WorldWideScience

Sample records for ultra high charge

  1. Vacuum improvements for ultra high charge state ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.; Lyneis, C.M.; Clark, D.J.; Guy, A.; Lundgren, S.A

    1998-06-01

    The installation of a second cryo panel has significantly improved the vacuum in the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The neutral pressure in the extraction region decreased from 1.2 x 10 -6 down to about 7 x 10 -7 Torr. The vacuum improvement reduces beam loss from charge changing collisions and enhances the cyclotron beam transmission, especially for the high charge state heavy ions. Tests with improved vacuum show the cyclotron transmission increased more than 50% (from 5.7% to 9.0%) for a Xe 27+ at 603 MeV, more than doubled for a Bi 41+ beam (from 1.9% to 4.6%) at 904 MeV and tripled for a U 47+ beam (from 1.2% to 3.6%) at 1,115 MeV. At about 5 NeV/nucleon 92 enA (2.2 pnA) for Bi 41+ and 14 enA (0.3 pnA) for U 47+ were extracted ut of the 88-Inch Cyclotron Ion beams with charge states as high as U 64+ have been produced by the LBNL AECR-U ion source and accelerated through the cyclotron for the first time. The beam losses for a variety of ultra high charge state ions were measured as a function of cyclotron pressure and compared with the calculations from the existing models

  2. Vacuum improvements for ultra high charge state ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.; Lyneis, C.M.; Clark, D.J.; Guy, A.; Lundgren, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    The installation of a second cryo panel has significantly improved the vacuum in the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The neutral pressure in the extraction region decreased from 1.2 x 10 -6 down to about 7 x 10 -7 Torr. The vacuum improvement reduces beam loss from charge changing collisions and enhances the cyclotron beam transmission, especially for the high charge state heavy ions. Tests with improved vacuum show the cyclotron transmission increased more than 50% (from 5.7% to 9.0%) for a Xe 27+ at 603 MeV, more than doubled for a Bi 41+ beam (from 1.9% % to 4.6%) at 904 MeV and tripled for a U 47+ beam (from 1.2% to 3.6%) at 1115 MeV. At about 5 MeV/nucleon 92 enA (2.2 pnA) for Bi 41+ and 14 enA (0.3 pnA) for U 47+ were extracted out of the 88-Inch Cyclotron Ion beams with charge states as high as U 64+ have been produced by the LBNL AECR-U ion source and accelerated through the cyclotron for the first time. The beam losses for a variety of ultra high charge state ions were measured as a function of cyclotron pressure and compared with the calculations from the existing models. (authors)

  3. Extreme ultra-violet emission spectroscopy of highly charged gadolinium ions with an electron beam ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, Hayato; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A

    2013-01-01

    We present extreme ultra-violet emission spectra of highly charged gadolinium ions obtained with an electron beam ion trap at electron energies of 0.53–1.51 keV. The electron energy dependence of the spectra in the 5.7–11.3 nm range is compared with calculation with the flexible atomic code. (paper)

  4. Ultra-high vacuum target assembly for charged particle irradiations in the materials research field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressers, J.; Cassanelli, G.; Cat, R. de; Kohnen, H.; Gherardi, G.

    1978-01-01

    A target assembly designed for ion irradiation and ion implantation experiments on different particle accelerators is described. It consists of a target chamber separated from the beam line by a thin metal window, thus allowing implantations to be carried out under ultra-high vacuum conditions. Homogeneous in-depth distribution of the implanted ion species is realized by rotating the target about an axis perpendicular to the ion beam (rocking). The target holder is driven by means of a stepping motor with a constant step angle and a rocking device controller containing the required rocking angle-dwell time relation. Ion beam homogeneity over a sufficiently large target area is arrived at by transforming the Gaussian beam intensity profile into a flat beam intensity distribution by means of an electrostatic ring lens. The beam intensity profile is monitored by means of a specially designed ion beam monitor based on the Nipkov disc principle. A toroidal beam current monitoring transformer continuously measures the total beam current. Beam scanners and current measuring collimators complete the beam analysing equipment

  5. Ultra-thin MoS{sub 2} irradiated with highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopster, J.; Kozubek, R.; Krämer, J.; Sokolovsky, V.; Schleberger, M., E-mail: marika.schleberger@uni-due.de

    2013-12-15

    Single MoS{sub 2} layers exfoliated on KBr have been irradiated with highly charged Xe ions, i.e. with Xe{sup 35+} and Xe{sup 40+}. By atomic force microscopy (AFM) we identified pits and hillocks induced by single ion impacts. The latter ones appear on single layer and bulk-like MoS{sub 2} after both irradiations, whereas their diameter and height apparently depend on the charge state q and layer number. By comparison of contact mode and tapping mode AFM measurements we deduce that these ion induced defects are topographical hillocks accompanied by an enhanced friction. In contrast to this, pit-like structures were only observed on single layer MoS{sub 2} irradiated with q = 40. Taking into account the well known ion induced pit formation on KBr due to defect mediated sputtering, we deduce that pit formation takes place in the substrate and not in the MoS{sub 2} layer.

  6. High resolution separations of charge variants and disulfide isomers of monoclonal antibodies and antibody drug conjugates using ultra-high voltage capillary electrophoresis with high electric field strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, W Hampton; He, Yan; Mellors, J Scott; Batz, Nicholas G; Ramsey, J Michael; Jorgenson, James W

    2017-11-10

    Ultra-high voltage capillary electrophoresis with high electric field strength has been applied to the separation of the charge variants, drug conjugates, and disulfide isomers of monoclonal antibodies. Samples composed of many closely related species are difficult to resolve and quantify using traditional analytical instrumentation. High performance instrumentation can often save considerable time and effort otherwise spent on extensive method development. Ideally, the resolution obtained for a given CE buffer system scales with the square root of the applied voltage. Currently available commercial CE instrumentation is limited to an applied voltage of approximately 30kV and a maximum electric field strength of 1kV/cm due to design limitations. The instrumentation described here is capable of safely applying potentials of at least 120kV with electric field strengths over 2000V/cm, potentially doubling the resolution of the best conventional CE buffer/capillary systems while decreasing analysis time in some applications. Separations of these complex mixtures using this new instrumentation demonstrate the potential of ultra-high voltage CE to identify the presence of previously unresolved components and to reduce analysis time for complex mixtures of antibody variants and drug conjugates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Development and Application of a Wireless Sensor for Space Charge Density Measurement in an Ultra-High-Voltage, Direct-Current Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Encheng; Ju, Yong; Yuan, Haiwen

    2016-10-20

    A space charge density wireless measurement system based on the idea of distributed measurement is proposed for collecting and monitoring the space charge density in an ultra-high-voltage direct-current (UHVDC) environment. The proposed system architecture is composed of a number of wireless nodes connected with space charge density sensors and a base station. The space charge density sensor based on atmospheric ion counter method is elaborated and developed, and the ARM microprocessor and Zigbee radio frequency module are applied. The wireless network communication quality and the relationship between energy consumption and transmission distance in the complicated electromagnetic environment is tested. Based on the experimental results, the proposed measurement system demonstrates that it can adapt to the complex electromagnetic environment under the UHVDC transmission lines and can accurately measure the space charge density.

  8. Ultra high resolution tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, W.S.

    1994-11-15

    Recent work and results on ultra high resolution three dimensional imaging with soft x-rays will be presented. This work is aimed at determining microscopic three dimensional structure of biological and material specimens. Three dimensional reconstructed images of a microscopic test object will be presented; the reconstruction has a resolution on the order of 1000 A in all three dimensions. Preliminary work with biological samples will also be shown, and the experimental and numerical methods used will be discussed.

  9. {sup 1}H-NMR and charge transport in metallic polypyrrole at ultra-low temperatures and high magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jugeshwar Singh, K; Ramesh, K P; Menon, Reghu [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Clark, W G [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Los Angeles, 405 Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)], E-mail: jshwar@physics.iisc.ernet.in

    2008-11-19

    The temperature dependence of conductivity, proton spin relaxation time (T{sub 1}) and magnetoconductance (MC) in metallic polypyrrole (PPy) doped with PF{sub 6}{sup -} have been carried out at mK temperatures and high magnetic fields. At T<1 K both electron-electron interaction (EEI) and hopping contributes to conductivity. The temperature dependence of a proton T{sub 1} is classified in three regimes: (a) for T<6 K-relaxation mechanism follows a modified Korringa relation due to EEI and disorder, (b) for 6 K50 K-relaxation is due to the dipolar interaction modulated by the reorientation of the symmetric PF{sub 6} groups following the Bloembergen, Purcell and Pound (BPP) model. The data analysis shows that the Korringa ratio is enhanced by an order of magnitude. The positive and negative MC at T<250 mK is due to the contributions from weak localization and Coulomb-correlated hopping transport, respectively. The role of EEI is observed to be consistent in conductivity, T{sub 1} and MC data, especially at T<1 K.

  10. Ultra high energy cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Cosmic radiation was discovered 70 years ago but its origin remains an open question. The background to this problem is outlined and attempts to discover the origin of the most energetic and rarest group above 10 15 eV are described. Measurements of the energy spectrum and arrival direction pattern of the very highest energy particles, mean energy about 6 x 10 19 eV, are used to argue that these particles originate outside our galaxy. Recent evidence from the new field of ultra high energy γ-ray astronomy are discussed in the context of a galactic origin hypothesis for lower energy cosmic rays. (author)

  11. Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Dova, M.T.

    2015-05-22

    The origin of the ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) with energies above E > 10 17 eV, is still unknown. The discovery of their sources will reveal the engines of the most energetic astrophysical accelerators in the universe. This is a written version of a series of lectures devoted to UHECR at the 2013 CERN-Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics. We present anintroduction to acceleration mechanisms of charged particles to the highest energies in astrophysical objects, their propagation from the sources to Earth, and the experimental techniques for their detection. We also discuss some of the relevant observational results from Telescope Array and Pierre Auger Observatory. These experiments deal with particle interactions at energies orders of magnitude higher than achieved in terrestrial accelerators.

  12. High Voltage Charge Pump

    KAUST Repository

    Emira, Ahmed A.; Abdelghany, Mohamed A.; Elsayed, Mohannad Yomn; Elshurafa, Amro M; Salama, Khaled N.

    2014-01-01

    Various embodiments of a high voltage charge pump are described. One embodiment is a charge pump circuit that comprises a plurality of switching stages each including a clock input, a clock input inverse, a clock output, and a clock output inverse. The circuit further comprises a plurality of pumping capacitors, wherein one or more pumping capacitors are coupled to a corresponding switching stage. The circuit also comprises a maximum selection circuit coupled to a last switching stage among the plurality of switching stages, the maximum selection circuit configured to filter noise on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage, the maximum selection circuit further configured to generate a DC output voltage based on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage.

  13. High Voltage Charge Pump

    KAUST Repository

    Emira, Ahmed A.

    2014-10-09

    Various embodiments of a high voltage charge pump are described. One embodiment is a charge pump circuit that comprises a plurality of switching stages each including a clock input, a clock input inverse, a clock output, and a clock output inverse. The circuit further comprises a plurality of pumping capacitors, wherein one or more pumping capacitors are coupled to a corresponding switching stage. The circuit also comprises a maximum selection circuit coupled to a last switching stage among the plurality of switching stages, the maximum selection circuit configured to filter noise on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage, the maximum selection circuit further configured to generate a DC output voltage based on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage.

  14. Ultra high energy gamma-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wdowczyk, J.

    1986-01-01

    The experimental data on ultra high energy γ-rays are reviewed and a comparison of the properties of photon and proton initiated shower is made. The consequences of the existence of the strong ultra high energy γ-ray sources for other observations is analysed and possible mechanisms for the production of ultra high energy γ-rays in the sources are discussed. It is demonstrated that if the γ-rays are produced via cosmic ray interactions the sources have to produce very high fluxes of cosmic ray particles. In fact it is possible that a small number of such sources can supply the whole Galactic cosmic ray flux

  15. Ultra-high temperature direct propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araj, K.J.; Slovik, G.; Powell, J.R.; Ludewig, H.

    1987-01-01

    Potential advantages of ultra-high exhaust temperature (3000 K - 4000 K) direct propulsion nuclear rockets are explored. Modifications to the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) to achieve these temperatures are described. Benefits of ultra-high temperature propulsion are discussed for two missions - orbit transfer (ΔV = 5546 m/s) and interplanetary exploration (ΔV = 20000 m/s). For such missions ultra-high temperatures appear to be worth the additional complexity. Thrust levels are reduced substantially for a given power level, due to the higher enthalpy caused by partial disassociation of the hydrogen propellant. Though technically challenging, it appears potentially feasible to achieve such ultra high temperatures using the PBR

  16. Probing physics at extreme energies with cosmic ultra-high energy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    testing new particle physics. Keywords. Ultra-high ... conventional theories of CR origin based on acceleration of charged particles in powerful ... Before discussing specific scenarios for UHECR origin we give a short account of the numerical ...

  17. Determination of C-glucosidic ellagitannins in Lythri salicariaeherba by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with charged aerosol detector: method development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granica, Sebastian; Piwowarski, Jakub P; Kiss, Anna K

    2014-01-01

    Lythri salicariaeherba is a pharmacopoeial plant material used by patients in the form of infusions in the treatment of acute diarrhoea. According to its pharmacopoeial monograph it is standardised for total tannin content, which should be not less than 5.0% using pyrogallol as a standard. Previous studies have shown that aqueous extracts from Lythri herba contain mainly ellagitannins among which vescalagin, castalagin and salicarinins A and B are dominating constituents. To develop and validate an efficient UHPLC coupled with a charged aerosol detector (CAD) method for quantification of four major ellagitannins in Lythri salicariaeherba and in one commercial preparation. Extraction conditions of ellagitannins from plant material were optimised. The relative response factors for vescalagin, castalagin and salicarinins A and B using gallic acid as an external standard were determined for the CAD detector. Then, a UHPLC method for quantification of ellagitannins was developed and validated. Four major ellagitannins were quantified in four samples of Lythri herba and in one commercial preparation. The sum of ellagitannins for each sample was determined, which varied from 30.66 to 48.80 mg/g of raw material and 16.57 mg per capsule for the preparation investigated. The first validated UHPLC/CAD UHPLC-CAD method for quantification of four major ellagitannins was developed. The universality of the CAD response was evaluated and it is shown that although all compounds analysed have similar structures their CAD response differs significantly. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Sintering of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a high performance polymer having low coefficient of friction, good abrasion resistance, good chemical ... In this study, we report our results on compaction and sintering behaviour of two grades of UHMWPE with reference to the powder morphology, sintering ...

  19. Expectations for ultra-high energy interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feynman, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    Strong interactions at ultra-high energies are discussed with emphasis on the hadrons produced in high energy collisions. Evidence is considered that quantum chromodynamics might be the right theory, and also some estimates are given of quantum chromodynamics asymptotic-freedom phenomena, the work under discussion being very preliminary. 6 references

  20. Ultra high-energy cosmic ray composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longley, N.P.

    1993-01-01

    The Soudan 2 surface-underground cosmic ray experiment can simultaneously measure surface shower size, underground muon multiplicity, and underground muon separation for ultra high energy cosmic ray showers. These measurements are sensitive to the primary composition. Analysis for energies from 10 1 to 10 4 TeV favors a light flux consisting of predominantly H and He nuclei

  1. Low velocity impact behaviour of ultra high strength concrete panels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ultra high strength concrete; panel; drop weight test; impact analysis;. ABAQUS. 1. Introduction. Ultra high strength concrete ... Knight (2012) investigated the dynamic behaviour of steel fibre reinforced concrete plates under impact loading with ...

  2. Scaling violations at ultra-high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tung, W.K.

    1979-01-01

    The paper discusses some of the features of high energy lepton-hadron scattering, including the observed (Bjorken) scaling behavior. The cross-sections where all hadron final states are summed over, are examined and the general formulas for the differential cross-section are examined. The subjects of scaling, breaking and phenomenological consequences are studied, and a list of what ultra-high energy neutrino physics can teach QCD is given

  3. Ultra high field magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lethimonnier, F.; Vedrine, P.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding human brain function, brain development and brain dysfunction is one of the great challenges of the twenty first century. Biomedical imaging has now run up against a number of technical constraints that are exposing limits to its potential. In order to overcome the current limits to high-field magnetic resonance cerebral imaging (MRI) and unleash its fullest potential, the Cea has built NeuroSpin, an ultra-high-field neuroimaging facility at its Saclay centre (in the Essonne). NeuroSpin already boasts three fully operational MRI systems. The first is a 3-tesla high-field system and the second is a very-high-field 7-tesla system, both of which are dedicated to clinical studies and investigations in humans, while the third is an ultra-high-field 17.65-tesla system designed for studies on small animals. In 2011, NeuroSpin will be commissioning an 11.7-tesla ultra-high-field system of unprecedented power that is designed for research on human subjects. The level of the magnetic field and the scale required will make this joint French-German project to build the magnet a breakthrough in the international arena. (authors)

  4. GaAs detectors with an ultra-thin Schottky contact for spectrometry of charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernykh, S.V., E-mail: chsv_84@mail.ru [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Research Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Chernykh, A.V. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Didenko, S.I.; Baryshnikov, F.M. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Research Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Burtebayev, N. [Research Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Institute of Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Britvich, G.I. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Protvino, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Chubenko, A.P. [Research Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Guly, V.G.; Glybin, Yu.N. [LLC “SNIIP Plus”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zholdybayev, T.K.; Burtebayeva, J.T.; Nassurlla, M. [Research Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Institute of Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2017-02-11

    For the first time, samples of particle detectors based on high-purity GaAs epilayers with an active area of 25 and 80 mm{sup 2} and an ultra-thin Pt Schottky barrier were fabricated for use in the spectrometry of charged particles and their operating characteristics were studied. The obtained FWHM of 14.2 (for 25 mm{sup 2} detector) and 15.5 keV (for 80 mm{sup 2} detector) on the 5.499 MeV line of {sup 238}Pu is at the level of silicon spectrometric detectors. It was found that the main component that determines the energy resolution of the detector is a fluctuation in the number of collected electron–hole pairs. This allows us to state that the obtained energy resolution is close to the limit for VPE GaAs. - Highlights: • VPE GaAs particle detectors with an active area of 25 and 80 mm{sup 2} were fabricated. • 120 Å ultra-thin Pt Schottky barrier was used as a rectifying contact. • The obtained FWHM of 14.2 keV ({sup 238}Pu) is at the level of Si spectrometric detectors. • Various components of the total energy resolution were analyzed. • It was shown that obtained energy resolution is close to its limit for VPE GaAs.

  5. Ultra-high resolution AMOLED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacyk, Ihor; Prache, Olivier; Ghosh, Amal

    2011-06-01

    AMOLED microdisplays continue to show improvement in resolution and optical performance, enhancing their appeal for a broad range of near-eye applications such as night vision, simulation and training, situational awareness, augmented reality, medical imaging, and mobile video entertainment and gaming. eMagin's latest development of an HDTV+ resolution technology integrates an OLED pixel of 3.2 × 9.6 microns in size on a 0.18 micron CMOS backplane to deliver significant new functionality as well as the capability to implement a 1920×1200 microdisplay in a 0.86" diagonal area. In addition to the conventional matrix addressing circuitry, the HDTV+ display includes a very lowpower, low-voltage-differential-signaling (LVDS) serialized interface to minimize cable and connector size as well as electromagnetic emissions (EMI), an on-chip set of look-up-tables for digital gamma correction, and a novel pulsewidth- modulation (PWM) scheme that together with the standard analog control provides a total dimming range of 0.05cd/m2 to 2000cd/m2 in the monochrome version. The PWM function also enables an impulse drive mode of operation that significantly reduces motion artifacts in high speed scene changes. An internal 10-bit DAC ensures that a full 256 gamma-corrected gray levels are available across the entire dimming range, resulting in a measured dynamic range exceeding 20-bits. This device has been successfully tested for operation at frame rates ranging from 30Hz up to 85Hz. This paper describes the operational features and detailed optical and electrical test results for the new AMOLED WUXGA resolution microdisplay.

  6. Spin-charge separation in ultra-cold quantum gases

    OpenAIRE

    Recati, A.; Fedichev, P. O.; Zwerger, W.; Zoller, P.

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the physical properties of quasi-1D quantum gases of fermion atoms confined in harmonic traps. Using the fact that for a homogeneous gas, the low energy properties are exactly described by a Luttinger model, we analyze the nature and manifestations of the spin-charge separation. Finally we discuss the necessary physical conditions and experimental limitations confronting possible experimental implementations.

  7. Ultra-high vacuum technology for accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit; Hilleret, Noël; Strubin, Pierre M

    2002-01-01

    The lectures will start with a review of the basics of vacuum physics required to build Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) systems, such as static and dynamic outgassing. Before reviewing the various pumping and measurement devices, including the most modern one like Non Evaporable Getter (NEG) coatings, an overview of adequate materials to be used in UHV systems will be given together with their treatment (e.g. cleaning procedures and bake out). Practical examples based on existing or future accelerators will be used to illustrate the topics. Finally, a short overview of modern vacuum controls and interlocks will be given.

  8. Hardon cross sections at ultra high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yodh, G.B.

    1987-01-01

    A review of results on total hadronic cross sections at ultra high energies obtained from a study of longitudinal development of cosmic ray air showers is given. The experimental observations show that proton-air inelastic cross section increases from 275 mb to over 500 mb as the collision energy in the center of mass increases from 20 GeV to 20 TeV. The proton-air inelastic cross section, obtained from cosmic ray data at √s = 30 TeV, is compared with calculations using various different models for the energy variation of the parameters of the elementary proton-proton interaction. Three conclusions are derived

  9. Ultra-high vacuum photoelectron linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, David U.L.; Luo, Yan

    2013-07-16

    An rf linear accelerator for producing an electron beam. The outer wall of the rf cavity of said linear accelerator being perforated to allow gas inside said rf cavity to flow to a pressure chamber surrounding said rf cavity and having means of ultra high vacuum pumping of the cathode of said rf linear accelerator. Said rf linear accelerator is used to accelerate polarized or unpolarized electrons produced by a photocathode, or to accelerate thermally heated electrons produced by a thermionic cathode, or to accelerate rf heated field emission electrons produced by a field emission cathode.

  10. Ultra-high resolution protein crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Kazuki; Hirano, Yu; Miki, Kunio

    2010-01-01

    Many protein structures have been determined by X-ray crystallography and deposited with the Protein Data Bank. However, these structures at usual resolution (1.5< d<3.0 A) are insufficient in their precision and quantity for elucidating the molecular mechanism of protein functions directly from structural information. Several studies at ultra-high resolution (d<0.8 A) have been performed with synchrotron radiation in the last decade. The highest resolution of the protein crystals was achieved at 0.54 A resolution for a small protein, crambin. In such high resolution crystals, almost all of hydrogen atoms of proteins and some hydrogen atoms of bound water molecules are experimentally observed. In addition, outer-shell electrons of proteins can be analyzed by the multipole refinement procedure. However, the influence of X-rays should be precisely estimated in order to derive meaningful information from the crystallographic results. In this review, we summarize refinement procedures, current status and perspectives for ultra high resolution protein crystallography. (author)

  11. Do ultra-orphan medicinal products warrant ultra-high prices? A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Picavet E

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Eline Picavet,1 David Cassiman,2 Steven Simoens1 1Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; 2Department of Hepatology, University Hospital Leuven, Leuven, Belgium Abstract: Ultra-orphan medicinal products (ultra-OMPs are intended for the treatment, prevention, or diagnosis of ultra-rare diseases, ie, life-threatening or chronically debilitating diseases that affect less than one per 50,000 individuals. Recently, high prices for ultra-OMPs have given rise to debate on the sustainability and justification of these prices. The aim of this article is to review the international scientific literature on the pricing of ultra-OMPs and to provide an overview of the current knowledge on the drivers of ultra-OMP pricing. The pricing process of ultra-OMPs is a complex and nontransparent issue. Evidence in the literature seems to indicate that ultra-OMPs are priced according to rarity and what the manufacturer believes the market will bear. Additionally, there appears to be a trend between the price of an ultra-OMP and the number of available alternatives. Patients, third-party payers, and pharmaceutical companies could benefit from more transparent pricing strategies. With a view to containing health care costs, it is likely that cost-sharing strategies, such as performance-based risk sharing arrangements, will become increasingly more important. However, it is vital that any measures for price control are consistent with the intended goals of the incentives to promote the development of new OMPs. Ideally, a balance must be struck between attaining affordable prices for ultra-OMPs and securing a realistic return on investment for the pharmaceutical industry. Keywords: ultra-orphan medicinal product, ultra-rare disease, pricing

  12. Ultra-high-speed Optical Signal Processing using Silicon Photonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Ji, Hua; Jensen, Asger Sellerup

    with a photonic layer on top to interconnect them. For such systems, silicon is an attractive candidate enabling both electronic and photonic control. For some network scenarios, it may be beneficial to use optical on-chip packet switching, and for high data-density environments one may take advantage...... of the ultra-fast nonlinear response of silicon photonic waveguides. These chips offer ultra-broadband wavelength operation, ultra-high timing resolution and ultra-fast response, and when used appropriately offer energy-efficient switching. In this presentation we review some all-optical functionalities based...... on silicon photonics. In particular we use nano-engineered silicon waveguides (nanowires) [1] enabling efficient phasematched four-wave mixing (FWM), cross-phase modulation (XPM) or self-phase modulation (SPM) for ultra-high-speed optical signal processing of ultra-high bit rate serial data signals. We show...

  13. Detecting ultra high energy neutrinos with LOFAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mevius, M.; Buitink, S.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J.; James, C.W.; McFadden, R.; Scholten, O.; Singh, K.; Stappers, B.; Veen, S. ter

    2012-01-01

    The NuMoon project aims to detect signals of Ultra High Energy (UHE) Cosmic Rays with radio telescopes on Earth using the Lunar Cherenkov technique at low frequencies (∼150MHz). The advantage of using low frequencies is the much larger effective detecting volume, with as trade-off the cut-off in sensitivity at lower energies. A first upper limit on the UHE neutrino flux from data of the Westerbork Radio Telescope (WSRT) has been published, while a second experiment, using the new LOFAR telescope, is in preparation. The advantages of LOFAR over WSRT are the larger collecting area, the better pointing accuracy and the use of ring buffers, which allow the implementation of a sophisticated self-trigger algorithm. The expected sensitivity of LOFAR reaches flux limits within the range of some theoretical production models.

  14. Multilayer ultra-high-temperature ceramic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehman, Ronald E [Albuquerque, NM; Corral, Erica L [Tucson, AZ

    2012-03-20

    A coated carbon-carbon composite material with multiple ceramic layers to provide oxidation protection from ultra-high-temperatures, where if the carbon-carbon composite material is uninhibited with B.sub.4C particles, then the first layer on the composite material is selected from ZrB.sub.2 and HfB.sub.2, onto which is coated a layer of SiC coated and if the carbon-carbon composite material is inhibited with B.sub.4C particles, then protection can be achieved with a layer of SiC and a layer of either ZrB.sub.2 and HfB.sub.2 in any order.

  15. Evidences from electron momentum spectroscopy for ultra-fast charge transfers and structural reorganizations in a floppy molecule: Ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deleuze, Michael S; Hajgato, Balazs; Morini, Filippo

    2009-01-01

    Calculations of electron momentum distributions employing advanced Dyson orbital theories and statistical thermodynamics beyond the RRHO approximation fail to quantitatively reproduce the outermost momentum profile inferred from experiments on ethanol employing high resolution Electron Momentum Spectroscopy [1]. Study of the influence of nuclear dynamics in the initial ground state and final ionized state indicates that this discrepancy between theory and experiment reflects a charge transfer occurring during an ultra-fast dissociation of the ethanol radical cation into a methyl radical and H 2 C=O-H + .

  16. Surface charge compensation for a highly charged ion emission microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.W.; Hamza, A.V.; Newman, M.W.; Holder, J.P.; Schneider, D.H.G.; Schenkel, T.

    2003-01-01

    A surface charge compensation electron flood gun has been added to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) highly charged ion (HCI) emission microscope. HCI surface interaction results in a significant charge residue being left on the surface of insulators and semiconductors. This residual charge causes undesirable aberrations in the microscope images and a reduction of the Time-Of-Flight (TOF) mass resolution when studying the surfaces of insulators and semiconductors. The benefits and problems associated with HCI microscopy and recent results of the electron flood gun enhanced HCI microscope are discussed

  17. Ultra Fast, High Rep Rate, High Voltage Spark Gap Pulser

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-07-01

    current rise time. The spark gap was designed to have a coaxial geometry reducing its inductance. Provisions were made to pass flowing gas between the...ULTRA FAST, HIGH REP RATE, HIGH VOLTAGE SPARK GAP PULSER Robert A. Pastore Jr., Lawrence E. Kingsley, Kevin Fonda, Erik Lenzing Electrophysics and...Modeling Branch AMSRL-PS-EA Tel.: (908)-532-0271 FAX: (908)-542-3348 U.S. Army Research Laboratory Physical Sciences Directorate Ft. Monmouth

  18. Super Boiler: First Generation, Ultra-High Efficiency Firetube Boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-06-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop and demonstrate a first-generation ultra-high-efficiency, ultra-low emissions, compact gas-fired package boiler (Super Boiler), and formulate a long-range RD&D plan for advanced boiler technology out to the year 2020.

  19. Stretchers and compressors for ultra-high power laser systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovlev, I V [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-30

    This review is concerned with pulse stretchers and compressors as key components of ultra-high power laser facilities that take advantage of chirped-pulse amplification. The potentialities, characteristics, configurations and methods for the matching and alignment of these devices are examined, with particular attention to the history of the optics of ultra-short, ultra-intense pulses before and after 1985, when the chirped-pulse amplification method was proposed, which drastically changed the view of the feasibility of creating ultra-high power laser sources. The review is intended primarily for young scientists and experts who begin to address the amplification and compression of chirped pulses, experts in laser optics and all who are interested in scientific achievements in the field of ultra-high power laser systems. (review)

  20. Ultra-fast photon counting with a passive quenching silicon photomultiplier in the charge integration regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoqing; Lina, Liu

    2018-02-01

    An ultra-fast photon counting method is proposed based on the charge integration of output electrical pulses of passive quenching silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). The results of the numerical analysis with actual parameters of SiPMs show that the maximum photon counting rate of a state-of-art passive quenching SiPM can reach ~THz levels which is much larger than that of the existing photon counting devices. The experimental procedure is proposed based on this method. This photon counting regime of SiPMs is promising in many fields such as large dynamic light power detection.

  1. Ultra high performance concrete dematerialization study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-01

    Concrete is the most widely used building material in the world and its use is expected to grow. It is well recognized that the production of portland cement results in the release of large amounts of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas (GHG). The main challenge facing the industry is to produce concrete in an environmentally sustainable manner. Reclaimed industrial by-proudcts such as fly ash, silica fume and slag can reduce the amount of portland cement needed to make concrete, thereby reducing the amount of GHGs released to the atmosphere. The use of these supplementary cementing materials (SCM) can also enhance the long-term strength and durability of concrete. The intention of the EcoSmart{sup TM} Concrete Project is to develop sustainable concrete through innovation in supply, design and construction. In particular, the project focuses on finding a way to minimize the GHG signature of concrete by maximizing the replacement of portland cement in the concrete mix with SCM while improving the cost, performance and constructability. This paper describes the use of Ductal{sup R} Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC) for ramps in a condominium. It examined the relationship between the selection of UHPC and the overall environmental performance, cost, constructability maintenance and operational efficiency as it relates to the EcoSmart Program. The advantages and challenges of using UHPC were outlined. In addition to its very high strength, UHPC has been shown to have very good potential for GHG emission reduction due to the reduced material requirements, reduced transport costs and increased SCM content. refs., tabs., figs.

  2. Ultra-high density aligned Carbon-nanotube with controled nano-morphology for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Mehdi; Zhao, Ran; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Yue; Cheng, Jiping; Guzman de Villoria, Roberto; Wardle, B. L.; Zhang, Q. M.

    2012-02-01

    Recent advances in fabricating controlled-morphology vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs) with ultrahigh volume fractioncreate unique opportunities for developing unconventional supercapacitors with ultra-high energy density, power density, and long charge/discharge cycle life.Continuous paths through inter-VA-CNT channels allow fast ion transport, and high electrical conduction of the aligned CNTs in the composite electrodes lead to fast discharge speed. We investigate the charge-discharge characteristics of VA-CNTs with >20 vol% of CNT and ionic liquids as electrolytes. By employing both the electric and electromechanical spectroscopes, as well as nanostructured materials characterization, the ion transport and storage behaviors in porous electrodes are studied. The results suggest pathways for optimizing the electrode morphology in supercapacitorsusing ultra-high volume fraction VA-CNTs to further enhance performance.

  3. Modelling of radiation losses for ion acceleration at ultra-high laser intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capdessus Remi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Radiation losses of charged particles can become important in ultra high intensity laser plasma interaction. This process is described by the radiation back reaction term in the electron equation of motion. This term is implemented in the relativistic particle-in-cell code by using a renormalized Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac model. In the hole boring regime case of laser ion acceleration it is shown that radiation losses results in a decrease of the piston velocity.

  4. Ultra fast shutter driven by pulsed high current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Jiangtao; Sun Fengju; Qiu Aici; Yin Jiahui; Guo Jianming; Chen Yulan

    2005-01-01

    Radiation simulation utilizing plasma radiation sources (PRS) generates a large number of undesirable debris, which may damage the expensive diagnosing detectors. An ultra fast shutter (UFS) driven by pulsed high current can erect a physical barrier to the slowly moving debris after allowing the passage of X-ray photons. The UFS consists of a pair of thin metal foils twisting the parallel axes in a Nylon cassette, compressed with an outer magnetic field, generated from a fast capacitor bank, discharging into a single turn loop. A typical capacitor bank is of 7.5 μF charging voltages varying from 30 kV to 45 kV, with corresponding currents of approximately 90 kA to 140 kA and discharging current periods of approximately 13.1 μs. A shutter closing time as fast as 38 microseconds has been obtained with an aluminium foil thickness of 100 micrometers and a cross-sectional area of 15 mm by 20 mm. The design, construction and the expressions of the valve-closing time of the UFS are presented along with the measured results of valve-closing velocities. (authors)

  5. Charged current weak interactions at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, D.

    1977-01-01

    We review high energy neutrino and antineutrino charged current interactions. An overview of the experimental data is given, including a discussion of the experimental status of the y anomaly. Locality tests, μ-e universality and charge symmetry invariance tests are discussed. Charm production is discussed. The experimental status of trimuon events and possible phenomenological models for these events are presented. (orig.) [de

  6. ECRIS sources for highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geller, R.

    1991-01-01

    The so-called Philips ionization gauge ion sources (PIGIS) were used until quite recently in heavy ion accelerators so multiply charged ions could only be obtained by incorporating a stripper to remove electrons. Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) now dominate as they produce more highly charged ions. (orig.)

  7. Ultra flat ideal concentrators of high concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Julio [IST, Physics Dept., Lisboa (Portugal); INETI-DER, Lisboa (Portugal); Collares-Pereira, Manuel [INETI-DER, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2000-07-01

    A new method for the design of nonimaging devices is presented. Its application to the design of ultra flat compact concentrators is analysed. These new concentrators are based on a combination of two stages: the first one is composed of a large number of small structures placed side by side and the second one is a very compact single device concentrating the radiation to the limit. These devices are ideal for 2D. These compact designs are much more compact than the traditional ones like lens-mirror combinations or parabolic primaries with nonimaging secondaries. Besides, they can be designed for any acceptance angle, while the traditional ones are limited to small acceptance angles. (Author)

  8. Spectroscopy of highly charged tungsten ions with Electron Beam Ion Traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Kato, Daiji; Morita, Shigeru; Murakami, Izumi; Yamamoto, Norimasa; Ohashi, Hayato; Yatsurugi, Junji; Nakamura, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    We present spectra of highly charged tungsten ions in the extreme ultra-violet (EUV) by using electron beam ion traps. The electron energy dependence of spectra is investigated of electron energies from 490 to 1440 eV. Previously unreported lines are presented in the EUV range, and some of them are identified by comparing the wavelengths with theoretical calculations. (author)

  9. EUV spectrum of highly charged tungsten ions in electron beam ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaue, H.A.; Kato, D.; Murakami, I.; Nakamura, N.

    2016-01-01

    We present spectra of highly charged tungsten ions in the extreme ultra-violet (EUV) by using electron beam ion traps. The electron energy dependence of spectra was investigated for electron energy from 540 to 1370 eV. Previously unreported lines were presented in the EUV range, and comparing the wavelengths with theoretical calculations identified them. (author)

  10. Shock characterization of an ultra-high strength concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erzar, B.; Pontiroli, C.; Buzaud, E.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the design of protective structures may imply ultra-high performance concretes. These materials present a compressive strength 5 times higher than standard concretes. However, few reliable data on the shock response of such materials are available in the literature. Thus, a characterization of an ultra-high strength concrete has been conducted by means of hydrostatic and triaxial tests in the quasi-static regime, and plate impact experiments for shock response. Data have been gathered up to 6 GPa and a simple modelling approach has been applied to get a reliable representation of the shock compression of this concrete. (authors)

  11. New solid laser: Ceramic laser. From ultra stable laser to ultra high output laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Kenichi

    2006-01-01

    An epoch-making solid laser is developed. It is ceramic laser, polycrystal, which is produced as same as glass and shows ultra high output. Ti 3+ :Al 2 O 3 laser crystal and the CPA (chirped pulse amplification) technique realized new ultra high output lasers. Japan has developed various kinds of ceramic lasers, from 10 -2 to 67 x 10 3 w average output, since 1995. These ceramic lasers were studied by gravitational radiation astronomy. The scattering coefficient of ceramic laser is smaller than single crystals. The new fast ignition method is proposed by Institute of Laser Engineering of Osaka University, Japan. Ultra-intense short pulse laser can inject the required energy to the high-density imploded core plasma within the core disassembling time. Ti 3+ :Al 2 O 3 crystal for laser, ceramic YAG of large caliber for 100 kW, transparent laser ceramic from nano-crystals, crystal grain and boundary layer between grains, the scattering coefficient of single crystal and ceramic, and the derived release cross section of Yb:YAG ceramic are described. (S.Y.)

  12. Ultra-high wear resistance of ultra-nanocrystalline diamond film: Correlation with microstructure and morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, R.; Kumar, N.; Lin, I.-Nan

    2016-05-01

    Nanostructured diamond films are having numerous unique properties including superior tribological behavior which is promising for enhancing energy efficiency and life time of the sliding devices. High wear resistance is the principal criterion for the smooth functioning of any sliding device. Such properties are achievable by tailoring the grain size and grain boundary volume fraction in nanodiamond film. Ultra-nanocrystalline diamond (UNCD) film was attainable using optimized gas plasma condition in a microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) system. Crystalline phase of ultra-nanodiamond grains with matrix phase of amorphous carbon and short range ordered graphite are encapsulated in nanowire shaped morphology. Film showed ultra-high wear resistance and frictional stability in micro-tribological contact conditions. The negligible wear of film at the beginning of the tribological contact was later transformed into the wearless regime for prolonged sliding cycles. Both surface roughness and high contact stress were the main reasons of wear at the beginning of sliding cycles. However, the interface gets smoothened due to continuous sliding, finally leaded to the wearless regime.

  13. 75 FR 81284 - Nationwide Use of High Frequency and Ultra High Frequency Active SONAR Technology; Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... Frequency and Ultra High Frequency Active SONAR Technology; Draft Programmatic Environmental Assessment and... Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA) for the Nationwide Use of High Frequency (HF) and Ultra High... potential impacts of each alternative on the human and natural environments. DATES: Comments and related...

  14. Processing and evaluation of the AGS Booster ultra-high vaccum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hseuh, H.C.; Mapes, M.; Schnitzenbaumer, P.; Shen, B.; Sikora, R.; Stattel, P.

    1991-01-01

    The AGS Booster is a synchrotron for the acceleration of both protons and heavy ions. To minimize the beam loss due to charge exchange of the partially stripped, low Β very heavy ions with the residual gas molecules, pressure of low 10 -11 Torr is required for the 200 m booster ring. To achieve this ultra high vacuum, chemical cleaning, vacuum furnace degassing and insitu bake were employed for all chambers and beam components. Using these procedures, vacuums of low 10 -11 Torr have been routinely achieved during the testing of individual half cells and beam components, and during the commissioning of the vacuum sectors. In this paper, the design and layout of chambers, flanges and bakeout hardware is briefly described. The vacuum processing of different components and the results of bakeout and evaluation are summarized. The experience gained during the construction and commissioning of this ultra-high vacuum system is also given. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  15. Status of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    I will review the recent results on Ultra-High energy cosmic rays obtained by the Auger and Telescope Array Observatories, and discuss some of the Astrophysical scenarios that could account for them, a connection with LHC results  as well as the possible connections to neutrino and gamma ray observations.

  16. Soliton-based ultra-high speed optical communications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    All these facts are the outcome of research on optical solitons in fibers in spite of the fact that the commonly used RZ format is not always called a soliton format. The overview presented here attempts to incorporate the role of soliton-based communications research in present day ultra-high speed communications.

  17. Influence of curing regimes on compressive strength of ultra high

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present paper is aimed to identify an efficient curing regime for ultra high performance concrete (UHPC), to achieve a target compressive strength more than 150 MPa, using indigenous materials. The thermal regime plays a vital role due to the limited fineness of ingredients and low water/binder ratio. By activation of the ...

  18. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography of seized drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lurie, I.S.

    2010-01-01

    The primary goal of this thesis is to investigate the use of ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) for the analysis of seized drugs. This goal was largely achieved and significant progress was made in achieving improved separation and detection of drugs of forensic interest.

  19. Ultra high energy cosmic rays and magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor; Engel, Ralph; Alvarez-Muniz, Jaime; Seckel, David

    2002-07-01

    We follow the propagation of ultra high energy protons in the presence of random and regular magnetic fields and discuss some of the changes in the angular and energy distributions of these particles introduced by the scattering in the magnetic fields.

  20. Ultra high energy cosmic rays and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanev, Todor; Engel, Ralph; Alvarez-Muniz, Jaime; Seckel, David

    2002-01-01

    We follow the propagation of ultra high energy protons in the presence of random and regular magnetic fields and discuss some of the changes in the angular and energy distributions of these particles introduced by the scattering in the magnetic fields

  1. Fiber based hydrophones for ultra-high energy neutrino detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buis, E.J.; Doppenberg, E.J.J.; Eijk, D. van; Lahmann, R.; Nieuwland, R.A.; Toet, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    It is a well studied process [1, 2] that energy deposition of cosmic ray particles in water that generate thermo-acoustic signals. Hydrophones of sufficient sensitivity could measure this signal and provide a means of detecting ultra-high energetic cosmic neutrinos. We investigate optical

  2. Ultra-high Performance Liquid Chromatography in Steroid Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Salonen, Fanny

    2017-01-01

    The latest version of liquid chromatography is ultra-high performance (or pressure) chromatography (UHPLC). In the technique, short and narrow-bore columns with particle sizes below 3 µm are used. The extremely high pressure used results in very short analysis times, excellent separation, and good resolution. This makes UHPLC a good choice for steroidal analysis. Steroids are a highly interesting area of study; they can be recognized as biomarkers for several diseases and are a relevant topic...

