intriguing blend of history, fundamentals, and technical details, the Handbook of Mass Measurement sets forth the details of achieving the highest precision in mass measurements. It covers the whole field, from the development, calibration, and maintenance of mass standards to detailed accounts of weighing designs, balances, and uncertainty. It addresses the entire measurement process and provides in-depth examinations of the various factors that introduce error.Much of the material is the authors'' own work and some of it is published here for the first time. Jones and Schoonover are both highly regarded veterans of the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology. With this handbook, they have provided a service and resource vital to anyone involved not only in the determination of m...

  2. Ultrasonic measurements and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Kočiš, Štefan

    1996-01-01

    An impulse for writing this book has originated from the effort to sum­ marize and publicise the acquired results of a research team at the De­ partment of Automation of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and In­ formatics, Slovak Technical University in Bratislava. The research team has been involved for a long time with control problems for machine production mechanisms and, in recent (approximately 15) years, its effort was aimed mostly at the control of electrical servosystems of robots. Within this scope, the members of the authors' staff solved the State Re­ search Task Ultrasonic sensing of the position of a robot hand, which was coordinated by the Institute of Technical Cybernetics of the Slovak Academy of Sciences in Bratislava. The problem was solved in a complex way, i.e. from a conceptual de­ sign of the measurement, through the measurement and evaluation sys­ tem, up to connection to the control system of a robot. Compensation of the atmospheric influence on the precision of measurement,...

  3. Improving precipitation measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strangeways, Ian

    2004-09-01

    Although rainfall has been measured for centuries scientifically and in isolated brief episodes over millennia for agriculture, it is still not measured adequately even today for climatology, water resources, and other precise applications. This paper outlines the history of raingauges, their errors, and describes the field testing over 3 years of a first guess design for an aerodynamic rain collector proposed by Folland in 1988. Although shown to have aerodynamic advantage over a standard 5 gauge, the new rain collector was found to suffer from outsplash in heavy rain. To study this problem, and to derive general basic design rules for aerodynamic gauges, its performance was investigated in turbulent, real-world conditions rather than in the controlled and simplified environment of a wind tunnel or mathematical model as in the past. To do this, video records were made using thread tracers to indicate the path of the wind, giving new insight into the complex flow of natural wind around and within raingauges. A new design resulted, and 2 years of field testing have shown that the new gauge has good aerodynamic and evaporative characteristics and minimal outsplash, offering the potential for improved precipitation measurement.

  4. MEASURING PATH DEPENDENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Juhasz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available While risk management gained popularity during the last decades even some of the basic risk types are still far out of focus. One of these is path dependency that refers to the uncertainty of how we reach a certain level of total performance over time. While decision makers are careful in accessing how their position will look like the end of certain periods, little attention is given how they will get there through the period. The uncertainty of how a process will develop across a shorter period of time is often “eliminated” by simply choosing a longer planning time interval, what makes path dependency is one of the most often overlooked business risk types. After reviewing the origin of the problem we propose and compare seven risk measures to access path. Traditional risk measures like standard deviation of sub period cash flows fail to capture this risk type. We conclude that in most cases considering the distribution of the expected cash flow effect caused by the path dependency may offer the best method, but we may need to use several measures at the same time to include all the optimisation limits of the given firm

  5. Compact disk error measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, D.; Harriman, K.; Tehranchi, B.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this project are as follows: provide hardware and software that will perform simple, real-time, high resolution (single-byte) measurement of the error burst and good data gap statistics seen by a photoCD player read channel when recorded CD write-once discs of variable quality (i.e., condition) are being read; extend the above system to enable measurement of the hard decision (i.e., 1-bit error flags) and soft decision (i.e., 2-bit error flags) decoding information that is produced/used by the Cross Interleaved - Reed - Solomon - Code (CIRC) block decoder employed in the photoCD player read channel; construct a model that uses data obtained via the systems described above to produce meaningful estimates of output error rates (due to both uncorrected ECC words and misdecoded ECC words) when a CD disc having specific (measured) error statistics is read (completion date to be determined); and check the hypothesis that current adaptive CIRC block decoders are optimized for pressed (DAD/ROM) CD discs. If warranted, do a conceptual design of an adaptive CIRC decoder that is optimized for write-once CD discs.

