WorldWideScience

Sample records for ultracold atomic ensemble

  1. Generating a picokelvin ultracold atomic ensemble in microgravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lu; Ma, Zhao-Yuan; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Xu-Zong

    2013-01-01

    Applying the direct Monte Carlo simulation (DSMC) method developed for a cold atom system, we study the evaporative cooling process in tilted optical dipole traps with a magnetic field gradient-induced over-levitation or merely a gravitational force. We propose a two-stage decomposed evaporative cooling process in a microgravity environment, and suggest that quantum degeneracy can be obtained at a few picokelvins with several thousand atoms. (paper)

  2. Limit Cycles and Chaos via Quasi-periodicity in Two Coupled Ensembles of Ultra-cold Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Aniket; Yuzbashyan, Emil; Altshuler, Boris

    We study the dynamics of two mesoscopic ensembles of ultra-cold two level atoms, which are collectively coupled to an optical cavity and are being pumped incoherently to the excited state. Whereas the time independent steady states are well understood, little is known about the time dependent ones. We explore and categorize various time dependent steady states, e.g. limit cycles and chaotic behavior. We draw a non-equilibrium phase diagram indicating different steady-state behaviors in different parts of the parameter space. We discuss the synchronization of the two ensembles in the time dependent steady states. We also show the onset of chaos via quasi-periodicity. The rich time dependent steady-state behavior, especially the existence of chaos, opens up possibilities for several engineering applications. Supported in part by the University and Louis Bevier Graduate Fellowship.

  3. Ultracold atoms on atom chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Peter; Hofferberth, S.; Haller, E.

    2005-01-01

    Miniaturized potentials near the surface of atom chips can be used as flexible and versatile tools for the manipulation of ultracold atoms on a microscale. The full scope of possibilities is only accessible if atom-surface distances can be reduced to microns. We discuss experiments in this regime...

  4. Superconducting microtraps for ultracold atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hufnagel, C.

    2011-01-01

    Atom chips are integrated devices in which atoms and atomic clouds are stored and manipulated in miniaturized magnetic traps. State of the art fabrication technologies allow for a flexible design of the trapping potentials and consequently provide extraordinary control over atomic samples, which leads to a promising role of atom chips in the engineering and investigation of quantum mechanical systems. Naturally, for quantum mechanical applications, the atomic coherence has to be preserved. Using room temperature circuits, the coherence time of atoms close to the surface was found to be drastically limited by thermal current fluctuations in the conductors. Superconductors offer an elegant way to circumvent thermal noise and therefore present a promising option for the coherent manipulation of atomic quantum states. In this thesis trapping and manipulation of ultracold Rubidium atoms in superconducting microtraps is demonstrated. In this connection the unique properties of superconductors are used to build traps based on persistent currents, the Meissner effect and remanent magnetization. In experiment it is shown, that in superconducting atom chips, thermal magnetic field noise is significantly reduced. Furthermore it is demonstrated, that atomic samples can be employed to probe the properties of superconducting materials. (author) [de

  5. Pseudogap phenomena in ultracold atomic Fermi gases

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qijin; Wang, Jibiao

    2014-01-01

    The pairing and superfluid phenomena in a two-component ultracold atomic Fermi gas is an analogue of Cooper pairing and superconductivity in an electron system, in particular, the high $T_c$ superconductors. Owing to the various tunable parameters that have been made accessible experimentally in recent years, atomic Fermi gases can be explored as a prototype or quantum simulator of superconductors. It is hoped that, utilizing such an analogy, the study of atomic Fermi gases may shed light to ...

  6. Illustration of Babinet's principle with ultracold atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhard, Aaron; Riou, Jean-Félix; Zundel, Laura A.; Weiss, David S.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate Babinet's principle by the absorption of high intensity light from dense clouds of ultracold atoms. Images of the diffracted light are directly related to the spatial distribution of atoms. The advantages of employing Babinet's principle as an imaging technique are that it is easy to implement and the detected signal is large. We discuss the regimes of applicability of this technique as well as its limitations.

  7. Towards quantum magnetism with ultracold atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weld, David M; Ketterle, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    At ICAP we presented the efforts and progress at MIT towards using ultracold atoms for the realization of various forms of quantum magnetism. These efforts include a study of fermions with strong repulsive interactions in which we obtained evidence for a phase transition to itinerant ferromagnetism, the characterization of cold atom systems by noise measurements, and a new adiabatic gradient demagnetization cooling scheme which has enabled us to realize temperatures of less than 350 picokelvin and spin temperatures of less than 50 picokelvin in optical lattices. These are the lowest temperatures ever measured in any physical system.

  8. Absorption imaging of ultracold atoms on atom chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, David A.; Aigner, Simon; Hofferberth, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    Imaging ultracold atomic gases close to surfaces is an important tool for the detailed analysis of experiments carried out using atom chips. We describe the critical factors that need be considered, especially when the imaging beam is purposely reflected from the surface. In particular we present...... methods to measure the atom-surface distance, which is a prerequisite for magnetic field imaging and studies of atom surface-interactions....

  9. Ultracold atoms and the Functional Renormalization Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettcher, Igor; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Diehl, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    We give a self-contained introduction to the physics of ultracold atoms using functional integral techniques. Based on a consideration of the relevant length scales, we derive the universal effective low energy Hamiltonian describing ultracold alkali atoms. We then introduce the concept of the effective action, which generalizes the classical action principle to full quantum status and provides an intuitive and versatile tool for practical calculations. This framework is applied to weakly interacting degenerate bosons and fermions in the spatial continuum. In particular, we discuss the related BEC and BCS quantum condensation mechanisms. We then turn to the BCS-BEC crossover, which interpolates between both phenomena, and which is realized experimentally in the vicinity of a Feshbach resonance. For its description, we introduce the Functional Renormalization Group approach. After a general discussion of the method in the cold atoms context, we present a detailed and pedagogical application to the crossover problem. This not only provides the physical mechanism underlying this phenomenon. More generally, it also reveals how the renormalization group can be used as a tool to capture physics at all scales, from few-body scattering on microscopic scales, through the finite temperature phase diagram governed by many-body length scales, up to critical phenomena dictating long distance physics at the phase transition. The presentation aims to equip students at the beginning PhD level with knowledge on key physical phenomena and flexible tools for their description, and should enable to embark upon practical calculations in this field.

  10. Spatially resolved photoionization of ultracold atoms on an atom chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, S.; Guenther, A.; Fortagh, J.; Zimmermann, C.

    2007-01-01

    We report on photoionization of ultracold magnetically trapped Rb atoms on an atom chip. The atoms are trapped at 5 μK in a strongly anisotropic trap. Through a hole in the chip with a diameter of 150 μm, two laser beams are focused onto a fraction of the atomic cloud. A first laser beam with a wavelength of 778 nm excites the atoms via a two-photon transition to the 5D level. With a fiber laser at 1080 nm the excited atoms are photoionized. Ionization leads to depletion of the atomic density distribution observed by absorption imaging. The resonant ionization spectrum is reported. The setup used in this experiment is suitable not only to investigate mixtures of Bose-Einstein condensates and ions but also for single-atom detection on an atom chip

  11. High-Flux Ultracold-Atom Chip Interferometers, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ColdQuanta's ultimate objective is to produce a compact, turnkey, ultracold-atom system specifically designed for performing interferometry with Bose-Einstein...

  12. Preparation of Ultracold Atom Clouds at the Shot Noise Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gajdacz, M.; Hilliard, A. J.; Kristensen, Mick

    2016-01-01

    We prepare number stabilized ultracold atom clouds through the real-time analysis of nondestructive images and the application of feedback. In our experiments, the atom number N∼10^6 is determined by high precision Faraday imaging with uncertainty ΔN below the shot noise level, i.e., ΔN... on this measurement, feedback is applied to reduce the atom number to a user-defined target, whereupon a second imaging series probes the number stabilized cloud. By this method, we show that the atom number in ultracold clouds can be prepared below the shot noise level....

  13. Non-destructive Faraday imaging of dynamically controlled ultracold atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdacz, Miroslav; Pedersen, Poul; Mørch, Troels; Hilliard, Andrew; Arlt, Jan; Sherson, Jacob

    2013-05-01

    We investigate non-destructive measurements of ultra-cold atomic clouds based on dark field imaging of spatially resolved Faraday rotation. In particular, we pursue applications to dynamically controlled ultracold atoms. The dependence of the Faraday signal on laser detuning, atomic density and temperature is characterized in a detailed comparison with theory. In particular the destructivity per measurement is extremely low and we illustrate this by imaging the same cloud up to 2000 times. The technique is applied to avoid the effect of shot-to-shot fluctuations in atom number calibration. Adding dynamic changes to system parameters, we demonstrate single-run vector magnetic field imaging and single-run spatial imaging of the system's dynamic behavior. The method can be implemented particularly easily in standard imaging systems by the insertion of an extra polarizing beam splitter. These results are steps towards quantum state engineering using feedback control of ultracold atoms.

  14. Thermometry of ultracold atoms by electromagnetically induced transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Thorsten; Wittrock, Benjamin; Blatt, Frank; Halfmann, Thomas; Yatsenko, Leonid P.

    2012-06-01

    We report on systematic numerical and experimental investigations of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) to determine temperatures in an ultracold atomic gas. The technique relies on the strong dependence of EIT on atomic motion (i.e., Doppler shifts), when the relevant atomic transitions are driven with counterpropagating probe and control laser beams. Electromagnetically induced transparency permits thermometry with satisfactory precision over a large temperature range, which can be addressed by the appropriate choice of Rabi frequency in the control beam. In contrast to time-of-flight techniques, thermometry by EIT is fast and nondestructive, i.e., essentially it does not affect the ultracold medium. In an experimental demonstration we apply both EIT and time-of-flight measurements to determine temperatures along different symmetry axes of an anisotropic ultracold gas. As an interesting feature we find that the temperatures in the anisotropic atom cloud vary in different directions.

  15. Mixtures of ultracold atoms and the quest for ultracold molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidemueller, M.

    2000-08-01

    A cold atomic gas formed by two different species represents an intriguing system for a deeper understanding of atom-atom interactions at ultralow temperatures. We present experiments on a mixture of atomic lithium and cesium which are of particular interest regarding the formation of heteronuclear molecules on the one hand, and the prospects for sympathetic cooling of atomic gases through mutual thermalization on the other hand. A first series of experiments on interaction in presence of a near-resonant light field is performed in a two-species magneto-optical trap. The collisional properties of the lithium-cesium mixture are investigated through detailed analysis of trap-loss processes induced by the trap light. Photoassociation in an additional near-resonant laser field yields high-resolution spectra of the excited Cs 2 dimers, but shows no unambiguous indication of LiCs molecule formation. A second series of experiments on pure ground-state collisional properties utilizes an optical dipole trap formed by light that is detuned extremely far below atomic resonance (quasi-electrostatic trap). Storage times of many minutes are achieved in a particularly simple and versatile setup for both atomic species. Cooling of cesium through evaporation and thermalization by elastic collisions is observed. The evolution of temperature and particle number is compared with model simulations of evaporative cooling. Direct laser cooling of trapped cesium in the absolute energetic ground state is demonstrated. Homonuclear spin-changing collisions of ground-state cesium and lithium atoms are analyzed, and first evidence for pure ground-state collisions between atoms of different species is found. Based on the current achievements, prospects for future experiments are discussed. (orig.)

  16. Emulating Molecular Orbitals and Electronic Dynamics with Ultracold Atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk-Sören Lühmann

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, ultracold atoms in optical lattices have proven their great value as quantum simulators for studying strongly correlated phases and complex phenomena in solid-state systems. Here, we reveal their potential as quantum simulators for molecular physics and propose a technique to image the three-dimensional molecular orbitals with high resolution. The outstanding tunability of ultracold atoms in terms of potential and interaction offer fully adjustable model systems for gaining deep insight into the electronic structure of molecules. We study the orbitals of an artificial benzene molecule and discuss the effect of tunable interactions in its conjugated π electron system with special regard to localization and spin order. The dynamical time scales of ultracold atom simulators are on the order of milliseconds, which allows for the time-resolved monitoring of a broad range of dynamical processes. As an example, we compute the hole dynamics in the conjugated π system of the artificial benzene molecule.

  17. Coupling ultracold atoms to a superconducting coplanar waveguide resonator

    OpenAIRE

    Hattermann, H.; Bothner, D.; Ley, L. Y.; Ferdinand, B.; Wiedmaier, D.; Sárkány, L.; Kleiner, R.; Koelle, D.; Fortágh, J.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate coupling of magnetically trapped ultracold $^87$Rb ground state atoms to a coherently driven superconducting coplanar resonator on an integrated atom chip. We measure the microwave field strength in the cavity through observation of the AC shift of the hyperfine transition frequency when the cavity is driven off-resonance from the atomic transition. The measured shifts are used to reconstruct the field in the resonator, in close agreement with transmission measurements of the c...

  18. Strategic Applications of Ultra-Cold Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-07

    Peer-Reviewed Conference Proceeding publications (other than abstracts): “Laser cooling in anisotropic traps”, M. Vengalattore, R.S. Conroy, M. Prentiss...IEEE Cat. No. 04CH37598. Piscataway, NJ, IEEE, 2004, 1 pp. “Guiding of light in an ultracold, anisotropic medium”, M. Vengalattore and M. Prentiss, in...molecules the rotational dynamics imposes significantly larger Rabi frequencies than would otherwise be expected, but within this limitation, a full

  19. Quantum information entropies of ultracold atomic gases in a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    bosonic systems and a ≃ 1.982 and b = 1 for ideal fermionic systems. These results obey the entropic uncertainty relation given by Beckner, Bialynicki-Birula and Myceilski. Keywords. Ultracold atomic gases; information entropy; foundations of quantum mechanics. PACS Nos 67.85.−d; 89.70.Cf; 03.65.Ta. 1. Introduction.

  20. Manipulating collective quantum states of ultracold atoms by probing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wade, Andrew Christopher James

    2015-01-01

    The field of cold gases has grown dramatically over the past few decades. The exquisite experimental control of their environment and properties has lead to landmark achievements, and has motivated the pursuit of quantum technologies with ultracold atoms. At the same time, the theory of measureme......The field of cold gases has grown dramatically over the past few decades. The exquisite experimental control of their environment and properties has lead to landmark achievements, and has motivated the pursuit of quantum technologies with ultracold atoms. At the same time, the theory...... of measurements on quantum systems has grown into a well established field. Experimental demonstrations of nondestructive continuous measurements on individual quantum systems now occur in many laboratories. Such experiments with ultracold atoms have shown great progress, but the exploitation of the quantum...... nature of the measurement interaction and backaction is yet to be realised. This dissertation is concerned with ultracold atoms and their control via fully quantum mechanical probes. Nonclassical, squeezed and entangled states of matter and single photon sources are important for fundamental studies...

  1. Dressed molecules in resonantly interacting ultracold atomic Fermi gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falco, G.M.; Stoof, H.T.C.

    2007-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the two-channel atom-molecule effective Hamiltonian for an ultracold two-component homogeneous Fermi gas interacting near a Feshbach resonance. We particularly focus on the two-body and many-body properties of the dressed molecules in such a gas. An exact result

  2. Non-destructive Faraday imaging of dynamically controlled ultracold atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gajdacz, Miroslav; Pedersen, Poul Lindholm; Mørch, Troels

    2013-01-01

    We describe an easily implementable method for non-destructive measurements of ultracold atomic clouds based on dark field imaging of spatially resolved Faraday rotation. The signal-to-noise ratio is analyzed theoretically and, in the absence of experimental imperfections, the sensitivity limit...

  3. Ultracold atoms for precision measurement of fundamental physical quantities

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    Cooling and trapping of neutral atoms has been one of the most active fields of research in physics in recent years. Several methods were demonstrated to reach temperatures as low as a few nanokelvin allowing, for example, the investigation of quantum degenerate gases. The ability to control the quantum degrees of freedom of atoms opens the way to applications for precision measurement of fundamental physical quantities. Experiments in progress, planned or being considered using new quantum devices based on ultracold atoms, namely atom interferometers and atomic clocks, will be discussed.

  4. Momentum distribution functions in ensembles: the inequivalence of microcannonical and canonical ensembles in a finite ultracold system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Xianlong, Gao; Li, Haibin

    2013-08-01

    It is demonstrated in many thermodynamic textbooks that the equivalence of the different ensembles is achieved in the thermodynamic limit. In this present work we discuss the inequivalence of microcanonical and canonical ensembles in a finite ultracold system at low energies. We calculate the microcanonical momentum distribution function (MDF) in a system of identical fermions (bosons). We find that the microcanonical MDF deviates from the canonical one, which is the Fermi-Dirac (Bose-Einstein) function, in a finite system at low energies where the single-particle density of states and its inverse are finite.

  5. Extended Hubbard models for ultracold atoms in optical lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juergensen, Ole

    2015-06-05

    In this thesis, the phase diagrams and dynamics of various extended Hubbard models for ultracold atoms in optical lattices are studied. Hubbard models are the primary description for many interacting particles in periodic potentials with the paramount example of the electrons in solids. The very same models describe the behavior of ultracold quantum gases trapped in the periodic potentials generated by interfering beams of laser light. These optical lattices provide an unprecedented access to the fundamentals of the many-particle physics that govern the properties of solid-state materials. They can be used to simulate solid-state systems and validate the approximations and simplifications made in theoretical models. This thesis revisits the numerous approximations underlying the standard Hubbard models with special regard to optical lattice experiments. The incorporation of the interaction between particles on adjacent lattice sites leads to extended Hubbard models. Offsite interactions have a strong influence on the phase boundaries and can give rise to novel correlated quantum phases. The extended models are studied with the numerical methods of exact diagonalization and time evolution, a cluster Gutzwiller approximation, as well as with the strong-coupling expansion approach. In total, this thesis demonstrates the high relevance of beyond-Hubbard processes for ultracold atoms in optical lattices. Extended Hubbard models can be employed to tackle unexplained problems of solid-state physics as well as enter previously inaccessible regimes.

  6. Extended Hubbard models for ultracold atoms in optical lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juergensen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, the phase diagrams and dynamics of various extended Hubbard models for ultracold atoms in optical lattices are studied. Hubbard models are the primary description for many interacting particles in periodic potentials with the paramount example of the electrons in solids. The very same models describe the behavior of ultracold quantum gases trapped in the periodic potentials generated by interfering beams of laser light. These optical lattices provide an unprecedented access to the fundamentals of the many-particle physics that govern the properties of solid-state materials. They can be used to simulate solid-state systems and validate the approximations and simplifications made in theoretical models. This thesis revisits the numerous approximations underlying the standard Hubbard models with special regard to optical lattice experiments. The incorporation of the interaction between particles on adjacent lattice sites leads to extended Hubbard models. Offsite interactions have a strong influence on the phase boundaries and can give rise to novel correlated quantum phases. The extended models are studied with the numerical methods of exact diagonalization and time evolution, a cluster Gutzwiller approximation, as well as with the strong-coupling expansion approach. In total, this thesis demonstrates the high relevance of beyond-Hubbard processes for ultracold atoms in optical lattices. Extended Hubbard models can be employed to tackle unexplained problems of solid-state physics as well as enter previously inaccessible regimes.

  7. Measurement of Spectral Functions of Ultracold Atoms in Disordered Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volchkov, Valentin V.; Pasek, Michael; Denechaud, Vincent; Mukhtar, Musawwadah; Aspect, Alain; Delande, Dominique; Josse, Vincent

    2018-02-01

    We report on the measurement of the spectral functions of noninteracting ultracold atoms in a three-dimensional disordered potential resulting from an optical speckle field. Varying the disorder strength by 2 orders of magnitude, we observe the crossover from the "quantum" perturbative regime of low disorder to the "classical" regime at higher disorder strength, and find an excellent agreement with numerical simulations. The method relies on the use of state-dependent disorder and the controlled transfer of atoms to create well-defined energy states. This opens new avenues for experimental investigations of three-dimensional Anderson localization.

  8. Optical ferris wheel for ultracold atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke-Arnold, S.; Leach, J.; Padgett, M. J.; Lembessis, V. E.; Ellinas, D.; Wright, A. J.; Girkin, J. M.; Ohberg, P.; Arnold, A. S.

    2007-07-01

    We propose a versatile optical ring lattice suitable for trapping cold and quantum degenerate atomic samples. We demonstrate the realisation of intensity patterns from pairs of Laguerre-Gauss (exp(iℓө) modes with different ℓ indices. These patterns can be rotated by introducing a frequency shift between the modes. We can generate bright ring lattices for trapping atoms in red-detuned light, and dark ring lattices suitable for trapping atoms with minimal heating in the optical vortices of blue-detuned light. The lattice sites can be joined to form a uniform ring trap, making it ideal for studying persistent currents and the Mott insulator transition in a ring geometry.

  9. Quantum phases of low-dimensional ultra-cold atom systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathey, Ludwig G.

    2007-06-01

    In this thesis we derive and explore the quantum phases of various types of ultracold atom systems, as well as their experimental signature. The technology of cooling, trapping and manipulating ultracold atoms has advanced in an amazing fashion during the last decade, which has led to the study of many-body effects of atomic ensembles. We first consider atomic mixtures in one dimension, which show a rich structure of phases, using a Luttinger liquid description. We then go on to consider how noise correlations in time-of-flight images of one-dimensional systems can be used to draw conclusions about the many-body state that they're in. Thirdly, we consider the quantum phases of Bose-Fermi mixtures in optical lattices, either square lattices or triangular lattices, using the powerful method of functional renormalization group analysis. Lastly, we study the phases of two-coupled quasi-superfluids in two dimensions, which shows unusual phases, and which could be used to realize the Kibble-Zurek mechanism, i.e. the generation of topological defects by ramping across a phase transition, first proposed in the context of an early universe scenario.

  10. Atomic physics precise measurements and ultracold matter

    CERN Document Server

    Inguscio, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Atomic Physics provides an expert guide to two spectacular new landscapes in physics: precision measurements, which have been revolutionized by the advent of the optical frequency comb, and atomic physics, which has been revolutionized by laser cooling. These advances are not incremental but transformative: they have generated a consilience between atomic and many-body physics, precipitated an explosion of scientific and technological applications, opened new areas of research, and attracted a brilliant generation of younger scientists. The research is advancing so rapidly, the barrage of applications is so dazzling, that students can be bewildered. For both students and experienced scientists, this book provides an invaluable description of basic principles, experimental methods, and scientific applications.

  11. Individual Tracer Atoms in an Ultracold Dilute Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Michael; Kindermann, Farina; Lausch, Tobias; Mayer, Daniel; Schmidt, Felix; Lutz, Eric; Widera, Artur

    2017-06-01

    We report on the experimental investigation of individual Cs atoms impinging on a dilute cloud of ultracold Rb atoms with variable density. We study the relaxation of the initial nonthermal state and detect the effect of single collisions which has so far eluded observation. We show that, after few collisions, the measured spatial distribution of the tracer atoms is correctly described by a Langevin equation with a velocity-dependent friction coefficient, over a large range of Knudsen numbers. Our results extend the simple and effective Langevin treatment to the realm of light particles in dilute gases. The experimental technique developed opens up the microscopic exploration of a novel regime of diffusion at the level of individual collisions.

  12. Permanent magnetic lattices for ultracold atoms and quantum degenerate gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanbari, Saeed; Kieu, Tien D; Sidorov, Andrei; Hannaford, Peter

    2006-01-01

    We propose the use of periodic arrays of permanent magnetic films for producing magnetic lattices of microtraps for confining, manipulating and controlling small clouds of ultracold atoms and quantum degenerate gases. Using analytical expressions and numerical calculations we show that periodic arrays of magnetic films can produce one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) magnetic lattices with non-zero potential minima, allowing ultracold atoms to be trapped without losses due to spin flips. In particular, we show that two crossed layers of periodic arrays of parallel rectangular magnets plus bias fields, or a single layer of periodic arrays of square-shaped magnets with three different thicknesses plus bias fields, can produce 2D magnetic lattices of microtraps having non-zero potential minima and controllable trap depth. For arrays with micron-scale periodicity, the magnetic microtraps can have very large trap depths (∼0.5 mK for the realistic parameters chosen for the 2D lattice) and very tight confinement

  13. Interfacing ultracold atoms and cryogenic micromechanical oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bick, Andreas

    2015-02-06

    fiber. This previously unknown effect was identified as crucial in asymmetric fiber-based cavities and is studied in this thesis using an analytical model, which is verified using numerical calculations and experimental data. The curved structures necessary for a stable cavity mode in the MiM system are processed onto the fiber tips using CO{sub 2} laser pulses. The light is absorbed, resulting in the evaporation of material. Afterwards, the fiber is analyzed using a Linnik interference microscope to determine the radius of curvature of the processed feature. With this knowledge, an asymmetric fiber-based MiM system at room temperature was set up and in first measurements the mechanical quality factor and the optomechanical coupling strength were studied. Furthermore, a setup to create BECs was planned and realized. Here, in first measurements, Bose-Einstein condensation was observed. The system is based on a 2D/3D MOT design in combination with a Hybrid-Dee magnetic trap. Using radio-frequency evaporation, BECs with N ∼ 8 x 10{sup 4} atoms can be produced at a cycle time of 30 s.

  14. Few-particle quantum magnetism with ultracold atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murmann, Simon

    2015-11-25

    This thesis reports on the deterministic preparation of magnetically ordered states in systems of few fermionic atoms. We follow the concept of quantum simulation and use {sup 6}Li atoms in two different hyperfine states to mimic the behavior of electrons in a solidstate system. In a first experiment, we simulate the two-site Hubbard model by using two atoms in an isolated double-well potential. We prepare the two-particle ground state of this model with a fidelity exceeding 90%. By introducing strong repulsive interactions, we are able to realize a pure spin model and describe the energy spectrum with a two-site Heisenberg Hamiltonian. In a second experiment, we realize Heisenberg spin chains of up to four atoms in a single strongly-elongated trapping potential. Here, the atoms self-align along the potential axis due to strong repulsive interactions. We introduce two novel measurement techniques to identify the state of the spin chains and thereby confirm that we can deterministically prepare antiferromagnetic ground-state systems. This constitutes the first observation of quantum magnetism with fermionic atoms that exceeds nearest-neighbor correlations. Both the double-well system and the spin chains can be seen as building blocks of larger ground-state spin systems. Their deterministic preparation therefore opens up a new bottom-up approach to the experimental realization of quantum many-body systems with ultracold atoms.

  15. Scattering resonances of ultracold atoms in confined geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeidian, Shahpoor

    2008-06-18

    Subject of this thesis is the investigation of the quantum dynamics of ultracold atoms in confined geometries. We discuss the behavior of ground state atoms inside a 3D magnetic quadrupole field. Such atoms in enough weak magnetic fields can be approximately treated as neutral point-like particles. Complementary to the well-known positive energy resonances, we point out the existence of short-lived negative energy resonances. The latter originate from a fundamental symmetry of the underlying Hamiltonian. We drive a mapping of the two branches of the spectrum. Moreover, we analyze atomic hyperfine resonances in a magnetic quadrupole field. This corresponds to the case for which both the hyperfine and Zeeman interaction, are comparable, and should be taken into account. Finally, we develop a general grid method for multichannel scattering of two atoms in a two-dimensional harmonic confinement. With our approach we analyze transverse excitations/deexcitations in the course of the collisional process (distinguishable or identical atoms) including all important partial waves and their couplings due to the broken spherical symmetry. Special attention is paid to suggest a non-trivial extension of the CIRs theory developed so far only for the single-mode regime and zero-energy limit. (orig.)

  16. Scattering resonances of ultracold atoms in confined geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeidian, Shahpoor

    2008-01-01

    Subject of this thesis is the investigation of the quantum dynamics of ultracold atoms in confined geometries. We discuss the behavior of ground state atoms inside a 3D magnetic quadrupole field. Such atoms in enough weak magnetic fields can be approximately treated as neutral point-like particles. Complementary to the well-known positive energy resonances, we point out the existence of short-lived negative energy resonances. The latter originate from a fundamental symmetry of the underlying Hamiltonian. We drive a mapping of the two branches of the spectrum. Moreover, we analyze atomic hyperfine resonances in a magnetic quadrupole field. This corresponds to the case for which both the hyperfine and Zeeman interaction, are comparable, and should be taken into account. Finally, we develop a general grid method for multichannel scattering of two atoms in a two-dimensional harmonic confinement. With our approach we analyze transverse excitations/deexcitations in the course of the collisional process (distinguishable or identical atoms) including all important partial waves and their couplings due to the broken spherical symmetry. Special attention is paid to suggest a non-trivial extension of the CIRs theory developed so far only for the single-mode regime and zero-energy limit. (orig.)

  17. D-state Rydberg electrons interacting with ultracold atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupp, Alexander Thorsten

    2014-10-02

    This thesis was established in the field of ultracold atoms where the interaction of highly excited D-state electrons with rubidium atoms was examined. This work is divided into two main parts: In the first part we study D-state Rydberg molecules resulting from the binding of a D-state Rydberg electron to a ground state rubidium atom. We show that we can address specific rovibrational molecular states by changing our laser detuning and thus create perfectly aligned axial or antialigned toroidal molecules, in good agreement with our theoretical calculations. Furthermore the influence of the electric field on the Rydberg molecules was investigated, creating novel states which show a different angular dependence and alignment. In the second part of this thesis we excite single D-state Rydberg electrons in a Bose-Einstein condensate. We study the lifetime of these Rydberg electrons, the change of the shape of our condensate and the atom losses in the condensate due to this process. Moreover, we observe quadrupolar shape oscillations of the whole condensate created by the consecutive excitation of Rydberg atoms and compare all results to previous S-state measurements. In the outlook we propose a wide range of further experiments including the proposal of imaging a single electron wavefunction by the imprint of its orbit into the Bose-Einstein condensate.

  18. From few to many. Ultracold atoms in reduced dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenz, Andre Niklas

    2013-01-01

    This thesis reports on experimental studies exploring few and many-body physics of ultracold Bose and Fermi gases with reduced dimensionality. These experiments illustrate the versatility and great amount of control over the particle number, the interaction and other degrees of freedom, like the spin, that these generic quantum systems offer. In the first part of this thesis, we use quasi one-dimensional few-particle systems of one to ten fermionic atoms to investigate the crossover from few to many-body physics. This is achieved by measuring the interaction energy between a single impurity atom in a state vertical stroke ↓ right angle which repulsively interacts with an increasing number of majority atoms in a state vertical stroke ↑ right angle. We find that the system quickly approaches the results from the many-body theory, which describes the behavior of a single impurity immersed in a Fermi sea of an infinite number of majority particles. The second part of this thesis presents studies of the time evolution of a bosonic F=1 spinor BEC of 87 Rb atoms. In this system, we investigate the emergence and coarsening of ferromagnetic spin textures from initially unmagnetized samples. While the ferromagnetic domains grow, we observe the development of a spin space anisotropy which is in agreement with the predicted phase-diagram. The last part of this thesis presents our first steps towards the investigation of phase coherence of quasi two-dimensional quantum gases in the crossover from bosonic molecules to fermionic atoms.

  19. Light-induced gauge fields for ultracold atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, N.; Juzeliūnas, G.; Öhberg, P.; Spielman, I. B.

    2014-12-01

    Gauge fields are central in our modern understanding of physics at all scales. At the highest energy scales known, the microscopic universe is governed by particles interacting with each other through the exchange of gauge bosons. At the largest length scales, our Universe is ruled by gravity, whose gauge structure suggests the existence of a particle—the graviton—that mediates the gravitational force. At the mesoscopic scale, solid-state systems are subjected to gauge fields of different nature: materials can be immersed in external electromagnetic fields, but they can also feature emerging gauge fields in their low-energy description. In this review, we focus on another kind of gauge field: those engineered in systems of ultracold neutral atoms. In these setups, atoms are suitably coupled to laser fields that generate effective gauge potentials in their description. Neutral atoms ‘feeling’ laser-induced gauge potentials can potentially mimic the behavior of an electron gas subjected to a magnetic field, but also, the interaction of elementary particles with non-Abelian gauge fields. Here, we review different realized and proposed techniques for creating gauge potentials—both Abelian and non-Abelian—in atomic systems and discuss their implication in the context of quantum simulation. While most of these setups concern the realization of background and classical gauge potentials, we conclude with more exotic proposals where these synthetic fields might be made dynamical, in view of simulating interacting gauge theories with cold atoms.

  20. Light-induced gauge fields for ultracold atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, N; Juzeliūnas, G; Öhberg, P; Spielman, I B

    2014-01-01

    Gauge fields are central in our modern understanding of physics at all scales. At the highest energy scales known, the microscopic universe is governed by particles interacting with each other through the exchange of gauge bosons. At the largest length scales, our Universe is ruled by gravity, whose gauge structure suggests the existence of a particle—the graviton—that mediates the gravitational force. At the mesoscopic scale, solid-state systems are subjected to gauge fields of different nature: materials can be immersed in external electromagnetic fields, but they can also feature emerging gauge fields in their low-energy description. In this review, we focus on another kind of gauge field: those engineered in systems of ultracold neutral atoms. In these setups, atoms are suitably coupled to laser fields that generate effective gauge potentials in their description. Neutral atoms ‘feeling’ laser-induced gauge potentials can potentially mimic the behavior of an electron gas subjected to a magnetic field, but also, the interaction of elementary particles with non-Abelian gauge fields. Here, we review different realized and proposed techniques for creating gauge potentials—both Abelian and non-Abelian—in atomic systems and discuss their implication in the context of quantum simulation. While most of these setups concern the realization of background and classical gauge potentials, we conclude with more exotic proposals where these synthetic fields might be made dynamical, in view of simulating interacting gauge theories with cold atoms. (review article)

  1. Localization of atomic ensembles via superfluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macovei, Mihai; Evers, Joerg; Keitel, Christoph H.; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2007-01-01

    The subwavelength localization of an ensemble of atoms concentrated to a small volume in space is investigated. The localization relies on the interaction of the ensemble with a standing wave laser field. The light scattered in the interaction of the standing wave field and the atom ensemble depends on the position of the ensemble relative to the standing wave nodes. This relation can be described by a fluorescence intensity profile, which depends on the standing wave field parameters and the ensemble properties and which is modified due to collective effects in the ensemble of nearby particles. We demonstrate that the intensity profile can be tailored to suit different localization setups. Finally, we apply these results to two localization schemes. First, we show how to localize an ensemble fixed at a certain position in the standing wave field. Second, we discuss localization of an ensemble passing through the standing wave field

  2. Rydberg-atom formation in strongly correlated ultracold plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannasch, G.; Pohl, T.

    2011-01-01

    In plasmas at very low temperatures, the formation of neutral atoms is dominated by collisional three-body recombination, owing to the strong ∼T -9/2 scaling of the corresponding recombination rate with the electron temperature T. While this law is well established at high temperatures, the unphysical divergence as T→0 clearly suggests a breakdown in the low-temperature regime. Here, we present a combined molecular dynamics Monte Carlo study of electron-ion recombination over a wide range of temperatures and densities. Our results reproduce the known behavior of the recombination rate at high temperatures, but reveal significant deviations with decreasing temperature. We discuss the fate of the kinetic bottleneck and resolve the divergence problem as the plasma enters the ultracold, strongly coupled domain.

  3. Velocity selection for ultra-cold atoms using bimodal mazer cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irshad, A.; Qamar, S.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, we discuss the velocity selection of ultra-cold three-level atoms in Λ configuration using a micromazer. Our model is the same as discussed by Arun et al., for mazer action in a bimodal cavity. We have shown that significantly narrowed velocity distribution of ultra-cold atoms can be obtained in this system due to the presence of dark states. (author)

  4. From few to many. Ultracold atoms in reduced dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenz, Andre Niklas

    2013-12-19

    This thesis reports on experimental studies exploring few and many-body physics of ultracold Bose and Fermi gases with reduced dimensionality. These experiments illustrate the versatility and great amount of control over the particle number, the interaction and other degrees of freedom, like the spin, that these generic quantum systems offer. In the first part of this thesis, we use quasi one-dimensional few-particle systems of one to ten fermionic atoms to investigate the crossover from few to many-body physics. This is achieved by measuring the interaction energy between a single impurity atom in a state vertical stroke ↓ right angle which repulsively interacts with an increasing number of majority atoms in a state vertical stroke ↑ right angle. We find that the system quickly approaches the results from the many-body theory, which describes the behavior of a single impurity immersed in a Fermi sea of an infinite number of majority particles. The second part of this thesis presents studies of the time evolution of a bosonic F=1 spinor BEC of {sup 87}Rb atoms. In this system, we investigate the emergence and coarsening of ferromagnetic spin textures from initially unmagnetized samples. While the ferromagnetic domains grow, we observe the development of a spin space anisotropy which is in agreement with the predicted phase-diagram. The last part of this thesis presents our first steps towards the investigation of phase coherence of quasi two-dimensional quantum gases in the crossover from bosonic molecules to fermionic atoms.

  5. Microscopic description and simulation of ultracold atoms in optical resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedenzu, W.

    2012-01-01

    Ultracold atoms in optical resonators are an ideal system to investigate the full quantum regime of light-matter interaction. Microscopic insight into the underlying processes can nowadays easily be obtained from numerical calculations, e.g. with Monte Carlo wave function simulations. In the first part we discuss cold atoms in ring resonators, where the modified boundary conditions significantly alter the dynamics as compared to the standing-wave case. Quantum jumps induce momentum correlations and entanglement between the particles. We observe strong non-classical motional correlations, cooling and entanglement heralded by single photon measurements. For deeply trapped particles the complex system Hamiltonian can be mapped onto a generic optomechanical model, allowing for analytical microscopic insight into the dynamics. The rates of cavity-mediated correlated heating and cooling processes are obtained by adiabatically eliminating the cavity field from the dynamics and can be directly related to the steady-state momentum correlation coefficient. The second part is devoted to cooling and self-organisation of a cold gas in a transversally pumped standing-wave resonator, in which the atoms are directly illuminated by a laser beam. Above a certain critical laser intensity the atoms order in a specific pattern, maximising light scattering into the cavity. The particles thus create and sustain their own trap. We derive a nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation for the one-particle distribution function describing the gas dynamics below and above threshold. This kinetic theory predicts dissipation-induced self-organisation and q-Gaussian velocity distributions in steady state. (author)

  6. Tunneling and traversal of ultracold three-level atoms through vacuum-induced potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badshah, Fazal; Irfan, Muhammad; Qamar, Shahid [Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan); Qamar, Sajid [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2011-09-15

    The passage of ultracold three-level atoms through the potential induced by the vacuum cavity mode is discussed using cascade atomic configuration. We study the tunneling or traversal time of the ultracold atoms via a bimodal high-Q cavity. It is found that the phase time, which may be considered as a measure for the time required to traverse the cavity, exhibits superclassical and subclassical behaviors. Further, the dark states and interference effects in cascade atomic configuration may influence the passage time of the atom through the cavity.

  7. Tunneling and traversal of ultracold three-level atoms through vacuum-induced potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badshah, Fazal; Irfan, Muhammad; Qamar, Shahid; Qamar, Sajid

    2011-01-01

    The passage of ultracold three-level atoms through the potential induced by the vacuum cavity mode is discussed using cascade atomic configuration. We study the tunneling or traversal time of the ultracold atoms via a bimodal high-Q cavity. It is found that the phase time, which may be considered as a measure for the time required to traverse the cavity, exhibits superclassical and subclassical behaviors. Further, the dark states and interference effects in cascade atomic configuration may influence the passage time of the atom through the cavity.

  8. Manipulating beams of ultra-cold atoms with a static magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowlands, W.J.; Lau, D.C.; Opat, G.I.; Sidorov, A.I.; McLean, R.J.; Hannaford, P.

    1996-01-01

    The preliminary results on the deflection of a beam of ultra-cold atoms by a static magnetic field are presented. Caesium atoms trapped in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) are cooled using optical molasses, and then fall freely under gravity to form a beam of ultra-cold atoms. The atoms pass through a static inhomogeneous magnetic field produced by a single current-carrying wire, and are deflected by a force dependent on the magnetic substate of the atom. A schematical diagram of the experimental layout for laser trapping and cooling of cesium atom is given. The population of atoms in various magnetic substates can be altered by using resonant laser radiation to optically pump the atoms. The single-wire deflection experiment described can be considered as atomic reflexion from a cylindrical magnetic mirror; the underlying principles and techniques being relevant to the production of atomic mirrors and diffraction gratings. 16 refs., 10 figs

  9. Dipole-dipole interactions in a hot atomic vapor and in an ultracold gas of Rydberg atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautenkov, V. A.; Saakyan, S. A.; Bronin, S. Ya; Klyarfeld, A. B.; Zelener, B. B.; Zelener, B. V.

    2018-01-01

    In our paper ideal and non-ideal gas media of neutral atoms are analyzed. The first we discuss a dipole broadening of atomic transitions in excited dilute and dense metal vapors. Then the theoretical studies of the dipole-dipole interactions in dense ultracold gas of Rydberg atoms are considered. Possible future experiments on a base of our experimental arrangement are suggested.

  10. Quantum chaos in ultracold collisions of gas-phase erbium atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Albert; Mark, Michael; Aikawa, Kiyotaka; Ferlaino, Francesca; Bohn, John L; Makrides, Constantinos; Petrov, Alexander; Kotochigova, Svetlana

    2014-03-27

    Atomic and molecular samples reduced to temperatures below one microkelvin, yet still in the gas phase, afford unprecedented energy resolution in probing and manipulating the interactions between their constituent particles. As a result of this resolution, atoms can be made to scatter resonantly on demand, through the precise control of a magnetic field. For simple atoms, such as alkalis, scattering resonances are extremely well characterized. However, ultracold physics is now poised to enter a new regime, where much more complex species can be cooled and studied, including magnetic lanthanide atoms and even molecules. For molecules, it has been speculated that a dense set of resonances in ultracold collision cross-sections will probably exhibit essentially random fluctuations, much as the observed energy spectra of nuclear scattering do. According to the Bohigas-Giannoni-Schmit conjecture, such fluctuations would imply chaotic dynamics of the underlying classical motion driving the collision. This would necessitate new ways of looking at the fundamental interactions in ultracold atomic and molecular systems, as well as perhaps new chaos-driven states of ultracold matter. Here we describe the experimental demonstration that random spectra are indeed found at ultralow temperatures. In the experiment, an ultracold gas of erbium atoms is shown to exhibit many Fano-Feshbach resonances, of the order of three per gauss for bosons. Analysis of their statistics verifies that their distribution of nearest-neighbour spacings is what one would expect from random matrix theory. The density and statistics of these resonances are explained by fully quantum mechanical scattering calculations that locate their origin in the anisotropy of the atoms' potential energy surface. Our results therefore reveal chaotic behaviour in the native interaction between ultracold atoms.

  11. Quantum Repeaters and Atomic Ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Johannes

    a previous protocol, thereby enabling fast local processing, which greatly enhances the distribution rate. We then move on to describe our work on improving the stability of atomic clocks using entanglement. Entanglement can potentially push the stability of atomic clocks to the so-called Heisenberg limit...... and allows for near-Heisenberg limited stability of atomic clocks. Furthermore, we describe how the operation of a clock can be altered to gain an exponential improvement of the stability even without entanglement. In the next part of the thesis, we describe our work on a novel type of heralded quantum gates...... temperature quantum memories and single photon sources. We have introduced a novel concept of motional averaging, which can be used in room-temperature systems, where fluctuations due to thermal motion is an issue. In particular, we have considered a system based on microcells filled with Cs-atoms, which can...

  12. Understanding ensemble protein folding at atomic detail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, Stefan; Shakhnovich, Eugene I

    2008-01-01

    Although far from routine, simulating the folding of specific short protein chains on the computer, at a detailed atomic level, is starting to become a reality. This remarkable progress, which has been made over the last decade or so, allows a fundamental aspect of the protein folding process to be addressed, namely its statistical nature. In order to make quantitative comparisons with experimental kinetic data a complete ensemble view of folding must be achieved, with key observables averaged over the large number of microscopically different folding trajectories available to a protein chain. Here we review recent advances in atomic-level protein folding simulations and the new insight provided by them into the protein folding process. An important element in understanding ensemble folding kinetics are methods for analyzing many separate folding trajectories, and we discuss techniques developed to condense the large amount of information contained in an ensemble of trajectories into a manageable picture of the folding process. (topical review)

  13. Predicting scattering properties of ultracold atoms : Adiabatic accumulated phase method and mass scaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaar, B.J.; Kempen, van E.G.M.; Kokkelmans, S.J.J.M.F.

    2009-01-01

    Ultracold atoms are increasingly used for high-precision experiments that can be utilized to extract accurate scattering properties. This results in a stronger need to improve on the accuracy of interatomic potentials, and in particular the usually rather inaccurate inner-range potentials. A

  14. Observation of electric quadrupole transitions to Rydberg nd states of ultracold rubidium atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tong, D.; Farooqi, S.M.; Kempen, van E.G.M.; Pavlovic, Z.; Stanojevic, J.; Coté, R.; Eyler, E.E.; Gould, P.L.

    2009-01-01

    We report the observation of dipole-forbidden, but quadrupole-allowed, one-photon transitions to high-Rydberg states in Rb. Using pulsed uv excitation of ultracold atoms in a magneto-optical trap, we excite 5s¿nd transitions over a range of principal quantum numbers n=27–59. Compared to

  15. Quantum simulation of conductivity plateaux and fractional quantum Hall effect using ultracold atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barberán, Nuria; García-March, Miguel Angel; Taron, Josep; Dagnino, Daniel; Trombettoni, Andrea; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the role of impurities in the fractional quantum Hall effect using a highly controllable system of ultracold atoms. We investigate the mechanism responsible for the formation of plateaux in the resistivity/conductivity as a function of the applied magnetic field in the lowest Landau level regime. To this aim, we consider an impurity immersed in a small cloud of an ultracold quantum Bose gas subjected to an artificial magnetic field. We consider scenarios corresponding to experimentally realistic systems with gauge fields induced by rotation of the trapping parabolic potential. Systems of this kind are adequate to simulate quantum Hall effects in ultracold atom setups. We use exact diagonalization for few atoms and to emulate transport equations, we analyze the time evolution of the system under a periodic perturbation. We provide a theoretical proposal to detect the up-to-now elusive presence of strongly correlated states related to fractional filling factors in the context of ultracold atoms. We analyze the conditions under which these strongly correlated states are associated with the presence of the resistivity/conductivity plateaux. Our main result is the presence of a plateau in a region, where the transfer between localized and non-localized particles takes place, as a necessary condition to maintain a constant value of the resistivity/conductivity as the magnetic field increases. (paper)

  16. Strongly-correlated ultracold atoms in optical lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, Tung-Lam

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the theoretical study of strongly correlated quantum states of ultra-cold fermionic atoms trapped in optical lattices. This field has grown considerably in recent years, following the experimental progress made in cooling and controlling atomic gases, which has led to the observation of the first Bose-Einstein condensation (in 1995). The trapping of these gases in optical lattices has opened a new field of research at the interface between atomic physics and condensed matter physics. The observation of the transition from a superfluid to a Mott insulator for bosonic atoms paved the way for the study of strongly correlated phases and quantum phase transitions in these systems. Very recently, the investigation of the Mott insulator state of fermionic atoms provides additional motivation to conduct such theoretical studies. This thesis can be divided broadly into two types of work: - On the one hand, we have proposed a new type of spectroscopy to measure single-particle correlators and associated physical observables in these strongly correlated states. - On the other hand, we have studied the ground state of the fermionic Hubbard model under different conditions (mass imbalance, population imbalance) by using analytical techniques and numerical simulations. In a collaboration with J. Dalibard and C. Salomon (LKB at the ENS Paris) and I. Carusotto (Trento, Italy), we have proposed and studied a novel spectroscopic method for the measurement and characterization of single particle excitations (in particular, the low energy excitations, namely the quasiparticles) in systems of cold fermionic atoms, with energy and momentum resolution. This type of spectroscopy is an analogue of angular-resolved photoemission in solid state physics (ARPES). We have shown, via simple models, that this method of measurement can characterize quasiparticles not only in the 'conventional' phases such as the weakly interacting gas in the lattice or in Fermi

  17. Rydberg Molecules for Ion-Atom Scattering in the Ultracold Regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, T; Veit, C; Zuber, N; Löw, R; Pfau, T; Tarana, M; Tomza, M

    2018-04-13

    We propose a novel experimental method to extend the investigation of ion-atom collisions from the so far studied cold, essentially classical regime to the ultracold, quantum regime. The key aspect of this method is the use of Rydberg molecules to initialize the ultracold ion-atom scattering event. We exemplify the proposed method with the lithium ion-atom system, for which we present simulations of how the initial Rydberg molecule wave function, freed by photoionization, evolves in the presence of the ion-atom scattering potential. We predict bounds for the ion-atom scattering length from ab initio calculations of the interaction potential. We demonstrate that, in the predicted bounds, the scattering length can be experimentally determined from the velocity of the scattered wave packet in the case of ^{6}Li^{+}-^{6}Li and from the molecular ion fraction in the case of ^{7}Li^{+}-^{7}Li. The proposed method to utilize Rydberg molecules for ultracold ion-atom scattering, here particularized for the lithium ion-atom system, is readily applicable to other ion-atom systems as well.

  18. Effects of mode profile on tunneling and traversal of ultracold atoms through vacuum-induced potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badshah, Fazal; Irfan, Muhammad; Qamar, Sajid; Qamar, Shahid

    2016-04-01

    We consider the resonant interaction of an ultracold two-level atom with an electromagnetic field inside a high-Q micromaser cavity. In particular, we study the tunneling and traversal of ultracold atoms through vacuum-induced potentials for secant hyperbolic square and sinusoidal cavity mode functions. The phase time which may be considered as an appropriate measure of the time required for the atoms to cross the cavity, significantly modifies with the change of cavity mode profile. For example, switching between the sub and superclassical behaviors in phase time can occur due to the mode function. Similarly, negative phase time appears for the transmission of the two-level atoms in both excited and ground states for secant hyperbolic square mode function which is in contrast to the mesa mode case.

  19. Quantifying, characterizing, and controlling information flow in ultracold atomic gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haikka, P.; McEndoo, S.; Maniscalco, S.; De Chiara, G.; Palma, G. M.

    2011-01-01

    We study quantum information flow in a model comprised of a trapped impurity qubit immersed in a Bose-Einstein-condensed reservoir. We demonstrate how information flux between the qubit and the condensate can be manipulated by engineering the ultracold reservoir within experimentally realistic limits. We show that this system undergoes a transition from Markovian to non-Markovian dynamics, which can be controlled by changing key parameters such as the condensate scattering length. In this way, one can realize a quantum simulator of both Markovian and non-Markovian open quantum systems, the latter ones being characterized by a reverse flow of information from the background gas (reservoir) to the impurity (system).

  20. Floquet Engineering of Correlated Tunneling in the Bose-Hubbard Model with Ultracold Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinert, F; Mark, M J; Lauber, K; Daley, A J; Nägerl, H-C

    2016-05-20

    We report on the experimental implementation of tunable occupation-dependent tunneling in a Bose-Hubbard system of ultracold atoms via time-periodic modulation of the on-site interaction energy. The tunneling rate is inferred from a time-resolved measurement of the lattice site occupation after a quantum quench. We demonstrate coherent control of the tunneling dynamics in the correlated many-body system, including full suppression of tunneling as predicted within the framework of Floquet theory. We find that the tunneling rate explicitly depends on the atom number difference in neighboring lattice sites. Our results may open up ways to realize artificial gauge fields that feature density dependence with ultracold atoms.

  1. Superexchange-mediated magnetization dynamics with ultracold alkaline-earth atoms in an optical lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shaobing; Qian Jun; Wang Yuzhu

    2017-01-01

    Superexchange and inter-orbital spin-exchange interactions are key ingredients for understanding (orbital) quantum magnetism in strongly correlated systems and have been realized in ultracold atomic gases. Here we study the spin dynamics of ultracold alkaline-earth atoms in an optical lattice when the two exchange interactions coexist. In the superexchange interaction dominating regime, we find that the time-resolved spin imbalance shows a remarkable modulated oscillation, which can be attributed to the interplay between local and nonlocal quantum mechanical exchange mechanisms. Moreover, the filling of the long-lived excited atoms affects the collapse and revival of the magnetization dynamics. These observations can be realized in state-dependent optical lattices combined with the state-of-the-art advances in optical lattice clock spectroscopy. (paper)

  2. A hybrid system of a membrane oscillator coupled to ultracold atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampschulte, Tobias

    2015-05-01

    The control over micro- and nanomechanical oscillators has recently made impressive progress. First experiments demonstrated ground-state cooling and single-phonon control of high-frequency oscillators using cryogenic cooling and techniques of cavity optomechanics. Coupling engineered mechanical structures to microscopic quantum system with good coherence properties offers new possibilities for quantum control of mechanical vibrations, precision sensing and quantum-level signal transduction. Ultracold atoms are an attractive choice for such hybrid systems: Mechanical can either be coupled to the motional state of trapped atoms, which can routinely be ground-state cooled, or to the internal states, for which a toolbox of coherent manipulation and detection exists. Furthermore, atomic collective states with non-classical properties can be exploited to infer the mechanical motion with reduced quantum noise. Here we use trapped ultracold atoms to sympathetically cool the fundamental vibrational mode of a Si3N4 membrane. The coupling of membrane and atomic motion is mediated by laser light over a macroscopic distance and enhanced by an optical cavity around the membrane. The observed cooling of the membrane from room temperature to 650 +/- 230 mK shows that our hybrid mechanical-atomic system operates at a large cooperativity. Our scheme could provide ground-state cooling and quantum control of low-frequency oscillators such as levitated nanoparticles, in a regime where purely optomechanical techniques cannot reach the ground state. Furthermore, we will present a scheme where an optomechanical system is coupled to internal states of ultracold atoms. The mechanical motion is translated into a polarization rotation which drives Raman transitions between atomic ground states. Compared to the motional-state coupling, the new scheme enables to couple atoms to high-frequency structures such as optomechanical crystals.