  3. Highly charged ion trapping and cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, B. R.; Church, D. A.; Gruber, L.; Holder, J. P.; Schneider, D.; Steiger, J.

    1998-01-01

    In the past few years a cryogenic Penning trap (RETRAP) has been operational at the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The combination of RETRAP and EBIT provides a unique possibility of producing and re-trapping highly charged ions and cooling them to very low temperatures. Due to the high Coulomb potentials in such an ensemble of cold highly charged ions the Coulomb coupling parameter (the ratio of Coulomb potential to the thermal energy) can easily reach values of 172 and more. To study such systems is not only of interest in astrophysics to simulate White Dwarf star interiors but opens up new possibilities in a variety of areas (e.g. laser spectroscopy), cold highly charged ion beams

  4. Charged vortices in high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Y.; Kumagai, K.

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that a vortex in type II superconductors traps a magnetic flux. Recently the possibility that a vortex can accumulate a finite electric charge as well has come to be realized. The sign and magnitude of the vortex charge not only is closely related to the microscopic electronic structure of the vortex, but also strongly affects the dynamical properties of the vortex. In this chapter we demonstrate that a vortex in high-T c superconductors (HTSC) indeed traps a finite electronic charge, using the high resolution measurements of the nuclear quadrupole frequencies. We then discuss the vortex Hall anomaly whose relation with the vortex charging effect has recently received considerable attention. We show that the sign of the trapped charge is opposite to the sign predicted by the conventional BCS theory and deviation of the magnitude of the charge from the theory is also significant. We also show that the electronic structure of underlying system is responsible for the Hall sign in the vortex state and again the Hall sign is opposite to the sign predicted by the BCS theory. It appears that these unexpected features observed in both electrostatics and dynamics of the vortex may be attributed to the novel electronic structure of the vortex in HTSC. (orig.)

  5. Nova performance at ultra high fluence levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, J.T.

    1986-01-01

    Nova is a ten beam high power Nd:glass laser used for interial confinement fusion research. It was operated in the high power high energy regime following the completion of construction in December 1984. During this period several interesting nonlinear optical phenomena were observed. These phenomena are discussed in the text. 11 refs., 5 figs

  6. Beta decay of highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinov, Yuri A; Bosch, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    Beta decay of highly charged ions has attracted much attention in recent years. An obvious motivation for this research is that stellar nucleosynthesis proceeds at high temperatures where the involved atoms are highly ionized. Another important reason is addressing decays of well-defined quantum-mechanical systems, such as one-electron ions where all interactions with other electrons are excluded. The largest modifications of nuclear half-lives with respect to neutral atoms have been observed in beta decay of highly charged ions. These studies can be performed solely at ion storage rings and ion traps, because there high atomic charge states can be preserved for extended periods of time (up to several hours). Currently, all experimental results available in this field originate from experiments at the heavy-ion complex GSI in Darmstadt. There, the fragment separator facility FRS allows the production and separation of exotic, highly charged nuclides, which can then be stored and investigated in the storage ring facility ESR. In this review, we present and discuss in particular two-body beta decays, namely bound-state beta decay and orbital electron capture. Although we focus on experiments conducted at GSI, we will also attempt to provide general requirements common to any other experiment in this context. Finally, we address challenging but not yet performed experiments and we give prospects for the new radioactive beam facilities, such as FAIR in Darmstadt, IMP in Lanzhou and RIKEN in Wako.

  7. Ultra-high resolution coded wavefront sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Congli

    2017-06-08

    Wavefront sensors and more general phase retrieval methods have recently attracted a lot of attention in a host of application domains, ranging from astronomy to scientific imaging and microscopy. In this paper, we introduce a new class of sensor, the Coded Wavefront Sensor, which provides high spatio-temporal resolution using a simple masked sensor under white light illumination. Specifically, we demonstrate megapixel spatial resolution and phase accuracy better than 0.1 wavelengths at reconstruction rates of 50 Hz or more, thus opening up many new applications from high-resolution adaptive optics to real-time phase retrieval in microscopy.

  8. Irradiation of graphene field effect transistors with highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, P.; Kozubek, R.; Madauß, L.; Sonntag, J.; Lorke, A.; Schleberger, M., E-mail: marika.schleberger@uni-due.de

    2016-09-01

    In this work, graphene field-effect transistors are used to detect defects due to irradiation with slow, highly charged ions. In order to avoid contamination effects, a dedicated ultra-high vacuum set up has been designed and installed for the in situ cleaning and electrical characterization of graphene field-effect transistors during irradiation. To investigate the electrical and structural modifications of irradiated graphene field-effect transistors, their transfer characteristics as well as the corresponding Raman spectra are analyzed as a function of ion fluence for two different charge states. The irradiation experiments show a decreasing mobility with increasing fluences. The mobility reduction scales with the potential energy of the ions. In comparison to Raman spectroscopy, the transport properties of graphene show an extremely high sensitivity with respect to ion irradiation: a significant drop of the mobility is observed already at fluences below 15 ions/μm{sup 2}, which is more than one order of magnitude lower than what is required for Raman spectroscopy.

  9. High to ultra-high power electrical energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Stefanie A; Banerjee, Parag; Rubloff, Gary W; Lee, Sang Bok

    2011-12-14

    High power electrical energy storage systems are becoming critical devices for advanced energy storage technology. This is true in part due to their high rate capabilities and moderate energy densities which allow them to capture power efficiently from evanescent, renewable energy sources. High power systems include both electrochemical capacitors and electrostatic capacitors. These devices have fast charging and discharging rates, supplying energy within seconds or less. Recent research has focused on increasing power and energy density of the devices using advanced materials and novel architectural design. An increase in understanding of structure-property relationships in nanomaterials and interfaces and the ability to control nanostructures precisely has led to an immense improvement in the performance characteristics of these devices. In this review, we discuss the recent advances for both electrochemical and electrostatic capacitors as high power electrical energy storage systems, and propose directions and challenges for the future. We asses the opportunities in nanostructure-based high power electrical energy storage devices and include electrochemical and electrostatic capacitors for their potential to open the door to a new regime of power energy.

  10. Modification of Ultra-High Vacuum Surfaces Using Free Radicals

    CERN Document Server

    Vorlaufer, G

    2002-01-01

    In ultra-high vacuum systems outgassing from vacuum chamber walls and desorption of surface adsorbates are usually the factors which determine pressure and residual gas composition. In particular in beam vacuum systems of accelerators like the LHC, where surfaces are exposed to intense synchrotron radiation and bombardment by energetic ions and electrons, surface properties like the molecular desorption yield or secondary electron yield can strongly influence the performance of the accelerator. Well-established treatment methods like vacuum bake-out or glow-discharge cleaning have been successfully applied in the past to condition ultra-high vacuum surfaces, but these methods are sometimes difficult to carry out, for example if the vacuum chambers are not accessible. In this work, an alternative treatment method is investigated. This method is based on the strong chemical reactivity of free radicals, electrically neutral fragments of molecules. Free radicals (in the case of this work, nitrogen and oxygen radi...

  11. Functional aluminum alloys for ultra high vacuum use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Yutaka; Tsukamoto, Kenji; Isoyama, Eizo

    1985-01-01

    Ultra high vacuum systems made of aluminum alloys are actively developed. The reasons for using aluminum alloys are low residual radioactivity, light weight, good machinability, good thermal conductivity, non-magnetism. The important function required for ultra high vacuum materials is low outgassing rate, but surface gas on ordinary aluminum is much. Then the research on aluminum surface structure with low outgassing rate has been made and the special extrusion method, that is, extrusion method with the conditions of preventing air from entering inside of pipe and of taking in mixture gas of Ar + O 2 , was developed. 6063 alloy obtained by special extrusion method showed low outgassing rate (2 x 10 -13 Torr. 1/s. cm 2 ) by only 150 deg C, 24 h baking. For the future it will be important to develop aluminum alloys with low dynamic outgassing rate as well as low static outgassing rate. (author)

  12. Ultra high frequency induction welding of powder metal compacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavdar, U.; Gulsahin, I.

    2014-10-01

    The application of the iron based Powder Metal (PM) compacts in Ultra High Frequency Induction Welding (UHFIW) were reviewed. These PM compacts are used to produce cogs. This study investigates the methods of joining PM materials enforceability with UHFIW in the industry application. Maximum stress and maximum strain of welded PM compacts were determined by three point bending and strength tests. Microhardness and microstructure of induction welded compacts were determined. (Author)

  13. Ultra high frequency induction welding of powder metal compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavdar, U.; Gulsahin, I.

    2014-01-01

    The application of the iron based Powder Metal (PM) compacts in Ultra High Frequency Induction Welding (UHFIW) were reviewed. These PM compacts are used to produce cogs. This study investigates the methods of joining PM materials enforceability with UHFIW in the industry application. Maximum stress and maximum strain of welded PM compacts were determined by three point bending and strength tests. Microhardness and microstructure of induction welded compacts were determined. (Author)

  14. Ultra-high-field magnets for future hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, P.M.; Shen, W.

    1997-01-01

    Several new concepts in magnetic design and coil fabrication are being incorporated into designs for ultra-high field collider magnets: a 16 Tesla block-coil dual dipole, also using Nb 3 Sn cable, featuring simple pancake coil construction and face-loaded prestress geometry; a 330 T/m block-coil quadrupole; and a ∼ 20 Tesla pipe-geometry dual dipole, using A15 or BSCCO tape. Field design and fabrication issues are discussed for each magnet

  15. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays: Setting the stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolsky, P.

    2013-06-01

    The history of ultra-high energy cosmic ray physics is reviewed from the post-war era of arrays such as Volcano Ranch, Haverah Park and Akeno to the development of air-fluorescence and current hybrid arrays. The aim of this paper is to present the background information needed for a better understanding of the current issues in this field that are discussed in much greater depth in the rest of this conference.

  16. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays: Setting the stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolsky P.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The history of ultra-high energy cosmic ray physics is reviewed from the post-war era of arrays such as Volcano Ranch, Haverah Park and Akeno to the development of air-fluorescence and current hybrid arrays. The aim of this paper is to present the background information needed for a better understanding of the current issues in this field that are discussed in much greater depth in the rest of this conference.

  17. A swimming pool array for ultra high energy showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yodh, Gaurang B.; Shoup, Anthony; Barwick, Steve; Goodman, Jordan A.

    1992-11-01

    A very preliminary design concept for an array using water Cherenkov counters, built out of commercially available backyard swimming pools, to sample the electromagnetic and muonic components of ultra high energy showers at large lateral distances is presented. The expected performance of the pools is estimated using the observed lateral distributions by scintillator and water Cherenkov arrays at energies above 1019 eV and simulations.

  18. Hierarchically Macroporous Graphitic Nanowebs Exhibiting Ultra-fast and Stable Charge Storage Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Young Soo

    2018-02-01

    The macro/microstructures of carbon-based electrode materials for supercapacitor applications play a key role in their electrochemical performance. In this study, hierarchically macroporous graphitic nanowebs (HM-GNWs) were prepared from bacterial cellulose by high-temperature heating at 2400 °C. The HM-GNWs were composed of well-developed graphitic nanobuilding blocks with a high aspect ratio, which was entangled as a nanoweb structure. The morphological and microstructural characteristics of the HM-GNWs resulted in remarkable charge storage performance. In particular, the HM-GNWs exhibited very fast charge storage behaviors at scan rates ranging from 5 to 100 V s-1, in which area capacitances ranging from 8.9 to 3.8 mF cm-2 were achieved. In addition, 97% capacitance retention was observed after long-term cycling for more than 1,000,000 cycles.

  19. Ultra Secure High Reliability Wireless Radiation Monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordaro, J.; Shull, D.; Farrar, M.; Reeves, G.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation monitoring in nuclear facilities is essential to safe operation of the equipment as well as protecting personnel. In specific, typical air monitoring of radioactive gases or particulate involves complex systems of valves, pumps, piping and electronics. The challenge is to measure a representative sample in areas that are radioactively contaminated. Running cables and piping to these locations is very expensive due to the containment requirements. Penetration into and out of an airborne or containment area is complex and costly. The process rooms are built with thick rebar-enforced concrete walls with glove box containment chambers inside. Figure 1 shows high temperature radiation resistance cabling entering the top of a typical glove box. In some case, the entire processing area must be contained in a 'hot cell' where the only access into the chamber is via manipulators. An example is shown in Figure 2. A short range wireless network provides an ideal communication link for transmitting the data from the radiation sensor to a 'clean area', or area absent of any radiation fields or radioactive contamination. Radiation monitoring systems that protect personnel and equipment must meet stringent codes and standards due to the consequences of failure. At first glance a wired system would seem more desirable. Concerns with wireless communication include latency, jamming, spoofing, man in the middle attacks, and hacking. The Department of Energy's Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed a prototype wireless radiation air monitoring system that address many of the concerns with wireless and allows quick deployment in radiation and contamination areas. It is stand alone and only requires a standard 120 VAC, 60 Hz power source. It is designed to be mounted or portable. The wireless link uses a National Security Agency (NSA) Suite B compliant wireless network from Fortress Technologies that is considered robust enough to be used for classified data

  20. ULTRA SECURE HIGH RELIABILITY WIRELESS RADIATION MONITOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordaro, J.; Shull, D.; Farrar, M.; Reeves, G.

    2011-08-03

    Radiation monitoring in nuclear facilities is essential to safe operation of the equipment as well as protecting personnel. In specific, typical air monitoring of radioactive gases or particulate involves complex systems of valves, pumps, piping and electronics. The challenge is to measure a representative sample in areas that are radioactively contaminated. Running cables and piping to these locations is very expensive due to the containment requirements. Penetration into and out of an airborne or containment area is complex and costly. The process rooms are built with thick rebar-enforced concrete walls with glove box containment chambers inside. Figure 1 shows high temperature radiation resistance cabling entering the top of a typical glove box. In some case, the entire processing area must be contained in a 'hot cell' where the only access into the chamber is via manipulators. An example is shown in Figure 2. A short range wireless network provides an ideal communication link for transmitting the data from the radiation sensor to a 'clean area', or area absent of any radiation fields or radioactive contamination. Radiation monitoring systems that protect personnel and equipment must meet stringent codes and standards due to the consequences of failure. At first glance a wired system would seem more desirable. Concerns with wireless communication include latency, jamming, spoofing, man in the middle attacks, and hacking. The Department of Energy's Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed a prototype wireless radiation air monitoring system that address many of the concerns with wireless and allows quick deployment in radiation and contamination areas. It is stand alone and only requires a standard 120 VAC, 60 Hz power source. It is designed to be mounted or portable. The wireless link uses a National Security Agency (NSA) Suite B compliant wireless network from Fortress Technologies that is considered robust enough to be

  1. High Heat Load Properties of Ultra Fine Grain Tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Z.; Du, J.; Ge, C.; Linke, J.; Pintsuk, G.; Song, S.X.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Tungsten is increasingly considered as a promising candidate armour materials facing the plasma in tokamaks for medium to high heat flux components (EAST, ASDEX, ITER). Fabrication tungsten with ultra fine grain size is considered as an effective way to ameliorate some disadvantages of tungsten, such as its brittleness at room temperature. But the research data on the performance of ultra fine grain tungsten is still very limit. In this work, high heat load properties of pure ultra-fine grain tungsten have been studied. The ultra fine grain tungsten samples with average grain size of 0.2 μm, 1 μm and 3 μm were fabricated by resistance sintering under ultra high pressure. The annealing experiments for the investigation of the material resistance against grain growth have been done by annealing samples in a vacuum furnace at different temperature holding for 2 hours respectively. It is found that recrystallization and grain growth occur at heating temperature of 1250 deg. c. The finer the initial grain sizes of tungsten, the smaller its grain growth grain. The effects of transient high thermal loads (off normal events like disruptions) on tungsten surface morphology have been performed in electron beam test facility JUDITH. The thermal loads tests have been carried out with 4 ms pulses at different power density of 0.22, 0.33, 0.44, 0.55 and 0.88 GW/m 2 respectively. Horizontal cracks formed for all tungsten samples at 0.44 GW/m 2 . Particle erosions occurred for tungsten with 3 μm size at 0.33 GW/m 2 and for tungsten with 0.2 and 1 μm size at 0.55 GW/m 2 . The weight loss of tungsten with 0.2, 1 and 3 μm size are 2,0.1,0.6 mg respectively at 0.88 GW/m 2 . The effects of a large number of very short transient repetitive thermal loads (ELM-like) on tungsten surface morphology also have been performed by using a fundamental wave of a YAG laser. It is found that tungsten with 0.2 μm size has the best performance. (authors)

  2. High Heat Load Properties of Ultra Fine Grain Tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Z.; Du, J.; Ge, C. [Lab. of Special Ceramic and P/M, University of Science and Technology, 100083 Beijing (China); Linke, J.; Pintsuk, G. [FZJ-Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Association Euratom-FZJ, Institut fur Plasmaphysik, Postfach 1913, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Song, S.X. [Research Center on Fusion Materials (RCFM), University of Science and Technology Beijing (USTB), 100083 Beijing (China)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Tungsten is increasingly considered as a promising candidate armour materials facing the plasma in tokamaks for medium to high heat flux components (EAST, ASDEX, ITER). Fabrication tungsten with ultra fine grain size is considered as an effective way to ameliorate some disadvantages of tungsten, such as its brittleness at room temperature. But the research data on the performance of ultra fine grain tungsten is still very limit. In this work, high heat load properties of pure ultra-fine grain tungsten have been studied. The ultra fine grain tungsten samples with average grain size of 0.2 {mu}m, 1 {mu}m and 3 {mu}m were fabricated by resistance sintering under ultra high pressure. The annealing experiments for the investigation of the material resistance against grain growth have been done by annealing samples in a vacuum furnace at different temperature holding for 2 hours respectively. It is found that recrystallization and grain growth occur at heating temperature of 1250 deg. c. The finer the initial grain sizes of tungsten, the smaller its grain growth grain. The effects of transient high thermal loads (off normal events like disruptions) on tungsten surface morphology have been performed in electron beam test facility JUDITH. The thermal loads tests have been carried out with 4 ms pulses at different power density of 0.22, 0.33, 0.44, 0.55 and 0.88 GW/m{sup 2} respectively. Horizontal cracks formed for all tungsten samples at 0.44 GW/m{sup 2}. Particle erosions occurred for tungsten with 3 {mu}m size at 0.33 GW/m{sup 2} and for tungsten with 0.2 and 1 {mu}m size at 0.55 GW/m{sup 2}. The weight loss of tungsten with 0.2, 1 and 3 {mu}m size are 2,0.1,0.6 mg respectively at 0.88 GW/m{sup 2}. The effects of a large number of very short transient repetitive thermal loads (ELM-like) on tungsten surface morphology also have been performed by using a fundamental wave of a YAG laser. It is found that tungsten with 0.2 {mu}m size has

  3. Precision laser spectroscopy of highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehl, T.; Borneis, S.; Becker, S.; Dax, A.; Engel, T.; Grieser, R.; Huber, G.; Klaft, I.; Klepper, O.; Kohl, A.; Marx, D.; Meier, K.; Neumann, R.; Schmitt, F.; Seelig, P.; Voelker, L.

    1996-01-01

    Recently, intense beams of highly charged ions have become available at heavy ion cooler rings. The obstacle for producing these highly interesting candidates is the large binding energy of K-shell electrons in heavy systems in excess of 100 keV. One way to remove these electrons is to strip them off by passing the ion through material. In the cooler ring, the ions are cooled to a well defined velocity. At the SIS/ESR complex it is possible to produce, store, and cool highly charged ions up to bare uranium with intensities exceeding 10 8 atoms in the ring. This opens the door for precision laser spectroscopy of hydrogenlike-heavy ions, e.g. 209 Bi 82+ , and allows to examine the interaction of the single electron with the large fields of the heavy nucleus, exceeding any artificially produced electric and magnetic fields by orders of magnitude. In the electron cooler the interaction of electrons and highly charged ions otherwise only present in the hottest plasmas can be studied. (orig.)

  4. Ultra high frequency induction welding of powder metal compacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çavdar, Uǧur

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of the iron based Powder Metal (PM compacts in Ultra High Frequency Induction Welding (UHFIW were reviewed. These PM compacts are used to produce cogs. This study investigates the methods of joining PM materials enforceability with UHFIW in the industry application. Maximum stress and maximum strain of welded PM compacts were determined by three point bending and strength tests. Microhardness and microstructure of induction welded compacts were determined.Soldadura por inducción de ultra alta frecuencia de polvos de metal compactados. Se ha realizado un estudio de la aplicación de polvos de metal (PM de base hierro compactados por soldadura por inducción de ultra alta frecuencia (UHFIW. Estos polvos de metal compactados se utilizan para producir engranajes. Este estudio investiga los métodos de uni.n de los materiales de PM con UHFIW en su aplicación en la industria. La máxima tensión y la máxima deformación de los polvos de metal compactados soldados fueron determinadas por flexión en tres puntos y prueba de resistencia. Se determinó la microdureza y la microestructura de los polvos compactados por soldadura por inducción.

  5. Solutions for ultra-high speed optical wavelength conversion and clock recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on our recent advances in ultra-fast optical communications relying on ultra-short pulses densely stacked in ultra-high bit rate serial data signals at a single wavelength. The paper describes details in solutions for the network functionalities of wavelength conversion and clock...... recovery at bit rates up to 320 Gb/s...

  6. High-LET charged particle radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, J.R.; California Univ., San Francisco, CA

    1991-07-01

    The Department of Radiation Oncology at UCSF Medical Center and the Radiation Oncology Department at UC Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory have been evaluating the use of high LET charged particle radiotherapy in a Phase 1--2 research trial ongoing since 1979. In this clinical trail, 239 patients have received at least 10 Gy (physical) minimum tumor dose with neon ions, meaning that at least one-half of their total treatment was given with high-LET charged particle therapy. Ninety-one patients received all of their therapy with neon ions. Of the 239 patients irradiated, target sites included lesions in the skin, subcutaneous tissues, head and neck such as paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx and salivary glands (major and minor), skull base and juxtaspinal area, GI tract including esophagus, pancreas and biliary tract, prostate, lung, soft tissue and bone. Analysis of these patients has been carried out with a minimum followup period of 2 years

  7. Mechanisms for production of highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Various experimental data at high collision velocity are interpreted in terms of direct (D) and rearrangement (R) mechanisms for production of multiply charged ions. We consider double ionization in helium by protons, electrons, heavy ions, antiprotons, positrons and photons. Qualitative differences are discussed in the context of the R and D mechanisms. Multiple ionization in many electron atoms is considered as is simultaneous capture and ionization and fragmentation of methane molecules. Some other theoretical methods are briefly discussed. (orig.)

  8. ATLAS and ultra high energy cosmic ray physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinfold James

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available After a brief introduction to extended air shower cosmic ray physics the current and future deployment of forward detectors at ATLAS is discussed along with the various aspects of the current and future ATLAS programs to explore hadronic physics. The emphasis is placed on those results and future plans that have particular relevance for high-energy, and ultra high-energy, cosmic ray physics. The possible use of ATLAS as an “underground” cosmic muon observatory is briefly considered.

  9. Spectroscopy with trapped highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiersdorfer, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We give an overview of atomic spectroscopy performed on electron beam ion traps at various locations throughout the world. Spectroscopy at these facilities contributes to various areas of science and engineering, including but not limited to basic atomic physics, astrophysics, extreme ultraviolet lithography, and the development of density and temperature diagnostics of fusion plasmas. These contributions are accomplished by generating, for example, spectral surveys, making precise radiative lifetime measurements, accounting for radiative power emitted in a given wavelength band, illucidating isotopic effects, and testing collisional-radiative models. While spectroscopy with electron beam ion traps had originally focused on the x-ray emission from highly charged ions interacting with the electron beam, the operating modes of such devices have expanded to study radiation in almost all wavelength bands from the visible to the hard x-ray region; and at several facilities the ions can be studied even in the absence of an electron beam. Photon emission after charge exchange or laser excitation has been observed; and the work is no longer restricted to highly charged ions. Much of the experimental capabilities are unique to electron beam ion traps, and the work performed with these devices cannot be undertaken elsewhere. However, in other areas the work on electron beam ion traps rivals the spectroscopy performed with conventional ion traps or heavy-ion storage rings. The examples we present highlight many of the capabilities of the existing electron beam ion traps and their contributions to physics.

  10. High gradient lens for charged particle beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Jiuan

    2014-04-29

    Methods and devices enable shaping of a charged particle beam. A dynamically adjustable electric lens includes a series of alternating a series of alternating layers of insulators and conductors with a hollow center. The series of alternating layers when stacked together form a high gradient insulator (HGI) tube to allow propagation of the charged particle beam through the hollow center of the HGI tube. A plurality of transmission lines are connected to a plurality of sections of the HGI tube, and one or more voltage sources are provided to supply an adjustable voltage value to each transmission line of the plurality of transmission lines. By changing the voltage values supplied to each section of the HGI tube, any desired electric field can be established across the HGI tube. This way various functionalities including focusing, defocusing, acceleration, deceleration, intensity modulation and others can be effectuated on a time varying basis.

  11. A Novel Technique for Design of Ultra High Tunable Electrostatic Parallel Plate RF MEMS Variable Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghelani, Masoud; Ghavifekr, Habib Badri

    2017-12-01

    This paper introduces a novel method for designing of low actuation voltage, high tuning ratio electrostatic parallel plate RF MEMS variable capacitors. It is feasible to achieve ultra-high tuning ratios way beyond 1.5:1 barrier, imposed by pull-in effect, by the proposed method. The proposed method is based on spring strengthening of the structure just before the unstable region. Spring strengthening could be realized by embedding some dimples on the spring arms with the precise height. These dimples shorten the spring length when achieved to the substrate. By the proposed method, as high tuning ratios as 7.5:1 is attainable by only considering four dimple sets. The required actuation voltage for this high tuning ratio is 14.33 V which is simply achievable on-chip by charge pump circuits. Brownian noise effect is also discussed and mechanical natural frequency of the structure is calculated.

  12. Functional magnetic resonance imaging with ultra-high fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windischberger, C.; Schoepf, V.; Sladky, R.; Moser, E.; Fischmeister, F.P.S.

    2010-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is currently the primary method for non-invasive functional localization in the brain. With the emergence of MR systems with field strengths of 4 Tesla and above, neuronal activation may be studied with unprecedented accuracy. In this article we present different approaches to use the improved sensitivity and specificity for expanding current fMRT resolution limits in space and time based on several 7 Tesla studies. In addition to the challenges that arise with ultra-high magnetic fields possible solutions will be discussed. (orig.) [de

  13. Photonic Technologies for Ultra-High-Speed Information Highways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchoule, S; Lèfevre, R.; Legros, E.

    1999-01-01

    The ACTS project HIGHWAY (AC067) addresses promising ultra-high speed optoelectronic components and system technologies for 40 Gbit/s time-division-multiplexed (TDM) transport systems. Advanced 40 Gbit/s TDM system lab demonstrators are to be realized and tested over installed field fiber testbeds....... This paper reviews the current status of 40 Gbit/s TDM components and subsystem technologies achieved in HIGHWAY. The results of HIGHWAY 40 Gbit/s TDM systems and field tests will be reported in a subsequent paper. (C) 1999 Academic Press....

  14. Design of Ultra High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete Shells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Michael S.; Lambertsen, Søren Heide; Damkilde, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Fiber Reinforced Concrete shell. The major challenge in the design phase has been securing sufficient stiffness of the structure while keeping the weight at a minimum. The weight/stiffness issue has been investigated by means of the finite element method, to optimize the structure regarding overall......The paper treats the redesign of the float structure of the Wavestar wave energy converter. Previously it was designed as a glass fiber structure, but due to cost reduction requirements a redesign has been initiated. The new float structure will be designed as a double curved Ultra High Performance...

  15. Ultra-high pressure water jet: Baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology was being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU's evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology acts as a cutting tool for the removal of surface substrates. The Husky trademark pump feeds water to a lance that directs the high pressure water at the surface to be removed. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure. These were dust and noise. The dust exposure was found to be minimal, which would be expected due to the wet environment inherent in the technology, but noise exposure was at a significant level. Further testing for noise is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, fall hazards, slipping hazards, hazards associated with the high pressure water, and hazards associated with air pressure systems

  16. Systematic Calibration for Ultra-High Accuracy Inertial Measurement Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhong Cai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An inertial navigation system (INS has been widely used in challenging GPS environments. With the rapid development of modern physics, an atomic gyroscope will come into use in the near future with a predicted accuracy of 5 × 10−6°/h or better. However, existing calibration methods and devices can not satisfy the accuracy requirements of future ultra-high accuracy inertial sensors. In this paper, an improved calibration model is established by introducing gyro g-sensitivity errors, accelerometer cross-coupling errors and lever arm errors. A systematic calibration method is proposed based on a 51-state Kalman filter and smoother. Simulation results show that the proposed calibration method can realize the estimation of all the parameters using a common dual-axis turntable. Laboratory and sailing tests prove that the position accuracy in a five-day inertial navigation can be improved about 8% by the proposed calibration method. The accuracy can be improved at least 20% when the position accuracy of the atomic gyro INS can reach a level of 0.1 nautical miles/5 d. Compared with the existing calibration methods, the proposed method, with more error sources and high order small error parameters calibrated for ultra-high accuracy inertial measurement units (IMUs using common turntables, has a great application potential in future atomic gyro INSs.

  17. Live Ultra-High Definition from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Rodney; George, Sandy

    2017-01-01

    The first ever live downlink of Ultra-High Definition (UHD) video from the International Space Station (ISS) was the highlight of a 'Super Session' at the National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) in April 2017. The Ultra-High Definition video downlink from the ISS all the way to the Las Vegas Convention Center required considerable planning, pushed the limits of conventional video distribution from a space-craft, and was the first use of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) from a space-craft. The live event at NAB will serve as a pathfinder for more routine downlinks of UHD as well as use of HEVC for conventional HD downlinks to save bandwidth. HEVC may also enable live Virtual Reality video downlinks from the ISS. This paper will describe the overall work flow and routing of the UHD video, how audio was synchronized even though the video and audio were received many seconds apart from each other, and how the demonstration paves the way for not only more efficient video distribution from the ISS, but also serves as a pathfinder for more complex video distribution from deep space. The paper will also describe how a 'live' event was staged when the UHD coming from the ISS had a latency of 10+ seconds. Finally, the paper will discuss how NASA is leveraging commercial technologies for use on-orbit vs. creating technology as was required during the Apollo Moon Program and early space age.

  18. A Delay Time Measurement of ULTRAS (Ultra-high Temperature Ultrasonic Response Analysis System) for a High Temperature Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Kil Mo; Kim, Sang Baik

    2010-01-01

    The temperature measurement of very high temperature core melt is of importance in a high temperature as the molten pool experiment in which gap formation between core melt and the reactor lower head, and the effect of the gap on thermal behavior are to be measured. The existing temperature measurement techniques have some problems, which the thermocouple, one of the contact methods, is restricted to under 2000 .deg. C, and the infrared thermometry, one of the non-contact methods, is unable to measure an internal temperature and very sensitive to the interference from reacted gases. In order to solve these problems, the delay time technique of ultrasonic wavelets due to high temperature has two sorts of stage. As a first stage, a delay time measurement of ULTRAS (Ultra-high Temperature Ultrasonic Response Analysis System) is suggested. As a second stage, a molten material temperature was measured up to 2300 .deg. C. Also, the optimization design of the UTS (ultrasonic temperature sensor) with persistence at the high temperature was suggested in this paper. And the utilization of the theory suggested in this paper and the efficiency of the developed system are performed by special equipment and some experiments supported by KRISS (Korea Research Institute of Standard and Science)

  19. Microstructure of ultra high performance concrete containing lithium slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhi-Hai; Du, Shi-Gui; Chen, Deng

    2018-04-03

    Lithium slag (LS) is discharged as a byproduct in the process of the lithium carbonate, and it is very urgent to explore an efficient way to recycle LS in order to protect the environments and save resources. Many available supplementary cementitious materials for partial replacement of cement and/or silica fume (SF) can be used to prepare ultra high performance concrete (UHPC). The effect of LS to replace SF partially by weight used as a supplementary cementitious material (0%, 5%, 10% and 15% of binder) on the compressive strengths and microstructure evolution of UHPC has experimentally been studied by multi-techniques including mercury intrusion porosimetry, scanning electron microscope and nanoindentation technique. The results show that the use of LS degrades the microstructure of UHPC at early ages, and however, the use of LS with the appropriate content improves microstructure of UHPC at later ages. The hydration products of UHPC are mainly dominated by ultra-high density calcium-silicate-hydrate (UHD C-S-H) and interfacial transition zone (ITZ) in UHPC has similar compact microstructure with the matrix. The use of LS improves the hydration degree of UHPC and increases the elastic modulus of ITZ in UHPC. LS is a promising substitute for SF for preparation UHPC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of ultra high performance supercritical fluid chromatography, ultra high performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography for the separation of synthetic cathinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnes, Stephanie; O'Brien, Stacey; Szewczak, Angelica; Tremeau-Cayel, Lauriane; Rowe, Walter F; McCord, Bruce; Lurie, Ira S

    2017-09-01

    A comparison of ultra high performance supercritical fluid chromatography, ultra high performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography for the separation of synthetic cathinones has been conducted. Nine different mixtures of bath salts were analyzed in this study. The three different chromatographic techniques were examined using a general set of controlled synthetic cathinones as well as a variety of other synthetic cathinones that exist as positional isomers. Overall 35 different synthetic cathinones were analyzed. A variety of column types and chromatographic modes were examined for developing each separation. For the ultra high performance supercritical fluid chromatography separations, analyses were performed using a series of Torus and Trefoil columns with either ammonium formate or ammonium hydroxide as additives, and methanol, ethanol or isopropanol organic solvents as modifiers. Ultra high performance liquid chromatographic separations were performed in both reversed phase and hydrophilic interaction chromatographic modes using SPP C18 and SPP HILIC columns. Gas chromatography separations were performed using an Elite-5MS capillary column. The orthogonality of ultra high performance supercritical fluid chromatography, ultra high performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography was examined using principal component analysis. For the best overall separation of synthetic cathinones, the use of ultra high performance supercritical fluid chromatography in combination with gas chromatography is recommended. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Achieving Mixtures of Ultra-High Performance Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea POPA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC is a relatively new concrete. According to [11] UHPC is that concrete which features compressive strength over C100/115 class. Up to this point standards for this type of concrete were not adopted, although its characteristic strength exceeds those specified in [33]. Its main property is high compressive strength. This provides the possibility of reducing the section of elements (beams or columns made of this type of concrete, while the load capacity remains high. The study consists in blending mixtures of UHPC made of varying proportions of materials. The authors have obtained strengths of up to 160 MPa. The materials used are: Portland cement, silica fume, quartz powder, steel fibers, superplasticiser, sand and crushed aggregate for concrete - andesite.

  2. Ultra-high-ohmic microstripline resistors for Coulomb blockade devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotkhov, Sergey V

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the fabrication and low-temperature characterization of ultra-high-ohmic microstripline resistors made of a thin film of weakly oxidized titanium. Nearly linear voltage–current characteristics were measured at temperatures down to T ∼ 20 mK for films with sheet resistivities as high as ∼7 kΩ, i.e. about an order of magnitude higher than our previous findings for weakly oxidized Cr. Our analysis indicates that such an improvement can help to create an advantageous high-impedance environment for different Coulomb blockade devices. Further properties of the Ti film addressed in this work show the promise of low-noise behavior of the resistors when applied in different realizations of the quantum standard of current. (paper)

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy at ultra high fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuberger, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the work presented in this thesis was to explore the possibilities and limitations of MRI / MRS using an ultra high field of 17.6 tesla. A broad range of specific applications and MR methods, from MRI to MRSI and MRS were investigated. The main foci were on sodium magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging of rodents, magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the mouse brain, and the detection of small amounts of iron labeled stem cells in the rat brain using MRI Sodium spectroscopic imaging was explored since it benefits tremendously from the high magnetic field. Due to the intrinsically low signal in vivo, originating from the low concentrations and short transverse relaxation times, only limited results have been achieved by other researchers until now. Results in the literature include studies conducted on large animals such as dogs to animals as small as rats. No studies performed on mice have been reported, despite the fact that the mouse is the most important laboratory animal due to the ready availability of transgenic strains. Hence, this study concentrated on sodium MRSI of small rodents, mostly mice (brain, heart, and kidney), and in the case of the brain on young rats. The second part of this work concentrated on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the rodent brain. Due to the high magnetic field strength not only the increasing signal but also the extended spectral resolution was advantageous for such kind of studies. The difficulties/limitations of ultra high field MRS were also investigated. In the last part of the presented work detection limits of iron labeled stem cells in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging were explored. The studies provided very useful benchmarks for future researchers in terms of the number of labeled stem cells that are required for high-field MRI studies. Overall this work has shown many of the benefits and the areas that need special attention of ultra high fields in MR. Three topics in MRI, MRS and MRSI were

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy at ultra high fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuberger, Thomas

    2009-06-23

    The goal of the work presented in this thesis was to explore the possibilities and limitations of MRI / MRS using an ultra high field of 17.6 tesla. A broad range of specific applications and MR methods, from MRI to MRSI and MRS were investigated. The main foci were on sodium magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging of rodents, magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the mouse brain, and the detection of small amounts of iron labeled stem cells in the rat brain using MRI Sodium spectroscopic imaging was explored since it benefits tremendously from the high magnetic field. Due to the intrinsically low signal in vivo, originating from the low concentrations and short transverse relaxation times, only limited results have been achieved by other researchers until now. Results in the literature include studies conducted on large animals such as dogs to animals as small as rats. No studies performed on mice have been reported, despite the fact that the mouse is the most important laboratory animal due to the ready availability of transgenic strains. Hence, this study concentrated on sodium MRSI of small rodents, mostly mice (brain, heart, and kidney), and in the case of the brain on young rats. The second part of this work concentrated on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the rodent brain. Due to the high magnetic field strength not only the increasing signal but also the extended spectral resolution was advantageous for such kind of studies. The difficulties/limitations of ultra high field MRS were also investigated. In the last part of the presented work detection limits of iron labeled stem cells in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging were explored. The studies provided very useful benchmarks for future researchers in terms of the number of labeled stem cells that are required for high-field MRI studies. Overall this work has shown many of the benefits and the areas that need special attention of ultra high fields in MR. Three topics in MRI, MRS and MRSI were

  5. Ultra high performance concrete made with rice husk ash for reduced autogenous shrinkage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Breugel, K.; Van Tuan, N.

    2014-01-01

    Ultra High Strength Concrete (UHPC) is generally made with low w/c mixtures and by adding silica fume. Low w/c mixtures, however, exhibit high autogenous shrinkage, while a high amount of silica fume increases the price of these mixtures. For designing ultra high strength mixtures with low

  6. Graphene electric double layer capacitor with ultra-high-power performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, John R.; Outlaw, R.A.; Holloway, B.C.

    2011-01-01

    We have demonstrated, for the first time, efficient 120 Hz filtering by an electric double layer capacitor (EDLC). The key to this ultra-high-power performance is electrodes made from vertically oriented graphene nanosheets grown directly on metal current collectors. This design minimized both electronic and ionic resistance and produced capacitors having RC time-constants of less than 200 μs. Significantly, graphene nanosheets have a preponderance of exposed edge planes that greatly increase stored charge over designs relying on basal plane surfaces. Collectively these factors make vertically oriented graphene nanosheet electrodes ideally suited for producing high-frequency EDLCs. Capacitors constructed with these electrodes are predicted to be significantly smaller than aluminum electrolyte capacitors that they could functionally replace plus be manufactured using standard semiconductor process equipment, creating interesting commercial opportunities.

  7. Ultra high energy electrons powered by pulsar rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Swadesh; Machabeli, George; Osmanov, Zaza; Chkheidze, Nino

    2013-01-01

    A new mechanism of particle acceleration, driven by the rotational slow down of the Crab pulsar, is explored. The rotation, through the time dependent centrifugal force, can efficiently excite unstable Langmuir waves in the electron-positron (hereafter e(±)) plasma of the star magnetosphere. These waves, then, Landau damp on electrons accelerating them in the process. The net transfer of energy is optimal when the wave growth and the Landau damping times are comparable and are both very short compared to the star rotation time. We show, by detailed calculations, that these are precisely the conditions for the parameters of the Crab pulsar. This highly efficient route for energy transfer allows the electrons in the primary beam to be catapulted to multiple TeV (~ 100 TeV) and even PeV energy domain. It is expected that the proposed mechanism may, unravel the puzzle of the origin of ultra high energy cosmic ray electrons.

  8. Radiobiological response to ultra-short pulsed megavoltage electron beams of ultra-high pulse dose rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyreuther, Elke; Karsch, Leonhard; Laschinsky, Lydia; Leßmann, Elisabeth; Naumburger, Doreen; Oppelt, Melanie; Richter, Christian; Schürer, Michael; Woithe, Julia; Pawelke, Jörg

    2015-08-01

    In line with the long-term aim of establishing the laser-based particle acceleration for future medical application, the radiobiological consequences of the typical ultra-short pulses and ultra-high pulse dose rate can be investigated with electron delivery. The radiation source ELBE (Electron Linac for beams with high Brilliance and low Emittance) was used to mimic the quasi-continuous electron beam of a clinical linear accelerator (LINAC) for comparison with electron pulses at the ultra-high pulse dose rate of 10(10) Gy min(-1) either at the low frequency of a laser accelerator or at 13 MHz avoiding effects of prolonged dose delivery. The impact of pulse structure was analyzed by clonogenic survival assay and by the number of residual DNA double-strand breaks remaining 24 h after irradiation of two human squamous cell carcinoma lines of differing radiosensitivity. The radiation response of both cell lines was found to be independent from electron pulse structure for the two endpoints under investigation. The results reveal, that ultra-high pulse dose rates of 10(10) Gy min(-1) and the low repetition rate of laser accelerated electrons have no statistically significant influence (within the 95% confidence intervals) on the radiobiological effectiveness of megavoltage electrons.

  9. Ion acceleration in electrostatic field of charged cavity created by ultra-short laser pulses of 1020-1021 W/cm2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychenkov, V. Yu.; Singh, P. K.; Ahmed, H.; Kakolee, K. F.; Scullion, C.; Jeong, T. W.; Hadjisolomou, P.; Alejo, A.; Kar, S.; Borghesi, M.; Ter-Avetisyan, S.