  6. Measurement of utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavorncharoensap, Montarat

    2014-05-01

    The Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY) is the most widely recommended health outcome measure for use in economic evaluations. The QALY gives a value to the effect of a given health intervention in terms of both quantity and quality. QALYs are calculated by multiplying the duration of time spent in a given health state, in years, by the quality of life weighted, known as utility. Utility can range from 0 (the worst health state-the equivalent of death) to 1 (the best health state-full health). This paper provides an overview of the various methods that can be used to measure utility and outlines the recommended protocol for measuring utility, as described in the Guidelines for Health Technology Assessment in Thailand (second edition). The recommendations are as follows: Wherever possible, primary data collection using EQ-5D-3L in patients using Thai value sets generated from the general public should be used. Where the EQ-5D-3L is considered inappropriate, other methods such as Standard gamble (SG), Time-trade-off (TTO), Visual analogue scale (VAS), Health Utilities Index (HUI), SF-6D, or Quality of well being (QWB) can be used. However, justification and full details on the chosen instrument should always be provided.

  7. Serial blood pressure measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Koehler

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation was to study the effects of a 60-s interval of venous congestion between two noninvasive measurements of arterial blood pressure (ABP on the fluctuation of ABP, assessed by the standard deviation of the differences between two readings. ABP was measured in 345 successive patients, at rest, four times each. For 269 participants, one pair of readings was obtained with a 60-s interval and the other pair without an interval. For 76 patients, the first pair was read at the same interval, and the second pair had venous congestion interposed and there was no waiting interval. There was no increased ABP oscillation, either when there was no interval between ABP readings, or when venous congestion was interposed compared to pairs of ABP measurements performed with a 60-s interval. There was no increase in ABP oscillations when successive ABP readings were taken without an interval or even with venous congestion interposed. Contrary to the present belief, there seems to be no loss of reliability when blood pressure recordings are taken immediately one after another, in the clinical setting.

  8. Environmental 90Sr measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, M.; Berkovits, D.; Cecil, L.D.; Feldstein, H.; Hershkowitz, A.; Kashiv, Y.; Vogt, S.

    1997-01-01

    90Sr (T1/2 = 28.5 years) is a long-lived radionuclide produced in nuclear fission. Fast radiochemical detection of 90Sr in environmental samples is not feasible using current analytical methods. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) measurements of 90Sr were made with the Rehovot 14UD Pelletron accelerator at a terminal voltage of 11 or 12 MV using our standard detection system. Injection of hydride ions (SrH3-) was chosen owing to high beam intensity and low Coulomb explosion effects. 90Sr ions were identified and discriminated from isobaric 90Zr by measuring time of flight, total energy and three independent energy-loss signals in an ionization chamber. A reference sample and a ground-water sample were successfully measured. The detection limit determined for a laboratory blank by the residual counts in the 90Sr region is 90Sr/Sr = 3 ?? 10-13, corresponding in practice to (2-4) ?? 10790Sr atoms or about 0.5-1 pCi/L in environmental water samples.

  9. Neutron measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatayama, Akiyoshi; Seki, Eiji; Kita, Yoshio; Nishitani, Takeo.

    1993-01-01

    The device of the present invention concerns measurement for neutrons in a tokamak type thermonuclear device and it can measure total amount of generated neutrons accurately throughout the operation period even if an error is caused in counted values by plasma disruption. That is, the device comprises (1) a means for detecting presence or absence of occurrence of plasma disruption and the time for the initiation of the occurrence, (2) a first data processing means for processing detection signals, (3) a means for detecting neutrons generated in plasmas and (4) a second data processing means for calculating integrated values for the number of neutrons generated from the start to the completion of electric discharge when no disruption occurs and calculating integrated values for the number of generated neutrons from the start of electric discharge to the time at the initiation of occurrence of the disruption when disruption is present. In the thus constituted device, even if an error is caused by frequent occurrence of plasma disruption, total time integrated amount of neutrons generated in the plasmas can be measured accurately. (I.S.)