  3. Measuring the One-Particle Excitations of Ultracold Fermionic Atoms by Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, T.-L.; Georges, Antoine; Dalibard, Jean; Salomon, Christophe; Carusotto, Iacopo

    2007-01-01

    We propose a Raman spectroscopy technique which is able to probe the one-particle Green function, the Fermi surface, and the quasiparticles of a gas of strongly interacting ultracold atoms. We give quantitative examples of experimentally accessible spectra. The efficiency of the method is validated by means of simulated images for the case of a usual Fermi liquid as well as for more exotic states: specific signatures of, e.g., a d-wave pseudogap are clearly visible

  4. Tunable superconducting resonators with integrated trap structures for coupling with ultracold atomic gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferdinand, Benedikt; Wiedmaier, Dominik; Koelle, Dieter; Kleiner, Reinhold [Physikalisches Institut and Center for Quantum Science in LISA+, Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Bothner, Daniel [Physikalisches Institut and Center for Quantum Science in LISA+, Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2016-07-01

    We intend to investigate a hybrid quantum system where ultracold atomic gases play the role of a long-living quantum memory, coupled to a superconducting qubit via a coplanar waveguide transmission line resonator. As a first step we developed a resonator chip containing a Z-shaped trapping wire for the atom trap. In order to suppress parasitic resonances due to stray capacitances, and to achieve good ground connection we use hybrid superconductor - normal conductor chips. As an additional degree of freedom we add a ferroelectric capacitor making the resonators voltage-tunable. We furthermore show theoretical results on the expected coupling strength between resonator and atomic cloud.

  5. Disordered ultracold atomic gases in optical lattices: A case study of Fermi-Bose mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahufinger, V.; Sanchez-Palencia, L.; Kantian, A.; Sanpera, A.; Lewenstein, M.

    2005-01-01

    We present a review of properties of ultracold atomic Fermi-Bose mixtures in inhomogeneous and random optical lattices. In the strong interacting limit and at very low temperatures, fermions form, together with bosons or bosonic holes, composite fermions. Composite fermions behave as a spinless interacting Fermi gas, and in the presence of local disorder they interact via random couplings and feel effective random local potential. This opens a wide variety of possibilities of realizing various kinds of ultracold quantum disordered systems. In this paper we review these possibilities, discuss the accessible quantum disordered phases, and methods for their detection. The discussed quantum phases include Fermi glasses, quantum spin glasses, 'dirty' superfluids, disordered metallic phases, and phases involving quantum percolation

  6. Quantum information entropies of ultracold atomic gases in a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The position and momentum space information entropies of weakly interacting trapped atomic Bose–Einstein condensates and spin-polarized trapped atomic Fermi gases at absolute zero temperature are evaluated. We find that sum of the position and momentum space information entropies of these quantum systems ...

  7. De Haas-van Alphen effect of a two-dimensional ultracold atomic gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, B.; Furtado, C.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we show how the ultracold atom analogue of the two-dimensional de Haas-van Alphen effect in electronic condensed matter systems can be induced by optical fields in a neutral atomic system. The interaction between the suitable spatially varying laser fields and tripod-type trapped atoms generates a synthetic magnetic field which leads the particles to organize themselves in Landau levels. Initially, with the atomic gas in a regime of lowest Landau level, we display the oscillatory behaviour of the atomic energy and its derivative with respect to the effective magnetic field (B) as a function of 1/B. Furthermore, we estimate the area of the Fermi circle of the two-dimensional atomic gas.

  8. Ultracold atoms in optical lattices simulating quantum many-body systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lewenstein, Maciej; Ahufinger, Verònica

    2012-01-01

    Quantum computers, though not yet available on the market, will revolutionize the future of information processing. Quantum computers for special purposes like quantum simulators are already within reach. The physics of ultracold atoms, ions and molecules offer unprecedented possibilities of control of quantum many body systems and novel possibilities of applications to quantum information processing and quantum metrology. Particularly fascinating is the possibility of usingultracold atoms in lattices to simulate condensed matter or even high energy physics.This book provides a complete and co

  9. Holographic method for site-resolved detection of a 2D array of ultracold atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Daniel Kai; Deissler, Benjamin; Limmer, Wolfgang; Hecker Denschlag, Johannes

    2016-08-01

    We propose a novel approach to site-resolved detection of a 2D gas of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. A near-resonant laser beam is coherently scattered by the atomic array, and after passing a lens its interference pattern is holographically recorded by superimposing it with a reference laser beam on a CCD chip. Fourier transformation of the recorded intensity pattern reconstructs the atomic distribution in the lattice with single-site resolution. The holographic detection method requires only about two hundred scattered photons per atom in order to achieve a high reconstruction fidelity of 99.9 %. Therefore, additional cooling during detection might not be necessary even for light atomic elements such as lithium. Furthermore, first investigations suggest that small aberrations of the lens can be post-corrected in imaging processing.

  10. A quantum trampoline for ultra-cold atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert-de-Saint-Vincent, M.; Brantut, J.-P.; Bordé, Ch. J.; Aspect, A.; Bourdel, T.; Bouyer, P.

    2010-01-01

    We have observed the interferometric suspension of a free-falling Bose-Einstein condensate periodically submitted to multiple-order diffraction by a vertical 1D standing wave. This scheme permits simultaneously the compensation of gravity and coherent splitting/recombination of the matter waves. It results in high-contrast interference in the number of atoms detected at constant height. For long suspension times, multiple-wave interference is revealed through a sharpening of the fringes. We characterize our atom interferometer and use it to measure the acceleration of gravity.

  11. Scattering amplitude of ultracold atoms near the p-wave magnetic Feshbach resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Peng; Naidon, Pascal; Ueda, Masahito

    2010-01-01

    Most of the current theories on the p-wave superfluid in cold atomic gases are based on the effective-range theory for the two-body scattering, where the low-energy p-wave scattering amplitude f 1 (k) is given by f 1 (k)=-1/[ik+1/(Vk 2 )+1/R]. Here k is the incident momentum, V and R are the k-independent scattering volume and effective range, respectively. However, due to the long-range nature of the van der Waals interaction between two colliding ultracold atoms, the p-wave scattering amplitude of the two atoms is not described by the effective-range theory [J. Math. Phys. 4, 54 (1963); Phys. Rev. A 58, 4222 (1998)]. In this paper we provide an explicit calculation for the p-wave scattering of two ultracold atoms near the p-wave magnetic Feshbach resonance. We show that in this case the low-energy p-wave scattering amplitude f 1 (k)=-1/[ik+1/(V eff k 2 )+1/(S eff k)+1/R eff ] where V eff , S eff , and R eff are k-dependent parameters. Based on this result, we identify sufficient conditions for the effective-range theory to be a good approximation of the exact scattering amplitude. Using these conditions we show that the effective-range theory is a good approximation for the p-wave scattering in the ultracold gases of 6 Li and 40 K when the scattering volume is enhanced by the resonance.

  12. Reactive Collisions and Interactions of Ultracold Dipolar Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-29

    Kotochigova Department of Physics, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122-6082 I. COLLISIONAL INTERACTIONS OF RARE- EARTH MAGNETIC ATOMS The breakthroughs...technologies, it was not previously implemented, possibly owing to the misconception that molecular ions predominantly undergo charge-exchange reactions leading

  13. Classical and quantum analysis of one-dimensional velocity selection for ultracold atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J K; Kim, H A; Mishra, S R; Myrskog, S H; Jofre, A M; Segal, L R; Kim, J B; Steinberg, A M

    2005-01-01

    We discuss a velocity selection technique for obtaining cold atoms, in which all atoms below a certain energy are spatially selected from the surrounding atom cloud. Velocity selection can in some cases be more efficient than other cooling techniques for the preparation of ultracold atom clouds in one dimension. With quantum mechanical and classical simulations and theory we present a scheme using a dipole force barrier to select the coldest atoms from a magnetically trapped atom cloud. The dipole and magnetic potentials create a local minimum which traps the coldest atoms. A unique advantage of this technique is the sharp cut-off in the velocity distribution of the sample of selected atoms. Such a non-thermal distribution should prove useful for a variety of experiments, including proposed studies of atomic tunnelling and scattering from quantum potentials. We show that when the rms size of the atom cloud is smaller than the local minimum in which the selected atoms are trapped, the velocity selection technique can be more efficient in one dimension than some common techniques such as evaporative cooling. For example, one simulation shows nearly 6% of the atoms retained at a temperature 100 times lower than the starting condition

  14. Atom Interferometry with Ultracold Quantum Gases in a Microgravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jason; D'Incao, Jose; Chiow, Sheng-Wey; Yu, Nan

    2015-05-01

    Precision atom interferometers (AI) in space promise exciting technical capabilities for fundamental physics research, with proposals including unprecedented tests of the weak equivalence principle, precision measurements of the fine structure and gravitational constants, and detection of gravity waves and dark energy. Consequently, multiple AI-based missions have been proposed to NASA, including a dual-atomic-species interferometer that is to be integrated into the Cold Atom Laboratory (CAL) onboard the International Space Station. In this talk, I will discuss our plans and preparation at JPL for the proposed flight experiments to use the CAL facility to study the leading-order systematics expected to corrupt future high-precision measurements of fundamental physics with AIs in microgravity. The project centers on the physics of pairwise interactions and molecular dynamics in these quantum systems as a means to overcome uncontrolled shifts associated with the gravity gradient and few-particle collisions. We will further utilize the CAL AI for proof-of-principle tests of systematic mitigation and phase-readout techniques for use in the next-generation of precision metrology experiments based on AIs in microgravity. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  15. Realizing analogues of color superconductivity with ultracold alkali atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, K M

    2011-01-01

    A degenerate three-component Fermi gas of atoms with identical attractive interactions is expected to exhibit superfluidity and magnetic order at low temperature and, for sufficiently strong pairwise interactions, become a Fermi liquid of weakly interacting trimers. The phase diagram of this system is analogous to that of quark matter at low temperature, motivating strong interest in its investigation. We describe how a three-component gas below the superfluid critical temperature can be prepared in an optical lattice. To realize an SU(3)-symmetric system, we show how pairwise interactions in the three-component atomic system can be made equal by applying radiofrequency and microwave radiation. Finally, motivated by the aim to make more accurate models of quark matter, which have color, flavor and spin degrees of freedom, we discuss how an atomic system with SU(2)xSU(3) symmetry can be achieved by confining a three-component Fermi gas in the p-orbital band of an optical lattice potential.

  16. Realization of the manipulation of ultracold atoms with a reconfigurable nanomagnetic system of domain walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Adam D; Weatherill, Kevin J; Hayward, Thomas J; Fry, Paul W; Schrefl, Thomas; Gibbs, Mike R J; Adams, Charles S; Allwood, Dan A; Hughes, Ifan G

    2012-08-08

    Planar magnetic nanowires have been vital to the development of spintronic technology. They provide an unparalleled combination of magnetic reconfigurability, controllability, and scalability, which has helped to realize such applications as racetrack memory and novel logic gates. Microfabricated atom optics benefit from all of these properties, and we present the first demonstration of the amalgamation of spintronic technology with ultracold atoms. A magnetic interaction is exhibited through the reflection of a cloud of (87)Rb atoms at a temperature of 10 μK, from a 2 mm × 2 mm array of nanomagnetic domain walls. In turn, the incident atoms approach the array at heights of the order of 100 nm and are thus used to probe magnetic fields at this distance.

  17. Numerical methods for atomic quantum gases with applications to Bose-Einstein condensates and to ultracold fermions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minguzzi, A.; Succi, S.; Toschi, F.; Tosi, M.P.; Vignolo, P.

    2004-01-01

    The achievement of Bose–Einstein condensation in ultra-cold vapours of alkali atoms has given enormous impulse to the study of dilute atomic gases in condensed quantum states inside magnetic traps and optical lattices. High-purity and easy optical access make them ideal candidates to investigate

  18. First-principles many-body theory for ultra-cold atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond, Peter D.; Hu Hui; Liu Xiaji

    2010-01-01

    Recent breakthroughs in the creation of ultra-cold atoms in the laboratory have ushered in unprecedented changes in physical science. These enormous changes in the coldest temperatures available in the laboratory mean that many novel experiments are possible. There is unprecedented control and simplicity in these novel systems, meaning that quantum many-body theory is now facing severe challenges in quantitatively understanding these new results. We discuss some of the new experiments and recently developed theoretical techniques required to predict the results obtained.

  19. Conjugate gradient minimisation approach to generating holographic traps for ultracold atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Tiffany; Bruce, Graham D; Keeling, Jonathan; Cassettari, Donatella

    2014-11-03

    Direct minimisation of a cost function can in principle provide a versatile and highly controllable route to computational hologram generation. Here we show that the careful design of cost functions, combined with numerically efficient conjugate gradient minimisation, establishes a practical method for the generation of holograms for a wide range of target light distributions. This results in a guided optimisation process, with a crucial advantage illustrated by the ability to circumvent optical vortex formation during hologram calculation. We demonstrate the implementation of the conjugate gradient method for both discrete and continuous intensity distributions and discuss its applicability to optical trapping of ultracold atoms.

  20. Symmetry breaking in small rotating clouds of trapped ultracold Bose atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagnino, D.; Barberan, N.; Riera, A.; Osterloh, K.; Lewenstein, M.

    2007-01-01

    We study the signatures of rotational and phase symmetry breaking in small rotating clouds of trapped ultracold Bose atoms by looking at rigorously defined condensate wave function. Rotational symmetry breaking occurs in narrow frequency windows, where energy degeneracy between the lowest energy states of different total angular momentum takes place. This leads to a complex condensate wave function that exhibits vortices clearly seen as holes in the density, as well as characteristic local phase patterns, reflecting the appearance of vorticities. Phase symmetry (or gauge symmetry) breaking, on the other hand, is clearly manifested in the interference of two independent rotating clouds

  1. Photo-associative ionization in ultracold sodium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnato, V.; Marcassa, L.; Tsao, C.; Wang, Y.; Weiner, J.

    1993-01-01

    We study photo-associative ionization (PAI) for sodium atoms held in a magneto-optical trap (T < 1 mK). The process is investigated using one and two laser frequencies. For a single color PAI, we measure the rate constant as a function of light intensity and the result is compared with calculation based on semiclassical Bloch equation theory. The measured rate constant appears to saturate sooner than theory. In the two-color PAI (TCPAI) we investigate individual steps of the process. Different combinations of laser frequencies prepare different populations in each of the hyperfine ground state and the contribution of each one in this collisional process is investigated. The comparison with theory allows a fairly clear understanding of PAI and TCPAI

  2. Robust mesoscopic superposition of strongly correlated ultracold atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallwood, David W.; Ernst, Thomas; Brand, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    We propose a scheme to create coherent superpositions of annular flow of strongly interacting bosonic atoms in a one-dimensional ring trap. The nonrotating ground state is coupled to a vortex state with mesoscopic angular momentum by means of a narrow potential barrier and an applied phase that originates from either rotation or a synthetic magnetic field. We show that superposition states in the Tonks-Girardeau regime are robust against single-particle loss due to the effects of strong correlations. The coupling between the mesoscopically distinct states scales much more favorably with particle number than in schemes relying on weak interactions, thus making particle numbers of hundreds or thousands feasible. Coherent oscillations induced by time variation of parameters may serve as a 'smoking gun' signature for detecting superposition states.

  3. Dark states and interferences in cascade transitions of ultracold atoms in a cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arun, R.; Agarwal, G.S.

    2002-01-01

    We examine the competition among one- and two-photon processes in an ultracold, three-level atom undergoing cascade transitions as a result of its interaction with a bimodal cavity. We show parameter domains where two-photon transitions are dominant, and we also study the effect of two-photon emission on the mazer action in the cavity. The two-photon emission leads to the loss of detailed balance and therefore we obtain the photon statistics of the cavity field by the numerical integration of the master equation. The photon distribution in each cavity mode exhibits sub- and super-Poissonian behaviors depending on the strength of atom-field coupling. The photon distribution becomes identical to a Poisson distribution when the atom-field coupling strengths of the modes are equal

  4. Towards experimental quantum-field tomography with ultracold atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, A; Friesdorf, M; Langen, T; Rauer, B; Schweigler, T; Hübener, R; Schmiedmayer, J; Riofrío, C A; Eisert, J

    2015-07-03

    The experimental realization of large-scale many-body systems in atomic-optical architectures has seen immense progress in recent years, rendering full tomography tools for state identification inefficient, especially for continuous systems. To work with these emerging physical platforms, new technologies for state identification are required. Here we present first steps towards efficient experimental quantum-field tomography. Our procedure is based on the continuous analogues of matrix-product states, ubiquitous in condensed-matter theory. These states naturally incorporate the locality present in realistic physical settings and are thus prime candidates for describing the physics of locally interacting quantum fields. To experimentally demonstrate the power of our procedure, we quench a one-dimensional Bose gas by a transversal split and use our method for a partial quantum-field reconstruction of the far-from-equilibrium states of this system. We expect our technique to play an important role in future studies of continuous quantum many-body systems.

  5. Probe Knots and Hopf Insulators with Ultracold Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dong-Ling; Wang, Sheng-Tao; Sun, Kai; Duan, L.-M.

    2018-01-01

    Knots and links are fascinating and intricate topological objects. Their influence spans from DNA and molecular chemistry to vortices in superfluid helium, defects in liquid crystals and cosmic strings in the early universe. Here we find that knotted structures also exist in a peculiar class of three-dimensional topological insulators—the Hopf insulators. In particular, we demonstrate that the momentum-space spin textures of Hopf insulators are twisted in a nontrivial way, which implies the presence of various knot and link structures. We further illustrate that the knots and nontrivial spin textures can be probed via standard time-of-flight images in cold atoms as preimage contours of spin orientations in stereographic coordinates. The extracted Hopf invariants, knots, and links are validated to be robust to typical experimental imperfections. Our work establishes the existence of knotted structures in Hopf insulators, which may have potential applications in spintronics and quantum information processing. D.L.D., S.T.W. and L.M.D. are supported by the ARL, the IARPA LogiQ program, and the AFOSR MURI program, and supported by Tsinghua University for their visits. K.S. acknowledges the support from NSF under Grant No. PHY1402971. D.L.D. is also supported by JQI-NSF-PFC and LPS-MPO-CMTC at the final stage of this paper.

  6. Dissipation induced asymmetric steering of distant atomic ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guangling; Tan, Huatang; Chen, Aixi

    2018-04-01

    The asymmetric steering effects of separated atomic ensembles denoted by the effective bosonic modes have been explored by the means of quantum reservoir engineering in the setting of the cascaded cavities, in each of which an atomic ensemble is involved. It is shown that the steady-state asymmetric steering of the mesoscopic objects is unconditionally achieved via the dissipation of the cavities, by which the nonlocal interaction occurs between two atomic ensembles, and the direction of steering could be easily controlled through variation of certain tunable system parameters. One advantage of the present scheme is that it could be rather robust against parameter fluctuations, and does not require the accurate control of evolution time and the original state of the system. Furthermore, the double-channel Raman transitions between the long-lived atomic ground states are used and the atomic ensembles act as the quantum network nodes, which makes our scheme insensitive to the collective spontaneous emission of atoms.

  7. Scalable quantum information processing with atomic ensembles and flying photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei Feng; Yu Yafei; Feng Mang; Zhang Zhiming

    2009-01-01

    We present a scheme for scalable quantum information processing with atomic ensembles and flying photons. Using the Rydberg blockade, we encode the qubits in the collective atomic states, which could be manipulated fast and easily due to the enhanced interaction in comparison to the single-atom case. We demonstrate that our proposed gating could be applied to generation of two-dimensional cluster states for measurement-based quantum computation. Moreover, the atomic ensembles also function as quantum repeaters useful for long-distance quantum state transfer. We show the possibility of our scheme to work in bad cavity or in weak coupling regime, which could much relax the experimental requirement. The efficient coherent operations on the ensemble qubits enable our scheme to be switchable between quantum computation and quantum communication using atomic ensembles.

  8. Ultracold atoms in a cavity-mediated double-well system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, Jonas; Martikainen, Jani-Petri

    2010-01-01

    We study ground-state properties and dynamics of a dilute ultracold atomic gas in a double-well potential. The Gaussian barrier separating the two wells derives from the interaction between the atoms and a quantized field of a driven Fabry-Perot cavity. Due to intrinsic atom-field nonlinearity, several interesting phenomena arise which are the focus of this work. For the ground state, there is a critical pumping amplitude in which the atoms self-organize and the intra-cavity-field amplitude drastically increases. In the dynamical analysis, we show that the Josephson oscillations depend strongly on the atomic density and may be greatly suppressed within certain regimes, reminiscent of self-trapping of Bose-Einstein condensates in double-well setups. This pseudo-self-trapping effect is studied within a mean-field treatment valid for large atom numbers. For small numbers of atoms, we consider the analogous many-body problem and demonstrate a collapse-revival structure in the Josephson oscillations.

  9. Sympathetic cooling in a rubidium cesium mixture: Production of ultracold cesium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, M.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents experiments for the production of ultracold rubidium cesium mixture in a magnetic trap. The long-termed aim of the experiment is the study of the interaction of few cesium atoms with a Bose-Einstein condensate of rubidium atoms. Especially by controlled variation of the cesium atom number the transition in the description of the interaction by concepts of the one-particle physics to the description by concepts of the many-particle physics shall be studied. The rubidium atoms are trapped in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) and from there reloaded into a magnetic trap. In this the rubidium atoms are stored in the state vertical stroke f=2,m f =2 right angle of the electronic ground state and evaporatively cooled by means of microwave-induced transitions into the state vertical stroke f=1,m f =1] (microwave cooling). The cesium atoms are also trppaed in a MOT and into the same magnetic trap reloaded, in which they are stored in the state vertical stroke f=4,m f =4 right angle of the electronic ground state together with rubidium. Because of the different hyperfine splitting only rubidium is evaporatively cooled, while cesium is cooled jointly sympathetically - i.e. by theramal contact via elastic collisions with rubidium atoms. The first two chapters contain a description of interatomic interactions in ultracold gases as well as a short summary of theoretical concepts in the description of Bose-Einstein condensates. The chapters 3 and 4 contain a short presentation of the methods applied in the experiment for the production of ultracold gases as well as the experimental arrangement; especially in the framework of this thesis a new coil system has been designed, which offers in view of future experiments additionally optical access for an optical trap. Additionally the fourth chapter contains an extensive description of the experimental cycle, which is applied in order to store rubidium and cesium atoms together into the magnetic trap. The last chapter

  10. Experimental apparatus for overlapping a ground-state cooled ion with ultracold atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meir, Ziv; Sikorsky, Tomas; Ben-shlomi, Ruti; Akerman, Nitzan; Pinkas, Meirav; Dallal, Yehonatan; Ozeri, Roee

    2018-03-01

    Experimental realizations of charged ions and neutral atoms in overlapping traps are gaining increasing interest due to their wide research application ranging from chemistry at the quantum level to quantum simulations of solid state systems. In this paper, we describe our experimental system in which we overlap a single ground-state cooled ion trapped in a linear Paul trap with a cloud of ultracold atoms such that both constituents are in the ?K regime. Excess micromotion (EMM) currently limits atom-ion interaction energy to the mK energy scale and above. We demonstrate spectroscopy methods and compensation techniques which characterize and reduce the ion's parasitic EMM energy to the ?K regime even for ion crystals of several ions. We further give a substantial review on the non-equilibrium dynamics which governs atom-ion systems. The non-equilibrium dynamics is manifested by a power law distribution of the ion's energy. We also give an overview on the coherent and non-coherent thermometry tools which can be used to characterize the ion's energy distribution after single to many atom-ion collisions.

  11. Observation of Spin Polarons in a Tunable Fermi Liquid of Ultracold Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwierlein, Martin

    2009-05-01

    We have observed spin polarons, dressed spin down impurities in a spin up Fermi sea of ultracold atoms via tomographic RF spectroscopy. Feshbach resonances allow to freely tune the interactions between the two spin states involved. A single spin down atom immersed in a Fermi sea of spin up atoms can do one of two things: For strong attraction, it can form a molecule with exactly one spin up partner, but for weaker interaction it will spread its attraction and surround itself with a collection of majority atoms. This spin down atom dressed with a spin up cloud constitutes the spin- or Fermi polaron. We have observed a striking spectroscopic signature of this quasi-particle for various interaction strengths, a narrow peak in the spin down spectrum that emerges above a broad background. The spectra allow us to directly measure the polaron energy and the quasi-particle residue Z. The polarons are found to be only weakly interacting with each other, and can thus be identified with the quasi-particles of Landau's Fermi liquid theory. At a critical interaction strength, we observe a transition from spin one-half polarons to spin zero molecules. At this point the Fermi liquid undergoes a phase transition into a superfluid Bose liquid.

  12. Tunable spin-orbit coupling for ultracold atoms in two-dimensional optical lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grusdt, Fabian; Li, Tracy; Bloch, Immanuel; Demler, Eugene

    2017-06-01

    Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is at the heart of many exotic band structures and can give rise to many-body states with topological order. Here we present a general scheme based on a combination of microwave driving and lattice shaking for the realization of two-dimensional SOC with ultracold atoms in systems with inversion symmetry. We show that the strengths of Rashba and Dresselhaus SOC can be independently tuned in a spin-dependent square lattice. More generally, our method can be used to open gaps between different spin states without breaking time-reversal symmetry. We demonstrate that this allows for the realization of topological insulators with nontrivial spin textures closely related to the Kane-Mele model.

  13. Lattice-Assisted Spectroscopy: A Generalized Scanning Tunneling Microscope for Ultracold Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantian, A; Schollwöck, U; Giamarchi, T

    2015-10-16

    We propose a scheme to measure the frequency-resolved local particle and hole spectra of any optical lattice-confined system of correlated ultracold atoms that offers single-site addressing and imaging, which is now an experimental reality. Combining perturbation theory and time-dependent density matrix renormalization group simulations, we quantitatively test and validate this approach of lattice-assisted spectroscopy on several one-dimensional example systems, such as the superfluid and Mott insulator, with and without a parabolic trap, and finally on edge states of the bosonic Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model. We highlight extensions of our basic scheme to obtain an even wider variety of interesting and important frequency resolved spectra.

  14. Ultracold atoms in one-dimensional optical lattices approaching the Tonks-Girardeau regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollet, L.; Rombouts, S.M.A.; Denteneer, P.J. H.

    2004-01-01

    Recent experiments on ultracold atomic alkali gases in a one-dimensional optical lattice have demonstrated the transition from a gas of soft-core bosons to a Tonks-Girardeau gas in the hard-core limit, where one-dimensional bosons behave like fermions in many respects. We have studied the underlying many-body physics through numerical simulations which accommodate both the soft-core and hard-core limits in one single framework. We find that the Tonks-Girardeau gas is reached only at the strongest optical lattice potentials. Results for slightly higher densities, where the gas develops a Mott-like phase already at weaker optical lattice potentials, show that these Mott-like short-range correlations do not enhance the convergence to the hard-core limit

  15. Cavity quantum electrodynamics with a Rydberg-blocked atomic ensemble

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerlin, Christine; Brion, Etienne; Esslinger, Tilman

    2010-01-01

    The realization of a Jaynes-Cummings model in the optical domain is proposed for an atomic ensemble. The scheme exploits the collective coupling of the atoms to a quantized cavity mode and the nonlinearity introduced by coupling to high-lying Rydberg states. A two-photon transition resonantly cou...

  16. Light localization in cold and dense atomic ensemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, Igor

    2017-01-01

    We report on results of theoretical analysis of possibilities of light strong (Anderson) localization in a cold atomic ensemble. We predict appearance of localization in dense atomic systems in strong magnetic field. We prove that in absence of the field the light localization is impossible. (paper)

  17. Generation of Exotic Quantum States of a Cold Atomic Ensemble

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Stefan Lund

    Over the last decades quantum effects have become more and more controllable, leading to the implementations of various quantum information protocols. These protocols are all based on utilizing quantum correlation. In this thesis we consider how states of an atomic ensemble with such correlations...... can be created and characterized. First we consider a spin-squeezed state. This state is generated by performing quantum non-demolition measurements of the atomic population difference. We show a spectroscopically relevant noise reduction of -1.7dB, the ensemble is in a many-body entangled state...... — a nanofiber based light-atom interface. Using a dual-frequency probing method we measure and prepare an ensemble with a sub-Poissonian atom number distribution. This is a first step towards the implementation of more exotic quantum states....

  18. Fast, High-Precision Optical Polarization Synthesizer for Ultracold-Atom Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robens, Carsten; Brakhane, Stefan; Alt, Wolfgang; Meschede, Dieter; Zopes, Jonathan; Alberti, Andrea

    2018-03-01

    We present a technique for the precision synthesis of arbitrary polarization states of light with a high modulation bandwidth. Our approach consists of superimposing two laser light fields with the same wavelength, but with opposite circular polarizations, where the phase and the amplitude of each light field are individually controlled. We find that the polarization-synthesized beam reaches a degree of polarization of 99.99%, which is mainly limited by static spatial variations of the polarization state over the beam profile. We also find that the depolarization caused by temporal fluctuations of the polarization state is about 2 orders of magnitude smaller. In a recent work, Robens et al. [Low-Entropy States of Neutral Atoms in Polarization-Synthesized Optical Lattices, Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 065302 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.065302] demonstrated an application of the polarization synthesizer to create two independently controllable optical lattices which trap atoms depending on their internal spin state. We use ultracold atoms in polarization-synthesized optical lattices to give an independent, in situ demonstration of the performance of the polarization synthesizer.

  19. ‘Which-way’ collective atomic spin excitation among atomic ensembles by photon indistinguishability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guowan; Bian Chenglin; Chen, L Q; Ou, Z Y; Zhang Weiping

    2012-01-01

    In spontaneous Raman scattering in an atomic ensemble, a collective atomic spin wave is created in correlation with the Stokes field. When the Stokes photons from two or more such atomic ensembles are made indistinguishable, a ‘which-way’ collective atomic spin excitation is generated among the independent atomic ensembles. We demonstrate this phenomenon experimentally by reading out the atomic spin excitations and observing interference between the read-out beams. When a single-photon projective measurement is made on the indistinguishable Stokes photons, this simple scheme can be used to entangle independent atomic ensembles. Compared to other currently used methods, this scheme can be easily scaled up and has greater efficiency. (paper)

  20. Superfluidity and BCS-BEC crossover of ultracold atomic Fermi gases in mixed dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leifeng; Chen, Qijin

    Atomic Fermi gases have been under active investigation in the past decade. Here we study the superfluid and pairing phenomena of a two-component ultracold atomic Fermi gas in the presence of mixed dimensionality, in which one component is confined on a 1D optical lattice whereas the other is free in the 3D continuum. We assume a short-range pairing interaction and determine the superfluid transition temperature Tc and the phase diagram for the entire BCS-BEC crossover, using a pairing fluctuation theory which includes self-consistently the contributions of finite momentum pairs. We find that, as the lattice depth increases and the lattice spacing decreases, the behavior of Tc becomes very similar to that of a population imbalance Fermi gas in a simple 3D continuum. There is no superfluidity even at T = 0 below certain threshold of pairing strength in the BCS regime. Nonmonotonic Tc behavior and intermediate temperature superfluidity emerge, and for deep enough lattice, the Tc curve will split into two parts. Implications for experiment will be discussed. References: 1. Q.J. Chen, Ioan Kosztin, B. Janko, and K. Levin, Phys. Rev. B 59, 7083 (1999). 2. Chih-Chun Chien, Qijin Chen, Yan He, and K. Levin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 090402(2006). Work supported by NSF of China and the National Basic Research Program of China.

  1. Evolution from Rydberg gas to ultracold plasma in a supersonic atomic beam of Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, J; Sadeghi, H; Schulz-Weiling, M; Grant, E R

    2014-01-01

    A Rydberg gas of xenon, entrained in a supersonic atomic beam, evolves slowly to form an ultracold plasma. In the early stages of this evolution, when the free-electron density is low, Rydberg atoms undergo long-range ℓ-mixing collisions, yielding states of high orbital angular momentum. The development of high-ℓ states promotes dipole–dipole interactions that help to drive Penning ionization. The electron density increases until it reaches the threshold for avalanche. Ninety μs after the production of a Rydberg gas with the initial state, n 0 ℓ 0 =42d, a 432 V cm −1 electrostatic pulse fails to separate charge in the excited volume, an effect which is ascribed to screening by free electrons. Photoexcitation cross sections, observed rates of ℓ-mixing, and a coupled-rate-equation model simulating the onset of the electron-impact avalanche point consistently to an initial Rydberg gas density of 5×10 8 cm −3 . (paper)

  2. Evolution from Rydberg gas to ultracold plasma in a supersonic atomic beam of Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, J.; Sadeghi, H.; Schulz-Weiling, M.; Grant, E. R.

    2014-08-01

    A Rydberg gas of xenon, entrained in a supersonic atomic beam, evolves slowly to form an ultracold plasma. In the early stages of this evolution, when the free-electron density is low, Rydberg atoms undergo long-range \\ell -mixing collisions, yielding states of high orbital angular momentum. The development of high-\\ell states promotes dipole-dipole interactions that help to drive Penning ionization. The electron density increases until it reaches the threshold for avalanche. Ninety μs after the production of a Rydberg gas with the initial state, {{n}_{0}}{{\\ell }_{0}}=42d, a 432 V cm-1 electrostatic pulse fails to separate charge in the excited volume, an effect which is ascribed to screening by free electrons. Photoexcitation cross sections, observed rates of \\ell -mixing, and a coupled-rate-equation model simulating the onset of the electron-impact avalanche point consistently to an initial Rydberg gas density of 5\\times {{10}^{8}}\\;c{{m}^{-3}}.

  3. Generalized quantum mean-field systems and their application to ultracold atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trimborn-Witthaut, Friederike Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    Strongly interacting many-body systems consisting of a large number of indistinguishable particles play an important role in many areas of physics. Though such systems are hard to deal with theoretically since the dimension of the respective Hilbert space increases exponentially both in the particle number and in the number of system modes. Therefore, approximations are of considerable interest. The mean-field approximation describes the behaviour in the macroscopic limit N→∞, which leads to an effective nonlinear single-particle problem. Although this approximation is widely used, rigorous results on the applicability and especially on finite size corrections are extremely rare. One prominent example of strongly interacting many-body systems are ultracold atoms in optical lattices, which are a major subject of this thesis. Typically these systems consist of a large but well-defined number of particles, such that corrections to the mean-field limit can be systematically studied. This thesis is divided into two parts: In the first part we study generalized quantum mean-field systems in a C * -algebraic framework. These systems are characterized by their intrinsic permutation symmetry. In the limit of infinite system size, N→∞, the intensive observables converge to the commutative algebra of weak * -continuous functions on the single particle state space. To quantify the deviations from the meanfield prediction for large but finite N, we establish a differential calculus for state space functions and provide a generalized Taylor expansion around the mean-field limit. Furthermore, we introduce the algebra of macroscopic fluctuations around the mean-field limit and prove a quantum version of the central limit theorem. On the basis of these results, we give a detailed study of the finite size corrections to the ground state energy and establish bounds, for both the quantum and the classical case. Finally, we restrict ourselves to the subspace of Bose

  4. Precision bounds for gradient magnetometry with atomic ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apellaniz, Iagoba; Urizar-Lanz, Iñigo; Zimborás, Zoltán; Hyllus, Philipp; Tóth, Géza

    2018-05-01

    We study gradient magnetometry with an ensemble of atoms with arbitrary spin. We calculate precision bounds for estimating the gradient of the magnetic field based on the quantum Fisher information. For quantum states that are invariant under homogeneous magnetic fields, we need to measure a single observable to estimate the gradient. On the other hand, for states that are sensitive to homogeneous fields, a simultaneous measurement is needed, as the homogeneous field must also be estimated. We prove that for the cases studied in this paper, such a measurement is feasible. We present a method to calculate precision bounds for gradient estimation with a chain of atoms or with two spatially separated atomic ensembles. We also consider a single atomic ensemble with an arbitrary density profile, where the atoms cannot be addressed individually, and which is a very relevant case for experiments. Our model can take into account even correlations between particle positions. While in most of the discussion we consider an ensemble of localized particles that are classical with respect to their spatial degree of freedom, we also discuss the case of gradient metrology with a single Bose-Einstein condensate.

  5. Quantum many-body dynamics of ultracold atoms in optical lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessler, Stefan

    2014-04-15

    Ultracold atoms can be trapped in periodic intensity patterns of light created by counterpropagating laser beams, so-called optical lattices. In contrast to its natural counterpart, electrons in a solid state crystal, this man-made setup is very clean and highly isolated from environmental degrees of freedom. Moreover, to a large extent, the experimenter has dynamical control over the relevant system parameters: the interaction between atoms, the tunneling amplitude between lattice sites, and even the dimensionality of the lattice. These advantages render this system a unique platform for the simulation of quantum many-body dynamics for various lattice Hamiltonians as has been demonstrated in several experiments by now. The most significant step in recent times has arguably been the introduction of single-site detection of individual atoms in optical lattices. This technique, based on fluorescence microscopy, opens a new doorway for the study of quantum many-body states: the detection of the microscopic atom configuration. In this thesis, we theoretically explore the dynamics of ultracold atoms in optical lattices for various setups realized in present-day experiments. Our main focus lies on aspects that become experimentally accessible by (realistic extensions of) the novel single-site measurement technique. The first part deals with the expansion of initially confined atoms in a homogeneous lattice, which is one way to create atomic motion in experiments. We analyze the buildup of spatial correlations during the expansion of a finitely extended band insulating state in one dimension. The numerical simulation reveals the creation of remote spin-entangled fermions in the strongly interacting regime. We discuss the experimental observation of such spin-entangled pairs by means of a single-site measurement. Furthermore, we suggest studying the impact of observations on the expansion dynamics for the extreme case of a projective measurement in the spatial occupation

  6. Quantum many-body dynamics of ultracold atoms in optical lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Ultracold atoms can be trapped in periodic intensity patterns of light created by counterpropagating laser beams, so-called optical lattices. In contrast to its natural counterpart, electrons in a solid state crystal, this man-made setup is very clean and highly isolated from environmental degrees of freedom. Moreover, to a large extent, the experimenter has dynamical control over the relevant system parameters: the interaction between atoms, the tunneling amplitude between lattice sites, and even the dimensionality of the lattice. These advantages render this system a unique platform for the simulation of quantum many-body dynamics for various lattice Hamiltonians as has been demonstrated in several experiments by now. The most significant step in recent times has arguably been the introduction of single-site detection of individual atoms in optical lattices. This technique, based on fluorescence microscopy, opens a new doorway for the study of quantum many-body states: the detection of the microscopic atom configuration. In this thesis, we theoretically explore the dynamics of ultracold atoms in optical lattices for various setups realized in present-day experiments. Our main focus lies on aspects that become experimentally accessible by (realistic extensions of) the novel single-site measurement technique. The first part deals with the expansion of initially confined atoms in a homogeneous lattice, which is one way to create atomic motion in experiments. We analyze the buildup of spatial correlations during the expansion of a finitely extended band insulating state in one dimension. The numerical simulation reveals the creation of remote spin-entangled fermions in the strongly interacting regime. We discuss the experimental observation of such spin-entangled pairs by means of a single-site measurement. Furthermore, we suggest studying the impact of observations on the expansion dynamics for the extreme case of a projective measurement in the spatial occupation

  7. Soliton Trains Induced by Adaptive Shaping with Periodic Traps in Four-Level Ultracold Atom Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djouom Tchenkoue, M. L.; Welakuh Mbangheku, D.; Dikandé, Alain M.

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that an optical trap can be imprinted by a light field in an ultracold-atom system embedded in an optical cavity, and driven by three different coherent fields. Of the three fields coexisting in the optical cavity there is an intense control field that induces a giant Kerr nonlinearity via electromagnetically-induced transparency, and another field that creates a periodic optical grating of strength proportional to the square of the associated Rabi frequency. In this work elliptic-soliton solutions to the nonlinear equation governing the propagation of the probe field are considered, with emphasis on the possible generation of optical soliton trains forming a discrete spectrum with well defined quantum numbers. The problem is treated assuming two distinct types of periodic optical gratings and taking into account the negative and positive signs of detunings (detuning above or below resonance). Results predict that the competition between the self-phase and cross-phase modulation nonlinearities gives rise to a rich family of temporal soliton train modes characterized by distinct quantum numbers. (paper)

  8. Soliton Trains Induced by Adaptive Shaping with Periodic Traps in Four-Level Ultracold Atom Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djouom Tchenkoue, M. L.; Welakuh Mbangheku, D.; Dikandé, Alain M.

    2017-06-01

    It is well known that an optical trap can be imprinted by a light field in an ultracold-atom system embedded in an optical cavity, and driven by three different coherent fields. Of the three fields coexisting in the optical cavity there is an intense control field that induces a giant Kerr nonlinearity via electromagnetically-induced transparency, and another field that creates a periodic optical grating of strength proportional to the square of the associated Rabi frequency. In this work elliptic-soliton solutions to the nonlinear equation governing the propagation of the probe field are considered, with emphasis on the possible generation of optical soliton trains forming a discrete spectrum with well defined quantum numbers. The problem is treated assuming two distinct types of periodic optical gratings and taking into account the negative and positive signs of detunings (detuning above or below resonance). Results predict that the competition between the self-phase and cross-phase modulation nonlinearities gives rise to a rich family of temporal soliton train modes characterized by distinct quantum numbers.

  9. Ground States of Ultracold Spin-1 Atoms in a Deep Double-Well Optical Superlattice in a Weak Magnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Gong-Ping; Qin Shuai-Feng; Wang Shou-Yang; Jian Wen-Tian

    2013-01-01

    The ground states of the ultracold spin-1 atoms trapped in a deep one-dimensional double-well optical superlattice in a weak magnetic field are obtained. It is shown that the ground-state diagrams of the reduced double-well model are remarkably different for the antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic condensates. The transition between the singlet state and nematic state is observed for the antiferromagnetic interaction atoms, which can be realized by modulating the tunneling parameter or the quadratic Zeeman energy. An experiment to distinguish the different spin states is suggested. (general)

  10. Formation of Ultracold Molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cote, Robin [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2016-01-28

    Advances in our ability to slow down and cool atoms and molecules to ultracold temperatures have paved the way to a revolution in basic research on molecules. Ultracold molecules are sensitive of very weak interactions, even when separated by large distances, which allow studies of the effect of those interactions on the behavior of molecules. In this program, we have explored ways to form ultracold molecules starting from pairs of atoms that have already reached the ultracold regime. We devised methods that enhance the efficiency of ultracold molecule production, for example by tuning external magnetic fields and using appropriate laser excitations. We also investigates the properties of those ultracold molecules, especially their de-excitation into stable molecules. We studied the possibility of creating new classes of ultra-long range molecules, named macrodimers, thousand times more extended than regular molecules. Again, such objects are possible because ultra low temperatures prevent their breakup by collision. Finally, we carried out calculations on how chemical reactions are affected and modified at ultracold temperatures. Normally, reactions become less effective as the temperature decreases, but at ultracold temperatures, they can become very effective. We studied this counter-intuitive behavior for benchmark chemical reactions involving molecular hydrogen.

  11. Phase Locking a Clock Oscillator to a Coherent Atomic Ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kohlhaas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of an atomic interferometer increases when the phase evolution of its quantum superposition state is measured over a longer interrogation interval. In practice, a limit is set by the measurement process, which returns not the phase but its projection in terms of population difference on two energetic levels. The phase interval over which the relation can be inverted is thus limited to the interval [-π/2,π/2]; going beyond it introduces an ambiguity in the readout, hence a sensitivity loss. Here, we extend the unambiguous interval to probe the phase evolution of an atomic ensemble using coherence-preserving measurements and phase corrections, and demonstrate the phase lock of the clock oscillator to an atomic superposition state. We propose a protocol based on the phase lock to improve atomic clocks limited by local oscillator noise, and foresee the application to other atomic interferometers such as inertial sensors.

  12. Light qubit storage and retrieval using macroscopic atomic ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherson, J.; Soerensen, A. S.; Polzik, E. S.; Fiurasek, J.; Moelmer, K.

    2006-01-01

    We present an experimentally feasible protocol for the complete storage and retrieval of arbitrary light states in an atomic quantum memory using the Faraday interaction between light and matter. Our protocol relies on multiple passages of a single light pulse through the atomic ensemble without the impractical requirement of kilometer-long delay lines between the passages. A time-dependent interaction strength enables the storage and retrieval of states with arbitrary pulse shapes. The fidelity approaches unity exponentially without squeezed or entangled initial states, as illustrated by calculations for a photonic qubit

  13. Competition between Final-State and Pairing-Gap Effects in the Radio-Frequency Spectra of Ultracold Fermi Atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perali, A.; Pieri, P.; Strinati, G. C.

    2008-01-01

    The radio-frequency spectra of ultracold Fermi atoms are calculated by including final-state interactions affecting the excited level of the transition and compared with the experimental data. A competition is revealed between pairing-gap effects which tend to push the oscillator strength toward high frequencies away from threshold and final-state effects which tend instead to pull the oscillator strength toward threshold. As a result of this competition, the position of the peak of the spectra cannot be simply related to the value of the pairing gap, whose extraction thus requires support from theoretical calculations

  14. The Pauli potential in relation to the differential virial theorem with application to experiments on ultracold atomic gases of fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March, N.H.

    2008-08-01

    In early work by the writer introducing the Pauli potential VP (r) into density functional theory, the relation of VP (r) to the, as yet unknown, single-particle kinetic energy density functional was emphasized. Here, because of ongoing experiments on ultracold atomic gases of fermions, an explicit expression for the first derivative of VP (r) for an arbitrary number of closed shells generated by harmonic confinement is derived in terms of the spherically symmetric particle density n(r) and the confining potential. (author)

  15. An ultracold, optically trapped mixture of 87Rb and metastable 4He atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores, A.S.; Mishra, H.P.; Vassen, Wim; Knoop, S.

    2017-01-01

    We report on the realization of an ultracold (<25 μK) mixture of rubidium (87Rb) and metastable triplet helium (4He) in an optical dipole trap. Our scheme involves laser cooling in a dual-species magneto-optical trap, simultaneous MW- and RF-induced forced evaporative cooling in a quadrupole

  16. Control of inhomogeneous atomic ensembles of hyperfine qudits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischuck, Brian Edward; Merkel, Seth T.; Deutsch, Ivan H.

    2012-01-01

    We study the ability to control d-dimensional quantum systems (qudits) encoded in the hyperfine spin of alkali-metal atoms through the application of radio- and microwave-frequency magnetic fields in the presence of inhomogeneities in amplitude and detuning. Such a capability is essential...... to the design of robust pulses that mitigate the effects of experimental uncertainty and also for application to tomographic addressing of particular members of an extended ensemble. We study the problem of preparing an arbitrary state in the Hilbert space from an initial fiducial state. We prove...... that inhomogeneous control of qudit ensembles is possible based on a semianalytic protocol that synthesizes the target through a sequence of alternating rf and microwave-driven SU(2) rotations in overlapping irreducible subspaces. Several examples of robust control are studied, and the semianalytic protocol...

  17. Encoding qubits into oscillators with atomic ensembles and squeezed light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motes, Keith R.; Baragiola, Ben Q.; Gilchrist, Alexei; Menicucci, Nicolas C.

    2017-05-01

    The Gottesman-Kitaev-Preskill (GKP) encoding of a qubit within an oscillator provides a number of advantages when used in a fault-tolerant architecture for quantum computing, most notably that Gaussian operations suffice to implement all single- and two-qubit Clifford gates. The main drawback of the encoding is that the logical states themselves are challenging to produce. Here we present a method for generating optical GKP-encoded qubits by coupling an atomic ensemble to a squeezed state of light. Particular outcomes of a subsequent spin measurement of the ensemble herald successful generation of the resource state in the optical mode. We analyze the method in terms of the resources required (total spin and amount of squeezing) and the probability of success. We propose a physical implementation using a Faraday-based quantum nondemolition interaction.

  18. Towards deterministic optical quantum computation with coherently driven atomic ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrosyan, David

    2005-01-01

    Scalable and efficient quantum computation with photonic qubits requires (i) deterministic sources of single photons, (ii) giant nonlinearities capable of entangling pairs of photons, and (iii) reliable single-photon detectors. In addition, an optical quantum computer would need a robust reversible photon storage device. Here we discuss several related techniques, based on the coherent manipulation of atomic ensembles in the regime of electromagnetically induced transparency, that are capable of implementing all of the above prerequisites for deterministic optical quantum computation with single photons

  19. Pump-probe study of the formation of rubidium molecules by ultrafast photoassociation of ultracold atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, David J.; England, Duncan G.; Martay, Hugo E. L.; Friedman, Melissa E.; Petrovic, Jovana; Dimova, Emiliya; Chatel, Béatrice; Walmsley, Ian A.

    2009-09-01

    An experimental pump-probe study of the photoassociative creation of translationally ultracold rubidium molecules is presented together with numerical simulations of the process. The formation of loosely bound excited-state dimers is observed as a first step toward a fully coherent pump-dump approach to the stabilization of Rb2 into its lowest ground vibrational states. The population that contributes to the pump-probe process is characterized and found to be distinct from a background population of preassociated molecules.

  20. Ultracold Atoms in a Square Lattice with Spin-Orbit Coupling: Charge Order, Superfluidity, and Topological Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Peter; Shi, Hao; Zhang, Shiwei

    2017-12-01

    We present an ab initio, numerically exact study of attractive fermions in square lattices with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. The ground state of this system is a supersolid, with coexisting charge and superfluid order. The superfluid is composed of both singlet and triplet pairs induced by spin-orbit coupling. We perform large-scale calculations using the auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo method to provide the first full, quantitative description of the charge, spin, and pairing properties of the system. In addition to characterizing the exotic physics, our results will serve as essential high-accuracy benchmarks for the intense theoretical and especially experimental efforts in ultracold atoms to realize and understand an expanding variety of quantum Hall and topological superconductor systems.

  1. Enhancing optical nonreciprocity by an atomic ensemble in two coupled cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, L. N.; Wang, Z. H.; Li, Yong

    2018-05-01

    We study the optical nonreciprocal propagation in an optical molecule of two coupled cavities with one of them interacting with a two-level atomic ensemble. The effect of increasing the number of atoms on the optical isolation ratio of the system is studied. We demonstrate that the significant nonlinearity supplied by the coupling of the atomic ensemble with the cavity leads to the realization of greatly-enhanced optical nonreciprocity compared with the case of single atom.

  2. Quantum Control of Open Systems and Dense Atomic Ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLoreto, Christopher

    Controlling the dynamics of open quantum systems; i.e. quantum systems that decohere because of interactions with the environment, is an active area of research with many applications in quantum optics and quantum computation. My thesis expands the scope of this inquiry by seeking to control open systems in proximity to an additional system. The latter could be a classical system such as metal nanoparticles, or a quantum system such as a cluster of similar atoms. By modelling the interactions between the systems, we are able to expand the accessible state space of the quantum system in question. For a single, three-level quantum system, I examine isolated systems that have only normal spontaneous emission. I then show that intensity-intensity correlation spectra, which depend directly on the density matrix of the system, can be used detect whether transitions share a common energy level. This detection is possible due to the presence of quantum interference effects between two transitions if they are connected. This effect allows one to asses energy level structure diagrams in complex atoms/molecules. By placing an open quantum system near a nanoparticle dimer, I show that the spontaneous emission rate of the system can be changed "on demand" by changing the polarization of an incident, driving field. In a three-level, Lambda system, this allows a qubit to both retain high qubit fidelity when it is operating, and to be rapidly initialized to a pure state once it is rendered unusable by decoherence. This type of behaviour is not possible in a single open quantum system; therefore adding a classical system nearby extends the overall control space of the quantum system. An open quantum system near identical neighbours in a dense ensemble is another example of how the accessible state space can be expanded. I show that a dense ensemble of atoms rapidly becomes disordered with states that are not directly excited by an incident field becoming significantly populated

  3. Ultracold neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenstrup, S.

    Briefly surveys recent developments in research work with ultracold neutrons (neutrons of very low velocity, up to 10 m/s at up to 10 -7 eV and 10 -3 K). Slow neutrons can be detected in an ionisation chamber filled with B 10 F 3 . Very slow neutrons can be used for investigations into the dipole moment of neutrons. Neutrons of large wave length have properties similar to those of light. The limit angle for total reflection is governed by the wave length and by the material. Total reflection can be used to filter ultracold neutrons out of the moderator material of a reactor. Total reflection can also be used to store ultracold neutrons but certain problems with storage have not yet been clarified. Slow neutrons can be made to lose speed in a neutron turbine, and come out as ultracold neutrons. A beam of ultracold neutrons could be used in a neutron microscope. (J.S.)

  4. Magnetic transport apparatus for the production of ultracold atomic gases in the vicinity of a dielectric surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haendel, S.; Marchant, A. L.; Wiles, T. P.; Hopkins, S. A.; Cornish, S. L.

    2012-01-01

    We present an apparatus designed for studies of atom-surface interactions using quantum degenerate gases of 85 Rb and 87 Rb in the vicinity of a room temperature dielectric surface. The surface to be investigated is a super-polished face of a glass Dove prism mounted in a glass cell under ultra-high vacuum. To maintain excellent optical access to the region surrounding the surface, magnetic transport is used to deliver ultracold atoms from a separate vacuum chamber housing the magneto-optical trap (MOT). We present a detailed description of the vacuum apparatus highlighting the novel design features; a low profile MOT chamber and the inclusion of an obstacle in the transport path. We report the characterization and optimization of the magnetic transport around the obstacle, achieving transport efficiencies of 70% with negligible heating. Finally, we demonstrate the loading of a hybrid optical-magnetic trap with 87 Rb and the creation of Bose-Einstein condensates via forced evaporative cooling close to the dielectric surface.

  5. Numerical methods for atomic quantum gases with applications to Bose-Einstein condensates and to ultracold fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minguzzi, A.; Succi, S.; Toschi, F.; Tosi, M.P.; Vignolo, P.

    2004-01-01

    The achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in ultra-cold vapours of alkali atoms has given enormous impulse to the study of dilute atomic gases in condensed quantum states inside magnetic traps and optical lattices. High-purity and easy optical access make them ideal candidates to investigate fundamental issues on interacting quantum systems. This review presents some theoretical issues which have been addressed in this area and the numerical techniques which have been developed and used to describe them, from mean-field models to classical and quantum simulations for equilibrium and dynamical properties. After an introductory overview on dilute quantum gases, both in the homogeneus state and under harmonic or periodic confinement, the article is organized in three main sections. The first concerns Bose-condensed gases at zero temperature, with main regard to the properties of the ground state in different confinements and to collective excitations and transport in the condensate. Bose-Einstein-condensed gases at finite temperature are addressed in the next section, the main emphasis being on equilibrium properties and phase transitions and on dynamical and transport properties associated with the presence of the thermal cloud. Finally, the last section is focused on theoretical and computational issues that have emerged from the efforts to drive gases of fermionic atoms and boson-fermion mixtures deep into the quantum degeneracy regime, with the aim of realizing novel superfluids from fermion pairing. The attention given in this article to methods beyond standard mean-field approaches should make it a useful reference point for future advances in these areas

  6. Production and manipulation of wave packets from ultracold atoms in an optical lattice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Poul Lindholm; Gajdacz, Miroslav; Winter, Nils

    2013-01-01

    of the system. The modulation technique also allows for a controllable transfer (deexcitation) of atoms from such wave packets to a state bound by the lattice. Thus, it acts as a beam splitter for matter waves that can selectively address different bands, enabling the preparation of atoms in localized states...