    2017-01-01

    Ion acceleration resulting from the interaction of ultra-high intensity and ultra-high contrast (˜10-10) laser pulses with thin A l foil targets at 30° angle of laser incidence is studied. Proton maximum energies of 30 and 18 MeV are measured along the target normal rear and front sides, respectively, showing intensity scaling as Ib . For the target front bf r o n t= 0.5-0.6 and for the target rear br e a r= 0.7-0.8 is observed in the intensity range 1020-1021 W/cm2. The fast scaling from the target rear ˜I0.75 can be attributed enhancement of laser energy absorption as already observed at relatively low intensities. The backward acceleration of the front side protons with intensity scaling as ˜I0.5 can be attributed to the to the formation of a positively charged cavity at the target front via ponderomotive displacement of the target electrons at the interaction of relativistic intense laser pulses with a solid target. The experimental results are in a good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  10. Ultra-high current density thin-film Si diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi [Littleton, CO

    2008-04-22

    A combination of a thin-film .mu.c-Si and a-Si:H containing diode structure characterized by an ultra-high current density that exceeds 1000 A/cm.sup.2, comprising: a substrate; a bottom metal layer disposed on the substrate; an n-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited the bottom metal layer; an i-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited on the n-layer; a buffer layer of a-Si:H deposited on the i-layer, a p-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited on the buffer layer; and a top metal layer deposited on the p-layer.

  11. Evaluation of ISABELLE full cell ultra high vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, C.L.; Briggs, J.; Chou, T.S.; Stattel, P.

    1980-01-01

    The ISABELLE Full Cell Vacuum System consisting of a 40 m long, by 8.8 cm diameter stainless steel tube pumped by seven pumping stations was assembled and processed for 10 -12 Torr operation. Evaluation and testing of the system and its sub-assemblies has been completed. Detail design of system components and the determination of the conditioning process was completed. The best procedure to rough pump, leak test, vacuum bake the system, condition pumps, degas gauges, turn on ion pumps and flash sublimation pumps was established. Pressures below 2 x 10 -11 Torr are now routinely achieved in normal operation of the Full Cell. This includes pump down after replacement of various components and pump down after back fill with moist unfiltered air. The techniques developed for the Full Cell will be used to build the ISABELLE Ultra High Vacuum System

  12. Active Galactic Nuclei: Sources for ultra high energy cosmic rays?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biermann, Peter L.; Becker, Julia K.; Caramete, Laurentiu; Curutiu, Alex; Engel, Ralph; Falcke, Heino; Gergely, Laszlo A.; Isar, P. Gina; Maris, Ioana C.; Meli, Athina; Kampert, Karl-Heinz; Stanev, Todor; Tascau, Oana; Zier, Christian

    2009-01-01

    The origin of ultra high energy cosmic rays promises to lead us to a deeper understanding of the structure of matter. This is possible through the study of particle collisions at center-of-mass energies in interactions far larger than anything possible with the Large Hadron Collider, albeit at the substantial cost of no control over the sources and interaction sites. For the extreme energies we have to identify and understand the sources first, before trying to use them as physics laboratories. Here we describe the current stage of this exploration. The most promising contenders as sources are radio galaxies and gamma ray bursts. The sky distribution of observed events yields a hint favoring radio galaxies. Key in this quest are the intergalactic and galactic magnetic fields, whose strength and structure are not yet fully understood. Current data and statistics do not yet allow a final judgement. We outline how we may progress in the near future.

  13. Active Galactic Nuclei: Sources for ultra high energy cosmic rays?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermann, Peter L. [MPI for Radioastronomy, Bonn (Germany); Dept. of Phys. and Astron., Univ. of Bonn (Germany); Dept. of Phys. and Astr., Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Dept. of Phys., Univ. of Alabama at Huntsville, AL (United States); Inst. Nucl. Phys. FZ, Karlsruhe Inst. of Techn. (KIT) (Germany); Becker, Julia K. [Institution foer Fysik, Goeteborgs Univ. (Sweden); Dept. of Phys., Univ. Dortmund, Dortmund (Germany); Caramete, Laurentiu [MPI for Radioastronomy, Bonn (Germany); Institute for Space Studies, Bucharest (Romania); Curutiu, Alex [MPI for Radioastronomy, Bonn (Germany); Engel, Ralph [Inst. Nucl. Phys. FZ, Karlsruhe Inst. of Techn. (KIT) (Germany); Falcke, Heino [Dept. of Astrophys., IMAP, Radboud Univ., Nijmegen (Netherlands); ASTRON, Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Gergely, Laszlo A. [Dept. Appl. Sci., London South Bank University (United Kingdom); Dept. of Theoret. and Exp. Phys., Univ. of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Isar, P. Gina [Inst. Nucl. Phys. FZ, Karlsruhe Inst. of Techn. (KIT) (Germany); Institute for Space Studies, Bucharest (Romania); Maris, Ioana C. [Inst. Nucl. Phys. FZ, Karlsruhe Inst. of Techn. (KIT) (Germany); Meli, Athina [Physik. Inst. Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany); Kampert, Karl-Heinz [Phys. Dept., Univ. Wuppertal (Germany); Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Inst., Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Tascau, Oana [Phys. Dept., Univ. Wuppertal (Germany); Zier, Christian [MPI for Radioastronomy, Bonn (Germany); Raman Res. Inst., Bangalore (India)

    2009-05-15

    The origin of ultra high energy cosmic rays promises to lead us to a deeper understanding of the structure of matter. This is possible through the study of particle collisions at center-of-mass energies in interactions far larger than anything possible with the Large Hadron Collider, albeit at the substantial cost of no control over the sources and interaction sites. For the extreme energies we have to identify and understand the sources first, before trying to use them as physics laboratories. Here we describe the current stage of this exploration. The most promising contenders as sources are radio galaxies and gamma ray bursts. The sky distribution of observed events yields a hint favoring radio galaxies. Key in this quest are the intergalactic and galactic magnetic fields, whose strength and structure are not yet fully understood. Current data and statistics do not yet allow a final judgement. We outline how we may progress in the near future.

  14. Micro-damage propagation in ultra-high vacuum seals

    CERN Document Server

    Lutkiewicz, P; Garion, C

    2010-01-01

    The paper addresses a fundamental problem of tightness of ultra-high vacuum systems (UHV) at cryogenic temperatures in the light of continuum damage mechanics (CDM). The problem of indentation of a rigid punch into an elastic-plastic half-space is investigated based on rate independent plasticity with mixed kinematic and isotropic hardening. The micro-damage fields are modeled by using an anisotropic approach with a kinetic law of damage evolution suitable for ductile materials and cryogenic temperatures. The model has been experimentally validated and the results are used to predict the onset of macro-cracking (loss of tightness) and the corresponding load (contact pressure). The algorithm is applied in the design of UHV systems for particle accelerators. (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Cosmic-ray ultra high-energy multijet family event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Bao-tang; Wang Cheng-rui; Ren Jing-ru

    1987-01-01

    A cosmic-ray ultra-high-energy multijet family event with visible energy of about 1500 TeV and five large cores is reported. This event was found in the 1980-1981 exposure of the Mt. Kambala (5500 M a.s.l.) emulsion-chamber experiment. The family characteristics are analyzed and compared with other cosmic ray events in the same energy range. The production and fragmentation characteristics of the five jets are studied and compared with the experimental results of accelerators and emulsion chamber C-jets as well as with QCD predictions above the TeV range. Some features on hadronic interactions in the TeV range are discussed

  16. Ultra-high-speed inversion recovery echo planar MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stehling, M.K.; Ordidge, R.J.; Coxon, R.; Chapman, B.; Houseman, A.M.; Guifoyle, D.; Blamire, A.; Gibbs, P.; Mansfield, P.

    1988-01-01

    Fast two-dimensional FT MR imaging techniques such as fast low-angle shot do not allow inversion recovery (IR). Rapid repetition of low-angle pulses is incompatible with a 180 0 inversion pulse. Echo planar imaging (EPI) can be applied in conjunction with IR, because after preparation of the spin system, a complete image is acquired. Data acquisition in less than 100 msec and real-time display allows interactive optimization of inversion time (4.0-9,000 msec) with little time penalty. The authors have applied IR EPI to the study of the brain, liver, and kidneys in normal volunteers and patients. Technical details are presented, and the applications of this first ultra-high-speed IR technique will be shown

  17. High speed auto-charging system for condenser bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Yasunori; Bito, Fumio; Fujita, Kazuhiko; Sometani, Taro

    1987-01-01

    A current-control type high-speed charging system, which is intended for auto-charging of the condenser bank, is developed. Moreover, the system can also serve to compensate the current leakage from the condenser bank so that the charged voltage can be kept constant. The system consists of a sequence circuit, a charging current control circuit (or auto-charging circuit) and a charging circuit. The auto-charging circuit is characterized by the use of a triac to control the current. The current, controlled by the circuit, is supplied to the condenser bank through a step-up transformer and voltage doubler rectifier circuit. It is demonstrated that the use of the high-speed auto-charging circuit can largely decrease the required charging time, compared to constant voltage charging. In addition, the compensation function is shown to serve effectively for maintaining a constant voltage after the completion of charging. The required charging time is decreases as the charging current increases. The maximum charging current is decided by the rating of the traic and the current rating of the rectifier diode in the secondary circuit. Major components of these circuits have decreased impedances to minimize the effect of noise, so that the possibility of an accident can be eliminated. Other various improvements are made in the grounding circuit and the charging protection circuit in order to ensure safety. (Nogami, K.)

  18. The design and structure of the ultra-high vacuum system of HIRFL-CSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaotian; Zhang Junhui; Zhang Xinjun; Meng Jun; Zhan Wenlong

    2001-01-01

    To minimize the beam loss due to charge exchange of very heavy ions with the residual gas molecules, ultra-high vacuum of 6x10 -9 Pa is required for the HIRFL-CSR facility, which is the lowest pressure in a large vacuum system in China up to now. The total length of the system is about 450 meters and the total inner surface is about 263 square meters. More than 500 standard vacuum components are needed and more than 400 different chambers have to be manufactured. A lot of researches have been down to try to find out the experiences to obtain the required pressure. In this article the following contents are described: the layout of the system; the structure of main vacuum chambers; the treatment method to reduce the outgassing rate of the chamber wall surfaces; vacuum equipment; pressure distribution and the progress of the system

  19. Ultra-high-energy cosmic rays from radio galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, B.; Rachen, J. P.; Merten, L.; van Vliet, A.; Becker Tjus, J.

    2018-02-01

    Radio galaxies are intensively discussed as the sources of cosmic rays observed above about 3 × 1018 eV, called ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). We present a first, systematic approach that takes the individual characteristics of these sources into account, as well as the impact of the extragalactic magnetic-field structures up to a distance of 120 Mpc. We use a mixed simulation setup, based on 3D simulations of UHECRs ejected by observed, individual radio galaxies taken out to a distance of 120 Mpc, and on 1D simulations over a continuous source distribution contributing from beyond 120 Mpc. Additionally, we include the ultra-luminous radio galaxy Cygnus A at a distance of about 250 Mpc, as its contribution is so strong that it must be considered as an individual point source. The implementation of the UHECR ejection in our simulation setup, both that of individual radio galaxies and the continuous source function, is based on a detailed consideration of the physics of radio jets and standard first-order Fermi acceleration. This allows to derive the spectrum of ejected UHECR as a function of radio luminosity, and at the same time provides an absolute normalization of the problem involving only a small set of parameters adjustable within narrow constraints. We show that the average contribution of radio galaxies taken over a very large volume cannot explain the observed features of UHECRs measured at Earth. However, we obtain excellent agreement with the spectrum, composition, and arrival-direction distribution of UHECRs measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory, if we assume that most UHECRs observed arise from only two sources: the ultra-luminous radio galaxy Cygnus A, providing a mostly light composition of nuclear species dominating up to about 6 × 1019 eV, and the nearest radio galaxy Centaurus A, providing a heavy composition dominating above 6 × 1019 eV . Here we have to assume that extragalactic magnetic fields out to 250 Mpc, which we did not

  20. Production of High-Intensity, Highly Charged Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Gammino, S.

    2013-12-16

    In the past three decades, the development of nuclear physics facilities for fundamental and applied science purposes has required an increasing current of multicharged ion beams. Multiple ionization implies the formation of dense and energetic plasmas, which, in turn, requires specific plasma trapping configurations. Two types of ion source have been able to produce very high charge states in a reliable and reproducible way: electron beam ion sources (EBIS) and electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS). Multiple ionization is also obtained in laser-generated plasmas (laser ion sources (LIS)), where the high-energy electrons and the extremely high electron density allow step-by-step ionization, but the reproducibility is poor. This chapter discusses the atomic physics background at the basis of the production of highly charged ions and describes the scientific and technological features of the most advanced ion sources. Particular attention is paid to ECRIS and the latest developments, since they now r...

  1. Colored ultra-thin hybrid photovoltaics with high quantum efficiency for decorative PV applications (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L. Jay

    2015-10-01

    This talk will describe an approach to create architecturally compatible and decorative thin-film-based hybrid photovoltaics [1]. Most current solar panels are fabricated via complex processes using expensive semiconductor materials, and they are rigid and heavy with a dull, black appearance. As a result of their non-aesthetic appearance and weight, they are primarily installed on rooftops to minimize their negative impact on building appearance. Recently we introduced dual-function solar cells based on ultra-thin dopant-free amorphous silicon embedded in an optical cavity that not only efficiently extract the photogenerated carriers but also display distinctive colors with the desired angle-insensitive appearances [1,2]. The angle-insensitive behavior is the result of an interesting phase cancellation effect in the optical cavity with respect to angle of light propagation [3]. In order to produce the desired optical effect, the semiconductor layer should be ultra-thin and the traditional doped layers need to be eliminated. We adopted the approach of employing charge transport/blocking layers used in organic solar cells to meet this demand. We showed that the ultra-thin (6 to 31 nm) undoped amorphous silicon/organic hybrid solar cell can transmit desired wavelength of light and that most of the absorbed photons in the undoped a-Si layer contributed to the extracted electric charges. This is because the a-Si layer thickness is smaller than the charge diffusion length, therefore the electron-hole recombination is strongly suppressed in such ultra-thin layer. Reflective colored PVs can be made in a similar fashion. Light-energy-harvesting colored signage was demonstrated. Furthermore, a cascaded photovoltaics scheme based on tunable spectrum splitting can be employed to increase power efficiency by absorbing a broader band of light energy. Our work provides a guideline for optimizing a photoactive layer thickness in high efficiency hybrid PV design, which can be

  2. Ultra light weight refractory material for high temperature applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finke, V.; Kern, H. [Rath GmbH, Meissen (Germany); Springer, M. [Aug. Rath jun. GmbH, Vienna (Austria)

    2007-07-01

    The requirements on companies running high temperature processes, i.e. at temperatures about 1000 C and above, have increased dramatically within the last few years. For technological, economical and ecological purposes each application has to be checked carefully. As well the political discussion regarding environmental pollution, greenhouse effect and emission trading and the guidelines for climate and environmental protection exert massive influence on thermal process technology and pose an appropriate challenge for the companies. Next to costs of labour and raw materials the costs for energy and environmental costs play a decisive role more and more. The pressure on the management thereby incurred may have a lasting effect on innovations regarding increase of energy efficiency, decrease of CO{sub 2}-emission and often on non negligible increase of productivity. Mainly against the background of the highly scheduled European aims for emission reduction and also in consideration of the still proceeding globalisation the usage of state-of-the-art refractory technics in thermal process technology is of particular importance for business success, for reducing of environmental impact and last but not least for conservation and safeguarding of jobs in Europe and Germany. The applications for products made from high-temperature insulation wool in high temperature applications have strongly increased during the last five years. Especially the production capacities of polycrystalline wool (aluminium oxide wool e.g. Altra B72) have been doubled within the last three years. Primarily ultra light weight products made from HTIW are used in industrial furnaces with application temperatures above 1000 C and / or with high thermo-mechanical (thermal shock) and chemical exposure. The outstanding and essential advantages of these materials are obviously: Ultra light weight material with high resilience and flexibility, Optimised energy consumption (energy saving up to 50% compared

  3. CHARGED PARTICLE MULTIPLICITIES IN ULTRA-RELATIVISTIC AU+AU AND CU+CU COLLISIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Alver, B.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Chetluru, V.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harnarine, I.; Hauer, M.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holynski, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Li, W.; Lin, W. T.; Loizides, C.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Reed, C.; Richardson, E.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Seals, H.; Sedykh, I.; Smith, C. E.; Stankiewicz, M. A.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Szostak, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; Vannieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Walters, P.; Wenger, E.; Willhelm, D.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wyngaardt, S.; Wyslouch, B.

    The PHOBOS collaboration has carried out a systematic study of charged particle multiplicities in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. A unique feature of the PHOBOS detector is its ability to measure charged particles over a very wide angular range from 0.5° to 179.5° corresponding to |η| <5.4. The general features of the charged particle multiplicity distributions as a function of pseudo-rapidity, collision energy and centrality, as well as system size, are discussed.

  4. Production, transport and charge capture measurements of highly charged recoil ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trebus, U.E.

    1989-01-01

    An experiment is described to study highly charged recoil ions on-line to the heavy accelerator UNILAC at GSI. The highly charged recoil ions are produced by heavy-ion bombardment of a gas target. Subsequently the slow highly charged recoil ions are extracted from the ionization volume, and guided through a beam transport line to a Wien filter for charge state selection and to a collision region to study charge transfer processes. Several experiments were carried out to show the efficient charge state separation. Charge states up to q = 15 were observed. When using a retarding field analyzer cross sections for single electron capture were determined for different charge states of Xe q+ for q = 4 to 11 and He gas. The experiments demonstrated increasing charge transfer cross sections with increasing charge state q and indicated the effect of near resonant charge capture for q = 6. The flexible data acquisition system used, is described and other future experiments, such as for instance in flight ion-trapping are indicated in the appendix

  5. Production, transport and charge capture measurements of highly charged recoil ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trebus, U.E.

    1989-05-01

    An experiment is described to study highly charged recoil ions on-line to the heavy ion accelerator UNILAC at GSI. The highly charged recoil ions are produced by heavy ion bombardment of a gas target. Subsequently the slow highly charged recoil ions are extracted from the ionization volume, and guided through a beam transport line to a Wien filter for charge state selection and to a collision region to study charge transfer processes. Several experiments were carried out to show the efficient charge state separation. Charge states up to q=15 were observed. When using a retarding field analyzer cross sections for single electron capture were determined for different charge states of Xe q+ for q=4 to 11 and He gas. The experiments demonstrated increasing charge transfer cross sections with increasing charge state q and indicated the effect of near resonant charge capture for q=6. The flexible data acquisition system used, is described and other future experiments, such as for instance in flight ion-trapping are indicated in the appendix. (orig.)

  6. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays and prompt TeV gamma rays from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 789-792. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays and prompt. TeV gamma rays from gamma ray bursts ... The origin of the observed ultra-high energy cosmic ray (UHECR) events with ... are proton and electron rest mass, respectively.

  7. Ultra-high field MRI: Advancing systems neuroscience towards mesoscopic human brain function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumoulin, Serge O; Fracasso, A.; Van der Zwaag, W.; Siero, Jeroen C W; Petridou, Natalia

    2018-01-01

    Human MRI scanners at ultra-high magnetic field strengths of 7 T and higher are increasingly available to the neuroscience community. A key advantage brought by ultra-high field MRI is the possibility to increase the spatial resolution at which data is acquired, with little reduction in image

  8. Reflecting and Polarizing Properties of Conductive Fabrics in Ultra-High Frequency Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Kiprijanovič

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The system based on ultra-wide band (UWB signals was employed for qualitative estimation of attenuating, reflecting and polarizing properties of conductive fabrics, capable to prevent local static charge accumulation. Pulsed excitation of triangle monopole antenna of 6.5 cm height by rectangular electric pulses induced radiation of UWB signals with spectral density of power having maximum in ultra-high frequency (UHF range. The same antenna was used for the radiated signal receiving. Filters and amplifiers of different passband were employed to divide UHF range into subranges of 0.3-0.55 GHz, 0.55-1 GHz, 1-2 GHz and 2-4 GHz bands. The free space method, when conductive fabric samples of 50x50 cm2 were placed between transmitting and receiving antennas, was used to imitate a practical application. Received wideband signals corresponding to the defined range were detected by unbiased detectors. The fabrics made of two types of warps, containing different threads with conductive yarns, were investigated. It was estimated attenuation and reflective properties of the fabrics when electric field is collinear or perpendicular to thread direction. In the UHF range it was revealed good reflecting properties of the fabrics containing metallic component in the threads. The system has advantages but not without a certain shortcoming. Adapting it for specific tasks should lead to more effective usage, including yet unused properties of the UWB signals.

  9. Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in ultra-thin metasurfaces with arbitrary topological charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchard, Frédéric; De Leon, Israel; Schulz, Sebastian A.; Upham, Jeremy; Karimi, Ebrahim, E-mail: ekarimi@uottawa.ca [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 25 Templeton, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 Canada (Canada); Boyd, Robert W. [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 25 Templeton, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 Canada (Canada); Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)

    2014-09-08

    Orbital angular momentum associated with the helical phase-front of optical beams provides an unbounded “space” for both classical and quantum communications. Among the different approaches to generate and manipulate orbital angular momentum states of light, coupling between spin and orbital angular momentum allows a faster manipulation of orbital angular momentum states because it depends on manipulating the polarisation state of light, which is simpler and generally faster than manipulating conventional orbital angular momentum generators. In this work, we design and fabricate an ultra-thin spin-to-orbital angular momentum converter, based on plasmonic nano-antennas and operating in the visible wavelength range that is capable of converting spin to an arbitrary value of orbital angular momentum ℓ. The nano-antennas are arranged in an array with a well-defined geometry in the transverse plane of the beam, possessing a specific integer or half-integer topological charge q. When a circularly polarised light beam traverses this metasurface, the output beam polarisation switches handedness and the orbital angular momentum changes in value by ℓ=±2qℏ per photon. We experimentally demonstrate ℓ values ranging from ±1 to ±25 with conversion efficiencies of 8.6% ± 0.4%. Our ultra-thin devices are integratable and thus suitable for applications in quantum communications, quantum computations, and nano-scale sensing.

  10. Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in ultra-thin metasurfaces with arbitrary topological charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, Frédéric; De Leon, Israel; Schulz, Sebastian A.; Upham, Jeremy; Karimi, Ebrahim; Boyd, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Orbital angular momentum associated with the helical phase-front of optical beams provides an unbounded “space” for both classical and quantum communications. Among the different approaches to generate and manipulate orbital angular momentum states of light, coupling between spin and orbital angular momentum allows a faster manipulation of orbital angular momentum states because it depends on manipulating the polarisation state of light, which is simpler and generally faster than manipulating conventional orbital angular momentum generators. In this work, we design and fabricate an ultra-thin spin-to-orbital angular momentum converter, based on plasmonic nano-antennas and operating in the visible wavelength range that is capable of converting spin to an arbitrary value of orbital angular momentum ℓ. The nano-antennas are arranged in an array with a well-defined geometry in the transverse plane of the beam, possessing a specific integer or half-integer topological charge q. When a circularly polarised light beam traverses this metasurface, the output beam polarisation switches handedness and the orbital angular momentum changes in value by ℓ=±2qℏ per photon. We experimentally demonstrate ℓ values ranging from ±1 to ±25 with conversion efficiencies of 8.6% ± 0.4%. Our ultra-thin devices are integratable and thus suitable for applications in quantum communications, quantum computations, and nano-scale sensing.

  11. High charge state heavy ion production from a PIG source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bex, L.; Clark, D.J.; Ellsworth, C.E.; Flood, W.S.; Gough, R.A.; Holley, W.R.; Meriwether, J.R.; Morris, D.

    1975-03-01

    The comparison of pulsed vs. dc arc operation for nitrogen and argon shows a shift in charge distribution toward the higher charge states for the pulsed case. Tests with various magnetic field shapes along the arc column show a significant increase in high charge state output for a uniform field compared to the case with a field low at the cathodes. (U.S.)

  12. 78 FR 70567 - Nationwide Use of High Frequency and Ultra High Frequency Active SONAR Technology; Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... Frequency and Ultra High Frequency Active SONAR Technology; Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment and... each alternative on the human and natural environments. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: If you have... Programmatic Environmental Assessment The scope of the PEA focuses on potential impacts associated with the...

  13. Current leakage relaxation and charge trapping in ultra-porous low-k materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borja, Juan; Plawsky, Joel L.; Gill, William N.; Lu, T.-M.; Bakhru, Hassaram

    2014-01-01

    Time dependent dielectric failure has become a pivotal aspect of interconnect design as industry pursues integration of sub-22 nm process-technology nodes. Literature has provided key information about the role played by individual species such as electrons, holes, ions, and neutral impurity atoms. However, no mechanism has been shown to describe how such species interact and influence failure. Current leakage relaxation in low-k dielectrics was studied using bipolar field experiments to gain insight into how charge carrier flow becomes impeded by defects within the dielectric matrix. Leakage current decay was correlated to injection and trapping of electrons. We show that current relaxation upon inversion of the applied field can be described by the stretched exponential function. The kinetics of charge trapping events are consistent with a time-dependent reaction rate constant, k=k 0 ⋅(t+1) β−1 , where 0 < β < 1. Such dynamics have previously been observed in studies of charge trapping reactions in amorphous solids by W. H. Hamill and K. Funabashi, Phys. Rev. B 16, 5523–5527 (1977). We explain the relaxation process in charge trapping events by introducing a nonlinear charge trapping model. This model provides a description on the manner in which the transport of mobile defects affects the long-tail current relaxation processes in low-k films

  14. Detecting charging state of ultra-fine particles: instrumental development and ambient measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Laakso

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of ion-induced nucleation in the lower atmosphere has been discussed for a long time. In this article we describe a new instrumental setup – Ion-DMPS – which can be used to detect contribution of ion-induced nucleation on atmospheric new particle formation events. The device measures positively and negatively charged particles with and without a bipolar charger. The ratio between "charger off" to "charger on" describes the charging state of aerosol particle population with respect to equilibrium. Values above one represent more charges than in an equilibrium (overcharged state, and values below unity stand for undercharged situation, when there is less charges in the particles than in the equilibrium. We performed several laboratory experiments to test the operation of the instrument. After the laboratory tests, we used the device to observe particle size distributions during atmospheric new particle formation in a boreal forest. We found that some of the events were clearly dominated by neutral nucleation but in some cases also ion-induced nucleation contributed to the new particle formation. We also found that negative and positive ions (charged particles behaved in a different manner, days with negative overcharging were more frequent than days with positive overcharging.

  15. Highly-correlated charges in polyelectrolyte gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, Charles; Zwanikken, Johannes; Olvera de La Cruz, Monica

    2013-03-01

    Polyelectrolyte gels are ubiquitous in polymer physics due to their attractive combination of structural and chemical features that permit the realization of ``environmentally responsive'' systems. The conventional conceptual picture of the volume response of these systems is based on a competition between osmotic and elastic effects. We elaborate on this fundamental understanding by including ion correlations through the use of liquid-state integral equation theory. This allows for a statistical mechanical representation of the state of the system that not only surpasses traditional Poisson-Boltzmann theories but also renders structural features in a highly accurate fashion. In particular, the local ion structure is elucidated, allowing for detailed articulation of charge inversion and condensation effects in the context of gel swelling. The inclusion of correlations has a number of ramifications that become apparent, with enhanced gel collapse and excluded volume competitions that give rise to novel and ion-dependent reentrant swelling effects. We expect this rigorous theory to prove instructive in understanding any number of gelated structures, such as chromosomes or designed synthetic materials for drug delivery.

  16. MHD Modeling of Conductors at Ultra-High Current Density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROSENTHAL, STEPHEN E.; DESJARLAIS, MICHAEL P.; SPIELMAN, RICK B.; STYGAR, WILLIAM A.; ASAY, JAMES R.; DOUGLAS, M.R.; HALL, C.A.; FRESE, M.H.; MORSE, R.L.; REISMAN, D.B.

    2000-01-01

    In conjunction with ongoing high-current experiments on Sandia National Laboratories' Z accelerator, the authors have revisited a problem first described in detail by Heinz Knoepfel. Unlike the 1-Tesla MITLs of pulsed power accelerators used to produce intense particle beams, Z's disc transmission line (downstream of the current addition) is in a 100--1,200 Tesla regime, so its conductors cannot be modeled simply as static infinite conductivity boundaries. Using the MHD code MACH2 they have been investigating the conductor hydrodynamics, characterizing the joule heating, magnetic field diffusion, and material deformation, pressure, and velocity over a range of current densities, current rise-times, and conductor materials. Three purposes of this work are (1) to quantify power flow losses owing to ultra-high magnetic fields, (2) to model the response of VISAR diagnostic samples in various configurations on Z, and (3) to incorporate the most appropriate equation of state and conductivity models into the MHD computations. Certain features are strongly dependent on the details of the conductivity model

  17. Fibrous Fillers to Manufacture Ultra High Ash/Performance Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. VIjay K. Mathur

    2009-04-30

    The paper industry is one of the largest users of energy and emitters of CO2 in the US manufacturing industry. In addition to that, it is facing tremendous financial pressure due to lower cost imports. The fine paper industry has shrunk from 15 million tons per year production to 10 million tons per year in the last 5 years. This has resulted in mill closures and job loses. The AF&PA and the DOE formed a program called Agenda 2020 to help in funding to develop breakthrough technologies to provide help in meeting these challenges. The objectives of this project were to optimize and scale-up Fibrous Fillers technology, ready for commercial deployment and to develop ultra high ash/high performance paper using Fibrous Fillers. The goal was to reduce energy consumption, carbon footprint, and cost of manufacturing paper and related industries. GRI International (GRI) has been able to demonstrate the techno - economic feasibility and economic advantages of using its various products in both handsheets as well as in commercial paper mills. GRI has also been able to develop sophisticated models that demonstrate the effect of combinations of GRI's fillers at multiple filler levels. GRI has also been able to develop, optimize, and successfully scale-up new products for use in commercial paper mills.

  18. Evaluation of Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics for Aeropropulsion Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Stanley R.; Opila, Elizabeth J.; Halbig, Michael C.; Kiser, James D.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Salem, Jonathan A.

    2001-01-01

    Among the ultra-high temperature ceramics (UHTC) are a group of materials consisting of zirconium diboride or hafnium diboride plus silicon carbide, and in some instances, carbon. These materials offer a good combination of properties that make them candidates for airframe leading edges on sharp-bodied reentry vehicles. These UHTC perform well in the environment for such applications, i.e., air at low pressure. The purpose of this study was to examine three of these materials under conditions more representative of a propulsion environment, i.e., higher oxygen partial pressure and total pressure. Results of strength and fracture toughness measurements, furnace oxidation and high velocity thermal shock exposures are presented for ZrB2 plus 20 volume % SiC, ZrB2 plus 14 volume % SiC plus 30 volume % C, and SCS-9a SiC fiber reinforced ZrB2 plus 20 volume % SiC. The poor oxidation resistance of UHTCs is the predominant factor limiting their applicability to propulsion applications.

  19. MHD Modeling of Conductors at Ultra-High Current Density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, S.E.; Asay, J.R.; Desjarlais, M.P.; Douglas, M.R.; Frese, M.H.; Hall, C.A.; Morse, R.L.; Reisman, D.; Spielman, R.B.; Stygar, W.A.

    1999-01-01

    In conjunction with ongoing high-current experiments on Sandia National Laboratories' Z accelerator we have revisited a problem first described in detail by Heinz Knoepfel. MITLs of previous pulsed power accelerators have been in the 1-Tesla regime. Z's disc transmission line (downstream of the current addition) is in a 100-1200 Tesla regime, so its conductors cannot be modeled simply as static infinite conductivity boundaries. Using the MHD code MACH2 we have been investigating conductor hydrodynamics, characterizing the joule heating, magnetic field diffusion, and material deformation, pressure, and velocity over a range of current densities, current rise-times, and conductor materials. Three purposes of this work are ( 1) to quantify power flow losses owing to ultra-high magnetic fields, (2) to model the response of VISAR diagnostic samples in various configurations on Z, and (3) to incorporate the most appropriate equation of state and conductivity models into our MHD computations. Certain features are strongly dependent on the details of the conductivity model. Comparison with measurements on Z will be discussed

  20. Ultra-low noise supercontinuum source for ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography at 1300 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo, I. B.; Maria, M.; Engelsholm, R. D.; Feuchter, T.; Leick, L.; Moselund, P. M.; Podoleanu, A.; Bang, O.

    2018-02-01

    Supercontinuum (SC) sources are of great interest for many applications due to their ultra-broad optical bandwidth, good beam quality and high power spectral density [1]. In particular, the high average power over large bandwidths makes SC light sources excellent candidates for ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT) [2-5]. However, conventional SC sources suffer from high pulse-to-pulse intensity fluctuations as a result of the noise-sensitive nonlinear effects involved in the SC generation process [6-9]. This intensity noise from the SC source can limit the performance of OCT, resulting in a reduced signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) [10-12]. Much work has been done to reduce the noise of the SC sources for instance with fiber tapers [7,8] or increasing the repetition rate of the pump laser for averaging in the spectrometer [10,12]. An alternative approach is to use all-normal dispersion (ANDi) fibers [13,14] to generate SC light from well-known coherent nonlinear processes [15-17]. In fact, reduction of SC noise using ANDi fibers compared to anomalous dispersion SC pumped by sub-picosecond pulses has been recently demonstrated [18], but a cladding mode was used to stabilize the ANDi SC. In this work, we characterize the noise performance of a femtosecond pumped ANDi based SC and a commercial SC source in an UHR-OCT system at 1300 nm. We show that the ANDi based SC presents exceptional noise properties compared to a commercial source. An improvement of 5 dB in SNR is measured in the UHR-OCT system, and the noise behavior resembles that of a superluminiscent diode. This preliminary study is a step forward towards development of an ultra-low noise SC source at 1300 nm for ultra-high resolution OCT.

  1. Method transfer from high-pressure liquid chromatography to ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography. II. Temperature and pressure effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åsberg, Dennis; Samuelsson, Jörgen; Leśko, Marek; Cavazzini, Alberto; Kaczmarski, Krzysztof; Fornstedt, Torgny

    2015-07-03

    The importance of the generated temperature and pressure gradients in ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) are investigated and compared to high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The drug Omeprazole, together with three other model compounds (with different chemical characteristics, namely uncharged, positively and negatively charged) were used. Calculations of the complete temperature profile in the column at UHPLC conditions showed, in our experiments, a temperature difference between the inlet and outlet of 16 °C and a difference of 2 °C between the column center and the wall. Through van't Hoff plots, this information was used to single out the decrease in retention factor (k) solely due to the temperature gradient. The uncharged solute was least affected by temperature with a decrease in k of about 5% while for charged solutes the effect was more pronounced, with k decreases up to 14%. A pressure increase of 500 bar gave roughly 5% increase in k for the uncharged solute, while omeprazole and the other two charged solutes gave about 25, 20 and 15% increases in k, respectively. The stochastic model of chromatography was applied to estimate the dependence of the average number of adsorption/desorption events (n) and the average time spent by a molecule in the stationary phase (τs) on temperature and pressure on peak shape for the tailing, basic solute. Increasing the temperature yielded an increase in n and decrease in τs which resulted in less skew at high temperatures. With increasing pressure, the stochastic modeling gave interesting results for the basic solute showing that the skew of the peak increased with pressure. The conclusion is that pressure effects are more pronounced for both retention and peak shape than the temperature effects for the polar or charged compounds in our study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthesis of monodisperse silica microspheres and modification with diazoresin for mixed-mode ultra high performance liquid chromatography separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Hailin; Yu, Bing; Tian, Chao; Zhang, Shuai; Yuan, Hua

    2017-11-01

    Monodisperse silica particles with average diameters of 1.9-2.9 μm were synthesized by a modified Stöber method, in which tetraethyl orthosilicate was continuously supplied to the reaction mixture containing KCl electrolyte, water, ethanol, and ammonia. The obtained silica particles were modified by self-assembly with positively charged photosensitive diazoresin on the surface. After treatment with ultraviolet light, the ionic bonding between silica and diazoresin was converted into covalent bonding through a unique photochemistry reaction of diazoresin. Depending on the chemical structure of diazoresin and mobile phase composition, the diazoresin-modified silica stationary phase showed different separation mechanisms, including reversed phase and hydrophilic interactions. Therefore, a variety of baseline separation of benzene analogues and organic acids was achieved by using the diazoresin-modified silica particles as packing materials in ultra high performance liquid chromatography. According to the π-π interactional difference between carbon rings of fullerenes and benzene rings of diazoresin, C 60 and C 70 were also well separated by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. Because it has a small size, the ∼2.5 μm monodisperse diazoresin-modified silica stationary phase shows ultra-high efficiency compared with the commercial C 18 -silica high-performance liquid chromatography stationary phase with average diameters of ∼5 μm. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Application of ultra high pressure (UHP) in starch chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Seok; Kim, Byung-Yong; Baik, Moo-Yeol

    2012-01-01

    Ultra high pressure (UHP) processing is an attractive non-thermal technique for food treatment and preservation at room temperature, with the potential to achieve interesting functional effects. The majority of UHP process applications in food systems have focused on shelf-life extension associated with non-thermal sterilization and a reduction or increase in enzymatic activity. Only a few studies have investigated modifications of structural characteristics and/or protein functionalities. Despite the rapid expansion of UHP applications in food systems, limited information is available on the effects of UHP on the structural and physicochemical properties of starch and/or its chemical derivatives included in most processed foods as major ingredients or minor additives. Starch and its chemical derivatives are responsible for textural and physical properties of food systems, impacting their end-use quality and/or shelf-life. This article reviews UHP processes for native (unmodified) starch granules and their effects on the physicochemical properties of UHP-treated starch. Furthermore, functional roles of UHP in acid-hydrolysis, hydroxypropylation, acetylation, and cross-linking reactions of starch granules, as well as the physicochemical properties of UHP-assisted starch chemical derivatives, are discussed.

  4. Fracture toughness of ultra high performance concrete by flexural performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manolova Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the fracture toughness of the innovative structural material - Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC, evaluated by flexural performance. For determination the material behaviour by static loading are used adapted standard test methods for flexural performance of fiber-reinforced concrete (ASTM C 1609 and ASTM C 1018. Fracture toughness is estimated by various deformation parameters derived from the load-deflection curve, obtained by testing simple supported beam under third-point loading, using servo-controlled testing system. This method is used to be estimated the contribution of the embedded fiber-reinforcement into improvement of the fractural behaviour of UHPC by changing the crack-resistant capacity, fracture toughness and energy absorption capacity with various mechanisms. The position of the first crack has been formulated based on P-δ (load- deflection response and P-ε (load - longitudinal deformation in the tensile zone response, which are used for calculation of the two toughness indices I5 and I10. The combination of steel fibres with different dimensions leads to a composite, having at the same time increased crack resistance, first crack formation, ductility and post-peak residual strength.

  5. Some aspects of ultra high energy gamma ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jager, O.C.

    1983-11-01

    A short review of ultra high energy (UHE) gamma ray astronomy (10 11 14 eV) as well as a description of a planned experiment to be erected at Potchefstroom is given in the introduction. This experiment will be the first and only one in the Southern Hemisphere and as such may play an important role in this new field of astronomy and astrophysics. In the first part the necessary infrastructure for astronomical observations of known celestial objects is developed. This embodies the special physical, mechanical and astronomical constraints in this type of astronomy, such as the definition of the various astronomical coordinate systems and transformations between them, the effect of precession and nutation on the source position etc. This leads to automatic observation schedules for the various applicable techniques of observation. In the second part the various effects which may influence the arrival time of a gamma ray at the telescope is investigated. It is found that dispersion and relativistic effects are negligible, given the special type of analysis used in this low counting rate system. The classic Doppler effect due to the motion of Earth as well as the configuration of the telescope does have a major effect and must be taken into consideration when analysing the data. A simple method, depending only on the movement of Earth around the sun, is developed to simplify the identification of pulsars at the planned observatory where computing facilities are limited

  6. A new generation of ultra high strength steel pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brozda, J.; Zeman, M.; Weglowski, M.

    2008-01-01

    For many years an increased demand for natural gas can be observed. Ultra high-strength pipelines with higher operating pressures and/or reduced wall thickness are a means to reduce transmission costs. Motivated by reduced investment costs (overcharge a few billion of dollars), tend towards the development of a new grade of pipeline steel with microalloying element for example Nb, that potentially lowers the total cost of long-distance gas pipelines by 5 - 15%. New long distance pipelines have budgets in excess of several billion dollars. This paper describes mechanical properties of new generation of pipelines steel with higher content of niobium and the influence the welding thermal cycles on the microstructure and brittle fracture resistance. The resistance to cold cracking has also been determined. It was found that the new steel has close properties to API X70 grade steels, but is cheaper in manufacturing and installation. The steel has been covered by the amended EN 10028-5 standard and proper modifications will also be made in other European standards. (author)

  7. Ultra High-Speed Radio Frequency Switch Based on Photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jia; Fok, Mable P

    2015-11-26

    Microwave switches, or Radio Frequency (RF) switches have been intensively used in microwave systems for signal routing. Compared with the fast development of microwave and wireless systems, RF switches have been underdeveloped particularly in terms of switching speed and operating bandwidth. In this paper, we propose a photonics based RF switch that is capable of switching at tens of picoseconds speed, which is hundreds of times faster than any existing RF switch technologies. The high-speed switching property is achieved with the use of a rapidly tunable microwave photonic filter with tens of gigahertz frequency tuning speed, where the tuning mechanism is based on the ultra-fast electro-optics Pockels effect. The RF switch has a wide operation bandwidth of 12 GHz and can go up to 40 GHz, depending on the bandwidth of the modulator used in the scheme. The proposed RF switch can either work as an ON/OFF switch or a two-channel switch, tens of picoseconds switching speed is experimentally observed for both type of switches.

  8. SLC polarized beam source ultra-high-vacuum design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavine, T.L.; Clendenin, J.E.; Garwin, E.L.; Hoyt, E.W.; Hoyt, M.W.; Miller, R.H.; Nuttall, J.A.; Schultz, D.C.; Wright, D.

    1991-05-01

    This paper describes the design of the ultra-high vacuum system for the beam-line from the 160-kV polarized electron gun to the linac injector in the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). The polarized electron source is a GaAs photocathode, requiring 10 -11 -Torr-range pressure for adequate quantum efficiency and longevity. The photo-cathode is illuminated by 3-nsec-long laser pulses. Photo-cathode maintenance and improvements require occasional substitution of guns with rapid restoration of UHV conditions. Differential pumping is crucial since the pressure in the injector is more than 10 times greater than the photocathode can tolerate, and since electron-stimulated gas desorption from beam loss in excess of 0.1% of the 20-nC pulses may poison the photocathode. Our design for the transport line contains a differential pumping region isolated by a pair of valves. Exchange of guns requires venting only this isolated region which can be restored to UHV rapidly by baking. The differential pumping is performed by non-evaporable getters (NEGs) and an ion pump. 3 refs., 3 figs

  9. Ultra high resolution soft x-ray tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, W.S.; Trebes, J.E.; Goodman, D.M.; Lee, H.R.; McNulty, I.; Zalensky, A.O.