  10. Radon and its measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penzo, Silvia

    2006-03-01

    The work reviews the topics concerning the problem of the indoor radon and its measurement. The initial stage deals with the general features of radon, from the historical remarks about its discovery to the formation mechanisms in the soil, then passing to describe the transport processes that lead the radon to enter into the buildings. The mean radon concentration distribution among the Italian regions is reported and compared with the situation in the other countries of the world. A particular importance is given to present the national law concerning the radioprotection from the natural sources of ionizing radiations; a paragraph is completely devoted to this argument and to discuss the differences between the Italian approach and the regulations applied in the Test of Europe for both workplaces and dwellings. Chapter 3 describes the different detectors and methods to measure the radon and its short mean live decay products concentrations, together with the operative procedures and guides provided by the Italian law and by the international bodies. As an example of typical radon passive measurement device. the new ENEA detector developed at the Institute of Radioprotection is presented and discussed. Appendix 1 is entirely devoted to discuss the main remedial actions for decreasing the radon indoor concentration both for old and new buildings; appendix 2 reports the main quantities related to radon and radioprotection [it

  11. Bolometric measurements in ATF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroe, S.; Wilgen, J.B.; Batchelor, D.B.; Bigelow, T.S.; Wing, W.R.; Bell, G.L.; Gandy, R.F.; Goldfinger, R.C.; Kindsfather, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Bolometer measurements are made under various plasma conditions in ATF. Each bolometer module includes four pairs of detectors; each pair consists of a sensor and a reference detector. Two or three detector pairs in each module were installed with various types of aperture masks to serve as radiation detectors. The rest were completely shielded from plasma emissions and used as blind detectors to measure background levels. When electron cyclotron heating (ECH) power was applied to ATF, the radiation signal was more than 10 times higher than that expected for 100 kW of radiated power. Surprisingly, similar signal levels were observed on the blind detectors. It is hypothesized that the bolometers are sensitive to ECH power at 53 GHz. (This problem may be general in near-term fusion experiments, in which microwave power will be an important tool for plasma heating.) In this paper, experiments aimed at proving this hypothesis are reported; bolometric signals before and after chromium gettering are discussed; and measurements of the microwave power deposition profile around the torus, made by using the observed microwave interference with the blind detectors, are presented. 4 refs., 4 figs

  12. Molecular similarity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiora, Gerald M; Shanmugasundaram, Veerabahu

    2011-01-01

    Molecular similarity is a pervasive concept in chemistry. It is essential to many aspects of chemical reasoning and analysis and is perhaps the fundamental assumption underlying medicinal chemistry. Dissimilarity, the complement of similarity, also plays a major role in a growing number of applications of molecular diversity in combinatorial chemistry, high-throughput screening, and related fields. How molecular information is represented, called the representation problem, is important to the type of molecular similarity analysis (MSA) that can be carried out in any given situation. In this work, four types of mathematical structure are used to represent molecular information: sets, graphs, vectors, and functions. Molecular similarity is a pairwise relationship that induces structure into sets of molecules, giving rise to the concept of chemical space. Although all three concepts - molecular similarity, molecular representation, and chemical space - are treated in this chapter, the emphasis is on molecular similarity measures. Similarity measures, also called similarity coefficients or indices, are functions that map pairs of compatible molecular representations that are of the same mathematical form into real numbers usually, but not always, lying on the unit interval. This chapter presents a somewhat pedagogical discussion of many types of molecular similarity measures, their strengths and limitations, and their relationship to one another. An expanded account of the material on chemical spaces presented in the first edition of this book is also provided. It includes a discussion of the topography of activity landscapes and the role that activity cliffs in these landscapes play in structure-activity studies.

  13. Measurements of quadrupole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conradie, J.L.; Fourie, D.T.; Cornell, J.C.; Lloyd, G.C.W.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements carried out on quadrupole magnets using a long asymmetric rotating coil are described. Although the method itself is fairly well-known, the introduction of microprocessors has made this once-tedious technique into a useful and simple method of evaluating quadrupole magnets. The rotating-coil device and a variety of coil sizes are now commercially available. The coil contains a large number of extremely fine wires, embedded in a carefully balanced fibre-glass rotor, resulting in a reasonable induced voltage when the coil is rotated. A digital harmonic analyser is then used to obtain the integrated multipole content of the waveform, while the coil is rotating. By integrating over time, one can average out random noise and increase the reliability and repeatability of the measurements. Because the harmonic analysis is done in real time, the method is quick, easy and accurate, and has been extended to locate the precise magnetic centre of the quadrupole magnet by adjusting its position relative to the coil axis so as to minimize the dipole content of the output waveform. Results of these measurements are compared with those obtained with an optical method using a suspension of magnetite. The observed light pattern is explained analytically. (author)