  7. Forward and backward scattering experiments in ultra-cold Rubidium atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampel, Nir Shlomo

    project, we have studied coherent forward scattering in the form of a memory experiment. In such an experiment we convert the input light pulse to an atomic excitation, and at a later time convert back the atomic excitation into the retrieved light pulse. In the first project, we investigate the source...

  8. Bloch oscillations of ultracold atoms and measurement of the fine structure constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clade, P.

    2005-10-01

    From a measurement of the recoil velocity of an atom absorbing a photon, it is possible to deduce a determination of the ratio h/m between the Planck constant and the mass of the atoms and then to deduce a value of the fine structure constant alpha. To do this measurement, we use the technique of Bloch oscillations, which allows us to transfer a large number of recoils to atoms. A velocity sensor, based on velocity selective Raman transition, enables us to measure the momentum transferred to the atoms. A measurement with a statistical uncertainty of 4.4 10 -9 , in conjunction with a careful study of systematic effects (5 10 -9 ), has led us to a determination of alpha with an uncertainty of 6.7 10 -9 : α -1 (Rb) = 137.03599878 (91). This uncertainty is similar to the uncertainty of the best determinations of alpha based on atom interferometry. (author)

  9. Exciton induced directed motion of unconstrained atoms in an ultracold gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, K.; Wüster, S.; Rost, J. M.

    2017-03-01

    We demonstrate that through localised Rydberg excitation in a three-dimensional cold atom cloud atomic motion can be rendered directed and nearly confined to a plane, without spatial constraints for the motion of individual atoms. This enables creation and observation of non-adiabatic electronic Rydberg dynamics in atoms accelerated by dipole-dipole interactions under natural conditions. Using the full l = 0, 1 m=0,+/- 1 angular momentum state space, our simulations show that conical intersection crossings are clearly evident, both in atomic position information and excited state spectra of the Rydberg system. Hence, flexible Rydberg aggregates suggest themselves for probing quantum chemical effects in experiments on length scales much inflated as compared to a standard molecular situation.

  10. Scheme for demonstrating the Bell theorem in tripartite entanglement between atomic ensembles

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou Xi Bin; Guo Guang Can

    2003-01-01

    We propose an experimentally feasible scheme to demonstrate quantum nonlocality, using Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and W entanglement between atomic ensembles generated by a newly developed method based on laser manipulation and single-photon detection.

  11. Photon-Induced Spin-Orbit Coupling in Ultracold Atoms inside Optical Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Dong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We consider an atom inside a ring cavity, where a plane-wave cavity field together with an external coherent laser beam induces a two-photon Raman transition between two hyperfine ground states of the atom. This cavity-assisted Raman transition induces effective coupling between atom’s internal degrees of freedom and its center-of-mass motion. In the meantime, atomic dynamics exerts a back-action to cavity photons. We investigate the properties of this system by adopting a mean-field and a full quantum approach, and show that the interplay between the atomic dynamics and the cavity field gives rise to intriguing nonlinear phenomena.

  12. Fundamental Interactions for Atom Interferometry with Ultracold Quantum Gases in a Microgravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Incao, Jose P.; Willians, Jason R.

    2015-05-01

    Precision atom interferometers (AI) in space are a key element for several applications of interest to NASA. Our proposal for participating in the Cold Atom Laboratory (CAL) onboard the International Space Station is dedicated to mitigating the leading-order systematics expected to corrupt future high-precision AI-based measurements of fundamental physics in microgravity. One important focus of our proposal is to enhance initial state preparation for dual-species AIs. Our proposed filtering scheme uses Feshbach molecular states to create highly correlated mixtures of heteronuclear atomic gases in both their position and momentum distributions. We will detail our filtering scheme along with the main factors that determine its efficiency. We also show that the atomic and molecular heating and loss rates can be mitigated at the unique temperature and density regimes accessible on CAL. This research is supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  13. Internal Spin Control, Squeezing and Decoherence in Ensembles of Alkali Atomic Spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Leigh Morgan

    Large atomic ensembles interacting with light are one of the most promising platforms for quantum information processing. In the past decade, novel applications for these systems have emerged in quantum communication, quantum computing, and metrology. Essential to all of these applications is the controllability of the atomic ensemble, which is facilitated by a strong coupling between the atoms and light. Non-classical spin squeezed states are a crucial step in attaining greater ensemble control. The degree of entanglement present in these states, furthermore, serves as a benchmark for the strength of the atom-light interaction. Outside the broader context of quantum information processing with atomic ensembles, spin squeezed states have applications in metrology, where their quantum correlations can be harnessed to improve the precision of magnetometers and atomic clocks. This dissertation focuses upon the production of spin squeezed states in large ensembles of cold trapped alkali atoms interacting with optical fields. While most treatments of spin squeezing consider only the case in which the ensemble is composed of two level systems or qubits, we utilize the entire ground manifold of an alkali atom with hyperfine spin f greater than or equal to 1/2, a qudit. Spin squeezing requires non-classical correlations between the constituent atomic spins, which are generated through the atoms' collective coupling to the light. Either through measurement or multiple interactions with the atoms, the light mediates an entangling interaction that produces quantum correlations. Because the spin squeezing treated in this dissertation ultimately originates from the coupling between the light and atoms, conventional approaches of improving this squeezing have focused on increasing the optical density of the ensemble. The greater number of internal degrees of freedom and the controllability of the spin-f ground hyperfine manifold enable novel methods of enhancing squeezing. In

  14. Manipulation of ultracold atoms in dressed adiabatic radio-frequency potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesanovsky, Igor; Hofferberth, S.; Schmiedmayer, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    We explore properties of atoms whose magnetic hyperfine sublevels are coupled by an external magnetic radio frequency (rf) field. We perform a thorough theoretical analysis of this driven system and present a number of systematic approximations which eventually give rise to dressed adiabatic radio...... frequency potentials. The predictions of this analytical investigation are compared to numerically exact results obtained by a wave packet propagation. We outline the versatility and flexibility of this class of potentials and demonstrate their potential use to build atom optical elements such as double...... wells, interferometers, and ringtraps. Moreover, we perform simulations of interference experiments carried out in rf induced double-well potentials. We discuss how the nature of the atom-field coupling mechanism gives rise to a decrease of the interference contrast....

  15. Decoherence for a quantum memory in an ensemble of cold atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedmatten, H. de; Chou, C.W.; Felinto, D.; Plyakov, S.; Kimble, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Atomic ensembles are a promising candidate for various applications in quantum information science. In particular, Duan, Lukin Cirac and Zoller (DLCZ) have proposed a protocol allowing scalable long distance quantum communication using atomic ensembles and linear optics. The DLCZ protocol is a probabilistic scheme based upon the entanglement of atomic ensembles via the detection of single photons. The detection of a single photon in the forward scattered direction is uniquely correlated with a collective atomic excitation in the sample, due to a collective enhancement effect. This collective excitation can be in principle stored for a time up to the coherence time of the system, and then released by conversion into a photon. This quantum memory is mandatory for the DLCZ scheme to be scalable. Hence, the coherence time is a critical parameter for this system. Our initial steps towards the realization of the DLCZ protocol have been by way of observations of non-classical correlations between the emitted single photons and the collective atomic excitations. However, in all the experiments reported so far using cold atomic ensembles, the coherence times were extremely short (of the order of 100 ns), thus preventing to take advantage of the quantum memory. In this contribution we explore the cause of this rather fast decoherence process and present an experimental scheme to overcome this problem. First results show an improvement of more than one order of magnitude in the coherence time. Future work includes the entanglement of two spatially separated cold atomic ensembles. (author)

  16. Understanding Molecular-Ion Neutral Atom Collisions for the Production of Ultracold Molecular Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-03

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: This project was superseded and replaced by another ARO-funded project of the same name, which is still continuing. The goal...cooled atoms," IOTA -COST Workshop on molecular ions, Arosa, Switzerland. 5. E.R. Hudson, "Sympathetic cooling of molecules with laser cooled

  17. Spin-orbit coupling in ultracold Fermi gases of 173Yb atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bo; He, Chengdong; Hajiyev, Elnur; Ren, Zejian; Seo, Bojeong; Cai, Geyue; Amanov, Dovran; Zhang, Shanchao; Jo, Gyu-Boong

    2017-04-01

    Synthetic spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in cold atoms opens an intriguing new way to probe nontrivial topological orders beyond natural conditions. Here, we report the realization of the SOC physics both in a bulk system and in an optical lattice. First, we demonstrate two hallmarks induced from SOC in a bulk system, spin dephasing in the Rabi oscillation and asymmetric atomic distribution in the momentum space respectively. Then we describe the observation of non-trivial spin textures and the determination of the topological phase transition in a spin-dependent optical lattice dressed by the periodic Raman field. Furthermore, we discuss the quench dynamics between topological and trivial states by suddenly changing the band topology. Our work paves a new way to study non-equilibrium topological states in a controlled manner. Funded by Croucher Foundation and Research Grants Council (RGC) of Hong Kong (Project ECS26300014, GRF16300215, GRF16311516, and Croucher Innovation Grants).

  18. Intertwined and vestigial order with ultracold atoms in multiple cavity modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Sarang; Shchadilova, Yulia E.; Demler, Eugene

    2017-12-01

    Atoms in transversely pumped optical cavities "self-organize" by forming a density wave and emitting superradiantly into the cavity mode(s). For a single-mode cavity, the properties of this self-organization transition are well characterized both theoretically and experimentally. Here, we explore the self-organization of a Bose-Einstein condensate in the presence of two cavity modes—a system that recently was realized experimentally [Léonard et al., Nature (London) 543, 87 (2017), 10.1038/nature21067]. We argue that this system can exhibit a "vestigially ordered" phase in which neither cavity mode exhibits superradiance but the cavity modes are mutually phase locked by the atoms. We argue that this vestigially ordered phase should generically be present in multimode cavity geometries.

  19. On the tunneling time of ultracold atoms through a system of two mazer cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badshah, Fazal; Ge, Guo-Qin; Irfan, Muhammad; Qamar, Sajid; Qamar, Shahid

    2018-01-30

    We study the resonant tunneling of ultraslow atoms through a system of high quality microwave cavities. We find that the phase tunneling time across the two coupled cavities exhibits more frequent resonances as compared to the single cavity interaction. The increased resonances are instrumental in the display of an alternate sub and superclassical character of the tunneling time along the momentum axis with increasing energies of the incident slow atoms. Here, the intercavity separation appears as an additional controlling parameter of the system that provides an efficient control of the superclassical behavior of the phase tunneling time. Further, we find that the phase time characteristics through two cavity system has the combined features of the tunneling through a double barrier and a double well arrangements.

  20. Understanding Molecular Ion-Neutral Atom Collisions for the Production of Ultracold Molecular Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-06

    2012): 0. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.223002 Kuang Chen, Scott T. Sullivan, Wade G. Rellergert, Eric R. Hudson. Measurement of the Coulomb Logarithm...or fellowships for further studies in science, mathematics, engineering or technology fields: Student Metrics This section only applies to graduating...clouds of Ba+ ions and Ca atoms. Due to the strong Coulomb interaction, the Ba+ ions quickly cool the molecular ion translation motion, while the

  1. Ultra-cold molecules in an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynar, Roahn Helden

    2000-08-01

    This thesis is about photoassociation of Bose-condensed 87Rb. Most importantly we report that state selected 87Rb2 molecules were created at rest in a condensate of 87Rb using two-photon photoassociation. Additionally, we have identified three weakly bound states of the 87Rb2 S+u3 , potential for the |1, -1> + |1, - 1> collisional channel. The binding energies of these states are 529.4 +/- .07, 636.0094 +/- .0012, and 24.24 +/- .01 MHz respectively. We have also carried out a detailed study of the density dependence of the shift and width of the two-photon lineshape. This shift and width is modeled using the theory of Bohn and Julienne [34] and in addition to the precise measurement of binding energy we also report the first measurement of an atom molecule scattering length, aam, which we conclude is -180 +/- 150 a0, and the inelastic collision rate, Kinel dependent coherent coupling between atoms and molecules. This theory yields two coupled equations, one for the evolution of atomic condensate amplitude and one for the evolution of molecular condensate amplitude. The nature of the atomic-molecular condensate evolution is shown to depend on six, model parameters including the coherent coupling, given by cn . The other five parameters can be interpreted as light-shifts and incoherent loss rates. We present a calculation intended to estimate the values of these six parameters for the 87Rb - 87Rb 2 system. Based on the results of this calculation we identify two locations in the 87Rb2 spectrum where coherent transfer of population from atomic condensate to molecular condensate is plausible. Finally, we examine the credibility of the theoretical model used to estimate the six parameters used by the mean field theory. By comparing the measured Stark shifts of two-color resonances with predictions based on our theoretical model we conclude that the model is satisfactory for the v = 37 level of the S+u3 potential. This work also describes the experimental details of

  2. Quasideterministic generation of maximally entangled states of two mesoscopic atomic ensembles by adiabatic quantum feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Lisi, Antonio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio; Vitali, David

    2005-01-01

    We introduce an efficient, quasideterministic scheme to generate maximally entangled states of two atomic ensembles. The scheme is based on quantum nondemolition measurements of total atomic populations and on adiabatic quantum feedback conditioned by the measurements outputs. The high efficiency of the scheme is tested and confirmed numerically for ideal photodetection as well as in the presence of losses

  3. Generation of macroscopic singlet states in atomic ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Géza; Mitchell, Morgan W.

    2010-05-01

    We study squeezing of the spin uncertainties by quantum non-demolition (QND) measurement in non-polarized spin ensembles. Unlike the case of polarized ensembles, the QND measurements can be performed with negligible back-action, which allows, in principle, perfect spin squeezing as quantified by Tóth et al (2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 250405). The generated spin states approach many-body singlet states and contain a macroscopic number of entangled particles even when individual spin is large. We introduce the Gaussian treatment of unpolarized spin states and use it to estimate the achievable spin squeezing for realistic experimental parameters. Our proposal might have applications for magnetometry with a high spatial resolution or quantum memories storing information in decoherence free subspaces.

  4. Spin squeezing of atomic ensembles via nuclear-electronic spin entanglement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernholz, Thomas; Krauter, Hanna; Jensen, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    quantum limit for quantum memory experiments and applications in quantum metrology and is thus a complementary alternative to spin squeezing obtained via inter-atom entanglement. Squeezing of the collective spin is verified by quantum state tomography.......We demonstrate spin squeezing in a room temperature ensemble of 1012 Cesium atoms using their internal structure, where the necessary entanglement is created between nuclear and electronic spins of each individual atom. This state provides improvement in measurement sensitivity beyond the standard...

  5. Surface modes of ultra-cold atomic clouds with very large number of vortices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazalilla, M A [Donostia International Physics Center, Donostia (Spain); [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)

    2003-04-01

    We study the surface modes of some of the vortex liquids recently found by means of exact diagonalizations in systems of rapidly rotating bosons. In contrast to the surface modes of Bose condensates, we find that the surface waves have a frequency linear in the excitation angular momentum, h-bar l > 0. Furthermore, in analogy with the edge waves of electronic quantum Hall states, these excitations are chiral, that is, they can be excited only for values of l that increase the total angular momentum of the vortex liquid. However, differently from the quantum Hall phenomena for electrons, we also find other excitations that are approximately degenerate in the laboratory frame with the surface modes, and which decrease the total angular momentum by l quanta. The surface modes of the Laughlin, as well as other scalar and vector boson states are analyzed, and their observable properties characterized. We argue that measurement of the response of a vortex liquid to a weak time-dependent potential that imparts angular momentum to the system should provide valuable information to characterize the vortex liquid. In particular, the intensity of the signal of the surface waves in the dynamic structure factor has been studied and found to depend on the type of vortex liquid. We point out that the existence of surface modes has observable consequences on the density profile of the Laughlin state. These features are due to the strongly correlated behavior of atoms in the vortex liquids. We point out that these correlations should be responsible for a remarkable stability of some vortex liquids with respect to three-body losses. (author)

  6. Optical properties of an atomic ensemble coupled to a band edge of a photonic crystal waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Ewan; Kwek, Leong Chuan; Chang, Darrick E.

    2017-08-01

    We study the optical properties of an ensemble of two-level atoms coupled to a 1D photonic crystal waveguide (PCW), which mediates long-range coherent dipole-dipole interactions between the atoms. We show that the long-range interactions can dramatically alter the linear and nonlinear optical behavior, as compared to a typical atomic ensemble. In particular, in the linear regime, we find that the transmission spectrum contains multiple transmission dips, whose properties we characterize. Moreover, we show how the linear spectrum may be used to infer the number of atoms present in the system, constituting an important experimental tool in a regime where techniques for conventional ensembles break down. We also show that some of the transmission dips are associated with an effective ‘two-level’ resonance that forms due to the long-range interactions. In particular, under strong global driving and appropriate conditions, we find that the atomic ensemble is only capable of absorbing and emitting single collective excitations at a time. Our results are of direct relevance to atom-PCW experiments that should soon be realizable.

  7. Hong-Ou-Mandel Interference between Two Deterministic Collective Excitations in an Atomic Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zhou, Ming-Ti; Jing, Bo; Wang, Xu-Jie; Yang, Sheng-Jun; Jiang, Xiao; Mølmer, Klaus; Bao, Xiao-Hui; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-10-01

    We demonstrate deterministic generation of two distinct collective excitations in one atomic ensemble, and we realize the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference between them. Using Rydberg blockade we create single collective excitations in two different Zeeman levels, and we use stimulated Raman transitions to perform a beam-splitter operation between the excited atomic modes. By converting the atomic excitations into photons, the two-excitation interference is measured by photon coincidence detection with a visibility of 0.89(6). The Hong-Ou-Mandel interference witnesses an entangled NOON state of the collective atomic excitations, and we demonstrate its two times enhanced sensitivity to a magnetic field compared with a single excitation. Our work implements a minimal instance of boson sampling and paves the way for further multimode and multiexcitation studies with collective excitations of atomic ensembles.

  8. Implementing Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm using light shifts and atomic ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, Shubhrangshu; Biswas, Asoka; Agarwal, G.S.

    2005-01-01

    We present an optical scheme to implement the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm using ac Stark shifts. The scheme uses an atomic ensemble consisting of four-level atoms interacting dispersively with a field. This leads to a Hamiltonian in the atom-field basis which is quite suitable for quantum computation. We show how one can implement the algorithm by performing proper one- and two-qubit operations. We emphasize that in our model the decoherence is expected to be minimal due to our usage of atomic ground states and freely propagating photon

  9. Quantum phases of electric dipole ensembles in atom chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachos, Jiannis K.

    2005-01-01

    We present how a phase factor is generated when an electric dipole moves along a closed trajectory inside a magnetic field gradient. The similarity of this situation with charged particles in a magnetic field can be employed to simulate condensed matter models, such as the quantum Hall effect and chiral spin Hamiltonians, with ultra cold atoms integrated on atom chips. To illustrate this we consider a triangular configuration of a two-dimensional optical lattice, where the chiral spin Hamiltonian σ-> i -bar σ-> j xσ-> k can be generated between any three neighbours on a lattice yielding an experimentally implementable chiral ground state

  10. Three-dimensional theory of quantum memories based on Λ-type atomic ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeuthen, Emil; Grodecka-Grad, Anna; Soerensen, Anders S.

    2011-01-01

    We develop a three-dimensional theory for quantum memories based on light storage in ensembles of Λ-type atoms, where two long-lived atomic ground states are employed. We consider light storage in an ensemble of finite spatial extent and we show that within the paraxial approximation the Fresnel number of the atomic ensemble and the optical depth are the only important physical parameters determining the quality of the quantum memory. We analyze the influence of these parameters on the storage of light followed by either forward or backward read-out from the quantum memory. We show that for small Fresnel numbers the forward memory provides higher efficiencies, whereas for large Fresnel numbers the backward memory is advantageous. The optimal light modes to store in the memory are presented together with the corresponding spin waves and outcoming light modes. We show that for high optical depths such Λ-type atomic ensembles allow for highly efficient backward and forward memories even for small Fresnel numbers F(greater-or-similar sign)0.1.

  11. Sympathetic cooling in a rubidium cesium mixture: Production of ultracold cesium atoms; Sympathetisches Kuehlen in einer Rubidium-Caesium-Mischung: Erzeugung ultrakalter Caesiumatome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, M.

    2007-07-01

    This thesis presents experiments for the production of ultracold rubidium cesium mixture in a magnetic trap. The long-termed aim of the experiment is the study of the interaction of few cesium atoms with a Bose-Einstein condensate of rubidium atoms. Especially by controlled variation of the cesium atom number the transition in the description of the interaction by concepts of the one-particle physics to the description by concepts of the many-particle physics shall be studied. The rubidium atoms are trapped in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) and from there reloaded into a magnetic trap. In this the rubidium atoms are stored in the state vertical stroke f=2,m{sub f}=2 right angle of the electronic ground state and evaporatively cooled by means of microwave-induced transitions into the state vertical stroke f=1,m{sub f}=1] (microwave cooling). The cesium atoms are also trppaed in a MOT and into the same magnetic trap reloaded, in which they are stored in the state vertical stroke f=4,m{sub f}=4 right angle of the electronic ground state together with rubidium. Because of the different hyperfine splitting only rubidium is evaporatively cooled, while cesium is cooled jointly sympathetically - i.e. by theramal contact via elastic collisions with rubidium atoms. The first two chapters contain a description of interatomic interactions in ultracold gases as well as a short summary of theoretical concepts in the description of Bose-Einstein condensates. The chapters 3 and 4 contain a short presentation of the methods applied in the experiment for the production of ultracold gases as well as the experimental arrangement; especially in the framework of this thesis a new coil system has been designed, which offers in view of future experiments additionally optical access for an optical trap. Additionally the fourth chapter contains an extensive description of the experimental cycle, which is applied in order to store rubidium and cesium atoms together into the magnetic trap. The

  12. Atom lasers, coherent states, and coherence II. Maximally robust ensembles of pure states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiseman, H.M.; Vaccaro, John A.

    2002-01-01

    As discussed in the preceding paper [Wiseman and Vaccaro, preceding paper, Phys. Rev. A 65, 043605 (2002)], the stationary state of an optical or atom laser far above threshold is a mixture of coherent field states with random phase, or, equivalently, a Poissonian mixture of number states. We are interested in which, if either, of these descriptions of ρ ss as a stationary ensemble of pure states, is more natural. In the preceding paper we concentrated upon the question of whether descriptions such as these are physically realizable (PR). In this paper we investigate another relevant aspect of these ensembles, their robustness. A robust ensemble is one for which the pure states that comprise it survive relatively unchanged for a long time under the system evolution. We determine numerically the most robust ensembles as a function of the parameters in the laser model: the self-energy χ of the bosons in the laser mode, and the excess phase noise ν. We find that these most robust ensembles are PR ensembles, or similar to PR ensembles, for all values of these parameters. In the ideal laser limit (ν=χ=0), the most robust states are coherent states. As the phase noise or phase dispersion is increased through ν or the self-interaction of the bosons χ, respectively, the most robust states become more and more amplitude squeezed. We find scaling laws for these states, and give analytical derivations for them. As the phase diffusion or dispersion becomes so large that the laser output is no longer quantum coherent, the most robust states become so squeezed that they cease to have a well-defined coherent amplitude. That is, the quantum coherence of the laser output is manifest in the most robust PR ensemble being an ensemble of states with a well-defined coherent amplitude. This lends support to our approach of regarding robust PR ensembles as the most natural description of the state of the laser mode. It also has interesting implications for atom lasers in particular

  13. Three-dimensional theory for interaction between atomic ensembles and free-space light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, L.-M.; Cirac, J.I.; Zoller, P.

    2002-01-01

    Atomic ensembles have shown to be a promising candidate for implementations of quantum information processing by many recently discovered schemes. All these schemes are based on the interaction between optical beams and atomic ensembles. For description of these interactions, one assumed either a cavity-QED model or a one-dimensional light propagation model, which is still inadequate for a full prediction and understanding of most of the current experimental efforts that are actually taken in the three-dimensional free space. Here, we propose a perturbative theory to describe the three-dimensional effects in interaction between atomic ensembles and free-space light with a level configuration important for several applications. The calculations reveal some significant effects that were not known before from the other approaches, such as the inherent mode-mismatching noise and the optimal mode-matching conditions. The three-dimensional theory confirms the collective enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio which is believed to be one of the main advantages of the ensemble-based quantum information processing schemes, however, it also shows that this enhancement needs to be understood in a more subtle way with an appropriate mode-matching method

  14. Destructive Interference in Coherent Backscattering of Light by an Ensemble of Cold Atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupriyanov, D.V.; Larionov, N.V.; Sokolov, I.M.; Havey, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    The coherent backscattering of light by an ensemble of cold atoms located in a magneto-optical trap is investigated theoretically. The dependence of the gain coefficient on the probe frequency is analyzed in a wide spectral range covering the entire hyperfine structure of the excited state. The calculation is performed for 85 Rb atoms. It is found that destructive interference can be observed at certain frequencies, which results in gain coefficients smaller than unity. The angular distribution of scattered light is investigated for corresponding frequencies and the dependence of the shape of the cone of destructive interference on the size of the atomic cloud and its optical thickness is analyzed

  15. Optically Controlled Distributed Quantum Computing Using Atomic Ensembles As Qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-23

    of lambda - type atoms. In Section 3, we summarize the model we had de- veloped previously for light shift blockade (LSB) of collective ex- citation...plane of | 〉a c1 2 and | 〉c a1 2 , so that the rotation matrix can be written as ⎡ ⎣ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎤ ⎦ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ = − R 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 2 0 0 1 2 1 2...the Hamiltonian in the basis of states a a1 2 , a c1 2 , c a1 2 and c c1 2 is = ⊗ + ⊗H H I I H1 2 1 2 where Ii is the identity matrix and Hi is the

  16. Inhibition of collective spontaneous decay and superradiance in an ensemble of sufficiently high quantity of excited identical atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basharov, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    New effects of suppression of the collective spontaneous emission and superradiance have been predicted. At a certain number N of ensemble atoms, the Stark interaction with a vacuum field was shown as being high enough for the excited N-atom ensemble to be stabilized with respect to the collective decay. The result was derived analytically as a consequence of applying the quantum stochastic differential equations to the description of the atomic dynamics in vacuum, where the Stark interaction operator is expressed in terms of the quantum Poisson process. -- Highlights: → Enhancement of the Stark interaction of N atoms ensemble with vacuum, with N rising. → Representation of the Stark interaction as the quantum Poisson process. → Collective spontaneous decay and superradiance under the strong Stark interaction. → Inhibition of superradiance at a certain number of ensemble atoms. → Analysis of superradiance experiments in terms of inhibition of collective decay.

  17. Advances in ultracold collisions: Experimentation and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiner, J.

    1995-01-01

    Collisions between optically cooled and trapped atoms have been the subject of intensive investigation since early proposals discussed their novel features and key importance to the achievement of a gaseous ensemble in a single quantum state. Progress in both experimentation and theory has accelerated rapidly over the last three years, and two reviews, one emphasizing theory and the other, experiments, recount the state of the art published up to about the midpoint of 1993. The purpose of this chapter is to update continuing lines of research set forth in these and earlier works and to relate new results, establishing novel directions for investigation that have appeared in the literature. Two principal questions motivate research into the nature of ultracold collisions: (1) what new phenomena arise when collisionally interacting particles also exchange photons with modes of the radiation field and (2) what are the important two-body collisional heating mechanisms and how can they be overcome in order to achieve the temperature and density conditions appropriate for Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC)? In fact these two questions are not mutually exclusive, and one of the most notable developments in the past year, relevant to both, has been the demonstration of optical control of two-body ultracold collisional processes. Other important issues touching, on one or both of these questions are the magnitude and sign of the scattering length in s-wave collisions between species in various well-defined quantum states, progress in high-resolution trap loss and photoassociation spectroscopy, and application of optical cooling and compression to atomic beams. 58 refs., 21 figs

  18. Entanglement between two spatially separated atomic modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Karsten; Peise, Jan; Lücke, Bernd; Kruse, Ilka; Vitagliano, Giuseppe; Apellaniz, Iagoba; Kleinmann, Matthias; Tóth, Géza; Klempt, Carsten

    2018-04-01

    Modern quantum technologies in the fields of quantum computing, quantum simulation, and quantum metrology require the creation and control of large ensembles of entangled particles. In ultracold ensembles of neutral atoms, nonclassical states have been generated with mutual entanglement among thousands of particles. The entanglement generation relies on the fundamental particle-exchange symmetry in ensembles of identical particles, which lacks the standard notion of entanglement between clearly definable subsystems. Here, we present the generation of entanglement between two spatially separated clouds by splitting an ensemble of ultracold identical particles prepared in a twin Fock state. Because the clouds can be addressed individually, our experiments open a path to exploit the available entangled states of indistinguishable particles for quantum information applications.

  19. Quadripartite cluster and Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger entangled light via cascade interactions with separated atomic ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xing; Hu Xiangming

    2012-01-01

    It has been known that two-mode entangled light can possibly be generated by employing near-resonant interaction with an ensemble of two-level atoms. The responsible mechanism is the absorption of two photons from the strong driving field and the emission of two new photons into the cavity field. Here, we generalize such a mechanism to three separated atomic ensembles and establish cascade interactions for four nondegenerate fields. It is shown that the quadripartite cluster and Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger entangled states occur for continuous variables. The advantage of the present scheme for the multipartite entanglement lies in that the coupling strengths are much larger due to the near resonances than for far-off-resonance-based parametric processes. (paper)

  20. Towards an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox between two macroscopic atomic ensembles at room temperature

    OpenAIRE

    He, Q Y; Reid, M D

    2013-01-01

    Experiments have reported the entanglement of two spatially separated macroscopic atomic ensembles at room temperature (Krauter et al 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 080503; Julsgaard et al 2001 Nature 413 400). We show how an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox is realizable with this experiment. Our proposed test involves violation of an inferred Heisenberg uncertainty principle, which is a sufficient condition for an EPR paradox. This is a stronger test of nonlocality than entanglement. Our pr...

  1. Fock-state view of weak-value measurements and implementation with photons and atomic ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Christoph; Polzik, Eugene S.

    2011-01-01

    Weak measurements in combination with postselection can give rise to a striking amplification effect (related to a large ''weak value''). We show that this effect can be understood by viewing the initial state of the pointer as the ground state of a fictional harmonic oscillator. This perspective clarifies the relationship between the weak-value regime and other measurement techniques and inspires a proposal to implement fully quantum weak-value measurements combining photons and atomic ensembles.

  2. Inversionless superradiance of an ensemble of three-level atoms in a high-Q cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaitsev, A.I.; Ryzhov, I.V.; Trifonov, E.D.; Malyshev, V.A.

    1999-01-01

    We analyze the possibility of superradiance in an ensemble of three-level atoms in the absence of population inversion. We show that in the case of a Λ configuration of the active transitions this effect can occur for an initially coherent superposition of the states of the lower doublet. We also study how splitting of the lower levels influences this effect and discuss ways of creating low-frequency coherence

  3. Parametric conversion and maximally entangled photon pair via collective excitations in a cycle atomic ensemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.; Yu, R.; Yang, X.

    2008-01-01

    We study the propagation of two quantized optical fields via considering the collective effects of photonic emissions and excitations of a three-level cyclic-type system (such as atomic ensemble with symmetry broken, or the chiral molecular gases, or manual 'atomic' array with symmetry broken), where the quantum transitions is driven by two quantized fields and a classical one. The results show that the parametric conversion and maximally entangled photon pair generation can be achieved by means of the collective excitation of the two upper energy levels induced by the classic optical field. This investigation may be used for the generated coherent short-wavelength quantum radiation and quantum information processing

  4. Establishing and storing of deterministic quantum entanglement among three distant atomic ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhihui; Wu, Liang; Jia, Xiaojun; Liu, Yanhong; Deng, Ruijie; Li, Shujing; Wang, Hai; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi

    2017-09-28

    It is crucial for the physical realization of quantum information networks to first establish entanglement among multiple space-separated quantum memories and then, at a user-controlled moment, to transfer the stored entanglement to quantum channels for distribution and conveyance of information. Here we present an experimental demonstration on generation, storage, and transfer of deterministic quantum entanglement among three spatially separated atomic ensembles. The off-line prepared multipartite entanglement of optical modes is mapped into three distant atomic ensembles to establish entanglement of atomic spin waves via electromagnetically induced transparency light-matter interaction. Then the stored atomic entanglement is transferred into a tripartite quadrature entangled state of light, which is space-separated and can be dynamically allocated to three quantum channels for conveying quantum information. The existence of entanglement among three released optical modes verifies that the system has the capacity to preserve multipartite entanglement. The presented protocol can be directly extended to larger quantum networks with more nodes.Continuous-variable encoding is a promising approach for quantum information and communication networks. Here, the authors show how to map entanglement from three spatial optical modes to three separated atomic samples via electromagnetically induced transparency, releasing it later on demand.

  5. Superradiant cascade emissions in an atomic ensemble via four-wave mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jen, H.H., E-mail: sappyjen@gmail.com

    2015-09-15

    We investigate superradiant cascade emissions from an atomic ensemble driven by two-color classical fields. The correlated pair of photons (signal and idler) is generated by adiabatically driving the system with large-detuned light fields via four-wave mixing. The signal photon from the upper transition of the diamond-type atomic levels is followed by the idler one which can be superradiant due to light-induced dipole–dipole interactions. We then calculate the cooperative Lamb shift (CLS) of the idler photon, which is a cumulative effect of interaction energy. We study its dependence on a cylindrical geometry, a conventional setup in cold atom experiments, and estimate the maximum CLS which can be significant and observable. Manipulating the CLS of cascade emissions enables frequency qubits that provide alternative robust elements in quantum network. - Highlights: • Superradiance from a cascade atomic transition. • Correlated photon pair generation via four-wave mixing. • Dynamical light–matter couplings in a phased symmetrical state. • Cooperative Lamb shift in a cylindrical atomic ensemble.

  6. From deep TLS validation to ensembles of atomic models built from elemental motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Afonine, Pavel V.; Van Benschoten, Andrew H.; Fraser, James S.; Adams, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Procedures are described for extracting the vibration and libration parameters corresponding to a given set of TLS matrices and their simultaneous validation. Knowledge of these parameters allows the generation of structural ensembles corresponding to these matrices. The translation–libration–screw model first introduced by Cruickshank, Schomaker and Trueblood describes the concerted motions of atomic groups. Using TLS models can improve the agreement between calculated and experimental diffraction data. Because the T, L and S matrices describe a combination of atomic vibrations and librations, TLS models can also potentially shed light on molecular mechanisms involving correlated motions. However, this use of TLS models in mechanistic studies is hampered by the difficulties in translating the results of refinement into molecular movement or a structural ensemble. To convert the matrices into a constituent molecular movement, the matrix elements must satisfy several conditions. Refining the T, L and S matrix elements as independent parameters without taking these conditions into account may result in matrices that do not represent concerted molecular movements. Here, a mathematical framework and the computational tools to analyze TLS matrices, resulting in either explicit decomposition into descriptions of the underlying motions or a report of broken conditions, are described. The description of valid underlying motions can then be output as a structural ensemble. All methods are implemented as part of the PHENIX project

  7. From deep TLS validation to ensembles of atomic models built from elemental motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urzhumtsev, Alexandre, E-mail: sacha@igbmc.fr [Centre for Integrative Biology, Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS–INSERM–UdS, 1 Rue Laurent Fries, BP 10142, 67404 Illkirch (France); Université de Lorraine, BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Afonine, Pavel V. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California (United States); Van Benschoten, Andrew H.; Fraser, James S. [University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158 (United States); Adams, Paul D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California (United States); University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Centre for Integrative Biology, Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS–INSERM–UdS, 1 Rue Laurent Fries, BP 10142, 67404 Illkirch (France)

    2015-07-28

    Procedures are described for extracting the vibration and libration parameters corresponding to a given set of TLS matrices and their simultaneous validation. Knowledge of these parameters allows the generation of structural ensembles corresponding to these matrices. The translation–libration–screw model first introduced by Cruickshank, Schomaker and Trueblood describes the concerted motions of atomic groups. Using TLS models can improve the agreement between calculated and experimental diffraction data. Because the T, L and S matrices describe a combination of atomic vibrations and librations, TLS models can also potentially shed light on molecular mechanisms involving correlated motions. However, this use of TLS models in mechanistic studies is hampered by the difficulties in translating the results of refinement into molecular movement or a structural ensemble. To convert the matrices into a constituent molecular movement, the matrix elements must satisfy several conditions. Refining the T, L and S matrix elements as independent parameters without taking these conditions into account may result in matrices that do not represent concerted molecular movements. Here, a mathematical framework and the computational tools to analyze TLS matrices, resulting in either explicit decomposition into descriptions of the underlying motions or a report of broken conditions, are described. The description of valid underlying motions can then be output as a structural ensemble. All methods are implemented as part of the PHENIX project.

  8. Density-functional theory for ensembles of fractionally occupied states. II. Application to the He atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.N.; Gross, E.K.U.; Kohn, W.

    1988-01-01

    The two density-functional methods of calculating excitation energies proposed in the preceding paper, combined with the recently formulated quasi-local-density approximation for the equiensemble exchange-correlation energy functional [W. Kohn, Phys. Rev. A 34, 737 (1986)], are applied to the He atom. Although the splittings between nearly degenerate levels with different angular momenta are badly overestimated, in both approaches the averages over angular momentum and spin of the experimental excitation energies measured from the ionization threshold are reproduced within a few percent. The computed self-consistent ensemble-averaged densities and the Kohn-Sham potentials associated with them are discussed

  9. Mesoscale cavities in hollow-core waveguides for quantum optics with atomic ensembles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haapamaki C.M.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Single-mode hollow-core waveguides loaded with atomic ensembles offer an excellent platform for light–matter interactions and nonlinear optics at low photon levels. We review and discuss possible approaches for incorporating mirrors, cavities, and Bragg gratings into these waveguides without obstructing their hollow cores. With these additional features controlling the light propagation in the hollow-core waveguides, one could potentially achieve optical nonlinearities controllable by single photons in systems with small footprints that can be integrated on a chip. We propose possible applications such as single-photon transistors and superradiant lasers that could be implemented in these enhanced hollow-core waveguides.

  10. Interatomic interaction effects on second-order momentum correlations and Hong-Ou-Mandel interference of double-well-trapped ultracold fermionic atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Benedikt B.; Yannouleas, Constantine; Landman, Uzi

    2018-05-01

    Identification and understanding of the evolution of interference patterns in two-particle momentum correlations as a function of the strength of interatomic interactions are important in explorations of the nature of quantum states of trapped particles. Together with the analysis of two-particle spatial correlations, they offer the prospect of uncovering fundamental symmetries and structure of correlated many-body states, as well as opening vistas into potential control and utilization of correlated quantum states as quantum-information resources. With the use of the second-order density matrix constructed via exact diagonalization of the microscopic Hamiltonian, and an analytic Hubbard-type model, we explore here the systematic evolution of characteristic interference patterns in the two-body momentum and spatial correlation maps of two entangled ultracold fermionic atoms in a double well, for the entire attractive- and repulsive-interaction range. We uncover quantum-statistics-governed bunching and antibunching, as well as interaction-dependent interference patterns, in the ground and excited states, and interpret our results in light of the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference physics, widely exploited in photon indistinguishability testing and quantum-information science.

  11. Universal Three-Body Physics in Ultracold KRb Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wacker, L. J.; Jørgensen, N. B.; Birkmose, Danny Matthiesen

    2016-01-01

    Ultracold atomic gases have recently become a driving force in few-body physics due to the observation of the Efimov effect. While initially observed in equal mass systems, one expects even richer few-body physics in the mass-imbalanced case. In previous experiments with ultracold mixtures of pot...

  12. Towards an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox between two macroscopic atomic ensembles at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Q. Y.; Reid, M. D.

    2013-06-01

    Experiments have reported the entanglement of two spatially separated macroscopic atomic ensembles at room temperature (Krauter et al 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 080503; Julsgaard et al 2001 Nature 413 400). We show how an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox is realizable with this experiment. Our proposed test involves violation of an inferred Heisenberg uncertainty principle, which is a sufficient condition for an EPR paradox. This is a stronger test of nonlocality than entanglement. Our proposal would enable the first definitive confirmation of quantum EPR paradox correlations between two macroscopic objects at room temperature. This is a necessary intermediate step towards a nonlocal experiment with causal measurement separations. As well as having fundamental significance, the realization of an atomic EPR paradox could provide a resource for novel applications in quantum technology.

  13. Towards an Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen paradox between two macroscopic atomic ensembles at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Q Y; Reid, M D

    2013-01-01

    Experiments have reported the entanglement of two spatially separated macroscopic atomic ensembles at room temperature (Krauter et al 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 080503; Julsgaard et al 2001 Nature 413 400). We show how an Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen (EPR) paradox is realizable with this experiment. Our proposed test involves violation of an inferred Heisenberg uncertainty principle, which is a sufficient condition for an EPR paradox. This is a stronger test of nonlocality than entanglement. Our proposal would enable the first definitive confirmation of quantum EPR paradox correlations between two macroscopic objects at room temperature. This is a necessary intermediate step towards a nonlocal experiment with causal measurement separations. As well as having fundamental significance, the realization of an atomic EPR paradox could provide a resource for novel applications in quantum technology. (paper)

  14. Continuous-measurement-enhanced self-trapping of degenerate ultracold atoms in a double well: Nonlinear quantum Zeno effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Weidong; Liu Jie

    2006-01-01

    In the present paper we investigate the influence of measurements on the quantum dynamics of degenerate Bose atoms gases in a symmetric double well. We show that continuous measurements enhance asymmetry on the density distribution of the atoms and broaden the parameter regime for self-trapping. We term this phenomenon as nonlinear quantum Zeno effect in analog to the celebrated Zeno effect in a linear quantum system. Under discontinuous measurements, the self-trapping due to the atomic interaction in the degenerate bosons is shown to be destroyed completely. Underlying physics is revealed and possible experimental realization is discussed

  15. Improved spin squeezing of an atomic ensemble through internal state control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmer, Daniel; Montano, Enrique; Deutsch, Ivan; Jessen, Poul

    2016-05-01

    Squeezing of collective atomic spins is typically generated by quantum backaction from a QND measurement of the relevant spin component. In this scenario the degree of squeezing is determined by the measurement resolution relative to the quantum projection noise (QPN) of a spin coherent state (SCS). Greater squeezing can be achieved through optimization of the 3D geometry of probe and atom cloud, or by placing the atoms in an optical cavity. We explore here a complementary strategy that relies on quantum control of the large internal spin available in alkali atoms such as Cs. Using a combination of rf and uw magnetic fields, we coherently map the internal spins in our ensemble from the SCS (| f = 4, m = 4>) to a ``cat'' state which is an equal superposition of | f = 4, m = 4>and | f = 4, m = -4>. This increases QPN by a factor of 2 f = 8 relative to the SCS, and therefore the amount of backaction and spin-spin entanglement produced by our QND measurement. In a final step, squeezing generated in the cat state basis can be mapped back to the SCS basis, where it corresponds to increased squeezing of the physical spin. Our experiments suggest that up to 8dB of metrologically useful squeezing can be generated in this way, compared to ~ 3 dB in an otherwise identical experiment starting from a SCS.

  16. Quantum control of ultra-cold atoms: uncovering a novel connection between two paradigms of quantum nonlinear dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiao; Mouritzen, Anders Sørrig; Gong, Jiangbin

    2009-01-01

    Controlling the translational motion of cold atoms using optical lattice potentials is of both theoretical and experimental interest. By designing two on-resonance time sequences of kicking optical lattice potentials, a novel connection between two paradigms of nonlinear mapping systems, i.e. the...... sequences of control fields. Extensions of this study are also discussed. The results are intended to open up a new generation of cold-atom experiments of quantum nonlinear dynamics.......Controlling the translational motion of cold atoms using optical lattice potentials is of both theoretical and experimental interest. By designing two on-resonance time sequences of kicking optical lattice potentials, a novel connection between two paradigms of nonlinear mapping systems, i...

  17. Magnetic-Field Dependence of Raman Coupling Strength in Ultracold "4"0K Atomic Fermi Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Liang-Hui; Wang Peng-Jun; Meng Zeng-Ming; Peng Peng; Chen Liang-Chao; Li Dong-Hao; Zhang Jing

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the relation of Raman coupling strength with the external bias magnetic field in degenerate Fermi gas of "4"0K atoms. Two Raman lasers couple two Zeeman energy levels, whose energy splitting depends on the external bias magnetic field. The Raman coupling strength is determined by measuring the Rabi oscillation frequency. The characteristics of the Rabi oscillation is to be damped after several periods due to Fermi atoms in different momentum states oscillating with different Rabi frequencies. The experimental results show that the Raman coupling strength will decrease as the external bias magnetic field increases, which is in good agreement with the theoretical prediction. (paper)

  18. Inhomogeneous spectral moment sum rules for the retarded Green function and self-energy of strongly correlated electrons or ultracold fermionic atoms in optical lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freericks, J. K.; Turkowski, V.

    2009-01-01

    Spectral moment sum rules are presented for the inhomogeneous many-body problem described by the fermionic Falicov-Kimball or Hubbard models. These local sum rules allow for arbitrary hoppings, site energies, and interactions. They can be employed to quantify the accuracy of numerical solutions to the inhomogeneous many-body problem such as strongly correlated multilayered devices, ultracold atoms in an optical lattice with a trap potential, strongly correlated systems that are disordered, or systems with nontrivial spatial ordering such as a charge-density wave or a spin-density wave. We also show how the spectral moment sum rules determine the asymptotic behavior of the Green function, self-energy, and dynamical mean field when applied to the dynamical mean-field theory solution of the many-body problem. In particular, we illustrate in detail how one can dramatically reduce the number of Matsubara frequencies needed to solve the Falicov-Kimball model while still retaining high precision, and we sketch how one can incorporate these results into Hirsch-Fye quantum Monte Carlo solvers for the Hubbard (or more complicated) models. Since the solution of inhomogeneous problems is significantly more time consuming than periodic systems, efficient use of these sum rules can provide a dramatic speed up in the computational time required to solve the many-body problem. We also discuss how these sum rules behave in nonequilibrium situations as well, where the Hamiltonian has explicit time dependence due to a driving field or due to the time-dependent change in a parameter such as the interaction strength or the origin of the trap potential.

  19. Time-dependent analysis of tunneling effect in the formation of ultracold molecules via photo-association of laser-cooled atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatasescu, M.; Masnou-Seeuws, F.

    2002-01-01

    The paper contains a time-dependent investigation of the tunneling effect observed in the photo-association spectrum of Cs 2 and attributed to the 0 g - (6s,6p 3/2 ) double well. When by photo-association of two cold cesium atoms a vibrational level of the outer well is populated, tunneling is an efficient mechanism for transferring the population to the inner well (R 0 ), where spontaneous emission may lead to formation of cold molecules in low vibrational levels of the a 3 Σ u + (6s,6s) electronic state. This tunneling effect is analyzed by wave packets propagation, first considering the double well potential alone, and following a packet made by a superposition of states initially located at large distances. Characteristic times for the vibration dynamics, corresponding to a beating phenomenon between the two wells, to partial 'revival' at large distances, and to maxima in the population localized in the inner well are reported and discussed. Second, we simulate the two-channels a 3 Σ u + (6s,6s) → 0 g - (6s,6p 3/2 ) photo-association at detuning around 2.9 cm -1 : the inner well can be populated either by the excitation of a vibrational level of the external well (resonant excitation), or by tuning the photo-association laser at the energy of the inner well level which displays tunneling (''off-resonance excitation''). In the first case the photo-association is efficient, while the tunneling probability is small; in the second, the tunneling probability is large, so that despite the poor efficiency of the photo-association process, more population can be transferred to the inner well. This second choice is shown to be very sensitive to the laser intensity, which could be used to control the population of the inner well and hence the formation of ultracold molecules in low vibrational levels. (authors)

  20. Fast and robust approach to long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, L.; Lukin, M. D.; Taylor, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Quantum repeaters create long-distance entanglement between quantum systems while overcoming difficulties such as the attenuation of single photons in a fiber. Recently, an implementation of a repeater protocol based on single qubits in atomic ensembles and linear optics has been proposed [Duan et al., Nature (London) 414, 413 (2001)]. Motivated by rapid experimental progress towards implementing that protocol, here we develop a more efficient scheme compatible with active purification of arbitrary errors. Using similar resources as the earlier protocol, our approach intrinsically purifies leakage out of the logical subspace and all errors within the logical subspace, leading to greatly improved performance in the presence of experimental inefficiencies. Our analysis indicates that our scheme could generate approximately one pair per 3 min over 1280 km distance with fidelity (F≥78%) sufficient to violate Bell's inequality

  1. Bloch oscillations of quasispin polaritons in a magneto-optically controlled atomic ensemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Chang; Lu, Jing; Zhou, Lan

    2012-01-01

    We consider the propagation of quantized polarized light in a magneto-optically-manipulated atomic ensemble with a tripod configuration. A polariton formalism is applied when the medium is subjected to a washboard magnetic field under electromagnetically-induced transparency. The dark-state polariton with multiple components is achieved. We analyze the quantum dynamics of the dark-state polariton using experimental data from the rubidium D1-line. It is found that one component propagates freely, however the wave packet trajectory of the other component performs Bloch oscillations. -- Highlights: ► We study the wave–particle dualism of quasiparticles in a magneto-optical medium. ► We generate a “spin”-component dark-state polariton. ► Magnetic fields lead to oscillation and free propagation of a dark-state polariton. ► Our approach shows the role of entanglement of degrees of freedom of photons.

  2. Bloch oscillations of quasispin polaritons in a magneto-optically controlled atomic ensemble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Chang [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, and Department of Physics, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Lu, Jing, E-mail: lujing@hunnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, and Department of Physics, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Zhou, Lan [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, and Department of Physics, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China)

    2012-10-01

    We consider the propagation of quantized polarized light in a magneto-optically-manipulated atomic ensemble with a tripod configuration. A polariton formalism is applied when the medium is subjected to a washboard magnetic field under electromagnetically-induced transparency. The dark-state polariton with multiple components is achieved. We analyze the quantum dynamics of the dark-state polariton using experimental data from the rubidium D1-line. It is found that one component propagates freely, however the wave packet trajectory of the other component performs Bloch oscillations. -- Highlights: ► We study the wave–particle dualism of quasiparticles in a magneto-optical medium. ► We generate a “spin”-component dark-state polariton. ► Magnetic fields lead to oscillation and free propagation of a dark-state polariton. ► Our approach shows the role of entanglement of degrees of freedom of photons.

  3. Ultracold lithium-6 atoms in the BEC-BCS crossover: experiments and the construction of a new apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teichmann, M.

    2007-09-01

    We use a fermionic gas of Lithium-6 as a model system to study superfluidity. The limiting cases of superfluidity are Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) and superconductivity, described by the theory by Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer (BCS). In Lithium-6 gases, we can explore the whole range between the two cases, known as the BEC-BCS crossover, using a Feshbach resonance. We study the change of the momentum distribution of the gas in this cross-over and compare to theoretical models. We also investigate the hydrodynamic expansion, characteristic for a superfluid gas. We observe a sudden change of the ellipticity of the gas close to the transition to the superfluid phase. Moreover, we localized heteronuclear Feshbach resonances between 6 Li and 7 Li. We are currently constructing a second generation of the experimental setup. An new laser system, based on high power laser diodes, was developed. Changes in the vacuum chamber, including a complete reconstruction of the Zeeman slower, have increased the atomic flux, allowing us to increase the repetition rate of our experiment. Modifications of the geometry of the magnetic traps lead to a higher number of trapped atoms. (author)

  4. Observation and measurement of interaction-induced dispersive optical nonlinearities in an ensemble of cold rydberg atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, V.; Bimbard, E.; Stanojevic, J.

    2012-01-01

    We observe and measure dispersive optical nonlinearities in an ensemble of cold Rydberg atoms placed inside an optical cavity. The experimental results are in agreement with a simple model where the optical nonlinearities are due to the progressive appearance of a Rydberg blockaded volume within...

  5. Bloch oscillations of ultracold atoms and measurement of the fine structure constant; Oscillations de Bloch d'atomes ultrafroids et mesure de la constante de structure fine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clade, P

    2005-10-15

    From a measurement of the recoil velocity of an atom absorbing a photon, it is possible to deduce a determination of the ratio h/m between the Planck constant and the mass of the atoms and then to deduce a value of the fine structure constant alpha. To do this measurement, we use the technique of Bloch oscillations, which allows us to transfer a large number of recoils to atoms. A velocity sensor, based on velocity selective Raman transition, enables us to measure the momentum transferred to the atoms. A measurement with a statistical uncertainty of 4.4 10{sup -9}, in conjunction with a careful study of systematic effects (5 10{sup -9}), has led us to a determination of alpha with an uncertainty of 6.7 10{sup -9}: {alpha}{sup -1}(Rb) = 137.03599878 (91). This uncertainty is similar to the uncertainty of the best determinations of alpha based on atom interferometry. (author)

  6. Ultrafast electron diffraction using an ultracold source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. van Mourik

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of structural dynamics of complex macromolecular crystals using electrons requires bunches of sufficient coherence and charge. We present diffraction patterns from graphite, obtained with bunches from an ultracold electron source, based on femtosecond near-threshold photoionization of a laser-cooled atomic gas. By varying the photoionization wavelength, we change the effective source temperature from 300 K to 10 K, resulting in a concomitant change in the width of the diffraction peaks, which is consistent with independently measured source parameters. This constitutes a direct measurement of the beam coherence of this ultracold source and confirms its suitability for protein crystal diffraction.