    1995-01-01

    Ultra high resolution three dimensional images of a microscopic test object were made with soft x-rays using a scanning transmission x-ray microscope. The test object consisted of two different patterns of gold bars on silicon nitride windows that were separated by ∼5 microm. A series of nine 2-D images of the object were recorded at angles between -50 to +55 degrees with respect to the beam axis. The projections were then combined tomographically to form a 3-D image by means of an algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) algorithm. A transverse resolution of ∼ 1,000 angstrom was observed. Artifacts in the reconstruction limited the overall depth resolution to ∼ 6,000 angstrom, however some features were clearly reconstructed with a depth resolution of ∼ 1,000 angstrom. A specially modified ART algorithm and a constrained conjugate gradient (CCG) code were also developed as improvements over the standard ART algorithm. Both of these methods made significant improvements in the overall depth resolution, bringing it down to ∼ 1,200 angstrom overall. Preliminary projection data sets were also recorded with both dry and re-hydrated human sperm cells over a similar angular range

  10. Ultra high resolution soft x-ray tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, W.S.; Trebes, J.E.; Goodman, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    Ultra high resolution three dimensional images of a microscopic test object were made with soft x-rays using a scanning transmission x-ray microscope. The test object consisted of two different patterns of gold bars on silicon nitride windows that were separated by ∼5μm. A series of nine 2-D images of the object were recorded at angles between -50 to +55 degrees with respect to the beam axis. The projections were then combined tomographically to form a 3-D image by means of an algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) algorithm. A transverse resolution of ∼1000 Angstrom was observed. Artifacts in the reconstruction limited the overall depth resolution to ∼6000 Angstrom, however some features were clearly reconstructed with a depth resolution of ∼1000 Angstrom. A specially modified ART algorithm and a constrained conjugate gradient (CCG) code were also developed as improvements over the standard ART algorithm. Both of these methods made significant improvements in the overall depth resolution bringing it down to ∼1200 Angstrom overall. Preliminary projection data sets were also recorded with both dry and re-hydrated human sperm cells over a similar angular range

  11. An ultra-high speed whole slide image viewing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Yukako; Yoshioka, Shigeatsu; Kyusojin, Hiroshi; Onozato, Maristela; Mizutani, Yoichi; Osato, Kiyoshi; Yada, Hiroaki; Mark, Eugene J; Frosch, Matthew P; Louis, David N

    2012-01-01

    One of the goals for a Whole Slide Imaging (WSI) system is implementation in the clinical practice of pathology. One of the unresolved problems in accomplishing this goal is the speed of the entire process, i.e., from viewing the slides through making the final diagnosis. Most users are not satisfied with the correct viewing speeds of available systems. We have evaluated a new WSI viewing station and tool that focuses on speed. A prototype WSI viewer based on PlayStation®3 with wireless controllers was evaluated at the Department of Pathology at MGH for the following reasons: 1. For the simulation of signing-out cases; 2. Enabling discussion at a consensus conference; and 3. Use at slide seminars during a Continuing Medical Education course. Pathologists were being able to use the system comfortably after 0-15 min training. There were no complaints regarding speed. Most pathologists were satisfied with the functionality, usability and speed of the system. The most difficult situation was simulating diagnostic sign-out. The preliminary results of adapting the Sony PlayStation®3 (PS3®) as an ultra-high speed WSI viewing system were promising. The achieved speed is consistent with what would be needed to use WSI in daily practice.

  12. Ultra-high gain diffusion-driven organic transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torricelli, Fabrizio; Colalongo, Luigi; Raiteri, Daniele; Kovács-Vajna, Zsolt Miklós; Cantatore, Eugenio

    2016-01-01

    Emerging large-area technologies based on organic transistors are enabling the fabrication of low-cost flexible circuits, smart sensors and biomedical devices. High-gain transistors are essential for the development of large-scale circuit integration, high-sensitivity sensors and signal amplification in sensing systems. Unfortunately, organic field-effect transistors show limited gain, usually of the order of tens, because of the large contact resistance and channel-length modulation. Here we show a new organic field-effect transistor architecture with a gain larger than 700. This is the highest gain ever reported for organic field-effect transistors. In the proposed organic field-effect transistor, the charge injection and extraction at the metal–semiconductor contacts are driven by the charge diffusion. The ideal conditions of ohmic contacts with negligible contact resistance and flat current saturation are demonstrated. The approach is general and can be extended to any thin-film technology opening unprecedented opportunities for the development of high-performance flexible electronics. PMID:26829567

  13. High Intensity High Charge State ECR Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Leitner, Daniela

    2005-01-01

    The next-generation heavy ion beam accelerators such as the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA), the Radioactive Ion Beam Factory at RIKEN, the GSI upgrade project, the LHC-upgrade, and IMP in Lanzhou require a great variety of high charge state ion beams with a magnitude higher beam intensity than currently achievable. High performance Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion sources can provide the flexibility since they can routinely produce beams from hydrogen to uranium. Over the last three decades, ECR ion sources have continued improving the available ion beam intensities by increasing the magnetic fields and ECR heating frequencies to enhance the confinement and the plasma density. With advances in superconducting magnet technology, a new generation of high field superconducting sources is now emerging, designed to meet the requirements of these next generation accelerator projects. The talk will briefly review the field of high performance ECR ion sources and the latest developments for high intens...

  14. Ultra-High Field Magnets for X-Ray and Neutron Scattering using High Temperature Superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winn, Barry L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Broholm, C. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Bird, M. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). National High Magnetic Field Lab. (MagLab); Breneman, Bruce C. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Coffey, Michael [Cryomagnetics, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cutler, Roy I. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Duckworth, Robert C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Erwin, R. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Hahn, Seungyong [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). National High Magnetic Field Lab. (MagLab); Hernandez, Yamali [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Herwig, Kenneth W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Holland, Leo D. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Lonergan, Kevin M. [Oxford Instruments, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Melhem, Ziad [Oxford Instruments, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Minter, Stephen J. [Cryomagnetics, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nelson, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Paranthaman, M. Parans [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pierce, Josh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ruff, Jacob [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Shen, Tengming [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherline, Todd E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smeibidl, Peter G. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB), (Germany); Tennant, David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); van der Laan, Danko [Advanced Conductor Technologies, LLC, Boulder, CO (United States); Wahle, Robert J. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB), (Germany); Zhang, Yifei [SuperPower, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)

    2017-01-01

    X-ray and neutron scattering techniques are capable of acquiring information about the structure and dynamics of quantum matter. However, the high-field magnet systems currently available at x-ray and neutron scattering facilities in the United States are limited to fields of 16 tesla (T) at maximum, which precludes applications that require and/or study ultra-high field states of matter. This gap in capability—and the need to address it—is a central conclusion of the 2005 National Academy of Sciences report by the Committee on Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science. To address this gap, we propose a magnet development program that would more than double the field range accessible to scattering experiments. With the development and use of new ultra-high field–magnets, the program would bring into view new worlds of quantum matter with profound impacts on our understanding of advanced electronic materials.

  15. Electromagnetically-induced nuclear-charge pickup observed in ultra-relativistic Pb collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidenberger, C.; Aumann, T.; Pshenichnov, I.A.; Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow

    2002-01-01

    A strong increase of inclusive nuclear-charge pickup cross sections, forming 83 Bi from 158 A GeV 82 Pb ions, is observed in comparison to similar measurements at 10.6 A GeV. From the dependence of these cross sections on target atomic number, this increase is attributed to the electromagnetic process of pion production by equivalent photons. The observed cross sections can be reproduced quantitatively using the recently developed RELDIS code. (orig.)

  16. The influence of the speed of the down-ward leader channel in computation of additional charge for protection against direct lightning strike by charge transfer system in 'ultra-corona' mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talevski, V.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper computation of additional charge is done for protection against direct lightning strike, by charge transfer system, by point electrode, in 'ultra-corona' mode. The influence of the voltage increase in a very small time interval is computed and the influence is taken into consideration in the computation of the additional space charge on the object used for protection. The model of the electrical thundercloud is taken into consideration with all the electrical charge in it with its corresponding heights above ground. Plotted values are presented of the speed of the down-ward leader from the cloud versus the additional space charge, needed to be placed on the top of the object protected by direct lightning. Plotted values are also presented of different position of the horizontal distance of the protected object and its height versus the additional space charge. (Authors)

  17. Ultra-high Density SNParray in Neuroblastoma Molecular Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge M. Ambros

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma serves as a paradigm for applying tumor genomic data for determining patient prognosis and thus for treatment allocation. MYCN status, i.e. amplified vs. non-amplified, was one of the very first biomarkers in oncology to discriminate aggressive from less aggressive or even favorable clinical courses of neuroblastoma. However, MYCN amplification is by far not the only genetic change associated with unfavorable clinical courses: so called segmental chromosomal aberrations, i.e. gains or losses of chromosomal fragments, can also indicate tumor aggressiveness. The clinical use of these genomic aberrations has, however, been hampered for many years by methodical and interpretational problems. Only after reaching worldwide consensus on markers, methodology, and data interpretation, information on SCAs has recently been implemented in clinical studies. Now, a number of collaborative studies within COG, GPOH and SIOPEN use genomic information to stratify therapy for patients with localized and metastatic disease. Recently, new types of DNA based aberrations influencing the clinical behavior of neuroblastomas have been described. Deletions or mutations of genes like ATRX and a phenomenon referred to as chromothripsis are all assumed to correlate with an unfavorable clinical behavior. However, these genomic aberrations need to be scrutinized in larger studies applying the most appropriate techniques. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP arrays have proven successful in deciphering genomic aberrations of cancer cells; these techniques, however, are usually not applied in the daily routine. Here, we present an ultra-high density (UHD SNParray technique which is, because of its high specificity and sensitivity and the combined copy number and allele information, highly appropriate for the genomic diagnosis of neuroblastoma and other malignancies.

  18. Properties of matter at ultra-high densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, B.; Chitre, S.M.

    1975-01-01

    The recent discovery of pulsars and their subsequent identification with neutron stars has given a great impetus to the study of the behaviour of matter at ultra high densities. The object of these studies is to calculate the equation of state as a function of density. In this paper, the properties of electrically neutral, cold (T=0) matter at unusually high densities has been reviewed. The physics of the equation of state of such matter divides quite naturally in four density ranges. (i) At the very lowest densities the state of minimum energy is a lattice of 56 Fe atoms. This state persists upto 10 7 g/cm 3 . (ii) In the next density region the nuclei at the lattice sites become neutron rich because the high electron Fermi energy makes inverse beta decay possible. (iii) At a density 4.3 x 10 11 the nuclei become so neutron rich that the neutrons start 'dripping' out of the nuclei and form a gas. This density range is characterised by large, neutron-rich nuclei immersed in a neutron gas. (iv) At a density 2.4 x 10 14 g/cm 3 , the nuclei disappear and a fluid of uniform neutron matter with a small percentage of protons and electrons results. The above four density ranges have been discussed in detail as the equation of state is now well established upto the nuclear density 3 x 10 14 g/cm 3 . The problems of extending the equation of state beyond this density are also touched upon. (author)

  19. Ground Glass Pozzolan in Conventional, High, and Ultra-High Performance Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Tagnit-Hamou Arezki; Zidol Ablam; Soliman Nancy; Deschamps Joris; Omran Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    Ground-glass pozzolan (G) obtained by grinding the mixed-waste glass to same fineness of cement can act as a supplementary-cementitious material (SCM), given that it is an amorphous and a pozzolanic material. The G showed promising performances in different concrete types such as conventional concrete (CC), high-performance concrete (HPC), and ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC). The current paper reports on the characteristics and performance of G in these concrete types. The use of G pro...

  20. Plan charge exchange scattering at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.; Bhatti, S.; Fazal-e-Aleem; Rafique, M.

    1980-01-01

    By a phenomenological choice of the residue functions, a very good fit with experiment for the pion-nucleon charge exchange reaction at Fermilab energies is obtained on a simple Regge-pole model using a quadratic rho trajectory and energy-independent parameters

  1. Ultra-high energy physics and standard basic principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Mestres Luis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It has not yet been elucidated whether the observed flux suppression for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR at energies above ≃ 4 x 1019 eV is a signature of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK cutoff or a consequence of other phenomena. In both cases, violations of the standard fundamental principles of Physics can be present and play a significant role. They can in particular modify cosmic-ray interactions, propagation or acceleration at very high energy. Thus, in a long-term program, UHECR data can hopefully be used to test relativity, quantum mechanics, energy and momentum conservation, vacuum properties... as well as the elementariness of standard particles. Data on cosmic rays at energies ≃ 1020 eV may also be sensitive to new physics generated well beyond Planck scale. A typical example is provided by the search for possible signatures of a Lorentz symmetry violation (LSV associated to a privileged local reference frame (the "vacuum rest frame", VRF. If a VRF exists, the internal structure of standard particles at ultra-high energy can undergo substantial modifications. Similarly, the conventional particle symmetries may cease to be valid at such energies instead of heading to a grand unification and the structure of vacuum may no longer be governed by standard quantum field theory. Then, the question whether the notion of Planck scale still makes sense clearly becomes relevant and the very grounds of Cosmology can undergo essential modifications. UHECR studies naturally interact with the interpretation of WMAP and Planck observations. Recent Planck data analyses tend to confirm the possible existence of a privileged space direction. If the observed phenomenon turns out to be a signature of the spinorial space-time (SST we suggested in 1996-97, then conventional Particle Physics may correspond to the local properties of standard matter at low enough energy and large enough distances. This would clearly strengthen the cosmological

  2. Advanced Ultra-High Speed Motor for Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Impact Technologies LLC; University of Texas at Arlington

    2007-03-31

    Three (3) designs have been made for two sizes, 6.91 cm (2.72 inch) and 4.29 cm (1.69 inch) outer diameters, of a patented inverted configured Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines (PMSM) electric motor specifically for drilling at ultra-high rotational speeds (10,000 rpm) and that can utilize advanced drilling methods. Benefits of these motors are stackable power sections, full control (speed and direction) of downhole motors, flow hydraulics independent of motor operation, application of advanced drilling methods (water jetting and abrasive slurry jetting), and the ability of signal/power electric wires through motor(s). Key features of the final designed motors are: fixed non-rotating shaft with stator coils attached; rotating housing with permanent magnet (PM) rotor attached; bit attached to rotating housing; internal channel(s) in a nonrotating shaft; electric components that are hydrostatically isolated from high internal pressure circulating fluids ('muds') by static metal to metal seals; liquid filled motor with smoothed features for minimized turbulence in the motor during operation; and new inverted coated metal-metal hydrodynamic bearings and seals. PMSM, Induction and Switched Reluctance Machines (SRM), all pulse modulated, were considered, but PMSM were determined to provide the highest power density for the shortest motors. Both radial and axial electric PMSM driven motors were designed with axial designs deemed more rugged for ultra-high speed, drilling applications. The 6.91 cm (2.72 inch) OD axial inverted motor can generate 4.18KW (5.61 Hp) power at 10,000 rpm with a 4 Nm (2.95 ft-lbs) of torque for every 30.48 cm (12 inches) of power section. The 6.91 cm (2.72 inch) OD radial inverted motor can generate 5.03 KW (6.74 Hp) with 4.8 Nm (3.54 ft-lb) torque at 10,000 rpm for every 30.48 cm (12 inches) of power section. The 4.29 cm (1.69 inch) OD radial inverted motor can generate 2.56 KW (3.43 Hp) power with 2.44 Nm (1.8 ft-lb) torque at

  3. Space-charge compensation of highly charged ion beam from laser ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrashev, S.A.; Collier, J.; Sherwood, T.R.

    1996-01-01

    The problem of matching an ion beam delivered by a high-intensity ion source with an accelerator is considered. The experimental results of highly charged ion beam transport with space-charge compensation by electrons are presented. A tungsten thermionic cathode is used as a source of electrons for beam compensation. An increase of ion beam current density by a factor of 25 is obtained as a result of space-charge compensation at a distance of 3 m from the extraction system. The process of ion beam space-charge compensation, requirements for a source of electrons, and the influence of recombination losses in a space-charge-compensated ion beam are discussed. (author)

  4. Diffuse axonal injury at ultra-high field MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Moenninghoff

    Full Text Available Diffuse axonal injury (DAI is a specific type of traumatic brain injury caused by shearing forces leading to widespread tearing of axons and small vessels. Traumatic microbleeds (TMBs are regarded as a radiological marker for DAI. This study aims to compare DAI-associated TMBs at 3 Tesla (T and 7 T susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI to evaluate possible diagnostic benefits of ultra-high field (UHF MRI.10 study participants (4 male, 6 female, age range 20-74 years with known DAI were included. All MR exams were performed with a 3 T MR system (Magnetom Skyra and a 7 T MR research system (Magnetom 7 T, Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Erlangen, Germany each in combination with a 32-channel-receive coil. The average time interval between trauma and imaging was 22 months. Location and count of TMBs were independently evaluated by two neuroradiologists on 3 T and 7 T SWI images with similar and additionally increased spatial resolution at 7 T. Inter- and intraobserver reliability was assessed using the interclass correlation coefficient (ICC. Count and diameter of TMB were evaluated with Wilcoxon signed rank test.Susceptibility weighted imaging revealed a total of 485 TMBs (range 1-190, median 25 at 3 T, 584 TMBs (plus 20%, range 1-262, median 30.5 at 7 T with similar spatial resolution, and 684 TMBs (plus 41%, range 1-288, median 39.5 at 7 T with 10-times higher spatial resolution. Hemorrhagic DAI appeared significantly larger at 7 T compared to 3 T (p = 0.005. Inter- and intraobserver correlation regarding the counted TMB was high and almost equal 3 T and 7 T.7 T SWI improves the depiction of small hemorrhagic DAI compared to 3 T and may be supplementary to lower field strengths for diagnostic in inconclusive or medicolegal cases.

  5. Laser beam welding of new ultra-high strength and supra-ductile steels

    OpenAIRE

    Dahmen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-high strength and supra-ductile are entering fields of new applications. Those materials are excellent candidates for modern light-weight construction and functional integration. As ultra-high strength steels the stainless martensitic grade 1.4034 and the bainitic steel UNS 53835 are investigated. For the supra-ductile steels stand two high austenitic steels with 18 and 28 % manganese. As there are no processing windows an approach from the metallurgical base on is required. Adjusting t...

  6. Connections in Precast Buildings using Ultra High-Strength Fibre Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Pilegaard

    1995-01-01

    Ultra high-strength concrete adds new dimensions to the design of concrete structures. It is a brittle material but introducing fibres into the matrix changes the material into a highly ductile material. Furthermore, the fibre reinforcement increases the anchorage of traditional reinforcement bar...... and the fire resistance. Such a fibre reinforced ultra high-strength material has been used to develop a simple joint solution between slab elements in a column - slab building system....

  7. Single photon imaging at ultra-high resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellazzini, R. [INFN sez. Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Spandre, G. [INFN sez. Pisa, Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: Gloria.Spandre@pi.infn.it; Minuti, M.; Brez, A.; Baldini, L.; Latronico, L.; Omodei, N.; Sgro, C.; Bregeon, J.; Razzano, M.; Pinchera, M. [INFN sez. Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Tremsin, A.; McPhate, J.; Vallerga, J.V.; Siegmund, O. [SSL, Berkeley (United States)

    2008-06-11

    We present a detection system capable of imaging both single photon/positive ion and multiple coincidence photons/positive ions with extremely high spatial resolution. In this detector the photoelectrons excited by the incoming photons are multiplied by microchannel plate(s) (MCP). The process of multiplication is spatially constrained within an MCP pore, which can be as small as 4 {mu}m for commercially available MCPs. An electron cloud originated by a single photoelectron is then encoded by a pixellated custom analog ASIC consisting of 105 K charge sensitive pixels of 50 {mu}m in size arranged on a hexagonal grid. Each pixel registers the charge with an accuracy of <100 electrons rms. Computation of the event centroid from the readout charges results in an accurate event position. A large number of simultaneous photons spatially separated by {approx}0.4 mm can be detected simultaneously allowing multiple coincidence operation for the experiments where a large number of incoming photons/positive ions have to be detected simultaneously. The experimental results prove that the spatial resolution of the readout system itself is {approx}3 {mu}m FWHM enabling detection resolution better than 6 {mu}m for the small pore MCPs. An attractive feature of the detection system is its capability to register the timing of each incoming photon/positive ion (in single photon detection mode) or of the first incoming particle (for the multiple coincidence detection) with an accuracy of {approx}130 ps FWHM. There is also virtually no dark count noise in the detection system making it suitable for low count rate applications.

  8. On the Origin of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, T K; Colgate, S; Li, H; Bulmer, R H; Pino, J

    2011-03-08

    We show that accretion disks around Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) could account for the enormous power in observed ultra high energy cosmic rays {approx}10{sup 20} eV (UHEs). In our model, cosmic rays are produced by quasi-steady acceleration of ions in magnetic structures previously proposed to explain jets around Active Galactic Nuclei with supermassive black holes. Steady acceleration requires that an AGN accretion disk act as a dynamo, which we show to follow from a modified Standard Model in which the magnetic torque of the dynamo replaces viscosity as the dominant mechanism accounting for angular momentum conservation during accretion. A black hole of mass M{sub BH} produces a steady dynamo voltage V {proportional_to} {radical}M{sub BH} giving V {approx} 10{sup 20} volts for M{sub BH} {approx} 10{sup 8} solar masses. The voltage V reappears as an inductive electric field at the advancing nose of a dynamo-driven jet, where plasma instability inherent in collisionless runaway acceleration allows ions to be steadily accelerated to energies {approx} V, finally ejected as cosmic rays. Transient events can produce much higher energies. The predicted disk radiation is similar to the Standard Model. Unique predictions concern the remarkable collimation of jets and emissions from the jet/radiolobe structure. Given MBH and the accretion rate, the model makes 7 predictions roughly consistent with data: (1) the jet length; (2) the jet radius; (3) the steady-state cosmic ray energy spectrum; (4) the maximum energy in this spectrum; (5) the UHE cosmic ray intensity on Earth; (6) electron synchrotron wavelengths; and (7) the power in synchrotron radiation. These qualitative successes motivate new computer simulations, experiments and data analysis to provide a quantitative verification of the model.

  9. Properties of crosslinked ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, G

    2001-02-01

    Substantially reducing the rate of generation of wear particles at the surfaces of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) orthopedic implant bearing components, in vivo, is widely regarded as one of the most formidable challenges in modern arthroplasty. In the light of this, much research attention has been paid to the myriad of endogenous and exogenous factors that have been postulated to affect this wear rate, one such factor being the polymer itself. In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in crosslinking the polymer as a way of improving its properties that are considered relevant to its use for fabricating bearing components. Such properties include wear resistance, fatigue life, and fatigue crack propagation rate. Although a large volume of literature exists on the topic on the impact of crosslinking on the properties of UHMWPE, no critical appraisal of this literature has been published. This is one of the goals of the present article, which emphasizes three aspects. The first is the trade-off between improvement in wear resistance and depreciation in other mechanical and physical properties. The second aspect is the presentation of a method of estimating the optimal value of a crosslinking process variable (such as dose in radiation-induced crosslinking) that takes into account this trade-off. The third aspect is the description of a collection of under- and unexplored research areas in the field of crosslinked UHMWPE, such as the role of starting resin on the properties of the crosslinked polymer, and the in vitro evaluation of the wear rate of crosslinked tibial inserts and other bearing components that, in vivo, are subjected to nearly unidirectional motion.

  10. Innovative Ultra-High Efficiency Cryogenic Actuators for Rocket Test Facilities, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SBIR Phase I project will develop advanced ultra-high efficiency cryogenic actuators for NASA cryogenic fluid transfer application. The actuator will have low...

  11. Ultra-Lightweight High Efficiency Nanostructured Materials and Coatings for Deep Space Mission Environments, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NanoSonic has developed a nanostructured spray self-assembly manufacturing method that has resulted in ultra-lightweight ( 1000%), and multi-layer, high efficiency...

  12. Failure Modes of a Unidirectional Ultra-High-Modulus Carbon-Fiber/Carbon-Matrix Composite

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zaldivar, R

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to observe the effects of various microstructural features on the in situ, room-temperature tensile fracture behavior of an ultra-high-modulus, unidirectional carbon/carbon (C/C...

  13. Ultra-Lightweight, High Efficiency Silicon-Carbide (SIC) Based Power Electronic Converters, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business of Innovation Research Phase I proposal seeks to investigate and prove the feasibility of developing highly efficient, ultra-lightweight SiC...

  14. Ultra-high performance concrete : a state-of-the-art report for the bridge community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    "The term Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) refers to a relatively new class of advanced cementitious : composite materials whose mechanical and durability properties far surpass those of conventional concrete. This : class of concrete has been ...

  15. Design and evaluation of a single-span bridge using ultra-high performance concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    "Research presented herein describes an application of a newly developed material called Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) to a : single-span bridge. The two primary objectives of this research were to develop a shear design procedure for possib...

  16. Durability and smart condition assessment of ultra-high performance concrete in cold climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-31

    The goals of this study were to develop ecological ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) with local materials and supplementary cementitious materials and to evaluate the long-term performance of UHPC in cold climates using effective mechanical test...

  17. Specific features of high-cycle and ultra-high-cycle fatigue

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukáš, Petr; Kunz, Ludvík

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 25, - (2002), s. 747-753 ISSN 8756-758X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1010104; GA AV ČR IAA2041002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : ultra high cycle fatigue * fatigue mechanisms * cyclic plastic deformation Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 0.701, year: 2002

  18. The Time Lens Concept Applied to Ultra-High-Speed OTDM Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Palushani, Evarist; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen

    2013-01-01

    This survey paper presents some of the applications where the versatile time-lens concept successfully can be applied to ultra-high-speed serial systems by offering expected needed functionalities for future optical communication networks.......This survey paper presents some of the applications where the versatile time-lens concept successfully can be applied to ultra-high-speed serial systems by offering expected needed functionalities for future optical communication networks....

  19. SimProp: a simulation code for ultra high energy cosmic ray propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloisio, R.; Grillo, A.F.; Boncioli, D.; Petrera, S.; Salamida, F.

    2012-01-01

    A new Monte Carlo simulation code for the propagation of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays is presented. The results of this simulation scheme are tested by comparison with results of another Monte Carlo computation as well as with the results obtained by directly solving the kinetic equation for the propagation of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays. A short comparison with the latest flux published by the Pierre Auger collaboration is also presented

  20. Acoustic detection of ultra-high energy cascades in ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeser, S.

    2006-12-08

    Current underwater optical neutrino telescopes are designed to detect neutrinos from astrophysical sources with energies in the TeV range. Due to the low fluxes and small cross sections, no high energy neutrinos of extraterrestrial origin have been observed so far. Only the Cherenkov neutrino detectors on the km{sup 3} scale that are currently under construction will have the necessary volume to observe these rare interactions. For the guaranteed source of neutrinos from interactions of the ultra-high energy cosmic at EeV energies rays with the ambient cosmic microwave background, event rates of only one per year are expected in these experiments. To measure the flux and verify the predicted cross sections of these cosmogenic neutrinos, an observed volume of the order of 100 km{sup 3} will be necessary, that will not be feasible with existing detection techniques. Alternative methods are required to build a detector on these scales. One promising idea is to record the acoustic waves generated in hadronic or electromagnetic cascades following the neutrino interaction. The higher amplitudes of the sonic signal and the large expected absorption length of sound favour South Polar ice instead of sea water as a medium. The prerequisites for an estimate of the potential of such a detector are suitable acoustic sensors, a verification of the model of thermo-acoustic sound generation and a determination of the acoustic properties of the ice. In a theoretical derivation the mechanism of thermo-elastic excitation of acoustic waves was shown to be equivalent for isotropic solids and liquids. Following a detailed analysis of the existing knowledge a simulation study of a hybrid optical-radio-acoustic detector has been performed. Ultrasonic sensors dedicated to in-ice application were developed and have been used to record acoustic signals from intense proton and laser beams in water and ice. With the obtained experience, the hitherto largest array of acoustic sensors and

  1. Acoustic detection of ultra-high energy cascades in ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeser, S.

    2006-01-01

    Current underwater optical neutrino telescopes are designed to detect neutrinos from astrophysical sources with energies in the TeV range. Due to the low fluxes and small cross sections, no high energy neutrinos of extraterrestrial origin have been observed so far. Only the Cherenkov neutrino detectors on the km 3 scale that are currently under construction will have the necessary volume to observe these rare interactions. For the guaranteed source of neutrinos from interactions of the ultra-high energy cosmic at EeV energies rays with the ambient cosmic microwave background, event rates of only one per year are expected in these experiments. To measure the flux and verify the predicted cross sections of these cosmogenic neutrinos, an observed volume of the order of 100 km 3 will be necessary, that will not be feasible with existing detection techniques. Alternative methods are required to build a detector on these scales. One promising idea is to record the acoustic waves generated in hadronic or electromagnetic cascades following the neutrino interaction. The higher amplitudes of the sonic signal and the large expected absorption length of sound favour South Polar ice instead of sea water as a medium. The prerequisites for an estimate of the potential of such a detector are suitable acoustic sensors, a verification of the model of thermo-acoustic sound generation and a determination of the acoustic properties of the ice. In a theoretical derivation the mechanism of thermo-elastic excitation of acoustic waves was shown to be equivalent for isotropic solids and liquids. Following a detailed analysis of the existing knowledge a simulation study of a hybrid optical-radio-acoustic detector has been performed. Ultrasonic sensors dedicated to in-ice application were developed and have been used to record acoustic signals from intense proton and laser beams in water and ice. With the obtained experience, the hitherto largest array of acoustic sensors and transmitters was

  2. Concept for high-charge-state ion induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, B.G.; Perry, M.D.; Caporaso, G.J.

    1996-01-01

    This work describes a particular concept for ion induction linac accelerators using high-charge-state ions produced by an intense, short pulse laser, and compares the costs of a modular driver system producing 6.5 MJ for a variety of ion masses and charge states using a simple but consistent cost model

  3. Charged dust in planetary magnetospheres: Hamiltonian dynamics and numerical simulations for highly charged grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, L.; Burns, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    We use a combination of analytical and numerical methods to investigate the dynamics of charged dust grains in planetary magnetospheres. Our emphasis is on obtaining results valid for particles that are not necessarily dominated either by gravitational or electromagnetic forces. A Hamiltonian formulation of the problem yields exact results, for all values of charge-to-mass ratio, when we introduce two constraints: particles remain in the equatorial plane and the magnetic field is taken as axially symmetric. In particular, we obtain locations of equilibrium points, the frequencies of stable periodic orbits, the topology of separatrices in phase space, and the rate of longitudinal drift. These results are significant for specific applications: motion in the nearly aligned dipolar field of Saturn, and the trajectories of arbitrarily charged particles in complex magnetic fields for limited periods of time after ejection from parent bodies. Since the model is restrictive, we also use numerical integrations of the full three-dimensional equations of motion and illustrate under what conditions the constrained problem yields reasonable results. We show that a large fraction of the intermediately charged and highly charged (gyrating) particles will always be lost to a planet's atmosphere within a few hundred hours, for motion through tilted-dipole magnetic fields. We find that grains must have a very high charge-to-mass ratio in order to be mirrored back to the ring plane. Thus, except perhaps at Saturn where the dipole tilt is very small, the likely inhabitants of the dusty ring systems are those particles that are either nearly Keplerian (weakly charged) grains or grains whose charges place them in the lower end of the intermediate charge zone. Fianlly, we demonstrate the effect of plasma drag on the orbits of gyrating particles to be a rapid decrease in gyroradius followed by a slow radial evolution of the guiding center.

  4. A high charge state heavy ion beam source for HIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.

    1995-04-01

    A high current low emittance high charge state heavy ion beam source is being developed. This is designed to deliver HIF (heavy ion fusion) driver accelerator scale beam. Using high-charge-state beam in a driver accelerator for HIF may increase the acceleration efficiency, leading to a reduction in the driver accelerator size and cost. The proposed source system which consists of the gas beam electron stripper followed by a high charge state beam separator, can be added to existing single charge state, low emittance, high brightness ion sources and injectors. We shall report on the source physics design using 2D beam envelope simulations and experimental feasibility studies' results using a neutral gas stripper and a beam separator at the exit of the LBL 2 MV injector

  5. Generation of ultra-intense and ultra-short laser pulses with high temporal contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julien, A.

    2006-03-01

    The topic of this thesis work concerns the design and the characterization of an efficient device devoted to the temporal contrast improvement for ultra-intense femtosecond laser pulses. The contrast is defined as the intensity ratio between the main femtosecond pulse and its nanosecond pedestal. This pedestal is the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), inherent with laser amplification mechanism. The ASE background has dramatic effects for laser-matter interactions on a solid target. The presented work consists in the theoretical and experimental study of a temporal filter based on a third order nonlinear effect acting on the pulse polarization. We have studied several kinds of nonlinear filters. The selected device is based on the process of cross-polarized wave generation (XPW) in crystals with an anisotropic third-order nonlinear susceptibility. This nonlinear filter has been experimented on various femtosecond systems. It allows a contrast improvement of several orders of magnitude, as demonstrated by temporal profiles measurements on a large intensity dynamic. A device to improve the nonlinear process conversion efficiency, it means the filter transmission, has also been achieved. This method is based on constructive interferences between XPW signals generated in different crystals. This setup has made it possible to reach experimentally the maximum theoretical efficiency ( >20%) and in the same time ensures the system stability. At least, we have demonstrated that the filter preserves, or even improves, spectral and spatial qualities of the laser pulse. These results are thus particularly promising and allow contemplating the implementation of the filter in current femtosecond systems. (author)

  6. High rate response of ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concretes under direct tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Ngoc Thanh [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-Dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Tran, Tuan Kiet [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-Dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Civil Engineering and Applied Mechanics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology and Education, 01 Vo Van Ngan, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Kim, Dong Joo, E-mail: djkim75@sejong.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-Dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    The tensile response of ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concretes (UHPFRCs) at high strain rates (5–24 s{sup −} {sup 1}) was investigated. Three types of steel fibers, including twisted, long and short smooth steel fibers, were added by 1.5% volume content in an ultra high performance concrete (UHPC) with a compressive strength of 180 MPa. Two different cross sections, 25 × 25 and 25 × 50 mm{sup 2}, of tensile specimens were used to investigate the effect of the cross section area on the measured tensile response of UHPFRCs. Although all the three fibers generated strain hardening behavior even at high strain rates, long smooth fibers produced the highest tensile resistance at high rates whereas twisted fiber did at static rate. The breakages of twisted fibers were observed from the specimens tested at high strain rates unlike smooth steel fibers. The tensile behavior of UHPFRCs at high strain rates was clearly influenced by the specimen size, especially in post-cracking strength.

  7. Charge ordering phenomena in high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassini, Leonardo; Prestel, Wolfgang; Hackl, Rudi; Erb, Andreas; Lambacher, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The electronic Raman effect has been studied in single crystals of Y 1-x Ca x Ba 2 Cu 3 O 6 (Y-123) and La 2-x Sr x CuO 4 (LSCO) at different doping. The experimental results provide evidences of an anomalous contribution to the response at low energies and temperatures. In LSCO the additional excitation is in B 2g symmetry for x = 0.02 and in B 1g symmetry for x = 0.10. In Y-123, we observed the additional feature in B 2g symmetry at 1.5% doping. Mainly on the basis of the selection rules we conclude that the additional peaks are the response of a dynamical charge modulation (stripes) in the two-dimensional CuO 2 planes. The selection rules allow us to determine the orientation of the stripes to be along the diagonal of the CuO 2 planes in Y-123 and LSCO at x = 0.02, and along the principal axes in LSCO at x = 0.10

  8. Design Strategies for Ultra-high Efficiency Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmann, Emily Cathryn

    While concentrator photovoltaic cells have shown significant improvements in efficiency in the past ten years, once these cells are integrated into concentrating optics, connected to a power conditioning system and deployed in the field, the overall module efficiency drops to only 34 to 36%. This efficiency is impressive compared to conventional flat plate modules, but it is far short of the theoretical limits for solar energy conversion. Designing a system capable of achieving ultra high efficiency of 50% or greater cannot be achieved by refinement and iteration of current design approaches. This thesis takes a systems approach to designing a photovoltaic system capable of 50% efficient performance using conventional diode-based solar cells. The effort began with an exploration of the limiting efficiency of spectrum splitting ensembles with 2 to 20 sub cells in different electrical configurations. Incorporating realistic non-ideal performance with the computationally simple detailed balance approach resulted in practical limits that are useful to identify specific cell performance requirements. This effort quantified the relative benefit of additional cells and concentration for system efficiency, which will help in designing practical optical systems. Efforts to improve the quality of the solar cells themselves focused on the development of tunable lattice constant epitaxial templates. Initially intended to enable lattice matched multijunction solar cells, these templates would enable increased flexibility in band gap selection for spectrum splitting ensembles and enhanced radiative quality relative to metamorphic growth. The III-V material family is commonly used for multijunction solar cells both for its high radiative quality and for the ease of integrating multiple band gaps into one monolithic growth. The band gap flexibility is limited by the lattice constant of available growth templates. The virtual substrate consists of a thin III-V film with the desired

  9. Imaging Frontostriatal Function in Ultra-High-Risk, Early, and Chronic Schizophrenia During Executive Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Rajendra A.; Inan, Seniha; Mitchell, Teresa V.; Perkins, Diana O.; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Belger, Aysenil

    2009-01-01

    Context Individuals experiencing prodromal symptoms of schizophrenia (ultra-high-risk group) demonstrate impaired performance on tasks of executive function, attention, and working memory. The neurobiological underpinnings of such executive deficits in ultra-high-risk individuals remains unclear. Objective We assessed frontal and striatal functions during a visual oddball continuous performance task, in ultra-high-risk, early, and chronic schizophrenic patients with the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging. Design Cross-sectional case-control design. Setting Community; outpatient clinic. Patients Fifty-two individuals (control, n = 16; ultra-high risk, n = 10; early, n = 15; chronic, n = 11) from a referred clinical sample and age- and sex-matched control volunteers underwent scanning. Main Outcome Measures Percentage of active voxels and percentage signal change calculated for the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG), middle frontal gyrus (MFG), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), basal ganglia, and thalamus. Performance on the visual oddball task was measured with percentage of hits and d′ (a measure based on the hit rate and the false-alarm rate). Results The ultra-high-risk group showed significantly smaller differential activation between task-relevant and task-irrelevant stimuli in the frontal regions (ACG, IFG, MFG) than the control group. Frontostriatal activation associated with target stimuli in the early and chronic groups was significantly lower than the control group, while the ultra-high-risk group showed a trend toward the early group. Conclusions Our findings suggest that prefrontal function begins to decline before the onset of syndromally defined illness and hence may represent a vulnerability marker in assessing the risk of developing psychotic disorders among ultra-high-risk individuals. PMID:15753238

  10. Novel charge sensitive preamplifier without high-value feedback resistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Deming

    1992-01-01

    A novel charge sensitive preamplifier is introduced. The method of removing the high value feedback resistor, the circuit design and analysis are described. A practical circuit and its measured performances are provided

  11. Improvement of highly charged ion output from an ECR source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkov, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    The physical limitations of the highly charged ion production in the ECR source is analyzed in this report. General methods to increase the output ion current and the attainable charged states of heavy ions are discussed. Some new ways to improve the output of highly charged ions from the ECR source for heavy ions are proposed. A new library of computer codes for the mathematical simulation of heavy ion production in the ECR ion source is used for numerical experiments to test these ways for improving the operation of the ECR source. (orig.)

  12. REACHING ULTRA HIGH PEAK CHARACTERISTICS IN RELATIVISTIC THOMSON BACKSCATTERING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    POGORELSKY, I.V.; BEN ZVI, I.; HIROSE, T.; KASHIWAGI, S.; YAKIMENKO, V.; KUSCHE, K.; SIDDONS, P.; ET AL

    2001-01-01

    The concept of x-ray laser synchrotron sources (LSS) based on Thomson scattering between laser photons and relativistic electrons leads to future femtosecond light-source facilities fit to multidisciplinary research in ultra-fast structural dynamics. Enticed by these prospects, the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) embarked into development of the LSS based on a combination of a photocathode RF linac and a picosecond CO 2 laser. We observed the record 1.7 x 10 8 x-ray photons/pulse yield generated via relativistic Thomson scattering between the 14 GW CO 2 laser and 60 MeV electron beam

  13. Probing the vacuum with highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottcher, C.; Strayer, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    The physics of the Fermion vacuum is briefly described, and applied to pair production in heavy ion collisions. We consider in turn low energies (<50 MeV/nucleon), intermediate energies (<5 GeV/nucleon), and ultrahigh energies such as would be produced in a ring collider. At high energies, interesting questions of Lorentz and gauge invariance arise. Finally, some applications to the structure of high Z atoms are examined. 14 refs., 11 figs

  14. Ultra-high Efficiency DC-DC Converter using GaN Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramachandran, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    properties of GaN devices can be utilized in power converters to make them more compact and highly efficient. This thesis entitled “Ultra-high Efficiency DC-DC Converter using GaN devices” focuses on achieving ultra-high conversion efficiency in an isolated dc-dc converter by the optimal utilization of Ga...... for many decades. However, the rate of improvement slowed as the silicon power materials asymptotically approached its theoretical bounds. Compared to Si, wideband gap materials such as Silicon Carbide (SiC) and Gallium Nitride (GaN) are promising semiconductors for power devices due to their superior...... in this thesis. Efficiency measurements from the hardware prototype of both the topologies are also presented in this thesis. Finally, the bidirectional operation of an optimized isolated dc-dc converter is presented. The optimized converter has achieved an ultra-high efficiency of 98.8% in both directions...

  15. Laser beam welding of new ultra-high strength and supra-ductile steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmen, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Ultra-high strength and supra-ductile are entering fields of new applications. Those materials are excellent candidates for modern light-weight construction and functional integration. As ultra-high strength steels the stainless martensitic grade 1.4034 and the bainitic steel UNS 53835 are investigated. For the supra-ductile steels stand two high austenitic steels with 18 and 28 % manganese. As there are no processing windows an approach from the metallurgical base on is required. Adjusting the weld microstructure the Q+P and the QT steels require weld heat treatment. The HSD steel is weldable without. Due to their applications the ultra-high strength steels are welded in as-rolled and strengthened condition. Also the reaction of the weld on hot stamping is reflected for the martensitic grades. The supra-ductile steels are welded as solution annealed and work hardened by 50%. The results show the general suitability for laser beam welding.

  16. High-efficiency water-loaded microwave antenna in ultra-high-frequency band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zilun; Bartone, Chris; Yang, Fuyi; Yao, Jie

    2018-03-01

    High-index dielectrics are widely used in microwave antennas to control the radiation characteristics. Liquid water, with a high dielectric index at microwave frequency, is an interesting material to achieving tunable functionalities. Here, we demonstrate a water-loaded microwave antenna system that has high loss-tolerance and wideband tunability enabled by fluidity. Our simulation and experimental results show that the resonance frequency can be effectively tuned by the size of loading water. Furthermore, the antenna systems with water loading can achieve high radiation efficiency (>90%) in the ultra-high-frequency (0.3-3 GHz) band. This work brings about opportunities in realistic tunable microwave antenna designs enabled by liquid.