  14. Measuring visibility using smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Jan; Bialon, Raphael; Claßen, Christoph; Graffi, Kalman

    2017-04-01

    Spatial information on fog density is an important parameter for ecohydrological studies in cloud forests. The Dhofar cloud forest in Southern Oman exhibits a close interaction between the fog, trees, and rainfall. During the three month monsoon season the trees capture substantial amounts of horizontal precipitation from fog which increases net precipitation below the tree canopy. As fog density measurements are scarce, a smartphone app was designed to measure visibility. Different smartphone units use a variety of different parts. It is therefore important to assess the developed visibility measurement across a suite of different smartphones. In this study we tested five smartphones/ tablets (Google/ LG Nexus 5X, Huawei P8 lite, Huawei Y3, HTC Nexus 9, and Samsung Galaxy S4 mini) against digital camera (Sony DLSR-A900) and visual visibility observations. Visibility was assessed from photos using image entropy, from the number of visible targets, and from WiFi signal strength using RSSI. Results show clear relationships between object distance and fog density, yet a considerable spread across the different smartphone/ tablet units is evident.

  15. Radon Measurements in Vojvodina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikit, I.; Bikit, K.; Forkapic, S.; Mrda, D.; Nikolov, J.; Todorovic, N.; Veskovic, M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent analyses of epidemiological studies of lung cancer risk from residential exposures demonstrate a statistically significant increase per unit of exposure below average annual concentrations of about 200 Bq/m 3 . Indoor radon measurements performed in Novi Sad in about 400 houses and flats are presented and discussed in this paper. By measuring gamma-activity of radon daughters, radon activity concentration was determined to be 50 Bq/m 3 . In Vojvodina region indoor radon levels were measured by alpha track detectors CR-39 on about 3000 locations during the winter seasons in the period of three years (2003-2005). The main aim of the present study was to explore the critical group of population for radon exposure and to estimate maximal annual doses. Existing radon maps which identify regions with elevated radon levels will improve data collection and analysis for the future radon campaigns. Collaboration on the JRC program of European indoor radon map and implementation of grid system are also discussed.(author)

  16. Measuring of tube expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogeleer, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    The expansion of the primary tubes or sleeves of the steam generator of a nuclear reactor plant are measured while the tubes or sleeves are being expanded. A primary tube or sleeve is expanded by high pressure of water which flows through a channel in an expander body. The water is supplied through an elongated conductor and is introduced through a connector on the shank connected to the conductor at its outer end. A wire extends through the mandrel and through the conductor to the end of the connector. At its inner end the wire is connected to a tapered pin which is subject to counteracting forces produced by the pressure of the water. The force on the side where the wire is connected to the conductor is smaller than on the opposite side. The tapered pin is moved in the direction of the higher force and extrudes the wire outwardly of the conductor. The tapered surface of the tapered pin engages transverse captive plungers which are maintained in engagement with the expanding tube or sleeve as they are moved outwardly by the tapered pin. The wire and the connector extend out of the generator and, at its outer end, the wire is connected to an indicator which measures the extent to which the wire is moved by the tapered pin, thus measuring the expansion of the tube or sleeve as it progresses

  17. Tritium sampling and measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, M.J.; McElroy, R.G.; Surette, R.A.; Brown, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Current methods for sampling and measuring tritium are described. Although the basic techniques have not changed significantly over the last 10 y, there have been several notable improvements in tritium measurement instrumentation. The design and quality of commercial ion-chamber-based and gas-flow-proportional-counter-based tritium monitors for tritium-in-air have improved, an indirect result of fusion-related research in the 1980s. For tritium-in-water analysis, commercial low-level liquid scintillation spectrometers capable of detecting tritium-in-water concentrations as low as 0.65 Bq L-1 for counting times of 500 min are available. The most sensitive method for tritium-in-water analysis is still 3He mass spectrometry. Concentrations as low as 0.35 mBq L-1 can be detected with current equipment. Passive tritium-oxide-in-air samplers are now being used for workplace monitoring and even in some environmental sampling applications. The reliability, convenience, and low cost of passive tritium-oxide-in-air samplers make them attractive options for many monitoring applications. Airflow proportional counters currently under development look promising for measuring tritium-in-air in the presence of high gamma and/or noble gas backgrounds. However, these detectors are currently limited by their poor performance in humidities over 30%. 133 refs

  18. Using Technical Performance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Christopher J.; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Rhodes, Russel E.