  7. Ultracold fermions with repulsive interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketterle W.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available An ultracold Fermi gas with repulsive interaction has been studied. For weak interactions, the atomic gas is metastable, and the interactions were characterized by obtaining the isothermal compressibility from atomic density profiles. For stronger interactions (kFa ≈ 1, rapid conversion into Feshbach molecules is observed. When the conversion rate becomes comparable to the Fermi energy divided by η, the atomic gas cannot reach equilibrium without forming pairs. This precludes the predicted transition to a ferromagnetic state (Stoner transition. The absence of spin fluctuations proves that the gas stays paramagnetic. In free space, a Fermi gas with strong short-range repulsion does not exist because of the rapid coupling to molecular states.

  8. Dissociation and decay of ultracold sodium molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukaiyama, T.; Abo-Shaeer, J.R.; Xu, K.; Chin, J.K.; Ketterle, W.

    2004-01-01

    The dissociation of ultracold molecules was studied by ramping an external magnetic field through a Feshbach resonance. The observed dissociation energies directly yielded the strength of the atom-molecule coupling. They showed nonlinear dependence on the ramp speed. This was explained by a Wigner threshold law which predicts that the decay rate of the molecules above threshold increases with the density of states. In addition, inelastic molecule-molecule and molecule-atom collisions were characterized

  9. Atomic Ensemble Effects and Non-Covalent Interactions at the Electrode–Electrolyte Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Cuesta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cyanide-modified Pt(111 electrodes have been recently employed to study atomic ensemble effects in electrocatalysis. This work, which will be briefly reviewed, reveals that the smallest site required for methanol dehydrogenation and formic acid dehydration is composed of three contiguous Pt atoms. By blocking these trigonal sites, the specific adsorption of anions, such as sulfate and phosphate, can be inhibited, thus increasing the rate of oxygen reduction reaction by one order of magnitude or more. Moreover, alkali metal cations affect hydrogen adsorption on cyanide-modified Pt(111. This effect is attributed to the non-covalent interactions at the electrical double layer between specifically adsorbed anions or dipoles and the alkali metal cations. A systematic investigation is conducted on the effect of the concentration of alkali metal cations. Accordingly, a simple model that reproduces the experimental observations accurately and enables the understanding of the trends in the strength of the interaction between M+ and CNad when moving from Li+ to Cs+, as well as the deviations from the expected trends, is developed. This simple model can also explain the occurrence of super-Nernstian shifts of the equilibrium potential of interfacial proton-coupled electron transfers. Therefore, the model can be generally applied to explain quantitatively the effect of cations on the properties of the electrical double layer. The recently reported effects of alkali metal cations on several electrocatalytic reactions must be mediated by the interaction between these cations and chemisorbed species. As these interactions seem to be adequately and quantitatively described by our model, we expect the model to also be useful to describe, explain, and potentially exploit these effects.

  10. Ultra-cold molecule production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez-Serrano, Jamie; Chandler, David W.; Strecker, Kevin; Rahn, Larry A.

    2005-01-01

    The production of Ultra-cold molecules is a goal of many laboratories through out the world. Here we are pursuing a unique technique that utilizes the kinematics of atomic and molecular collisions to achieve the goal of producing substantial numbers of sub Kelvin molecules confined in a trap. Here a trap is defined as an apparatus that spatially localizes, in a known location in the laboratory, a sample of molecules whose temperature is below one degree absolute Kelvin. Further, the storage time for the molecules must be sufficient to measure and possibly further cool the molecules. We utilize a technique unique to Sandia to form cold molecules from near mass degenerate collisions between atoms and molecules. This report describes the progress we have made using this novel technique and the further progress towards trapping molecules we have cooled

  11. Detecting Friedel oscillations in ultracold Fermi gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechers, Keno; Hueck, Klaus; Luick, Niclas; Lompe, Thomas; Moritz, Henning

    2017-09-01

    Investigating Friedel oscillations in ultracold gases would complement the studies performed on solid state samples with scanning-tunneling microscopes. In atomic quantum gases interactions and external potentials can be tuned freely and the inherently slower dynamics allow to access non-equilibrium dynamics following a potential or interaction quench. Here, we examine how Friedel oscillations can be observed in current ultracold gas experiments under realistic conditions. To this aim we numerically calculate the amplitude of the Friedel oscillations which are induced by a potential barrier in a 1D Fermi gas and compare it to the expected atomic and photonic shot noise in a density measurement. We find that to detect Friedel oscillations the signal from several thousand one-dimensional systems has to be averaged. However, as up to 100 parallel one-dimensional systems can be prepared in a single run with present experiments, averaging over about 100 images is sufficient.

  12. Functional renormalization and ultracold quantum gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floerchinger, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Modern techniques from quantum field theory are applied in this work to the description of ultracold quantum gases. This leads to a unified description of many phenomena including superfluidity for bosons and fermions, classical and quantum phase transitions, different dimensions, thermodynamic properties and few-body phenomena as bound state formation or the Efimov effect. The non-perturbative treatment with renormalization group flow equations can account for all known limiting cases by solving one single equation. It improves previous results quantitatively and brings qualitatively new insights. As an example, new quantum phase transitions are found for fermions with three spin states. Ultracold atomic gases can be seen as an interesting model for features of high energy physics and for condensed matter theory. The research reported in this thesis helps to solve the difficult complexity problem in modern theoretical physics. (orig.)

  13. Detecting high-density ultracold molecules using atom–molecule collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jun-Ren; Kao, Cheng-Yang; Chen, Hung-Bin; Liu, Yi-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Utilizing single-photon photoassociation, we have achieved ultracold rubidium molecules with a high number density that provides a new efficient approach toward molecular quantum degeneracy. A new detection mechanism for ultracold molecules utilizing inelastic atom–molecule collision is demonstrated. The resonant coupling effect on the formation of the X 1 Σ + g ground state 85 Rb 2 allows for a sufficient number of more deeply bound ultracold molecules, which induced an additional trap loss and heating of the co-existing atoms owing to the inelastic atom–molecule collision. Therefore, after the photoassociation process, the ultracold molecules can be investigated using the absorption image of the ultracold rubidium atoms mixed with the molecules in a crossed optical dipole trap. The existence of the ultracold molecules was then verified, and the amount of accumulated molecules was measured. This method detects the final produced ultracold molecules, and hence is distinct from the conventional trap loss experiment, which is used to study the association resonance. It is composed of measurements of the time evolution of an atomic cloud and a decay model, by which the number density of the ultracold 85 Rb 2 molecules in the optical trap was estimated to be >5.2 × 10 11 cm −3 . (paper)

  14. Off-resonant transitions in the collective dynamics of multi-level atomic ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miroshnychenko, Yevhen; Mølmer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    We study the contributions of off-resonant transitions to the dynamics of a system of N multi-level atoms sharing one excitation and interacting with the quantized vector electromagnetic field. The rotating wave approximation significantly simplifies the derivation of the equations of motion...... describing the collective atomic dynamics, but it leads to an incorrect expression for the dispersive part of the atom–atom interaction terms. For the case of two-level atoms and a scalar electromagnetic field, it turns out that the atom–atom interaction can be recovered correctly if integrals over...... the photon mode frequencies are extended to incorporate negative values. We explicitly derive the atom–atom interaction for multi-level atoms, coupled to the full vector electromagnetic field, and we recover also in this general case the validity of the results obtained by the extension to negative...

  15. Stimulated adiabatic passage in a dissipative ensemble of atoms with strong Rydberg-state interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrosyan, David; Molmer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    We study two-photon excitation of Rydberg states of atoms under stimulated adiabatic passage with delayed laser pulses. We find that the combination of strong interaction between the atoms in Rydberg state and the spontaneous decay of the intermediate exited atomic state leads to the Rydberg exci...... for deterministic creation and, possibly, extraction of Rydberg atoms or ions one at a time. The sympathetic monitoring via decay of ancilla particles may find wider applications for state preparation and probing of interactions in dissipative many-body systems.......We study two-photon excitation of Rydberg states of atoms under stimulated adiabatic passage with delayed laser pulses. We find that the combination of strong interaction between the atoms in Rydberg state and the spontaneous decay of the intermediate exited atomic state leads to the Rydberg...

  16. Transporting, splitting and merging of atomic ensembles in a chip trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hommelhoff, P; Haensel, W; Steinmetz, T; Haensch, T W; Reichel, J

    2005-01-01

    We present a toolbox for cold atom manipulation with time-dependent magnetic fields generated by an atom chip. Wire layouts, detailed experimental procedures and results are presented for the following experiments: use of a magnetic conveyor belt for positioning of cold atoms and Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) with a potential resolution of 2 nm; splitting of thermal clouds and BECs in adjustable magnetic double-well potentials; and controlled splitting of a cold reservoir. The devices that enable these manipulations can be combined with each other. We demonstrate this by combining reservoir splitter and conveyor belt to obtain a cold atom dispenser. We discuss the importance of these devices for quantum information processing, atom interferometry and Josephson junction physics on the chip. For all devices, absorption-image video sequences are provided to demonstrate their time-dependent behaviour

  17. Robust Deterministic Controlled Phase-Flip Gate and Controlled-Not Gate Based on Atomic Ensembles Embedded in Double-Sided Optical Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, A.-Peng; Cheng, Liu-Yong; Guo, Qi; Zhang, Shou

    2018-02-01

    We first propose a scheme for controlled phase-flip gate between a flying photon qubit and the collective spin wave (magnon) of an atomic ensemble assisted by double-sided cavity quantum systems. Then we propose a deterministic controlled-not gate on magnon qubits with parity-check building blocks. Both the gates can be accomplished with 100% success probability in principle. Atomic ensemble is employed so that light-matter coupling is remarkably improved by collective enhancement. We assess the performance of the gates and the results show that they can be faithfully constituted with current experimental techniques.

  18. The formation and interactions of cold and ultracold molecules: new challenges for interdisciplinary physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dulieu, O [Laboratoire Aime Cotton, CNRS, Bat. 505, Univ Paris-Sud 11, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Gabbanini, C [Istituto per i processi chimico-fisici del C.N.R., Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: olivier.dulieu@lac.u-psud.fr, E-mail: carlo@ipcf.cnr.it

    2009-08-15

    Progress on research in the field of molecules at cold and ultracold temperatures is reported in this review. It covers extensively the experimental methods to produce, detect and characterize cold and ultracold molecules including association of ultracold atoms, deceleration by external fields and kinematic cooling. Confinement of molecules in different kinds of traps is also discussed. The basic theoretical issues related to the knowledge of the molecular structure, the atom-molecule and molecule-molecule mutual interactions, and to their possible manipulation and control with external fields, are reviewed. A short discussion on the broad area of applications completes the review.

  19. Intrinsic retrieval efficiency for quantum memories: A three-dimensional theory of light interaction with an atomic ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujarati, Tanvi P.; Wu, Yukai; Duan, Luming

    2018-03-01

    Duan-Lukin-Cirac-Zoller quantum repeater protocol, which was proposed to realize long distance quantum communication, requires usage of quantum memories. Atomic ensembles interacting with optical beams based on off-resonant Raman scattering serve as convenient on-demand quantum memories. Here, a complete free space, three-dimensional theory of the associated read and write process for this quantum memory is worked out with the aim of understanding intrinsic retrieval efficiency. We develop a formalism to calculate the transverse mode structure for the signal and the idler photons and use the formalism to study the intrinsic retrieval efficiency under various configurations. The effects of atomic density fluctuations and atomic motion are incorporated by numerically simulating this system for a range of realistic experimental parameters. We obtain results that describe the variation in the intrinsic retrieval efficiency as a function of the memory storage time for skewed beam configuration at a finite temperature, which provides valuable information for optimization of the retrieval efficiency in experiments.

  20. Expansion of an ultracold Rydberg plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Gabriel T.; Li, Yin; Ward, Edwin D.; Goodsell, Anne L.; Tate, Duncan A.

    2018-04-01

    We report a systematic experimental and numerical study of the expansion of ultracold Rydberg plasmas. Specifically, we have measured the asymptotic expansion velocities, v0, of ultracold neutral plasmas (UNPs) which evolve from cold, dense samples of Rydberg rubidium atoms using ion time-of-flight spectroscopy. From this, we have obtained values for the effective initial plasma electron temperature, Te ,0=mionv02/kB (where mion is the Rb+ ion mass), as a function of the original Rydberg atom density and binding energy, Eb ,i. We have also simulated numerically the interaction of UNPs with a large reservoir of Rydberg atoms to obtain data to compare with our experimental results. We find that for Rydberg atom densities in the range 107-109 cm-3, for states with principal quantum number n >40 , Te ,0 is insensitive to the initial ionization mechanism which seeds the plasma. In addition, the quantity kBTe ,0 is strongly correlated with the fraction of atoms which ionize, and is in the range 0.6 ×| Eb ,i|≲ kBTe ,0≲2.5 ×|Eb ,i| . On the other hand, plasmas from Rydberg samples with n ≲40 evolve with no significant additional ionization of the remaining atoms once a threshold number of ions has been established. The dominant interaction between the plasma electrons and the Rydberg atoms is one in which the atoms are deexcited, a heating process for electrons that competes with adiabatic cooling to establish an equilibrium where Te ,0 is determined by their Coulomb coupling parameter, Γe˜0.01 .

  1. Ultracold Dipolar Gases in Optical Lattices

    OpenAIRE

    Trefzger, C.; Menotti, C.; Capogrosso-Sansone, B.; Lewenstein, M.

    2011-01-01

    This tutorial is a theoretical work, in which we study the physics of ultra-cold dipolar bosonic gases in optical lattices. Such gases consist of bosonic atoms or molecules that interact via dipolar forces, and that are cooled below the quantum degeneracy temperature, typically in the nK range. When such a degenerate quantum gas is loaded into an optical lattice produced by standing waves of laser light, new kinds of physical phenomena occur. These systems realize then extended Hubbard-type m...

  2. Quantum Interference between Autonomous Single-Photon Sources from Doppler-Broadened Atomic Ensemble

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Teak; Lee, Yoon-Seok; Park, Jiho; Kim, Heonoh; Moon, Han Seb

    2017-01-01

    To realize a quantum network based on quantum entanglement swapping, bright and completely autonomous sources are essentially required. Here, we experimentally demonstrate Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) quantum interference between two independent bright photon pairs generated via the spontaneous four-wave mixing in Doppler-broadened ladder-type 87Rb atoms. Bright autonomous heralded single photons are operated in a continuous-wave (CW) mode with no synchronization or supplemental filters. The four-fol...

  3. Cold atoms in a cryogenic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haslinger, S.

    2011-01-01

    The idea of quantum information processing attracts increasingly interest, where a complex collection of quantum objects and quantum bits are employed to find the ideal building blocks for quantum information systems. Hybrid quantum systems are therefore promising objects as they countervail the particular drawbacks of single quantum objects. Based on superconducting resonator technology, microwave coplanar waveguides provide a well suited interconnection for photons and solid-state quantum bits (qubits), extensively investigated in recent years. Since a quantum memory is presently missing in those electrical accessible circuit cavity quantum devices, connecting the fast processing in a solid sate device to the exceptional long coherence times in atomic ensembles, the presented work is focused to establish the technological foundations for the hybridization of such quantum systems. The microwave photons stored in a superconducting high finesse microwave resonator are therefore an ideal connection between the atom and the solid state quantum world. In the last decade, the miniaturization and integration of quantum optics and atomic physics manipulation techniques on to a single chip was successfully established. Such atom chips are capable of detailed quantum manipulation of ultra-cold atoms and provide a versatile platform to combine the manipulation techniques from atomic physics with the capability of nano-fabrication. In recent years several experiments succeeded in realization of superconducting atom chips in cryogenic environments which opens the road for integrating super-conductive microwave resonators to magnetically couple an atomic ensemble to photons stored in the coplanar high finesse cavity. This thesis presents the concept, design and experimental setup of two approaches to establish an atomic ensemble of rubidium atoms inside a cryogenic environment, based on an Electron beam driven alkali metal atom source for loading a magneto optical trap in a

  4. EDITORIAL: Focus on Cold and Ultracold Molecules FOCUS ON COLD AND ULTRACOLD MOLECULES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Lincoln D.; Ye, Jun

    2009-05-01

    Cold and ultracold molecules are the next wave of ultracold physics, giving rise to an exciting array of scientific opportunities, including many body physics for novel quantum phase transitions, new states of matter, and quantum information processing. Precision tests of fundamental physical laws benefit from the existence of molecular internal structure with exquisite control. The study of novel collision and reaction dynamics will open a new chapter of quantum chemistry. Cold molecules bring together researchers from a variety of fields, including atomic, molecular, and optical physics, chemistry and chemical physics, quantum information science and quantum simulations, condensed matter physics, nuclear physics, and astrophysics, a truly remarkable synergy of scientific explorations. For the past decade there have been steady advances in direct cooling techniques, from buffer-gas cooling to cold molecular beams to electro- and magneto-molecular decelerators. These techniques have allowed a large variety of molecules to be cooled for pioneering studies. Recent amazing advances in experimental techniques combining the ultracold and the ultraprecise have furthermore brought molecules to the point of quantum degeneracy. These latter indirect cooling techniques magnetically associate atoms from a Bose-Einstein condensate and/or a quantum degenerate Fermi gas, transferring at 90% efficiency highly excited Fano-Feshbach molecules, which are on the order of 10 000 Bohr radii in size, to absolute ground state molecules just a few Bohr across. It was this latter advance, together with significant breakthroughs in internal state manipulations, which inspired us to coordinate this focus issue now, and is the reason why we say the next wave of ultracold physics has now arrived. Whether directly or indirectly cooled, heteronuclear polar molecules offer distinct new features in comparison to cold atoms, while sharing all of their advantages (purity, high coherence

  5. Photodissociation of ultracold diatomic strontium molecules with quantum state control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, M; McGuyer, B H; Apfelbeck, F; Lee, C-H; Majewska, I; Moszynski, R; Zelevinsky, T

    2016-07-07

    Chemical reactions at ultracold temperatures are expected to be dominated by quantum mechanical effects. Although progress towards ultracold chemistry has been made through atomic photoassociation, Feshbach resonances and bimolecular collisions, these approaches have been limited by imperfect quantum state selectivity. In particular, attaining complete control of the ground or excited continuum quantum states has remained a challenge. Here we achieve this control using photodissociation, an approach that encodes a wealth of information in the angular distribution of outgoing fragments. By photodissociating ultracold (88)Sr2 molecules with full control of the low-energy continuum, we access the quantum regime of ultracold chemistry, observing resonant and nonresonant barrier tunnelling, matter-wave interference of reaction products and forbidden reaction pathways. Our results illustrate the failure of the traditional quasiclassical model of photodissociation and instead are accurately described by a quantum mechanical model. The experimental ability to produce well-defined quantum continuum states at low energies will enable high-precision studies of long-range molecular potentials for which accurate quantum chemistry models are unavailable, and may serve as a source of entangled states and coherent matter waves for a wide range of experiments in quantum optics.

  6. Trapping ultracold gases near cryogenic materials with rapid reconfigurability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naides, Matthew A.; Turner, Richard W.; Lai, Ruby A.; DiSciacca, Jack M.; Lev, Benjamin L. [Departments of Applied Physics and Physics and Ginzton Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2013-12-16

    We demonstrate an atom chip trapping system that allows the placement and high-resolution imaging of ultracold atoms within microns from any ≲100 μm-thin, UHV-compatible material, while also allowing sample exchange with minimal experimental downtime. The sample is not connected to the atom chip, allowing rapid exchange without perturbing the atom chip or laser cooling apparatus. Exchange of the sample and retrapping of atoms has been performed within a week turnaround, limited only by chamber baking. Moreover, the decoupling of sample and atom chip provides the ability to independently tune the sample temperature and its position with respect to the trapped ultracold gas, which itself may remain in the focus of a high-resolution imaging system. As a first demonstration of this system, we have confined a 700-nK cloud of 8 × 10{sup 4} {sup 87}Rb atoms within 100 μm of a gold-mirrored 100-μm-thick silicon substrate. The substrate was cooled to 35 K without use of a heat shield, while the atom chip, 120 μm away, remained at room temperature. Atoms may be imaged and retrapped every 16 s, allowing rapid data collection.

  7. Diatomic molecules in ultracold Fermi gases - Novel composite bosons

    OpenAIRE

    Petrov, D. S.; Salomon, C.; Shlyapnikov, G. V.

    2005-01-01

    We give a brief overview of recent studies of weakly bound homonuclear molecules in ultracold two-component Fermi gases. It is emphasized that they represent novel composite bosons, which exhibit features of Fermi statistics at short intermolecular distances. In particular, Pauli exclusion principle for identical fermionic atoms provides a strong suppression of collisional relaxation of such molecules into deep bound states. We then analyze heteronuclear molecules which are expected to be for...

  8. Quantum Fluctuations of Vortex Lattices in Ultracold Gases

    OpenAIRE

    Kwasigroch, M. P.; Cooper, N. R.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the effects of quantum fluctuations on the properties of vortex lattices in rapidly rotating ultracold atomic gases. We develop a variational method that goes beyond the Bogoliubov theory by including the effects of interactions between the quasiparticle excitations. These interactions are found to have significant quantitative effects on physical properties even at relatively large filling factors. We use our theory to predict the expected experimental signatures of quantum fluctu...

  9. Ultracold gas shows 'lopsided' properties

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Duke University researchers have created an ultracold gas that has the startling property of bursting outward in a preferred direction when released. According to the researchers, studying the properties of the "lopsided" gas will yield fundamental insights into how matter holds itself together at the subatomic level" (1 page).

  10. Dynamic of cold-atom tips in anharmonic potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menold, Tobias; Federsel, Peter; Rogulj, Carola; Hölscher, Hendrik; Fortágh, József

    2016-01-01

    Background: Understanding the dynamics of ultracold quantum gases in an anharmonic potential is essential for applications in the new field of cold-atom scanning probe microscopy. Therein, cold atomic ensembles are used as sensitive probe tips to investigate nanostructured surfaces and surface-near potentials, which typically cause anharmonic tip motion. Results: Besides a theoretical description of this anharmonic tip motion, we introduce a novel method for detecting the cold-atom tip dynamics in situ and real time. In agreement with theory, the first measurements show that particle interactions and anharmonic motion have a significant impact on the tip dynamics. Conclusion: Our findings will be crucial for the realization of high-sensitivity force spectroscopy with cold-atom tips and could possibly allow for the development of advanced spectroscopic techniques such as Q-control. PMID:28144505

  11. Formation of ultracold NaRb Feshbach molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fudong; He, Xiaodong; Li, Xiaoke; Zhu, Bing; Chen, Jun; Wang, Dajun

    2015-01-01

    We report the creation of ultracold bosonic 23 Na 87 Rb Feshbach molecules via magneto-association. By ramping the magnetic field across an interspecies Feshbach resonance (FR), at least 4000 molecules can be produced out of the near degenerate ultracold mixture. Fast loss due to inelastic atom–molecule collisions is observed, which limits the pure molecule number, after residual atoms removal, to 1700. The pure molecule sample can live for 21.8(8) ms in the optical trap, long enough for future molecular spectroscopy studies toward coherently transferring to the singlet ro-vibrational ground state, where these molecules are stable against chemical reaction and have a permanent electric dipole moment of 3.3 Debye. We have also measured the Feshbach molecule’s binding energy near the FR by the oscillating magnetic field method and found these molecules have a large closed-channel fraction. (paper)

  12. Light crystals for ultracold quantum degenerate bosonic gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arimondo, E.

    2009-01-01

    Full text follows. The experimental realization of quantum degenerate states in ultracold atomic gases has opened the possibility to realize few body systems isolated from external perturbations and at temperatures close to absolute zero. Under these conditions counterintuitive phenomena characteristic of the quantum mechanical evolution may be assessed experimentally. Matter quantum-mechanical waves inside periodic potentials investigated in solid-state physics, where electrons propagate within a crystal lattice. Interfering laser beams create a light-induced spatial periodic potential for ultracold atoms called an 'optical lattice'. Atoms hopping between the lattice periodic potential minima emulate the motion of electrons in a crystal. The creation of one-, two-, and three-dimensional periodic structures in which atoms can be trapped and accelerated, with the possibility of switching or modulating the lattice at will, gives a great flexibility. In addition atomic physicists can tune the lattice's geometry, the rate of hopping, and the push and pull between atoms within the light crystals. So they hope to map the various behaviors of solid-state models. On the basis of the research work performed at Pisa, several processes of quantum mechanics evolution within a spatial periodic potential and associated to the solid-state physics will be presented

  13. Mode-coupling of interaction quenched ultracold bosons in periodically driven lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistakidis, Simeon; Schmelcher, Peter

    2016-05-01

    The out-of-equilibrium dynamics of interaction quenched finite ultracold bosonic ensembles in periodically driven one-dimensional optical lattices is investigated. As a first attempt a brief analysis of the dynamics caused exclusively by the periodically driven lattice is presented and the induced low-lying modes are introduced. It is shown that the periodic driving enforces the bosons in the outer wells to exhibit out-of-phase dipole-like modes, while in the central well the cloud experiences a local-breathing mode. The dynamical behavior of the system is investigated with respect to the driving frequency, revealing a resonant-like behavior of the intra-well dynamics. Subsequently, we drive the system to a highly non-equilibrium state by performing an interaction quench upon the periodically driven lattice. This protocol gives rise to admixtures of excitations in the outer wells, an enhanced breathing in the center and an amplification of the tunneling dynamics. As a result (of the quench) the system experiences multiple resonances between the inter- and intra-well dynamics at different quench amplitudes. Finally, our study reveals that the position of the resonances can be adjusted e.g. via the driving frequency or the atom number manifesting their many-body nature. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) in the framework of the SFB 925 ``Light induced dynamics and control of correlated quantum systems''.

  14. From ultracold Fermi Gases to Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Christophe

    2012-02-01

    Ultracold dilute atomic gases can be considered as model systems to address some pending problem in Many-Body physics that occur in condensed matter systems, nuclear physics, and astrophysics. We have developed a general method to probe with high precision the thermodynamics of locally homogeneous ultracold Bose and Fermi gases [1,2,3]. This method allows stringent tests of recent many-body theories. For attractive spin 1/2 fermions with tunable interaction (^6Li), we will show that the gas thermodynamic properties can continuously change from those of weakly interacting Cooper pairs described by Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory to those of strongly bound molecules undergoing Bose-Einstein condensation. First, we focus on the finite-temperature Equation of State (EoS) of the unpolarized unitary gas. Surprisingly, the low-temperature properties of the strongly interacting normal phase are well described by Fermi liquid theory [3] and we localize the superfluid phase transition. A detailed comparison with theories including recent Monte-Carlo calculations will be presented. Moving away from the unitary gas, the Lee-Huang-Yang and Lee-Yang beyond-mean-field corrections for low density bosonic and fermionic superfluids are quantitatively measured for the first time. Despite orders of magnitude difference in density and temperature, our equation of state can be used to describe low density neutron matter such as the outer shell of neutron stars. [4pt] [1] S. Nascimbène, N. Navon, K. Jiang, F. Chevy, and C. Salomon, Nature 463, 1057 (2010) [0pt] [2] N. Navon, S. Nascimbène, F. Chevy, and C. Salomon, Science 328, 729 (2010) [0pt] [3] S. Nascimbène, N. Navon, S. Pilati, F. Chevy, S. Giorgini, A. Georges, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 215303 (2011)

  15. Observation of prolonged coherence time of the collective spin wave of an atomic ensemble in a paraffin-coated 87Rb vapor cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Shuo; Luo Xiaoming; Chen Liqing; Ning Bo; Chen Shuai; Wang Jingyang; Zhong Zhiping; Pan Jianwei

    2009-01-01

    We report a prolonged coherence time of the collective spin wave of a thermal 87 Rb atomic ensemble in a paraffin-coated cell. The spin wave is prepared through a stimulated Raman process. The long coherence time is achieved by prolonging the lifetime of the spins with paraffin coating and minimize dephasing with optimal experimental configuration. The observation of the long-time-delayed-stimulated Stokes signal in the writing process suggests the prolonged lifetime of the prepared spins; a direct measurement of the decay of anti-Stokes signal in the reading process shows the coherence time is up to 300 μs after minimizing dephasing. This is 100 times longer than the reported coherence time in the similar experiments in thermal atomic ensembles based on the Duan-Lukin-Cirac-Zoller and its improved protocols. This prolonged coherence time sets the upper limit of the memory time in quantum repeaters based on such protocols, which is crucial for the realization of long-distance quantum communication. The previous reported fluorescence background in the writing process due to collision in a sample cell with buffer gas is also reduced in a cell without buffer gas.

  16. Sympathetic cooling of a membrane oscillator in a hybrid mechanical-atomic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jöckel, Andreas; Faber, Aline; Kampschulte, Tobias; Korppi, Maria; Rakher, Matthew T.; Treutlein, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Sympathetic cooling with ultracold atoms and atomic ions enables ultralow temperatures in systems where direct laser or evaporative cooling is not possible. It has so far been limited to the cooling of other microscopic particles, with masses up to 90 times larger than that of the coolant atom. Here, we use ultracold atoms to sympathetically cool the vibrations of a Si3N4 nanomembrane, the mass of which exceeds that of the atomic ensemble by a factor of 1010. The coupling of atomic and membrane vibrations is mediated by laser light over a macroscopic distance and is enhanced by placing the membrane in an optical cavity. We observe cooling of the membrane vibrations from room temperature to 650 ± 230 mK, exploiting the large atom-membrane cooperativity of our hybrid optomechanical system. With technical improvements, our scheme could provide ground-state cooling and quantum control of low-frequency oscillators such as nanomembranes or levitated nanoparticles, in a regime where purely optomechanical techniques cannot reach the ground state.

  17. Ultracold chromium: a dipolar quantum gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfau, T.; Stuhler, J.; Griesmaier, A.; Fattori, M.; Koch, T.

    2005-01-01

    We report on our recent achievement of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a gas of chromium atoms. Peculiar electronic and magnetic properties of chromium require the implementation of novel cooling strategies. We observe up to ∼ 10 5 condensed 52 Cr atoms after forced evaporation within a crossed optical dipole trap. Due to its large magnetic moment (6μ B ), the dipole-dipole interaction strength in chromium is comparable with the one of the van der Waals interaction. We prove the anisotropic nature of the dipolar interaction by releasing the condensate from a cigar shaped trap and observe, in time of flight measurements, the change of the aspect-ratio for different in-trap orientations of the atomic dipoles. We also report on the recent observation of 14 Feshbach resonances in elastic collisions between polarized ultra-cold 52 Cr atoms. This is the first Ballistic expansion of a dipolar quantum gas: The anisotropic interaction leads to a different expansion dynamics for the case of the magnetic dipoles aligned with the symmetry axis of the cigar shaped trap as compared with the dipoles oriented perpendicular to the axis of the cigar. The straight lines correspond to the theoretical expectation according to mean field theory without free parameters. observation of collisional Feshbach resonances in an atomic species with more than one valence electron. Moreover, such resonances constitute an important tool towards the realization of a purely dipolar interacting gas because they can be used to change strength and sign of the van der Waals interaction. (author)

  18. Boiling point determination using adiabatic Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo simulations: application to metals described by embedded-atom potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelb, Lev D; Chakraborty, Somendra Nath

    2011-12-14

    The normal boiling points are obtained for a series of metals as described by the "quantum-corrected Sutton Chen" (qSC) potentials [S.-N. Luo, T. J. Ahrens, T. Çağın, A. Strachan, W. A. Goddard III, and D. C. Swift, Phys. Rev. B 68, 134206 (2003)]. Instead of conventional Monte Carlo simulations in an isothermal or expanded ensemble, simulations were done in the constant-NPH adabatic variant of the Gibbs ensemble technique as proposed by Kristóf and Liszi [Chem. Phys. Lett. 261, 620 (1996)]. This simulation technique is shown to be a precise tool for direct calculation of boiling temperatures in high-boiling fluids, with results that are almost completely insensitive to system size or other arbitrary parameters as long as the potential truncation is handled correctly. Results obtained were validated using conventional NVT-Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo simulations. The qSC predictions for boiling temperatures are found to be reasonably accurate, but substantially underestimate the enthalpies of vaporization in all cases. This appears to be largely due to the systematic overestimation of dimer binding energies by this family of potentials, which leads to an unsatisfactory description of the vapor phase. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  19. Ultracold lithium-6 atoms in the BEC-BCS crossover: experiments and the construction of a new apparatus; Atomes de lithium-6 ultra froids dans la transition BEC-BCS: experiences et construction d'un montage experimental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teichmann, M

    2007-09-15

    We use a fermionic gas of Lithium-6 as a model system to study superfluidity. The limiting cases of superfluidity are Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) and superconductivity, described by the theory by Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer (BCS). In Lithium-6 gases, we can explore the whole range between the two cases, known as the BEC-BCS crossover, using a Feshbach resonance. We study the change of the momentum distribution of the gas in this cross-over and compare to theoretical models. We also investigate the hydrodynamic expansion, characteristic for a superfluid gas. We observe a sudden change of the ellipticity of the gas close to the transition to the superfluid phase. Moreover, we localized heteronuclear Feshbach resonances between {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li. We are currently constructing a second generation of the experimental setup. An new laser system, based on high power laser diodes, was developed. Changes in the vacuum chamber, including a complete reconstruction of the Zeeman slower, have increased the atomic flux, allowing us to increase the repetition rate of our experiment. Modifications of the geometry of the magnetic traps lead to a higher number of trapped atoms. (author)

  20. Ultracold lithium-6 atoms in the BEC-BCS crossover: experiments and the construction of a new apparatus; Atomes de lithium-6 ultra froids dans la transition BEC-BCS: experiences et construction d'un montage experimental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teichmann, M

    2007-09-15

    We use a fermionic gas of Lithium-6 as a model system to study superfluidity. The limiting cases of superfluidity are Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) and superconductivity, described by the theory by Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer (BCS). In Lithium-6 gases, we can explore the whole range between the two cases, known as the BEC-BCS crossover, using a Feshbach resonance. We study the change of the momentum distribution of the gas in this cross-over and compare to theoretical models. We also investigate the hydrodynamic expansion, characteristic for a superfluid gas. We observe a sudden change of the ellipticity of the gas close to the transition to the superfluid phase. Moreover, we localized heteronuclear Feshbach resonances between {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li. We are currently constructing a second generation of the experimental setup. An new laser system, based on high power laser diodes, was developed. Changes in the vacuum chamber, including a complete reconstruction of the Zeeman slower, have increased the atomic flux, allowing us to increase the repetition rate of our experiment. Modifications of the geometry of the magnetic traps lead to a higher number of trapped atoms. (author)

  1. The production and storage of ultracold neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshiki, Hajime [Kure University, Hiroshima (Japan); Shimizu, Hirohiko; Sakai, Kenji [and others

    1998-01-01

    The electric dipole measurement done on the ultracold neutron till now shows that its quantity is minute, not more than 10{sup -25}e.cm. It is purpose of this particular research program to produce such very slow neutrons, or so-cold ultracold neutrons in great quantity. Then, it was investigated what was the ultracold neutron important for, how is the ultracold neutron made, and how is very pure superfluid liquid helium made. As a result of these investigations, it was found that the validity of ultracold neutron production by superfluid liquid helium was established, that its efficiency is high enough to improve the neutron electric dipole moment detection sensitivity by at least one order of magnitude, and so forth. (G.K.)

  2. Magnetic-field gradiometer based on ultracold collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasak, Tomasz; Jachymski, Krzysztof; Calarco, Tommaso; Negretti, Antonio

    2018-05-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the usefulness of ultracold atomic collisions for sensing the strength of an external magnetic field as well as its spatial gradient. The core idea of the sensor, which we recently proposed in Jachymski et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 013401 (2018), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.120.013401], is to probe the transmission of the atoms through a set of quasi-one-dimensional waveguides that contain an impurity. Magnetic-field-dependent interactions between the incoming atoms and the impurity naturally lead to narrow resonances that can act as sensitive field probes since they strongly affect the transmission. We illustrate our findings with concrete examples of experimental relevance, demonstrating that for large atom fluences N a sensitivity of the order of 1 nT/√{N } for the field strength and 100 nT/(mm √{N }) for the gradient can be reached with our scheme.

  3. On the theory of ultracold neutrons scattering by Davydov solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizhik, L.S.

    1984-01-01

    Elastic coherent scattering of ultracold neutrons by Davydov solitons in one-dimensional periodic molecular chains without account of thermal oscillations of chain atoms is studied. It is shown that the expression for the differential cross section of the elastic neutron scattering by Davydov soliton breaks down into two components. One of them corresponds to scattering by a resting soliton, the other is proportional to the soliton velocity and has a sharp maximum in the direction of mirror reflection of neutrons from the chain

  4. SO(3) "Nuclear Physics" with ultracold Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, E.; Dalmonte, M.; Zoller, P.; Banerjee, D.; Bögli, M.; Stebler, P.; Wiese, U.-J.

    2018-06-01

    An ab initio calculation of nuclear physics from Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the fundamental SU(3) gauge theory of the strong interaction, remains an outstanding challenge. Here, we discuss the emergence of key elements of nuclear physics using an SO(3) lattice gauge theory as a toy model for QCD. We show that this model is accessible to state-of-the-art quantum simulation experiments with ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. First, we demonstrate that our model shares characteristic many-body features with QCD, such as the spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry, its restoration at finite baryon density, as well as the existence of few-body bound states. Then we show that in the one-dimensional case, the dynamics in the gauge invariant sector can be encoded as a spin S = 3/2 Heisenberg model, i.e., as quantum magnetism, which has a natural realization with bosonic mixtures in optical lattices, and thus sheds light on the connection between non-Abelian gauge theories and quantum magnetism.

  5. Ultracold molecules: vehicles to scalable quantum information processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brickman Soderberg, Kathy-Anne; Gemelke, Nathan; Chin Cheng

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a novel scheme to implement scalable quantum information processing using Li-Cs molecular states to entangle 6 Li and 133 Cs ultracold atoms held in independent optical lattices. The 6 Li atoms will act as quantum bits to store information and 133 Cs atoms will serve as messenger bits that aid in quantum gate operations and mediate entanglement between distant qubit atoms. Each atomic species is held in a separate optical lattice and the atoms can be overlapped by translating the lattices with respect to each other. When the messenger and qubit atoms are overlapped, targeted single-spin operations and entangling operations can be performed by coupling the atomic states to a molecular state with radio-frequency pulses. By controlling the frequency and duration of the radio-frequency pulses, entanglement can be either created or swapped between a qubit messenger pair. We estimate operation fidelities for entangling two distant qubits and discuss scalability of this scheme and constraints on the optical lattice lasers. Finally we demonstrate experimental control of the optical potentials sufficient to translate atoms in the lattice.

  6. Strongly correlated quantum fluids: ultracold quantum gases, quantum chromodynamic plasmas and holographic duality

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Allan; Carr, Lincoln D.; Schafer, Thomas; Steinberg, Peter; Thomas, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Strongly correlated quantum fluids are phases of matter that are intrinsically quantum mechanical, and that do not have a simple description in terms of weakly interacting quasi-particles. Two systems that have recently attracted a great deal of interest are the quark-gluon plasma, a plasma of strongly interacting quarks and gluons produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions, and ultracold atomic Fermi gases, very dilute clouds of atomic gases confined in optical or magnetic traps. These sy...

  7. Thermodynamics of ultracold Fermi gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimbene, Sylvain

    2010-01-01

    Complex Hamiltonians from condensed matter, such as the Fermi-Hubbard model, can be experimentally studied using ultracold gases. This thesis describes a new method for determining the equation of state of an ultracold gas, making the comparison with many-body theories straightforward. It is based on the measurement of the local pressure inside a trapped gas from the analysis of its in situ image. We first apply this method to the study of a Fermi gas with resonant interactions, a weakly-interacting 7 Li gas acting as a thermometer. Surprisingly, none of the existing many-body theories of the unitary gas accounts for the equation of state deduced from our study over its full range. The virial expansion extracted from the high-temperature data agrees with the resolution of the three-body problem. At low temperature, we observe, contrary to some previous studies, that the normal phase behaves as a Fermi liquid. Finally we obtain the critical temperature for superfluidity from a clear signature on the equation of state. We also measure the pressure of the ground state as a function of spin imbalance and interaction strength - measure directly relevant to describe the crust of neutron stars. Our data validate Monte-Carlo simulations and quantify the Lee-Huang-Yang corrections to mean-field interactions in low-density fermionic or bosonic superfluids. We show that, in most cases, the partially polarized normal phase can be described as a Fermi liquid of polarons. The polaron effective mass extracted from the equation of state is in agreement with a study of collective modes. (author)

  8. Observation of symmetry-protected topological band with ultracold fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bo; Zhang, Long; He, Chengdong; Poon, Ting Fung Jeffrey; Hajiyev, Elnur; Zhang, Shanchao; Liu, Xiong-Jun; Jo, Gyu-Boong

    2018-01-01

    Symmetry plays a fundamental role in understanding complex quantum matter, particularly in classifying topological quantum phases, which have attracted great interests in the recent decade. An outstanding example is the time-reversal invariant topological insulator, a symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phase in the symplectic class of the Altland-Zirnbauer classification. We report the observation for ultracold atoms of a noninteracting SPT band in a one-dimensional optical lattice and study quench dynamics between topologically distinct regimes. The observed SPT band can be protected by a magnetic group and a nonlocal chiral symmetry, with the band topology being measured via Bloch states at symmetric momenta. The topology also resides in far-from-equilibrium spin dynamics, which are predicted and observed in experiment to exhibit qualitatively distinct behaviors in quenching to trivial and nontrivial regimes, revealing two fundamental types of spin-relaxation dynamics related to bulk topology. This work opens the way to expanding the scope of SPT physics with ultracold atoms and studying nonequilibrium quantum dynamics in these exotic systems. PMID:29492457

  9. Evidence of Antiblockade in an Ultracold Rydberg Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amthor, Thomas; Giese, Christian; Hofmann, Christoph S.; Weidemüller, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    We present the experimental observation of the antiblockade in an ultracold Rydberg gas recently proposed by Ates et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 023002 (2007)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.98.023002]. Our approach allows the control of the pair distribution in the gas and is based on a strong coupling of one transition in an atomic three-level system, while introducing specific detunings of the other transition. When the coupling energy matches the interaction energy of the Rydberg long-range interactions, the otherwise blocked excitation of close pairs becomes possible. A time-resolved spectroscopic measurement of the Penning ionization signal is used to identify slight variations in the Rydberg pair distribution of a random arrangement of atoms. A model based on a pair interaction Hamiltonian is presented which well reproduces our experimental observations and allows one to deduce the distribution of nearest-neighbor distances.

  10. Ensemble Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Matteo; Valentini, Giorgio

    2012-03-01

    Ensemble methods are statistical and computational learning procedures reminiscent of the human social learning behavior of seeking several opinions before making any crucial decision. The idea of combining the opinions of different "experts" to obtain an overall “ensemble” decision is rooted in our culture at least from the classical age of ancient Greece, and it has been formalized during the Enlightenment with the Condorcet Jury Theorem[45]), which proved that the judgment of a committee is superior to those of individuals, provided the individuals have reasonable competence. Ensembles are sets of learning machines that combine in some way their decisions, or their learning algorithms, or different views of data, or other specific characteristics to obtain more reliable and more accurate predictions in supervised and unsupervised learning problems [48,116]. A simple example is represented by the majority vote ensemble, by which the decisions of different learning machines are combined, and the class that receives the majority of “votes” (i.e., the class predicted by the majority of the learning machines) is the class predicted by the overall ensemble [158]. In the literature, a plethora of terms other than ensembles has been used, such as fusion, combination, aggregation, and committee, to indicate sets of learning machines that work together to solve a machine learning problem [19,40,56,66,99,108,123], but in this chapter we maintain the term ensemble in its widest meaning, in order to include the whole range of combination methods. Nowadays, ensemble methods represent one of the main current research lines in machine learning [48,116], and the interest of the research community on ensemble methods is witnessed by conferences and workshops specifically devoted to ensembles, first of all the multiple classifier systems (MCS) conference organized by Roli, Kittler, Windeatt, and other researchers of this area [14,62,85,149,173]. Several theories have been

  11. Alignment creation in atomic ensembles by elastic electron scattering; the case of 138Ba(...6s6p 1P1) atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trajmar, S.; Kanik, I.; LeClair, L.R.; Khakoo, M.A.; Bray, I.; Fursa, D.; Csanak, G.

    1998-01-01

    We describe some of our results from a joint experimental and theoretical program concerning elastic electron scattering by 138 Ba(...6s6p 1 P 1 ) atoms. From the experimental results, we derived various scattering parameters and magnetic sublevel specific differential elastic scattering cross sections at impact energy (E 0 ) of 20.0 eV and at scattering angles (θ) of 10deg, 15deg, and 20deg. The same parameters and cross sections were calculated by the convergent close coupling (CCC) approximation and compared to the experimental results. An excellent agreement, found for the two sets of data, gave us confidence in the CCC method and allowed us to extend the angular and energy ranges for the purpose of generating integral elastic scattering cross sections needed for the deduction of the alignment creation cross sections. (J.P.N.)

  12. Quantum optics with ultracold quantum gases: towards the full quantum regime of the light-matter interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekhov, Igor B; Ritsch, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    Although the study of ultracold quantum gases trapped by light is a prominent direction of modern research, the quantum properties of light were widely neglected in this field. Quantum optics with quantum gases closes this gap and addresses phenomena where the quantum statistical natures of both light and ultracold matter play equally important roles. First, light can serve as a quantum nondemolition probe of the quantum dynamics of various ultracold particles from ultracold atomic and molecular gases to nanoparticles and nanomechanical systems. Second, due to the dynamic light-matter entanglement, projective measurement-based preparation of the many-body states is possible, where the class of emerging atomic states can be designed via optical geometry. Light scattering constitutes such a quantum measurement with controllable measurement back-action. As in cavity-based spin squeezing, the atom number squeezed and Schrödinger cat states can be prepared. Third, trapping atoms inside an optical cavity, one creates optical potentials and forces, which are not prescribed but quantized and dynamical variables themselves. Ultimately, cavity quantum electrodynamics with quantum gases requires a self-consistent solution for light and particles, which enriches the picture of quantum many-body states of atoms trapped in quantum potentials. This will allow quantum simulations of phenomena related to the physics of phonons, polarons, polaritons and other quantum quasiparticles. (topical review)

  13. NYYD Ensemble

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    NYYD Ensemble'i duost Traksmann - Lukk E.-S. Tüüri teosega "Symbiosis", mis on salvestatud ka hiljuti ilmunud NYYD Ensemble'i CDle. 2. märtsil Rakvere Teatri väikeses saalis ja 3. märtsil Rotermanni Soolalaos, kavas Tüür, Kaumann, Berio, Reich, Yun, Hauta-aho, Buckinx

  14. Making ultracold molecules in a two color pump-dump photoassociation scheme using chirped pulses

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Christiane P.; Luc-Koenig, Eliane; Masnou-Seeuws, Françoise

    2005-01-01

    This theoretical paper investigates the formation of ground state molecules from ultracold cesium atoms in a two-color scheme. Following previous work on photoassociation with chirped picosecond pulses [Luc-Koenig et al., Phys. Rev. A {\\bf 70}, 033414 (2004)], we investigate stabilization by a second (dump) pulse. By appropriately choosing the dump pulse parameters and time delay with respect to the photoassociation pulse, we show that a large number of deeply bound molecules are created in t...

  15. Mean-field description of ultracold bosons on disordered two-dimensional optical lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonsante, Pierfrancesco; Massel, Francesco; Penna, Vittorio; Vezzani, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    In the present communication, we describe the properties induced by disorder on an ultracold gas of bosonic atoms loaded into a two-dimensional optical lattice with global confinement ensured by a parabolic potential. Our analysis is centred on the spatial distribution of the various phases, focusing particularly on the superfluid properties of the system as a function of external parameters and disorder amplitude. In particular, it is shown how disorder can suppress superfluidity, while partially preserving the system coherence. (fast track communication)

  16. Hofstadter's butterfly energy spectrum of ultracold fermions on the two-dimensional triangular optical lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Jingmin; Lu Qingqing

    2009-01-01

    We study the energy spectrum of ultracold fermionic atoms on the two-dimensional triangular optical lattice subjected to a perpendicular effective magnetic field, which can be realized with laser beams. We derive the generalized Harper's equations and numerically solve them, then we obtain the Hofstadter's butterfly-like energy spectrum, which has a novel fractal structure. The observability of the Hofstadter's butterfly spectrum is also discussed

  17. Ensembl 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birney, E; Andrews, D; Bevan, P; Caccamo, M; Cameron, G; Chen, Y; Clarke, L; Coates, G; Cox, T; Cuff, J; Curwen, V; Cutts, T; Down, T; Durbin, R; Eyras, E; Fernandez-Suarez, X M; Gane, P; Gibbins, B; Gilbert, J; Hammond, M; Hotz, H; Iyer, V; Kahari, A; Jekosch, K; Kasprzyk, A; Keefe, D; Keenan, S; Lehvaslaiho, H; McVicker, G; Melsopp, C; Meidl, P; Mongin, E; Pettett, R; Potter, S; Proctor, G; Rae, M; Searle, S; Slater, G; Smedley, D; Smith, J; Spooner, W; Stabenau, A; Stalker, J; Storey, R; Ureta-Vidal, A; Woodwark, C; Clamp, M; Hubbard, T

    2004-01-01

    The Ensembl (http://www.ensembl.org/) database project provides a bioinformatics framework to organize biology around the sequences of large genomes. It is a comprehensive and integrated source of annotation of large genome sequences, available via interactive website, web services or flat files. As well as being one of the leading sources of genome annotation, Ensembl is an open source software engineering project to develop a portable system able to handle very large genomes and associated requirements. The facilities of the system range from sequence analysis to data storage and visualization and installations exist around the world both in companies and at academic sites. With a total of nine genome sequences available from Ensembl and more genomes to follow, recent developments have focused mainly on closer integration between genomes and external data.

  18. Ensembl 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Aken, Bronwen L.; Achuthan, Premanand; Akanni, Wasiu; Amode, M. Ridwan; Bernsdorff, Friederike; Bhai, Jyothish; Billis, Konstantinos; Carvalho-Silva, Denise; Cummins, Carla; Clapham, Peter; Gil, Laurent; Gir?n, Carlos Garc?a; Gordon, Leo; Hourlier, Thibaut; Hunt, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    Ensembl (www.ensembl.org) is a database and genome browser for enabling research on vertebrate genomes. We import, analyse, curate and integrate a diverse collection of large-scale reference data to create a more comprehensive view of genome biology than would be possible from any individual dataset. Our extensive data resources include evidence-based gene and regulatory region annotation, genome variation and gene trees. An accompanying suite of tools, infrastructure and programmatic access ...

  19. Ensemble Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xiuyuan; Van Roy, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Thompson sampling has emerged as an effective heuristic for a broad range of online decision problems. In its basic form, the algorithm requires computing and sampling from a posterior distribution over models, which is tractable only for simple special cases. This paper develops ensemble sampling, which aims to approximate Thompson sampling while maintaining tractability even in the face of complex models such as neural networks. Ensemble sampling dramatically expands on the range of applica...

  20. Conformational Ensembles of an Intrinsically Disordered Protein pKID with and without a KIX Domain in Explicit Solvent Investigated by All-Atom Multicanonical Molecular Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruki Nakamura

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The phosphorylated kinase-inducible activation domain (pKID adopts a helix–loop–helix structure upon binding to its partner KIX, although it is unstructured in the unbound state. The N-terminal and C-terminal regions of pKID, which adopt helices in the complex, are called, respectively, αA and αB. We performed all-atom multicanonical molecular dynamics simulations of pKID with and without KIX in explicit solvents to generate conformational ensembles. Although the unbound pKID was disordered overall, αA and αB exhibited a nascent helix propensity; the propensity of αA was stronger than that of αB, which agrees with experimental results. In the bound state, the free-energy landscape of αB involved two low free-energy fractions: native-like and non-native fractions. This result suggests that αB folds according to the induced-fit mechanism. The αB-helix direction was well aligned as in the NMR complex structure, although the αA helix exhibited high flexibility. These results also agree quantitatively with experimental observations. We have detected that the αB helix can bind to another site of KIX, to which another protein MLL also binds with the adopting helix. Consequently, MLL can facilitate pKID binding to the pKID-binding site by blocking the MLL-binding site. This also supports experimentally obtained results.

  1. Atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Alain; Villani, Cedric; Guthleben, Denis; Leduc, Michele; Brenner, Anastasios; Pouthas, Joel; Perrin, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Completed by recent contributions on various topics (atoms and the Brownian motion, the career of Jean Perrin, the evolution of atomic physics since Jean Perrin, relationship between scientific atomism and philosophical atomism), this book is a reprint of a book published at the beginning of the twentieth century in which the author addressed the relationship between atomic theory and chemistry (molecules, atoms, the Avogadro hypothesis, molecule structures, solutes, upper limits of molecular quantities), molecular agitation (molecule velocity, molecule rotation or vibration, molecular free range), the Brownian motion and emulsions (history and general features, statistical equilibrium of emulsions), the laws of the Brownian motion (Einstein's theory, experimental control), fluctuations (the theory of Smoluchowski), light and quanta (black body, extension of quantum theory), the electricity atom, the atom genesis and destruction (transmutations, atom counting)

  2. Dicke superradiance as nondestructive probe for the state of atoms in optical lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Brinke, Nicolai; Schützhold, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    We present a proposal for a probing scheme utilizing Dicke superradiance to obtain information about ultracold atoms in optical lattices. A probe photon is absorbed collectively by an ensemble of lattice atoms generating a Dicke state. The lattice dynamics (e.g., tunneling) affects the coherence properties of that Dicke state and thus alters the superradiant emission characteristics - which in turn provides insight into the lattice (dynamics). Comparing the Bose-Hubbard and the Fermi-Hubbard model, we find similar superradiance in the strongly interacting Mott insulator regime, but crucial differences in the weakly interacting (superfluid or metallic) phase. Furthermore, we study the possibility to detect whether a quantum phase transition between the two regimes can be considered adiabatic or a quantum quench.