  17. Atomic physics with highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, P.

    1991-08-01

    This report discusses: One electron outer shell processes in fast ion-atom collisions; role of electron-electron interaction in two-electron processes; multi-electron processes at low energy; multi-electron processes at high energy; inner shell processes; molecular fragmentation studies; theory; and, JRM laboratory operations

  18. Atomic structure of highly-charged ions. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, A. Eugene

    2002-01-01

    Atomic properties of multiply charged ions have been investigated using excitation of energetic heavy ion beams. Spectroscopy of excited atomic transitions has been applied from the visible to the extreme ultraviolet wavelength regions to provide accurate atomic structure and transition rate data in selected highly ionized atoms. High-resolution position-sensitive photon detection has been introduced for measurements in the ultraviolet region. The detailed structures of Rydberg states in highly charged beryllium-like ions have been measured as a test of long-range electron-ion interactions. The measurements are supported by multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock calculations and by many-body perturbation theory. The high-angular-momentum Rydberg transitions may be used to establish reference wavelengths and improve the accuracy of ionization energies in highly charged systems. Precision wavelength measurements in highly charged few-electron ions have been performed to test the most accurate relativistic atomic structure calculations for prominent low-lying excited states. Lifetime measurements for allowed and forbidden transitions in highly charged few-electron ions have been made to test theoretical transition matrix elements for simple atomic systems. Precision lifetime measurements in laser-excited alkali atoms have been initiated to establish the accuracy of relativistic atomic many-body theory in many-electron systems

  19. Charge collection and charge pulse formation in highly irradiated silicon planar detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dezillie, B.; Li, Z.; Eremin, V.

    1998-06-01

    The interpretation of experimental data and predictions for future experiments for high-energy physics have been based on conventional methods like capacitance versus voltage (C-V) measurements. Experiments carried out on highly irradiated detectors show that the kinetics of the charge collection and the dependence of the charge pulse amplitude on the applied bias are deviated too far from those predicted by the conventional methods. The described results show that in highly irradiated detectors, at a bias lower than the real full depletion voltage (V fd ), the kinetics of the charge collection (Q) contains a fast and a slow component. At V = V fd *, which is the full depletion voltage traditionally determined by the extrapolation of the fast component amplitude of q versus bias to the maximum value or from the standard C-V measurements, the pulse has a slow component with significant amplitude. This slow component can only be eliminated by applying additional bias that amounts to the real full depletion voltage (V fd ) or more. The above mentioned regularities are explained in this paper in terms of a model of an irradiated detector with multiple regions. This model allows one to use C-V, in a modified way, as well as TChT (transient charge technique) measurements to determine the V fd for highly irradiated detectors

  20. Weld Metallurgy and Mechanical Properties of High Manganese Ultra-high Strength Steel Dissimilar Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmen, Martin; Lindner, Stefan; Monfort, Damien; Petring, Dirk

    The increasing demand for ultra-high strength steels in vehicle manufacturing leads to the application of new alloys. This poses a challenge on joining especially by fusion welding. A stainless high manganese steel sheet with excellent strength and deformation properties stands in the centre of the development. Similar and dissimilar welds with a metastable austenitic steel and a hot formed martensitic stainless steel were performed. An investigation of the mixing effects on the local microstructure and the hardness delivers the metallurgical features of the welds. Despite of carbon contents above 0.4 wt.% none of the welds have shown cracks. Mechanical properties drawn from tensile tests deliver high breaking forces enabling a high stiffness of the joints. The results show the potential for the application of laser beam welding for joining in assembly of structural parts.

  1. Experiences of ultra-low-crud high-nickel control in Onagawa nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, M.; Goto, Y.; Shinomiya, T.; Sato, M.; Yamazaki, K.; Hirasawa, H.; Yotsuyanagi, T.

    2002-01-01

    We have adopted various countermeasures for worker dose reduction to plants in Onagawa Nuclear Power Station. ''Ni/Fe ratio control'' has been adopted to Unit 1, and ''ultra-low-crud high-nickel control'' has been adopted to Unit 2 and 3, along with other countermeasures like wide utilization of low Co materials, for the purpose of dose rate reduction of primary recirculation piping which is thought to be one of the main exposure sources. In this paper, we describe, first, the reason and background that ultra-low-crud high-nickel control has been adopted to Unit 2, and, second, water chemistry of Unit 2 up to the 5. cycle under ultra-low-crud high-nickel control compared to that of Unit 1 under Ni/Fe ratio control. Following those, we show brief analysis of the fuel crud of Unit 2 and water chemistry of Unit 3 only at the startup stage. (authors)

  2. Development of Dynamic Compaction Technology for Ultra High Strength Powder Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Chang Kyu; Lee, M. K.; Uhm, Y. R.; Park, J. J.; Lee, J. G.; Ivanov, V. V.; Hong, S. J.

    2007-04-01

    A synthesis of ultra fine powder and its compaction have been considered as a new generation and high value added technology in various industrial fields such as automobile, machine tool, electronic chip, sensor and catalyst because of its special characteristics of high toughness, strength and wear resistance which are not shown in conventional process. In this study, ultra hard and fine powders, such as Fe-Si, CuNi and Al 2 O 3 , have been fabricated by the pulsed wire evaporation (PWE) method and mechanical alloying (MA) method. In addition, with ultra hard and fine powders, the magnetic core, diamond tool and water jet nozzle with high density were made by a uniaxial dynamic compaction for the purpose of the real industrial application

  3. Thermal characterization of Ag and Ag + N ion implanted ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokullu Urkac, E.; Oztarhan, A.; Tihminlioglu, F.; Kaya, N.; Ila, D.; Muntele, C.; Budak, S.; Oks, E.; Nikolaev, A.; Ezdesir, A.; Tek, Z.

    2007-08-01

    Most of total hip joints are composed of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). However, as ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene is too stable in a body, wear debris may accumulate and cause biological response such as bone absorption and loosening of prosthesis. In this study, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene samples were Ag and Ag + N hybrid ion implanted by using MEVVA ion implantation technique to improve its surface properties. Samples were implanted with a fluence of 1017 ion/cm2 and extraction voltage of 30 kV. Implanted and unimplanted samples were investigated by thermo-gravimetry analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscopy (OM) and contact Angle measurement. Thermal characterization results showed that the ion bombardment induced an increase in the % crystallinity, onset and termination degradation temperatures of UHMWPE.

  4. Thermal characterization of Ag and Ag + N ion implanted ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokullu Urkac, E. [Department of Materials Science, Izmir High Technology Institute, Gulbahcekoyu Urla, Izmir (Turkey)]. E-mail: emelsu@gmail.com; Oztarhan, A. [Bioengineering Department, Ege University, Bornova, Izmir 35100 (Turkey); Tihminlioglu, F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Izmir High Technology Institute, Gulbahcekoyu Urla, Izmir (Turkey); Kaya, N. [Bioengineering Department, Ege University, Bornova, Izmir 35100 (Turkey); Ila, D. [Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama A and M University, Normal AL 35762 (United States); Muntele, C. [Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama A and M University, Normal AL 35762 (United States); Budak, S. [Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama A and M University, Normal AL 35762 (United States); Oks, E. [H C Electronics Institute, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Nikolaev, A. [H C Electronics Institute, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Ezdesir, A. [R and D Department, PETKIM Holding A.S., Aliaga, Izmir 35801 (Turkey); Tek, Z. [Department of Physics, Celal Bayar University, Manisa (Turkey)

    2007-08-15

    Most of total hip joints are composed of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE ). However, as ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene is too stable in a body, wear debris may accumulate and cause biological response such as bone absorption and loosening of prosthesis. In this study, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene samples were Ag and Ag + N hybrid ion implanted by using MEVVA ion implantation technique to improve its surface properties. Samples were implanted with a fluence of 10{sup 17} ion/cm{sup 2} and extraction voltage of 30 kV. Implanted and unimplanted samples were investigated by thermo-gravimetry analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscopy (OM) and contact Angle measurement. Thermal characterization results showed that the ion bombardment induced an increase in the % crystallinity, onset and termination degradation temperatures of UHMWPE.

  5. Study on creep of fiber reinforced ultra-high strength concrete based on strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wenjun; Wang, Tao

    2018-04-01

    To complement the creep performance of ultra-high strength concrete, the long creep process of fiber reinforced concrete was studied in this paper. The long-term creep process and regularity of ultra-high strength concrete with 0.5% PVA fiber under the same axial compression were analyzed by using concrete strength (C80/C100/C120) as a variable. The results show that the creep coefficient of ultra-high strength concrete decreases with the increase of concrete strength. Compared with ACI209R (92), GL2000 models, it is found that the predicted value of ACI209R (92) are close to the experimental value, and the creep prediction model suitable for this experiment is proposed based on ACI209R (92).

  6. Ionization of water clusters by fast Highly Charged Ions: Stability, fragmentation, energetics and charge mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legendre, S; Maisonny, R; Capron, M; Bernigaud, V; Cassimi, A; Gervais, B; Grandin, J-P; Huber, B A; Manil, B; Rousseau, P; Tarisien, M; Adoui, L; Lopez-Tarifa, P; AlcamI, M; MartIn, F; Politis, M-F; Penhoat, M A Herve du; Vuilleumier, R; Gaigeot, M-P; Tavernelli, I

    2009-01-01

    We study dissociative ionization of water clusters by impact of fast Ni ions. Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy (COLTRIMS) is used to obtain information about stability, energetics and charge mobility of the ionized clusters. An unusual stability of the (H 2 O) 4 H ''+ ion is observed, which could be the signature of the so called ''Eigen'' structure in gas phase water clusters. High charge mobility, responsible for the formation of protonated water clusters that dominate the mass spectrum, is evidenced. These results are supported by CPMD and TDDFT simulations, which also reveal the mechanisms of such mobility.

  7. Strong charge state dependence of H+ and H2+ sputtering induced by slow highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakutani, N.; Azuma, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Komaki, K.; Kuroki, K.

    1995-01-01

    Secondary ion emission has been studied for very slow ( similar 0.01ν B ) highly charged Ar and N ions bombarding C 60 containing hydrogen as an impurity. It is found that the fragmentations of C 60 are very rare even for Ar 16+ bombardments. On the other hand, the sputtering of H + and H 2 + has been observed to increase drastically as a function of incident charge q like q γ (e.g., γ similar 4.6 for H + sputtering by 500 eV Ar q+ ). (orig.)

  8. A novel high performance, ultra thin heat sink for electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escher, W.; Michel, B.; Poulikakos, D.

    2010-01-01

    We present an ultra thin heat sink for electronics, combining optimized impinging slot-jets, micro-channels and manifolds for efficient cooling. We first introduce a three-dimensional numerical model of the heat transfer structure, to investigate its hydrodynamic and thermal performance and its sensitivity to geometric parameters. In a second step we propose a three-dimensional hydrodynamic numerical model representing the complete system. Based on this model we design a novel manifold providing uniform fluid distribution. In order to save computational time a simpler semi-empirical model is proposed and validated. The semi-empirical model allows a robust optimization of the heat sink geometric parameters. The design is optimized for a 2 x 2 cm 2 chip and provides a total thermal resistance of 0.087 cm 2 K/W for flow rates 2 for a temperature difference between fluid inlet and chip of 65 K.

  9. Fast and sensitive analysis of beta blockers by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultra-high-resolution TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomková, Jana; Ondra, Peter; Kocianová, Eva; Václavík, Jan

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a method for the determination of acebutolol, betaxolol, bisoprolol, metoprolol, nebivolol and sotalol in human serum by liquid-liquid extraction and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultra-high-resolution TOF mass spectrometry. After liquid-liquid extraction, beta blockers were separated on a reverse-phase analytical column (Acclaim RS 120; 100 × 2.1 mm, 2.2 μm). The total run time was 6 min for each sample. Linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, matrix effects, specificity, precision, accuracy, recovery and sample stability were evaluated. The method was successfully applied to the therapeutic drug monitoring of 108 patients with hypertension. This method was also used for determination of beta blockers in 33 intoxicated patients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Resonance charge exchange mechanism at high and moderate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, A.V.; Gevorkyan, A.S.

    1984-01-01

    Charge exchange mechanisms at high and medium energies are investigated, ta king the resonance charge exchange of a proton by an hydrogen atom as an example . It is established that there are two classical charge exchange mechanisms rel ated to direct proton knockout from the bound state and one quantum-mechanical mechanism corresponding to the electron tunnelling from one bound state to anoth er. The classical cross-section diverges for two of these mechanisms, and the quasiclassical scattering amplitude must be calculated on the base of a complex classical trajectory. Physical grounds for the choice of such trajectories are discussed and calculations of the Van Vleck determinant for these mechanisms a re presented. Contributions from different mechanisms to the total charge excha nge cross-section are analyzed. A comparison with experimental data and results of other authors is made

  11. Charged particle beam scanning using deformed high gradient insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu -Jiuan

    2015-10-06

    Devices and methods are provided to allow rapid deflection of a charged particle beam. The disclosed devices can, for example, be used as part of a hadron therapy system to allow scanning of a target area within a patient's body. The disclosed charged particle beam deflectors include a dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) with a hollow center and a dielectric wall that is substantially parallel to a z-axis that runs through the hollow center. The dielectric wall includes one or more deformed high gradient insulators (HGIs) that are configured to produce an electric field with an component in a direction perpendicular to the z-axis. A control component is also provided to establish the electric field component in the direction perpendicular to the z-axis and to control deflection of a charged particle beam in the direction perpendicular to the z-axis as the charged particle beam travels through the hollow center of the DWA.

  12. Multistage charged particle accelerator, with high-vacuum insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holl, P.

    1976-01-01

    A multistage charged-particle accelerator for operating with accelerating voltages higher than 150 kV is described. The device consists essentially of a high-voltage insulator, a source for producing charged particles, a Wehnelt cylinder, an anode, and a post-accelerating tube containing stack-wise positioned post-accelerating electrodes. A high vacuum is used for insulating the parts carrying the high voltages, and at least one cylindrical screen surrounding these parts is interposed between them and the vacuum vessel, which can itself also function as a cylindrical screen

  13. Design and Implementation of Wideband Exciter for an Ultra-high Resolution Airborne SAR System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Ying-xin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available According to an ultra-high resolution airborne SAR system with better than 0.1 m resolution, a wideband Linear Frequency Modulated (LFM pulse compression exciter with 14.8 GHz carrier and 3.2 GHz bandwidth is designed and implemented. The selection of signal generation scheme and some key technique points for wideband LFM waveform is presented in detail. Then, an acute test and analysis of the LFM signal is performed. The final airborne experiments demonstrate the validity of the LFM source which is one of the subsystems in an ultra-high resolution airborne SAR system.

  14. All-optical ultra-high-speed OFDM to Nyquist-WDM conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen

    2015-01-01

    We propose an all-optical ultra-high-speed OFDM to Nyquist-WDM conversion scheme based on complete OFT. An 8-subcarrier 640 Gbit/s DPSK OFDM super-channel is converted to eight 80-Gbit/s Nyquist-WDM channels with BER <10−9 performance for all channels.......We propose an all-optical ultra-high-speed OFDM to Nyquist-WDM conversion scheme based on complete OFT. An 8-subcarrier 640 Gbit/s DPSK OFDM super-channel is converted to eight 80-Gbit/s Nyquist-WDM channels with BER

  15. Intervention in individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis: a review and future directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGorry, Patrick D; Nelson, Barnaby; Amminger, G Paul

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Over the last 15 years, a focus on early intervention in psychotic disorders has emerged. Initially, the early psychosis movement focused on timely recognition and phase-specific treatment of first-episode psychosis. However, early psychosis researchers suspected that pushing the point...... of intervention even further back to the prodromal phase of psychotic disorders may result in even better outcomes. This article reviews intervention research in the ultra-high-risk phase of psychotic disorders. DATA SOURCES: A literature search of intervention trials with ultra-high-risk cohorts published after...

  16. Ultra-High-Efficiency Apodized Grating Coupler Using a Fully Etched Photonic Crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Peucheret, Christophe; Ou, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate an apodized fiber-to-chip grating coupler using fully etched photonic crystal holes on the silicon-on-insulator platform. An ultra-high coupling efficiency of 1.65 dB (68%) with 3 dB bandwidth of 60 nm is experimentally demonstrated.......We demonstrate an apodized fiber-to-chip grating coupler using fully etched photonic crystal holes on the silicon-on-insulator platform. An ultra-high coupling efficiency of 1.65 dB (68%) with 3 dB bandwidth of 60 nm is experimentally demonstrated....

  17. Bond behavior of reinforcing steel in ultra-high performance concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) is a relatively new class of advanced cementitious composite : materials, which exhibits high compressive [above 21.7 ksi (150 MPa)] and tensile [above 0.72 ksi (5 MPa)] : strengths. The discrete steel fiber rei...

  18. Ultra-high aspect ratio replaceable AFM tips using deformation-suppressed focused ion beam milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savenko, Alexey; Yildiz, Izzet; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth

    2013-01-01

    Fabrication of ultra-high aspect ratio exchangeable and customizable tips for atomic force microscopy (AFM) using lateral focused ion beam (FIB) milling is presented. While on-axis FIB milling does allow high aspect ratio (HAR) AFM tips to be defined, lateral milling gives far better flexibility...

  19. Detection of ultra-high energy cosmic ray showers with a single-pixel fluorescence telescope

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fujii, T.; Malacari, M.; Bertaina, M.; Casolino, E.; Dawson, B.; Horváth, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Jiang, J.; Mandát, Dušan; Matalon, A.; Matthews, J.N.; Motloch, P.; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Privitera, P.; Schovánek, Petr; Takizawa, Y.; Thomas, S.B.; Trávníček, Petr; Yamazaki, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 74, Feb (2016), s. 64-72 ISSN 0927-6505 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ultra-high energy cosmic rays * fluorescence detector * extensive air shower Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 3.257, year: 2016

  20. The MIDAS telescope for microwave detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Soares, E.A.; Berlin, A.; Bogdan, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Bonifazi, C.; Carvalho, W.R.; de Mello Neto, J.R.T.; San Luis, P.F.; Genat, J.F.; Hollon, N.; Mills, E.; Monasor, M.; Privitera, P.; Ramos de Castro, A.; Reyes, L.C.; Richardson, M.; Rouille D’Orfeuil, B.; Santos, E.M.; Wayne, S.; Williams, C.; Zas, E.; Zhou, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 719, Aug (2013), s. 70-80 ISSN 0168-9002 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ultra high energy cosmic rays * radio-detection * microwave * GHz Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.316, year: 2013

  1. Adaptive sensor-based ultra-high accuracy solar concentrator tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkley, Jordyn; Hassanzadeh, Ali

    2017-09-01

    Conventional solar trackers use information of the sun's position, either by direct sensing or by GPS. Our method uses the shading of the receiver. This, coupled with nonimaging optics design allows us to achieve ultra-high concentration. Incorporating a sensor based shadow tracking method with a two stage concentration solar hybrid parabolic trough allows the system to maintain high concentration with acute accuracy.

  2. Single-event transient imaging with an ultra-high-speed temporally compressive multi-aperture CMOS image sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Futa; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Okihara, Shin-ichiro; Seo, Min-Woong; Zhang, Bo; Takasawa, Taishi; Yasutomi, Keita; Kawahito, Shoji

    2016-02-22

    In the work described in this paper, an image reproduction scheme with an ultra-high-speed temporally compressive multi-aperture CMOS image sensor was demonstrated. The sensor captures an object by compressing a sequence of images with focal-plane temporally random-coded shutters, followed by reconstruction of time-resolved images. Because signals are modulated pixel-by-pixel during capturing, the maximum frame rate is defined only by the charge transfer speed and can thus be higher than those of conventional ultra-high-speed cameras. The frame rate and optical efficiency of the multi-aperture scheme are discussed. To demonstrate the proposed imaging method, a 5×3 multi-aperture image sensor was fabricated. The average rising and falling times of the shutters were 1.53 ns and 1.69 ns, respectively. The maximum skew among the shutters was 3 ns. The sensor observed plasma emission by compressing it to 15 frames, and a series of 32 images at 200 Mfps was reconstructed. In the experiment, by correcting disparities and considering temporal pixel responses, artifacts in the reconstructed images were reduced. An improvement in PSNR from 25.8 dB to 30.8 dB was confirmed in simulations.

  3. Highly charged atomic physics at HIRFL-CSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xinwen; Wang Youde; Hou Mingdong; Jin Gengmin

    1996-01-01

    HIRFL-CSR is a proposed electron cooling storage ring optimized to accelerate and store beams of highly charged heavy ions. Several possibilities for advanced atomic physics studies are discussed, such as studies of electron-ion, ion-atoms, photon-ion-electron interactions and high resolution spectroscopy

  4. Highly charged ions: a miniature laboratory for new fundamental science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillaspy, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Highly charged ions are 10-100 times smaller than ordinary atoms, yet they present within themselves a remarkably rich arena for testing fundamental aspects of physics. These tests are based on a precise analysis of the energy distribution of the photons that are emitted as electrons hop between energy levels within the highly charged ions. With sufficiently precise analysis, it may be possible to obtain new information about the structure of the vacuum, the effect of special relativity on many-body correlation, physics beyond the Standard Model, and the fundamental nature of quantum measurements. This talk will review the current state-of-the-art in the spectroscopy of highly charged ions, and give a look towards the future

  5. Charged-particle mutagenesis 2. Mutagenic effects of high energy charged particles in normal human fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D. J.; Tsuboi, K.; Nguyen, T.; Yang, T. C.

    1994-01-01

    The biological effects of high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) charged particles are a subject of great concern with regard to the prediction of radiation risk in space. In this report, mutagenic effects of high LET charged particles are quantitatively measured using primary cultures of human skin fibroblasts, and the spectrum of induced mutations are analyzed. The LET of the charged particles ranged from 25 KeV/micrometer to 975 KeV/micrometer with particle energy (on the cells) between 94-603 MeV/u. The X-chromosome linked hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) locus was used as the target gene. Exposure to these high LET charged particles resulted in exponential survival curves; whereas, mutation induction was fitted by a linear model. The Relative Biological Effect (RBE) for cell-killing ranged from 3.73 to 1.25, while that for mutant induction ranged from 5.74 to 0.48. Maximum RBE values were obtained at the LET of 150 keV/micrometer. The inactivation cross-section (alpha i) and the action cross-section for mutant induction (alpha m) ranged from 2.2 to 92.0 sq micrometer and 0.09 to 5.56 x 10(exp -3) sq micrometer respectively. The maximum values were obtained by Fe-56 with an LET of 200 keV/micrometer. The mutagenicity (alpha m/alpha i) ranged from 2.05 to 7.99 x 10(exp -5) with the maximum value at 150 keV/micrometer. Furthermore, molecular analysis of mutants induced by charged particles indicates that higher LET beams are more likely to cause larger deletions in the hprt locus.

  6. Charged-particle mutagenesis II. Mutagenic effects of high energy charged particles in normal human fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D. J.; Tsuboi, K.; Nguyen, T.; Yang, T. C.

    1994-01-01

    The biological effects of high LET charged particles are a subject of great concern with regard to the prediction of radiation risk in space. In this report, mutagenic effects of high LET charged particles are quantitatively measured using primary cultures of human skin fibroblasts, and the spectrum of induced mutations are analyzed. The LET of the charged particles ranged from 25 KeV/micrometer to 975 KeV/micrometer with particle energy (on the cells) between 94-603 MeV/u. The X-chromosome linked hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) locus was used as the target gene. Exposure to these high LET charged particles resulted in exponential survival curves; whereas, mutation induction was fitted by a linear model. The Relative Biological Effect (RBE) for cell-killing ranged from 3.73 to 1.25, while that for mutant induction ranged from 5.74 to 0.48. Maximum RBE values were obtained at the LET of 150 keV/micrometer. The inactivation cross-section (alpha i) and the action cross-section for mutant induction (alpha m) ranged from 2.2 to 92.0 micrometer2 and 0.09 to 5.56 x 10(-3) micrometer2, respectively. The maximum values were obtained by 56Fe with an LET of 200 keV/micrometer. The mutagenicity (alpha m/alpha i) ranged from 2.05 to 7.99 x 10(-5) with the maximum value at 150 keV/micrometer. Furthermore, molecular analysis of mutants induced by charged particles indicates that higher LET beams are more likely to cause larger deletions in the hprt locus.

  7. mrsFAST-Ultra: a compact, SNP-aware mapper for high performance sequencing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hach, Faraz; Sarrafi, Iman; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Alkan, Can; Eichler, Evan E; Sahinalp, S Cenk

    2014-07-01

    High throughput sequencing (HTS) platforms generate unprecedented amounts of data that introduce challenges for processing and downstream analysis. While tools that report the 'best' mapping location of each read provide a fast way to process HTS data, they are not suitable for many types of downstream analysis such as structural variation detection, where it is important to report multiple mapping loci for each read. For this purpose we introduce mrsFAST-Ultra, a fast, cache oblivious, SNP-aware aligner that can handle the multi-mapping of HTS reads very efficiently. mrsFAST-Ultra improves mrsFAST, our first cache oblivious read aligner capable of handling multi-mapping reads, through new and compact index structures that reduce not only the overall memory usage but also the number of CPU operations per alignment. In fact the size of the index generated by mrsFAST-Ultra is 10 times smaller than that of mrsFAST. As importantly, mrsFAST-Ultra introduces new features such as being able to (i) obtain the best mapping loci for each read, and (ii) return all reads that have at most n mapping loci (within an error threshold), together with these loci, for any user specified n. Furthermore, mrsFAST-Ultra is SNP-aware, i.e. it can map reads to reference genome while discounting the mismatches that occur at common SNP locations provided by db-SNP; this significantly increases the number of reads that can be mapped to the reference genome. Notice that all of the above features are implemented within the index structure and are not simple post-processing steps and thus are performed highly efficiently. Finally, mrsFAST-Ultra utilizes multiple available cores and processors and can be tuned for various memory settings. Our results show that mrsFAST-Ultra is roughly five times faster than its predecessor mrsFAST. In comparison to newly enhanced popular tools such as Bowtie2, it is more sensitive (it can report 10 times or more mappings per read) and much faster (six times or

  8. Photoproduction of charged particle with high transverse momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos Costa Ramos, S.E. de.

    1986-09-01

    Inclusive cross sections of high transverse moment charged pions induced by a high energy photon beam have been measured. These results do not account, neither in slope nor in normalisation, for the VDM component of the photon, evaluated with pion induced data taken in the same experimental conditions after VDM subtraction, excellent agreement is found with QCD calculations up to second order in α s , in an extended cinematic region, different choices of the gluon fragmentation function do not alter this conclusion. Our measures of the inclusive final state charge asymmetries also confirm QCD expectations. 42 refs [fr

  9. Charge selective contact on ultra-thin In(OH)xS y/Pb(OH) xS y heterostructure prepared by SILAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilov, S.; Oja, I.; Lim, B.; Belaidi, A.; Bohne, W.; Strub, E.; Roehrich, J.; Lux-Steiner, M.-Ch.; Dittrich, Th.

    2006-01-01

    Ultra-thin In(OH) x S y /Pb(OH) x S y heterostructures were formed by the wet chemical SILAR (successive ion layer adsorption and reaction) technique. ERDA (elastic recoil detection analysis) was used for stoichiometry analysis. The heterocontacts were conditioned by joint annealing of the two layers at different low temperatures in air. The charge selectivity was demonstrated with various small area solar cell structures. The results are discussed on the base of formation of bonds between sulphide clusters and passivation of defects with hydrogen containing species in hydroxy-sulphides. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Ring-like spatial distribution of laser accelerated protons in the ultra-high-contrast TNSA-regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, G. A.; Tietze, S.; Keppler, S.; Reislöhner, J.; Bin, J. H.; Bock, L.; Brack, F.-E.; Hein, J.; Hellwing, M.; Hilz, P.; Hornung, M.; Kessler, A.; Kraft, S. D.; Kuschel, S.; Liebetrau, H.; Ma, W.; Polz, J.; Schlenvoigt, H.-P.; Schorcht, F.; Schwab, M. B.; Seidel, A.; Zeil, K.; Schramm, U.; Zepf, M.; Schreiber, J.; Rykovanov, S.; Kaluza, M. C.

    2018-05-01

    The spatial distribution of protons accelerated from submicron-thick plastic foil targets using multi-terawatt, frequency-doubled laser pulses with ultra-high temporal contrast has been investigated experimentally. A very stable, ring-like beam profile of the accelerated protons, oriented around the target’s normal direction has been observed. The ring’s opening angle has been found to decrease with increasing foil thicknesses. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations reproduce our results indicating that the ring is formed during the expansion of the proton density distribution into the vacuum as described by the mechanism of target-normal sheath acceleration. Here—in addition to the longitudinal electric fields responsible for the forward acceleration of the protons—a lateral charge separation leads to transverse field components accelerating the protons in the lateral direction.

  11. Ultra low energy-ultra low background high purity germanium detectors for studies on dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soma, A.K.; Singh, V.; Singh, L.; Singh, M.K.; Wong, H.T.

    2009-01-01

    Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMP) are the leading DM candidates. Super symmetric particles (SUSY) are one of the leading WIMP candidates. To probe this least explored region Taiwan EXperiments On NeutrinO collaboration is pursuing research and development program by using High Purity Germanium detectors (HPGe). These detectors offer a matured technology to scale up the detectors and achieve sub-keV level threshold i.e. few hundreds of eV, economically. The various detectors developed by the collaboration is shown in the below figure. The current goal of the collaboration is to develop detectors of kg-scale target mass, ∼100 eV threshold and low-background specification for the studies on WIMPs, μ v and neutrino - nucleus coherent scattering

  12. Ultra-high velocity impacts: Cratering studies of microscopic impacts from 3 km/s to 30 km/s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stradling, G.L.; Idzorek, G.C.; Shafer, B.P.; Curling, H.L. Jr.; Collopy, M.T.; Hopkins Blossom, A.A.; Fuerstenau, S.

    1992-01-01

    Cratering experiments performed under carefully controlled conditions at impact velocities ranging from 3 km/s to 30 km/s into a wide variety of target materials are presented. These impact experiments use the 6 MV vertical Van de Graaff accelerator of the Ion Beam Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to electrostatically accelerate highly charged iron microspheres. The sub-micron spheres, from a random size distribution, are shocklessly accelerated along an 8 m flight path. Ultra-sensitive charge detectors monitor the passage of the projectiles at a rate of up to 100 projectiles/second. An online computer records and displays in real time the charge, velocity and mass of the projectiles and provides cross correlation between the events observed by the several in-flight charge detectors and impact detectors. Real-time logic controls an electrostatic kicker which deflects projectiles of selected charge and velocity onto the target. Thus each experiment consists of an ensemble of 10 to 40 impacts onto a single target within a narrow window of the projectile parameter space, providing excellent statistical resolution of each data point. The target materials used include single crystal copper and single crystal aluminum, gold, and quartz as well as pyrolytic graphic and epoxy used in composite materials of interest to space applications. We also conducted impact experiments onto thin Mylar and nickel foils. This paper presents these experiments and summarizes the cratering characterization performed to date. Emphasis is placed on cratering results in several materials over a range of impact velocities

  13. HITRAP: A Facility for Experiments with Trapped Highly Charged Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quint, W.; Dilling, J.; Djekic, S.; Haeffner, H.; Hermanspahn, N.; Kluge, H.-J.; Marx, G.; Moore, R.; Rodriguez, D.; Schoenfelder, J.; Sikler, G.; Valenzuela, T.; Verdu, J.; Weber, C.; Werth, G.

    2001-01-01

    HITRAP is a planned ion trap facility for capturing and cooling of highly charged ions produced at GSI in the heavy-ion complex of the UNILAC-SIS accelerators and the ESR storage ring. In this facility heavy highly charged ions up to uranium will be available as bare nuclei, hydrogen-like ions or few-electron systems at low temperatures. The trap for receiving and studying these ions is designed for operation at extremely high vacuum by cooling to cryogenic temperatures. The stored highly charged ions can be investigated in the trap itself or can be extracted from the trap at energies up to about 10 keV/q. The proposed physics experiments are collision studies with highly charged ions at well-defined low energies (eV/u), high-accuracy measurements to determine the g-factor of the electron bound in a hydrogen-like heavy ion and the atomic binding energies of few-electron systems, laser spectroscopy of HFS transitions and X-ray spectroscopy

  14. Enhancement of absorption and color contrast in ultra-thin highly absorbing optical coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kats, Mikhail A.; Byrnes, Steven J.; Blanchard, Romain; Kolle, Mathias; Genevet, Patrice; Aizenberg, Joanna; Capasso, Federico

    2013-09-01

    Recently a new class of optical interference coatings was introduced which comprises ultra-thin, highly absorbing dielectric layers on metal substrates. We show that these lossy coatings can be augmented by an additional transparent subwavelength layer. We fabricated a sample comprising a gold substrate, an ultra-thin film of germanium with a thickness gradient, and several alumina films. The experimental reflectivity spectra showed that the additional alumina layer increases the color range that can be obtained, in agreement with calculations. More generally, this transparent layer can be used to enhance optical absorption, protect against erosion, or as a transparent electrode for optoelectronic devices.

  15. High density thermite mixture for shaped charge ordnance disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Elshenawy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of thermite mixture based on aluminum and ferric oxides for ammunition neutralization has been studied and tested. Thermochemical calculations have been carried out for different percentage of Al using Chemical Equilibrium Code to expect the highest performance thermite mixture used for shaped charge ordnance disposal. Densities and enthalpy of different formulations have been calculated and demonstrated. The optimized thermite formulation has been prepared experimentally using cold iso-static pressing technique, which exhibited relatively high density and high burning rate thermite mixture. The produced green product compacted powder mixture was tested against small caliber shaped charge bomblet for neutralization. Theoretical and experimental results showed that the prepared thermite mixture containing 33% of aluminum as a fuel with ferric oxide can be successfully used for shaped charge ordnance disposal.

  16. Spalling behavior and residual resistance of fibre reinforced Ultra-High performance concrete after exposure to high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong, Ming-Xiang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results of spalling and residual mechanical properties of ultra-high performance concrete after exposure to high temperatures are presented in this paper. The compressive strength of the ultra-high performance concrete ranged from 160 MPa~185 MPa. This study aimed to discover the effective way to prevent spalling for the ultra-high performance concrete and gauge its mechanical properties after it was subjected to fire. The effects of fiber type, fiber dosage, heating rate and curing condition were investigated. Test results showed that the compressive strength and elastic modulus of the ultra-high performance concrete declined slower than those of normal strength concrete after elevated temperatures. Polypropylene fiber rather than steel fiber was found effective to prevent spalling but affected workability. The effective fiber type and dosage were recommended to prevent spalling and ensure sufficient workability for casting and pumping of the ultra-high performance concrete.En este trabajo se presentan los resultados más relevantes del trabajo experimental realizado para valorar la laminación y las propiedades mecánicas residuales de hormigón de ultra-altas prestaciones tras su exposición a altas temperaturas. La resistencia a la compresión del hormigón de ultra-altas prestaciones osciló entre 160 MPa~185 MPa. El objetivo de este estudio fue descubrir una manera eficaz de prevenir desprendimientos y/o laminaciones en este hormigón y medir sus propiedades mecánicas después de ser sometido al fuego. Las variables estudiadas fueron la presencia y dosificación de fibras, velocidad de calentamiento y condiciones de curado. Los resultados mostraron, tras la exposición a altas temperaturas, que la resistencia a compresión y el módulo de elasticidad del hormigón de ultra-altas prestaciones disminuían más lento que las de un hormigón con resistencia normal. La fibra de polipropileno resultó más eficaz para prevenir

  17. Production of highly charged ion beams from ECR ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.

    1997-09-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source development has progressed with multiple-frequency plasma heating, higher mirror magnetic fields and better technique to provide extra cold electrons. Such techniques greatly enhance the production of highly charged ions from ECR ion sources. So far at cw mode operation, up to 300 eμA of O 7+ and 1.15 emA of O 6+ , more than 100 eμA of intermediate heavy ions for charge states up to Ar 13+ , Ca 13+ , Fe 13+ , Co 14+ and Kr 18+ , and tens of eμA of heavy ions with charge states to Kr 26+ , Xe 28+ , Au 35+ , Bi 34+ and U 34+ have been produced from ECR ion sources. At an intensity of at least 1 eμA, the maximum charge state available for the heavy ions are Xe 36+ , Au 46+ , Bi 47+ and U 48+ . An order of magnitude enhancement for fully stripped argon ions (I ≥ 60 enA) also has been achieved. This article will review the ECR ion source progress and discuss key requirement for ECR ion sources to produce the highly charged ion beams

  18. [Reparative Osteogenesis and Angiogenesis in Low Intensity Electromagnetic Radiation of Ultra-High Frequency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iryanov, Y M; Kiryanov, N A

    2015-01-01

    Non-drug correction of reparative bone tissue regeneration in different pathological states - one of the most actual problems of modern medicine. Our aim was to conduct morphological analysis of the influence of electromagnetic radiation of ultra-high frequency and low intensity on reparative osteogenesis and angiogenesis in fracture treatment under transosseous osteosynthesis. A controlled nonrandomized study was carried out. In the experiment conducted on rats we modeled tibial fracture with reposition and fixation of the bone fragments both in control and experimental groups. In the animals of the experimental group the fracture zone was exposed to low intensity electromagnetic radiation of ultra-high frequency. Exposure simulation was performed in the control group. The operated bones were examined using radiography, light and electronic microscopy, X-ray electronic probe microanalysis. It has been established that electromagnetic radiation of ultra-high frequency sessions in fracture treatment stimulate secretory activity and degranulation of mast cells, produce microcirculatory bed vascular permeability increase, endotheliocyte migration phenotype expression, provide endovascular endothelial outgrowth formation, activate reparative osteogenesis and angiogenesis while fracture reparation becomes the one of the primary type. The full periosteal, intermediary and intraosteal bone union was defined in 28 days. Among the therapeutic benefits of electromagnetic radiation of ultra-high frequency in fracture treatment we can detect mast cell secretorv activity stimulation and endovascular anziozenesis activation.

  19. Case study: dairies utilizing ultra-high stocking density grazing in Pennsylvania and New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultra-high stocking density (UHSD) grazing has gained interest in the forage industry. Proponents of UHSD emphasize increased forage use efficiency and soil improvement by grazing mature forage with stocking densities up to 560,425 kg ha**-1 of beef cattle on small paddocks with rest periods of up t...

  20. Ultra high energy cosmic rays above 10 GeV: Hints to new physics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ultra high energy cosmic rays; physics beyond standard model. ... The origin of the observed cosmic ray (CR) events above 10ѕј eV — the so-called ex- .... to arise simply from decay of some supermassive particles (of mass> 10ѕЅ eV) ...

  1. Social cognition in patients at ultra-high risk for psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenthøj, Louise B.; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Patients at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis show significant impairments in functioning. It is essential to determine which factors influence functioning, as it may have implications for intervention strategies. This study examined whether social cognitive abilities and clinical...

  2. Overview of lunar detection of ultra-high energy particles and new plans for the SKA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, Clancy W.; Alvarez-Muñiz, Jaime; Bray, Justin D.; Buitink, Stijn; Dagkesamanskii, Rustam D.; Ekers, Ronald D.; Falcke, Heino; Gayley, Ken; Huege, Tim; Mevius, Maaijke; Mutel, Rob; Scholten, Olaf; Spencer, Ralph; ter Veen, Sander; Winchen, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    The lunar technique is a method for maximising the collection area for ultra-high-energy (UHE) cosmic ray and neutrino searches. The method uses either ground-based radio telescopes or lunar orbiters to search for Askaryan emission from particles cascading near the lunar surface. While experiments

  3. Ultra-high efficiency, fast graphene micro-heater on silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Siqi; Zhu, Xiaolong; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate an ultra-high efficiency and fast graphene microheater on silicon photonic crystal waveguide. By taking advantage of slow-light effect, a tuning efficiency of 1.07 nm/mW and power consumption per free spectral range of 3.99 mW. A fast rise and decay times (10% to 90%) of only 750 ns...

  4. The adhesive properties of chlorinated ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menting, H.N.A.M.; Voets, P.E.L.; Lemstra, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) is well known for its abrasion and chemical resistance. Recently we developed a new application for UHMW-PE as a liner in elastomeric hoses. It was found that the adhesion between UHMW-PE and elastomers such as ethylene-propylene-diene monomer

  5. Extension induced phase separation and crystallization in semidilute solutions of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingstrand, Sara Lindeblad; Imperiali, Luna; Stepanyan, Roman

    2018-01-01

    Abstract We investigate the influence of controlled uniaxial extension on various flow induced phenomena in semidilute solutions of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMwPE). Concentrations range from 9 w% to 29 w% and the choice of solvent is paraffin oil (PO). The start-up extensional b...

  6. OTR profile measurement of a LINAC electron beam with portable ultra high-speed camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogi, T.; Nisiyama, S.; Tomioka, S.; Enoto, T.

    2004-01-01

    We have studied on and developed a portable ultra high-speed camera, and so applied to measurement of a LINAC electron beam. We measured spatial OTR profiles of a LINAC electron beam using this camera with temporal resolution 80ns. (author)

  7. Nanometer size wear debris generated from ultra high molecular weight polyethylene in vivo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lapčíková, Monika; Šlouf, Miroslav; Dybal, Jiří; Zolotarevova, E.; Entlicher, G.; Pokorný, D.; Gallo, J.; Sosna, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 266, 1-2 (2009), s. 349-355 ISSN 0043-1648 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06096 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : ultra high molecular weight polyethylene * nanometer size wear debris * morphology of wear particles Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.771, year: 2009

  8. Deformation and degradation of polymers in ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uliyanchenko, E.; van der Wal, S.; Schoenmakers, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) using columns packed with sub-2 μm particles has great potential for separations of many types of complex samples, including polymers. However, the application of UHPLC for the analysis of polymers meets some fundamental obstacles. Small particles

  9. Fornax A, Centaurus A other radio galaxies as sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, J. H.; Bell, A. R.; Blundell, K. M.; Araudo, A. T.

    2018-06-01

    The origin of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) is still unknown. It has recently been proposed that UHECR anisotropies can be attributed to starburst galaxies or active galactic nuclei. We suggest that the latter is more likely and that giant-lobed radio galaxies such as Centaurus A and Fornax A can explain the data.

  10. Kinetic and thermodynamic analysis of ultra-high pressure and heat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To undertake comparative kinetic and thermodynamic analyses of the interaction of bovine serum albumin (BSA) with IgG pre-treated with ultra-high pressure (UHP) and moderate heat. Methods: BSA solutions were processed at 100 – 600 MPa and 25 – 40 °C. We applied an optical biosensor based on surface ...

  11. Opto-electrical approaches for high efficiency and ultra-thin c-Si solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenito, A.; Isabella, O.; Zeman, M.