    2011-01-01

    All programs have requirements. For these requirements to be met, there must be a means of measurement. A Technical Performance Measure (TPM) is defined to produce a measured quantity that can be compared to the requirement. In practice, the TPM is often expressed as a maximum or minimum and a goal. Example TPMs for a rocket program are: vacuum or sea level specific impulse (lsp), weight, reliability (often expressed as a failure rate), schedule, operability (turn-around time), design and development cost, production cost, and operating cost. Program status is evaluated by comparing the TPMs against specified values of the requirements. During the program many design decisions are made and most of them affect some or all of the TPMs. Often, the same design decision changes some TPMs favorably while affecting other TPMs unfavorably. The problem then becomes how to compare the effects of a design decision on different TPMs. How much failure rate is one second of specific impulse worth? How many days of schedule is one pound of weight worth? In other words, how to compare dissimilar quantities in order to trade and manage the TPMs to meet all requirements. One method that has been used successfully and has a mathematical basis is Utility Analysis. Utility Analysis enables quantitative comparison among dissimilar attributes. It uses a mathematical model that maps decision maker preferences over the tradeable range of each attribute. It is capable of modeling both independent and dependent attributes. Utility Analysis is well supported in the literature on Decision Theory. It has been used at Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne for internal programs and for contracted work such as the J-2X rocket engine program. This paper describes the construction of TPMs and describes Utility Analysis. It then discusses the use of TPMs in design trades and to manage margin during a program using Utility Analysis.

  19. Measuring industrial energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly Kissock, J.; Eger, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Accurate measurement of energy savings from industrial energy efficiency projects can reduce uncertainty about the efficacy of the projects, guide the selection of future projects, improve future estimates of expected savings, promote financing of energy efficiency projects through shared-savings agreements, and improve utilization of capital resources. Many efforts to measure industrial energy savings, or simply track progress toward efficiency goals, have had difficulty incorporating changing weather and production, which are frequently major drivers of plant energy use. This paper presents a general method for measuring plant-wide industrial energy savings that takes into account changing weather and production between the pre and post-retrofit periods. In addition, the method can disaggregate savings into components, which provides additional resolution for understanding the effectiveness of individual projects when several projects are implemented together. The method uses multivariable piece-wise regression models to characterize baseline energy use, and disaggregates savings by taking the total derivative of the energy use equation. Although the method incorporates search techniques, multi-variable least-squares regression and calculus, it is easily implemented using data analysis software, and can use readily available temperature, production and utility billing data. This is important, since more complicated methods may be too complex for widespread use. The method is demonstrated using case studies of actual energy assessments. The case studies demonstrate the importance of adjusting for weather and production between the pre- and post-retrofit periods, how plant-wide savings can be disaggregated to evaluate the effectiveness of individual retrofits, how the method can identify the time-dependence of savings, and limitations of engineering models when used to estimate future savings

  20. Absolute radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, H.M.

    1983-01-01

    The radioactivity of a thin specimen can be determined directly, i.e. without reference to a standard and without knowing decay data, except for half-life, by means of counting at a given solid angle and by 4 πβ-γ coincidence measurement. In accordance with section 7 of the law on units, it is the task of PTB not only to represent the units and its derivation, but also to work out methods of adjusting national prototypes and normals to international prototypes and etalons in accordance with the international metre convention. (DG) [de

  1. Imaginative Practices and Measure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Haeren, Kristen Danielle

    The Welfare State in Denmark, as established during a great surge of post-war technological developments, was firmly rooted in a time motivated by Modernist ideas of rationalization and regulation. The dreams and desires of establishing the Functionist City resulted in architectural and landscape...... projects being dictated by notions of objective truth. Motivated by the new industrial efficiency, social-housing projects became an experiment of standardization, fabricated from factual analysis and modern measure. It is the position of this paper that the notion of ‘the good life’ that the Modernist...