  3. Developing Density of Laser-Cooled Neutral Atoms and Molecules in a Linear Magnetic Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, Joe, III; Walstrom, Peter; di Rosa, Michael

    2013-05-01

    In this poster we show that neutral particle injection and accumulation using laser-induced spin flips may be used to form dense ensembles of ultracold magnetic particles, i.e., laser-cooled paramagnetic atoms and molecules. Particles are injected in a field-seeking state, are switched by optical pumping to a field-repelled state, and are stored in the minimum-B trap. The analogous process in high-energy charged-particle accumulator rings is charge-exchange injection using stripper foils. The trap is a linear array of sextupoles capped by solenoids. Particle-tracking calculations and design of our linear accumulator along with related experiments involving 7Li will be presented. We test these concepts first with atoms in preparation for later work with selected molecules. Finally, we present our preliminary results with CaH, our candidate molecule for laser cooling. This project is funded by the LDRD program of Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  4. Quantum versus classical statistical dynamics of an ultracold Bose gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berges, Juergen; Gasenzer, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the conditions under which quantum fluctuations are relevant for the quantitative interpretation of experiments with ultracold Bose gases. This requires to go beyond the description in terms of the Gross-Pitaevskii and Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov mean-field theories, which can be obtained as classical (statistical) field-theory approximations of the quantum many-body problem. We employ functional-integral techniques based on the two-particle irreducible (2PI) effective action. The role of quantum fluctuations is studied within the nonperturbative 2PI 1/N expansion to next-to-leading order. At this accuracy level memory integrals enter the dynamic equations, which differ for quantum and classical statistical descriptions. This can be used to obtain a classicality condition for the many-body dynamics. We exemplify this condition by studying the nonequilibrium evolution of a one-dimensional Bose gas of sodium atoms, and discuss some distinctive properties of quantum versus classical statistical dynamics

  5. A Michelson interferometer for ultracold neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyerl, A.; Malik, S.S.; Steinhauser, K.A.; Berger, L.

    1979-01-01

    We propose a neutron Michelson Interferometer installed within a focussing 'gravity diffractometer' for ultracold neutrons. In this arrangement the expected interference pattern depends only on the well-defined vertical component of neutron wavevector. Possible applications of such an interferometer are discussed. (orig.)

  6. An Ensemble of Atomic Fountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 ph as e (n s) 56000559005580055700 MJD 8 10-16 2 4 6 8 10-15 2 4 ov er la pp in g Al la n de vi at io n 104... Metrologia 49, 49-56 (2012). [3] N. Ashby et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 070802 (2007). [4] S. J. Ferrell, et al., Phys. Rev. A 76, 062104 (2007). [5] T. M

  7. Electric-field-modified Feshbach resonances in ultracold atom–molecule collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Dong; Li Ya; Feng Eryin; Huang Wuying

    2017-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of near zero-energy Feshbach resonances in ultracold collisions of atom and molecule, taking the He–PH system as an example, subject to superimposed electric and magnetic static fields. We find that the electric field can induce Feshbach resonance which cannot occur when only a magnetic field is applied, through couplings of the adjacent rotational states of different parities. We show that the electric field can shift the position of the magnetic Feshbach resonance, and change the amplitude of resonance significantly. Finally, we demonstrate that, for narrow magnetic Feshbach resonance as in most cases of ultracold atom–molecule collision, the electric field may be used to modulate the resonance, because the width of resonance in electric field scale is relatively larger than that in magnetic field scale. (paper)

  8. Interactions of Ultracold Impurity Particles with Bose-Einstein Condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-23

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0141 INTERACTIONS OF ULTRACOLD IMPURITY PARTICLES WITH BOSE- EINSTEIN CONDENSATES Georg Raithel UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN Final...SUBTITLE Interactions of ultracold impurity particles with Bose- Einstein Condensates 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9550-10-1-0453 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Interactions of ultracold impurity particles with Bose- Einstein Condensates Contract/Grant #: FA9550-10-1-0453 Reporting Period: 8/15/2010 to 2/14

  9. The charge imbalance in ultracold plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Tianxing; Lu, Ronghua; Guo, Li; Han, Shensheng

    2016-01-01

    Ultracold plasmas are regarded as quasineutral but not strictly neutral. The results of charge imbalance in the expansion of ultracold plasmas are reported. The calculations are performed by a full molecular-dynamics simulation. The details of the electron velocity distributions are calculated without the assumption of electron global thermal equilibrium and Boltzmann distribution. Spontaneous evolutions of the charge imbalance from the initial states with perfect neutrality are given in the simulations. The expansion of outer plasma slows down with the charge imbalance. The influences of plasma size and parameters on the charge imbalance are discussed. The radial profiles of electron temperature are given for the first time, and the self-similar expansion can still occur even if there is no global thermal equilibrium. The electron disorder induced heating is also found in the simulation.

  10. The charge imbalance in ultracold plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Tianxing; Lu, Ronghua, E-mail: lurh@siom.ac.cn; Guo, Li; Han, Shensheng [Key Laboratory for Quantum Optics and Center for Cold Atom Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2016-09-15

    Ultracold plasmas are regarded as quasineutral but not strictly neutral. The results of charge imbalance in the expansion of ultracold plasmas are reported. The calculations are performed by a full molecular-dynamics simulation. The details of the electron velocity distributions are calculated without the assumption of electron global thermal equilibrium and Boltzmann distribution. Spontaneous evolutions of the charge imbalance from the initial states with perfect neutrality are given in the simulations. The expansion of outer plasma slows down with the charge imbalance. The influences of plasma size and parameters on the charge imbalance are discussed. The radial profiles of electron temperature are given for the first time, and the self-similar expansion can still occur even if there is no global thermal equilibrium. The electron disorder induced heating is also found in the simulation.

  11. Atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auffray, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The atom through centuries, has been imagined, described, explored, then accelerated, combined...But what happens truly inside the atom? And what are mechanisms who allow its stability? Physicist and historian of sciences, Jean-Paul Auffray explains that these questions are to the heart of the modern physics and it brings them a new lighting. (N.C.)

  12. Collisional Cooling of Light Ions by Cotrapped Heavy Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sourav; Sawant, Rahul; Rangwala, S A

    2017-03-17

    We experimentally demonstrate cooling of trapped ions by collisions with cotrapped, higher-mass neutral atoms. It is shown that the lighter ^{39}K^{+} ions, created by ionizing ^{39}K atoms in a magneto-optical trap (MOT), when trapped in an ion trap and subsequently allowed to cool by collisions with ultracold, heavier ^{85}Rb atoms in a MOT, exhibit a longer trap lifetime than without the localized ^{85}Rb MOT atoms. A similar cooling of trapped ^{85}Rb^{+} ions by ultracold ^{133}Cs atoms in a MOT is also demonstrated in a different experimental configuration to validate this mechanism of ion cooling by localized and centered ultracold neutral atoms. Our results suggest that the cooling of ions by localized cold atoms holds for any mass ratio, thereby enabling studies on a wider class of atom-ion systems irrespective of their masses.

  13. Ultracold fermion race is on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulet, R.

    1999-01-01

    At the quantum level, particles behave very differently depending on whether their spin angular momentum is an integer or a half-integer. Half-integer spin particles are known as fermions, and include all the constituents of atoms: electrons, protons and neutrons. Bosons, on the other hand, are particles with integer spin, such as photons. Atoms are fermions if they are composed of an odd number of particles, like helium-3 or lithium-6. If they have an even number of constituents, like hydrogen, helium-4 or lithium-7, they are known as bosons. Fermions and bosons behave in profoundly different ways under certain conditions, especially at low temperatures. Four years ago, physicists created a Bose condensate, a quantum degenerate gas of bosons. Now the race is on to do the same with fermions. Deborah Jin's group at the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Colorado has cooled a fermion gas to the lowest temperature yet (B DeMarco 1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 4208). And John Thomas and co-workers at Duke University have set a new record for the length of time that fermions can be trapped using lasers (K O'Hara 1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 4204). In this article the author describes the latest advances in the race to create a quantum degenerate gas of fermions. (UK)

  14. Deviations from Wick's theorem in the canonical ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönhammer, K.

    2017-07-01

    Wick's theorem for the expectation values of products of field operators for a system of noninteracting fermions or bosons plays an important role in the perturbative approach to the quantum many-body problem. A finite-temperature version holds in the framework of the grand canonical ensemble, but not for the canonical ensemble appropriate for systems with fixed particle number such as ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices. Here we present formulas for expectation values of products of field operators in the canonical ensemble using a method in the spirit of Gaudin's proof of Wick's theorem for the grand canonical case. The deviations from Wick's theorem are examined quantitatively for two simple models of noninteracting fermions.

  15. Quasi-energy of ultracold neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, A.I.; Nosov, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    A solution is found to the problem of the propagation of a neutron beam transmitted through a periodically acting high-speed chopper. It is a generalization of the Moshinsky's problem of the evolution of a plane wave in the right half-space after an ideal absorber at the origin of coordinates has been instantaneously removed. The energy spectrum of transmitted neutrons is found to be discrete and corresponding to their quasi-energy. Interference of the states corresponding to different satellite lines leads to a complex spatial pattern with typical beats. A number of experiments with ultracold neutrons are suggested and discussed. 12 refs.; 1 fig

  16. Transfer coefficients in ultracold strongly coupled plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrov, A. A.; Vorob'ev, V. S.; Zelener, B. V.

    2018-03-01

    We use both analytical and molecular dynamic methods for electron transfer coefficients in an ultracold plasma when its temperature is small and the coupling parameter characterizing the interaction of electrons and ions exceeds unity. For these conditions, we use the approach of nearest neighbor to determine the average electron (ion) diffusion coefficient and to calculate other electron transfer coefficients (viscosity and electrical and thermal conductivities). Molecular dynamics simulations produce electronic and ionic diffusion coefficients, confirming the reliability of these results. The results compare favorably with experimental and numerical data from earlier studies.

  17. Research using ultracold neutrons at the ILL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyerl, A.

    1990-01-01

    In this talk I will make no effort to give an exhaustive, detailed description of the well-published results of recent work with ultracold neutrons (UCN) at the ILL. Instead, there will be a biased selection of some topics in which author happens to be most interested, though in some cases as a spectator from a considerable distance than as an actor. The selection includes the recent lifetime experiment using a Fomblin-coated bottle, the continuing search for an electric dipole moment of the neutron and some ideas on high precision neutron optics experiments

  18. High-precision multiband spectroscopy of ultracold fermions in a nonseparable optical lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fläschner, Nick; Tarnowski, Matthias; Rem, Benno S.; Vogel, Dominik; Sengstock, Klaus; Weitenberg, Christof

    2018-05-01

    Spectroscopic tools are fundamental for the understanding of complex quantum systems. Here, we demonstrate high-precision multiband spectroscopy in a graphenelike lattice using ultracold fermionic atoms. From the measured band structure, we characterize the underlying lattice potential with a relative error of 1.2 ×10-3 . Such a precise characterization of complex lattice potentials is an important step towards precision measurements of quantum many-body systems. Furthermore, we explain the excitation strengths into different bands with a model and experimentally study their dependency on the symmetry of the perturbation operator. This insight suggests the excitation strengths as a suitable observable for interaction effects on the eigenstates.

  19. Using Three-Body Recombination to Extract Electron Temperatures of Ultracold Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, R. S.; Zhang, X. L.; Rolston, S. L.

    2007-01-01

    Three-body recombination, an important collisional process in plasmas, increases dramatically at low electron temperatures, with an accepted scaling of T e -9/2 . We measure three-body recombination in an ultracold neutral xenon plasma by detecting recombination-created Rydberg atoms using a microwave-ionization technique. With the accepted theory (expected to be applicable for weakly coupled plasmas) and our measured rates, we extract the plasma temperatures, which are in reasonable agreement with previous measurements early in the plasma lifetime. The resulting electron temperatures indicate that the plasma continues to cool to temperatures below 1 K

  20. Production and spectroscopy of ultracold YbRb{sup *} molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemitz, Nils

    2008-11-15

    This thesis describes the formation of electronically excited but translationally cold molecules formed from rubidium atoms and two isotopes of ytterbium ({sup 176}Yb and {sup 174}Yb) by means of photoassociation. The experiments were performed in a combined MOT with 10{sup 9} rubidium atoms and 2.10{sup 6} ytterbium atoms at temperatures of less than 1 mK. Photoassociation lines were found by trap loss spectroscopy throughout a wavelength range of 2 nm near the 795 nm D1 transition in rubidium. The majority of lines belong to two vibrational series in the excited YbRb{sup *} molecule, converging on a system of a ground state ytterbium atom and an excited rubidium atom. The strong variation of line strength between different vibrational lines is explained through the Franck-Condon principle. An improved version of the Leroy-Bernstein equation was used to extract the leading dispersion coefficient of the potential from the vibrational progression. Most of the observed lines show a resolved rotational structure as expected from a basic quantum mechanical model. The series terminates with the third or forth rotational component due to the ground state centrifugal barrier.The measured rotational constants agree very well with calculations based on the C{sub 6} coefficient. The discovery of a splitting of the rotational components into subcomponents indicates an uncommon angular momentum coupling described by Hund's case. Variations in the depth of the subcomponents indicates a similar splitting in the ground state, with the energies of the substates based on the alignment of the rubidium atom's magnetic dipole moment relative to the angular momentum carried by an approaching ytterbium atom. This creates an additional ground state barrier, partially suppressing some of the subcomponents. Using a rate equation model developed for this purpose, a maximum formation rate of 2.5.10{sup 6} molecules per second was calculated over the volume of the entire trap. The

  1. Production and spectroscopy of ultracold YbRb* molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemitz, Nils

    2008-11-01

    This thesis describes the formation of electronically excited but translationally cold molecules formed from rubidium atoms and two isotopes of ytterbium ( 176 Yb and 174 Yb) by means of photoassociation. The experiments were performed in a combined MOT with 10 9 rubidium atoms and 2.10 6 ytterbium atoms at temperatures of less than 1 mK. Photoassociation lines were found by trap loss spectroscopy throughout a wavelength range of 2 nm near the 795 nm D1 transition in rubidium. The majority of lines belong to two vibrational series in the excited YbRb * molecule, converging on a system of a ground state ytterbium atom and an excited rubidium atom. The strong variation of line strength between different vibrational lines is explained through the Franck-Condon principle. An improved version of the Leroy-Bernstein equation was used to extract the leading dispersion coefficient of the potential from the vibrational progression. Most of the observed lines show a resolved rotational structure as expected from a basic quantum mechanical model. The series terminates with the third or forth rotational component due to the ground state centrifugal barrier.The measured rotational constants agree very well with calculations based on the C 6 coefficient. The discovery of a splitting of the rotational components into subcomponents indicates an uncommon angular momentum coupling described by Hund's case. Variations in the depth of the subcomponents indicates a similar splitting in the ground state, with the energies of the substates based on the alignment of the rubidium atom's magnetic dipole moment relative to the angular momentum carried by an approaching ytterbium atom. This creates an additional ground state barrier, partially suppressing some of the subcomponents. Using a rate equation model developed for this purpose, a maximum formation rate of 2.5.10 6 molecules per second was calculated over the volume of the entire trap. The work presented here is an important step on

  2. Physics with Ultracold and Thermal Neutron Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2004-01-01

    The final report is broken into 5 segments, reflecting research conclusions reached during specific time periods: 1991-1997, 1997-1999, 1999-2000, 2000-2001, and 2001-2002. The first part of the work reported was carried out at the 2 Mw research reactor of the Rhode Island Nuclaer Science Center (RJNSC). Chosen for study was the slow phase separation in mixtures of oil and water in the presence of a surfactant, and the structural features of an oil layer during the slow build-up from the gas phase. The results of these measurements, as well as studies of the capillary wave properties of oil/surfactant/water interfaces are described. The second part of the work was performed at the neutron reflection facilities of the Intennse Pulsed Neutron Source at Argonne and of the NBSR reactor at NIST. At Argonne, the uniaxial magnetic order of an Fe/CR superlattice was investigated, while the experiments at NIST studied the swelling behavior of ordered thin films of diblock copolymers when they were exposed to solvent vapors. The third part of the work was concerned with the storage properties of ultracold neturons in a trap. New experiments on spectral evolution during storage, using the UCN source of the Institut Laue-Langevin were able to be run. Subsequent periods focussed on the ultracold neutrons work, spin valve multilayer systems, and pseudo-partial wetting

  3. Geometric phase effects in ultracold chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Jisha; Naduvalath, Balakrishnan; Kendrick, Brian K.

    2016-05-01

    In molecules, the geometric phase, also known as Berry's phase, originates from the adiabatic transport of the electronic wavefunction when the nuclei follow a closed path encircling a conical intersection between two electronic potential energy surfaces. It is demonstrated that the inclusion of the geometric phase has an important effect on ultracold chemical reaction rates. The effect appears in rotationally and vibrationally resolved integral cross sections as well as cross sections summed over all product quantum states. It arises from interference between scattering amplitudes of two reaction pathways: a direct path and a looping path that encircle the conical intersection between the two lowest adiabatic electronic potential energy surfaces. Illustrative results are presented for the O+ OH --> H+ O2 reaction and for hydrogen exchange in H+ H2 and D+HD reactions. It is also qualitatively demonstrated that the geometric phase effect can be modulated by applying an external electric field allowing the possibility of quantum control of chemical reactions in the ultracold regime. This work was supported in part by NSF Grant PHY-1505557 (N.B.) and ARO MURI Grant No. W911NF-12-1-0476 (N.B.).

  4. Thermalization and Prethermalization in an ultracold Bose Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhnert, M.

    2013-01-01

    Atom chips consist of microscopic current carrying structures that generate magnetic trapping potentials for ultracold neutral atoms. These atom chips provide a high design flexibility of possible trap geometries, making the creation of highly anisotropic trapping potentials feasible. The resulting magnetic traps are characterized by a high isolation from the environment and are used to create degenerate, one-dimensional (1d) Bose gases. On typical experimental time scales, these 1d Bose gases can be described as practically closed quantum many-body systems. By applying a rapid quantum quench, the many-body system is brought out of thermal equilibrium and the resulting dynamics are studied via the statistical properties of matter-wave interference measurements. These measured quantum statistical distributions reveal that thermalization of this effectively integrable 1d Bose gas happens in a two-step process. First, the system rapidly dephases to a prethermalized state, characterized by thermal-like correlation properties, which are still distinctly different from the true thermal equilibrium state. Second, on a much longer time scale, the measured distribution functions indicate a further decay to the true thermal equilibrium state. Furthermore, by studying a highly non-equilibrium system via matter-wave interferometry, the underlying multimode dynamics, characterizing one-dimensional quantum systems, are revealed. This thesis shows that these dynamics are essential in establishing the prethermalized state and that its properties are defined by the quantum shot noise of the splitting process. In conclusion, this work aims at improving the understanding of quantum thermalization processes in integrable and nearly-integrable systems in the 1d and 1d/3d crossover regimes. Apparently, the general paths to thermal equilibrium in nearly-integrable systems are indirect and complex. This work provides an in depth experimental study of the relaxation dynamics of a highly

  5. A compound parabolic concentrator as an ultracold neutron spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickerson, K.P., E-mail: hickerson@gmail.com; Filippone, B.W., E-mail: bradf@caltech.edu

    2013-09-01

    The design principles of nonimaging optics are applied to ultracold neutrons (UCN). In particular a vertical compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) that efficiently redirects UCN vertically into a bounded spatial volume where they have a maximum energy mga that depends only on the initial phase space cross sectional area πa{sup 2} creates a spectrometer which can be applied to neutron lifetime and gravitational quantum state experiments. -- Highlights: • Nonimaging optics is applied to ultracold neutrons. • A novel ultracold neutron spectrometer is discussed. • New uses may include a neutron lifetime experiment.

  6. A compound parabolic concentrator as an ultracold neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickerson, K.P.; Filippone, B.W.

    2013-01-01

    The design principles of nonimaging optics are applied to ultracold neutrons (UCN). In particular a vertical compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) that efficiently redirects UCN vertically into a bounded spatial volume where they have a maximum energy mga that depends only on the initial phase space cross sectional area πa 2 creates a spectrometer which can be applied to neutron lifetime and gravitational quantum state experiments. -- Highlights: • Nonimaging optics is applied to ultracold neutrons. • A novel ultracold neutron spectrometer is discussed. • New uses may include a neutron lifetime experiment

  7. From Nanoscale Systems to Ultracold Atoms and Molecules, and Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-05

    Francesco Bariani 0.18 Swati Singh 0.71 Steven Steinke 0.37 1.26 3 PERCENT_SUPPORTEDNAME FTE Equivalent: Total Number: National Academy Member...doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.210403 H. Seok, L. Buchmann, S. Singh , S. Steinke, P. Meystre. Generation of mechanical squeezing via magnetic dipoles...10.1126/science.1208322 S. Singh , S. Steinke, M. Tasgin, P. Meystre, K. Schwab, M. Vengalattore. Quantum-measurement backaction from a Bose-Einstein

  8. Cold and ultracold molecules: science, technology and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, Lincoln D; DeMille, David; Krems, Roman V; Ye Jun

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the current state of the art in the research field of cold and ultracold molecules. It serves as an introduction to the focus issue of New Journal of Physics on Cold and Ultracold Molecules and describes new prospects for fundamental research and technological development. Cold and ultracold molecules may revolutionize physical chemistry and few-body physics, provide techniques for probing new states of quantum matter, allow for precision measurements of both fundamental and applied interest, and enable quantum simulations of condensed-matter phenomena. Ultracold molecules offer promising applications such as new platforms for quantum computing, precise control of molecular dynamics, nanolithography and Bose-enhanced chemistry. The discussion is based on recent experimental and theoretical work and concludes with a summary of anticipated future directions and open questions in this rapidly expanding research field.

  9. Rapid prototyping of versatile atom chips for atom interferometry applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasch, Brian; Squires, Matthew; Olson, Spencer; Kroese, Bethany; Imhof, Eric; Kohn, Rudolph; Stuhl, Benjamin; Schramm, Stacy; Stickney, James

    2016-05-01

    We present recent advances in the manipulation of ultracold atoms with ex-vacuo atom chips (i.e. atom chips that are not inside to the UHV chamber). Details will be presented of an experimental system that allows direct bonded copper (DBC) atom chips to be removed and replaced in minutes, requiring minimal re-optimization of parameters. This system has been used to create Bose-Einstein condensates, as well as magnetic waveguides with precisely tunable axial parameters, allowing double wells, pure harmonic confinement, and modified harmonic traps. We investigate the effects of higher order magnetic field contributions to the waveguide, and the implications for confined atom interferometry.

  10. An endoscopic detector for ultracold neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goeltl, L.; Fertl, M.; Kirch, K. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Laboratory for Particle Physics, Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Institute for Particle Physics, Zuerich (Switzerland); Chowdhuri, Z.; Henneck, R.; Lauss, B.; Mtchedlishvili, A.; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P.; Zsigmond, G. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Laboratory for Particle Physics, Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Gray, F. [Regis University, Denver, CO (United States); Lefort, T. [Universite de Caen, CNRS/IN2P3, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, Caen (France)

    2013-01-15

    A new versatile detector for ultracold neutrons (UCN) has been built and operated which combines multi-pixel photon counters and GS10 lithium-doped scintillators. Such detectors can be very small and can be used to monitor UCN inside storage vessels or guides with negligible influence (of order 10{sup -6}) on the UCN intensity itself. We have shown that such detectors can be used in a very harsh radiation environment of up to 200Gy/h via the addition of a 4m long quartz light guide in order to place the radiation-sensitive photon counters outside the hot zone. Additionally we have measured the UCN storage times in situ in this harsh environment. (orig.)

  11. A multilayer surface detector for ultracold neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhehui, E-mail: zwang@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Hoffbauer, M.A.; Morris, C.L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Callahan, N.B.; Adamek, E.R. [Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Bacon, J.D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Blatnik, M. [Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH 44115 (United States); Brandt, A.E. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Broussard, L.J.; Clayton, S.M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Cude-Woods, C. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Currie, S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Dees, E.B. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Ding, X. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Gao, J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Gray, F.E. [Regis University, Denver, CO 80221 (United States); Hickerson, K.P. [University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Holley, A.T. [Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN 38505 (United States); Ito, T.M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Liu, C.-Y. [Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); and others

    2015-10-21

    A multilayer surface detector for ultracold neutrons (UCNs) is described. The top {sup 10}B layer is exposed to vacuum and directly captures UCNs. The ZnS:Ag layer beneath the {sup 10}B layer is a few microns thick, which is sufficient to detect the charged particles from the {sup 10}B(n,α){sup 7}Li neutron-capture reaction, while thin enough that ample light due to α and {sup 7}Li escapes for detection by photomultiplier tubes. A 100-nm thick {sup 10}B layer gives high UCN detection efficiency, as determined by the mean UCN kinetic energy, detector materials, and other parameters. Low background, including negligible sensitivity to ambient neutrons, has also been verified through pulse-shape analysis and comparison with other existing {sup 3}He and {sup 10}B detectors. This type of detector has been configured in different ways for UCN flux monitoring, development of UCN guides and neutron lifetime research.

  12. Cold atoms close to surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Peter; Wildermuth, Stephan; Hofferberth, Sebastian

    2005-01-01

    Microscopic atom optical devices integrated on atom chips allow to precisely control and manipulate ultra-cold (T atoms and Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) close to surfaces. The relevant energy scale of a BEC is extremely small (down to ... be utilized as a sensor for variations of the potential energy of the atoms close to the surface. Here we describe how to use trapped atoms as a measurement device and analyze the performance and flexibility of the field sensor. We demonstrate microscopic magnetic imaging with simultaneous high spatial...

  13. Role of Feshbach resonances in enhancing the production of deeply bound ultracold LiRb molecules with laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacesa, Marko; Ghosal, Subhas; Côté, Robin

    2010-03-01

    We investigate the possibility of forming deeply bound LiRb molecules in a two-color photoassociation experiment. Ultracold ^6Li and ^87Rb atoms colliding in the vicinity of a magnetic Feshbach resonance are photoassociated into an excited electronic state. A wavepacket is then formed by exciting a few vibrational levels of the excited state and allowed to propagate. We calculate the time-dependent overlaps between the wave packet and the lowest vibrational levels of the ground state. After the optimal overlap is obtained we use the second laser pulse to dump the wave packet and efficiently populate the deeply bound ro-vibrational levels of ^6Li^87Rb in the ground state. The resulting combination of Feshbach-optimized photoassociation (FOPA) with the time-dependent pump-dump approach will produce a large number of stable ultracold molecules in the ground state. This technique is general and applicable to other systems.

  14. Single-atom detection on a chip: from realization to application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stibor, A; Bender, H; Kuehnhold, S; Fortagh, J; Zimmermann, C; Guenther, A, E-mail: aguenth@pit.physik.uni-tuebingen.d [CQ Center for Collective Quantum Phenomena and their Applications, Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    In this paper, we describe the preparation and detection of ultracold atoms on a microchip with single-atom sensitivity. The detection scheme is based on multi-photon ionization of atoms and the subsequent guiding of the generated ions by ion optics to a channel electron multiplier. We resolve single atoms with a detection efficiency above 60%. The detector is suitable for real-time observations of static and dynamic processes in ultracold quantum gases. Although the ionization is destructive, sampling a small subset of the atomic distribution is sufficient for the determination of the desired information. We take full high-resolution spectra of ultracold atoms by ionizing only 5% of the atoms. Using an additional microwave near 6.8 GHz, the detection scheme becomes energy, position and state selective. This can be used for in situ determination of the energy distribution and temperature of atom clouds inside the trap and applied for future correlation measurements.

  15. Optical trapping and Feshbach spectroscopy of an ultracold Rb-Cs mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilch, K.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate quantum-mechanical interactions between ultracold rubidium and cesium in an optical trap at temperatures of a few micro kelvin. Our results provide, on the one hand, an experimental key to understand the collisional properties and, on the other hand, a tool to control the interspecies interactions. By performing loss measurements we locate several Feshbach resonances, which provide insight into the energy structure of weakly bound RbCs molecules near the dissociation threshold and allow for the production of such heteronuclear Feshbach molecules. In the future we will transfer these loosely-bound molecules into the absolute internal ground state. The availability of ultracold heteronuclear ground state molecules will open the door to investigate phenomena associated with ultracold polar quantum gases. In our new experimental set-up we are able to trap and cool rubidium and cesium atoms in their lowest internal states. First we load both species into a two-color magneto-optical trap, having full control over the single-species atom number. We extend the technique of degenerate Raman-sideband cooling to a two-color version, which is able to simultaneously cool and polarize both rubidium and cesium. Thereafter we load the atoms into a levitated crossed optical dipole trap. Because of the presence of the gradient magnetic field the trap is highly state selective and consequently provides perfect spin-polarization of the sample. Furthermore, a coincidence of the magnetic-moment-to-mass ratios of the two species allows for simultaneous levitation of both, which assures an almost perfect spatial overlap between the species. We perform Feshbach spectroscopy in two dierent spin channels of the mixture within a magnetic field ranging from 20 to 300 Gauss. In the lowest spin combination of the species we locate 23 interspecies Feshbach resonances, while in a higher spin mixture we find 2 resonances. The high number of resonances found within this range of

  16. Spatial noise correlations of a chain of ultracold fermions: A numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luescher, Andreas; Laeuchli, Andreas M.; Noack, Reinhard M.

    2007-01-01

    We present a numerical study of noise correlations, i.e., density-density correlations in momentum space, in the extended fermionic Hubbard model in one dimension. In experiments with ultracold atoms, these noise correlations can be extracted from time-of-flight images of the expanding cloud. Using the density-matrix renormalization group method to investigate the Hubbard model at various fillings and interactions, we confirm that the noise correlations contain full information on the most important fluctuations present in the system. We point out the importance of the sum rules fulfilled by the noise correlations and show that they yield nonsingular structures beyond the predictions of bosonization approaches. Noise correlations can thus serve as a universal probe of order and can be used to characterize the many-body states of cold atoms in optical lattices

  17. Optical Studies of Strong Coupling and Recombination in Ultracold Neutral Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killian, Thomas C.

    2004-01-01

    The ultracold atoms and plasmas research group at Rice University uses a combination of atomic and plasma physics techniques to create neutral plasmas that are orders of magnitude colder than have ever been studied before. Through this work, we probe the basic plasma physics of this exotic regime. During the past year, the major components of a new experiment were completed. We demonstrated a powerful new diagnostic, optical imaging of the plasma, which led to a paper that was published in Physical Review Letters. (Figure A, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 143001 (2004)) This was the central feature of my DOE Junior Faculty Award proposal. DOE funding has been used to support one postdoctoral researcher, multiple graduate students, the principle investigator, apparatus construction, and normal laboratory expenses

  18. Precision spectroscopy with ultracold 87Rb2 triplet molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis I report precision spectroscopy with ultracold 87 Rb 2 triplet molecules where we use lasers to couple the states in different molecular potentials. We study in detail states of the a 3 sum + u and (1) 3 sum + g potentials. These states are of great importance for transferring weakly bound molecules to the ro-vibrational triplet ground state via states of the excited potential. As most experiments start from molecules in their X 1 sum + g ground state, the triplet states were hard to access via dipole transitions and remained largely unexplored. The measurements presented in this thesis are the first detailed study of diatomic 87 Rb 2 molecules in these states. Our experiments start with an ultracold cloud of 87 Rb atoms. We then load this cloud into an optical lattice where we use a magnetic Feshbach resonance at 1007.4 G to perform a Feshbach association. After we have removed all unbound atoms, we end up with a pure sample of weakly bound Feshbach molecules inside the optical lattice. The optical lattice prevents these molecules from colliding with each other which results in molecular lifetimes on the order of a few hundred milliseconds. In the first set of experiments, we use a laser coupling the Feshbach state to the excited (1) 3 sum + g triplet state to map out its low-lying vibrational (v = 0.. 15), rotational, hyperfine, and Zeeman structure. The experimental results are in good agreement with calculations done by Marius Lysebo and Prof. Leif Veseth. We then map out in detail the vibrational, rotational, hyperfine, and Zeeman structure of the a 3 sum + u triplet ground state using dark state spectroscopy with levels in the (1) 3 sum + g potential as an intermediate state. In this scheme we are able to access molecules in triplet states because our Feshbach state has strong triplet character. Interestingly, it happens that some deeply bound states which belong to the X 1 sum + g potential are close to levels in the a 3 sum + u potential. In

  19. Band structure engineering for ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, Malte

    2014-01-01

    the same system maps onto a quantum spin-1/2 XY model. Owing to the quantum nature of the pseudospins, geometrical frustration leads to a highly degenerate ground state which can result in exotic valence bond spin-liquid phases. First signatures of an order-by-disorder effect emerge in this regime. A complementary approach to the manipulation of the band structure is investigated in a honeycomb potential. By rotating the quantization field of the system, the statedependent energy offset between the twofold atomic basis of the hexagonal Bravais lattice can be adjusted. This purposeful breaking of inversion symmetry enables the continuous opening of an energy gap at the Dirac points of the honeycomb band structure. In addition, a striking influence of the band gap onto the lifetimes for atoms in the first excited energy band is observed. In the last part of the thesis, both experimental manipulation techniques are discussed with respect to future applications for ultracold quantum gases in non-cubic optical lattices.

  20. Observation of two-orbital spin-exchange interactions with ultracold SU(N)-symmetric fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scazza, F.; Hofrichter, C.; Höfer, M.; de Groot, P. C.; Bloch, I.; Fölling, S.

    2014-10-01

    Spin-exchanging interactions govern the properties of strongly correlated electron systems such as many magnetic materials. When orbital degrees of freedom are present, spin exchange between different orbitals often dominates, leading to the Kondo effect, heavy fermion behaviour or magnetic ordering. Ultracold ytterbium or alkaline-earth ensembles have attracted much recent interest as model systems for these effects, with two (meta-) stable electronic configurations representing independent orbitals. We report the observation of spin-exchanging contact interactions in a two-orbital SU(N)-symmetric quantum gas realized with fermionic 173Yb. We find strong inter-orbital spin exchange by spectroscopic characterization of all interaction channels and demonstrate SU(N = 6) symmetry within our measurement precision. The spin-exchange process is also directly observed through the dynamic equilibration of spin imbalances between ensembles in separate orbitals. The realization of an SU(N)-symmetric two-orbital Hubbard Hamiltonian opens the route to quantum simulations with extended symmetries and with orbital magnetic interactions, such as the Kondo lattice model.

  1. Hybrid quantum systems of ions and atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Sias, Carlo; Köhl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter we review the progress in experiments with hybrid systems of trapped ions and ultracold neutral atoms. We give a theoretical overview over the atom-ion interactions in the cold regime and give a summary of the most important experimental results. We conclude with an overview of remaining open challenges and possible applications in hybrid quantum systems of ions and neutral atoms.

  2. Use of ultracold neutrons for condensed-matter studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaudon, A.

    1997-05-01

    Ultracold neutrons have such low velocities that they are reflected by most materials at all incident angles and can be stored in material bottles for long periods of time during which their intrinsic properties can be studied in great detail. These features have been mainly used for fundamental-physics studies including the detection of a possible neutron electric dipole moment and the precise determination of neutron-decay properties. Ultracold neutrons can also play a role in condensed-matter studies with the help of high-resolution spectrometers that use gravity as a strongly dispersive medium for low-velocity neutrons. Such studies have so far been limited by the low intensity of existing ultracold-neutron sources but could be reconsidered with more intense sources, which are now envisaged. This report provides a broad survey of the properties of ultracold neutrons (including their reflectivity by different types of samples), of ultracold-neutron spectrometers that are compared with other high-resolution instruments, of results obtained in the field of condensed matter with these instruments, and of neutron microscopes. All these subjects are illustrated by numerous examples.

  3. Use of ultracold neutrons for condensed-matter studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaudon, A.

    1997-05-01

    Ultracold neutrons have such low velocities that they are reflected by most materials at all incident angles and can be stored in material bottles for long periods of time during which their intrinsic properties can be studied in great detail. These features have been mainly used for fundamental-physics studies including the detection of a possible neutron electric dipole moment and the precise determination of neutron-decay properties. Ultracold neutrons can also play a role in condensed-matter studies with the help of high-resolution spectrometers that use gravity as a strongly dispersive medium for low-velocity neutrons. Such studies have so far been limited by the low intensity of existing ultracold-neutron sources but could be reconsidered with more intense sources, which are now envisaged. This report provides a broad survey of the properties of ultracold neutrons (including their reflectivity by different types of samples), of ultracold-neutron spectrometers that are compared with other high-resolution instruments, of results obtained in the field of condensed matter with these instruments, and of neutron microscopes. All these subjects are illustrated by numerous examples

  4. Atom-chip based quantum gravimetry for the precise determination of absolute local gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abend, S.

    2015-12-01

    We present a novel technique for the precise measurement of absolute local gravity based on cold atom interferometry. Atom interferometry utilizes the interference of matter waves interrogated by laser light to read out inertial forces. Today's generation of these devices typically operate with test mass samples, that consists of ensembles of laser cooled atoms. Their performance is limited by the velocity spread and finite-size of the test masses that impose systematic uncertainties at the level of a few μGal. Rather than laser cooled atoms we employ quantum degenerate ensembles, so called Bose-Einstein condensates, as ultra-sensitive probes for gravity. These sources offer unique properties in temperature as well as in ensemble size that will allow to overcome the current limitations with the next generation of sensors. Furthermore, atom-chip technologies offer the possibility to generate Bose-Einstein condensates in a fast and reliable way. We show a lab-based prototype that uses the atom-chip itself to retro-reflect the interrogation laser and thus serving as inertial reference inside the vacuum. With this setup it is possible to demonstrate all necessary steps to measure gravity, including the preparation of the source, spanning an interferometer as well as the detection of the output signal, within an area of 1 cm3 right below the atom-chip and to analyze relevant systematic effects. In the framework of the center of excellence geoQ a next generation device is under construction at the Institut für Quantenoptik, that will allow for in-field measurements. This device will feature a state-of-the-art atom-chip source with a high-flux of ultra-cold atoms at a repetition rate of 1-2 Hz. In cooperation with the Müller group at the Institut für Erdmessung the sensor will be characterized in the laboratory first, to be ultimately employed in campaigns to measure the Fennoscandian uplift at the level of 1 μGal. The presented work is part of the center of

  5. Trapping and interactions of an ultracold gas of Cs2 molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark, M.; Kraemer, T.; Herbig, J.; Waldburger, P.; Naegerl, H.C.; Chin, C.; Grimm, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: We investigate dynamics and interactions of Cs 2 dimers in a CO2-laser dipole trap. Starting with a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of 2.2 x 10 5 Cs atoms, we create ultracold molecules in a single, weakly bound quantum state by sweeping the magnetic field across a narrow Feshbach resonance. When the molecules are created in free space, the conversion efficiency exceeds 30 %, yielding up to 50000 molecules. In our trapping experiments, about 6000 ultracold Cs 2 dimers are prepared in the optical trap at a temperature of 200 nK. We transfer the trapped molecules from the initial molecular state to other molecular states by following avoided crossings. We find two magnetically tunable resonances in collisions between the molecules for one of the molecular states. We interpret these Feshbach-liKEX resonances as being induced by Cs 4 bound states near the molecular scattering continuum. Further, we have discovered a new molecular state with very large orbital angular momentum of l = 8. This state is very weakly coupled to one of the initial molecular states. We use the associated avoided crossing as a molecular beam splitter to realize a molecular Ramsey-type interferometer. Refs. 2 (author)

  6. Trapped atoms along nanophotonic resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Brian; Kim, May; Chang, Tzu-Han; Hung, Chen-Lung

    2017-04-01

    Many-body systems subject to long-range interactions have remained a very challenging topic experimentally. Ultracold atoms trapped in extreme proximity to the surface of nanophotonic structures provides a dynamic system combining the strong atom-atom interactions mediated by guided mode photons with the exquisite control implemented with trapped atom systems. The hybrid system promises pair-wise tunability of long-range interactions between atomic pseudo spins, allowing studies of quantum magnetism extending far beyond nearest neighbor interactions. In this talk, we will discuss our current status developing high quality nanophotonic ring resonators, engineered on CMOS compatible optical chips with integrated nanostructures that, in combination with a side illuminating beam, can realize stable atom traps approximately 100nm above the surface. We will report on our progress towards loading arrays of cold atoms near the surface of these structures and studying atom-atom interaction mediated by photons with high cooperativity.

  7. Moeller polarimetry with atomic hydrogen targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudakov, E.; Luppov, V.

    2005-01-01

    A novel proposal of using polarized atomic hydrogen gas, stored in an ultra-cold magnetic trap, as the target for electron beam polarimetry based on Moeller scattering is discussed. Such a target of practically 100% polarized electrons could provide a superb systematic accuracy of about 0.5% for beam polarization measurements. Feasibility studies for the CEBAF electron beam have been performed. (orig.)

  8. World Music Ensemble: Kulintang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Amy C.

    2012-01-01

    As instrumental world music ensembles such as steel pan, mariachi, gamelan and West African drums are becoming more the norm than the exception in North American school music programs, there are other world music ensembles just starting to gain popularity in particular parts of the United States. The kulintang ensemble, a drum and gong ensemble…

  9. Long-distance entanglement in many-body atomic and optical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Illuminati, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy)], E-mail: illuminati@sa.infn.it

    2010-02-15

    We discuss the phenomenon of long-distance entanglement (LDE) in the ground state of quantum spin models, its use in high-fidelity and robust quantum communication, and its realization in many-body systems of ultracold atoms in optical lattices and in arrays of coupled optical cavities. We investigate XX quantum spin models on one-dimensional lattices with open ends and different patterns of site-dependent interaction couplings, singling out two general settings: patterns that allow for perfect LDE in the ground state of the system, namely such that the end-to-end entanglement remains finite in the thermodynamic limit, and patterns of quasi-long-distance entanglement (QLDE) in the ground state of the system, namely such that the end-to-end entanglement vanishes with a very slow power-law decay as the length of the spin chain is increased. We discuss physical realizations of these models in ensembles of ultracold bosonic atoms loaded in optical lattices. We show how, using either suitably engineered super-lattice structures or exploiting the presence of edge impurities in lattices with single periodicity, it is possible to realize models endowed with nonvanishing LDE or QLDE. We then study how to realize models that optimize the robustness of QLDE at finite temperature and in the presence of imperfections using suitably engineered arrays of coupled optical cavities. For both cases the numerical estimates of the end-to-end entanglement in the actual physical systems are thoroughly compared with the analytical results obtained for the spin model systems. We finally introduce LDE-based schemes of long-distance quantum teleportation in linear arrays of coupled cavities, and show that they allow for high-fidelity and high success rates even at moderately high temperatures.

  10. Long-distance entanglement in many-body atomic and optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the phenomenon of long-distance entanglement (LDE) in the ground state of quantum spin models, its use in high-fidelity and robust quantum communication, and its realization in many-body systems of ultracold atoms in optical lattices and in arrays of coupled optical cavities. We investigate XX quantum spin models on one-dimensional lattices with open ends and different patterns of site-dependent interaction couplings, singling out two general settings: patterns that allow for perfect LDE in the ground state of the system, namely such that the end-to-end entanglement remains finite in the thermodynamic limit, and patterns of quasi-long-distance entanglement (QLDE) in the ground state of the system, namely such that the end-to-end entanglement vanishes with a very slow power-law decay as the length of the spin chain is increased. We discuss physical realizations of these models in ensembles of ultracold bosonic atoms loaded in optical lattices. We show how, using either suitably engineered super-lattice structures or exploiting the presence of edge impurities in lattices with single periodicity, it is possible to realize models endowed with nonvanishing LDE or QLDE. We then study how to realize models that optimize the robustness of QLDE at finite temperature and in the presence of imperfections using suitably engineered arrays of coupled optical cavities. For both cases the numerical estimates of the end-to-end entanglement in the actual physical systems are thoroughly compared with the analytical results obtained for the spin model systems. We finally introduce LDE-based schemes of long-distance quantum teleportation in linear arrays of coupled cavities, and show that they allow for high-fidelity and high success rates even at moderately high temperatures.

  11. Atomic rubidium, the workhorse of theoretical collision physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaar, B.; van Kempen, E.; Kokkelmans, S.J.J.M.F.

    2008-01-01

    Since the first realizations of Bose-Einstein condensates in ultracold atomic gases in 1995, the 85Rb and 87Rb atomic species have acted as the workhorses of experimental developments in this field. Parallel to and partly preceding this work the same isotopes figured also as workhorses for

  12. Ultracold molecules for the masses: Evaporative cooling and magneto-optical trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhl, B. K.

    While cold molecule experiments are rapidly moving towards their promised benefits of precision spectroscopy, controllable chemistry, and novel condensed phases, heretofore the field has been greatly limited by a lack of methods to cool and compress chemically diverse species to temperatures below ten millikelvin. While in atomic physics these needs are fulfilled by laser cooling, magneto-optical trapping, and evaporative cooling, until now none of these techniques have been applicable to molecules. In this thesis, two major breakthroughs are reported. The first is the observation of evaporative cooling in magnetically trapped hydroxyl (OH) radicals, which potentially opens a path all the way to Bose-Einstein condensation of dipolar radicals, as well as allowing cold- and ultracold-chemistry studies of fundamental reaction mechanisms. Through the combination of an extremely high gradient magnetic quadrupole trap and the use of the OH Λ-doublet transition to enable highly selective forced evaporation, cooling by an order of magnitude in temperature was achieved and yielded a final temperature no higher than 5mK. The second breakthrough is the successful application of laser cooling and magneto-optical trapping to molecules. Motivated by a proposal in this thesis, laser cooling of molecules is now known to be technically feasible in a select but substantial pool of diatomic molecules. The demonstration of not only Doppler cooling but also two-dimensional magneto-optical trapping in yttrium (II) oxide, YO, is expected to enable rapid growth in the availability of ultracold molecules—just as the invention of the atomic magneto-optical trap stimulated atomic physics twenty-five years ago.

  13. A device for simultaneous spin analysis of ultracold neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afach, S. [Institute for Particle Physics, ETH Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Jena University Hospital, Hans Berger Department of Neurology, Jena (Germany); Ban, G.; Lefort, T.; Lemiere, Y.; Naviliat-Cuncic, O.; Quemener, G. [Universite de Caen, CNRS/IN2P3, LPC Caen ENSICAEN, Caen (France); Bison, G.; Chowdhuri, Z.; Daum, M.; Henneck, R.; Lauss, B.; Mtchedlishvili, A.; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P.; Zsigmond, G. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Bodek, K.; Rawlik, M.; Rozpedzik, D.; Zejma, J. [Jagiellonian University, Marian Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Cracow (Poland); Fertl, M.; Franke, B.; Kirch, K.; Komposch, S. [Institute for Particle Physics, ETH Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Geltenbort, P. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Grujic, Z.D.; Kasprzak, M.; Weis, A. [University of Fribourg, Physics Department, Fribourg (Switzerland); Hayen, L.; Severijns, N.; Wursten, E. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Instituut voor Kernen Stralingsfysica, Leuven (Belgium); Helaine, V. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Universite de Caen, CNRS/IN2P3, LPC Caen ENSICAEN, Caen (France); Kermaidic, Y.; Pignol, G.; Rebreyend, D. [Universite Grenoble Alpes, CNRS/IN2P3, LPSC, Grenoble (France); Kozela, A. [Henryk Niedwodniczanski Institute for Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Krempel, J.; Piegsa, F.M. [Institute for Particle Physics, ETH Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Prashanth, P.N. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Instituut voor Kernen Stralingsfysica, Leuven (Belgium); Ries, D. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Jena University Hospital, Hans Berger Department of Neurology, Jena (Germany); Roccia, S. [Universite Paris Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, CSNSM, Orsay campus (France); Wyszynski, G. [Institute for Particle Physics, ETH Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Jagiellonian University, Marian Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    2015-11-15

    We report on the design and first tests of a device allowing for measurement of ultracold neutrons polarisation by means of the simultaneous analysis of the two spin components. The device was developed in the framework of the neutron electric dipole moment experiment at the Paul Scherrer Institute. Individual parts and the entire newly built system have been characterised with ultracold neutrons. The gain in statistical sensitivity obtained with the simultaneous spin analyser is (18.2 ± 6.1) % relative to the former sequential analyser under nominal running conditions. (orig.)

  14. Ultracold and very cold neutron facility in KUR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Yuji; Utsuro, Masahiko

    1992-01-01

    The present status of the ultracold and very cold neutron facility installed in the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) is described in this presentation. It consists of a VCN (very cold neutrons) guide tube, a VCN bender and a supermirror neutron turbine. The guide tube extracts VCN from a liquid deuterium cold neutron source in a graphite thermal column and the neutron turbine converts VCN to UCN (ultracold neutrons). As for the utilization of the present facility, VCN radiography and an UCN gravity spectrometer are shown for the practical examples of the research with VCN and UCN. (author)

  15. Method and apparatus for quantum information processing using entangled neutral-atom qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jau, Yuan Yu; Biedermann, Grant; Deutsch, Ivan

    2018-04-03

    A method for preparing an entangled quantum state of an atomic ensemble is provided. The method includes loading each atom of the atomic ensemble into a respective optical trap; placing each atom of the atomic ensemble into a same first atomic quantum state by impingement of pump radiation; approaching the atoms of the atomic ensemble to within a dipole-dipole interaction length of each other; Rydberg-dressing the atomic ensemble; during the Rydberg-dressing operation, exciting the atomic ensemble with a Raman pulse tuned to stimulate a ground-state hyperfine transition from the first atomic quantum state to a second atomic quantum state; and separating the atoms of the atomic ensemble by more than a dipole-dipole interaction length.

  16. Stability of a fully magnetized ferromagnetic state in repulsively interacting ultracold Fermi gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Xiaoling; Zhai Hui

    2010-01-01

    We construct a variational wave function to study whether a fully polarized Fermi sea of ultracold atoms is energetically stable against a single spin flip. Our variational wave function contains short-range correlations at least to the same level as Gutzwiller's projected wave function. For the Hubbard lattice model and the continuum model with pure repulsive interaction, we show that a fully polarized Fermi sea is generally unstable even for infinite repulsive strength. By contrast, for a resonance model, the ferromagnetic state is possible if the s-wave scattering length is positive and sufficiently large and the system is prepared to be orthogonal to the molecular bound state. However, we cannot rule out the possibility that more exotic correlations can destabilize the ferromagnetic state.

  17. Response Functions for the Two-Dimensional Ultracold Fermi Gas: Dynamical BCS Theory and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Ettore; Shi, Hao; Qin, Mingpu; Zhang, Shiwei

    2017-12-01

    Response functions are central objects in physics. They provide crucial information about the behavior of physical systems, and they can be directly compared with scattering experiments involving particles such as neutrons or photons. Calculations of such functions starting from the many-body Hamiltonian of a physical system are challenging and extremely valuable. In this paper, we focus on the two-dimensional (2D) ultracold Fermi atomic gas which has been realized experimentally. We present an application of the dynamical BCS theory to obtain response functions for different regimes of interaction strengths in the 2D gas with zero-range attractive interaction. We also discuss auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo (AFQMC) methods for the calculation of imaginary time correlations in these dilute Fermi gas systems. Illustrative results are given and comparisons are made between AFQMC and dynamical BCS theory results to assess the accuracy of the latter.

  18. Making ultracold molecules in a two-color pump-dump photoassociation scheme using chirped pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Christiane P.; Luc-Koenig, Eliane; Masnou-Seeuws, Francoise

    2006-01-01

    This theoretical paper investigates the formation of ground state molecules from ultracold cesium atoms in a two-color scheme. Following previous work on photoassociation with chirped picosecond pulses [Luc-Koenig et al., Phys. Rev. A, 70, 033414 (2004)], we investigate stabilization by a second (dump) pulse. By appropriately choosing the dump pulse parameters and time delay with respect to the photoassociation pulse, we show that a large number of deeply bound molecules are created in the ground triplet state. We discuss (i) broad-bandwidth dump pulses which maximize the probability to form molecules while creating a broad vibrational distribution as well as (ii) narrow-bandwidth pulses populating a single vibrational ground state level, bound by 113 cm -1 . The use of chirped pulses makes the two-color scheme robust, simple, and efficient

  19. Experimental testing of the dispersion law of ultracold neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarenko, I.V.; Krasnoperov, A.V.; Frank, A.I.; Geltenbort, P.; Hoghoj, P.; Klein, A.G.; Cimmino, A.; Masalovich, S.V.; Nosov, V.G.

    1998-01-01

    Experiment on testing the generally accepted laws on ultracold neutron dispersion is described. The experiment is based on search of displacement lines of a neutron interference filter resonance by variation of neutrons rapidity component, parallel to the filter surface. The first results testify to the presence of statistically meaningful effect

  20. Depolarization of ultracold neutrons during their storage in material bottles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serebrov, A.P.; Lasakov, M.S.; Vassiljev, A.V.; Krasnoschekova, I.A.; Rudnev, Yu.P.; Fomin, A.K.; Varlamov, V.E.; Geltenbort, P.; Butterworth, J.; Young, A.R.; Pesavento, U.

    2003-01-01

    The depolarization of ultracold neutrons (UCN) during their storage in traps has been investigated. The neutron spin-flip probability for the materials studied amounts to ∼(1-2)x10 -5 per collision and does not depend on the temperature. The possible connection between the phenomenon of UCN depolarization and that of anomalous losses is discussed

  1. Depolarization of ultracold neutrons during their storage in material bottles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serebrov, A.P.; Lasakov, M.S.; Vassiljev, A.V.; Krasnoschekova, I.A.; Rudnev, Yu.P.; Fomin, A.K.; Varlamov, V.E.; Geltenbort, P.; Butterworth, J.; Young, A.R.; Pesavento, U

    2003-07-14

    The depolarization of ultracold neutrons (UCN) during their storage in traps has been investigated. The neutron spin-flip probability for the materials studied amounts to {approx}(1-2)x10{sup -5} per collision and does not depend on the temperature. The possible connection between the phenomenon of UCN depolarization and that of anomalous losses is discussed.

  2. On a magnet configuration for confining ultracold neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abov, Yu.G.; Vasil'ev, V.V.; Vladimirskij, V.V.; Krupchitskij, P.A.; Rissukhin, V.K.