    2014-01-01

    The need for cost reduction requires using less raw material and cost-effective processes without sacrificing the conversion efficiency. For keeping high the generated photo-current, an advanced light trapping scheme for ultra-thin silicon wafers is here proposed, exhibiting absorptances up to 99%

  12. Bursts of the Crab Nebula gamma-ray emission at high and ultra-high energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidvansky A.S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of the flares of gamma rays detected from the Crab Nebula by the AGILE and Fermi-LAT satellite instruments are compared with those of a gamma ray burst recorded by several air shower arrays on February 23, 1989 and with one recent observation made by the ARGO-YBJ array. It is demonstrated that though pulsar-periodicity and energy spectra of emissions at 100 MeV (satellite gamma ray telescopes and 100 TeV (EAS arrays are different, their time structures seem to be similar. Moreover, maybe the difference between “flares” and “waves” recently found in the Crab Nebula emission by the AGILE team also exists at ultra-high energies.

  13. Electron capture by highly charged ions from surfaces and gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, F.

    2008-01-11

    In this study highly charged ions produced in Electron Beam Ion Traps are used to investigate electron capture from surfaces and gases. The experiments with gas targets focus on spectroscopic measurements of the K-shell x-rays emitted at the end of radiative cascades following electron capture into Rydberg states of Ar{sup 17+} and Ar{sup 18+} ions as a function of collision energy. The ions are extracted from an Electron Beam Ion Trap at an energy of 2 keVu{sup -1}, charge-selected and then decelerated down to 5 eVu{sup -1} for interaction with an argon gas target. For decreasing collision energies a shift to electron capture into low orbital angular momentum capture states is observed. Comparative measurements of the K-shell x-ray emission following electron capture by Ar{sup 17+} and Ar{sup 18+} ions from background gas in the trap are made and a discrepancy in the results compared with those from the extraction experiments is found. Possible explanations are discussed. For the investigation of electron capture from surfaces, highly charged ions are extracted from an Electron Beam Ion Trap at energies of 2 to 3 keVu{sup -1}, charge-selected and directed onto targets comprising arrays of nanoscale apertures in silicon nitride membranes. The highly charged ions implemented are Ar{sup 16+} and Xe{sup 44+} and the aperture targets are formed by focused ion beam drilling in combination with ion beam assisted thin film deposition, achieving hole diameters of 50 to 300 nm and aspect ratios of 1:5 to 3:2. After transport through the nanoscale apertures the ions pass through an electrostatic charge state analyzer and are detected. The percentage of electron capture from the aperture walls is found to be much lower than model predictions and the results are discussed in terms of a capillary guiding mechanism. (orig.)

  14. Electron capture by highly charged ions from surfaces and gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, F.

    2008-01-01

    In this study highly charged ions produced in Electron Beam Ion Traps are used to investigate electron capture from surfaces and gases. The experiments with gas targets focus on spectroscopic measurements of the K-shell x-rays emitted at the end of radiative cascades following electron capture into Rydberg states of Ar 17+ and Ar 18+ ions as a function of collision energy. The ions are extracted from an Electron Beam Ion Trap at an energy of 2 keVu -1 , charge-selected and then decelerated down to 5 eVu -1 for interaction with an argon gas target. For decreasing collision energies a shift to electron capture into low orbital angular momentum capture states is observed. Comparative measurements of the K-shell x-ray emission following electron capture by Ar 17+ and Ar 18+ ions from background gas in the trap are made and a discrepancy in the results compared with those from the extraction experiments is found. Possible explanations are discussed. For the investigation of electron capture from surfaces, highly charged ions are extracted from an Electron Beam Ion Trap at energies of 2 to 3 keVu -1 , charge-selected and directed onto targets comprising arrays of nanoscale apertures in silicon nitride membranes. The highly charged ions implemented are Ar 16+ and Xe 44+ and the aperture targets are formed by focused ion beam drilling in combination with ion beam assisted thin film deposition, achieving hole diameters of 50 to 300 nm and aspect ratios of 1:5 to 3:2. After transport through the nanoscale apertures the ions pass through an electrostatic charge state analyzer and are detected. The percentage of electron capture from the aperture walls is found to be much lower than model predictions and the results are discussed in terms of a capillary guiding mechanism. (orig.)

  15. Mean charged hadron multiplicities in high-energy collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albini, E [Istituto di Matematica dell' Universita Cattolica di Brescia (Italy); Capiluppi, P; Giacomelli, G; Rossi, A M [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Fisica

    1976-03-01

    A collection of mean charged hadron multiplicities per inelastic collision in various high-energy processes is presented. An extensive list of fits of as a function of energy is presented and discussed. As the energy increases the multiplicities for different collisions tend to a unique curve, independent of the type of colliding particles.

  16. Thermal spike analysis of highly charged ion tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlušić, M.; Jakšić, M.

    2012-01-01

    The irradiation of material using swift heavy ion or highly charged ion causes excitation of the electron subsystem at nanometer scale along the ion trajectory. According to the thermal spike model, energy deposited into the electron subsystem leads to temperature increase due to electron–phonon coupling. If ion-induced excitation is sufficiently intensive, then melting of the material can occur, and permanent damage (i.e., ion track) can be formed upon rapid cooling. We present an extension of the analytical thermal spike model of Szenes for the analysis of surface ion track produced after the impact of highly charged ion. By applying the model to existing experimental data, more than 60% of the potential energy of the highly charged ion was shown to be retained in the material during the impact and transformed into the energy of the thermal spike. This value is much higher than 20–40% of the transferred energy into the thermal spike by swift heavy ion. Thresholds for formation of highly charged ion track in different materials show uniform behavior depending only on few material parameters.

  17. Production of highly charged ion beams with SECRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L. T.; Zhao, H. W.; Zhang, X. Z.; Feng, Y. C.; Li, J. Y.; Guo, X. H.; Ma, H. Y.; Zhao, H. Y.; Ma, B. H.; Wang, H.; Li, X. X.; Jin, T.; Xie, D. Z.; Lu, W.; Cao, Y.; Shang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is an all-superconducting-magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for the production of intense highly charged ion beams to meet the requirements of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). To further enhance the performance of SECRAL, an aluminum chamber has been installed inside a 1.5 mm thick Ta liner used for the reduction of x-ray irradiation at the high voltage insulator. With double-frequency (18+14.5 GHz) heating and at maximum total microwave power of 2.0 kW, SECRAL has successfully produced quite a few very highly charged Xe ion beams, such as 10 e μA of Xe 37+ , 1 e μA of Xe 43+ , and 0.16 e μA of Ne-like Xe 44+ . To further explore the capability of the SECRAL in the production of highly charged heavy metal ion beams, a first test run on bismuth has been carried out recently. The main goal is to produce an intense Bi 31+ beam for HIRFL accelerator and to have a feel how well the SECRAL can do in the production of very highly charged Bi beams. During the test, though at microwave power less than 3 kW, more than 150 e μA of Bi 31+ , 22 e μA of Bi 41+ , and 1.5 e μA of Bi 50+ have been produced. All of these results have again demonstrated the great capability of the SECRAL source. This article will present the detailed results and brief discussions to the production of highly charged ion beams with SECRAL.

  18. A University Consortium on Low Temperature Combustion for High Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assanis, Dennis N. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Atreya, Arvind [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Chen, Jyh-Yuan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Cheng, Wai K. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Dibble, Robert W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Edwards, Chris [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Filipi, Zoran S. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Gerdes, Christian [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Im, Hong [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lavoie, George A. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Wooldridge, Margaret S. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2009-12-31

    The objective of the University consortium was to investigate the fundamental processes that determine the practical boundaries of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) engines and develop methods to extend those boundaries to improve the fuel economy of these engines, while operating with ultra low emissions. This work involved studies of thermal effects, thermal transients and engine management, internal mixing and stratification, and direct injection strategies for affecting combustion stability. This work also examined spark-assisted Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) and exhaust after-treatment so as to extend the range and maximize the benefit of Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI)/ Partially Premixed Compression Ignition (PPCI) operation. In summary the overall goals were; Investigate the fundamental processes that determine the practical boundaries of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) engines; Develop methods to extend LTC boundaries to improve the fuel economy of HCCI engines fueled on gasoline and alternative blends, while operating with ultra low emissions; and Investigate alternate fuels, ignition and after-treatment for LTC and Partially Premixed compression Ignition (PPCI) engines.

  19. Photoinduced High-Frequency Charge Oscillations in Dimerized Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemitsu, Kenji

    2018-04-01

    Photoinduced charge dynamics in dimerized systems is studied on the basis of the exact diagonalization method and the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for a one-dimensional spinless-fermion model at half filling and a two-dimensional model for κ-(bis[ethylenedithio]tetrathiafulvalene)2X [κ-(BEDT-TTF)2X] at three-quarter filling. After the application of a one-cycle pulse of a specifically polarized electric field, the charge densities at half of the sites of the system oscillate in the same phase and those at the other half oscillate in the opposite phase. For weak fields, the Fourier transform of the time profile of the charge density at any site after photoexcitation has peaks for finite-sized systems that correspond to those of the steady-state optical conductivity spectrum. For strong fields, these peaks are suppressed and a new peak appears on the high-energy side, that is, the charge densities mainly oscillate with a single frequency, although the oscillation is eventually damped. In the two-dimensional case without intersite repulsion and in the one-dimensional case, this frequency corresponds to charge-transfer processes by which all the bonds connecting the two classes of sites are exploited. Thus, this oscillation behaves as an electronic breathing mode. The relevance of the new peak to a recently found reflectivity peak in κ-(BEDT-TTF)2X after photoexcitation is discussed.

  20. ERC sources for the production of highly charged ions (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyneis, C.M.; Antaya, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) using rf between 5 and 16 GHz have been developed into stable, reliable sources of highly charged ions produced from a wide range of elements. These devices are currently used as ion sources for cyclotrons, synchrotrons, and heavy-ion linacs for nuclear and relativistic heavy-ion physics. They also serve the atomic physics community as a source of low energy multiply charged ions. In order to improve their performance both with respect to maximum charge state and beam intensity, ECRIS builders are now designing and constructing sources which will operate at frequencies up to 30 GHz. In this article we review the present status of operating ECRIS, review recent experimental measurements on plasma parameters, and look at the technology and potential of sources operating at frequencies up to 30 GHz

  1. Interaction of ultra-high intensity laser pulse with a mass limited targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, A.A.; Platonov, K.Yu.; Limpouch, J.; Psikal, J.; Kawata, S.

    2006-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. Ultra-high intensity laser pulses may be produced now via CPA scheme by using very short laser pulses of a relatively low energy. Interaction of such pulses with massive target is not very efficient as the energy delivered to charged particles spreads out quickly over large distances and it is redistributed between many secondary particles. One possibility to limit this undesirable energy spread is to use mass limited targets (MLT), for example droplets, big clusters or small foil sections. This is an intermediate regime in target dimensions between bulk solid and nanometer-size atomic cluster targets. A few experimental and theoretical studies have been carried out on laser absorption, fast particle generation and induced nuclear fusion reactions in the interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with MLT plasma. We investigate here laser interactions with MLT via 2D3V relativistic electromagnetic PIC simulations. We assume spherical droplet as a typical MLT. However, the sphere is represented in 2D simulations by an infinite cylinder irradiated uniformly along its length. We assume that MLT is fully ionized before main pulse interaction either due to insufficient laser contrast or due to a prepulse. For simplicity, we assume homogeneous plasma of high initial temperature. We analyze the interaction of relativistic laser pulses of various polarizations with targets of different shapes, such as a foil, quadrant and sphere. The mechanisms of laser absorption, electron and ion acceleration are clarified for different laser and target parameters. When laser interacts with the target front side, kinetic energy of electrons rises rapidly with fast oscillations in the kinetic and field energy, caused by electron oscillations in the laser field. Small energy oscillations, observed later, are caused by the electron motion back and forth through the droplet. Approximately 40% of laser energy is transferred to the kinetic energy of electrons

  2. Ultra high vacuum activities and required modification at 14 UD BARC-TIFR pelletron accelerator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.C.; Ninawe, N.G.; Ramjilal; Bhagwat, P.V.; Salvi, S.B.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The 14 UD pelletron accelerator is working round the clock since 1989. The accelerator is housed inside a tank which is 6 meter in diameter and 25 meter long. The accelerator tank is pressurized with SF 6 at 80 to 100 PSIG in order to achieve 14MV. In pelletron, ions are extracted from SNICS are pre-accelerated up to 300 keV before being injected into low energy accelerator tube. In the terminal which is at high potential (4MV to 14 MV), the ion beam pass through the stripper and positive ions with high charge states are produced. The high energy beams are focussed and analyzed by 90 deg magnet. The analyzed beam is then transported to the various experimental ports. In order to achieve uniform ultra high vacuum (to reduce the loss of intensity and spread in the energy of ions beams) in more than 100 metre and 100 mm diameter beam lines including magnet chambers and various beam diagnostic devices, combination of getter-ion pumps and turbo pumps are being used at Pelletron Accelerator Facility. The 14 UD pelletron is equipped with a combination of foil and gas stripper in high voltage terminal section. The foil and gas stripper in the terminal section are mainly used for stripping of light and heavy ions respectively. The gas stripper plays a great role for stripping of heavy ions and its efficiency depends on gas stripper parameters and supporting pumps. The gas stripper is originally installed with getter pumps. These pumps required periodic replacement of titanium cartridges and slowly the pumping speed used to diminish with time. A new recirculation turbo molecular pumps based system is being designed to improve good beam transmission. Details of design will be presented. Proton beam of tens of MeV energy and μA range current is in demand to carry out specific radiochemistry experiments in this facility. It is proposed to built and accommodate a proton experimental setup in the tower area of the existing facility. Details of required UHV system for

  3. Laser focusing of high-energy charged-particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channell, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that laser focusing of high-energy charged-particle beams using the inverse Cherenkov effect is well suited for applications with large linear colliders. Very high gradient (>0.5 MG/cm) lenses result that can be added sequentially without AG cancellation. These lenses are swell understood, have small geometric aberrations, and offer the possibility of correlating phase and energy aberrations to produce an achromatic final focus

  4. Electron impact ionization of highly charged lithiumlike ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K.L.

    1992-10-01

    Electron impact ionization cross sections can provide valuable information about the charge-state and power balance of highly charged ions in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. In the present work, a novel technique based on x-ray measurements has been used to infer the ionization cross section of highly charged lithiumlike ions on the Livermore electron beam ion trap. In particular, a correspondence is established between an observed x ray and an ionization event. The measurements are made at one energy corresponding to approximately 2.3 times the threshold energy for ionization of lithiumlike ions. The technique is applied to the transition metals between Z=22 (titanium, Ti 19+ ) and Z=26 (iron, Fe 23+ ) and to Z=56 (barium, Ba 53+ ). The results for the transition metals, which have an estimated 17-33% uncertainty, are in good overall agreement with a relativistic distorted-wave calculation. However, less good agreement is found for barium, which has a larger uncertainty. Methods for properly accounting for the polarization in the x-ray intensities and for inferring the charge-state abundances from x-ray observations, which were developed for the ionization measurements, as well as an x-ray model that assists in the proper interpretation of the data are also presented

  5. Uncharted Frontiers in the Spectroscopy of Highly Charged Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Beiersdorfer, P; Crespo, J; Kim, S H; Neill, P; Utter, S; Widmann, K

    2000-01-01

    The development of novel techniques is critical for maintaining a state-of-the-art core competency in atomic physics and readiness for evolving programmatic needs. We have carried out a three-year effort to develop novel spectroscopic instrumentation that added new dimensions to our capabilities for measuring energy levels, radiative transition probabilities, and electron-ion excitation processes. The new capabilities created were in areas that heretofore had been inaccessible to scientific scrutiny and included high-resolution spectroscopy of hard x rays, femtosecond lifetime measurements, measurements of transition probabilities of long-lived metastable levels, polarization spectroscopy, ultra-precise determinations of energy levels, and the establishment of absolute wavelength standards in x-ray spectroscopy. Instrumentation developed during the period included a transmission-type crystal spectrometer, a flat-field EUV spectrometer, and the development and deployment of absolutely calibrated monolithic cry...

  6. Charge transport in highly efficient iridium cored electrophosphorescent dendrimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Jonathan P. J.; Samuel, Ifor D. W.; Lo, Shih-Chun; Burn, Paul L.; Weiter, Martin; Bässler, Heinz

    2004-01-01

    Electrophosphorescent dendrimers are promising materials for highly efficient light-emitting diodes. They consist of a phosphorescent core onto which dendritic groups are attached. Here, we present an investigation into the optical and electronic properties of highly efficient phosphorescent dendrimers. The effect of dendrimer structure on charge transport and optical properties is studied using temperature-dependent charge-generation-layer time-of-flight measurements and current voltage (I-V) analysis. A model is used to explain trends seen in the I-V characteristics. We demonstrate that fine tuning the mobility by chemical structure is possible in these dendrimers and show that this can lead to highly efficient bilayer dendrimer light-emitting diodes with neat emissive layers. Power efficiencies of 20 lm/W were measured for devices containing a second-generation (G2) Ir(ppy)3 dendrimer with a 1,3,5-tris(2-N-phenylbenzimidazolyl)benzene electron transport layer.

  7. Study of application technology of ultra-high speed computer to the elucidation of complex phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, Tomotsugu

    1996-01-01

    The basic design of numerical information library in the decentralized computer network was explained at the first step of constructing the application technology of ultra-high speed computer to the elucidation of complex phenomena. Establishment of the system makes possible to construct the efficient application environment of ultra-high speed computer system to be scalable with the different computing systems. We named the system Ninf (Network Information Library for High Performance Computing). The summary of application technology of library was described as follows: the application technology of library under the distributed environment, numeric constants, retrieval of value, library of special functions, computing library, Ninf library interface, Ninf remote library and registration. By the system, user is able to use the program concentrating the analyzing technology of numerical value with high precision, reliability and speed. (S.Y.)

  8. Evaluating strength at ultra-high temperatures-Methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelkl, Rainer; Fischer, Bernd; Beschliesser, Manuel; Glatzel, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    Proprietary equipment for mechanical testing at ultra-high temperatures by ohmic heating is outlined. Strain is measured with a video extensometer with an accuracy of up to Δε-bar∼±0.00025%. Stability and accuracy of the test system are evaluated on Pt- and refractory alloys. These specially designed and built test facilities are compared to commercially available high-vacuum test chambers with tungsten heater

  9. Thermally Induced Ultra High Cycle Fatigue of Copper Alloys of the High Gradient Accelerating Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Heikkinen, Samuli; Wuensch, Walter

    2010-01-01

    In order to keep the overall length of the compact linear collider (CLIC), currently being studied at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), within reasonable limits, i.e. less than 50 km, an accelerating gradient above 100 MV/m is required. This imposes considerable demands on the materials of the accelerating structures. The internal surfaces of these core components of a linear accelerator are exposed to pulsed radio frequency (RF) currents resulting in cyclic thermal stresses expected to cause surface damage by fatigue. The designed lifetime of CLIC is 20 years, which results in a number of thermal stress cycles of the order of 2.33•1010. Since no fatigue data existed in the literature for CLIC parameter space, a set of three complementary experiments were initiated: ultra high cycle mechanical fatigue by ultrasound, low cycle fatigue by pulsed laser irradiation and low cycle thermal fatigue by high power microwaves, each test representing a subset of the original problem. High conductiv...

  10. Ground Glass Pozzolan in Conventional, High, and Ultra-High Performance Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tagnit-Hamou Arezki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground-glass pozzolan (G obtained by grinding the mixed-waste glass to same fineness of cement can act as a supplementary-cementitious material (SCM, given that it is an amorphous and a pozzolanic material. The G showed promising performances in different concrete types such as conventional concrete (CC, high-performance concrete (HPC, and ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC. The current paper reports on the characteristics and performance of G in these concrete types. The use of G provides several advantages (technological, economical, and environmental. It reduces the production cost of concrete and decrease the carbon footprint of a traditional concrete structures. The rheology of fresh concrete can be improved due to the replacement of cement by non-absorptive glass particles. Strength and rigidity improvements in the concrete containing G are due to the fact that glass particles act as inclusions having a very high strength and elastic modulus that have a strengthening effect on the overall hardened matrix.

  11. Ultra High Temperature and Multifunctional Ceramic Matrix Composite – Coating Systems for Light-Weight Space and Aero Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Revolutionary ultra-high temperature, high mechanical loading capable, oxidation resistant, durable ceramic coatings and light-weight fiber-reinforced Ceramic Matrix...

  12. Flexible mechanoprosthesis made from woven ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene fibres : proof of concept in a chronic sheep model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basir, Amir; Grobben, Remco B.; Cramer, Maarten Jan; van Herwaarden, Joost A.; Vink, Aryan; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Kluin, Jolanda; Gründeman, Paul F.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibres are flexible, have high tensile strength, and platelet and bacterial adhesion is low. Therefore, UHMWPE may overcome limitations of current mechanical valves and bioprostheses. In this study, the biocompatibility and functionality

  13. Interaction of low-energy highly charged ions with matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzel, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    The thesis presented herein deals with experimental studies of the interaction between highly charged ions and neutral matter at low collision energies. The energy range investigated is of great interest for the understanding of both charge exchange reactions between ions comprising the solar wind and various astrophysical gases, as well as the creation of near-surface nanostructures. Over the course of this thesis an experimental setup was constructed, capable of reducing the kinetic energy of incoming ions by two orders of magnitude and finally focussing the decelerated ion beam onto a solid or gaseous target. A coincidence method was employed for the simultaneous detection of photons emitted during the charge exchange process together with the corresponding projectile ions. In this manner, it was possible to separate reaction channels, whose superposition presumably propagated large uncertainties and systematic errors in previous measurements. This work has unveiled unexpectedly strong contributions of slow radiative decay channels and clear evidence of previously only postulated decay processes in charge exchange-induced X-ray spectra. (orig.)

  14. An Ultra-low Frequency Modal Testing Suspension System for High Precision Air Pressure Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoling YUAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As a resolution for air pressure control challenges in ultra-low frequency modal testing suspension systems, an incremental PID control algorithm with dead band is applied to achieve high-precision pressure control. We also develop a set of independent hardware and software systems for high-precision pressure control solutions. Taking control system versatility, scalability, reliability, and other aspects into considerations, a two-level communication employing Ethernet and CAN bus, is adopted to complete such tasks as data exchange between the IPC, the main board and the control board ,and the pressure control. Furthermore, we build a single set of ultra-low frequency modal testing suspension system and complete pressure control experiments, which achieve the desired results and thus confirm that the high-precision pressure control subsystem is reasonable and reliable.

  15. Ultra-high temperature tensile properties of ODS steel claddings under severe accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Y., E-mail: yano.yasuhide@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002, Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki, 311-1393 (Japan); Tanno, T.; Oka, H.; Ohtsuka, S.; Inoue, T.; Kato, S.; Furukawa, T.; Uwaba, T.; Kaito, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002, Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki, 311-1393 (Japan); Ukai, S.; Oono, N. [Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13, W-8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060-8628 (Japan); Kimura, A. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Hayashi, S. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Torimaru, T. [Nippon Nuclear Fuel Development Co., Ltd., 2163, Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki, 311-1313 (Japan)

    2017-04-15

    Ultra-high temperature ring tensile tests were performed to investigate the tensile behavior of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel claddings and wrapper materials under severe accident conditions with temperatures ranging from room temperature to 1400 °C which is close to the melting point of core materials. The experimental results showed that the tensile strength of 9Cr-ODS steel claddings was highest in the core materials at ultra-high temperatures of 900–1200 °C, but there was significant degradation in the tensile strength of 9Cr-ODS steel claddings above 1200 °C. This degradation was attributed to grain boundary sliding deformation with γ/δ transformation, which is associated with reduced ductility. By contrast, the tensile strength of recrystallized 12Cr-ODS and FeCrAl-ODS steel claddings retained its high value above 1200 °C, unlike the other tested materials.

  16. Ultra-high temperature tensile properties of ODS steel claddings under severe accident conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Y.; Tanno, T.; Oka, H.; Ohtsuka, S.; Inoue, T.; Kato, S.; Furukawa, T.; Uwaba, T.; Kaito, T.; Ukai, S.; Oono, N.; Kimura, A.; Hayashi, S.; Torimaru, T.

    2017-04-01

    Ultra-high temperature ring tensile tests were performed to investigate the tensile behavior of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel claddings and wrapper materials under severe accident conditions with temperatures ranging from room temperature to 1400 °C which is close to the melting point of core materials. The experimental results showed that the tensile strength of 9Cr-ODS steel claddings was highest in the core materials at ultra-high temperatures of 900-1200 °C, but there was significant degradation in the tensile strength of 9Cr-ODS steel claddings above 1200 °C. This degradation was attributed to grain boundary sliding deformation with γ/δ transformation, which is associated with reduced ductility. By contrast, the tensile strength of recrystallized 12Cr-ODS and FeCrAl-ODS steel claddings retained its high value above 1200 °C, unlike the other tested materials.

  17. Design of a charge sensitive preamplifier on high resistivity silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeka, V.; Rehak, P.; Rescia, S.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Holl, P.; Strueder, L.; Kemmer, J.

    1987-01-01

    A low noise, fast charge sensitive preamplifier was designed on high resistivity, detector grade silicon. It is built at the surface of a fully depleted region of n-type silicon. This allows the preamplifier to be placed very close to a detector anode. The preamplifier uses the classical input cascode configuration with a capacitor and a high value resistor in the feedback loop. The output stage of the preamplifier can drive a load up to 20pF. The power dissipation of the preamplifier is 13mW. The amplifying elements are ''Single Sided Gate JFETs'' developed especially for this application. Preamplifiers connected to a low capacitance anode of a drift type detector should achieve a rise time of 20ns and have an equivalent noise charge (ENC), after a suitable shaping, of less than 50 electrons. This performance translates to a position resolution better than 3μm for silicon drift detectors. 6 refs., 9 figs

  18. The Heart of China revisited: II Early Paleozoic (ultra)high-pressure and (ultra)high-temperature metamorphic Qinling orogenic collage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Thomas; Franz, Leander; Ratschbacher, Lothar; de Capitani, Christian; Webb, A. Alexander G.; Yang, Zhao; Pfänder, Jörg A.; Hofmann, Mandy; Linnemann, Ulf

    2013-07-01

    Orogens with multiple (ultra)high-pressure ((U)HP) and (ultra)high-temperature ((U)HT) metamorphic events provide a complex but telling record of oceanic and continental interaction. The Early Paleozoic history of the "Heart of China," the Qinling orogenic collage, offers snapshots of at least three (U)HP and two (U)HT metamorphic events. The preservation of remnants of both oceanic and continental domains together with a ≥110 Myr record of magmatism allows the reconstruction of the processes that resulted in this disparate metamorphism. Herein, we first illuminate the pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) evolution of the Early Paleozoic (U)HP and (U)HT events by refining the petrographic descriptions and P-T estimates, assess published, and employ new U/Th-Pb zircon, monazite, and titanite, and 40Ar-39Ar phengite geochronology to date the magmatic and metamorphic events. Then we explore how the metamorphic and magmatic events are related tectonically and how they elucidate the affinities among the various complexes in the Qinling orogenic collage. We argue that a Meso-Neoproterozoic crustal fragment—the Qinling complex—localized subduction-accretion events that involved subduction, oceanic-arc formation, and back-arc spreading along its northern margin, and mtantle-wedge exhumation and spreading-ridge subduction along its southern margin.

  19. Chemical fingerprint of Ganmaoling granule by double-wavelength ultra high performance liquid chromatography and ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Qiong; Ye, Xiaolan; Zhou, Yingyi; Li, Hua; Song, Fenyun

    2015-06-01

    A method incorporating double-wavelength ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was developed for the investigation of the chemical fingerprint of Ganmaoling granule. The chromatographic separations were performed on an ACQUITY UPLC HSS C18 column (2.1 × 50 mm, 1.8 μm) at 30°C using gradient elution with water/formic acid (1%) and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. A total of 11 chemical constituents of Ganmaoling granule were identified from their molecular weight, UV spectra, tandem mass spectrometry data, and retention behavior by comparing the results with those of the reference standards or literature. And 25 peaks were selected as the common peaks for fingerprint analysis to evaluate the similarities among 25 batches of Ganmaoling granule. The results of principal component analysis and orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis showed that the important chemical markers that could distinguish the different batches were revealed as 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid. This is the first report of the ultra high performance liquid chromatography chemical fingerprint and component identification of Ganmaoling granule, which could lay a foundation for further studies of Ganmaoling granule. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Modular Ultra-High Power Solar Array Architecture, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Deployable Space Systems, Inc. (DSS) will focus the proposed SBIR program on the development of a new highly-modularized and extremely-scalable solar array that...

  1. Modular Ultra-High Power Solar Array Architecture, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Deployable Space Systems (DSS) will focus the proposed Phase 2 SBIR program on the hardware-based development and TRL advance of a highly-modularized and...

  2. Quantum electrodynamical effects in heavy highly-charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yerokhin, V.A.; Artemyev, A.N.; Indelicato, P.; Shabaev, V.M.

    2003-01-01

    The present status of theoretical calculations of QED effects in highly charged ions is reviewed for several important cases: the Lamb shift in heavy H-like ions, the 2p 1/2 -2s transition energy in heavy Li-like ions, and the bound-electron g factor in H-like ions. Theoretical predictions are compared with experimental results. Special attention is paid to the discussion of uncertainties of theoretical predictions

  3. Progress in quantum electrodynamics theory of highly charged ions

    OpenAIRE

    Volotka, A. V.; Glazov, D. A.; Plunien, G.; Shabaev, V. M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent progress in quantum electrodynamics (QED) calculations of highly charged ions is reviewed. The theoretical predictions for the binding energies, the hyperfine splittings, and the g factors are presented and compared with available experimental data. Special attention is paid to tests of bound-state QED at strong field regime. Future prospects for tests of QED at the strongest electric and magnetic fields as well as for determination of the fine structure constant and the nuclear magnet...

  4. CHICSi - a compact ultra-high vacuum compatible detector system for nuclear reaction experiments at storage rings. II. Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golubev, P.; Avdeichikov, V.; Carlen, L.; Jakobsson, B. E-mail: bo.jakobsson@kosufy.lu.se; Siwek, A.; Veldhuizen, E.J. van; Westerberg, L.; Whitlow, H.J

    2003-03-11

    We describe the detectors for identification of charged particles and fragments in CHICSi, a large solid angle multi-telescope system mounted inside an ultra-high vacuum (UHV), cluster-jet target chamber. CHICSi performs nuclear reaction experiments at storage rings. The telescopes consist of a first very thin, 10-14 {mu}m Si detector, a second 300 {mu}m (or possibly 500 {mu}m) ion implanted Si detector supplemented by a 6 mm GSO(Ce) scintillator read out by a photodiode (PD) or by a third 300 {mu}m Si detector. The telescopes provide full charge separation up to Z=17 and mass resolution up to A=9 in the energy range 0.7-60A MeV. The thin p-i-n diode detector, etched out from a 280 {mu}m Si wafer, and the GSO/PD detector, both exclusively developed for CHICSi, provide an energy resolution {<=}8%, while the standard 300 {mu}m detectors have {<=}2% energy resolution. Radiation stability of the Si detectors is confirmed up to an integrated flux of 10{sup 10} alpha particles. The GSO detector has 70% light collection efficiency with the optical coupling to the PD a simple open, 0.2 mm, gap. A new method, developed to perform absolute energy calibration for the GSO/PD detector is presented.

  5. CHICSi - a compact ultra-high vacuum compatible detector system for nuclear reaction experiments at storage rings. II. Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubev, P.; Avdeichikov, V.; Carlen, L.; Jakobsson, B.; Siwek, A.; Veldhuizen, E.J. van; Westerberg, L.; Whitlow, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    We describe the detectors for identification of charged particles and fragments in CHICSi, a large solid angle multi-telescope system mounted inside an ultra-high vacuum (UHV), cluster-jet target chamber. CHICSi performs nuclear reaction experiments at storage rings. The telescopes consist of a first very thin, 10-14 μm Si detector, a second 300 μm (or possibly 500 μm) ion implanted Si detector supplemented by a 6 mm GSO(Ce) scintillator read out by a photodiode (PD) or by a third 300 μm Si detector. The telescopes provide full charge separation up to Z=17 and mass resolution up to A=9 in the energy range 0.7-60A MeV. The thin p-i-n diode detector, etched out from a 280 μm Si wafer, and the GSO/PD detector, both exclusively developed for CHICSi, provide an energy resolution ≤8%, while the standard 300 μm detectors have ≤2% energy resolution. Radiation stability of the Si detectors is confirmed up to an integrated flux of 10 10 alpha particles. The GSO detector has 70% light collection efficiency with the optical coupling to the PD a simple open, 0.2 mm, gap. A new method, developed to perform absolute energy calibration for the GSO/PD detector is presented

  6. Simulation of press-forming for automobile part using ultra high tension steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanabe I.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, ultra high tension steel has gradually been used in the automobile industry. The development of press-forming technology is now essential by reason of its high productivity and high product quality. In this study, tensile tests were performed with a view to understanding the material properties. Press-forming tests were then carried out with regard to the behaviors of spring back and deep-drawability, and manufacturing a real product. The ultra high tension steel used in the experiments had a thickness of 1 mm and a tensile strength of 1000 MPa. Finally, simulations of spring back, deep-drawability and manufacturing a real product in ultra high tension steel were conducted and evaluated in order to calculate the optimum-press-forming conditions and the optimum shape of the die. FEM with non-linear and dynamic analysis using Euler-Lagrange’s element was used for the simulations. It is concluded from the results that (1 the simulations conformed to the results of the experiments (2 the simulations proved very effective for calculating the optimum press conditions and die shape.

  7. Electron capture by highly charged low-velocity ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocke, C.L.; Dubois, R.; Justiniano, E.; Gray, T.J.; Can, C.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a fast heavy ion beam to produce, by bombardment of gaseous targets, highly-charged low-velocity recoil ions, and the use of these secondary ions in turn as projectiles in studies of electron capture and ionization in low-energy collision systems. The interest in collisions involving low-energy highly-charged projectiles comes both from the somewhat simplifying aspects of the physics which attend the long-range capture and from applications to fusion plasmas, astrophysics and more speculative technology such as the production of X-ray lasers. The ions of interest in such applications should have both electronic excitation and center-of-mass energies in the keV range and cannot be produced by simply stripping fast heavy ion beams. Several novel types of ion source have been developed to produce low-energy highly-charged ions, of which the secondary ion recoil source discussed in this paper is one. (Auth.)

  8. The MOLLER Experiment: ``An Ultra-precise Measurement of the Weak Charge of the Electron using moller Scattering''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beminiwattha, Rakitha; Moller Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Parity Violating Electron Scattering (PVES) is an extremely successful precision frontier tool that has been used for testing the Standard Model (SM) and understanding nucleon structure. Several generations of highly successful PVES programs at SLAC, MIT-Bates, MAMI-Mainz, and Jefferson Lab have contributed to the understanding of nucleon structure and testing the SM. But missing phenomena like matter-antimatter asymmetry, neutrino flavor oscillations, and dark matter and energy suggest that the SM is only a `low energy' effective theory. The MOLLER experiment at Jefferson Lab will measure the weak charge of the electron, QWe = 1 - 4sin2θW , with a precision of 2.4 % by measuring the parity violating asymmetry in electron-electron () scattering and will be sensitive to subtle but measurable deviations from precisely calculable predictions from the SM. The MOLLER experiment will provide the best contact interaction search for leptons at low OR high energy makes it a probe of physics beyond the Standard Model with sensitivities to mass-scales of new PV physics up to 7.5 TeV. Overview of the experiment and recent pre-R&D progress will be reported.

  9. Inactivation of Bacillus spores inoculated in milk by Ultra High Pressure Homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador Espejo, Genaro Gustavo; Hernández-Herrero, M M; Juan, B; Trujillo, A J

    2014-12-01

    Ultra High-Pressure Homogenization treatments at 300 MPa with inlet temperatures (Ti) of 55, 65, 75 and 85 °C were applied to commercial Ultra High Temperature treated whole milk inoculated with Bacillus cereus, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus sporothermodurans, Bacillus coagulans, Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Bacillus subtilis spores in order to evaluate the inactivation level achieved. Ultra High-Pressure Homogenization conditions at 300 MPa with Ti = 75 and 85 °C were capable of a spore inactivation of ∼5 log CFU/mL. Furthermore, under these processing conditions, commercial sterility (evaluated as the complete inactivation of the inoculated spores) was obtained in milk, with the exception of G. stearothermophilus and B. subtilis treated at 300 MPa with Ti = 75 °C. The results showed that G. stearothermophilus and B. subtilis have higher resistance to the Ultra High-Pressure Homogenization treatments applied than the other microorganisms inoculated and that a treatment performed at 300 MPa with Ti = 85 °C was necessary to completely inactivate these microorganisms at the spore level inoculated (∼1 × 10(6) CFU/mL). Besides, a change in the resistance of B. licheniformis, B. sporothermodurans, G. stearothermophilus and B. subtilis spores was observed as the inactivation obtained increased remarkably in treatments performed with Ti between 65 and 75 °C. This study provides important evidence of the suitability of UHPH technology for the inactivation of spores in high numbers, leading to the possibility of obtaining commercially sterile milk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Status of Charge Exchange Cross Section Measurements for Highly Charged Ions on Atomic Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganic, I. N.; Havener, C. C.; Schultz, D. R.; Seely, D. G.; Schultz, P. C.

    2011-05-01

    Total cross sections of charge exchange (CX) for C5+, N6+, and O7+ ions on ground state atomic hydrogen are measured in an extended collision energy range of 1 - 20,000 eV/u. Absolute CX measurements are performed using an improved merged-beams technique with intense highly charged ion beams extracted from a 14.5 GHz ECR ion source mounted on a high voltage platform. In order to improve the problematic H+ signal collection for these exoergic CX collisions at low relative energies, a new double focusing electrostatic analyzer was installed. Experimental CX data are in good agreement with all previous H-oven relative measurements at higher collision energies. We compare our results with the most recent molecular orbital close-coupling (MOCC) and atomic orbital close-coupling (AOCC) theoretical calculations. Work supported by the NASA Solar & Heliospheric Physics Program NNH07ZDA001N, the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences and the Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences, and the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the U.S. DoE.

  11. Generation of Ultra-high Intensity Laser Pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisch, N.J.; Malkin, V.M.

    2003-01-01

    Mainly due to the method of chirped pulse amplification, laser intensities have grown remarkably during recent years. However, the attaining of very much higher powers is limited by the material properties of gratings. These limitations might be overcome through the use of plasma, which is an ideal medium for processing very high power and very high total energy. A plasma can be irradiated by a long pump laser pulse, carrying significant energy, which is then quickly depleted in the plasma by a short counterpropagating pulse. This counterpropagating wave effect has already been employed in Raman amplifiers using gases or plasmas at low laser power. Of particular interest here are the new effects which enter in high power regimes. These new effects can be employed so that one high-energy optical system can be used like a flashlamp in what amounts to pumping the plasma, and a second low-power optical system can be used to extract quickly the energy from the plasma and focus it precisely. The combined system can be very compact. Thus, focused intensities more than 10 25 W/cm 2 can be contemplated using existing optical elements. These intensities are several orders of magnitude higher than what is currently available through chirped pump amplifiers

  12. Ultra-Stretchable Interconnects for High-Density Stretchable Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Shafqat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The exciting field of stretchable electronics (SE promises numerous novel applications, particularly in-body and medical diagnostics devices. However, future advanced SE miniature devices will require high-density, extremely stretchable interconnects with micron-scale footprints, which calls for proven standardized (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS-type process recipes using bulk integrated circuit (IC microfabrication tools and fine-pitch photolithography patterning. Here, we address this combined challenge of microfabrication with extreme stretchability for high-density SE devices by introducing CMOS-enabled, free-standing, miniaturized interconnect structures that fully exploit their 3D kinematic freedom through an interplay of buckling, torsion, and bending to maximize stretchability. Integration with standard CMOS-type batch processing is assured by utilizing the Flex-to-Rigid (F2R post-processing technology to make the back-end-of-line interconnect structures free-standing, thus enabling the routine microfabrication of highly-stretchable interconnects. The performance and reproducibility of these free-standing structures is promising: an elastic stretch beyond 2000% and ultimate (plastic stretch beyond 3000%, with <0.3% resistance change, and >10 million cycles at 1000% stretch with <1% resistance change. This generic technology provides a new route to exciting highly-stretchable miniature devices.

  13. Ultra-stretchable Interconnects for high-density stretchable electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shafqat, S.; Hoefnagels, J.P.M.; Savov, A.; Joshi, S.; Dekker, R.; Geers, M.G.D.

    2017-01-01

    The exciting field of stretchable electronics (SE) promises numerous novel applications, particularly in-body and medical diagnostics devices. However, future advanced SE miniature devices will require high-density, extremely stretchable interconnects with micron-scale footprints, which calls for

  14. Patterned magnetic thin films for ultra high density recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haast, M.A.M.

    This thesis describes the results of a research project in the field of high bit-density data-storage media. More specifically, the material aspects of the novel recording technique using patterned media have been studied. The aim of the work was the design, realization and characterization of such

  15. Enhancing ultra-high CPV passive cooling using least-material finned heat sinks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micheli, Leonardo, E-mail: lm409@exeter.ac.uk; Mallick, Tapas K., E-mail: T.K.Mallick@exeter.ac.uk [Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9FE (United Kingdom); Fernandez, Eduardo F., E-mail: E.Fernandez-Fernandez2@exeter.ac.uk [Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9FE (United Kingdom); Centre of Advanced Studies in Energy and Environment, University of Jaen, Jaen 23071 (Spain); Almonacid, Florencia, E-mail: facruz@ujaen.es [Centre of Advanced Studies in Energy and Environment, University of Jaen, Jaen 23071 (Spain); Reddy, K. S., E-mail: ksreddy@iitm.ac.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, 600036 (India)

    2015-09-28

    Ultra-high concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) systems aim to increase the cost-competiveness of CPV by increasing the concentrations over 2000 suns. In this work, the design of a heat sink for ultra-high concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) applications is presented. For the first time, the least-material approach, widely used in electronics to maximize the thermal dissipation while minimizing the weight of the heat sink, has been applied in CPV. This method has the potential to further decrease the cost of this technology and to keep the multijunction cell within the operative temperature range. The designing procedure is described in the paper and the results of a thermal simulation are shown to prove the reliability of the solution. A prediction of the costs is also reported: a cost of 0.151$/W{sub p} is expected for a passive least-material heat sink developed for 4000x applications.

  16. The Promise and Challenges of Ultra High Bypass Ratio Engine Technology and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Chris

    2011-01-01

    In this presentation, an overview of the research being conducted by the ERA Project in Ultra High Bypass aircraft propulsion and in partnership with Pratt & Whitney with their Geared TurboFan (GTF) is given. The ERA goals are shown followed by a discussion of what areas need to be addressed on the engine to achieve the goals and how the GTF is uniquely qualified to meet the goals through a discussion of what benefits the cycle provides. The first generation GTF architecture is then shown highlighting the areas of collaboration with NASA, and the fuel burn, noise and emissions reductions possible based on initial static ground test and flight test data of the first GTF engine. Finally, a 5 year technology roadmap is presented focusing on Ultra High Bypass propulsion technology research areas that are being pursued and being planned by ERA and P&W under their GTF program.