  2. Measuring Clinical Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Mark E; Lebovitz, Evan E

    2018-06-01

    Productivity measurements have been used to evaluate and compare physicians and physician practices. Anesthesiology is unique in that factors outside anesthesiologist control impact opportunity for revenue generation and make comparisons between providers and facilities challenging. This article uses data from the multicenter University of Pittsburgh Physicians Department of Anesthesiology to demonstrate factors influencing productivity opportunity by surgical facility, between department divisions and subspecialties within multispecialty divisions, and by individuals within divisions. The complexities of benchmarking anesthesiology productivity are demonstrated, and the potential value of creating a productivity profile for facilities and groups is illustrated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Radiation Calibration Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omondi, C.

    2017-01-01

    KEBS Radiation Dosimetry mandate are: Custodian of Kenya Standards on Ionizing radiation, Ensure traceability to International System (SI ) and Calibration radiation equipment. RAF 8/040 on Radioisotope applications for troubleshooting and optimizing industrial process established Radiotracer Laboratory objective is to introduce and implement radiotracer technique for problem solving of industrial challenges. Gamma ray scanning technique applied is to Locate blockages, Locate liquid in vapor lines, Locate areas of lost refractory or lining in a pipe and Measure flowing densities. Equipment used for diagnostic and radiation protection must be calibrated to ensure Accuracy and Traceability

  4. The quantum measurement problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, A J

    2005-02-11

    Despite the spectacular success of quantum mechanics (QM) over the last 80 years in explaining phenomena observed at the atomic and subatomic level, the conceptual status of the theory is still a topic of lively controversy. Most of the discussion centers around two famous paradoxes (or, as some would have it, pseudoparadoxes) associated, respectively, with the names of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) and with Schrodinger's cat. In this Viewpoint, I will concentrate on the paradox of Schrodinger's cat or, as it is often known (to my mind somewhat misleadingly), the quantum measurement paradox.

  5. Measuring user engagement

    CERN Document Server

    Lalmas, Mounia; Yom-Tov, Elad

    2014-01-01

    User engagement refers to the quality of the user experience that emphasizes the positive aspects of interacting with an online application and, in particular, the desire to use that application longer and repeatedly. User engagement is a key concept in the design of online applications (whether for desktop, tablet or mobile), motivated by the observation that successful applications are not just used, but are engaged with. Users invest time, attention, and emotion in their use of technology, and seek to satisfy pragmatic and hedonic needs. Measurement is critical for evaluating whether online

  6. Which firms use measures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Esben Rahbek Gjerdrum; Sudzina, Frantisek

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to outline the anatomy of firms which adopt comprehensive performance measurement (PM) systems in order to gain an understanding of how internal (organisational capabilities) and external (perceived environmental uncertainties) factors shape performance...... – This paper concludes that a limited number of internal and external factors have a significant influence on the adoption of PM systems. There is no consistent pattern, however, between the different sub-categories of organisational capabilities/perceived environmental uncertainties and PM adoption...... this study indicate that the relationship between PM adoption and the organisational characteristics/external environment is more complicated than anticipated....

  7. Neutron multiplication measurement instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, K.V.; Dowdy, E.J.; France, S.W.; Millegan, D.R.; Robba, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The Advanced Nuclear Technology Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory is now using intelligent data-acquisition and analysis instrumentation for determining the multiplication of nuclear material. Earlier instrumentation, such as the large NIM-crate systems, depended on house power and required additional computation to determine multiplication or to estimate error. The portable, battery-powered multiplication measurement unit, with advanced computational power, acquires data, calculates multiplication, and completes error analysis automatically. Thus, the multiplication is determined easily and an available error estimate enables the user to judge the significance of results

  8. Does Measurement Influence Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    not access in their memory or that they otherwise would not form. Second, higher relative accessibility of intentions, compared with other inputs for purchase decisions may make subsequent purchase behavior more consistent with prior intentions. A couple of studies provide support of the self......The self-generated validity theory (Feldman and Lynch 1988) uses the following arguments: First, re-existing intentions may become more accessible in memory when the researcher asks the question. The measurement process thereby leads survey respondents to form judgments that they otherwise would...