    1977-01-01

    A magnetic system for experiments on the ultracold neutron confinement is described. The magnetic field calculation results are given. They make it possible to select the geometric places of points in which the neutron depolarization may appear and to suggest the way for diminishing the depolarization

  3. Exploring strategies for the production of ultracold RbYb molecules in conservative traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruni, Cristian

    2015-07-14

    Within the scope of this thesis, the production of ultracold molecules at a temperature of a few μK with various isotopes of rubidium (Rb) and ytterbium (Yb) was examined by means of photoassociation spectroscopy and magnetic Feshbach resonances in combined conservative traps. The long-term goal of this experiment is the production of ultracold RbYb molecules in the rovibronic ground state. It was possible to produce electronically excited {sup 87}Rb {sup 176}Yb molecules in a novel hybrid trap (HT) at a combined temperature of 1.7 μK by means of 1-photon photoassociation close to the Rb D1 line at 795 nm. This HT takes advantage of the different magnetic properties of Rb and Yb and allows for independent trapping and manipulation of the atomic species. It combines an Ioffe-Pritchard type magnetic trap for Rb and a near-resonant optical dipole trap for Yb. The excited molecular {sup 2}Π{sub 1/2} state could be characterized further extending previous works in a combined MOT and vibrational levels reaching binding energies up to E{sub b}=-h x 2.2 THz could be assigned by trap-loss spectroscopy. Almost every detected vibrational state consists of two resonances that could be assigned to the molecular analogue of the hyperfine structure of {sup 87}Rb. An important experimental observation is a decrease in hyperfine splitting with increasing binding energy of a vibrational level. For the deepest found vibrational state the hyperfine splitting amounts only 70 % of the atomic value (817 MHz) which emphasizes a gradual passage from weakly to tightly bound molecules. Furthermore, detailed attempts were undertaken to induce magnetic Feshbach resonances in {sup 85}Rb and different Yb isotopes, especially {sup 171}Yb in a crossed optical dipole trap at 1064 nm at temperatures of 10 μK. For this purpose, a homogeneous magnetic field was applied and scanned in small steps over the range of 495 G ∼ 640 G. Unfortunately, our efforts were without success. Additionally, well

  4. Atom interferometry with trapped Bose-Einstein condensates: impact of atom-atom interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grond, Julian; Hohenester, Ulrich; Mazets, Igor; Schmiedmayer, Joerg

    2010-01-01

    Interferometry with ultracold atoms promises the possibility of ultraprecise and ultrasensitive measurements in many fields of physics, and is the basis of our most precise atomic clocks. Key to a high sensitivity is the possibility to achieve long measurement times and precise readout. Ultracold atoms can be precisely manipulated at the quantum level and can be held for very long times in traps; they would therefore be an ideal setting for interferometry. In this paper, we discuss how the nonlinearities from atom-atom interactions, on the one hand, allow us to efficiently produce squeezed states for enhanced readout and, on the other hand, result in phase diffusion that limits the phase accumulation time. We find that low-dimensional geometries are favorable, with two-dimensional (2D) settings giving the smallest contribution of phase diffusion caused by atom-atom interactions. Even for time sequences generated by optimal control, the achievable minimal detectable interaction energy ΔE min is of the order of 10 -4 μ, where μ is the chemical potential of the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in the trap. From these we have to conclude that for more precise measurements with atom interferometers, more sophisticated strategies, or turning off the interaction-induced dephasing during the phase accumulation stage, will be necessary.

  5. Storage ring to investigate cold unidimensional atomic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcassa, L. G.; Caires, A. R. L.; Nascimento, V. A.; Dulieu, O.; Weiner, J.; Bagnato, V. S.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we employ a circulating ring of trapped atoms, that we have named the atomotron, to study cold collisions. The atomotron is obtained from a conventional magneto-optical trap when the two pairs of normally retroreflecting Gaussian laser beams in the x-y plane are slightly offset. Circulating stable atomic orbits then form a racetrack geometry in this plane. The circulating atom flux behaves similarly to an atomic beam with an average tangential velocity much greater than the transverse components, and is therefore suitable for one-dimensional atomic collision studies. Using the atomotron, we have investigated the polarization dependence of ultracold photoassociation collisions between Rb atoms circulating in the racetrack. The ability to investigate collisions in ultracold circulating atomic rings reveals alignment and orientation properties that are averaged away in ordinary three-dimensional magneto-optical trap collision processes

  6. Superradiators created atom by atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschede, Dieter

    2018-02-01

    High radiation rates are usually associated with macroscopic lasers. Laser radiation is “coherent”—its amplitude and phase are well-defined—but its generation requires energy inputs to overcome loss. Excited atoms spontaneously emit in a random and incoherent fashion, and for N such atoms, the emission rate simply increases as N. However, if these atoms are in close proximity and coherently coupled by a radiation field, this microscopic ensemble acts as a single emitter whose emission rate increases as N2 and becomes “superradiant,” to use Dicke's terminology (1). On page 662 of this issue, Kim et al. (2) show the buildup of coherent light fields through collective emission from atomic radiators injected one by one into a resonator field. There is only one atom ever in the cavity, but the emission is still collective and superradiant. These results suggest another route toward thresholdless lasing.

  7. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filter

    KAUST Repository

    Chernov, Alexey; Hoel, Haakon; Law, Kody; Nobile, Fabio; Tempone, Raul

    2016-01-01

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). In terms of computational cost vs. approximation error the asymptotic performance of the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) is superior to the EnKF s.

  8. Entropy of network ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianconi, Ginestra

    2009-03-01

    In this paper we generalize the concept of random networks to describe network ensembles with nontrivial features by a statistical mechanics approach. This framework is able to describe undirected and directed network ensembles as well as weighted network ensembles. These networks might have nontrivial community structure or, in the case of networks embedded in a given space, they might have a link probability with a nontrivial dependence on the distance between the nodes. These ensembles are characterized by their entropy, which evaluates the cardinality of networks in the ensemble. In particular, in this paper we define and evaluate the structural entropy, i.e., the entropy of the ensembles of undirected uncorrelated simple networks with given degree sequence. We stress the apparent paradox that scale-free degree distributions are characterized by having small structural entropy while they are so widely encountered in natural, social, and technological complex systems. We propose a solution to the paradox by proving that scale-free degree distributions are the most likely degree distribution with the corresponding value of the structural entropy. Finally, the general framework we present in this paper is able to describe microcanonical ensembles of networks as well as canonical or hidden-variable network ensembles with significant implications for the formulation of network-constructing algorithms.

  9. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filter

    KAUST Repository

    Chernov, Alexey

    2016-01-06

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). In terms of computational cost vs. approximation error the asymptotic performance of the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) is superior to the EnKF s.

  10. Mesoscopic effects in quantum phases of ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, L. D.; Schirmer, D. G.; Wall, M. L.; Brown, R. C.; Williams, J. E.; Clark, Charles W.

    2010-01-01

    We present a wide array of quantum measures on numerical solutions of one-dimensional Bose- and Fermi-Hubbard Hamiltonians for finite-size systems with open boundary conditions. Finite-size effects are highly relevant to ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices, where an external trap creates smaller effective regions in the form of the celebrated 'wedding cake' structure and the local density approximation is often not applicable. Specifically, for the Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian we calculate number, quantum depletion, local von Neumann entropy, generalized entanglement or Q measure, fidelity, and fidelity susceptibility; for the Fermi-Hubbard Hamiltonian we also calculate the pairing correlations, magnetization, charge-density correlations, and antiferromagnetic structure factor. Our numerical method is imaginary time propagation via time-evolving block decimation. As part of our study we provide a careful comparison of canonical versus grand canonical ensembles and Gutzwiller versus entangled simulations. The most striking effect of finite size occurs for bosons: we observe a strong blurring of the tips of the Mott lobes accompanied by higher depletion, and show how the location of the first Mott lobe tip approaches the thermodynamic value as a function of system size.

  11. Observation of Gravitationally Induced Vertical Striation of Polarized Ultracold Neutrons by Spin-Echo Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afach, S; Ayres, N J; Ban, G; Bison, G; Bodek, K; Chowdhuri, Z; Daum, M; Fertl, M; Franke, B; Griffith, W C; Grujić, Z D; Harris, P G; Heil, W; Hélaine, V; Kasprzak, M; Kermaidic, Y; Kirch, K; Knowles, P; Koch, H-C; Komposch, S; Kozela, A; Krempel, J; Lauss, B; Lefort, T; Lemière, Y; Mtchedlishvili, A; Musgrave, M; Naviliat-Cuncic, O; Pendlebury, J M; Piegsa, F M; Pignol, G; Plonka-Spehr, C; Prashanth, P N; Quéméner, G; Rawlik, M; Rebreyend, D; Ries, D; Roccia, S; Rozpedzik, D; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P; Severijns, N; Thorne, J A; Weis, A; Wursten, E; Wyszynski, G; Zejma, J; Zenner, J; Zsigmond, G

    2015-10-16

    We describe a spin-echo method for ultracold neutrons (UCNs) confined in a precession chamber and exposed to a |B0|=1  μT magnetic field. We have demonstrated that the analysis of UCN spin-echo resonance signals in combination with knowledge of the ambient magnetic field provides an excellent method by which to reconstruct the energy spectrum of a confined ensemble of neutrons. The method takes advantage of the relative dephasing of spins arising from a gravitationally induced striation of stored UCNs of different energies, and also permits an improved determination of the vertical magnetic-field gradient with an exceptional accuracy of 1.1  pT/cm. This novel combination of a well-known nuclear resonance method and gravitationally induced vertical striation is unique in the realm of nuclear and particle physics and should prove to be invaluable for the assessment of systematic effects in precision experiments such as searches for an electric dipole moment of the neutron or the measurement of the neutron lifetime.

  12. The Ensembl REST API: Ensembl Data for Any Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Andrew; Beal, Kathryn; Keenan, Stephen; McLaren, William; Pignatelli, Miguel; Ritchie, Graham R S; Ruffier, Magali; Taylor, Kieron; Vullo, Alessandro; Flicek, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We present a Web service to access Ensembl data using Representational State Transfer (REST). The Ensembl REST server enables the easy retrieval of a wide range of Ensembl data by most programming languages, using standard formats such as JSON and FASTA while minimizing client work. We also introduce bindings to the popular Ensembl Variant Effect Predictor tool permitting large-scale programmatic variant analysis independent of any specific programming language. The Ensembl REST API can be accessed at http://rest.ensembl.org and source code is freely available under an Apache 2.0 license from http://github.com/Ensembl/ensembl-rest. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. High precision optical spectroscopy and quantum state selected photodissociation of ultracold 88Sr2 molecules in an optical lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Mickey

    2017-04-01

    Over the past several decades, rapid progress has been made toward the accurate characterization and control of atoms, epitomized by the ever-increasing accuracy and precision of optical atomic lattice clocks. Extending this progress to molecules will have exciting implications for chemistry, condensed matter physics, and precision tests of physics beyond the Standard Model. My thesis describes work performed over the past six years to establish the state of the art in manipulation and quantum control of ultracold molecules. We describe a thorough set of measurements characterizing the rovibrational structure of weakly bound 88Sr2 molecules from several different perspectives, including determinations of binding energies; linear, quadratic, and higher order Zeeman shifts; transition strengths between bound states; and lifetimes of narrow subradiant states. Finally, we discuss measurements of photofragment angular distributions produced by photodissociation of molecules in single quantum states, leading to an exploration of quantum-state-resolved ultracold chemistry. The images of exploding photofragments produced in these studies exhibit dramatic interference effects and strongly violate semiclassical predictions, instead requiring a fully quantum mechanical description.

  14. Musical ensembles in Ancient Mesapotamia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krispijn, T.J.H.; Dumbrill, R.; Finkel, I.

    2010-01-01

    Identification of musical instruments from ancient Mesopotamia by comparing musical ensembles attested in Sumerian and Akkadian texts with depicted ensembles. Lexicographical contributions to the Sumerian and Akkadian lexicon.

  15. Nonlinear dynamics of ultracold gases in double-well lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukalov, V I; Yukalova, E P

    2009-01-01

    An ultracold gas is considered, loaded into a lattice, each site of which is formed by a double-well potential. Initial conditions, after the loading, correspond to a nonequilibrium state. The nonlinear dynamics of the system, starting with a nonequilibrium state, is analysed in the local-field approximation. The importance of taking into account attenuation, caused by particle collisions, is emphasized. The presence of this attenuation dramatically influences the system dynamics

  16. An ultracold neutron storage bottle for UCN density measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bison, G.; Burri, F.; Daum, M. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Kirch, K. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Institute for Particle Physics, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich (Switzerland); Krempel, J. [Institute for Particle Physics, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich (Switzerland); Lauss, B., E-mail: bernhard.lauss@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Meier, M. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ries, D., E-mail: dieter.ries@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Institute for Particle Physics, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich (Switzerland); Schmidt-Wellenburg, P.; Zsigmond, G. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2016-09-11

    We have developed a storage bottle for ultracold neutrons (UCNs) in order to measure the UCN density at the beamports of the Paul Scherrer Institute's (PSI) UCN source. This paper describes the design, construction and commissioning of the robust and mobile storage bottle with a volume comparable to typical storage experiments (32 L) e.g. searching for an electric dipole moment of the neutron.

  17. Trapping and Evolution Dynamics of Ultracold Two-Component Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.-H.; Knuffman, B.; Zhang, X. H.; Povilus, A. P.; Raithel, G.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate the trapping of a strongly magnetized, quasineutral ultracold plasma in a nested Penning trap with a background field of 2.9 T. Electrons remain trapped in this system for several milliseconds. Early in the evolution, the dynamics are driven by a breathing-mode oscillation in the ionic charge distribution, which modulates the electron trap depth. Over longer times scales, the electronic component undergoes cooling. Trap loss resulting from ExB drift is characterized

  18. Theoretical model for ultracold molecule formation via adaptive feedback control

    OpenAIRE

    Poschinger, Ulrich; Salzmann, Wenzel; Wester, Roland; Weidemueller, Matthias; Koch, Christiane P.; Kosloff, Ronnie

    2006-01-01

    We investigate pump-dump photoassociation of ultracold molecules with amplitude- and phase-modulated femtosecond laser pulses. For this purpose a perturbative model for the light-matter interaction is developed and combined with a genetic algorithm for adaptive feedback control of the laser pulse shapes. The model is applied to the formation of 85Rb2 molecules in a magneto-optical trap. We find for optimized pulse shapes an improvement for the formation of ground state molecules by more than ...

  19. Strong dependence of ultracold chemical rates on electric dipole moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quemener, Goulven; Bohn, John L.

    2010-01-01

    We use the quantum threshold laws combined with a classical capture model to provide an analytical estimate of the chemical quenching cross sections and rate coefficients of two colliding particles at ultralow temperatures. We apply this quantum threshold model (QT model) to indistinguishable fermionic polar molecules in an electric field. At ultracold temperatures and in weak electric fields, the cross sections and rate coefficients depend only weakly on the electric dipole moment d induced by the electric field. In stronger electric fields, the quenching processes scale as d 4(L+(1/2)) where L>0 is the orbital angular-momentum quantum number between the two colliding particles. For p-wave collisions (L=1) of indistinguishable fermionic polar molecules at ultracold temperatures, the quenching rate thus scales as d 6 . We also apply this model to pure two-dimensional collisions and find that chemical rates vanish as d -4 for ultracold indistinguishable fermions. This model provides a quick and intuitive way to estimate chemical rate coefficients of reactions occuring with high probability.

  20. Diffusion of Magnetized Binary Ionic Mixtures at Ultracold Plasma Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Keith R.; Baalrud, Scott D.

    2017-10-01

    Ultracold plasma experiments offer an accessible means to test transport theories for strongly coupled systems. Application of an external magnetic field might further increase their utility by inhibiting heating mechanisms of ions and electrons and increasing the temperature at which strong coupling effects are observed. We present results focused on developing and validating a transport theory to describe binary ionic mixtures across a wide range of coupling and magnetization strengths relevant to ultracold plasma experiments. The transport theory is an extension of the Effective Potential Theory (EPT), which has been shown to accurately model correlation effects at these conditions, to include magnetization. We focus on diffusion as it can be measured in ultracold plasma experiments. Using EPT within the framework of the Chapman-Enskog expansion, the parallel and perpendicular self and interdiffusion coefficients for binary ionic mixtures with varying mass ratios are calculated and are compared to molecular dynamics simulations. The theory is found to accurately extend Braginskii-like transport to stronger coupling, but to break down when the magnetization strength becomes large enough that the typical gyroradius is smaller than the interaction scale length. This material is based upon work supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Award Number FA9550-16-1-0221.

  1. Influence of electron evaporative cooling on ultracold plasma expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Truman; Chen, Wei-Ting; Roberts, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    The expansion of ultracold neutral plasmas (UCP) is driven primarily by the thermal pressure of the electron component and is therefore sensitive to the electron temperature. For typical UCP spatial extents, evaporative cooling has a significant influence on the UCP expansion rate at lower densities (less than 10 8 /cm 3 ). We studied the effect of electron evaporation in this density range. Owing to the low density, the effects of three-body recombination were negligible. We modeled the expansion by taking into account the change in electron temperature owing to evaporation as well as adiabatic expansion and found good agreement with our data. We also developed a simple model for initial evaporation over a range of ultracold plasma densities, sizes, and electron temperatures to determine over what parameter range electron evaporation is expected to have a significant effect. We also report on a signal calibration technique, which relates the signal at our detector to the total number of ions and electrons in the ultracold plasma

  2. Magnetic field modification of ultracold molecule-molecule collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tscherbul, T V; Suleimanov, Yu V; Aquilanti, V; Krems, R V

    2009-01-01

    We present an accurate quantum mechanical study of molecule-molecule collisions in the presence of a magnetic field. The work focuses on the analysis of elastic scattering and spin relaxation in collisions of O 2 ( 3 Σ g - ) molecules at cold (∼0.1 K) and ultracold (∼10 -6 K) temperatures. Our calculations show that magnetic spin relaxation in molecule-molecule collisions is extremely efficient except at magnetic fields below 1 mT. The rate constant for spin relaxation at T=0.1 K and a magnetic field of 0.1 T is found to be as large as 6.1x10 -11 cm -3 s -1 . The magnetic field dependence of elastic and inelastic scattering cross sections at ultracold temperatures is dominated by a manifold of Feshbach resonances with the density of ∼100 resonances per Tesla for collisions of molecules in the absolute ground state. This suggests that the scattering length of ultracold molecules in the absolute ground state can be effectively tuned in a very wide range of magnetic fields. Our calculations demonstrate that the number and properties of the magnetic Feshbach resonances are dramatically different for molecules in the absolute ground and excited spin states. The density of Feshbach resonances for molecule-molecule scattering in the low-field-seeking Zeeman state is reduced by a factor of 10.

  3. Embedded random matrix ensembles in quantum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kota, V K B

    2014-01-01

    Although used with increasing frequency in many branches of physics, random matrix ensembles are not always sufficiently specific to account for important features of the physical system at hand. One refinement which retains the basic stochastic approach but allows for such features consists in the use of embedded ensembles.  The present text is an exhaustive introduction to and survey of this important field. Starting with an easy-to-read introduction to general random matrix theory, the text then develops the necessary concepts from the beginning, accompanying the reader to the frontiers of present-day research. With some notable exceptions, to date these ensembles have primarily been applied in nuclear spectroscopy. A characteristic example is the use of a random two-body interaction in the framework of the nuclear shell model. Yet, topics in atomic physics, mesoscopic physics, quantum information science and statistical mechanics of isolated finite quantum systems can also be addressed using these ensemb...

  4. Ensemble Data Mining Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, Nikunj C.

    2004-01-01

    Ensemble Data Mining Methods, also known as Committee Methods or Model Combiners, are machine learning methods that leverage the power of multiple models to achieve better prediction accuracy than any of the individual models could on their own. The basic goal when designing an ensemble is the same as when establishing a committee of people: each member of the committee should be as competent as possible, but the members should be complementary to one another. If the members are not complementary, Le., if they always agree, then the committee is unnecessary---any one member is sufficient. If the members are complementary, then when one or a few members make an error, the probability is high that the remaining members can correct this error. Research in ensemble methods has largely revolved around designing ensembles consisting of competent yet complementary models.

  5. Ensemble Data Mining Methods

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ensemble Data Mining Methods, also known as Committee Methods or Model Combiners, are machine learning methods that leverage the power of multiple models to achieve...

  6. Ensembl variation resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin-Garcia Pablo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maturing field of genomics is rapidly increasing the number of sequenced genomes and producing more information from those previously sequenced. Much of this additional information is variation data derived from sampling multiple individuals of a given species with the goal of discovering new variants and characterising the population frequencies of the variants that are already known. These data have immense value for many studies, including those designed to understand evolution and connect genotype to phenotype. Maximising the utility of the data requires that it be stored in an accessible manner that facilitates the integration of variation data with other genome resources such as gene annotation and comparative genomics. Description The Ensembl project provides comprehensive and integrated variation resources for a wide variety of chordate genomes. This paper provides a detailed description of the sources of data and the methods for creating the Ensembl variation databases. It also explores the utility of the information by explaining the range of query options available, from using interactive web displays, to online data mining tools and connecting directly to the data servers programmatically. It gives a good overview of the variation resources and future plans for expanding the variation data within Ensembl. Conclusions Variation data is an important key to understanding the functional and phenotypic differences between individuals. The development of new sequencing and genotyping technologies is greatly increasing the amount of variation data known for almost all genomes. The Ensembl variation resources are integrated into the Ensembl genome browser and provide a comprehensive way to access this data in the context of a widely used genome bioinformatics system. All Ensembl data is freely available at http://www.ensembl.org and from the public MySQL database server at ensembldb.ensembl.org.

  7. Interaction of antihydrogen with ordinary atoms and solid surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froelich, Piotr, E-mail: piotr.froelich@kvac.uu.se; Voronin, Alexei [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2012-12-15

    The characteristic features of cold atom-antiatom collisions and antiatom-surface interactions are discussed and illustrated by the results for hydrogen-antihydrogen scattering and for quantum reflection of ultracold antihydrogen from a metallic surface. We discuss in some detail the case of spin-exchange in ultracold H-bar - H collisions, exposing the interplay of Coulombic, strong and dispersive forces, and demonstrating the sensitivity of the spin-exchange cross sections to hypothetical violations of Charge-Parity-Time (CPT) symmetry.

  8. Low-energy-spread ion bunches from a trapped atomic gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, M.P.; Kruisbergen, van P.A.; Taban, G.; Geer, van der S.B.; Mutsaers, P.H.A.; Vredenbregt, E.J.D.; Luiten, O.J.

    2009-01-01

    We present time-of-flight measurements of the longitudinal energy spread of pulsed ultracold ion beams, produced by near-threshold ionization of rubidium atoms captured in a magneto-optical atom trap. Well-defined pulsed beams have been produced with energies of only 1 eV and a root-mean-square

  9. Ordered structures in rotating ultracold Bose gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barberan, N.; Dagnino, D.; Lewenstein, M.; Osterloh, K.

    2006-01-01

    Two-dimentional systems of trapped samples of few cold bosonic atoms submitted to strong rotation around the perpendicular axis may be realized in optical lattices and microtraps. We investigate theoretically the evolution of ground state structures of such systems as the rotational frequency Ω increases. Various kinds of ordered structures are observed. In some cases, hidden interference patterns exhibit themselves only in the pair correlation function; in some other cases explicit broken-symmetry structures appear that modulate the density. For N<10 atoms, the standard scenario, valid for large sytems is absent, and is only gradually recovered as N increases. On the one hand, the Laughlin state in the strong rotational regime contains ordered structures much more similar to a Wigner molecule than to a fermionic quantum liquid. On the other hand, in the weak rotational regime, the possibility to obtain equilibrium states, whose density reveals an array of vortices, is restricted to the vicinity of some critical values of the rotational frequency Ω

  10. Observation of Resonant Effects in Ultracold Collisions between Heteronuclear Feshbach Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xin; Wang, Fudong; Zhu, Bing; Guo, Mingyang; Lu, Bo; Wang, Dajun

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic field dependent dimer-dimer collisional losses are studied with ultracold 23 Na87 Rb Feshbach molecules. By ramping the magnetic field across the 347.8 G inter-species Feshbach resonance and removing residual atoms with a magnetic field gradient, ~ 8000 pure NaRb Feshbach molecules with a temperature below 1 μK are produced. By holding the pure molecule sample in a crossed optical dipole trap and measuring the time-dependent loss curves under different magnetic fields near the Feshbach resonance, the dimer-dimer loss rates with respect to the atomic scattering length a are mapped out. We observe a resonant feature at around a = 600a0 and a rising tail at above a = 1600a0 . This behavior resembles previous theoretical works on homonuclear Feshbach molecule, where resonant effects between dimer-dimer collisions tied to tetramer bound states were predicted. Our work shows the possibility of exploring four-body physics within a heteronuclear system. We are supported by Hong Kong RGC General Research Fund no. CUHK403813.

  11. High-resolution imaging of ultracold fermions in microscopically tailored optical potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, B; Mueller, T; Meineke, J; Esslinger, T; Moritz, H

    2011-01-01

    We report on the local probing and preparation of an ultracold Fermi gas on the length scale of one micrometer, i.e. of the order of the Fermi wavelength. The essential tool of our experimental setup is a pair of identical, high-resolution microscope objectives. One of the microscope objectives allows local imaging of the trapped Fermi gas of 6 Li atoms with a maximum resolution of 660 nm, while the other enables the generation of arbitrary optical dipole potentials on the same length scale. Employing a two-dimensional (2D) acousto-optical deflector, we demonstrate the formation of several trapping geometries, including a tightly focused single optical dipole trap, a 4x4 site 2D optical lattice and an 8 site ring lattice configuration. Furthermore, we show the ability to load and detect a small number of atoms in these trapping potentials. A site separation down to one micrometer in combination with the low mass of 6 Li results in tunneling rates that are sufficiently large for the implementation of Hubbard models with the designed geometries.

  12. Damping of electron center-of-mass oscillation in ultracold plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei-Ting; Witte, Craig; Roberts, Jacob L.

    2016-01-01

    Applying a short electric field pulse to an ultracold plasma induces an electron plasma oscillation. This manifests itself as an oscillation of the electron center of mass around the ion center of mass in the ultracold plasma. In general, the oscillation can damp due to either collisionless or collisional mechanisms, or a combination of the both. To investigate the nature of oscillation damping in ultracold plasmas, we developed a molecular dynamics model of the ultracold plasma electrons. Through this model, we found that depending on the neutrality of the ultracold plasma and the size of an applied DC electric field, there are some parameter ranges where the damping is primarily collisional and some primarily collisionless. We conducted experiments to compare the measured damping rate with theory predictions and found them to be in good agreement. Extension of our measurements to different parameter ranges should enable studies for strong-coupling influence on electron-ion collision rates.

  13. Time-Dependent Wave Packet Dynamics Calculations of Cross Sections for Ultracold Scattering of Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiayu; Liu, Shu; Zhang, Dong H.; Krems, Roman V.

    2018-04-01

    Because the de Broglie wavelength of ultracold molecules is very large, the cross sections for collisions of molecules at ultracold temperatures are always computed by the time-independent quantum scattering approach. Here, we report the first accurate time-dependent wave packet dynamics calculation for reactive scattering of ultracold molecules. Wave packet dynamics calculations can be applied to molecular systems with more dimensions and provide real-time information on the process of bond rearrangement and/or energy exchange in molecular collisions. Our work thus makes possible the extension of rigorous quantum calculations of ultracold reaction properties to polyatomic molecules and adds a new powerful tool for the study of ultracold chemistry.

  14. Topological quantization of ensemble averages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prodan, Emil

    2009-01-01

    We define the current of a quantum observable and, under well-defined conditions, we connect its ensemble average to the index of a Fredholm operator. The present work builds on a formalism developed by Kellendonk and Schulz-Baldes (2004 J. Funct. Anal. 209 388) to study the quantization of edge currents for continuous magnetic Schroedinger operators. The generalization given here may be a useful tool to scientists looking for novel manifestations of the topological quantization. As a new application, we show that the differential conductance of atomic wires is given by the index of a certain operator. We also comment on how the formalism can be used to probe the existence of edge states

  15. Moller Polarimetry with Atomic Hydrogen Targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudakov, Eugene; Luppov, V.

    2012-01-01

    A proposal to use polarized atomic hydrogen gas as the target for electron beam polarimetry based on the Moller scattering is described. Such a gas, stored in an ultra-cold magnetic trap, would provide a target of practically 100% polarized electrons. It is conceivable to reach a ∼0.3% systematic accuracy of the beam polarimetry with such a target. Feasibility studies for the CEBAF electron beam have been performed

  16. 'Lazy' quantum ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parfionov, George; Zapatrin, Roman

    2006-01-01

    We compare different strategies aimed to prepare an ensemble with a given density matrix ρ. Preparing the ensemble of eigenstates of ρ with appropriate probabilities can be treated as 'generous' strategy: it provides maximal accessible information about the state. Another extremity is the so-called 'Scrooge' ensemble, which is mostly stingy in sharing the information. We introduce 'lazy' ensembles which require minimal effort to prepare the density matrix by selecting pure states with respect to completely random choice. We consider two parties, Alice and Bob, playing a kind of game. Bob wishes to guess which pure state is prepared by Alice. His null hypothesis, based on the lack of any information about Alice's intention, is that Alice prepares any pure state with equal probability. Then, the average quantum state measured by Bob turns out to be ρ, and he has to make a new hypothesis about Alice's intention solely based on the information that the observed density matrix is ρ. The arising 'lazy' ensemble is shown to be the alternative hypothesis which minimizes type I error

  17. The semantic similarity ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ballatore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Computational measures of semantic similarity between geographic terms provide valuable support across geographic information retrieval, data mining, and information integration. To date, a wide variety of approaches to geo-semantic similarity have been devised. A judgment of similarity is not intrinsically right or wrong, but obtains a certain degree of cognitive plausibility, depending on how closely it mimics human behavior. Thus selecting the most appropriate measure for a specific task is a significant challenge. To address this issue, we make an analogy between computational similarity measures and soliciting domain expert opinions, which incorporate a subjective set of beliefs, perceptions, hypotheses, and epistemic biases. Following this analogy, we define the semantic similarity ensemble (SSE as a composition of different similarity measures, acting as a panel of experts having to reach a decision on the semantic similarity of a set of geographic terms. The approach is evaluated in comparison to human judgments, and results indicate that an SSE performs better than the average of its parts. Although the best member tends to outperform the ensemble, all ensembles outperform the average performance of each ensemble's member. Hence, in contexts where the best measure is unknown, the ensemble provides a more cognitively plausible approach.

  18. An ultra-cold neutron source at the MLNSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowles, T.J.; Brun, T.; Hill, R.; Morris, C.; Seestrom, S.J.; Crow, L.; Serebrov, A.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors have carried out the research and development of an Ultra-Cold Neutron (UCN) source at the Manuel Lujan Neutron Scattering Center (MLNSC). A first generation source was constructed to test the feasibility of a rotor source. The source performed well with an UCN production rate reasonably consistent with that expected. This source can now provide the basis for further development work directed at using UCN in fundamental physics research as well as possible applications in materials science

  19. Spectroscopy with cold and ultra-cold neutrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abele Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present two new types of spectroscopy methods for cold and ultra-cold neutrons. The first method, which uses the R×B drift effect to disperse charged particles in a uniformly curved magnetic field, allows to study neutron β-decay. We aim for a precision on the 10−4 level. The second method that we refer to as gravity resonance spectroscopy (GRS allows to test Newton’s gravity law at short distances. At the level of precision we are able to provide constraints on any possible gravity-like interaction. In particular, limits on dark energy chameleon fields are improved by several orders of magnitude.

  20. Diamondlike carbon can replace beryllium in physics with ultracold neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atchison, F.; Blau, B.; Daum, M.; Fierlinger, P.; Foelske, A.; Geltenbort, P.; Gupta, M.; Henneck, R.; Heule, S.; Kasprzak, M.; Kuzniak, M.; Kirch, K.; Meier, M.; Pichlmaier, A.; Plonka, Ch.; Reiser, R.; Theiler, B.; Zimmer, O.; Zsigmond, G.

    2006-01-01

    To complete our study of ultracold neutron (UCN) storage-vessel coatings, we have measured the Fermi potential for neutrons on diamondlike carbon coatings produced by laser induced vacuum arc deposition. A sample with an sp 3 content of 0.45, measured using, for the first time, neutron transmission had a Fermi potential of (249+/-14)neV. A second sample with an sp 3 fraction of 0.67, measured using cold neutron reflectometry, gave (271+/-13)neV. These values complete the demonstration that there is a viable alternative to Be in UCN physics

  1. Diamond-like carbon coated ultracold neutron guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heule, S.; Atchison, F.; Daum, M.; Foelske, A.; Henneck, R.; Kasprzak, M.; Kirch, K.; Knecht, A.; Kuzniak, M.; Lippert, T.; Meier, M.; Pichlmaier, A.; Straumann, U.

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown recently that diamond-like carbon (DLC) with a sp 3 fraction above 60% is a better wall coating material for ultracold neutron applications than beryllium. We report on results of Raman spectroscopic and XPS measurements obtained for diamond-like carbon coated neutron guides produced in a new facility, which is based on pulsed laser deposition at 193 nm. For diamond-like carbon coatings on small stainless steel substrates we find sp 3 fractions in the range from 60 to 70% and showing slightly increasing values with laser pulse energy and pulse repetition rate

  2. Progress towards magnetic trapping of ultra-cold neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Huffman, P R; Butterworth, J S; Coakley, K J; Dewey, M S; Dzhosyuk, S N; Gilliam, D M; Golub, R; Greene, G L; Habicht, K; Lamoreaux, S K; Mattoni, C E H; McKinsey, D N; Wietfeldt, F E; Doyle, J M

    2000-01-01

    We report progress towards magnetic trapping of ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) in preparation for a neutron lifetime measurement. UCN will be produced by inelastic scattering of cold (0.89 nm) neutrons in a reservoir of superfluid sup 4 He and confined in a three-dimensional magnetic trap. As the trapped neutrons decay, recoil electrons will generate scintillations in the liquid He, which should be detectable with nearly 100% efficiency. This direct measure of the number of UCN decays vs. time can be used to determine the neutron beta-decay lifetime.

  3. Quantum levitation of nanoparticles seen with ultracold neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesvizhevsky, V. V., E-mail: nesvizhevsky@ill.eu [Institut Laue-Langevin (France); Voronin, A. Yu. [Lebedev Institute (Russian Federation); Lambrecht, A.; Reynaud, S. [Laboratoire Kastler-Brossel, CNRS, ENS, UPMC (France); Lychagin, E. V.; Muzychka, A. Yu.; Strelkov, A. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2013-09-15

    Analyzing new experiments with ultracold neutrons (UCNs) we show that physical adsorption of nanoparticles/nanodroplets, levitating in high-excited states in a deep and broad potential well formed by van der Waals/Casimir-Polder (vdW/CP) forces results in new effects on a cross-road of the fields of fundamental interactions, neutron, surface and nanoparticle physics. Accounting for the interaction of UCNs with nanoparticles explains a recently discovered intriguing so-called 'small heating' of UCNs in traps. It might be relevant to the striking conflict of the neutron lifetime experiments with smallest reported uncertainties by adding false effects there.

  4. Quantum levitation of nanoparticles seen with ultracold neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesvizhevsky, V. V.; Voronin, A. Yu.; Lambrecht, A.; Reynaud, S.; Lychagin, E. V.; Muzychka, A. Yu.; Strelkov, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    Analyzing new experiments with ultracold neutrons (UCNs) we show that physical adsorption of nanoparticles/nanodroplets, levitating in high-excited states in a deep and broad potential well formed by van der Waals/Casimir-Polder (vdW/CP) forces results in new effects on a cross-road of the fields of fundamental interactions, neutron, surface and nanoparticle physics. Accounting for the interaction of UCNs with nanoparticles explains a recently discovered intriguing so-called “small heating” of UCNs in traps. It might be relevant to the striking conflict of the neutron lifetime experiments with smallest reported uncertainties by adding false effects there

  5. An ultra-cold neutron source at the MLNSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowles, T.J.; Brun, T.; Hill, R.; Morris, C.; Seestrom, S.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Crow, L. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States); Serebrov, A. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst. (Russian Federation)

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors have carried out the research and development of an Ultra-Cold Neutron (UCN) source at the Manuel Lujan Neutron Scattering Center (MLNSC). A first generation source was constructed to test the feasibility of a rotor source. The source performed well with an UCN production rate reasonably consistent with that expected. This source can now provide the basis for further development work directed at using UCN in fundamental physics research as well as possible applications in materials science.

  6. Scattering Length Scaling Laws for Ultracold Three-Body Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Incao, J.P.; Esry, B.D.

    2005-01-01

    We present a simple and unifying picture that provides the energy and scattering length dependence for all inelastic three-body collision rates in the ultracold regime for three-body systems with short-range two-body interactions. Here, we present the scaling laws for vibrational relaxation, three-body recombination, and collision-induced dissociation for systems that support s-wave two-body collisions. These systems include three identical bosons, two identical bosons, and two identical fermions. Our approach reproduces all previous results, predicts several others, and gives the general form of the scaling laws in all cases

  7. Localization of Cold Atoms in State-Dependent Optical Lattices via a Rabi Pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horstmann, Birger; Duerr, Stephan; Roscilde, Tommaso

    2010-01-01

    We propose a novel realization of Anderson localization in nonequilibrium states of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. A Rabi pulse transfers part of the population to a different internal state with infinite effective mass. These frozen atoms create a quantum superposition of different disorder potentials, localizing the mobile atoms. For weakly interacting mobile atoms, Anderson localization is obtained. The localization length increases with increasing disorder and decreasing interaction strength, contrary to the expectation for equilibrium localization.

  8. Radio frequency selective addressing of localized atoms in a periodic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, H.; De Mirandes, E.; Ferlaino, F.; Roati, G.; Tuerck, V.; Modugno, G.; Inguscio, M.

    2004-01-01

    We study the localization and addressability of ultracold atoms in a combined parabolic and periodic potential. Such a potential supports the existence of localized stationary states and we show that applying a radio frequency field allows us to selectively address atoms in these states. This method is used to measure the energy and momentum distribution of the atoms in the localized states. We also discuss possible extensions of this scheme to address and manipulate atoms in single lattice sites

  9. Transport in a capacitive ultracold atomtronic circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Mark; Eller, Benjamin; Eckel, Steve; Clark, Charles

    A recent NIST experiment studied the transport of a gaseous Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) confined in an atomtronic ``dumbbell'' circuit. The optically created condensate potential consisted of a tight harmonic potential in the vertical direction confining the BEC to a horizontial plane. The horizontal potential consisted of two cylindrical wells separated by a channel produced by a harmonic oscillator potential transverse to the line joining the wells. The BEC, formed in the ``source'' well, was released to flow toward the ``drain'' well. The evolution of this system was shown to be reproduced by a model electronic circuit consisting of a charged capacitor, C, in series with an inductor, L, and a parallel combination of a resistor, R, and a Josephson junction. We modeled this system with the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation and found good agreement with the data provided that the confining potential is carefully reproduced. The GP simulations show behavior, not detectable in the experiment, that atoms can jump out of the dumbbell area after filling up the drain well. We also present the dependence of R and L on the channel shape. Supported by NSF Grants PHY-1413768 and ARO Atomtronics MURI.

  10. Comparing and contrasting nuclei and cold atomic gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas; Jensen, Aksel Stenholm

    2013-01-01

    The experimental revolution in ultracold atomic gas physics over the past decades has brought tremendous amounts of new insight to the world of degenerate quantum systems. Here we compare and contrast the developments of cold atomic gases with the physics of nuclei since many concepts, techniques......, and nomenclatures are common to both fields. However, nuclei are finite systems with interactions that are typically much more complicated than those of ultracold atomic gases. The similarities and differences must therefore be carefully addressed for a meaningful comparison and to facilitate fruitful......, interactions, and relevant length and energy scales of cold atoms and nuclei. Next we address some attempts in nuclear physics to transfer the concepts of condensates in nuclei that can in principle be built from bosonic alpha-particle constituents. We also consider Efimov physics, a prime example of nuclear...

  11. Laser-Cooled Ions and Atoms in a Storage Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinert, J.; Hannemann, S.; Eike, B.; Eisenbarth, U.; Grieser, M.; Grimm, R.; Gwinner, G.; Karpuk, S.; Saathoff, G.; Schramm, U.; Schwalm, D.; Weidemueller, M.

    2003-01-01

    We review recent experiments at the Heidelberg Test Storage Ring which apply advanced laser cooling techniques to stored ion beams. Very high phase-space densities are achieved by three-dimensional laser cooling of a coasting 9 Be + beam at 7.3 MeV. Laser-cooled, trapped Cs atoms are used as an ultracold precision target for the study of ion-atom interactions with a 74 MeV beam of 12 C 6+ ions.

  12. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Haakon

    2016-01-08

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a sequential filtering method that uses an ensemble of particle paths to estimate the means and covariances required by the Kalman filter by the use of sample moments, i.e., the Monte Carlo method. EnKF is often both robust and efficient, but its performance may suffer in settings where the computational cost of accurate simulations of particles is high. The multilevel Monte Carlo method (MLMC) is an extension of classical Monte Carlo methods which by sampling stochastic realizations on a hierarchy of resolutions may reduce the computational cost of moment approximations by orders of magnitude. In this work we have combined the ideas of MLMC and EnKF to construct the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) for the setting of finite dimensional state and observation spaces. The main ideas of this method is to compute particle paths on a hierarchy of resolutions and to apply multilevel estimators on the ensemble hierarchy of particles to compute Kalman filter means and covariances. Theoretical results and a numerical study of the performance gains of MLEnKF over EnKF will be presented. Some ideas on the extension of MLEnKF to settings with infinite dimensional state spaces will also be presented.

  13. Neural Network Ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Salamon, Peter

    1990-01-01

    We propose several means for improving the performance an training of neural networks for classification. We use crossvalidation as a tool for optimizing network parameters and architecture. We show further that the remaining generalization error can be reduced by invoking ensembles of similar...... networks....

  14. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Haakon; Chernov, Alexey; Law, Kody; Nobile, Fabio; Tempone, Raul

    2016-01-01

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a sequential filtering method that uses an ensemble of particle paths to estimate the means and covariances required by the Kalman filter by the use of sample moments, i.e., the Monte Carlo method. EnKF is often both robust and efficient, but its performance may suffer in settings where the computational cost of accurate simulations of particles is high. The multilevel Monte Carlo method (MLMC) is an extension of classical Monte Carlo methods which by sampling stochastic realizations on a hierarchy of resolutions may reduce the computational cost of moment approximations by orders of magnitude. In this work we have combined the ideas of MLMC and EnKF to construct the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) for the setting of finite dimensional state and observation spaces. The main ideas of this method is to compute particle paths on a hierarchy of resolutions and to apply multilevel estimators on the ensemble hierarchy of particles to compute Kalman filter means and covariances. Theoretical results and a numerical study of the performance gains of MLEnKF over EnKF will be presented. Some ideas on the extension of MLEnKF to settings with infinite dimensional state spaces will also be presented.

  15. Magnetic-film atom chip with 10 μm period lattices of microtraps for quantum information science with Rydberg atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, V Y F; Pijn, D R M; Schlatter, H; Torralbo-Campo, L; La Rooij, A L; Mulder, G B; Naber, J; Soudijn, M L; Tauschinsky, A; Abarbanel, C; Hadad, B; Golan, E; Folman, R; Spreeuw, R J C

    2014-05-01

    We describe the fabrication and construction of a setup for creating lattices of magnetic microtraps for ultracold atoms on an atom chip. The lattice is defined by lithographic patterning of a permanent magnetic film. Patterned magnetic-film atom chips enable a large variety of trapping geometries over a wide range of length scales. We demonstrate an atom chip with a lattice constant of 10 μm, suitable for experiments in quantum information science employing the interaction between atoms in highly excited Rydberg energy levels. The active trapping region contains lattice regions with square and hexagonal symmetry, with the two regions joined at an interface. A structure of macroscopic wires, cutout of a silver foil, was mounted under the atom chip in order to load ultracold (87)Rb atoms into the microtraps. We demonstrate loading of atoms into the square and hexagonal lattice sections simultaneously and show resolved imaging of individual lattice sites. Magnetic-film lattices on atom chips provide a versatile platform for experiments with ultracold atoms, in particular for quantum information science and quantum simulation.

  16. Magnetic-film atom chip with 10 μm period lattices of microtraps for quantum information science with Rydberg atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, V. Y. F. [Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, PO Box 94485, 1090 GL Amsterdam (Netherlands); Complex Photonic Systems (COPS), MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Pijn, D. R. M.; Schlatter, H.; Torralbo-Campo, L.; La Rooij, A. L.; Mulder, G. B.; Naber, J.; Soudijn, M. L.; Tauschinsky, A.; Spreeuw, R. J. C., E-mail: r.j.c.spreeuw@uva.nl [Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, PO Box 94485, 1090 GL Amsterdam (Netherlands); Abarbanel, C.; Hadad, B.; Golan, E. [Ilse Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Be' er Sheva 84105 (Israel); Folman, R. [Department of Physics and Ilse Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Be' er Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2014-05-15

    We describe the fabrication and construction of a setup for creating lattices of magnetic microtraps for ultracold atoms on an atom chip. The lattice is defined by lithographic patterning of a permanent magnetic film. Patterned magnetic-film atom chips enable a large variety of trapping geometries over a wide range of length scales. We demonstrate an atom chip with a lattice constant of 10 μm, suitable for experiments in quantum information science employing the interaction between atoms in highly excited Rydberg energy levels. The active trapping region contains lattice regions with square and hexagonal symmetry, with the two regions joined at an interface. A structure of macroscopic wires, cutout of a silver foil, was mounted under the atom chip in order to load ultracold {sup 87}Rb atoms into the microtraps. We demonstrate loading of atoms into the square and hexagonal lattice sections simultaneously and show resolved imaging of individual lattice sites. Magnetic-film lattices on atom chips provide a versatile platform for experiments with ultracold atoms, in particular for quantum information science and quantum simulation.

  17. Focus on strongly correlated quantum fluids: from ultracold quantum gases to QCD plasmas Focus on strongly correlated quantum fluids: from ultracold quantum gases to QCD plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Allan; Carr, Lincoln D.; Schaefer, Thomas; Steinberg, Peter; Thomas, John E.

    2013-04-01

    interdisciplinary appeal and include new studies of high temperature superfluidity, viscosity, spin-transport, spin-imbalanced mixtures, and three-component gases, this last having a close parallel to color superconductivity. Another system important for the field of strongly-interacting quantum fluids was revealed by analysis of data from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Despite naive expectations based on asymptotic freedom that the deconfinement of quarks and gluons at high temperatures would lead to a weakly-interacting quark gluon plasma (QGP), the system appeared to be quite strongly coupled. Subsequent estimates of the viscosity-to-entropy ratio suggest that the system is tantalizingly close to the postulated bound from AdS/CFT calculations. The field is quite dynamic at the moment; new measurements are expected from upgraded detectors at RHIC, and an entirely new energy regime is being opened up by heavy ion collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. On the theoretical side, much work remains to be done to extract the precise values of the transport coefficients, and to characterize the nature of quasi-particle excitations in the plasma. Finally, holographic dualities such as anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT) have opened a new theoretical window on strongly correlated fluids. Holography relates strongly-interacting quantum many-body systems to weakly-coupled semi-classical gravitational systems, replacing quasiparticles with geometry and translating various difficult questions about quantum fluids into simple and calculable geometric exercises. Already, some of the earliest lessons of holography, such as the conjectural bound on the viscosity-to-entropy ratio, have had a considerable impact on the theoretical and experimental study of strongly correlated fluids, from RHIC to ultracold atoms. More recently, the study of holographic superconductors, non-Fermi liquids and unitary quantum gases has touched

  18. Universal Borromean Binding in Spin-Orbit-Coupled Ultracold Fermi Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Cui

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Borromean rings and Borromean binding, a class of intriguing phenomena as three objects are linked (bound together while any two of them are unlinked (unbound, widely exist in nature and have been found in systems of biology, chemistry, and physics. Previous studies have suggested that the occurrence of such a binding in physical systems typically relies on the microscopic details of pairwise interaction potentials at short range and is, therefore, nonuniversal. Here, we report a new type of Borromean binding in ultracold Fermi gases with Rashba spin-orbit coupling, which is universal against short-range interaction details, with its binding energy only dependent on the s-wave scattering length and the spin-orbit-coupling strength. We show that the occurrence of this universal Borromean binding is facilitated by the symmetry of the single-particle dispersion under spin-orbit coupling and is, therefore, symmetry selective rather than interaction selective. The state is robust over a wide range of mass ratios between composing fermions, which are accessible by Li-Li, K-K, and K-Li mixtures in cold-atom experiments. Our results reveal the importance of single- particle spectral symmetry in few-body physics and shed light on the emergence of new quantum phases in a many-body system with exotic few-body correlations.

  19. Experiments with cold hydrogen atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonas, V.B.

    1981-01-01

    Numerous investigations of atomic processes in Waseous phase on the surface with participation of ''cold'' hydrogen atoms, made during the last years, are considered. The term ''cold atom'' means the range of relative collision energies E<10 MeV (respectively 'ultracold ' atoms at E< or approximately 1 MeV) which corresponds to the range of temperatures in tens (units) of K degrees. Three main ranges of investigations where extensive experimental programs are realized are considered: study of collisional processes with hydrogen atom participation, hydrogen atoms being of astrophysical interest; study of elastic atom-molecular scattering at superlow energies and studies on the problem of condensed hydrogen. Hydrogen atoms production is realized at dissociation in non-electrode high-frequency or superhigh-frequency discharge. A method of hydrogen quantum generator and of its modifications appeared to be rather an effective means to study collisional changes of spin state of hydrogen atoms. First important results on storage and stabilization of the gas of polarized hydrogen atoms are received

  20. Time-Dependent Impurity in Ultracold Fermions: Orthogonality Catastrophe and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Knap

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent experimental realization of strongly imbalanced mixtures of ultracold atoms opens new possibilities for studying impurity dynamics in a controlled setting. In this paper, we discuss how the techniques of atomic physics can be used to explore new regimes and manifestations of Anderson’s orthogonality catastrophe (OC, which could not be accessed in solid-state systems. Specifically, we consider a system of impurity atoms, localized by a strong optical-lattice potential, immersed in a sea of itinerant Fermi atoms. We point out that the Ramsey-interference-type experiments with the impurity atoms allow one to study the OC in the time domain, while radio-frequency (RF spectroscopy probes the OC in the frequency domain. The OC in such systems is universal, not only in the long-time limit, but also for all times and is determined fully by the impurity-scattering length and the Fermi wave vector of the itinerant fermions. We calculate the universal Ramsey response and RF-absorption spectra. In addition to the standard power-law contributions, which correspond to the excitation of multiple particle-hole pairs near the Fermi surface, we identify a novel, important contribution to the OC that comes from exciting one extra particle from the bottom of the itinerant band. This contribution gives rise to a nonanalytic feature in the RF-absorption spectra, which shows a nontrivial dependence on the scattering length, and evolves into a true power-law singularity with the universal exponent 1/4 at the unitarity. We extend our discussion to spin-echo-type experiments, and show that they probe more complicated nonequilibirum dynamics of the Fermi gas in processes in which an impurity switches between states with different interaction strength several times; such processes play an important role in the Kondo problem, but remained out of reach in the solid-state systems. We show that, alternatively, the OC can be seen in the energy-counting statistics

  1. A portable source of lattice-trapped and ultracold strontium (PLUS), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design and demonstrate a portable source of lattice-trapped, ultracold strontium (PLUS). The device uses simplified and robust techniques for loading...

  2. A Portable Source of Lattice-Trapped and Ultracold Strontium (PLUS), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to demonstrate the portable source of lattice-trapped, ultracold strontium (PLUS) designed during Phase I. The device uses simplified and robust...

  3. Representing Color Ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetverikov, Andrey; Campana, Gianluca; Kristjánsson, Árni

    2017-10-01

    Colors are rarely uniform, yet little is known about how people represent color distributions. We introduce a new method for studying color ensembles based on intertrial learning in visual search. Participants looked for an oddly colored diamond among diamonds with colors taken from either uniform or Gaussian color distributions. On test trials, the targets had various distances in feature space from the mean of the preceding distractor color distribution. Targets on test trials therefore served as probes into probabilistic representations of distractor colors. Test-trial response times revealed a striking similarity between the physical distribution of colors and their internal representations. The results demonstrate that the visual system represents color ensembles in a more detailed way than previously thought, coding not only mean and variance but, most surprisingly, the actual shape (uniform or Gaussian) of the distribution of colors in the environment.

  4. Tailored Random Graph Ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, E S; Annibale, A; Coolen, A C C

    2013-01-01

    Tailored graph ensembles are a developing bridge between biological networks and statistical mechanics. The aim is to use this concept to generate a suite of rigorous tools that can be used to quantify and compare the topology of cellular signalling networks, such as protein-protein interaction networks and gene regulation networks. We calculate exact and explicit formulae for the leading orders in the system size of the Shannon entropies of random graph ensembles constrained with degree distribution and degree-degree correlation. We also construct an ergodic detailed balance Markov chain with non-trivial acceptance probabilities which converges to a strictly uniform measure and is based on edge swaps that conserve all degrees. The acceptance probabilities can be generalized to define Markov chains that target any alternative desired measure on the space of directed or undirected graphs, in order to generate graphs with more sophisticated topological features.

  5. Spin noise measurement with diamagnetic atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, M.; Ichihara, S.; Takano, T.; Kumakura, M.; Takahashi, Y.

    2007-01-01

    We report the measurement of the atomic spin noise of the diamagnetic atom ytterbium (Yb). Yb has various merits for utilizing the quantum nature of the atomic spin ensemble compared with the paramagnetic atoms used in all previous experiments. From the magnitude of the noise level and dependence on the detuning, we concluded that we succeeded in the measurement of 171 Yb atomic spin noise in an atomic beam

  6. Manipulating Atoms with Light Achievements and Perspectives

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    During the last few decades spectacular progress has been achieved in the control of atomic systems by light. It will be shown how it is possible to use the basic conservation laws in atom-photon interactions for polarizing atoms, for trapping them, for cooling them to extremely low temperatures, in the microkelvin, and even in the nanokelvin range. A review will be given of recent advances in this field and of new applications, including atomic clocks with very high relative stability and accuracy, atomic interferometers allowing precise measurement of rotation speeds and gravitational fields, the realization of new states of matter such as Bose-Einstein condensates, matter waves and atom lasers, ultracold molecules. New perspectives opened by these results will be also briefly discussed.