  17. Cavity resonance absorption in ultra-high bandwidth CRT deflection structure by a resistive load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, M.E.; Hudson, C.L.

    1993-05-11

    An improved ultra-high bandwidth helical coil deflection structure for a cathode ray tube is described comprising a first metal member having a bore therein, the metal walls of which form a first ground plane; a second metal member coaxially mounted in the bore of the first metal member and forming a second ground plane; a helical deflection coil coaxially mounted within the bore between the two ground planes; and a resistive load disposed in one end of the bore and electrically connected to the first and second ground planes, the resistive load having an impedance substantially equal to the characteristic impedance of the coaxial line formed by the two coaxial ground planes to inhibit cavity resonance in the structure within the ultra-high bandwidth of operation. Preferably, the resistive load comprises a carbon film on a surface of an end plug in one end of the bore.

  18. Diamond dispersed cemented carbide produced without using ultra high pressure equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriguchi, H.; Tsuzuki, K.; Ikegaya, A.

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a composite material of dispersed diamond particles in cemented carbide without using ultra high pressure equipment. The developed diamond dispersed cemented carbide combines the excellent properties of cemented carbide with diamond and also provides 1.5 times improved fracture toughness over that of cemented carbide. They also show 10 times higher wear resistance over that of cemented carbide in a wear resistance test against bearing steel, and 5 times greater grindability than diamond compacts. Because ultra high pressure equipment is not used to produce the developed material, large compacts over 100 mm in diameter can be manufactured. The developed material showed 10-25 times higher wear resistance in real use as wear-resistant tools such as centerless blades and work-rests. (author)

  19. Long range surface plasmon resonance with ultra-high penetration depth for self-referenced sensing and ultra-low detection limit using diverging beam approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, Sivan, E-mail: sivan.isaacs@gmail.com; Abdulhalim, Ibrahim [Department of Electro-Optical Engineering and TheIlse Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); NEW CREATE Programme, School of Materials Science and Engineering, 1 CREATE Way, Research Wing, #02-06/08, Singapore 138602 (Singapore)

    2015-05-11

    Using an insulator-metal-insulator structure with dielectric having refractive index (RI) larger than the analyte, long range surface plasmon (SP) resonance exhibiting ultra-high penetration depth is demonstrated for sensing applications of large bioentities at wavelengths in the visible range. Based on the diverging beam approach in Kretschmann-Raether configuration, one of the SP resonances is shown to shift in response to changes in the analyte RI while the other is fixed; thus, it can be used as a built in reference. The combination of the high sensitivity, high penetration depth and self-reference using the diverging beam approach in which a dark line is detected of the high sensitivity, high penetration depth, self-reference, and the diverging beam approach in which a dark line is detected using large number of camera pixels with a smart algorithm for sub-pixel resolution, a sensor with ultra-low detection limit is demonstrated suitable for large bioentities.

  20. Advancements of ultra-high peak power laser diode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, D.; Thiagarajan, P.; Goings, J.; Caliva, B.; Smith, S.; Walker, R.

    2018-02-01

    Enhancements of laser diode epitaxy in conjunction with process and packaging improvements have led to the availability of 1cm bars capable of over 500W peak power at near-infrared wavelengths (770nm to 1100nm). Advances in cooler design allow for multi-bar stacks with bar-to-bar pitches as low as 350μm and a scalable package architecture enabled a single diode assembly with total peak powers of over 1MegaWatt of peak power. With the addition of micro-optics, overall array brightness greater than 10kW/cm2 was achieved. Performance metrics of barbased diode lasers specifically engineered for high peak power and high brightness at wavelengths and pulse conditions commonly used to pump a variety of fiber and solid-state materials are presented.

  1. Tolerance of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ultra high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, M.; Torigoe, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Takizawa, N.; Hada, Y.; Mori, Y.; Takarabe, K.; Ono, F.

    2014-05-01

    Our studies on the tolerance of plants and animals against very high pressure of several GPa have been extended to a smaller sized fungus, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several pieces of budding yeast (dry yeast) were sealed in a small teflon capsule with a liquid pressure medium fluorinate, and exposed to 7.5 GPa by using a cubic anvil press. The pressure was kept constant for various duration of time from 2 to 24 h. After the pressure was released, the specimens were brought out from the teflon capsule, and they were cultivated on a potato dextrose agar. It was found that the budding yeast exposed to 7.5 GPa for up to 6 h showed multiplication. However, those exposed to 7.5 GPa for longer than 12 h were found dead. The high pressure tolerance of budding yeast is a little weaker than that of tardigrades.

  2. Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays and Neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagataki, Shigehiro

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, simulation of propagation of UHE-protons from nearby galaxies is presented. We found good parameter sets to explain the arrival distribution of UHECRs reported by AGASA and energy spectrum reported by HiRes. Using a good parameter set, we demonstrated how the distribution of arrival direction of UHECRs will be as a function of event numbers. We showed clearly that 1000-10000 events are necessary to see the clear source distribution. We also showed that effects of interactions and trapping of UHE-Nuclei in a galaxy cluster are very important. Especially, when a UHECR source is a bursting source such as GRB/AGN flare, heavy UHE-Nuclei are trapped for a long time in the galaxy cluster, which changes the spectrum and chemical composition of UHECRs coming from the galaxy cluster. We also showed that such effects can be also important when there have been sources of UHE-Nuclei in Milky Way. Since light nuclei escape from Milky Way in a short timescale, the chemical composition of UHECRs observed at the Earth can be heavy at high-energy range. Finally, we showed how much high-energy neutrinos are produced in GRBs. Since GRB neutrinos do not suffer from magnetic field bending, detection of high-energy neutrinos are very important to identify sources of UHECRs. Especially, for the case of GRBs, high-energy neutrinos arrive at the earth with gamma-rays simultaneously, which is very strong feature to identify the sources of UHECRs.

  3. A hydrophone prototype for ultra high energy neutrino acoustic detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotrufo, A.; Plotnikov, A.; Yershova, O.; Anghinolfi, M.; Piombo, D.

    2009-01-01

    The design of an air-backed fiber-optic hydrophone is presented. With respect to the previous models this prototype is optimized to provide a bandwidth sufficiently large to detect acoustic signals produced by high energy hadronic showers in water. In addiction to the geometrical configuration and to the choice of the materials, the preliminary results of the measured performances in air are presented.

  4. A hydrophone prototype for ultra high energy neutrino acoustic detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotrufo, A. [University of Genoa, Department of Physics, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 (Italy)], E-mail: cotrufo@ge.infn.it; Plotnikov, A.; Yershova, O. [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, GmbH Planckstrasse1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Anghinolfi, M.; Piombo, D. [INFN, University of Genoa, Department of Physics, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 (Italy)

    2009-06-01

    The design of an air-backed fiber-optic hydrophone is presented. With respect to the previous models this prototype is optimized to provide a bandwidth sufficiently large to detect acoustic signals produced by high energy hadronic showers in water. In addiction to the geometrical configuration and to the choice of the materials, the preliminary results of the measured performances in air are presented.

  5. ESSENSE: Ultra high resolution spectroscopy for the ESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasini, Stefano; Monkenbusch, Michael; Kozielewski, Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    The instrument concept for a very high intensity neutron spin-echo spectrometer with ultimate resolution properties has been developed and submitted as an instrument proposal to ESS. Effective intensity gain factors up to 30 compared to the best current instruments are anticipated. In addition the resolution will be boosted to the technical limits by newly designed superconducting precession solenoids. The intensity gain results from the use of an optimized guide transporting the high flux from the ESS cold moderator on the one side and from the utilization of an extended wavelength frame of 8 Å yielding a multiplication of information collection rate on the other side. The instrument thus enables novel views on soft matter systems ranging from polymers, functional gels and more to to dynamics of biological molecules with relevance for MD development; the employment of new techniques for surface NSE (GINSE) may contribute to new knowledge in tribology and lubrication and other surface phenomena that currently are hampered by low intensity. New developments in “intelligent” polymers as e.g. self-healing, the properties of which depend on molecular mobility and dynamics, require observation at many 100 ns of correlation times with high intensity, which can be made with ESSENSE. (paper)

  6. Improved Creep Measurements for Ultra-High Temperature Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyers, Robert W.; Ye, X.; Rogers, Jan R.

    2010-01-01

    Our team has developed a novel approach to measuring creep at extremely high temperatures using electrostatic levitation (ESL). This method has been demonstrated on niobium up to 2300 C, while ESL has melted tungsten (3400 C). This method has been extended to lower temperatures and higher stresses and applied to new materials, including a niobium-based superalloy, MASC. High-precision machined spheres of the sample are levitated in the NASA MSFC ESL, a national user facility and heated with a laser. The samples are rotated with an induction motor at up to 30,000 revolutions per second. The rapid rotation loads the sample through centripetal acceleration, producing a shear stress of about 60 MPa at the center, causing the sample to deform. The deformation of the sample is captured on high-speed video, which is analyzed by machine-vision software from the University of Massachusetts. The deformations are compared to finite element models to determine the constitutive constants in the creep relation. Furthermore, the non-contact method exploits stress gradients within the sample to determine the stress exponent in a single test.

  7. A novel ultra-high vacuum manipulator with six degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auciello, O.; Lulich, C.; Alonso, E.V.; Baragiola, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    An ultra-high vacuum goniometer of novel design for use in experiments with ion beams is described. The goniometer uses a wire system to transmit movements, is bakeable to 200 0 C and is reproducible in its angular positions to within 1.3 X 10 -4 rad (0.008 0 ). It allows a sample to be rotated around two axes over 360 0 , around a third over 180 0 , and to be translated along three perpendicular axes. (Auth.)

  8. Evaluation of environmental degradation effects in morphology of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivas, Viviane; Zylberberg, Marcel P.; Cardoso, Andre Luis V.; Pereira, Iaci M.; Weber, Ricardo P.; Suarez, Joao C. Miguez

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate changes in the morphology of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene fiber (UHMWPE), before and after exposure to environmental agents. Fibers produced by two different manufacturers were analyzed. To characterize the morphology, we used the technique of small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). The results demonstrate that the original morphology of the fibers was UHMWPE affected by the defects caused by exposure to environmental agents. (author)

  9. Measurement of ultra-high energy cosmic rays: An experimental summary and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukushima M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays achieved remarkable progress in the last 10 years. Physicists, gathered from around the world in the symposium UHECR-2012 held at CERN on February 13-16 2012, reported their most up-to-date observations, discussed the meaning of their findings, and identified remaining problems and future challenges in this field. This paper is a part of the symposium proceedings on the experimental summary and future prospects of the UHECR study.

  10. Research and Application of WCF Technology in Data Acquisition of Ultra-high Speed Packaging Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Jie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By introducing WCF technology on data acquisition of ultra-high speed packaging machine, data acquisition system reads dates of machine in polling mode through the WCF client, which can achieve accurate data collection, and effectively isolate the data acquisition system and the machine control system. It enhances the security of data interaction between systems, but also reduces the coupling degree between systems.

  11. High-speed ultra-wideband wireless signals over fiber systems: photonic generation and DSP detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Gibbon, Timothy Braidwood; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2009-01-01

    We firstly review the efforts in the literature on ultra-wideband (UWB)-over-fiber systems. Secondly, we present experimental results on photonic generation of high-speed UWB signals by both direct modulation and external optical injecting an uncooled semiconductor laser. Furthermore, we introduce...... the use of digital signal processing (DSP) technology to receive the generated UWB signal at 781.25 Mbit/s. Error-free transmission is achieved....

  12. Patterns of white matter microstructure in individuals at ultra-high-risk for psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krakauer, K; Ebdrup, B H; Glenthøj, B Y

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Individuals at ultra-high-risk (UHR) for psychosis present with emerging symptoms and decline in functioning. Previous univariate analyses have indicated widespread white matter (WM) aberrations in multiple brain regions in UHR individuals and patients with schizophrenia. Using multiv......, MO, and higher RD. CONCLUSIONS: UHR individuals demonstrate complex brain patterns of WM abnormalities. Despite the subtle psychopathology of UHR individuals, aberrations in WM appear associated with positive and negative symptoms as well as level of functioning....

  13. Silver Nanoparticles Modification of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene in Non-Aqueous Medium

    OpenAIRE

    V. N. Glushko; L. I. Blokhina; E. E. Anisimova; M. V. Bogdanovskaya; V. I. Kozhukhov; T. A. Cherdyntseva

    2016-01-01

    A series of experiments for obtaining modified with silver nanoparticles ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is done. Optimal precursors are silver trifluoroacetate, silver nitrate and silver methanesulfonate. Three variants of UHMWPE modification is studied: 1) the polyol synthesis, 2) polymer processing silver nanoparticle colloid and 3) reduction of silver salt solution in the UHMWPE polymer matrix. It is found that the last method is optimal. The specific surface of obtained...

  14. RECENT ADVANCES IN ULTRA-HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY FOR THE ANALYSIS OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huilian; Liu, Min; Chen, Pei

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine has been widely used for the prevention and treatment of various diseases for thousands of years in China. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) is a relatively new technique offering new possibilities. This paper reviews recent developments in UHPLC in the separation and identification, fingerprinting, quantification, and metabolism of traditional Chinese medicine. Recently, the combination of UHPLC with MS has improved the efficiency of the analysis of these materials. PMID:25045170

  15. Physics of Eclipsing Binaries: Modelling in the new era of ultra-high precision photometry

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlovski, K.; Bloemen, S.; Degroote, P.; Conroy, K.; Hambleton, Kelly; Giammarco, J.M.; Pablo, H.; Prša, A.; Tkachenko, A.; Torres, G.

    2013-01-01

    Recent ultra-high precision observations of eclipsing binaries, especially data acquired by the Kepler satellite, have made accurate light curve modelling increasingly challenging but also more rewarding. In this contribution, we discuss low-amplitude signals in light curves that can now be used to derive physical information about eclipsing binaries but that were unaccessible before the Kepler era. A notable example is the detection of Doppler beaming, which leads to an increase in flux when...

  16. The lateral characteristics of several ultra-high energy photon and hadron families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buja, Z.; Gladysz, E.; Mazurkiewicz, J.; Mikocki, S.; Szarska, M.; Zawiejski, L.

    1980-01-01

    In a thick lead X-ray film emulsion chamber of the Experiment Pamir, 8 ultra-high energy photon and hadron families were detected. They are considered to be almost ''pure'' families. The compound lateral characteristics for photon families indicate an existence of two groups of particles which have different average transverse momenta. A quite well visible azimuthal asymmetry in the number and transverse momenta values of produced particles is observed. (author)

  17. Point source search techniques in ultra high energy gamma ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandreas, D.E.; Biller, S.; Dion, G.M.; Lu, X.Q.; Yodh, G.B.; Berley, D.; Goodman, J.A.; Haines, T.J.; Hoffman, C.M.; Horch, E.; Sinnis, C.; Zhang, W.

    1993-01-01

    Searches for point astrophysical sources of ultra high energy (UHE) gamma rays are plagued by large numbers of background events from isotropic cosmic rays. Some of the methods that have been used to estimate the expected number of background events coming from the direction of a possible source are found to contain biases. Search techniques that avoid this problem are described. There is also a discussion of how to optimize the sensitivity of a search to emission from a point source. (orig.)

  18. Molecular composition of organic aerosols in central Amazonia: an ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry study

    OpenAIRE

    Kourtchev, I; Godoi, RHM; Connors, S; Levine, JG; Archibald, AT; Godoi, AFL; Paralovo, SL; Barbosa, CGG; Souza, RAF; Manzi, AO; Seco, R; Sjostedt, S; Park, J-H; Guenther, A; Kim, S

    2016-01-01

    The Amazon Basin plays key role in atmospheric chemistry, biodiversity and climate change. In this study we applied nanoelectrospray (nanoESI) ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHRMS) for the analysis of the organic fraction of PM$_{2.5}$ aerosol samples collected during dry and wet seasons at a site in central Amazonia receiving background air masses, biomass burning and urban pollution. Comprehensive mass spectral data evaluation methods (e.g. Kendrick mass defect, Van Krevelen diagr...

  19. Ultra-high performance fiber-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) for infrastructure rehabilitation Volume II : behavior of ultra-high strength concrete bridge deck panels compared to conventional stay-in-place deck panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The remarkable features of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) have been reported. Its application in bridge construction has been an active research area in recent years, attributed to its higher compressive strength, higher ductility and reduced...

  20. Highly charged ion impact induced nanodefects in diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makgato, T.N., E-mail: thuto.makgato@wits.ac.za [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Microscopy and Microanalysis Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Sideras-Haddad, E. [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, Physics Building, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Shrivastava, S. [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Schenkel, T. [E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ritter, R.; Kowarik, G.; Aumayr, F. [Institute of Applied Physics, TU Wien-Vienna University of Technology, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J.; Bernitt, S.; Beilmann, C.; Ginzel, R. [Max-Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the interaction of slow highly charged ion (SHCI) beams with insulating type Ib diamond (1 1 1) surfaces. Bismuth and Xenon SHCI beams produced using an Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) and an Electron Cyclotron Resonance source (ECR) respectively, are accelerated onto type Ib diamond (1 1 1) surfaces with impact velocities up to ≈0.4 υ{sub Bohr}. SHCIs with charge states corresponding to potential energies between 4.5 keV and 110 keV are produced for this purpose. Atomic Force Microscopy analysis (AFM) of the diamond surfaces following SHCI impact reveals surface morphological modifications characterized as nanoscale craters (nano-craters). To interpret the results from Tapping Mode AFM analysis of the irradiated diamond surfaces we discuss the interplay between kinetic and potential energy in nano-crater formation using empirical data together with Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) Monte Carlo Simulations.

  1. SLC injector simulation and tuning for high charge transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeremian, A.D.; Miller, R.H.; Clendenin, J.E.; Early, R.A.; Ross, M.C.; Turner, J.L.; Wang, J.W.

    1992-08-01

    We have simulated the SLC injector from the thermionic gun through the first accelerating section and used the resulting parameters to tune the injector for optimum performance and high charge transport. Simulations are conducted using PARMELA, a three-dimensional ray-trace code with a two-dimensional space-charge model. The magnetic field profile due to the existing magnetic optics is calculated using POISSON, while SUPERFISH is used to calculate the space harmonics of the various bunchers and the accelerator cavities. The initial beam conditions in the PARMELA code are derived from the EGUN model of the gun. The resulting injector parameters from the PARMELA simulation are used to prescribe experimental settings of the injector components. The experimental results are in agreement with the results of the integrated injector model

  2. SLC injector simulation and tuning for high charge transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeremian, A.D.; Miller, R.H.; Clendenin, J.E.; Early, R.A.; Ross, M.C.; Turner, J.L.; Wang, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    We have simulated the SLC injector from the thermionic gun through the first accelerating section and used the resulting parameters to tune the injector for optimum performance and high charge transport. Simulations are conducted using PARMELA, a three-dimensional space-charge model. The magnetic field profile due to the existing magnetic optics is calculated using POISSON, while SUPERFISH is used to calculate the space harmonics of the various bunchers and the accelerator cavities. The initial beam conditions in the PARMELA code are derived from the EGUN model of the gun. The resulting injector parameters from the PARMELA simulation are used to prescribe experimental settings of the injector components. The experimental results are in agreement with the results of the integrated injector model. (Author) 5 figs., 7 refs

  3. Charge redistribution and properties of high-temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomskii, D.I.; Kusmartsev, F.V.

    1992-01-01

    We show that in high-T c superconductors (HTSC) with two groups of electrons (e.g., holes in CuO 2 planes and in a ''reservoir'') there should exist a charge redistribution with the temperature: the hole concentration N h in ''active'' superconducting CuO 2 planes increases below T c . This effect may explain structural changes such as the shift of the apical oxygen atom, anomalous thermal expansion, the shift of nuclear quadrupole resonance lines, the change of the positron lifetime, and the modification of the ion channeling below T c . Some other possible consequences of the charge redistribution (the modification of the temperature dependence of a gap Δ and of the ratio 2Δ 0 /T c , the phenomena at a contact of HTSC with normal metals and semiconductors) are discussed

  4. Highly ordered macroporous woody biochar with ultra-high carbon content as supercapacitor electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Junhua; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Xinying; Holm, Nancy; Rajagopalan, Kishore; Chen, Fanglin; Ma, Shuguo

    2013-01-01

    Woody biochar monolith with ultra-high carbon content and highly ordered macropores has been prepared via one-pot pyrolysis and carbonization of red cedar wood at 750 °C without the need of post-treatment. Energy-dispersive spectroscope (EDX) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies show that the original biochar has a carbon content of 98 wt% with oxygen as the only detectable impurity and highly ordered macroporous texture characterized by alternating regular macroporous regions and narrow porous regions. Moreover, the hierarchically porous biochar monolith has a high BET specific surface area of approximately 400 m 2 g −1 . We have studied the monolith material as supercapacitor electrodes under acidic environment using electrochemical and surface characterization techniques. Electrochemical measurements show that the original biochar electrodes have a potential window of about 1.3 V and exhibit typical rectangular-shape voltammetric responses and fast charging–discharging behavior with a gravimetric capacitance of about 14 F g −1 . Simple activation of biochar in diluted nitric acid at room temperature leads to 7 times increase in the capacitance (115 F g −1 ). Because the HNO 3 -activation slightly decreases rather than increases the BET surface area of the biochar, an increase in the coverage of surface oxygen groups is the most likely origin of the substantial capacitance improvement. This is supported by EDX, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman measurements. Preliminary life-time studies show that biochar supercapacitors using the original and HNO 3 -activated electrodes are stable over 5000 cycles without performance decays. These facts indicate that the use of woody biochar is promising for its low cost and it can be a good performance electrode with low environmental impacts for supercapacitor applications

  5. High-throughput, Highly Sensitive Analyses of Bacterial Morphogenesis Using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarais, Samantha M.; Tropini, Carolina; Miguel, Amanda; Cava, Felipe; Monds, Russell D.; de Pedro, Miguel A.; Huang, Kerwyn Casey

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial cell wall is a network of glycan strands cross-linked by short peptides (peptidoglycan); it is responsible for the mechanical integrity of the cell and shape determination. Liquid chromatography can be used to measure the abundance of the muropeptide subunits composing the cell wall. Characteristics such as the degree of cross-linking and average glycan strand length are known to vary across species. However, a systematic comparison among strains of a given species has yet to be undertaken, making it difficult to assess the origins of variability in peptidoglycan composition. We present a protocol for muropeptide analysis using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and demonstrate that UPLC achieves resolution comparable with that of HPLC while requiring orders of magnitude less injection volume and a fraction of the elution time. We also developed a software platform to automate the identification and quantification of chromatographic peaks, which we demonstrate has improved accuracy relative to other software. This combined experimental and computational methodology revealed that peptidoglycan composition was approximately maintained across strains from three Gram-negative species despite taxonomical and morphological differences. Peptidoglycan composition and density were maintained after we systematically altered cell size in Escherichia coli using the antibiotic A22, indicating that cell shape is largely decoupled from the biochemistry of peptidoglycan synthesis. High-throughput, sensitive UPLC combined with our automated software for chromatographic analysis will accelerate the discovery of peptidoglycan composition and the molecular mechanisms of cell wall structure determination. PMID:26468288

  6. Ultra-High Intensity Proton Accelerators and their Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, W. T.

    1997-01-01

    The science and technology of proton accelerators have progressed considerably in the past three decades. Three to four orders of magnitude increase in both peak intensity and average flux have made it possible to construct high intensity proton accelerators for modern applications, such as: spallation neutron sources, kaon factory, accelerator production of tritium, energy amplifier and muon collider drivers. The accelerator design focus switched over from intensity for synchrotrons, to brightness for colliders to halos for spallation sources. An overview of this tremendous progress in both accelerator science and technology is presented, with special emphasis on the new challenges of accelerator physics issues such as: H(-) injection, halo formation and reduction of losses

  7. Cosmic gamma radiation of ultra high energy of primordial origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino Filho, F.G. de.

    1984-01-01

    The quantum mechanical effects near a collapsing black hole as shown by Stephen W.Hawking in 1974 to produce streaming particles through tunneling effect was explored in the context of cosmic gamma ray production. In this thesis, we show the possible production of gamma rays of high energies (ν approx 10 41 Hz) in the initial stages of the formation of the Universe by the explosion of primordial mini black holes. These mini black hole explosions happening at 10 -43 s to 10 -37 s after the start perhaps may account for the existing universal cosmic background radiation of 2.7 0 K. (Author) [pt

  8. Arc Shape Characteristics with Ultra-High-Frequency Pulsed Arc Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxuan Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Arc plasma possesses a constriction phenomenon with a pulsed current. The constriction is created by the Lorentz force, the radial electromagnetic force during arc welding, which determines the energy distribution of the arc plasma. Welding experiments were carried out with ultra-high-frequency pulsed arc welding (UHFP-AW. Ultra-high-speed camera observations were produced for arc surveillance. Hue-saturation-intensity (HSI image analysis was used to distinguish the regions of the arc plasma that represented the heat energy distribution. The measurement of arc regions indicated that, with an ultra-high-frequency pulsed arc, the constriction was not only within the decreased arc geometry, but also within the constricted arc core region. This can be checked by the ratio of the core region to the total area. The arc core region expanded significantly at 40 kHz at 60 A. A current level of 80 A caused a decrease in the total region of the arc. Meanwhile, the ratio of the core region to the total increased. It can be concluded that arc constriction depends on the increased area of the core region with the pulsed current (>20 kHz.

  9. Proton probing of ultra-thin foil dynamics in high intensity regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rajendra; Aktan, Esin; Aurand, Bastian; Cerchez, Mirela; Willi, Oswald

    2017-10-01

    The field of laser driven ion acceleration has been enriched significantly over the past decade, thanks to the advanced laser technologies. Already, from 100s TW class systems, laser driven sources of particles and radiations are being considered in number of potential applications in science and medicine due to their unique properties. New physical effects unearthed at these systems may help understand and conduct successful experiments at several PW class multi-beam facilities with high rep rate systems, e.g. ELI. Here we present the first experimental results on ultra-thin foil dynamics irradiated by an ultra-high intensity (1020 W/cm2) , ultra-high contrast (10-12) laser pulse at ARCTURUS laser facility at HHU Duesseldorf. By employing the elegant proton probing technique it is observed that for the circular polarization of laser light, a 100nm thin target is pushed forward as a compressed layer due to the radiation pressure of light. Whereas, the linear polarization seems to decompress the target drastically. 2D particle-in-cell simulations corroborate the experimental findings. Our results confirm the previous simulation studies investigating the fundamental role played by light polarization, finite focus spot size effect and eventually electron heating including the oblique incidence at the target edges.

  10. A Manganin Thin Film Ultra-High Pressure Sensor for Microscale Detonation Pressure Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With the development of energetic materials (EMs and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS initiating explosive devices, the measurement of detonation pressure generated by EMs in the microscale has become a pressing need. This paper develops a manganin thin film ultra-high pressure sensor based on MEMS technology for measuring the output pressure from micro-detonator. A reliable coefficient is proposed for designing the sensor’s sensitive element better. The sensor employs sandwich structure: the substrate uses a 0.5 mm thick alumina ceramic, the manganin sensitive element with a size of 0.2 mm × 0.1 mm × 2 μm and copper electrodes of 2 μm thick are sputtered sequentially on the substrate, and a 25 μm thick insulating layer of polyimide is wrapped on the sensitive element. The static test shows that the piezoresistive coefficient of manganin thin film is 0.0125 GPa−1. The dynamic experiment indicates that the detonation pressure of micro-detonator is 12.66 GPa, and the response time of the sensor is 37 ns. In a word, the sensor developed in this study is suitable for measuring ultra-high pressure in microscale and has a shorter response time than that of foil-like manganin gauges. Simultaneously, this study could be beneficial to research on ultra-high-pressure sensors with smaller size.

  11. Ultra High Mode Mix in NIF NIC Implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robbie; Garbett, Warren

    2017-10-01

    This work re-examines a sub-set of the low adiabat implosions from the National Ignition Campaign in an effort to better understand potential phenomenological sources of `excess' mix observed experimentally. An extensive effort has been made to match both shock-timing and backlit radiography (Con-A) implosion data in an effort to reproduce the experimental conditions as accurately as possible. Notably a 30% reduction in ablation pressure at peak drive is required to match the experimental data. The reduced ablation pressure required to match the experimental data allows the ablator to decompress, in turn causing the DT ice-ablator interface to go Rayleigh-Taylor unstable early in the implosion acceleration phase. Post-processing the runs with various mix models indicates high-mode mix from the DT ice-ablator interface may penetrate deep into the hotspot. This work offers a potential explanation of why these low-adiabat implosions exhibited significantly higher levels of mix than expected from high-fidelity multi-dimensional simulations. Through this new understanding, a possible route forward for low-adiabat implosions on NIF is suggested.

  12. Ultra-high Frequency Linear Fiber Optic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Kam

    2011-01-01

    This book provides an in-depth treatment of both linear fiber-optic systems and their key enabling devices. It presents a concise but rigorous treatment of the theory and practice of analog (linear) fiber-optics links and systems that constitute the foundation of Hybrid Fiber Coax infrastructure in present-day CATV distribution and cable modem Internet access. Emerging applications in remote fiber-optic feed for free-space millimeter wave enterprise campus networks are also described. Issues such as dispersion and interferometric noise are treated quantitatively, and means for mitigating them are explained. This broad but concise text will thus be invaluable not only to students of fiber-optics communication but also to practicing engineers. To the second edition of this book important new aspects of linear fiber-optic transmission technologies are added, such as high level system architectural issues, algorithms for deriving the optimal frequency assignment, directly modulated or externally modulated laser t...

  13. Ultra-high energy signals from Hercules X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, T.J.; Alexandreas, D.E.; Allen, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    The expectation that high-energy neutrinos are emitted from astrophysical objects depends strongly on the observation of those objects in gamma-rays, especially at TeV and PeV energies. A search for bursts of gamma-ray events from Hercules X-1 at energies above 50 TeV yielded two significant bursts, both occurring on UT 24 July 1986. The events were pulsed with a period of 1.23568 s, significantly different from estimates of the pulsar period at that time. The probability that the signal is a random background fluctuation is about 2 /times/ 10/sup /minus/5/, not including the fact that there were two other independent observations of the source at nearly the same time. The muon content of the burst events is anomalous when compared with expectations of gamma-ray showers, perhaps signalling the onset of new physics at these energies. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  14. Advanced Gear Alloys for Ultra High Strength Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tony; Krantz, Timothy; Sebastian, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Single tooth bending fatigue (STBF) test data of UHS Ferrium C61 and C64 alloys are presented in comparison with historical test data of conventional gear steels (9310 and Pyrowear 53) with comparable statistical analysis methods. Pitting and scoring tests of C61 and C64 are works in progress. Boeing statistical analysis of STBF test data for the four gear steels (C61, C64, 9310 and Pyrowear 53) indicates that the UHS grades exhibit increases in fatigue strength in the low cycle fatigue (LCF) regime. In the high cycle fatigue (HCF) regime, the UHS steels exhibit better mean fatigue strength endurance limit behavior (particularly as compared to Pyrowear 53). However, due to considerable scatter in the UHS test data, the anticipated overall benefits of the UHS grades in bending fatigue have not been fully demonstrated. Based on all the test data and on Boeing s analysis, C61 has been selected by Boeing as the gear steel for the final ERDS demonstrator test gearboxes. In terms of potential follow-up work, detailed physics-based, micromechanical analysis and modeling of the fatigue data would allow for a better understanding of the causes of the experimental scatter, and of the transition from high-stress LCF (surface-dominated) to low-stress HCF (subsurface-dominated) fatigue failure. Additional STBF test data and failure analysis work, particularly in the HCF regime and around the endurance limit stress, could allow for better statistical confidence and could reduce the observed effects of experimental test scatter. Finally, the need for further optimization of the residual compressive stress profiles of the UHS steels (resulting from carburization and peening) is noted, particularly for the case of the higher hardness C64 material.

  15. Modulational instability of ultra-low-frequency shear dust Alfvén waves in a plasma medium of positive and negatively charged dust fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamun, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    The propagation of finite amplitude ultra-low-frequency shear dust Alfvén (SDA) waves, and their modulational instability in a magnetized plasma medium of positive and negatively charged dust fluids have been theoretically investigated by using the reductive perturbation method. The derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation is derived to examine the stability analysis of such SDA waves. It is found that the SDA waves propagating in such an opposite polarity dust plasma medium are modulationally unstable, and that the instability criterion and the growth rate of these unstable SDA waves in such a novel opposite polarity dust plasma medium are found to be significantly different from those in electron–ion or electron–positron plasma media. The implications of the present investigation in different space environments and laboratory devices are briefly discussed.

  16. Search for highly interacting fractionally charged particles at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wlodzimierz, G.

    1982-01-01

    Fractionally charged, highly interacting particles produced in e + e - annihilation at 20 GeV c.m. energy have been search for. The experiment was performed at the positron electron storage ring (PEP) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The search used in the innermost part of the two-arm Free Quark Search (FQS) detector. This part was called the Thin Front End (TFE) and it covered 1/3 of the full solid angle. Each of its arms consisted of five multiwire proportional chambers (MWPC's), used for tracking and dE/dx measurement, and three hodoscopes of 0.16 cm thick Pilot F scintillator. The total thickness of the five MWPC's and the beam pipe was 0.007 hadronic collision lengths (lambda/sub c/). No candidates for fractionally charged particles were found. Upper limits on R/sub q anti q/ = sigma(e + e - →q anti q)/sigma(e + e - →μμ) are between: (1) 0.7% to 7% for quark interaction lengths (lambda/sub q/) equal to lambda/sub c/ and between 3% and 33% for lambda/sub q/ = 100lambda/sub c/ for Q = 1/3e quark charge and for quark masses up to 13 GeV/c 2 ; (2) 2% to 38% for lambda/sub q/ - lambda/sub c/ and from 7% to 160% for lambda/sub q/ = 100lambda/sub c/ for Q = 2/3e quark charge and for masses up to 8 GeV/c 2 . In the inclusive production channel the upper limits on R/sub q/ = sigma(e + e - →qqX)/sigma(e + e - →μμ) are for charge 1/3e only. R/sub q/ varies from 2% to 11% for lambda/sub q/ = lambda/sub c/ and from 3% to 16% for lambda/sub q/ = 100lambda/sub c/ and for quark masses up to 6.5 GeV/c 2 . These are the first limits on the production of fractionally charged particles with lambda/sub q/ = 100lambda/sub c/

  17. Temperature Dependence of Charge Localization in High-Mobility, Solution-Crystallized Small Molecule Semiconductors Studied by Charge Modulation Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meneau, Aurélie Y. B.; Olivier, Yoann; Backlund, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    In solution-processable small molecule semiconductors, the extent of charge carrier wavefunction localization induced by dynamic disorder can be probed spectroscopically as a function of temperature using charge modulation spectroscopy (CMS). Here, it is shown based on combined fi eld-effect tran......In solution-processable small molecule semiconductors, the extent of charge carrier wavefunction localization induced by dynamic disorder can be probed spectroscopically as a function of temperature using charge modulation spectroscopy (CMS). Here, it is shown based on combined fi eld......-effect transistor and CMS measurements as a function of temperature that in certain molecular semiconductors, such as solution-processible pentacene, charge carriers become trapped at low temperatures in environments in which the charges become highly localized on individual molecules, while in some other molecules...

  18. Ultra-high bandwidth quantum secured data transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynes, James F.; Tam, Winci W.-S.; Plews, Alan; Fröhlich, Bernd; Sharpe, Andrew W.; Lucamarini, Marco; Yuan, Zhiliang; Radig, Christian; Straw, Andrew; Edwards, Tim; Shields, Andrew J.

    2016-10-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides an attractive means for securing communications in optical fibre networks. However, deployment of the technology has been hampered by the frequent need for dedicated dark fibres to segregate the very weak quantum signals from conventional traffic. Up until now the coexistence of QKD with data has been limited to bandwidths that are orders of magnitude below those commonly employed in fibre optic communication networks. Using an optimised wavelength divisional multiplexing scheme, we transport QKD and the prevalent 100 Gb/s data format in the forward direction over the same fibre for the first time. We show a full quantum encryption system operating with a bandwidth of 200 Gb/s over a 100 km fibre. Exploring the ultimate limits of the technology by experimental measurements of the Raman noise, we demonstrate it is feasible to combine QKD with 10 Tb/s of data over a 50 km link. These results suggest it will be possible to integrate QKD and other quantum photonic technologies into high bandwidth data communication infrastructures, thereby allowing their widespread deployment.

  19. Ultra-high sensitivity imaging of cancer using SERRS nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircher, Moritz F.

    2016-05-01

    "Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy" (SERS) nanoparticles have gained much attention in recent years for in silico, in vitro and in vivo sensing applications. Our group has developed novel generations of biocompatible "surfaceenhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy" (SERRS) nanoparticles as novel molecular imaging agents. Via rigorous optimization of the different variables contributing to the Raman enhancement, we were able to design SERRS nanoparticles with so far unprecedented sensitivity of detection under in vivo imaging conditions (femto-attomolar range). This has resulted in our ability to visualize, with a single nanoparticle, many different cancer types (after intravenous injection) in mouse models. The cancer types we have tested so far include brain, breast, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, colon, sarcoma, and prostate cancer. All mouse models used are state-of-the-art and closely mimic the tumor biology in their human counterparts. In these animals, we were able to visualize not only the bulk tumors, but importantly also microscopic extensions and locoregional satellite metastases, thus delineating for the first time the true extent of tumor spread. Moreover, the particles enable the detection of premalignant lesions. Given their inert composition they are expected to have a high chance for clinical translation, where we envision them to have an impact in various scenarios ranging from early detection, image-guidance in open or minimally invasive surgical procedures, to noninvasive imaging in conjunction with spatially offset (SESORS) Raman detection devices.

  20. Glimpses of black hole formation/evaporation in highly inelastic, ultra-planckian string collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Addazi, Andrea; Veneziano, Gabriele

    2017-02-22

    We revisit possible glimpses of black-hole formation by looking at ultra-planckian string-string collisions at very high final-state multiplicity. We compare, in particular, previous results using the optical theorem, the resummation of ladder diagrams at arbitrary loop order, and the AGK cutting rules, with the more recent study of $2 \\rightarrow N$ scattering at $N \\sim s M_P^{-2} \\gg 1$. We argue that some apparent tension between the two approaches disappears once a reinterpretation of the latter's results in terms of suitably defined infrared-safe cross sections is adopted. Under that assumption, the typical final state produced in an ultra-planckian collision does indeed appear to share some properties with those expected from the evaporation of a black hole of mass $\\sqrt{s}$, although no sign of thermalization is seen to emerge at this level of approximation.

  1. Glimpses of black hole formation/evaporation in highly inelastic, ultra-planckian string collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addazi, Andrea [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di L’Aquila,67010 Coppito, L’Aquila (Italy); LNGS, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso,67010 Assergi (Italy); Bianchi, Massimo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma Tor Vergata andI.N.F.N. Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Veneziano, Gabriele [Collége de France,11 place M. Berthelot, 75005 Paris (France); Theory Division, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma La Sapienza,00185 Roma (Italy)

    2017-02-22

    We revisit possible glimpses of black-hole formation by looking at ultra-planckian string-string collisions at very high final-state multiplicity. We compare, in particular, previous results using the optical theorem, the resummation of ladder diagrams at arbitrary loop order, and the AGK cutting rules, with the more recent study of 2→N scattering at N∼sM{sub P}{sup −2}≫1. We argue that some apparent tension between the two approaches disappears once a reinterpretation of the latter’s results in terms of suitably defined infrared-safe cross sections is adopted. Under that assumption, the typical final state produced in an ultra-planckian collision does indeed appear to share some properties with those expected from the evaporation of a black hole of mass √s, although no sign of thermalization is seen to emerge at this level of approximation.

  2. New Oxide Materials for an Ultra High Temperature Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perepezko, John H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2017-11-13

    In this project, a new oxide material, Hf6Ta2O17 has been successfully synthesized by the controlled oxidization of Hf-Ta alloys. This oxide exhibits good oxidation resistance, high temperature phase stability up to more than 2000°C, low thermal conductivity and thus could serve as a component or a coating material in an ultrahigh temperature environment. We have examined the microstructure evolution and phase formation sequence during the oxidation exposure of Hf-Ta alloys at 1500°C and identified that the oxidation of a Hf-26.7atomic %Ta alloy leads to the formation of a single phase adherent Hf6Ta2O17 with a complex atomic structure i.e. superstructure. The overall reactive diffusion pathway is consistent with the calculated Hf-Ta-O ternary phase diagram. Besides the synthesis of Hf6Ta2O17 superstructure by oxidizing Hf-Ta alloys, we have also developed a synthesis method based upon the reactive sintering of the correct ratios of mixed powders of HfO2 and Ta2O5 and verified the low thermal conductivity of Hf6Ta2O17 superstructure on these samples. We have completed a preliminary analysis of the oxidation kinetics for Hf6Ta2O17, which shows an initial parabolic oxidation kinetics.

  3. Radar detection of ultra high energy cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Isaac J.

    TARA (Telescope Array Radar) is a cosmic ray radar detection experiment co-located with Telescope Array, the conventional surface scintillation detector (SD) and fluorescence telescope detector (FD) near Delta, UT. The TARA detector combines a 40 kW transmitter and high gain transmitting antenna which broadcasts the radar carrier over the SD array and in the FD field of view to a 250 MS/s DAQ receiver. Data collection began in August, 2013. TARA stands apart from other cosmic ray radar experiments in that radar data is directly compared with conventional cosmic ray detector events. The transmitter is also directly controlled by TARA researchers. Waveforms from the FD-triggered data stream are time-matched with TA events and searched for signal using a novel signal search technique in which the expected (simulated) radar echo of a particular air shower is used as a matched filter template and compared to radio waveforms. This technique is used to calculate the radar cross-section (RCS) upper-limit on all triggers that correspond to well-reconstructed TA FD monocular events. Our lowest cosmic ray RCS upper-limit is 42 cm2 for an 11 EeV event. An introduction to cosmic rays is presented with the evolution of detection and the necessity of new detection techniques, of which radar detection is a candidate. The software simulation of radar scattering from cosmic rays follows. The TARA detector, including transmitter and receiver systems, are discussed in detail. Our search algorithm and methodology for calculating RCS is presented for the purpose of being repeatable. Search results are explained in context of the usefulness and future of cosmic ray radar detection.

  4. Anisotropy in highly charged ion induced molecule fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhasz, Z.; Sulik, B.; Fremont, F.; Chesnel, J.Y.; Hajaji, A.