  9. Radiation detection and measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, G.F.

    1979-01-01

    The book is a complete, clear and up-to-date text that provides a basic review of instruments and methods of ionizing radiation. The text covers detailed discussion of all detector types introductory discussions of radiation sources, interactions, and counting statistics functional analysis of the electronics and pulse processing aspects of radiation detectors in instrumentation systems and consideration of shielding and background potentially vital in low-level counting. A total of 350 figures and approximately 900 references to current scientific literature is included. The book is largely intended as a textbook for a junior/senior or first-year graduate course in nuclear instrumentation and radiation measurements

  10. Principles of electromigration measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesch, F.

    1988-01-01

    Basing on experimental applications of a modified version of on line electromigration measurements of γ-emitting radionuclides in homogeneous aqueous electrolytes free of supporting materials conceptions on calculation of stoichiometric and thermodynamic stability constants are carried out. Normalized ion mobilities were discussed, reflecting changes of the overall ion mobility of the radioelement in its equilibrium reaction in respect to the individual ion mobilities of the central ion at identic electrolyte parameters (temperature, overall ionic strength). With model reactions as well as with complex formations of Tl(I) with bromide and sulfate, respectively, examples of practical realizations of the conceptions are shown. (author)

  11. Calorimetric measuring systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritchie, Andrew Ewen; Pedersen, John Kim; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    in the system. If the switching speed can be increased, improvements may be possible (e.g., current ripple in an electrical machine or physical size of passive components may be reduced). On the other hand, increased switching speed may cause additional losses in a power electronic system and increase...... the system cooling requirement. A common problem is that high-frequency phenomena like proximity effect, skin effect, hysteresis losses, and eddy current losses appear in the systems. These losses are very difficult to treat both theoretically and in practice. It is often difficult to measure the effect...

  12. Radiometric temperature measurements fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhuomin M; Machin, Graham

    2009-01-01

    This book describes the theory of radiation thermometry, both at a primary level and for a variety of applications, such as in the materials processing industries and remote sensing. This book is written for those who will apply radiation thermometry in industrial practice; use radiation thermometers for scientific research; the radiation thermometry specialist in a national measurement institute; developers of radiation thermometers who are working to innovate products for instrument manufacturers, and developers of non-contact thermometry methods to address challenging thermometry problems.

  13. Measurement of Driving Terms

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, F; Faus-Golfe, A

    2001-01-01

    In 2000 a series of MDs has been performed at the SPS to measure resonance driving terms. Theory predicts that these terms can be determined by harmonic analysis of BPM data recorded after applying single kicks at various amplitudes. Strong sextupoles were introduced to create a sizeable amount of nonlinearities. Experiments at injection energy (26 GeV) with single bunch as well as one experiment at 120 GeV with 84 bunches were carried out. The expected nonlinear content is compared to the experimenteal observation.

  14. Tritium measurement and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigo, L.; Miller, J.M.; Yin, D.

    1993-05-01

    The Jesse effect - the effect of impurities and intentionally added components on ionization in noble gases - is briefly described. Experiments to measure this effect in a specially constructed system with a 63 Ni beta-particle source are described. Results show that ionization chamber calibrations with helium carrier gas change rapidly with gaseous additions or impurities at low concentrations, and reach a plateau (approximately 50% calibration change) at 4000 ppm addition. Only small changes are seen with argon carrier gas. Implications of this effect in fusion blanket sweep-gas experiments are discussed. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  15. Beta particle measurement fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    The necessary concepts for understanding beta particle behavior are stopping power, range, and scattering. Dose as a consequence of beta particle interaction with tissue can be derived and explained by these concepts. Any calculations of dose, however, assume or require detailed knowledge of the beta spectrum at the tissue depth of calculation. A rudimentary knowledge of the incident spectrum can be of use in estimating dose, interpretating dose measuring devices and designing protection. The stopping power and range based on the csda will give a conservative estimate in cases of protection design, as scattering will reduce the range. Estimates of dose may be low because scattering effects were neglected

  16. Tungsten Alloy Outgassing Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherfoord, John P; Shaver, L

    1999-01-01

    Tungsten alloys have not seen extensive use in liquid argon calorimeters so far. Because the manufacturing process for tungsten is different from the more common metals used in liquid argon there is concern that tungsten could poison the argon thereby creating difficulties for precision calorimetry. In this paper we report measurements of outgassing from the tungsten alloy slugs proposed for use in the ATLAS FCal module and estimate limits on potential poisoning with reasonable assumptions. This estimate gives an upper limit poisoning rate of