  7. Quantum Ensemble Classification: A Sampling-Based Learning Control Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunlin; Dong, Daoyi; Qi, Bo; Petersen, Ian R; Rabitz, Herschel

    2017-06-01

    Quantum ensemble classification (QEC) has significant applications in discrimination of atoms (or molecules), separation of isotopes, and quantum information extraction. However, quantum mechanics forbids deterministic discrimination among nonorthogonal states. The classification of inhomogeneous quantum ensembles is very challenging, since there exist variations in the parameters characterizing the members within different classes. In this paper, we recast QEC as a supervised quantum learning problem. A systematic classification methodology is presented by using a sampling-based learning control (SLC) approach for quantum discrimination. The classification task is accomplished via simultaneously steering members belonging to different classes to their corresponding target states (e.g., mutually orthogonal states). First, a new discrimination method is proposed for two similar quantum systems. Then, an SLC method is presented for QEC. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach for the binary classification of two-level quantum ensembles and the multiclass classification of multilevel quantum ensembles.

  8. Manipulating ultracold polar molecules with microwave radiation: The influence of hyperfine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldegunde, J.; Hutson, Jeremy M.; Ran Hong

    2009-01-01

    We calculate the microwave spectra of ultracold 40 K 87 Rb alkali-metal dimers, including hyperfine interactions and in the presence of electric and magnetic fields. We show that microwave transitions may be used to transfer molecules between different hyperfine states, but only because of the presence of nuclear quadrupole interactions. Hyperfine splittings may also complicate the use of ultracold molecules for quantum computing. The spectrum of molecules oriented in electric fields may be simplified dramatically by applying a simultaneous magnetic field.

  9. Sheet Fluorescence and Annular Analysis of Ultracold Neutral Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, J.; Gao, H.; Killian, T. C.

    2009-01-01

    Annular analysis of fluorescence imaging measurements on Ultracold Neutral Plasmas (UNPs) is demonstrated. Spatially-resolved fluorescence imaging of the strontium ions produces a spectrum that is Doppler-broadened due to the thermal ion velocity and shifted due to the ion expansion velocity. The fluorescence excitation beam is spatially narrowed into a sheet, allowing for localized analysis of ion temperatures within a volume of the plasma with small density variation. Annular analysis of fluorescence images permits an enhanced signal-to-noise ratio compared to previous fluorescence measurements done in strontium UNPs. Using this technique and analysis, plasma ion temperatures are measured and shown to display characteristics of plasmas with strong coupling such as disorder induced heating and kinetic energy oscillations.

  10. Theoretical model for ultracold molecule formation via adaptive feedback control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poschinger, Ulrich; Salzmann, Wenzel; Wester, Roland; Weidemueller, Matthias; Koch, Christiane P; Kosloff, Ronnie

    2006-01-01

    We theoretically investigate pump-dump photoassociation of ultracold molecules with amplitude- and phase-modulated femtosecond laser pulses. For this purpose, a perturbative model for light-matter interaction is developed and combined with a genetic algorithm for adaptive feedback control of the laser pulse shapes. The model is applied to the formation of 85 Rb 2 molecules in a magneto-optical trap. We find that optimized pulse shapes may maximize the formation of ground state molecules in a specific vibrational state at a pump-dump delay time for which unshaped pulses lead to a minimum of the formation rate. Compared to the maximum formation rate obtained for unshaped pulses at the optimum pump-dump delay, the optimized pulses lead to a significant improvement of about 40% for the target level population. Since our model yields the spectral amplitudes and phases of the optimized pulses, the results are directly applicable in pulse shaping experiments

  11. Quantized Ultracold Neutrons in Rough Waveguides: GRANIT Experiments and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Escobar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We apply our general theory of transport in systems with random rough boundaries to gravitationally quantized ultracold neutrons in rough waveguides as in GRANIT experiments (ILL, Grenoble. We consider waveguides with roughness in both two and one dimensions (2D and 1D. In the biased diffusion approximation the depletion times for the gravitational quantum states can be easily expressed via each other irrespective of the system parameters. The calculation of the exit neutron count reduces to evaluation of a single constant which contains a complicated integral of the correlation function of surface roughness. In the case of 1D roughness (random grating this constant is calculated analytically for common types of the correlation functions. The results obey simple scaling relations which are slightly different in 1D and 2D. We predict the exit neutron count for the new GRANIT cell.

  12. Improved Noninterferometric Test of Collapse Models Using Ultracold Cantilevers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinante, A.; Mezzena, R.; Falferi, P.; Carlesso, M.; Bassi, A.

    2017-09-01

    Spontaneous collapse models predict that a weak force noise acts on any mechanical system, as a consequence of the collapse of the wave function. Significant upper limits on the collapse rate have been recently inferred from precision mechanical experiments, such as ultracold cantilevers and the space mission LISA Pathfinder. Here, we report new results from an experiment based on a high-Q cantilever cooled to millikelvin temperatures, which is potentially able to improve the current bounds on the continuous spontaneous localization (CSL) model by 1 order of magnitude. High accuracy measurements of the cantilever thermal fluctuations reveal a nonthermal force noise of unknown origin. This excess noise is compatible with the CSL heating predicted by Adler. Several physical mechanisms able to explain the observed noise have been ruled out.

  13. Exploiting Universality in Atoms with Large Scattering Lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braaten, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this research project was atoms with scattering lengths that are large compared to the range of their interactions and which therefore exhibit universal behavior at sufficiently low energies. Recent dramatic advances in cooling atoms and in manipulating their scattering lengths have made this phenomenon of practical importance for controlling ultracold atoms and molecules. This research project was aimed at developing a systematically improvable method for calculating few-body observables for atoms with large scattering lengths starting from the universal results as a first approximation. Significant progress towards this goal was made during the five years of the project.

  14. Imprinting and recalling cortical ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Reid, Luis; Yang, Weijian; Bando, Yuki; Peterka, Darcy S; Yuste, Rafael

    2016-08-12

    Neuronal ensembles are coactive groups of neurons that may represent building blocks of cortical circuits. These ensembles could be formed by Hebbian plasticity, whereby synapses between coactive neurons are strengthened. Here we report that repetitive activation with two-photon optogenetics of neuronal populations from ensembles in the visual cortex of awake mice builds neuronal ensembles that recur spontaneously after being imprinted and do not disrupt preexisting ones. Moreover, imprinted ensembles can be recalled by single- cell stimulation and remain coactive on consecutive days. Our results demonstrate the persistent reconfiguration of cortical circuits by two-photon optogenetics into neuronal ensembles that can perform pattern completion. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Virtual states, halos and resonances in three-body atomic and nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederico, T.; Yamashita, M.T.; Tomio, L.

    2009-01-01

    By considering nuclear and ultracold trapped atomic systems, we review the trajectory of Efimov excited states in the complex plane by changing the two-body scattering lengths and one three-body scale. This article is based on the presentation by T. Frederico at the Fifth Workshop on Critical Stability, Erice, Sicily. (author)

  16. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Hakon

    2016-06-14

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) in the setting of finite dimensional signal evolution and noisy discrete-time observations. The signal dynamics is assumed to be governed by a stochastic differential equation (SDE), and a hierarchy of time grids is introduced for multilevel numerical integration of that SDE. The resulting multilevel EnKF is proved to asymptotically outperform EnKF in terms of computational cost versus approximation accuracy. The theoretical results are illustrated numerically.

  17. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Hakon; Law, Kody J. H.; Tempone, Raul

    2016-01-01

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) in the setting of finite dimensional signal evolution and noisy discrete-time observations. The signal dynamics is assumed to be governed by a stochastic differential equation (SDE), and a hierarchy of time grids is introduced for multilevel numerical integration of that SDE. The resulting multilevel EnKF is proved to asymptotically outperform EnKF in terms of computational cost versus approximation accuracy. The theoretical results are illustrated numerically.

  18. Quantum coherent tractor beam effect for atoms trapped near a nanowaveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadgrove, Mark; Wimberger, Sandro; Nic Chormaic, Síle

    2016-01-01

    We propose several schemes to realize a tractor beam effect for ultracold atoms in the vicinity of a few-mode nanowaveguide. Atoms trapped near the waveguide are transported in a direction opposite to the guided mode propagation direction. We analyse three specific examples for ultracold 23Na atoms trapped near a specific nanowaveguide (i.e. an optical nanofibre): (i) a conveyor belt-type tractor beam effect, (ii) an accelerator tractor beam effect, and (iii) a quantum coherent tractor beam effect, all of which can effectively pull atoms along the nanofibre toward the light source. This technique provides a new tool for controlling the motion of particles near nanowaveguides with potential applications in the study of particle transport and binding as well as atom interferometry. PMID:27440516

  19. Hyperfine structure of 2Σ molecules containing alkaline-earth-metal atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldegunde, Jesus; Hutson, Jeremy M.

    2018-04-01

    Ultracold molecules with both electron spin and an electric dipole moment offer new possibilities in quantum science. We use density-functional theory to calculate hyperfine coupling constants for a selection of molecules important in this area, including RbSr, LiYb, RbYb, CaF, and SrF. We find substantial hyperfine coupling constants for the fermionic isotopes of the alkaline-earth-metal and Yb atoms. We discuss the hyperfine level patterns and Zeeman splittings expected for these molecules. The results will be important both to experiments aimed at forming ultracold open-shell molecules and to their applications.

  20. Dependences of the van der Waals atom-wall interaction on atomic and material properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caride, A.O.; Klimchitskaya, G.L.; Mostepanenko, V.M.; Zanette, S.I.

    2005-01-01

    The 1%-accurate calculations of the van der Waals interaction between an atom and a cavity wall are performed in the separation region from 3 nm to 150 nm. The cases of metastable He * and Na atoms near metal, semiconductor, and dielectric walls are considered. Different approximations to the description of wall material and atomic dynamic polarizability are carefully compared. The smooth transition to the Casimir-Polder interaction is verified. It is shown that to obtain accurate results for the atom-wall van der Waals interaction at short separations with an error less than 1% one should use the complete optical-tabulated data for the complex refractive index of the wall material and the accurate dynamic polarizability of an atom. The obtained results may be useful for the theoretical interpretation of recent experiments on quantum reflection and Bose-Einstein condensation of ultracold atoms on or near surfaces of different kinds

  1. Gauss Sum Factorization with Cold Atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilowski, M.; Wendrich, T.; Mueller, T.; Ertmer, W.; Rasel, E. M.; Jentsch, Ch.; Schleich, W. P.

    2008-01-01

    We report the first implementation of a Gauss sum factorization algorithm by an internal state Ramsey interferometer using cold atoms. A sequence of appropriately designed light pulses interacts with an ensemble of cold rubidium atoms. The final population in the involved atomic levels determines a Gauss sum. With this technique we factor the number N=263193

  2. Atomic bonding between metal and graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hongtao; Feng, Qiong; Cheng, Yingchun; Yao, Yingbang; Wang, Qingxiao; Li, Kun; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Zhang, Xixiang; Yang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    and graphene, agreeing well with density functional theory studies. Single Cr atoms are located in the valleys of a zigzag edge, and few-atom ensembles preferentially form atomic chains by self-assembly. Low migration barriers lead to rich dynamics of metal

  3. Precision spectroscopy with ultracold {sup 87}Rb{sub 2} triplet molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Christoph

    2011-10-19

    In this thesis I report precision spectroscopy with ultracold {sup 87}Rb{sub 2} triplet molecules where we use lasers to couple the states in different molecular potentials. We study in detail states of the a {sup 3} sum {sup +}{sub u} and (1) {sup 3} sum {sup +}{sub g} potentials. These states are of great importance for transferring weakly bound molecules to the ro-vibrational triplet ground state via states of the excited potential. As most experiments start from molecules in their X {sup 1} sum {sup +}{sub g} ground state, the triplet states were hard to access via dipole transitions and remained largely unexplored. The measurements presented in this thesis are the first detailed study of diatomic {sup 87}Rb{sub 2} molecules in these states. Our experiments start with an ultracold cloud of {sup 87}Rb atoms. We then load this cloud into an optical lattice where we use a magnetic Feshbach resonance at 1007.4 G to perform a Feshbach association. After we have removed all unbound atoms, we end up with a pure sample of weakly bound Feshbach molecules inside the optical lattice. The optical lattice prevents these molecules from colliding with each other which results in molecular lifetimes on the order of a few hundred milliseconds. In the first set of experiments, we use a laser coupling the Feshbach state to the excited (1) {sup 3} sum {sup +}{sub g} triplet state to map out its low-lying vibrational (v = 0.. 15), rotational, hyperfine, and Zeeman structure. The experimental results are in good agreement with calculations done by Marius Lysebo and Prof. Leif Veseth. We then map out in detail the vibrational, rotational, hyperfine, and Zeeman structure of the a {sup 3} sum {sup +}{sub u} triplet ground state using dark state spectroscopy with levels in the (1) {sup 3} sum {sup +}{sub g} potential as an intermediate state. In this scheme we are able to access molecules in triplet states because our Feshbach state has strong triplet character. Interestingly, it

  4. Precision spectroscopy with ultracold {sup 87}Rb{sub 2} triplet molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Christoph

    2011-10-19

    In this thesis I report precision spectroscopy with ultracold {sup 87}Rb{sub 2} triplet molecules where we use lasers to couple the states in different molecular potentials. We study in detail states of the a {sup 3} sum {sup +}{sub u} and (1) {sup 3} sum {sup +}{sub g} potentials. These states are of great importance for transferring weakly bound molecules to the ro-vibrational triplet ground state via states of the excited potential. As most experiments start from molecules in their X {sup 1} sum {sup +}{sub g} ground state, the triplet states were hard to access via dipole transitions and remained largely unexplored. The measurements presented in this thesis are the first detailed study of diatomic {sup 87}Rb{sub 2} molecules in these states. Our experiments start with an ultracold cloud of {sup 87}Rb atoms. We then load this cloud into an optical lattice where we use a magnetic Feshbach resonance at 1007.4 G to perform a Feshbach association. After we have removed all unbound atoms, we end up with a pure sample of weakly bound Feshbach molecules inside the optical lattice. The optical lattice prevents these molecules from colliding with each other which results in molecular lifetimes on the order of a few hundred milliseconds. In the first set of experiments, we use a laser coupling the Feshbach state to the excited (1) {sup 3} sum {sup +}{sub g} triplet state to map out its low-lying vibrational (v = 0.. 15), rotational, hyperfine, and Zeeman structure. The experimental results are in good agreement with calculations done by Marius Lysebo and Prof. Leif Veseth. We then map out in detail the vibrational, rotational, hyperfine, and Zeeman structure of the a {sup 3} sum {sup +}{sub u} triplet ground state using dark state spectroscopy with levels in the (1) {sup 3} sum {sup +}{sub g} potential as an intermediate state. In this scheme we are able to access molecules in triplet states because our Feshbach state has strong triplet character. Interestingly, it

  5. Progress on the Magnetic Trapping of Ultra-cold Neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, John M.

    1998-04-01

    Ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) have been instrumental in making improved measurements of the neutron beta-decay lifetime and in searches for a permanent electric dipole moment.(R. Golub, D. Richardson and S.K. Lamoreaux, Ultra-cold Neutrons), Adam Hilger, 1991 The most accurate experiments have taken place using in-core devices at ILL (Grenoble, France) and PNPI (St. Petersburg, Russia). Superthermal techniques offer the promise of high-density sources of UCN via scattering of cold neutrons. Cold neutron beams are available at many neutron facilities. We are currently working on the development of a superfluid helium UCN source using the Cold Neutron Research Facility at the NIST Research Reactor (Gaithersburg) . Our first experiment plans to use superthermal scattering of neutrons in superfluid helium to produce UCN within a magnetic trapping volume. A magnetic trap 30 cm long and 4 cm diameter will be filled with helium at about 100 mK. Cold neutrons (around 11 K) will be introduced into the trapping region where some of them scatter to low enough energies (around 1 mK) so that they are magnetically trapped. Once trapped the UCN travel undisturbed; they have a very small probability of upscattering. Detection will be accomplished as the UCN beta-decay. The resultant high-energy electron creates excited molecular helium dimers, a portion which decay in less than 10 ns and emit radiation in the XUV (50-100 nm). We have developed techniques to measure these scintillations. Analysis indicates that a high accuracy measurement of the neutron beta decay lifetime should be possible using our techniques. An apparatus has been constructed and initial runs are underway. An overview of the experiment, discussion of systematic errors and recent experimental progress will be presented. This work is done in collaboration with C. Brome, J. Butterworth, S. Dzhosyuk, P. Huffman, C. Mattoni, D. McKinsey, M. Cooper, G. Greene, S. Lamoreaux, R. Golub, K. Habicht, K. Coakley, S. Dewey, D

  6. Ghost imaging with atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakimov, R. I.; Henson, B. M.; Shin, D. K.; Hodgman, S. S.; Dall, R. G.; Baldwin, K. G. H.; Truscott, A. G.

    2016-12-01

    Ghost imaging is a counter-intuitive phenomenon—first realized in quantum optics—that enables the image of a two-dimensional object (mask) to be reconstructed using the spatio-temporal properties of a beam of particles with which it never interacts. Typically, two beams of correlated photons are used: one passes through the mask to a single-pixel (bucket) detector while the spatial profile of the other is measured by a high-resolution (multi-pixel) detector. The second beam never interacts with the mask. Neither detector can reconstruct the mask independently, but temporal cross-correlation between the two beams can be used to recover a ‘ghost’ image. Here we report the realization of ghost imaging using massive particles instead of photons. In our experiment, the two beams are formed by correlated pairs of ultracold, metastable helium atoms, which originate from s-wave scattering of two colliding Bose-Einstein condensates. We use higher-order Kapitza-Dirac scattering to generate a large number of correlated atom pairs, enabling the creation of a clear ghost image with submillimetre resolution. Future extensions of our technique could lead to the realization of ghost interference, and enable tests of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement and Bell’s inequalities with atoms.

  7. Diversity in random subspacing ensembles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsymbal, A.; Pechenizkiy, M.; Cunningham, P.; Kambayashi, Y.; Mohania, M.K.; Wöß, W.

    2004-01-01

    Ensembles of learnt models constitute one of the main current directions in machine learning and data mining. It was shown experimentally and theoretically that in order for an ensemble to be effective, it should consist of classifiers having diversity in their predictions. A number of ways are

  8. PSO-Ensemble Demo Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    Within the framework of the PSO-Ensemble project (FU2101) a demo application has been created. The application use ECMWF ensemble forecasts. Two instances of the application are running; one for Nysted Offshore and one for the total production (except Horns Rev) in the Eltra area. The output...

  9. New concept of statistical ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorenstein, M.I.

    2009-01-01

    An extension of the standard concept of the statistical ensembles is suggested. Namely, the statistical ensembles with extensive quantities fluctuating according to an externally given distribution is introduced. Applications in the statistical models of multiple hadron production in high energy physics are discussed.

  10. Ensembl 2002: accommodating comparative genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clamp, M; Andrews, D; Barker, D; Bevan, P; Cameron, G; Chen, Y; Clark, L; Cox, T; Cuff, J; Curwen, V; Down, T; Durbin, R; Eyras, E; Gilbert, J; Hammond, M; Hubbard, T; Kasprzyk, A; Keefe, D; Lehvaslaiho, H; Iyer, V; Melsopp, C; Mongin, E; Pettett, R; Potter, S; Rust, A; Schmidt, E; Searle, S; Slater, G; Smith, J; Spooner, W; Stabenau, A; Stalker, J; Stupka, E; Ureta-Vidal, A; Vastrik, I; Birney, E

    2003-01-01

    The Ensembl (http://www.ensembl.org/) database project provides a bioinformatics framework to organise biology around the sequences of large genomes. It is a comprehensive source of stable automatic annotation of human, mouse and other genome sequences, available as either an interactive web site or as flat files. Ensembl also integrates manually annotated gene structures from external sources where available. As well as being one of the leading sources of genome annotation, Ensembl is an open source software engineering project to develop a portable system able to handle very large genomes and associated requirements. These range from sequence analysis to data storage and visualisation and installations exist around the world in both companies and at academic sites. With both human and mouse genome sequences available and more vertebrate sequences to follow, many of the recent developments in Ensembl have focusing on developing automatic comparative genome analysis and visualisation.

  11. Dimensional BCS-BEC crossover in ultracold Fermi gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boettcher, Igor

    2014-12-10

    We investigate thermodynamics and phase structure of ultracold Fermi gases, which can be realized and measured in the laboratory with modern trapping techniques. We approach the subject from a both theoretical and experimental perspective. Central to the analysis is the systematic comparison of the BCS-BEC crossover of two-component fermions in both three and two dimensions. A dimensional reduction can be achieved in experiments by means of highly anisotropic traps. The Functional Renormalization Group (FRG) allows for a description of both cases in a unified theoretical framework. In three dimensions we discuss with the FRG the influence of high momentum particles onto the density, extend previous approaches to the Unitary Fermi Gas to reach quantitative precision, and study the breakdown of superfluidity due to an asymmetry in the population of the two fermion components. In this context we also investigate the stability of the Sarma phase. For the two-dimensional system scattering theory in reduced dimension plays an important role. We present both the theoretically as well as experimentally relevant aspects thereof. After a qualitative analysis of the phase diagram and the equation of state in two dimensions with the FRG we describe the experimental determination of the phase diagram of the two-dimensional BCS-BEC crossover in collaboration with the group of S. Jochim at PI Heidelberg.

  12. The MCUCN simulation code for ultracold neutron physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsigmond, G.

    2018-02-01

    Ultracold neutrons (UCN) have very low kinetic energies 0-300 neV, thereby can be stored in specific material or magnetic confinements for many hundreds of seconds. This makes them a very useful tool in probing fundamental symmetries of nature (for instance charge-parity violation by neutron electric dipole moment experiments) and contributing important parameters for the Big Bang nucleosynthesis (neutron lifetime measurements). Improved precision experiments are in construction at new and planned UCN sources around the world. MC simulations play an important role in the optimization of such systems with a large number of parameters, but also in the estimation of systematic effects, in benchmarking of analysis codes, or as part of the analysis. The MCUCN code written at PSI has been extensively used for the optimization of the UCN source optics and in the optimization and analysis of (test) experiments within the nEDM project based at PSI. In this paper we present the main features of MCUCN and interesting benchmark and application examples.

  13. Ultracold Anions for High-Precision Antihydrogen Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerchiari, G; Kellerbauer, A; Safronova, M S; Safronova, U I; Yzombard, P

    2018-03-30

    Experiments with antihydrogen (H[over ¯]) for a study of matter-antimatter symmetry and antimatter gravity require ultracold H[over ¯] to reach ultimate precision. A promising path towards antiatoms much colder than a few kelvin involves the precooling of antiprotons by laser-cooled anions. Because of the weak binding of the valence electron in anions-dominated by polarization and correlation effects-only few candidate systems with suitable transitions exist. We report on a combination of experimental and theoretical studies to fully determine the relevant binding energies, transition rates, and branching ratios of the most promising candidate La^{-}. Using combined transverse and collinear laser spectroscopy, we determined the resonant frequency of the laser cooling transition to be ν=96.592 713(91)  THz and its transition rate to be A=4.90(50)×10^{4}  s^{-1}. Using a novel high-precision theoretical treatment of La^{-} we calculated yet unmeasured energy levels, transition rates, branching ratios, and lifetimes to complement experimental information on the laser cooling cycle of La^{-}. The new data establish the suitability of La^{-} for laser cooling and show that the cooling transition is significantly stronger than suggested by a previous theoretical study.

  14. Quantum measurement-induced dynamics of many-body ultracold bosonic and fermionic systems in optical lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucchi, Gabriel; Kozlowski, Wojciech; Caballero-Benitez, Santiago F.; Elliott, Thomas J.; Mekhov, Igor B.

    2016-02-01

    Trapping ultracold atoms in optical lattices enabled numerous breakthroughs uniting several disciplines. Coupling these systems to quantized light leads to a plethora of new phenomena and has opened up a new field of study. Here we introduce an unusual additional source of competition in a many-body strongly correlated system: We prove that quantum backaction of global measurement is able to efficiently compete with intrinsic short-range dynamics of an atomic system. The competition becomes possible due to the ability to change the spatial profile of a global measurement at a microscopic scale comparable to the lattice period without the need of single site addressing. In coherence with a general physical concept, where new competitions typically lead to new phenomena, we demonstrate nontrivial dynamical effects such as large-scale multimode oscillations, long-range entanglement, and correlated tunneling, as well as selective suppression and enhancement of dynamical processes beyond the projective limit of the quantum Zeno effect. We demonstrate both the breakup and protection of strongly interacting fermion pairs by measurement. Such a quantum optical approach introduces into many-body physics novel processes, objects, and methods of quantum engineering, including the design of many-body entangled environments for open systems.

  15. On Ensemble Nonlinear Kalman Filtering with Symmetric Analysis Ensembles

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Xiaodong

    2010-09-19

    The ensemble square root filter (EnSRF) [1, 2, 3, 4] is a popular method for data assimilation in high dimensional systems (e.g., geophysics models). Essentially the EnSRF is a Monte Carlo implementation of the conventional Kalman filter (KF) [5, 6]. It is mainly different from the KF at the prediction steps, where it is some ensembles, rather then the means and covariance matrices, of the system state that are propagated forward. In doing this, the EnSRF is computationally more efficient than the KF, since propagating a covariance matrix forward in high dimensional systems is prohibitively expensive. In addition, the EnSRF is also very convenient in implementation. By propagating the ensembles of the system state, the EnSRF can be directly applied to nonlinear systems without any change in comparison to the assimilation procedures in linear systems. However, by adopting the Monte Carlo method, the EnSRF also incurs certain sampling errors. One way to alleviate this problem is to introduce certain symmetry to the ensembles, which can reduce the sampling errors and spurious modes in evaluation of the means and covariances of the ensembles [7]. In this contribution, we present two methods to produce symmetric ensembles. One is based on the unscented transform [8, 9], which leads to the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) [8, 9] and its variant, the ensemble unscented Kalman filter (EnUKF) [7]. The other is based on Stirling’s interpolation formula (SIF), which results in the divided difference filter (DDF) [10]. Here we propose a simplified divided difference filter (sDDF) in the context of ensemble filtering. The similarity and difference between the sDDF and the EnUKF will be discussed. Numerical experiments will also be conducted to investigate the performance of the sDDF and the EnUKF, and compare them to a well‐established EnSRF, the ensemble transform Kalman filter (ETKF) [2].

  16. High-resolution internal state control of ultracold 23Na87Rb molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mingyang; Ye, Xin; He, Junyu; Quéméner, Goulven; Wang, Dajun

    2018-02-01

    We report the full internal state control of ultracold 23Na87Rb molecules, including vibrational, rotational, and hyperfine degrees of freedom. Starting from a sample of weakly bound Feshbach molecules, we realize the creation of molecules in single hyperfine levels of both the rovibrational ground and excited states with a high-efficiency and high-resolution stimulated Raman adiabatic passage. This capability brings broad possibilities for investigating ultracold polar molecules with different chemical reactivities and interactions with a single molecular species. Moreover, starting from the rovibrational and hyperfine ground state, we achieve rotational and hyperfine control with one- and two-photon microwave spectroscopy to reach levels not accessible by the stimulated Raman transfer. The combination of these two techniques results in complete control over the internal state of ultracold polar molecules, which paves the way to study state-dependent molecular collisions and state-controlled chemical reactions.

  17. Characterization of a scintillating lithium glass ultra-cold neutron detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, B.; Rebenitsch, L.A.; Hansen-Romu, S.; Mammei, R.; Martin, J.W. [University of Winnipeg, Department of Physics, Winnipeg (Canada); Lauss, B. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Laboratory for Particle Physics, Villigen (Switzerland); Lindner, T. [TRIUMF, Vancouver (Canada); University of Winnipeg, Department of Physics, Winnipeg (Canada); Pierre, E. [TRIUMF, Vancouver (Canada); Osaka University, Research Centre for Nuclear Physics, Osaka (Japan)

    2017-01-15

    A {sup 6}Li-glass-based scintillation detector developed for the TRIUMF neutron electric dipole moment experiment was characterized using the ultra-cold neutron source at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). The data acquisition system for this detector was demonstrated to perform well at rejecting backgrounds. An estimate of the absolute efficiency of background rejection of 99.7±0.1% is made. For variable ultra-cold neutron rate (varying from < 1 kHz to approx. 100 kHz per channel) and background rate seen at the Paul Scherrer Institute, we estimate that the absolute detector efficiency is 89.7{sup +1.3}{sub -1.9}%. Finally a comparison with a commercial Cascade detector was performed for a specific setup at the West-2 beamline of the ultra-cold neutron source at PSI. (orig.)

  18. Contact planarization of ensemble nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, A. C. E.; LaPierre, R. R.

    2011-06-01

    The viability of four organic polymers (S1808, SC200, SU8 and Cyclotene) as filling materials to achieve planarization of ensemble nanowire arrays is reported. Analysis of the porosity, surface roughness and thermal stability of each filling material was performed. Sonication was used as an effective method to remove the tops of the nanowires (NWs) to achieve complete planarization. Ensemble nanowire devices were fully fabricated and I-V measurements confirmed that Cyclotene effectively planarizes the NWs while still serving the role as an insulating layer between the top and bottom contacts. These processes and analysis can be easily implemented into future characterization and fabrication of ensemble NWs for optoelectronic device applications.

  19. Optimization study of ultracold neutron sources at TRIGA reactors using MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokotilovskij, Yu.N.; Rogov, A.D.

    1997-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation for the optimization of ultracold and very cold neutron sources for TRIGA reactors is performed. The calculations of thermal and cold neutron fluxes from the TRIGA reactor for different positions and configurations of a very cold solid methane moderator were performed with using the MCNP program. The production of neutrons in the ultracold and very cold energy range was calculated for the most promising final moderators (converters): very cold solid deuterium and heavy methane. The radiation energy deposition was calculated for the optimized solid methane-heavy methane cold neutron moderator

  20. A novel apparatus for the investigation of material properties for the storage of ultracold neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brys, T.; Daum, M.; Fierlinger, P.; Geltenbort, P.; George, D.; Gupta, M.; Henneck, R.; Heule, S.; Horvat, M.; Kasprzak, M.; Kirch, K.; Kohlik, K.; Negrazus, M.; Pichlmaier, A.; Straumann, U.; Vrankovic, V.; Wermelinger, C.

    2005-01-01

    We have built a novel apparatus for the investigation of materials for the storage of ultracold neutrons. Neutrons are filled into a storage volume, confined at the bottom by a magnetic field, at the top by gravity and at the sides by the slit-less sample surface under investigation. For different beryllium and diamond-like carbon samples, storage times up to 200s were obtained at room temperature. The corresponding loss parameters η for ultracold neutrons varied between 4.2 and 6.8x10 -4 per wall collision

  1. Excitation of surface waves of ultracold neutrons on absorbing trap walls as anomalous loss factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokun, R.Ch.

    2006-01-01

    One analyzed probability of excitation of surface waves of ultracold neutrons in terms of a plane model consisting of three media: vacuum, a finite depth neutron absorbing substance layer and a neutron reflecting substrate. One demonstrated the absence of the mentioned surface waves in terms of the generally accepted model of two media: vacuum contiguous to the plane surface of a substance filled half-space. One pointed out the effect of the excited surface waves of ultracold neutrons on the increase of their anomalous losses in traps [ru

  2. Determination of the Axial-Vector Weak Coupling Constant with Ultracold Neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.; Mendenhall, M. P.; Carr, R.; Filippone, B. W.; Hickerson, K. P.; Perez Galvan, A.; Russell, R.; Holley, A. T.; Hoagland, J.; VornDick, B.; Back, H. O.; Pattie, R. W. Jr.; Young, A. R.; Bowles, T. J.; Clayton, S.; Currie, S.; Hogan, G. E.; Ito, T. M.; Makela, M.; Morris, C. L.

    2010-01-01

    A precise measurement of the neutron decay β asymmetry A 0 has been carried out using polarized ultracold neutrons from the pulsed spallation ultracold neutron source at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. Combining data obtained in 2008 and 2009, we report A 0 =-0.119 66±0.000 89 -0.00140 +0.00123 , from which we determine the ratio of the axial-vector to vector weak coupling of the nucleon g A /g V =-1.275 90 -0.00445 +0.00409 .

  3. Submicron Positioning of Single Atoms in a Microcavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussmann, Stefan; Hijlkema, Markus; Weber, Bernhard; Rohde, Felix; Rempe, Gerhard; Kuhn, Axel

    2005-01-01

    The coupling of individual atoms to a high-finesse optical cavity is precisely controlled and adjusted using a standing-wave dipole-force trap, a challenge for strong atom-cavity coupling. Ultracold Rubidium atoms are first loaded into potential minima of the dipole trap in the center of the cavity. Then we use the trap as a conveyor belt that we set into motion perpendicular to the cavity axis. This allows us to repetitively move atoms out of and back into the cavity mode with a repositioning precision of 135 nm. This makes it possible to either selectively address one atom of a string of atoms by the cavity, or to simultaneously couple two precisely separated atoms to a higher mode of the cavity

  4. On Ensemble Nonlinear Kalman Filtering with Symmetric Analysis Ensembles

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Xiaodong; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Moroz, Irene M.

    2010-01-01

    However, by adopting the Monte Carlo method, the EnSRF also incurs certain sampling errors. One way to alleviate this problem is to introduce certain symmetry to the ensembles, which can reduce the sampling errors and spurious modes in evaluation of the means and covariances of the ensembles [7]. In this contribution, we present two methods to produce symmetric ensembles. One is based on the unscented transform [8, 9], which leads to the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) [8, 9] and its variant, the ensemble unscented Kalman filter (EnUKF) [7]. The other is based on Stirling’s interpolation formula (SIF), which results in the divided difference filter (DDF) [10]. Here we propose a simplified divided difference filter (sDDF) in the context of ensemble filtering. The similarity and difference between the sDDF and the EnUKF will be discussed. Numerical experiments will also be conducted to investigate the performance of the sDDF and the EnUKF, and compare them to a well‐established EnSRF, the ensemble transform Kalman filter (ETKF) [2].

  5. Universal relations of an ultracold Fermi gas with arbitrary spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Jianwen; Qi, Ran; Zhang, Peng

    2018-05-01

    We derive the universal relations for an ultracold two-component Fermi gas with a spin-orbit coupling (SOC) ∑α,β =x ,y ,zλα βσαpβ , where px ,y ,z and σx ,y ,z are the single-atom momentum and Pauli operators for pseudospin, respectively, and the SOC intensity λα β could take an arbitrary value. We consider the system with an s -wave short-range interspecies interaction, and ignore the SOC-induced modification for the value of the scattering length. Using the first-quantized approach developed by Tan [S. Tan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 145302 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.145302], we obtain the short-range and high-momentum expansions for the one-body real-space correlation function and momentum distribution function, respectively. For our system these functions are a 2 ×2 matrix in the pseudospin basis. We find that the leading-order (1 /k4 ) behavior of the diagonal elements of the momentum distribution function, i.e., n↑↑(k ) and n↓↓(k ) , are not modified by the SOC. However, the SOC can significantly modify the large-k behaviors of the distribution difference δ n (k ) ≡n↑↑(k ) -n↓↓(k ) as well as the nondiagonal elements of the momentum distribution function, i.e., n↑↓(k ) and n↓↑(k ) . In the absence of the SOC, the leading order of δ n (k ) , n↑↓(k ) , and n↓↑(k ) is O (1 /k6) . When SOC appears, it can induce a term on the order of 1 /k5 for these elements. We further derive the adiabatic relation and the energy functional. Our results show that the SOC can induce an additional term in the energy functional, which describes the contribution from the SOC to the total energy. In addition, the form of the adiabatic relation for our system is not modified by the SOC. Our results are applicable for the systems with any type of single-atom trapping potential, which could be either diagonal or nondiagonal in the pseudospin basis.

  6. Ensemble manifold regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Bo; Tao, Dacheng; Xu, Chao; Yang, Linjun; Hua, Xian-Sheng

    2012-06-01

    We propose an automatic approximation of the intrinsic manifold for general semi-supervised learning (SSL) problems. Unfortunately, it is not trivial to define an optimization function to obtain optimal hyperparameters. Usually, cross validation is applied, but it does not necessarily scale up. Other problems derive from the suboptimality incurred by discrete grid search and the overfitting. Therefore, we develop an ensemble manifold regularization (EMR) framework to approximate the intrinsic manifold by combining several initial guesses. Algorithmically, we designed EMR carefully so it 1) learns both the composite manifold and the semi-supervised learner jointly, 2) is fully automatic for learning the intrinsic manifold hyperparameters implicitly, 3) is conditionally optimal for intrinsic manifold approximation under a mild and reasonable assumption, and 4) is scalable for a large number of candidate manifold hyperparameters, from both time and space perspectives. Furthermore, we prove the convergence property of EMR to the deterministic matrix at rate root-n. Extensive experiments over both synthetic and real data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

  7. Superfluid and antiferromagnetic phases in ultracold fermionic quantum gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottwald, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis several models are treated, which are relevant for ultracold fermionic quantum gases loaded onto optical lattices. In particular, imbalanced superfluid Fermi mixtures, which are considered as the best way to realize Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) states experimentally, and antiferromagnetic states, whose experimental realization is one of the next major goals, are examined analytically and numerically with the use of appropriate versions of the Hubbard model. The usual Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superconductor is known to break down in a magnetic field with a strength exceeding the size of the superfluid gap. A spatially inhomogeneous spin-imbalanced superconductor with a complex order parameter known as FFLO-state is predicted to occur in translationally invariant systems. Since in ultracold quantum gases the experimental setups have a limited size and a trapping potential, we analyze the realistic situation of a non-translationally invariant finite sized Hubbard model for this purpose. We first argue analytically, why the order parameter should be real in a system with continuous coordinates, and map our statements onto the Hubbard model with discrete coordinates defined on a lattice. The relevant Hubbard model is then treated numerically within mean field theory. We show that the numerical results agree with our analytically derived statements and we simulate various experimentally relevant systems in this thesis. Analogous calculations are presented for the situation at repulsive interaction strength where the N'eel state is expected to be realized experimentally in the near future. We map our analytical results obtained for the attractive model onto corresponding results for the repulsive model. We obtain a spatially invariant unit vector defining the direction of the order parameter as a consequence of the trapping potential, which is affirmed by our mean field numerical results for the repulsive case. Furthermore, we observe

  8. Superfluid and antiferromagnetic phases in ultracold fermionic quantum gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottwald, Tobias

    2010-08-27

    In this thesis several models are treated, which are relevant for ultracold fermionic quantum gases loaded onto optical lattices. In particular, imbalanced superfluid Fermi mixtures, which are considered as the best way to realize Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) states experimentally, and antiferromagnetic states, whose experimental realization is one of the next major goals, are examined analytically and numerically with the use of appropriate versions of the Hubbard model. The usual Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superconductor is known to break down in a magnetic field with a strength exceeding the size of the superfluid gap. A spatially inhomogeneous spin-imbalanced superconductor with a complex order parameter known as FFLO-state is predicted to occur in translationally invariant systems. Since in ultracold quantum gases the experimental setups have a limited size and a trapping potential, we analyze the realistic situation of a non-translationally invariant finite sized Hubbard model for this purpose. We first argue analytically, why the order parameter should be real in a system with continuous coordinates, and map our statements onto the Hubbard model with discrete coordinates defined on a lattice. The relevant Hubbard model is then treated numerically within mean field theory. We show that the numerical results agree with our analytically derived statements and we simulate various experimentally relevant systems in this thesis. Analogous calculations are presented for the situation at repulsive interaction strength where the N'eel state is expected to be realized experimentally in the near future. We map our analytical results obtained for the attractive model onto corresponding results for the repulsive model. We obtain a spatially invariant unit vector defining the direction of the order parameter as a consequence of the trapping potential, which is affirmed by our mean field numerical results for the repulsive case. Furthermore, we observe

  9. Two-stage crossed beam cooling with ⁶Li and ¹³³Cs atoms in microgravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Tian; Yao, Hepeng; Wang, Lu; Li, Chen; Yang, Shifeng; Chen, Xuzong; Ma, Zhaoyuan

    2015-05-04

    Applying the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method developed for ultracold Bose-Fermi mixture gases research, we study the sympathetic cooling process of 6Li and 133Cs atoms in a crossed optical dipole trap. The obstacles to producing 6Li Fermi degenerate gas via direct sympathetic cooling with 133Cs are also analyzed, by which we find that the side-effect of the gravity is one of the main obstacles. Based on the dynamic nature of 6Li and 133Cs atoms, we suggest a two-stage cooling process with two pairs of crossed beams in microgravity environment. According to our simulations, the temperature of 6Li atoms can be cooled to T = 29.5 pK and T/TF = 0.59 with several thousand atoms, which propose a novel way to get ultracold fermion atoms with quantum degeneracy near pico-Kelvin.

  10. The Ensembl genome database project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, T; Barker, D; Birney, E; Cameron, G; Chen, Y; Clark, L; Cox, T; Cuff, J; Curwen, V; Down, T; Durbin, R; Eyras, E; Gilbert, J; Hammond, M; Huminiecki, L; Kasprzyk, A; Lehvaslaiho, H; Lijnzaad, P; Melsopp, C; Mongin, E; Pettett, R; Pocock, M; Potter, S; Rust, A; Schmidt, E; Searle, S; Slater, G; Smith, J; Spooner, W; Stabenau, A; Stalker, J; Stupka, E; Ureta-Vidal, A; Vastrik, I; Clamp, M

    2002-01-01

    The Ensembl (http://www.ensembl.org/) database project provides a bioinformatics framework to organise biology around the sequences of large genomes. It is a comprehensive source of stable automatic annotation of the human genome sequence, with confirmed gene predictions that have been integrated with external data sources, and is available as either an interactive web site or as flat files. It is also an open source software engineering project to develop a portable system able to handle very large genomes and associated requirements from sequence analysis to data storage and visualisation. The Ensembl site is one of the leading sources of human genome sequence annotation and provided much of the analysis for publication by the international human genome project of the draft genome. The Ensembl system is being installed around the world in both companies and academic sites on machines ranging from supercomputers to laptops.

  11. Atom-chip-based quantum gravimetry for the precise determination of absolute gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abend, Sven; Schubert, Christian; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst

    2017-04-01

    We present a novel technique for the precise measurement of absolute local gravity with a quantum gravimeter based on an atom chip. Atom interferometry utilizes the interference of matter waves interrogated by laser light to read out inertial forces. Today's generation of these devices typically operate with test mass samples, that consists of ensembles of laser cooled atoms. Their performance is limited by the velocity spread and finite-size of the test masses that impose systematic uncertainties at the level of a few μGal [1]. Rather than laser cooled atoms we employ quantum degenerate ensembles, so called Bose-Einstein condensates [2], as ultra-sensitive probes for gravity. These sources offer unique properties that will allow to overcome the current limitations in the next generation of sensors. Furthermore, atom-chip technology offers the possibility to generate Bose-Einstein condensates in a fast and reliable way. We present a lab-based prototype that uses the atom chip itself to retro-reflect the interrogation laser and thus serves as inertial reference inside the vacuum [3]. With this setup, it is possible to demonstrate all necessary steps to measure gravity, including the preparation of the source, spanning an interferometer as well as the detection of the output signal. All steps are pursued on a baseline of 1 cm right below the atom chip and to analyze relevant systematic effects. In the framework of the center of excellence geoQ a next generation device is under construction at the Institut für Quantenoptik, that will target for in-field measurements. This device will feature a state-of-the-art atom-chip source with a high-flux of ultra-cold atoms at a repetition rate of 1-2 Hz [4]. The device will be characterized in cooperation with the Müller group at the Institut für Erdmessung the sensor and finally employed in a campaign to measure the Fennoscandian uplift at the level of 1 μGal. The presented work is supported by the CRC 1227 DQ-mat, the

  12. Universal Two-Body Spectra of Ultracold Harmonically Trapped Atoms in Two and Three Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas

    2012-01-01

    of the short-range interaction. The results in three dimensions are examplified for narrow s-wave Feshbach resonances and we show how effective range corrections can modify the rearrangement of the level structure. However, this requires extremely narrow resonances or very tight traps that are not currently...

  13. Searching for Supersolidity in Ultracold Atomic Bose Condensates with Rashba Spin-Orbit Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Renyuan

    2018-04-01

    We developed a functional integral formulation for the stripe phase of spinor Bose-Einstein condensates with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. The excitation spectrum is found to exhibit double gapless band structures, identified to be two Goldstone modes resulting from spontaneously broken internal gauge symmetry and translational invariance symmetry. The sound velocities display anisotropic behavior with the lower branch vanishing in the direction perpendicular to the stripe in the x -y plane. At the transition point between the plane-wave phase and the stripe phase, physical quantities such as fluctuation correction to the ground-state energy and quantum depletion of the condensates exhibit discontinuity, characteristic of the first-order phase transition. Despite strong quantum fluctuations induced by Rashba spin-orbit coupling, we show that the supersolid phase is stable against quantum depletion. Finally, we extend our formulation to finite temperatures to account for interactions between excitations.

  14. Phase-space curvature in spin-orbit-coupled ultracold atomic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaitis, J.; Ruseckas, J.; Anisimovas, E.

    2017-04-01

    We consider a system with spin-orbit coupling and derive equations of motion which include the effects of Berry curvatures. We apply these equations to investigate the dynamics of particles with equal Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling in one dimension. In our derivation, the adiabatic transformation is performed first and leads to quantum Heisenberg equations of motion for momentum and position operators. These equations explicitly contain position-space, momentum-space, and phase-space Berry curvature terms. Subsequently, we perform the semiclassical approximation and obtain the semiclassical equations of motion. Taking the low-Berry-curvature limit results in equations that can be directly compared to previous results for the motion of wave packets. Finally, we show that in the semiclassical regime, the effective mass of the equal Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit-coupled system can be viewed as a direct effect of the phase-space Berry curvature.

  15. Long-range predissociation in two-color photoassociation of ultracold Na atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, P.A.; Straten, P. van der; Heideman, H.G.M.

    1997-01-01

    We report two-color photo-associative ionization of sodium in a Magneto-Optical Trap. The experimental results yield information on both singly and doubly excited states. We find that the highest bound vibrational levels (v > 20) of the singly-excited 0^- g state predissociate into the 3²P3/2

  16. Quantum Entangled Dark Solitons Formed by Ultracold Atoms in Optical Lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishmash, R. V.; Carr, L. D.

    2009-01-01

    Inspired by experiments on Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices, we study the quantum evolution of dark soliton initial conditions in the context of the Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian. An extensive set of quantum measures is utilized in our analysis, including von Neumann and generalized quantum entropies, quantum depletion, and the pair correlation function. We find that quantum effects cause the soliton to fill in. Moreover, soliton-soliton collisions become inelastic, in strong contrast to the predictions of mean-field theory. These features show that the lifetime and collision properties of dark solitons in optical lattices provide clear signals of quantum effects.

  17. Long-Range Predissociation in Two-Color Photoassociation of Ultracold Na Atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molenaar, P.A.; van der Straten, P.; Heideman, H.G.

    1996-01-01

    We report two-color photoassociative ionization of sodium in a magneto-optical trap. The experimental results yield information on both singly and doubly excited states. We find that the highest bound vibrational levels (v approx-gt 20) of the singly excited 0 g - state predissociate into the 3 2 P 3/2 +3 2 S 1/2 (F g =1) dissociation continuum due to avoided crossings of the hyperfine components of this potential with other molecular symmetries. Based on symmetry and energy consideration we argue that a doubly excited 1 u state remains autoionizing even when only a few GHz above the dissociation continuum. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  18. Quantum Simulation of the Hubbard Model Using Ultra-Cold Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Hubbard model. The SU(3) Hubbard model has been proposed as a model system for studying different phases of matter expected to occur in quantum...chromodynamics (QCD): the color superconducting phase and the formation of baryons . Our initial investigations have focused on understanding three-body...density quark matter described by quantum chromodynamics . We have been investigating the stability of the 3-state Fermi gas with respect to decay due

  19. Rydberg Molecules for Ion-Atom Scattering in the Ultracold Regime

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schmid, T.; Veit, C.; Zuber, N.; Löw, I.; Pfau, T.; Tarana, Michal; Tomza, M.

    Roč. 120, č. 15 ( 2018 ), č. článku 153401. ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-15989P Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Ab initio calculations * Experimental methods * Interaction potentials Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 8.462, year: 2016

  20. Quantum Simulations of Condensed Matter Systems Using Ultra-Cold Atomic Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    DD-MM-YYYY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d...M.    Moreno-­‐ Cardoner ,    T.    Kitagawa,    T.    Best,    S.    Will,          E.  Demler

  1. Sensitivity of ultracold-atom scattering experiments to variation of the fine-structure constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borschevsky, A.; Beloy, K.; Flambaum, V. V.; Schwerdtfeger, P.

    2011-01-01

    We present numerical calculations for cesium and mercury to estimate the sensitivity of the scattering length to the variation of the fine-structure constant α. The method used follows the ideas of Chin and Flambaum [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 230801 (2006)], where the sensitivity to the variation of the electron-to-proton mass ratio β was considered. We demonstrate that for heavy systems, the sensitivity to the variation of α is of the same order of magnitude as to the variation of β. Near narrow Feshbach resonances, the enhancement of the sensitivity may exceed nine orders of magnitude.

  2. Many-body physics using cold atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, Bhuvanesh

    Advances in experiments on dilute ultracold atomic gases have given us access to highly tunable quantum systems. In particular, there have been substantial improvements in achieving different kinds of interaction between atoms. As a result, utracold atomic gases oer an ideal platform to simulate many-body phenomena in condensed matter physics, and engineer other novel phenomena that are a result of the exotic interactions produced between atoms. In this dissertation, I present a series of studies that explore the physics of dilute ultracold atomic gases in different settings. In each setting, I explore a different form of the inter-particle interaction. Motivated by experiments which induce artificial spin-orbit coupling for cold fermions, I explore this system in my first project. In this project, I propose a method to perform universal quantum computation using the excitations of interacting spin-orbit coupled fermions, in which effective p-wave interactions lead to the formation of a topological superfluid. Motivated by experiments which explore the physics of exotic interactions between atoms trapped inside optical cavities, I explore this system in a second project. I calculate the phase diagram of lattice bosons trapped in an optical cavity, where the cavity modes mediates effective global range checkerboard interactions between the atoms. I compare this phase diagram with one that was recently measured experimentally. In two other projects, I explore quantum simulation of condensed matter phenomena due to spin-dependent interactions between particles. I propose a method to produce tunable spin-dependent interactions between atoms, using an optical Feshbach resonance. In one project, I use these spin-dependent interactions in an ultracold Bose-Fermi system, and propose a method to produce the Kondo model. I propose an experiment to directly observe the Kondo effect in this system. In another project, I propose using lattice bosons with a large hyperfine spin

  3. The canonical ensemble redefined - 1: Formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkataraman, R.

    1984-12-01

    For studying the thermodynamic properties of systems we propose an ensemble that lies in between the familiar canonical and microcanonical ensembles. We point out the transition from the canonical to microcanonical ensemble and prove from a comparative study that all these ensembles do not yield the same results even in the thermodynamic limit. An investigation of the coupling between two or more systems with these ensembles suggests that the state of thermodynamical equilibrium is a special case of statistical equilibrium. (author)

  4. Ultracold neutron detectors based on {sup 10}B converters used in the qBounce experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenke, Tobias, E-mail: tjenke@ati.ac.at [Atominstitut TU Wien, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Wien (Austria); Cronenberg, Gunther; Filter, Hanno [Atominstitut TU Wien, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Wien (Austria); Geltenbort, Peter [Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Klein, Martin [Physikalisches Institut Universität Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 226, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Lauer, Thorsten [FRM II, TU München, Lichtenbergstraße 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Mitsch, Kevin [Atominstitut TU Wien, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Wien (Austria); Saul, Heiko [Atominstitut TU Wien, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Wien (Austria); FRM II, TU München, Lichtenbergstraße 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Seiler, Dominik [Physik Department, TU München, James-Franck-Straße, 85748 Garching (Germany); Stadler, David [Physikalisches Institut Universität Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 226, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Thalhammer, Martin [Atominstitut TU Wien, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Wien (Austria); Abele, Hartmut, E-mail: abele@ati.ac.at [Atominstitut TU Wien, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Wien (Austria); Physikalisches Institut Universität Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 226, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Physik Department, TU München, James-Franck-Straße, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2013-12-21

    Gravity experiments with very slow, so-called ultracold neutrons connect quantum mechanics with tests of Newton's inverse square law at short distances. These experiments face a low count rate and hence need highly optimized detector concepts. In the frame of this paper, we present low-background ultracold neutron counters and track detectors with micron resolution based on a {sup 10}B converter. We discuss the optimization of {sup 10}B converter layers, detector design and concepts for read-out electronics focusing on high-efficiency and low-background. We describe modifications of the counters that allow one to detect ultracold neutrons selectively on their spin-orientation. This is required for searches of hypothetical forces with spin–mass couplings. The mentioned experiments utilize a beam-monitoring concept which accounts for variations in the neutron flux that are typical for nuclear research facilities. The converter can also be used for detectors, which feature high efficiencies paired with high spatial resolution of 1–2μm. They allow one to resolve the quantum mechanical wave function of an ultracold neutron bound in the gravity potential above a neutron mirror.

  5. Radio frequency acceleration and manipulation of ultra-cold electron bunches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, J.G.H.; Vredenbregt, E.J.D.; Luiten, O.J.

    2016-01-01

    We are developing an ultra-fast and ultra-cold electron source based on a grating magneto optical trap, RF acceleration and RF (de-) compression techniques. The electrons will be created by near-threshold, femtosecond photoionization of a laser-cooled and trapped gas. The electron cloud is extracted

  6. To the problem of spatial focusing of ultracold neutrons by nonuniform magnetic field. Eikonal approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, T

    2002-01-01

    Motion of the ultracold neutrons in the nonuniform magnetic field with a square nonuniformity by two coordinates is considered. The Schroedinger equation is solved with application of the quasi-classical (eikonal) approach. The theoretical possibility of the neutrons spatial focusing with formation of the point focus and also the neutrons bunches is shown

  7. Analysis of the Alkali Metal Diatomic Spectra; Using molecular beams and ultracold molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Tae

    2014-12-01

    This ebook illustrates the complementarity of molecular beam (MB) spectra and ultracold molecule (UM) spectra in unraveling the complex electronic spectra of diatomic alkali metal molecules, using KRb as a prime example. Researchers interested in molecular spectroscopy, whether physicist, chemist, or engineer, may find this ebook helpful and may be able to apply similar ideas to their molecules of interest.