  17. Environmental radioactivity intercomparison measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In the context of the North Cotentin radioecological group set up in 1997 by the Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of the Secretariat d'Etat a la Sante, the Swiss Federal Office of Public health, a national organization of independent status with respect to nuclear energy, conducted a series of measurements in the north Cotentin in 1998. Some sites proposed by local association 'Angry mothers' were examined in particular. This association has now taken the initiative to organize a large scale international intercomparison, ' North Cotentin 2000', in the vicinity of local nuclear installations. Besides the scientific aspect of the intercomparison, a specific aim of this intercomparison consists in providing to the local population with a real opportunity for direct exchange with participating international teams. The primary concern of the workshop is the determination, by in situ gamma spectrometry, of both natural and artificial concentrations and resulting ambient dose rates at selected marine ( beach) and terrestrial sites. A particular aim of the workshop also is to test the capacity of mobile teams to produce reliable results in the field of low level measurements on trace of special radionuclides (I 129 , Sr 90 , H 3 , C 14 , and alpha emitters) from environmental samples, using both direct ( in situ) and differed ( laboratory methods). an overview of the results obtained will be prepared for the benefit of the public. (N.C.)

  18. Measurement of thermal conductance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchnir, M.

    1977-01-01

    The 6-m long, 45-kG, warm-iron superconducting magnets envisioned for the Energy Doubler stage of the Fermilab accelerator require stiff supports with minimized thermal conductances in order to keep the refrigeration power reasonable. The large number of supports involved in the system required a careful study of their heat conduction from the room temperature wall to the intercepting refrigeration at 20 0 K and to the liquid helium. For this purpose the thermal conductance of this support was measured by comparing it with the thermal conductance of a copper strap of known geometry. An association of steady-state thermal analysis and experimental thermal conductivity techniques forms the basis of this method. An important advantage is the automatic simulation of the 20 0 K refrigeration intercept by the copper strap, which simplifies the apparatus considerably. This relative resistance technique, which uses electrical analogy as a guideline, is applicable with no restrictions for materials with temperature-independent thermal conductivity. For other materials the results obtained are functions of the specific temperature interval involved in the measurements. A comprehensive review of the literature on thermal conductivity indicates that this approach has not been used before. A demonstration of its self-consistency is stressed here rather than results obtained for different supports

  19. Measuring Safeguards Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2011-01-01

    As the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) implements a State Level Approach to its safeguards verification responsibilities, a number of countries are beginning new nuclear power programs and building new nuclear fuel cycle faculties. The State Level approach is holistic and investigatory in nature, creating a need for transparent, non-discriminatory judgments about a state's nonproliferation posture. In support of this need, the authors previously explored the value of defining and measuring a state's safeguards culture. We argued that a clear definition of safeguards culture and an accompanying set of metrics could be applied to provide an objective evaluation and demonstration of a country's nonproliferation posture. As part of this research, we outlined four high-level metrics that could be used to evaluate a state's nuclear posture. We identified general data points. This paper elaborates on those metrics, further refining the data points to generate a measurable scale of safeguards cultures. We believe that this work could advance the IAEA's goals of implementing a safeguards system that is fully information driven, while strengthening confidence in its safeguards conclusions.

  20. Measuring and modelling concurrency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawers, Larry

    2013-01-01

    This article explores three critical topics discussed in the recent debate over concurrency (overlapping sexual partnerships): measurement of the prevalence of concurrency, mathematical modelling of concurrency and HIV epidemic dynamics, and measuring the correlation between HIV and concurrency. The focus of the article is the concurrency hypothesis – the proposition that presumed high prevalence of concurrency explains sub-Saharan Africa's exceptionally high HIV prevalence. Recent surveys using improved questionnaire design show reported concurrency ranging from 0.8% to 7.6% in the region. Even after adjusting for plausible levels of reporting errors, appropriately parameterized sexual network models of HIV epidemics do not generate sustainable epidemic trajectories (avoid epidemic extinction) at levels of concurrency found in recent surveys in sub-Saharan Africa. Efforts to support the concurrency hypothesis with a statistical correlation between HIV incidence and concurrency prevalence are not yet successful. Two decades of efforts to find evidence in support of the concurrency hypothesis have failed to build a convincing case. PMID:23406964