  8. Ultra-cold WIMPs relics of non-standard pre-BBN cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Gelmini, Graciela B

    2008-01-01

    We point out that in scenarios in which the Universe evolves in a non-standard manner during and after the kinetic decoupling of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), these relics can be much colder than in standard cosmological scenarios (i.e. can be ultra-cold), possibly leading to the formation of smaller first objects in hierarchical structure formation scenarios.

  9. Measurement of the time of storage of ultracold neutrons in a magnetic trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abov, Y.G.; Borovlev, S.P.; Vasil'ev, V.V.; Vladimirskii, V.V.; Mospan, E.N.

    1983-01-01

    The storage time of ultracold neutrons in an axial magnetic trap with a simple singly connected confinement region is measured. It is shown that the storage of the neutrons is due just to the magnetic field. The storage time achieved is tau = 303 +- 37 sec. In a working cycle 3.6 neutrons are accumulated

  10. Moving converter as the possible tool for producing ultra-cold neutrons on pulsed neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokotilovskij, Yu.N.

    1991-01-01

    A method is proposed for producing ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) at aperiodic pulse neutron sources. It is based on the use of the fast moving cooled converter of UCN in the time of the neutron pulse and includes the trapping of generated UCN's in a moving trap. 6 refs.; 2 figs

  11. Test of the fast thin-film ferromagnetic shutters for ultracold neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokotilovskij, Yu.N.; Novopol'tsev, M.I.; Geltenbort, P.

    2008-01-01

    Test of thin-film ferromagnetic shutters of two types for ultracold neutrons has been performed. The first type is based on neutron reflection from the sequence of successively placed thin ferromagnetic layers with oppositely directed magnetization. The second one is based on neutron refraction in ferromagnetic foils inserted in the beam

  12. Atom history, from intuitive ideas to reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radvanyi, P.

    2007-01-01

    This book gathers the ground scientific texts that have stood out as milestones in the way scientists have built their understanding of the atom over centuries. From the very intuitive ideas of Greek philosophers to the most recent results on ultra-cold atoms, via the discovery of natural radioactivity or the existence of the neutron, about 55 articles written by prestigious physicists have been organized into 16 chapters. Each chapter being dedicated to a topic such as molecules, spectroscopy, electrons, X-rays, atom mass, artificial radioactivity..., begins with a commentary that draws the scientific context of that time, describes the links between the articles and highlights the importance of the discoveries. (A.C.)

  13. Single-particle model of a strongly driven, dense, nanoscale quantum ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLoreto, C. S.; Rangan, C.

    2018-01-01

    We study the effects of interatomic interactions on the quantum dynamics of a dense, nanoscale, atomic ensemble driven by a strong electromagnetic field. We use a self-consistent, mean-field technique based on the pseudospectral time-domain method and a full, three-directional basis to solve the coupled Maxwell-Liouville equations. We find that interatomic interactions generate a decoherence in the state of an ensemble on a much faster time scale than the excited-state lifetime of individual atoms. We present a single-particle model of the driven, dense ensemble by incorporating interactions into a dephasing rate. This single-particle model reproduces the essential physics of the full simulation and is an efficient way of rapidly estimating the collective dynamics of a dense ensemble.

  14. Controlling interactions between highly magnetic atoms with Feshbach resonances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotochigova, Svetlana

    2014-09-01

    This paper reviews current experimental and theoretical progress in the study of dipolar quantum gases of ground and meta-stable atoms with a large magnetic moment. We emphasize the anisotropic nature of Feshbach resonances due to coupling to fast-rotating resonant molecular states in ultracold s-wave collisions between magnetic atoms in external magnetic fields. The dramatic differences in the distribution of resonances of magnetic (7)S3 chromium and magnetic lanthanide atoms with a submerged 4f shell and non-zero electron angular momentum is analyzed. We focus on dysprosium and erbium as important experimental advances have been recently made to cool and create quantum-degenerate gases for these atoms. Finally, we describe progress in locating resonances in collisions of meta-stable magnetic atoms in electronic P-states with ground-state atoms, where an interplay between collisional anisotropies and spin-orbit coupling exists.

  15. Lamb-Dicke spectroscopy of atoms in a hollow-core photonic crystal fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okaba, Shoichi; Takano, Tetsushi; Benabid, Fetah; Bradley, Tom; Vincetti, Luca; Maizelis, Zakhar; Yampol'skii, Valery; Nori, Franco; Katori, Hidetoshi

    2014-01-01

    Unlike photons, which are conveniently handled by mirrors and optical fibres without loss of coherence, atoms lose their coherence via atom–atom and atom–wall interactions. This decoherence of atoms deteriorates the performance of atomic clocks and magnetometers, and also hinders their miniaturization. Here we report a novel platform for precision spectroscopy. Ultracold strontium atoms inside a kagome-lattice hollow-core photonic crystal fibre are transversely confined by an optical lattice to prevent atoms from interacting with the fibre wall. By confining at most one atom in each lattice site, to avoid atom–atom interactions and Doppler effect, a 7.8-kHz-wide spectrum is observed for the 1S0−3P1(m=0) transition. Atoms singly trapped in a magic lattice in hollow-core photonic crystal fibres improve the optical depth while preserving atomic coherence time. PMID:24934478

  16. Quantum ensembles of quantum classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuld, Maria; Petruccione, Francesco

    2018-02-09

    Quantum machine learning witnesses an increasing amount of quantum algorithms for data-driven decision making, a problem with potential applications ranging from automated image recognition to medical diagnosis. Many of those algorithms are implementations of quantum classifiers, or models for the classification of data inputs with a quantum computer. Following the success of collective decision making with ensembles in classical machine learning, this paper introduces the concept of quantum ensembles of quantum classifiers. Creating the ensemble corresponds to a state preparation routine, after which the quantum classifiers are evaluated in parallel and their combined decision is accessed by a single-qubit measurement. This framework naturally allows for exponentially large ensembles in which - similar to Bayesian learning - the individual classifiers do not have to be trained. As an example, we analyse an exponentially large quantum ensemble in which each classifier is weighed according to its performance in classifying the training data, leading to new results for quantum as well as classical machine learning.

  17. Laser-Cooled Ions and Atoms in a Storage Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinert, J.; Hannemann, S.; Eike, B.; Eisenbarth, U.; Grieser, M.; Grimm, R.; Gwinner, G.; Karpuk, S.; Saathoff, G.; Schramm, U.; Schwalm, D.; Weidemueller, M., E-mail: m.weidemueller@mpi-hd.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Insitut fuer Kernphysik (Germany)

    2003-03-15

    We review recent experiments at the Heidelberg Test Storage Ring which apply advanced laser cooling techniques to stored ion beams. Very high phase-space densities are achieved by three-dimensional laser cooling of a coasting {sup 9}Be{sup +} beam at 7.3 MeV. Laser-cooled, trapped Cs atoms are used as an ultracold precision target for the study of ion-atom interactions with a 74 MeV beam of {sup 12}C{sup 6+} ions.

  18. Matter-wave localization in disordered cold atom lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavish, Uri; Castin, Yvan

    2005-07-08

    We propose to observe Anderson localization of ultracold atoms in the presence of a random potential made of atoms of another species or spin state and trapped at the nodes of an optical lattice, with a filling factor less than unity. Such systems enable a nearly perfect experimental control of the disorder, while the possibility of modeling the scattering potentials by a set of pointlike ones allows an exact theoretical analysis. This is illustrated by a detailed analysis of the one-dimensional case.

  19. Atom chip gravimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Christian; Abend, Sven; Gebbe, Martina; Gersemann, Matthias; Ahlers, Holger; Müntinga, Hauke; Matthias, Jonas; Sahelgozin, Maral; Herr, Waldemar; Lämmerzahl, Claus; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst

    2016-04-01

    Atom interferometry has developed into a tool for measuring rotations [1], accelerations [2], and testing fundamental physics [3]. Gravimeters based on laser cooled atoms demonstrated residual uncertainties of few microgal [2,4] and were simplified for field applications [5]. Atomic gravimeters rely on the interference of matter waves which are coherently manipulated by laser light fields. The latter can be interpreted as rulers to which the position of the atoms is compared. At three points in time separated by a free evolution, the light fields are pulsed onto the atoms. First, a coherent superposition of two momentum states is produced, then the momentum is inverted, and finally the two trajectories are recombined. Depending on the acceleration the atoms experienced, the number of atoms detected in the output ports will change. Consequently, the acceleration can be determined from the output signal. The laser cooled atoms with microkelvin temperatures used in state-of-the-art gravimeters impose limits on the accuracy [4]. Therefore, ultra-cold atoms generated by Bose-Einstein condensation and delta-kick collimation [6,7] are expected to be the key for further improvements. These sources suffered from a low flux implying an incompatible noise floor, but a competitive performance was demonstrated recently with atom chips [8]. In the compact and robust setup constructed for operation in the drop tower [6] we demonstrated all steps necessary for an atom chip gravimeter with Bose-Einstein condensates in a ground based operation. We will discuss the principle of operation, the current performance, and the perspectives to supersede the state of the art. The authors thank the QUANTUS cooperation for contributions to the drop tower project in the earlier stages. This work is supported by the German Space Agency (DLR) with funds provided by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) due to an enactment of the German Bundestag under grant numbers DLR 50WM

  20. s-wave elastic scattering of antihydrogen off atomic alkali-metal targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Prabal K.; Ghosh, A. S.

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated the s-wave elastic scattering of antihydrogen atoms off atomic alkali-metal targets (Li, Na, K, and Rb) at thermal energies (10 -16 -10 -4 a.u.) using an atomic orbital expansion technique. The elastic cross sections of these systems at thermal energies are found to be very high compared to H-H and H-He systems. The theoretical models employed in this study are so chosen to consider long-range forces dynamically in the calculation. The mechanism of cooling suggests that Li may be considered to be a good candidate as a buffer gas for enhanced cooling of antihydrogen atoms to ultracold temperature

  1. Ultracold fermion cooling cycle using heteronuclear Feshbach resonances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales, M. A.; Nygaard, Nicolai; Williams, J. E.

    2005-01-01

    We consider an ideal gas of Bose and Fermi atoms in a harmonic trap, with a Feshbach resonance in the interspecies atomic scattering that can lead to the formation of fermionic molecules. We map out the phase diagram for this three-component mixture in chemical and thermal equilibrium. Considering...... adiabatic association and dissociation of the molecules, we identify a possible cooling cycle, which in ideal circumstances can yield an exponential increase of the phase-space density....

  2. Ensemble forecasting of species distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Miguel B; New, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Concern over implications of climate change for biodiversity has led to the use of bioclimatic models to forecast the range shifts of species under future climate-change scenarios. Recent studies have demonstrated that projections by alternative models can be so variable as to compromise their usefulness for guiding policy decisions. Here, we advocate the use of multiple models within an ensemble forecasting framework and describe alternative approaches to the analysis of bioclimatic ensembles, including bounding box, consensus and probabilistic techniques. We argue that, although improved accuracy can be delivered through the traditional tasks of trying to build better models with improved data, more robust forecasts can also be achieved if ensemble forecasts are produced and analysed appropriately.

  3. Taming light with cold atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vestergaard Hau, Lene

    2002-01-01

    Much of the extraordinary progress of developments in communication (e-mail, and/or internet) has been achieved due to improvements in optical communication. This paper describes a new approach which could improve the speed of communication. The ability to stop light in its tracks by passing it through a cloud of ultracold atoms could lead to new techniques for optical storage. The described slow-light experiments have triggered new physics both on the experimental and theoretical fronts. The cold atom system allows the steepest possible refractive index profiles, and therefore the most dramatic effects, as Doppler effects are eliminated. Furthermore, cold atoms provide maximum flexibility in the choice of beam geometry. This is important for the storage and retrieval of multiple pulses of optical information in an atomic medium, as it would allow individual pulses to be selectively addressed. Slow and stopped light have many potential applications in optical communication and processing, including optical information storage, ultra-sensitive optical switches, and optical delay lines. It could also be used in quantum-information processing, in which quantum-mechanical information is used for computing and communication purposes. On a very different front, slow light provides us with a totally new way of probing the unusual properties of Bose-Einstein condensates

  4. Ensemble method for dengue prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczak, Anna L; Baugher, Benjamin; Moniz, Linda J; Bagley, Thomas; Babin, Steven M; Guven, Erhan

    2018-01-01

    In the 2015 NOAA Dengue Challenge, participants made three dengue target predictions for two locations (Iquitos, Peru, and San Juan, Puerto Rico) during four dengue seasons: 1) peak height (i.e., maximum weekly number of cases during a transmission season; 2) peak week (i.e., week in which the maximum weekly number of cases occurred); and 3) total number of cases reported during a transmission season. A dengue transmission season is the 12-month period commencing with the location-specific, historical week with the lowest number of cases. At the beginning of the Dengue Challenge, participants were provided with the same input data for developing the models, with the prediction testing data provided at a later date. Our approach used ensemble models created by combining three disparate types of component models: 1) two-dimensional Method of Analogues models incorporating both dengue and climate data; 2) additive seasonal Holt-Winters models with and without wavelet smoothing; and 3) simple historical models. Of the individual component models created, those with the best performance on the prior four years of data were incorporated into the ensemble models. There were separate ensembles for predicting each of the three targets at each of the two locations. Our ensemble models scored higher for peak height and total dengue case counts reported in a transmission season for Iquitos than all other models submitted to the Dengue Challenge. However, the ensemble models did not do nearly as well when predicting the peak week. The Dengue Challenge organizers scored the dengue predictions of the Challenge participant groups. Our ensemble approach was the best in predicting the total number of dengue cases reported for transmission season and peak height for Iquitos, Peru.

  5. Ensemble method for dengue prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L Buczak

    Full Text Available In the 2015 NOAA Dengue Challenge, participants made three dengue target predictions for two locations (Iquitos, Peru, and San Juan, Puerto Rico during four dengue seasons: 1 peak height (i.e., maximum weekly number of cases during a transmission season; 2 peak week (i.e., week in which the maximum weekly number of cases occurred; and 3 total number of cases reported during a transmission season. A dengue transmission season is the 12-month period commencing with the location-specific, historical week with the lowest number of cases. At the beginning of the Dengue Challenge, participants were provided with the same input data for developing the models, with the prediction testing data provided at a later date.Our approach used ensemble models created by combining three disparate types of component models: 1 two-dimensional Method of Analogues models incorporating both dengue and climate data; 2 additive seasonal Holt-Winters models with and without wavelet smoothing; and 3 simple historical models. Of the individual component models created, those with the best performance on the prior four years of data were incorporated into the ensemble models. There were separate ensembles for predicting each of the three targets at each of the two locations.Our ensemble models scored higher for peak height and total dengue case counts reported in a transmission season for Iquitos than all other models submitted to the Dengue Challenge. However, the ensemble models did not do nearly as well when predicting the peak week.The Dengue Challenge organizers scored the dengue predictions of the Challenge participant groups. Our ensemble approach was the best in predicting the total number of dengue cases reported for transmission season and peak height for Iquitos, Peru.

  6. Advanced Atmospheric Ensemble Modeling Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Chiswell, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kurzeja, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Maze, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Viner, B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Werth, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-29

    Ensemble modeling (EM), the creation of multiple atmospheric simulations for a given time period, has become an essential tool for characterizing uncertainties in model predictions. We explore two novel ensemble modeling techniques: (1) perturbation of model parameters (Adaptive Programming, AP), and (2) data assimilation (Ensemble Kalman Filter, EnKF). The current research is an extension to work from last year and examines transport on a small spatial scale (<100 km) in complex terrain, for more rigorous testing of the ensemble technique. Two different release cases were studied, a coastal release (SF6) and an inland release (Freon) which consisted of two release times. Observations of tracer concentration and meteorology are used to judge the ensemble results. In addition, adaptive grid techniques have been developed to reduce required computing resources for transport calculations. Using a 20- member ensemble, the standard approach generated downwind transport that was quantitatively good for both releases; however, the EnKF method produced additional improvement for the coastal release where the spatial and temporal differences due to interior valley heating lead to the inland movement of the plume. The AP technique showed improvements for both release cases, with more improvement shown in the inland release. This research demonstrated that transport accuracy can be improved when models are adapted to a particular location/time or when important local data is assimilated into the simulation and enhances SRNL’s capability in atmospheric transport modeling in support of its current customer base and local site missions, as well as our ability to attract new customers within the intelligence community.

  7. Association of atoms into universal dimers using an oscillating magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmack, Christian; Smith, D Hudson; Braaten, Eric

    2015-03-13

    In a system of ultracold atoms near a Feshbach resonance, pairs of atoms can be associated into universal dimers by an oscillating magnetic field with a frequency near that determined by the dimer binding energy. We present a simple expression for the transition rate that takes into account many-body effects through a transition matrix element of the contact. In a thermal gas, the width of the peak in the transition rate as a function of the frequency is determined by the temperature. In a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate of atoms, the width is determined by the inelastic scattering rates of a dimer with zero-energy atoms. Near an atom-dimer resonance, there is a dramatic increase in the width from inelastic atom-dimer scattering and from atom-atom-dimer recombination. The recombination contribution provides a signature for universal tetramers that are Efimov states consisting of two atoms and a dimer.

  8. Optical spectroscopy of rubidium Rydberg atoms with a 297 nm frequency doubled dye laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Th.; Germann, Th.; Thoumany, P.; Stania, G.; Urbonas, L.; Haensch, T.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Rydberg atoms have played an important role in atomic physics and optical spectroscopy since many years. Due to their long lifetime and the big dipole matrix element between neighbouring Rydberg levels they are an essential tool in microwave cavity-qed experiments. Ultracold Rydberg gases are a promising candidate for realizing controlled quantum gates in atomic ensembles. In most experiments Rydberg atoms are detected destructively, where the optically excited atoms are first ionized followed by an electronic detection of the ionization products. A Doppler-free purely optical detection was reported in a room temperature cell and in an atomic beam apparatus using the technique of electromagnetically induced transparency. In all these experiments the Rydberg atoms are excited with two lasers in a two-step ladder configuration. Here we show that Doppler-free purely optical spectroscopy is also possible with a one step excitation scheme involving a UV laser at 297 nm. We excite the 85 Rb isotope from the 5S 1/2 ground state to the 63P 3/2 state with a frequency doubled dye laser in a room temperature gas cell without buffer gas. Rydberg transitions are detected by monitoring the absorption of 780 nm laser light which is superimposed on the UV light and resonant with one hyperfine component of the Rubidium D2 line. With these two lasers we realize a V-scheme and utilize the quantum amplification effect due to the different natural lifetimes of the upper levels of the two transitions: an excitation into the 63P level hinders many absorption-emission cycles of the D2 transition and leads to a reduced absorption on that line. We discuss the shape of the observed spectra in the context of electron shelving and EIT experiments. By applying a frequency modulation to the UV laser, we can obtain dispersive signals which can be used to stabilize the laser to a specific Rydberg transition. By shifting the frequency of the 780 nm laser to crossover resonances in the

  9. Subwavelength Localization of Atomic Excitation Using Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Miles

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We report an experiment in which an atomic excitation is localized to a spatial width that is a factor of 8 smaller than the wavelength of the incident light. The experiment utilizes the sensitivity of the dark state of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT to the intensity of the coupling laser beam. A standing-wave coupling laser with a sinusoidally varying intensity yields tightly confined Raman excitations during the EIT process. The excitations, located near the nodes of the intensity profile, have a width of 100 nm. The experiment is performed using ultracold ^{87}Rb atoms trapped in an optical dipole trap, and atomic localization is achieved with EIT pulses that are approximately 100 ns long. To probe subwavelength atom localization, we have developed a technique that can measure the width of the atomic excitations with nanometer spatial resolution.

  10. Teaching Strategies for Specialized Ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaching Music, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Provides a strategy, from the book "Strategies for Teaching Specialized Ensembles," that addresses Standard 9A of the National Standards for Music Education. Explains that students will identify and describe the musical and historical characteristics of the classical era in music they perform and in audio examples. (CMK)

  11. Multimodel ensembles of wheat growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martre, Pierre; Wallach, Daniel; Asseng, Senthold

    2015-01-01

    , but such studies are difficult to organize and have only recently begun. We report on the largest ensemble study to date, of 27 wheat models tested in four contrasting locations for their accuracy in simulating multiple crop growth and yield variables. The relative error averaged over models was 24...

  12. Spectral Diagonal Ensemble Kalman Filters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kasanický, Ivan; Mandel, Jan; Vejmelka, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 4 (2015), s. 485-497 ISSN 1023-5809 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-34856S Grant - others:NSF(US) DMS-1216481 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : data assimilation * ensemble Kalman filter * spectral representation Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.321, year: 2015

  13. Genetic Algorithm Optimized Neural Networks Ensemble as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marquardt algorithm by varying conditions such as inputs, hidden neurons, initialization, training sets and random Gaussian noise injection to ... Several such ensembles formed the population which was evolved to generate the fittest ensemble.

  14. Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS) [1 Deg.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS) is a weather forecast model made up of 21 separate forecasts, or ensemble members. The National Centers for Environmental...

  15. Electric Dipole Echoes in Rydberg Atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, S.; Reinhold, C. O.; Burgdoerfer, J.; Zhao, W.; Mestayer, J. J.; Lancaster, J. C.; Dunning, F. B.

    2007-01-01

    We report the first observation of echoes in the electric dipole moment of an ensemble of Rydberg atoms precessing in an external electric field F. Rapid reversal of the field direction is shown to play a role similar to that of a π pulse in NMR in rephasing a dephased ensemble of electric dipoles resulting in the buildup of an echo. The mechanisms responsible for this are discussed with the aid of classical trajectory Monte Carlo simulations

  16. Squeezing of Collective Excitations in Spin Ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraglund Andersen, Christian; Mølmer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    We analyse the possibility to create two-mode spin squeezed states of two separate spin ensembles by inverting the spins in one ensemble and allowing spin exchange between the ensembles via a near resonant cavity field. We investigate the dynamics of the system using a combination of numerical an...

  17. Spin-charge separation in ultra-cold quantum gases

    OpenAIRE

    Recati, A.; Fedichev, P. O.; Zwerger, W.; Zoller, P.

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the physical properties of quasi-1D quantum gases of fermion atoms confined in harmonic traps. Using the fact that for a homogeneous gas, the low energy properties are exactly described by a Luttinger model, we analyze the nature and manifestations of the spin-charge separation. Finally we discuss the necessary physical conditions and experimental limitations confronting possible experimental implementations.

  18. Open quantum spin systems in semiconductor quantum dots and atoms in optical lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwager, Heike

    2012-07-04

    In this Thesis, we study open quantum spin systems from different perspectives. The first part is motivated by technological challenges of quantum computation. An important building block for quantum computation and quantum communication networks is an interface between material qubits for storage and data processing and travelling photonic qubits for communication. We propose the realisation of a quantum interface between a travelling-wave light field and the nuclear spins in a quantum dot strongly coupled to a cavity. Our scheme is robust against cavity decay as it uses the decay of the cavity to achieve the coupling between nuclear spins and the travelling-wave light fields. A prerequiste for such a quantum interface is a highly polarized ensemble of nuclear spins. High polarization of the nuclear spin ensemble is moreover highly desirable as it protects the potential electron spin qubit from decoherence. Here we present the theoretical description of an experiment in which highly asymmetric dynamic nuclear spin pumping is observed in a single self-assembled InGaAs quantum dot. The second part of this Thesis is devoted to fundamental studies of dissipative spin systems. We study general one-dimensional spin chains under dissipation and propose a scheme to realize a quantum spin system using ultracold atoms in an optical lattice in which both coherent interaction and dissipation can be engineered and controlled. This system enables the study of non-equilibrium and steady state physics of open and driven spin systems. We find, that the steady state expectation values of different spin models exhibit discontinuous behaviour at degeneracy points of the Hamiltonian in the limit of weak dissipation. This effect can be used to dissipatively probe the spectrum of the Hamiltonian. We moreover study spin models under the aspect of state preparation and show that dissipation drives certain spin models into highly entangled state. Finally, we study a spin chain with

  19. Open quantum spin systems in semiconductor quantum dots and atoms in optical lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwager, Heike

    2012-01-01

    In this Thesis, we study open quantum spin systems from different perspectives. The first part is motivated by technological challenges of quantum computation. An important building block for quantum computation and quantum communication networks is an interface between material qubits for storage and data processing and travelling photonic qubits for communication. We propose the realisation of a quantum interface between a travelling-wave light field and the nuclear spins in a quantum dot strongly coupled to a cavity. Our scheme is robust against cavity decay as it uses the decay of the cavity to achieve the coupling between nuclear spins and the travelling-wave light fields. A prerequiste for such a quantum interface is a highly polarized ensemble of nuclear spins. High polarization of the nuclear spin ensemble is moreover highly desirable as it protects the potential electron spin qubit from decoherence. Here we present the theoretical description of an experiment in which highly asymmetric dynamic nuclear spin pumping is observed in a single self-assembled InGaAs quantum dot. The second part of this Thesis is devoted to fundamental studies of dissipative spin systems. We study general one-dimensional spin chains under dissipation and propose a scheme to realize a quantum spin system using ultracold atoms in an optical lattice in which both coherent interaction and dissipation can be engineered and controlled. This system enables the study of non-equilibrium and steady state physics of open and driven spin systems. We find, that the steady state expectation values of different spin models exhibit discontinuous behaviour at degeneracy points of the Hamiltonian in the limit of weak dissipation. This effect can be used to dissipatively probe the spectrum of the Hamiltonian. We moreover study spin models under the aspect of state preparation and show that dissipation drives certain spin models into highly entangled state. Finally, we study a spin chain with

  20. Spin Squeezing and Entanglement with Room Temperature Atoms for Quantum Sensing and Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Heng

    magnetometer at room temperature is reported. Furthermore, using spin-squeezing of atomic ensemble, the sensitivity of magnetometer is improved. Deterministic continuous variable teleportation between two distant atomic ensembles is demonstrated. The fidelity of teleportating dynamically changing sequence...... of spin states surpasses a classical benchmark, demonstrating the true quantum teleportation....

  1. Quantum Optics 6 - Quantum Engineering of Atoms and Photons - Conference Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The conference organized by Center for Theoretical Physics, Institute of Physics and Warsaw University, sponsored by European Science Foundation, was held in Krynica (120 km south-east of Cracow), Poland, June 13-18 2005. This was the sixth conference of the cycle, the previous one was held in Koscielisko, Poland in 2001. This time the main subject of the conference was: Quantum Engineering of Atoms and Photons. The meeting was focused on the physics of ultracold quantum gases, which without doubts determines the frontiers of the modern atomic, molecular and optical physics. Special attention was also be given to quantum information processing, both from theoretical and experimental point of view, including possible realizations in ultracold quantum gases. The conference consisted of invited lectures and a poster session. Competition for the best poster was held, sponsored by Journal of Optics B and Journal of Physics B - for more on this, including the results of the competition visit. (author)

  2. Ultracold Mixtures of Rubidium and Ytterbium for Open Quantum System Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    species can be vanishing. 2.4.1 Miscibility Even at ultracold temperatures , our trapped gasses are very dilute. On the high side of achievable densities...essentially ideal. Therefore, any combination of isotopes will mix at high enough temperatures . Close to degeneracy, miscibility depends on the strength of...bakeout temperature is 200 ◦C, while the braze alloy melts at 305 ◦C. Custom dielectric AR coatings were designed and applied by Spectrum Thin Films

  3. Main effects of the Earth's rotation on the stationary states of ultra-cold neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arminjon, Mayeul

    2008-01-01

    The relativistic corrections in the Hamiltonian for a particle in a uniformly rotating frame are discussed. They are shown to be negligible in the case of ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) in the Earth's gravity. The effect, on the energy levels of UCN, of the main term due to the Earth's rotation, i.e. the angular-momentum term, is calculated. The energy shift is found proportional to the energy level itself

  4. Surface roughness effect on ultracold neutron interaction with a wall and implications for computer simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Steyerl, A.; Malik, S. S.; Desai, A. M.; Kaufman, C.

    2009-01-01

    We review the diffuse scattering and the loss coefficient in ultracold neutron reflection from slightly rough surfaces, report a surprising reduction in loss coefficient due to roughness, and discuss the possibility of transition from quantum treatment to ray optics. The results are used in a computer simulation of neutron storage in a recent neutron lifetime experiment that re-ported a large discrepancy of neutron lifetime with the current particle data value. Our partial re-analysis suggest...

  5. The King model for electrons in a finite-size ultracold plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrinceanu, D; Collins, L A [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Balaraman, G S [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2008-10-24

    A self-consistent model for a finite-size non-neutral ultracold plasma is obtained by extending a conventional model of globular star clusters. This model describes the dynamics of electrons at quasi-equilibrium trapped within the potential created by a cloud of stationary ions. A random sample of electron positions and velocities can be generated with the statistical properties defined by this model.

  6. Looking for spectral changes occurring during storage of ultra-cold neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steyerl, A; Malik, S S [Rhode Island Univ., Kingston, RI (United States); Geltenbort, P [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 -Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    It seems that the spectrum of ultra-cold neutrons does change. The measured data indicate with 5{sigma} reliability, that a small heating by about 2{center_dot}10{sup -10} eV ({approx} 2 mm of rise height against the earth`s gravity) occurred during the initial {approx} 10{sup 3} wall reflections, and no change thereafter. The reason of this effect is searched for. (author). 3 refs.

  7. Engineering an all-optical route to ultracold molecules in their vibronic ground state

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Christiane P.; Moszynski, Robert

    2008-01-01

    We propose an improved photoassociation scheme to produce ultracold molecules in their vibronic ground state for the generic case where non-adiabatic effects facilitating transfer to deeply bound levels are absent. Formation of molecules is achieved by short laser pulses in a Raman-like pump-dump process where an additional near-infrared laser field couples the excited state to an auxiliary state. The coupling due to the additional field effectively changes the shape of the excited state pote...

  8. Negative specific heat with trapped ultracold quantum gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzys, M. P.; Anglin, J. R.

    2014-01-01

    The second law of thermodynamics normally prescribes that heat tends to disperse, but in certain cases it instead implies that heat will spontaneously concentrate. The spontaneous formation of stars out of cold cosmic nebulae, without which the universe would be dark and dead, is an example of this phenomenon. Here we show that the counter-intuitive thermodynamics of spontaneous heat concentration can be studied experimentally with trapped quantum gases, by using optical lattice potentials to realize weakly coupled arrays of simple dynamical subsystems, so that under the standard assumptions of statistical mechanics, the behavior of the whole system can be predicted from ensemble properties of the isolated components. A naive application of the standard statistical mechanical formalism then identifies the subsystem excitations as heat in this case, but predicts them to share the peculiar property of self-gravitating protostars, of having negative micro-canonical specific heat. Numerical solution of real-time evolution equations confirms the spontaneous concentration of heat in such arrays, with initially dispersed energy condensing quickly into dense ‘droplets’. Analysis of the nonlinear dynamics in adiabatic terms allows it to be related to familiar modulational instabilities. The model thus provides an example of a dictionary mesoscopic system, in which the same non-trivial phenomenon can be understood in both thermodynamical and mechanical terms.

  9. Taylor-expansion Monte Carlo simulations of classical fluids in the canonical and grand canonical ensemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoen, M.

    1995-01-01

    In this article the Taylor-expansion method is introduced by which Monte Carlo (MC) simulations in the canonical ensemble can be speeded up significantly, Substantial gains in computational speed of 20-40% over conventional implementations of the MC technique are obtained over a wide range of densities in homogeneous bulk phases. The basic philosophy behind the Taylor-expansion method is a division of the neighborhood of each atom (or molecule) into three different spatial zones. Interactions between atoms belonging to each zone are treated at different levels of computational sophistication. For example, only interactions between atoms belonging to the primary zone immediately surrounding an atom are treated explicitly before and after displacement. The change in the configurational energy contribution from secondary-zone interactions is obtained from the first-order term of a Taylor expansion of the configurational energy in terms of the displacement vector d. Interactions with atoms in the tertiary zone adjacent to the secondary zone are neglected throughout. The Taylor-expansion method is not restricted to the canonical ensemble but may be employed to enhance computational efficiency of MC simulations in other ensembles as well. This is demonstrated for grand canonical ensemble MC simulations of an inhomogeneous fluid which can be performed essentially on a modern personal computer

  10. Eigenfunction statistics of Wishart Brownian ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Pragya

    2017-01-01

    We theoretically analyze the eigenfunction fluctuation measures for a Hermitian ensemble which appears as an intermediate state of the perturbation of a stationary ensemble by another stationary ensemble of Wishart (Laguerre) type. Similar to the perturbation by a Gaussian stationary ensemble, the measures undergo a diffusive dynamics in terms of the perturbation parameter but the energy-dependence of the fluctuations is different in the two cases. This may have important consequences for the eigenfunction dynamics as well as phase transition studies in many areas of complexity where Brownian ensembles appear. (paper)

  11. Itinerant ferromagnetism in an atomic Fermi gas: Influence of population imbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conduit, G. J.; Simons, B. D.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate ferromagnetic ordering in an itinerant ultracold atomic Fermi gas with repulsive interactions and population imbalance. In a spatially uniform system, we show that at zero temperature the transition to the itinerant magnetic phase transforms from first to second order with increasing population imbalance. Drawing on these results, we elucidate the phases present in a trapped geometry, finding three characteristic types of behavior with changing population imbalance. Finally, we outline the potential experimental implications of the findings.

  12. Efficient production of long-lived ultracold Sr2 molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciamei, Alessio; Bayerle, Alex; Chen, Chun-Chia; Pasquiou, Benjamin; Schreck, Florian

    2017-07-01

    We associate Sr atom pairs on sites of a Mott insulator optically and coherently into weakly bound ground-state molecules, achieving an efficiency above 80%. This efficiency is 2.5 times higher than in our previous work [S. Stellmer, B. Pasquiou, R. Grimm, and F. Schreck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 115302 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.115302] and obtained through two improvements. First, the lifetime of the molecules is increased beyond one minute by using an optical lattice wavelength that is further detuned from molecular transitions. Second, we compensate undesired dynamic light shifts that occur during the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) used for molecule association. We also characterize and model STIRAP, providing insights into its limitations. Our work shows that significant molecule association efficiencies can be achieved even for atomic species or mixtures that lack Feshbach resonances suitable for magnetoassociation.

  13. Storage of Quantum Variables in Atomic Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cviklinski, J.; Ortalo, J.; Josse, V.

    2007-01-01

    Storage and read-out of non classical states of light is a critical element for quantum information networks. Simultaneous storage of two non-commuting variables carried by light and subsequent read-out is shown to be possible in atomic ensembles. Interaction of light fields with three-level syst......-level systems allows direct mapping the quantum state of light into long lived coherences in the atomic ground state. We show that excess noise linked to atomic transitions can be made negligible. Experimental developments are discussed for atomic vapours and cold atoms....

  14. Laser diagnostics of the energy spectrum of Rydberg states of the lithium-7 atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelener, B. B., E-mail: bobozel@mail.ru; Saakyan, S. A.; Sautenkov, V. A.; Manykin, E. A.; Zelener, B. V.; Fortov, V. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The spectra of excited lithium-7 atoms prepared in a magneto-optical trap are studied using a UV laser. The laser diagnostics of the energy of Rydberg atoms is developed based on measurements of the change in resonance fluorescence intensity of ultracold atoms as the exciting UV radiation frequency passes through the Rydberg transition frequency. The energies of various nS configurations are obtained in a broad range of the principal quantum number n from 38 to 165. The values of the quantum defect and ionization energy obtained in experiments and predicted theoretically are discussed.

  15. Nonequilibrium statistical mechanics ensemble method

    CERN Document Server

    Eu, Byung Chan

    1998-01-01

    In this monograph, nonequilibrium statistical mechanics is developed by means of ensemble methods on the basis of the Boltzmann equation, the generic Boltzmann equations for classical and quantum dilute gases, and a generalised Boltzmann equation for dense simple fluids The theories are developed in forms parallel with the equilibrium Gibbs ensemble theory in a way fully consistent with the laws of thermodynamics The generalised hydrodynamics equations are the integral part of the theory and describe the evolution of macroscopic processes in accordance with the laws of thermodynamics of systems far removed from equilibrium Audience This book will be of interest to researchers in the fields of statistical mechanics, condensed matter physics, gas dynamics, fluid dynamics, rheology, irreversible thermodynamics and nonequilibrium phenomena

  16. Statistical Analysis of Protein Ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máté, Gabriell; Heermann, Dieter

    2014-04-01

    As 3D protein-configuration data is piling up, there is an ever-increasing need for well-defined, mathematically rigorous analysis approaches, especially that the vast majority of the currently available methods rely heavily on heuristics. We propose an analysis framework which stems from topology, the field of mathematics which studies properties preserved under continuous deformations. First, we calculate a barcode representation of the molecules employing computational topology algorithms. Bars in this barcode represent different topological features. Molecules are compared through their barcodes by statistically determining the difference in the set of their topological features. As a proof-of-principle application, we analyze a dataset compiled of ensembles of different proteins, obtained from the Ensemble Protein Database. We demonstrate that our approach correctly detects the different protein groupings.

  17. Ensemble methods for handwritten digit recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Liisberg, Christian; Salamon, P.

    1992-01-01

    Neural network ensembles are applied to handwritten digit recognition. The individual networks of the ensemble are combinations of sparse look-up tables (LUTs) with random receptive fields. It is shown that the consensus of a group of networks outperforms the best individual of the ensemble....... It is further shown that it is possible to estimate the ensemble performance as well as the learning curve on a medium-size database. In addition the authors present preliminary analysis of experiments on a large database and show that state-of-the-art performance can be obtained using the ensemble approach...... by optimizing the receptive fields. It is concluded that it is possible to improve performance significantly by introducing moderate-size ensembles; in particular, a 20-25% improvement has been found. The ensemble random LUTs, when trained on a medium-size database, reach a performance (without rejects) of 94...

  18. Benchmarking Commercial Conformer Ensemble Generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Nils-Ole; de Bruyn Kops, Christina; Flachsenberg, Florian; Sommer, Kai; Rarey, Matthias; Kirchmair, Johannes

    2017-11-27

    We assess and compare the performance of eight commercial conformer ensemble generators (ConfGen, ConfGenX, cxcalc, iCon, MOE LowModeMD, MOE Stochastic, MOE Conformation Import, and OMEGA) and one leading free algorithm, the distance geometry algorithm implemented in RDKit. The comparative study is based on a new version of the Platinum Diverse Dataset, a high-quality benchmarking dataset of 2859 protein-bound ligand conformations extracted from the PDB. Differences in the performance of commercial algorithms are much smaller than those observed for free algorithms in our previous study (J. Chem. Inf. 2017, 57, 529-539). For commercial algorithms, the median minimum root-mean-square deviations measured between protein-bound ligand conformations and ensembles of a maximum of 250 conformers are between 0.46 and 0.61 Å. Commercial conformer ensemble generators are characterized by their high robustness, with at least 99% of all input molecules successfully processed and few or even no substantial geometrical errors detectable in their output conformations. The RDKit distance geometry algorithm (with minimization enabled) appears to be a good free alternative since its performance is comparable to that of the midranked commercial algorithms. Based on a statistical analysis, we elaborate on which algorithms to use and how to parametrize them for best performance in different application scenarios.

  19. Thermoelectric transport and Peltier cooling of cold atomic gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Charles; Kollath, Corinna; Georges, Antoine

    2016-12-01

    This brief review presents the emerging field of mesoscopic physics with cold atoms, with an emphasis on thermal and 'thermoelectric' transport, i.e. coupled transport of particles and entropy. We review in particular the comparison between theoretically predicted and experimentally observed thermoelectric effects in such systems. We also show how combining well-designed transport properties and evaporative cooling leads to an equivalent of the Peltier effect with cold atoms, which can be used as a new cooling procedure with improved cooling power and efficiency compared to the evaporative cooling currently used in atomic gases. This could lead to a new generation of experiments probing strong correlation effects of ultracold fermionic atoms at low temperatures.

  20. P-wave Feshbach resonances of ultracold 6Li

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.; Kempen, E.G.M. van; Bourdel, T.; Cubizolles, J.; Chevy, F.; Teichmann, M.; Tarruell, L.; Salomon, C.; Khaykovich, L.; Kokkelmans, S.J.J.M.F.

    2004-01-01

    We report the observation of three p-wave Feshbach resonances of 6 Li atoms in the lowest hyperfine state f=1/2. The positions of the resonances are in good agreement with theory. We study the lifetime of the cloud in the vicinity of the Feshbach resonances and show that, depending on the spin states, two- or three-body mechanisms are at play. In the case of dipolar losses, we observe a nontrivial temperature dependence that is well explained by a simple model

  1. Accurate calculations of the ground state and low-lying excited states of the (RbBa)+ molecular ion: a proposed system for ultracold reactive collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knecht, Stefan; Sørensen, Lasse Kragh; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard

    2010-01-01

    Collisions of ultracold Ba+ ions on a Rb Bose–Einstein condensate have been suggested as a possible benchmark system for ultracold ion-neutral collision experiments. However, a priori knowledge of the possible processes is desirable. For this purpose, we here present high-level four-component cou...

  2. Atom loss resonances in a Bose-Einstein condensate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmack, Christian; Smith, D Hudson; Braaten, Eric

    2013-07-12

    Atom loss resonances in ultracold trapped atoms have been observed at scattering lengths near atom-dimer resonances, at which Efimov trimers cross the atom-dimer threshold, and near two-dimer resonances, at which universal tetramers cross the dimer-dimer threshold. We propose a new mechanism for these loss resonances in a Bose-Einstein condensate of atoms. As the scattering length is ramped to the large final value at which the atom loss rate is measured, the time-dependent scattering length generates a small condensate of shallow dimers coherently from the atom condensate. The coexisting atom and dimer condensates can be described by a low-energy effective field theory with universal coefficients that are determined by matching exact results from few-body physics. The classical field equations for the atom and dimer condensates predict narrow enhancements in the atom loss rate near atom-dimer resonances and near two-dimer resonances due to inelastic dimer collisions.

  3. Contribution to the theory of ultracold highly polarized Fermi gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, Sebastien

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with the N+1 body problem in highly polarized Fermi gases. This is the situation where a single atom of one spin species is immersed in a Fermi sea of atoms of the other species. The first part uses a Hamiltonian approach based on a general expansion for the wave function of the system with any number of particle-hole pairs. We show that the constructed series of successive approximations converges very rapidly and thus we get an essentially exact solution for the energy and the effective mass of the polaron. In one dimension, for two particular cases, this problem can be solved analytically. The excellent agreement with our series of approximations provides a further check of the reliability of this expansion. Finally, we consider more specifically various limiting cases, as well as the effect of the mass ratio between the two spin species. In the second part, we use the Feynman diagrams formalism to describe both the polaron and the bound state. For the polaron, we develop a theory which is equivalent to the Hamiltonian approach. For the bound state, we get again a series of successive approximations whose fast convergence is perfectly understood. Therefore, this approach provides an essentially exact solution to the problem along the whole BEC-BCS crossover. Finally, by comparing the energies of the two quasi-particles, we study the position of the polaron to bound state transition. (author)

  4. Analytical results for the time-dependent current density distribution of expanding ultracold gases after a sudden change of the confining potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumaza, R.; Bencheikh, K.

    2017-12-01

    Using the so-called operator product expansion to lowest order, we extend the work in Campbell et al (2015 Phys. Rev. Lett 114 125302) by deriving a simple analytical expression for the long-time asymptotic one-body reduced density matrix during free expansion for a one-dimensional system of bosons with large atom number interacting through a repulsive delta potential initially confined by a potential well. This density matrix allows direct access to the momentum distribution and also to the mass current density. For initially confining power-law potentials we give explicit expressions, in the limits of very weak and very strong interaction, for the current density distributions during the free expansion. In the second part of the work we consider the expansion of ultracold gas from a confining harmonic trap to another harmonic trap with a different frequency. For the case of a quantum impenetrable gas of bosons (a Tonks-Girardeau gas) with a given atom number, we present an exact analytical expression for the mass current distribution (mass transport) after release from one harmonic trap to another harmonic trap. It is shown that, for a harmonically quenched Tonks-Girardeau gas, the current distribution is a suitable collective observable and under the weak quench regime, it exhibits oscillations at the same frequencies as those recently predicted for the peak momentum distribution in the breathing mode. The analysis is extended to other possible quenched systems.

  5. Condensate fluctuations of interacting Bose gases within a microcanonical ensemble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhui; He, Jizhou; Ma, Yongli

    2011-05-01

    Based on counting statistics and Bogoliubov theory, we present a recurrence relation for the microcanonical partition function for a weakly interacting Bose gas with a finite number of particles in a cubic box. According to this microcanonical partition function, we calculate numerically the distribution function, condensate fraction, and condensate fluctuations for a finite and isolated Bose-Einstein condensate. For ideal and weakly interacting Bose gases, we compare the condensate fluctuations with those in the canonical ensemble. The present approach yields an accurate account of the condensate fluctuations for temperatures close to the critical region. We emphasize that the interactions between excited atoms turn out to be important for moderate temperatures.

  6. Bayesian ensemble approach to error estimation of interatomic potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Søren Lund; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Brown, K.S.

    2004-01-01

    Using a Bayesian approach a general method is developed to assess error bars on predictions made by models fitted to data. The error bars are estimated from fluctuations in ensembles of models sampling the model-parameter space with a probability density set by the minimum cost. The method...... is applied to the development of interatomic potentials for molybdenum using various potential forms and databases based on atomic forces. The calculated error bars on elastic constants, gamma-surface energies, structural energies, and dislocation properties are shown to provide realistic estimates...

  7. Measuring social interaction in music ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Gualtiero; D'Ausilio, Alessandro; Badino, Leonardo; Camurri, Antonio; Fadiga, Luciano

    2016-05-05

    Music ensembles are an ideal test-bed for quantitative analysis of social interaction. Music is an inherently social activity, and music ensembles offer a broad variety of scenarios which are particularly suitable for investigation. Small ensembles, such as string quartets, are deemed a significant example of self-managed teams, where all musicians contribute equally to a task. In bigger ensembles, such as orchestras, the relationship between a leader (the conductor) and a group of followers (the musicians) clearly emerges. This paper presents an overview of recent research on social interaction in music ensembles with a particular focus on (i) studies from cognitive neuroscience; and (ii) studies adopting a computational approach for carrying out automatic quantitative analysis of ensemble music performances. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Fulde–Ferrell superfluids in spinless ultracold Fermi gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhen-Fei; Guo, Guang-Can; Zheng, Zhen; Zou, Xu-Bo

    2018-06-01

    The Fulde–Ferrell (FF) superfluid phase, in which fermions form finite momentum Cooper pairings, is well studied in spin-singlet superfluids in past decades. Different from previous works that engineer the FF state in spinful cold atoms, we show that the FF state can emerge in spinless Fermi gases confined in optical lattice associated with nearest-neighbor interactions. The mechanism of the spinless FF state relies on the split Fermi surfaces by tuning the chemistry potential, which naturally gives rise to finite momentum Cooper pairings. The phase transition is accompanied by changed Chern numbers, in which, different from the conventional picture, the band gap does not close. By beyond-mean-field calculations, we find the finite momentum pairing is more robust, yielding the system promising for maintaining the FF state at finite temperature. Finally we present the possible realization and detection scheme of the spinless FF state.

  9. Statistical ensembles in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhintsev, D.

    1976-01-01

    The interpretation of quantum mechanics presented in this paper is based on the concept of quantum ensembles. This concept differs essentially from the canonical one by that the interference of the observer into the state of a microscopic system is of no greater importance than in any other field of physics. Owing to this fact, the laws established by quantum mechanics are not of less objective character than the laws governing classical statistical mechanics. The paradoxical nature of some statements of quantum mechanics which result from the interpretation of the wave functions as the observer's notebook greatly stimulated the development of the idea presented. (Auth.)

  10. Wind Power Prediction using Ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor; Badger, Jake; Landberg, Lars

    2005-01-01

    offshore wind farm and the whole Jutland/Funen area. The utilities used these forecasts for maintenance planning, fuel consumption estimates and over-the-weekend trading on the Leipzig power exchange. Othernotable scientific results include the better accuracy of forecasts made up from a simple...... superposition of two NWP provider (in our case, DMI and DWD), an investigation of the merits of a parameterisation of the turbulent kinetic energy within thedelivered wind speed forecasts, and the finding that a “naïve” downscaling of each of the coarse ECMWF ensemble members with higher resolution HIRLAM did...

  11. EnsembleGASVR: A novel ensemble method for classifying missense single nucleotide polymorphisms

    KAUST Repository

    Rapakoulia, Trisevgeni; Theofilatos, Konstantinos A.; Kleftogiannis, Dimitrios A.; Likothanasis, Spiridon D.; Tsakalidis, Athanasios K.; Mavroudi, Seferina P.

    2014-01-01

    do not support their predictions with confidence scores. Results: To overcome these limitations, a novel ensemble computational methodology is proposed. EnsembleGASVR facilitates a twostep algorithm, which in its first step applies a novel

  12. Multi-Model Ensemble Wake Vortex Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerner, Stephan; Holzaepfel, Frank; Ahmad, Nash'at N.

    2015-01-01

    Several multi-model ensemble methods are investigated for predicting wake vortex transport and decay. This study is a joint effort between National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt to develop a multi-model ensemble capability using their wake models. An overview of different multi-model ensemble methods and their feasibility for wake applications is presented. The methods include Reliability Ensemble Averaging, Bayesian Model Averaging, and Monte Carlo Simulations. The methodologies are evaluated using data from wake vortex field experiments.

  13. Urban runoff forecasting with ensemble weather predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jonas Wied; Courdent, Vianney Augustin Thomas; Vezzaro, Luca

    This research shows how ensemble weather forecasts can be used to generate urban runoff forecasts up to 53 hours into the future. The results highlight systematic differences between ensemble members that needs to be accounted for when these forecasts are used in practice.......This research shows how ensemble weather forecasts can be used to generate urban runoff forecasts up to 53 hours into the future. The results highlight systematic differences between ensemble members that needs to be accounted for when these forecasts are used in practice....

  14. 0.75 atoms improve the clock signal of 10,000 atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, I.; Lange, K.; Peise, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Since the pioneering work of Ramsey, atom interferometers are employed for precision metrology, in particular to measure time and to realize the second. In a classical interferometer, an ensemble of atoms is prepared in one of the two input states, whereas the second one is left empty. In this case.......75 atoms to improve the clock sensitivity of 10,000 atoms by 2.05 dB. The SQL poses a significant limitation for today's microwave fountain clocks, which serve as the main time reference. We evaluate the major technical limitations and challenges for devising a next generation of fountain clocks based...... on atomic squeezed vacuum....

  15. Joys of Community Ensemble Playing: The Case of the Happy Roll Elastic Ensemble in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yuan-Mei; Kao, Kai-Chi

    2012-01-01

    The Happy Roll Elastic Ensemble (HREE) is a community music ensemble supported by Tainan Culture Centre in Taiwan. With enjoyment and friendship as its primary goals, it aims to facilitate the joys of ensemble playing and the spirit of social networking. This article highlights the key aspects of HREE's development in its first two years…

  16. Temperature and coupling dependence of the universal contact intensity for an ultracold Fermi gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palestini, F.; Perali, A.; Pieri, P.; Strinati, G. C.

    2010-01-01

    Physical properties of an ultracold Fermi gas in the temperature-coupling phase diagram can be characterized by the contact intensity C, which enters the pair-correlation function at short distances and describes how the two-body problem merges into its surrounding. We show that the local order established by pairing fluctuations about the critical temperature T c of the superfluid transition considerably enhances the contact C in a temperature range where pseudogap phenomena are maximal. Our ab initio results for C in a trap compare well with recently available experimental data over a wide coupling range. An analysis is also provided for the effects of trap averaging on C.

  17. Collapse and revival oscillations as a probe for the tunneling amplitude in an ultracold Bose gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, F. Alexander; Hen, Itay; Rigol, Marcos

    2010-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of the quantum corrections to the revival time due to finite tunneling in the collapse and revival of matter-wave interference after a quantum quench. We study hard-core bosons in a superlattice potential and the Bose-Hubbard model by means of exact numerical approaches and mean-field theory. We consider systems without and with a trapping potential present. We show that the quantum corrections to the revival time can be used to accurately determine the value of the hopping parameter in experiments with ultracold bosons in optical lattices.

  18. A prestorage method to measure neutron transmission of ultracold neutron guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blau, B.; Daum, M.; Fertl, M.; Geltenbort, P.; Göltl, L.; Henneck, R.; Kirch, K.; Knecht, A.; Lauss, B.; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P.; Zsigmond, G.

    2016-01-01

    There are worldwide efforts to search for physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. Precision experiments using ultracold neutrons (UCN) require very high intensities of UCN. Efficient transport of UCN from the production volume to the experiment is therefore of great importance. We have developed a method using prestored UCN in order to quantify UCN transmission in tubular guides. This method simulates the final installation at the Paul Scherrer Institute's UCN source where neutrons are stored in an intermediate storage vessel serving three experimental ports. This method allowed us to qualify UCN guides for their intended use and compare their properties.

  19. Surface roughness effect on ultracold neutron interaction with a wall and implications for computer simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyerl, A.; Malik, S. S.; Desai, A. M.; Kaufman, C.

    2010-01-01

    We review the diffuse scattering and the loss coefficient in ultracold neutron reflection from slightly rough surfaces, report a surprising reduction in loss coefficient due to roughness, and discuss the possibility of transition from quantum treatment to ray optics. The results are used in a computer simulation of neutron storage in a recent neutron lifetime experiment that reported a large discrepancy of neutron lifetime with the current particle data value. Our partial reanalysis suggests the possibility of systematic effects that were not included in this publication.

  20. Confinement of ultra-cold neutron in a multiple cusp magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, Nobumichi; Inoue, Nobuyuki; Nihei, Hitoshi; Kinosita, Ken-ichi [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-08-01

    A new confinement system of ultra-cold neutrons is proposed. The neutron bottle is made of a rectangular vacuum chamber with the size of 40 cm x 40 cm x 30 cm covered with arrays of bar type permanent magnets. The operation of bottle requires neither cooling system nor high electric power supply, and thereby the bottle is appropriate to use in the room which is located in controlled area. The maximum kinetic energy of neutrons confined is 20 neV. Experimental scheme to test the performance of the bottle is described. (author)