    2006-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Studying fragmentation processes of biologically relevant molecules due to highly charged ion impact is important to understand radiation damage in biological tissues. Energy spectra of the charged molecule fragments may reveal the different fragmentation patterns meanwhile the angular distributions of the fragments characterize the dependence of fragmentation probability on the initial orientation of the molecule. The research to explore the angular distribution of the molecule fragments has only recently been started[1]. In 2006 we performed measurements at ARIBE facility at GANIL, Caen (France), in order to investigate orientation effects in molecule fragmentation. Fragmentation of H 2 O, C 6 H 6 and CH 4 , which represent different level of symmetry, have been studied by 60 keV N 6+ ion impact. Energy spectra of the charged fragments at different observation angles have been taken. As our example spectra show the different protonic peaks can be attributed to different fragmentation processes. Significant anisotropy can be seen in the different processes. The strongest evidence for the anisotropy can be seen in the spectra of C 6 H 6 , where the spectra appear isotropic in almost the whole observed energy range except one peak, which has a strong angular dependence and is maximal around 90 deg. (author)

  5. Highly charged cyanine fluorophores for trafficking scaffold degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, Eric A; Alyabyev, Sergey; Henary, Maged; Hyun, Hoon; Kim, Soon Hee; Lee, Jeong Heon; Park, GwangLi; Ashitate, Yoshitomo; Choi, Jungmun; Hong, Gloria H; Choi, Hak Soo; Lee, Sang Jin; Khang, Gilson

    2013-01-01

    Biodegradable scaffolds have been extensively used in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, noninvasive monitoring of in vivo scaffold degradation is still lacking. In order to develop a real-time trafficking technique, a series of meso-brominated near-infrared (NIR) fluorophores were synthesized and conjugated to biodegradable gelatin scaffolds. Since the pentamethine cyanine core is highly lipophilic, the side chain of each fluorophore was modified with either quaternary ammonium salts or sulfonate groups. The physicochemical properties such as lipophilicity and net charge of fluorophores played a key role in the fate of NIR-conjugated scaffolds in vivo after biodegradation. The positively charged fluorophore-conjugated scaffold fragments were found in salivary glands, lymph nodes, and most of the hepatobiliary excretion route. However, halogenated fluorophores intensively accumulated into lymph nodes and the liver. Interestingly, balanced-charged gelatin scaffolds were degraded into urine in a short period of time. These results demonstrate that the noninvasive optical imaging using NIR fluorophores can be useful for the translation of biodegradable scaffolds into the clinic. (paper)

  6. Vacuum Bloch-Siegert shift in Landau polaritons with ultra-high cooperativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinwei; Bamba, Motoaki; Zhang, Qi; Fallahi, Saeed; Gardner, Geoff C.; Gao, Weilu; Lou, Minhan; Yoshioka, Katsumasa; Manfra, Michael J.; Kono, Junichiro

    2018-06-01

    A two-level system resonantly interacting with an a.c. magnetic or electric field constitutes the physical basis of diverse phenomena and technologies. However, Schrödinger's equation for this seemingly simple system can be solved exactly only under the rotating-wave approximation, which neglects the counter-rotating field component. When the a.c. field is sufficiently strong, this approximation fails, leading to a resonance-frequency shift known as the Bloch-Siegert shift. Here, we report the vacuum Bloch-Siegert shift, which is induced by the ultra-strong coupling of matter with the counter-rotating component of the vacuum fluctuation field in a cavity. Specifically, an ultra-high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas inside a high-Q terahertz cavity in a quantizing magnetic field revealed ultra-narrow Landau polaritons, which exhibited a vacuum Bloch-Siegert shift up to 40 GHz. This shift, clearly distinguishable from the photon-field self-interaction effect, represents a unique manifestation of a strong-field phenomenon without a strong field.

  7. Pre-pulse inhibition and striatal dopamine in subjects at an ultra-high risk for psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, Mariken B.; Bloemen, Oswald J. N.; van Duin, Esther D. A.; Booij, Jan; Abel, Kathryn M.; de Haan, Lieuwe; Linszen, Don H.; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse A. M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Reduced prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response is thought to represent a robust biomarker in schizophrenia. Reduced PPI has been demonstrated in subjects at ultra high risk (UHR) for developing psychosis. Imaging studies report disruption of striatal dopaminergic

  8. Small electrostatic storage rings; also for highly charged ions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, S.P.; Pedersen, U.V.

    2001-01-01

    Two years ago, a small electrostatic storage ring ELISA (electrostatic ion storage ring, Aarhus) was put into operation. The design of this small 7 m circumference ring was based on electrostatic deflection plates and quadrupoles. This is in contrast to the larger ion storage rings, which are based on magnetic focusing and deflection. The result is a small, relatively inexpensive, storage ring being able to store ions of any mass and any charge at low energy ( -11 mbar resulting in storage times of several tens of seconds for singly charged ions. The maximum number of singly charged ions that can be stored is a few 10 7 . Several experiments have already been performed in ELISA. These include lifetime studies of metastable ions and studies of fullerenes and metal-cluster ions. Lasers are also used for excitation of the circulating ions. Heating/cooling of the ring is possible. Cooling of the ring leads to significantly lower pressures, and correspondingly longer lifetimes. A change of the temperature of the vacuum chambers surrounding the ion beam also leads to a change of the spectrum of the black-body radiation, which has a significant influence on weakly bound negative ions. At the time of writing, at least two other electrostatic storage rings are being built, and more are planned. In the following, the electrostatic storage ring ELISA will be described, and results from some of the initial experiments demonstrating the performance will be shown. The relative merits of such a ring, as opposed to the larger magnetic rings and the smaller ion traps will be discussed. The potential for highly charged ions will be briefly mentioned. (orig.)

  9. Ultra-high throughput real-time instruments for capturing fast signals and rare events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Brandon Walter

    Wide-band signals play important roles in the most exciting areas of science, engineering, and medicine. To keep up with the demands of exploding internet traffic, modern data centers and communication networks are employing increasingly faster data rates. Wide-band techniques such as pulsed radar jamming and spread spectrum frequency hopping are used on the battlefield to wrestle control of the electromagnetic spectrum. Neurons communicate with each other using transient action potentials that last for only milliseconds at a time. And in the search for rare cells, biologists flow large populations of cells single file down microfluidic channels, interrogating them one-by-one, tens of thousands of times per second. Studying and enabling such high-speed phenomena pose enormous technical challenges. For one, parasitic capacitance inherent in analog electrical components limits their response time. Additionally, converting these fast analog signals to the digital domain requires enormous sampling speeds, which can lead to significant jitter and distortion. State-of-the-art imaging technologies, essential for studying biological dynamics and cells in flow, are limited in speed and sensitivity by finite charge transfer and read rates, and by the small numbers of photo-electrons accumulated in short integration times. And finally, ultra-high throughput real-time digital processing is required at the backend to analyze the streaming data. In this thesis, I discuss my work in developing real-time instruments, employing ultrafast optical techniques, which overcome some of these obstacles. In particular, I use broadband dispersive optics to slow down fast signals to speeds accessible to high-bit depth digitizers and signal processors. I also apply telecommunication multiplexing techniques to boost the speeds of confocal fluorescence microscopy. The photonic time stretcher (TiSER) uses dispersive Fourier transformation to slow down analog signals before digitization and

  10. Ultra-High Capacity Silicon Photonic Interconnects through Spatial Multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Christine P.

    -fabrication. Through ModePROP simulations, optimizing device performance dynamically post-fabrication is analyzed, through either electro-optical or thermo-optical means. By biasing the arm introducing the slight spectral offset, we can quantifiably improve device performance. Scaling bandwidth is experimentally demonstrated through the device at 3 modes, 2 wavelengths, and 40 Gb/s data rate for 240 Gb/s aggregate bandwidth, with the potential to reduce power penalty per the device optimization process we described. A main motivation for this on-chip spatial multiplexing is the need to reduce costs. As the laser source serves as the greatest power consumer in an optical system, mode-division multiplexing and other forms of spatial multiplexing can be implemented to push its potentially prohibitive cost metrics down. In order to demonstrate an intelligent platform capable of dynamically multicasting data and reallocating power as needed by the system, we must first initialize the switch fabric to control with an electronic interface. A dithering mechanism, whereby exact cross, bar, and sub-percentage states are enforced through the device, is described here. Such a method could be employed for actuating the device table of bias values to states automatically. We then employ a dynamic power reallocation algorithm through a data acquisition unit, showing real-time channel recovery for channels experiencing power loss by diverting power from paths that could tolerate it. The data that is being multicast through the system is experimentally shown to be error-free at 40 Gb/s data rate, when transmitting from one to three clients and going from automatic bar/cross states to equalized power distribution. For the last portion of this topic, the switch fabric was inserted into a high-performance computing system. In order to run benchmarks at 10 Gb/s data ontop of the switch fabric, a newer model of the control plane was implemented to toggle states according to the command issued by the server

  11. Assessment of the State of the Art of Ultra High Temperature Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sylvia; Gasch, Matt; Stackpoole, Mairead

    2009-01-01

    Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTCs) are a family of materials that includes the borides, carbides and nitrides of hafnium-, zirconium- and titanium-based systems. UHTCs are famous for possessing some of the highest melting points of known materials. In addition, they are very hard, have good wear resistance, mechanical strength, and relatively high thermal conductivities (compared to other ceramic materials). Because of these attributes, UHTCs are ideal for thermal protection systems, especially those that require chemical and structural stability at extremely high operating temperatures. UHTCs have the potential to revolutionize the aerospace industry by enabling the development of sharp hypersonic vehicles or atmospheric entry probes capable of the most extreme entry conditions.

  12. Investigation and basic evaluation for ultra-high burnup fuel cladding material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioka, Ikuo; Nagase, Fumihisa; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Kiuchi, Kiyoshi

    2001-03-01

    In ultra-high burnup of the power reactor, it is an essential problem to develop the cladding with excellent durability. First, development history and approach of the safety assessment of Zircaloy for the high burnup fuel were summarized in the report. Second, the basic evaluation and investigation were carried out on the material with high practicability in order to select the candidate materials for the ultra-high burnup fuel. In addition, the basic research on modification technology of the cladding surface was carried out from the viewpoint of the addition of safety margin as a cladding. From the development history of the zirconium alloy including the Zircaloy, it is hard to estimate the results of in-pile test from those of the conventional corrosion test (out-pile test). Therefore, the development of the new testing technology that can simulate the actual environment and the elucidation of the corrosion-controlling factor of the cladding are desired. In cases of RIA (Reactivity Initiated Accident) and LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident), it seems that the loss of ductility in zirconium alloys under heavy irradiation and boiling of high temperature water restricts the extension of fuel burnup. From preliminary evaluation on the high corrosion-resistance materials (austenitic stainless steel, iron or nickel base superalloys, titanium alloy, niobium alloy, vanadium alloy and ferritic stainless steel), stabilized austenitic stainless steels with a capability of future improvement and high-purity niobium alloys with a expectation of the good corrosion resistance were selected as candidate materials of ultra-high burnup cladding. (author)

  13. Design and Fabrication of a Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor for Ultra High Temperature Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, L B; Zhao, Y L; Jiang, Z D

    2006-01-01

    In order to solve the pressure measurement problem in the harsh environment, a piezoresistive pressure sensor has been developed, which can be used under high temperature above 200 deg. C and is able to endure instantaneous ultra high temperature (2000deg. C, duration≤2s) impact. Based on the MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical System) and integrated circuit technology, the piezoresistive pressure sensor's sensitive element was fabricated and constituted by silicon substrate, a thin buried silicon dioxide layer, four p-type resistors in the measuring circuit layer by boron ion implantation and photolithography, the top SiO2 layer by oxidation, stress matching Si3N4 layer, and a Ti-Pt-Au beam lead layer for connecting p-type resistors by sputtering. In order to decrease the leak-current influence to sensor in high temperature above 200deg. C, the buried SiO2 layer with the thickness 367 nm was fabricated by the SIMOX (Separation by Implantation of Oxygen) technology, which was instead of p-n junction to isolate the upper measuring circuit layer from Si substrate. In order to endure instantaneous ultra high temperature impact, the mechanical structure with cantilever and diaphragm and transmitting beam was designed. By laser welding and high temperature packaging technology, the high temperature piezoresistive pressure sensor was fabricated with range of 120MPa. After the thermal compensation, the sensor's thermal zero drift k 0 and thermal sensitivity drift k s were easy to be less than 3x10 -4 FS/deg. C. The experimental results show that the developed piezoresistive pressure sensor has good performances under high temperature and is able to endure instantaneous ultra high temperature impact, which meets the requirements of modern industry, such as aviation, oil, engine, etc

  14. Characterization of Cs-Sb cathodes for high charge RF photoinjectors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2082505; Beghi, Marco

    Future accelerators such as CLIC (Compact LInear Collider), require high brightness electron beams that could be produced with a photoinjector (laser-driven electron source). Cs2Te photocathodes in combination with ultra-violet (UV) laser beams are currently used in many photoinjector facilities, but requirements to the electron sources for future accelerators like CLIC are more demanding. The main challenge for the CLIC drive beam photoinjector is to achieve high bunch charges (8.4 nC), high bunch repetition rates (500 MHz) within long trains (140 s) and with suciently long cathode lifetimes. In particular the laser pulse energy in UV, for such long pulse trains, is currently limited due to a degradation of the beam quality during the 4th harmonic frequency conversion process. Using the 2nd harmonic (green laser beam), provided it is matched with a low photoemission threshold photocathode material, would overcome this limitation. Cesium antimonide (Cs3Sb), being a photoemissive material in the visible range,...

  15. Experimental study of metal gasketed joints for ultra-high vacuums; Etude experimentale de joints metalliques pour ultra-vide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulloud, J. P.; Schweitzer, J. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, Service de Physique Appliquee, groupe de Vide, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France)

    1960-07-01

    Various type of leak-tight metal joints have been studied with their application in assemblies containing total vacuums in mind. Their integrity has been tested with a helium leak detector, and leaks of about 2 x 10{sup -12} cm{sup 3} Atm/s per meter of joint have been measured, simultaneously with the clamping effort applied at the joint and the deformation of the metal gasket. The integrity to clamping effort ratio curve is not retraced in reverse upon relaxation of the clamping effort, but a 'return curve' analogous to a hysteresis cycle explains why certain types of joint retain their integrity at high temperatures. The use of a tracer gas permits discrimination between external permeation of the joint and gas from occlusions between its mating surfaces. The authors have been led to consider that neither the nature nor the purity or surface condition of the joint have any basic influence on its integrity. Clamping effort values in respect of various joints and necessary for total integrity are indicated. Reprint of a paper published in Le vide, no. 82, Jul-Aug 1959 [French] L'etude de differents types de joints metalliques etanches, en vue de leur application a l'ultra-vide, a ete effectuee a l'aide d'un detecteur de fuite a helium. On a mesure simultanement le debit de fuite, l'effort applique sur le joint et sa deformation. On a reussi a mesurer des debits de fuite de l'ordre de 2 x 10{sup -12} cm{sup 3} Atm/s/m de joint pour l'air. La courbe de l'etancheite en fonction de l'effort applique n'est pas reversible et on a pu mettre en evidence un 'cycle d'hysteresis' qui explique que certains joints conservent leur etancheite a haute temperature. La methode de mesure d'etancheite au moyen d'un gaz traceur a amene a faire une distinction entre la permeation et le degazage des gaz occlus dans l'interface des joints et a considerer que ni la nature, ni la purete et ni l'etat de surface du joint n'ont une influence primordiale sur l'etancheite de joint. Des valeurs

  16. Structural Arrangement of Water Molecules around Highly Charged Nanoparticles: Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eunae; Yeom, Min Sun

    2014-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to understand the structural arrangement of water molecules around highly charged nanoparticles under aqueous conditions. The effect of two highly charged nanoparticles on the solvation charge asymmetry has been examined. We calculated the radial distribution functions of the components of water molecules around nanoparticles which have four charge types at two different salt concentrations. Even though the distributions of water molecules surrounding a sodium ion and a chloride ion are hardly affected by the charges of nanoparticles and the salt concentrations, those around highly charged nanoparticles are strongly influenced by the charges of nanoparticles, but hardly by the charges of nanoparticles and salt concentrations. We find that the distributions of hydrogen atoms in water molecules around one highly charged nanoparticle are dependent on the magnitude of the nanoparticle charge

  17. Highly charged ions generated with intense laser beams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krása, Josef; Jungwirth, Karel; Králiková, Božena; Láska, Leoš; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Rohlena, Karel; Skála, Jiří; Ullschmied, Jiří; Hnatowicz, Vladimír; Peřina, Vratislav; Badziak, J.; Parys, P.; Wolowski, J.; Woryna, E.; Szydlowski, A.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 205, - (2003), s. 355-359 ISSN 0168-583X. [International Symposium on Swift Heavy Ions in Matter /5./. Taormina-Giardini Naxos, 22.05.2002-25.05.2002] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A100 Grant - others:HPRI(XE) CT-1999-00053; IAEA(XE) 11535/RO Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910; CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : laser-produced plasma * highly charged ions * ion implantation * windowless electron multiplier Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.041, year: 2003

  18. Comparison of ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography for the separation of spirostanol saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ling-Ling; Zhao, Yang; Xu, Yong-Wei; Sun, Qing-Long; Sun, Xin-Guang; Kang, Li-Ping; Yan, Ren-Yi; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Chao; Ma, Bai-Ping

    2016-02-20

    Spirostanol saponins are important active components of some herb medicines, and their isolation and purification are crucial for the research and development of traditional Chinese medicines. We aimed to compare the separation of spirostanol saponins by ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography (UHPSFC) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). Four groups of spirostanol saponins were separated respectively by UHPSFC and UHPLC. After optimization, UHPSFC was performed with a HSS C18 SB column or a Diol column and with methanol as the co-solvent. A BEH C18 column and mobile phase containing water (with 0.1% formic acid) and acetonitrile were used in UHPLC. We found that UHPSFC could be performed automatically and quickly. It is effective in separating the spirostanol saponins which share the same aglycone and vary in sugar chains, and is very sensitive to the number and the position of hydroxyl groups in aglycones. However, the resolution of spirostanol saponins with different aglycones and the same sugar moiety by UHPSFC was not ideal and could be resolved by UHPLC instead. UHPLC is good at differentiating the variation in aglycones, and is influenced by double bonds in aglycones. Therefore, UHPLC and UHPSFC are complementary in separating spirostanol saponins. Considering the naturally produced spirostanol saponins in herb medicines are different both in aglycones and in sugar chains, a better separation can be achieved by combination of UHPLC and UHPSFC. UHPSFC is a powerful technique for improving the resolution when UHPLC cannot resolve a mixture of spirostanol saponins and vice versa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ultra-High Density Single Nanometer-Scale Anodic Alumina Nanofibers Fabricated by Pyrophosphoric Acid Anodizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Nishinaga, Osamu; Nakajima, Daiki; Kawashima, Jun; Natsui, Shungo; Sakaguchi, Norihito; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2014-12-01

    Anodic oxide fabricated by anodizing has been widely used for nanostructural engineering, but the nanomorphology is limited to only two oxides: anodic barrier and porous oxides. Therefore, the discovery of an additional anodic oxide with a unique nanofeature would expand the applicability of anodizing. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of a third-generation anodic oxide, specifically, anodic alumina nanofibers, by anodizing in a new electrolyte, pyrophosphoric acid. Ultra-high density single nanometer-scale anodic alumina nanofibers (1010 nanofibers/cm2) consisting of an amorphous, pure aluminum oxide were successfully fabricated via pyrophosphoric acid anodizing. The nanomorphologies of the anodic nanofibers can be controlled by the electrochemical conditions. Anodic tungsten oxide nanofibers can also be fabricated by pyrophosphoric acid anodizing. The aluminum surface covered by the anodic alumina nanofibers exhibited ultra-fast superhydrophilic behavior, with a contact angle of less than 1°, within 1 second. Such ultra-narrow nanofibers can be used for various nanoapplications including catalysts, wettability control, and electronic devices.

  20. Strong-field relativistic processes in highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postavaru, Octavian

    2010-12-08

    In this thesis we investigate strong-field relativistic processes in highly charged ions. In the first part, we study resonance fluorescence of laser-driven highly charged ions in the relativistic regime by solving the time-dependent master equation in a multi-level model. Our ab initio approach based on the Dirac equation allows for investigating highly relativistic ions, and, consequently, provides a sensitive means to test correlated relativistic dynamics, bound-state quantum electrodynamic phenomena and nuclear effects by applying coherent light with x-ray frequencies. Atomic dipole or multipole moments may be determined to unprecedented accuracy by measuring the interference-narrowed fluorescence spectrum. Furthermore, we investigate the level structure of heavy hydrogenlike ions in laser beams. Interaction with the light field leads to dynamic shifts of the electronic energy levels, which is relevant for spectroscopic experiments. We apply a fully relativistic description of the electronic states by means of the Dirac equation. Our formalism goes beyond the dipole approximation and takes into account non-dipole effects of retardation and interaction with the magnetic field components of the laser beam. We predicted cross sections for the inter-shell trielectronic recombination (TR) and quadruelectronic recombination processes which have been experimentally confirmed in electron beam ion trap measurements, mainly for C-like ions, of Ar, Fe and Kr. For Kr{sup 30}+, inter-shell TR contributions of nearly 6% to the total resonant photorecombination rate were found. (orig.)

  1. Atomic physics with highly charged ions. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, P.

    1994-08-01

    The study of inelastic collision phenomena with highly charged projectile ions and the interpretation of spectral features resulting from these collisions remain as the major focal points in the atomic physics research at the J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas. The title of the research project, ``Atomic Physics with Highly Charged Ions,`` speaks to these points. The experimental work in the past few years has divided into collisions at high velocity using the primary beams from the tandem and LINAC accelerators and collisions at low velocity using the CRYEBIS facility. Theoretical calculations have been performed to accurately describe inelastic scattering processes of the one-electron and many-electron type, and to accurately predict atomic transition energies and intensities for x rays and Auger electrons. Brief research summaries are given for the following: (1) electron production in ion-atom collisions; (2) role of electron-electron interactions in two-electron processes; (3) multi-electron processes; (4) collisions with excited, aligned, Rydberg targets; (5) ion-ion collisions; (6) ion-molecule collisions; (7) ion-atom collision theory; and (8) ion-surface interactions.

  2. High-order space charge effects using automatic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reusch, Michael F.; Bruhwiler, David L.

    1997-01-01

    The Northrop Grumman Topkark code has been upgraded to Fortran 90, making use of operator overloading, so the same code can be used to either track an array of particles or construct a Taylor map representation of the accelerator lattice. We review beam optics and beam dynamics simulations conducted with TOPKARK in the past and we present a new method for modeling space charge forces to high-order with automatic differentiation. This method generates an accurate, high-order, 6-D Taylor map of the phase space variable trajectories for a bunched, high-current beam. The spatial distribution is modeled as the product of a Taylor Series times a Gaussian. The variables in the argument of the Gaussian are normalized to the respective second moments of the distribution. This form allows for accurate representation of a wide range of realistic distributions, including any asymmetries, and allows for rapid calculation of the space charge fields with free space boundary conditions. An example problem is presented to illustrate our approach

  3. High-order space charge effects using automatic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reusch, M.F.; Bruhwiler, D.L.; Computer Accelerator Physics Conference Williamsburg, Virginia 1996)

    1997-01-01

    The Northrop Grumman Topkark code has been upgraded to Fortran 90, making use of operator overloading, so the same code can be used to either track an array of particles or construct a Taylor map representation of the accelerator lattice. We review beam optics and beam dynamics simulations conducted with TOPKARK in the past and we present a new method for modeling space charge forces to high-order with automatic differentiation. This method generates an accurate, high-order, 6-D Taylor map of the phase space variable trajectories for a bunched, high-current beam. The spatial distribution is modeled as the product of a Taylor Series times a Gaussian. The variables in the argument of the Gaussian are normalized to the respective second moments of the distribution. This form allows for accurate representation of a wide range of realistic distributions, including any asymmetries, and allows for rapid calculation of the space charge fields with free space boundary conditions. An example problem is presented to illustrate our approach. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  4. Analysis of ultra-relativistic charged particle beam and stretched wire measurement interactions with cylindrically symmetric structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deibele, C.E.

    1996-01-01

    The beam impedance and wakefield are quantities which describe the stability of charged particles in their trajectory within an accelerator. The stretched wire measurement technique is a method which estimates the beam impedance and wakefield. Definitions for the beam impedance, the wakefield, and the stretched wire measurement are presented. A pillbox resonator with circular beampipes is studied for its relatively simple profile and mode structure. Theoretical predictions and measurement data are presented for the interaction of various charged particle beams and center conductor geometries between the cavity and beampipe. Time domain predictions for the stretched wire measurement and wakefield are presented and are shown to be a linear interaction

  5. Ultra-high-aspect-orthogonal and tunable three dimensional polymeric nanochannel stack array for BioMEMS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Joonseong; Kwon, Hyukjin J.; Jeon, Hyungkook; Kim, Bumjoo; Kim, Sung Jae; Lim, Geunbae

    2014-07-01

    Nanofabrication technologies have been a strong advocator for new scientific fundamentals that have never been described by traditional theory, and have played a seed role in ground-breaking nano-engineering applications. In this study, we fabricated ultra-high-aspect (~106 with O(100) nm nanochannel opening and O(100) mm length) orthogonal nanochannel array using only polymeric materials. Vertically aligned nanochannel arrays in parallel can be stacked to form a dense nano-structure. Due to the flexibility and stretchability of the material, one can tune the size and shape of the nanochannel using elongation and even roll the stack array to form a radial-uniformly distributed nanochannel array. The roll can be cut at discretionary lengths for incorporation with a micro/nanofluidic device. As examples, we demonstrated ion concentration polarization with the device for Ohmic-limiting/overlimiting current-voltage characteristics and preconcentrated charged species. The density of the nanochannel array was lower than conventional nanoporous membranes, such as anodic aluminum oxide membranes (AAO). However, accurate controllability over the nanochannel array dimensions enabled multiplexed one microstructure-on-one nanostructure interfacing for valuable biological/biomedical microelectromechanical system (BioMEMS) platforms, such as nano-electroporation.Nanofabrication technologies have been a strong advocator for new scientific fundamentals that have never been described by traditional theory, and have played a seed role in ground-breaking nano-engineering applications. In this study, we fabricated ultra-high-aspect (~106 with O(100) nm nanochannel opening and O(100) mm length) orthogonal nanochannel array using only polymeric materials. Vertically aligned nanochannel arrays in parallel can be stacked to form a dense nano-structure. Due to the flexibility and stretchability of the material, one can tune the size and shape of the nanochannel using elongation and even

  6. Ultra high spatial and temporal resolution breast imaging at 7T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Bank, B L; Voogt, I J; Italiaander, M; Stehouwer, B L; Boer, V O; Luijten, P R; Klomp, D W J

    2013-04-01

    There is a need to obtain higher specificity in the detection of breast lesions using MRI. To address this need, Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced (DCE) MRI has been combined with other structural and functional MRI techniques. Unfortunately, owing to time constraints structural images at ultra-high spatial resolution can generally not be obtained during contrast uptake, whereas the relatively low spatial resolution of functional imaging (e.g. diffusion and perfusion) limits the detection of small lesions. To be able to increase spatial as well as temporal resolution simultaneously, the sensitivity of MR detection needs to increase as well as the ability to effectively accelerate the acquisition. The required gain in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) can be obtained at 7T, whereas acceleration can be obtained with high-density receiver coil arrays. In this case, morphological imaging can be merged with DCE-MRI, and other functional techniques can be obtained at higher spatial resolution, and with less distortion [e.g. Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI)]. To test the feasibility of this concept, we developed a unilateral breast coil for 7T. It comprises a volume optimized dual-channel transmit coil combined with a 30-channel receive array coil. The high density of small coil elements enabled efficient acceleration in any direction to acquire ultra high spatial resolution MRI of close to 0.6 mm isotropic detail within a temporal resolution of 69 s, high spatial resolution MRI of 1.5 mm isotropic within an ultra high temporal resolution of 6.7 s and low distortion DWI at 7T, all validated in phantoms, healthy volunteers and a patient with a lesion in the right breast classified as Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) IV. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. The spheromak as a prototype for ultra-high-field superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furth, H.P.; Jardin, S.C.

    1987-08-01

    In view of current progress in the development of superconductor materials, the ultimate high-field limit of superconducting magnets is likely to be set by mechanical stress problems. Maximum field strength should be attainable by means of approximately force-free magnet windings having favorable ''MHD'' stability properties (so that small winding errors will not grow). Since a low-beta finite-flux-hole spheromak configuration qualifies as a suitable prototype, the theoretical and experimental spheromak research effort of the past decade has served to create a substantial technical basis for the design of ultra-high-field superconducting coils. 11 refs

  8. Performance analysis of InSb based QWFET for ultra high speed applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subash, T. D.; Gnanasekaran, T.; Divya, C.

    2015-01-01

    An indium antimonide based QWFET (quantum well field effect transistor) with the gate length down to 50 nm has been designed and investigated for the first time for L-band radar applications at 230 GHz. QWFETs are designed at the high performance node of the International Technology Road Map for Semiconductors (ITRS) requirements of drive current (Semiconductor Industry Association 2010). The performance of the device is investigated using the SYNOPSYS CAD (TCAD) software. InSb based QWFET could be a promising device technology for very low power and ultra-high speed performance with 5–10 times low DC power dissipation. (semiconductor devices)

  9. Systems and methods for advanced ultra-high-performance InP solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanlass, Mark

    2017-03-07

    Systems and Methods for Advanced Ultra-High-Performance InP Solar Cells are provided. In one embodiment, an InP photovoltaic device comprises: a p-n junction absorber layer comprising at least one InP layer; a front surface confinement layer; and a back surface confinement layer; wherein either the front surface confinement layer or the back surface confinement layer forms part of a High-Low (HL) doping architecture; and wherein either the front surface confinement layer or the back surface confinement layer forms part of a heterointerface system architecture.

  10. Ultra-high Q terahertz whispering-gallery modes in a silicon resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Dominik Walter; Leonhardt, Rainer

    2018-05-01

    We report on the first experimental demonstration of terahertz (THz) whispering-gallery modes (WGMs) with an ultra-high quality factor of 1.5 × 104 at 0.62 THz. The WGMs are observed in a high resistivity float zone silicon spherical resonator coupled to a sub-wavelength silica waveguide. A detailed analysis of the coherent continuous wave THz spectroscopy measurements combined with a numerical model based on Mie-Debye-Aden-Kerker theory allows us to unambiguously identify the observed higher order radial THz WGMs.

  11. Ultra-High-Resolution Computed Tomography of the Lung: Image Quality of a Prototype Scanner

    OpenAIRE

    Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Muramatsu, Yukio; Gomi, Shiho; Suzuki, Masahiro; Nagasawa, Hirobumi; Kusumoto, Masahiko; Aso, Tomohiko; Muramatsu, Yoshihisa; Tsuchida, Takaaki; Tsuta, Koji; Maeshima, Akiko Miyagi; Tochigi, Naobumi; Watanabe, Shun-ichi; Sugihara, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The image noise and image quality of a prototype ultra-high-resolution computed tomography (U-HRCT) scanner was evaluated and compared with those of conventional high-resolution CT (C-HRCT) scanners. Materials and Methods: This study was approved by the institutional review board. A U-HRCT scanner prototype with 0.25 mm × 4 rows and operating at 120 mAs was used. The C-HRCT images were obtained using a 0.5 mm × 16 or 0.5 mm × 64 detector-row CT scanner operating at 150 mAs. Images fr...

  12. Motivation for an SSC detector with ultra-high resolution photon detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunion, J.F.; Kane, G.

    1992-01-01

    It is well known that incorporating ultra-high resolution photon detection into a general purpose detector for the SSC will be extremely difficult. The authors will argue that the physics signals that could be missed without such resolution are of such importance that a special purpose detector designed specifically for photon final state modes should be constructed, if sufficient resolution cannot be achieved with general purpose detectors. The potentially great value of these signals as a probe of extremely high mass scales is stressed

  13. Ultra high temperature latent heat energy storage and thermophotovoltaic energy conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Datas Medina, Alejandro; Ramos Cabal, Alba; Martí Vega, Antonio; Cañizo Nadal, Carlos del; Luque López, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    A conceptual energy storage system design that utilizes ultra high temperature phase change materials is presented. In this system, the energy is stored in the form of latent heat and converted to electricity upon demand by TPV (thermophotovoltaic) cells. Silicon is considered in this study as PCM (phase change material) due to its extremely high latent heat (1800 J/g or 500 Wh/kg), melting point (1410 C), thermal conductivity (~25 W/mK), low cost (less than $2/kg or $4/kWh) and a...

  14. Electromagnetic Charge Radius of the Pion at High Precision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthanarayan, B.; Caprini, Irinel; Das, Diganta

    2017-09-01

    We present a determination of the pion charge radius from high precision data on the pion vector form factor from both timelike and spacelike regions, using a novel formalism based on analyticity and unitarity. At low energies, instead of the poorly known modulus of the form factor, we use its phase, known with high accuracy from Roy equations for π π elastic scattering via the Fermi-Watson theorem. We use also the values of the modulus at several higher timelike energies, where the data from e+e- annihilation and τ decay are mutually consistent, as well as the most recent measurements at spacelike momenta. The experimental uncertainties are implemented by Monte Carlo simulations. The results, which do not rely on a specific parametrization, are optimal for the given input information and do not depend on the unknown phase of the form factor above the first inelastic threshold. Our prediction for the charge radius of the pion is rπ=(0.657 ±0.003 ) fm , which amounts to an increase in precision by a factor of about 2.7 compared to the Particle Data Group average.

  15. Performance of the PHIN High Charge Photo Injector

    CERN Document Server

    Petrarca, M; Doebert, S; Dabrowski, A; Divall, M; Fedoseev, V; Lebas, N; Lefevre, T; Losito, R; Egger, D; Mete, O

    2010-01-01

    The high charge PHIN photo injector is studied at CERN as an electron source for the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) drive beam as an alternative to the present thermionic gun. The objective of PHIN is to demonstrate the feasibility of a laser-based electron source for CLIC. The photo injector operates with a 2.5 cell, 3 GHz RF gun using a Cs2Te photocathode illuminated by UV laser pulses generated by amplifying and frequency quadrupling the signal from a Nd:YLF oscillator running at 1.5GHz. The challenge is to generate a beam structure of 1908 micro bunches with 2.33nC per micro bunch at 1.5GHz leading to a high integrated train charge of 4446nC and nominal beam energy of 5.5MeV with current stability below 1%. In this paper we report and discuss the time resolved transverse and longitudinal beam parameters measurements. The performance of the photo cathodes made at CERN with a peak quantum efficiency of 18 % is shown as well. Laser pointing and amplitude stability results are discussed taking into account correla...

  16. Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fiber epoxy composite hybridized with Gadolinium and Boron nanoparticles for radiation shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Venkat; Prasad, Narasimha S.; Kelkar, Ajit

    2016-09-01

    Deep space radiations pose a major threat to the astronauts and their spacecraft during long duration space exploration missions. The two sources of radiation that are of concern are the galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) and the short lived secondary neutron radiations that are generated as a result of fragmentation that occurs when GCR strikes target nuclei in a spacecraft. Energy loss, during the interaction of GCR and the shielding material, increases with the charge to mass ratio of the shielding material. Hydrogen with no neutron in its nucleus has the highest charge to mass ratio and is the element which is the most effective shield against GCR. Some of the polymers because of their higher hydrogen content also serve as radiation shield materials. Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers, apart from possessing radiation shielding properties by the virtue of the high hydrogen content, are known for extraordinary properties. An effective radiation shielding material is the one that will offer protection from GCR and impede the secondary neutron radiations resulting from the fragmentation process. Neutrons, which result from fragmentation, do not respond to the Coulombic interaction that shield against GCR. To prevent the deleterious effects of secondary neutrons, targets such as Gadolinium are required. In this paper, the radiation shielding studies that were carried out on the fabricated sandwich panels by vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) process are presented. VARTM is a manufacturing process used for making large composite structures by infusing resin into base materials formed with woven fabric or fiber using vacuum pressure. Using the VARTM process, the hybridization of Epoxy/UHMWPE composites with Gadolinium nanoparticles, Boron, and Boron carbide nanoparticles in the form of sandwich panels were successfully carried out. The preliminary results from neutron radiation tests show that greater than 99% shielding performance was

  17. Kernel based methods for accelerated failure time model with ultra-high dimensional data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Feng

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most genomic data have ultra-high dimensions with more than 10,000 genes (probes. Regularization methods with L1 and Lp penalty have been extensively studied in survival analysis with high-dimensional genomic data. However, when the sample size n ≪ m (the number of genes, directly identifying a small subset of genes from ultra-high (m > 10, 000 dimensional data is time-consuming and not computationally efficient. In current microarray analysis, what people really do is select a couple of thousands (or hundreds of genes using univariate analysis or statistical tests, and then apply the LASSO-type penalty to further reduce the number of disease associated genes. This two-step procedure may introduce bias and inaccuracy and lead us to miss biologically important genes. Results The accelerated failure time (AFT model is a linear regression model and a useful alternative to the Cox model for survival analysis. In this paper, we propose a nonlinear kernel based AFT model and an efficient variable selection method with adaptive kernel ridge regression. Our proposed variable selection method is based on the kernel matrix and dual problem with a much smaller n × n matrix. It is very efficient when the number of unknown variables (genes is much larger than the number of samples. Moreover, the primal variables are explicitly updated and the sparsity in the solution is exploited. Conclusions Our proposed methods can simultaneously identify survival associated prognostic factors and predict survival outcomes with ultra-high dimensional genomic data. We have demonstrated the performance of our methods with both simulation and real data. The proposed method performs superbly with limited computational studies.

  18. Improvement of performance of ultra-high performance concrete based composite material added with nano materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang Jinchang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC, a kind of composite material characterized by ultra high strength, high toughness and high durability. It has a wide application prospect in engineering practice. But there are some defects in concrete. How to improve strength and toughness of UHPC remains to be the target of researchers. To obtain UHPC with better performance, this study introduced nano-SiO2 and nano-CaCO3 into UHPC. Moreover, hydration heat analysis, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP and nanoindentation tests were used to explore hydration process and microstructure. Double-doped nanomaterials can further enhance various mechanical performances of materials. Nano-SiO2 can promote early progress of cement hydration due to its high reaction activity and C-S-H gel generates when it reacts with cement hydration product Ca(OH2. Nano-CaCO3 mainly plays the role of crystal nucleus effect and filling effect. Under the combined action of the two, the composite structure is denser, which provides a way to improve the performance of UHPC in practical engineering.

  19. Space-charge effects in high-energy photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verna, Adriano, E-mail: adriano.verna@uniroma3.it [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); CNISM Unità di Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Greco, Giorgia [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Lollobrigida, Valerio [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Scuola Dottorale in Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Offi, Francesco; Stefani, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); CNISM Unità di Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • N-body simulations of interacting photoelectrons in hard X-ray experiments. • Secondary electrons have a pivotal role in determining the energy broadening. • Space charge has negligible effects on the photoelectron momentum distribution. • A simple model provides the characteristic time for energy-broadening mechanism. • The feasibility of time-resolved high-energy experiments with FELs is discussed. - Abstract: Pump-and-probe photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) with femtosecond pulsed sources opens new perspectives in the investigation of the ultrafast dynamics of physical and chemical processes at the surfaces and interfaces of solids. Nevertheless, for very intense photon pulses a large number of photoelectrons are simultaneously emitted and their mutual Coulomb repulsion is sufficiently strong to significantly modify their trajectory and kinetic energy. This phenomenon, referred as space-charge effect, determines a broadening and shift in energy for the typical PES structures and a dramatic loss of energy resolution. In this article we examine the effects of space charge in PES with a particular focus on time-resolved hard X-ray (∼10 keV) experiments. The trajectory of the electrons photoemitted from pure Cu in a hard X-ray PES experiment has been reproduced through N-body simulations and the broadening of the photoemission core-level peaks has been monitored as a function of various parameters (photons per pulse, linear dimension of the photon spot, photon energy). The energy broadening results directly proportional to the number N of electrons emitted per pulse (mainly represented by secondary electrons) and inversely proportional to the linear dimension a of the photon spot on the sample surface, in agreement with the literature data about ultraviolet and soft X-ray experiments. The evolution in time of the energy broadening during the flight of the photoelectrons is also studied. Despite its detrimental consequences on the energy

  20. A modified space charge routine for high intensity bunched beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapostolle, P.; Garnett, R.W.; Wangler, T.P.

    1996-01-01

    In 1991 a space charge calculation for bunched beam with a three-dimensional ellipsoid was proposed, replacing the usual SCHEFF routines. It removes the cylindrical symmetry required in SCHEFF and avoids the point to point interaction computation, whose number of simulation points is limited. This routine has now been improved with the introduction of two or three ellipsoids giving a good representation of the complex non-symmetrical form of the bunch (unlike the 3-d ellipsoidal assumption). The ellipsoidal density distributions are computed with a new method, avoiding the difficulty encountered near the centre (the axis in 2-d problems) by the previous method. It also provides a check of the ellipsoidal symmetry for each part of the distribution. Finally, the Fourier analysis reported in 1991 has been replaced by a very convenient Hermite expansion, which gives a simple but accurate representation of practical distributions. Comparisons with other space charge routines have been made, particularly with the ones applying other techniques such as SCHEFF. Introduced in the versatile beam dynamics code DYNAC, it should provide a good tool for the study of the various parameters responsible for the halo formation in high intensity linacs. (orig.)

  1. Recent Ultra High Energy neutrino bounds and multimessenger observations with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zas, Enrique

    2018-01-01

    The overall picture of the highest energy particles produced in the Universe is changing because of measurements made with the Pierre Auger Observatory. Composition studies of cosmic rays point towards an unexpected mixed composition of intermediate mass nuclei, more isotropic than anticipated, which is reshaping the future of the field and underlining the priority to understand composition at the highest energies. The Observatory is competitive in the search for neutrinos of all flavors above about 100 PeV by looking for very inclined showers produced deep in the atmosphere by neutrinos interacting either in the atmosphere or in the Earth's crust. It covers a large field of view between -85° and 60° declination in equatorial coordinates. Neutrinos are expected because of the existence of ultra high energy cosmic rays. They provide valuable complementary information, their fluxes being sensitive to the primary cosmic ray masses and their directions reflecting the source positions. We report the results of the neutrino search providing competitive bounds to neutrino production and strong constraints to a number of production models including cosmogenic neutrinos due to ultra high energy protons. We also report on two recent contributions of the Observatory to multimessenger studies by searching for correlations of neutrinos both with cosmic rays and with gravitational waves. The correlations of the directions of the highest energy astrophysical neutrinos discovered with IceCube with the highest energy cosmic rays detected with the Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array revealed an excess that is not statistically significant and is being monitored. The targeted search for neutrinos correlated with the discovery of the gravitational wave events GW150914 and GW151226 with advanced LIGO has led to the first bounds on the energy emitted by black hole mergers in Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos.

  2. Recent Ultra High Energy neutrino bounds and multimessenger observations with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zas Enrique

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The overall picture of the highest energy particles produced in the Universe is changing because of measurements made with the Pierre Auger Observatory. Composition studies of cosmic rays point towards an unexpected mixed composition of intermediate mass nuclei, more isotropic than anticipated, which is reshaping the future of the field and underlining the priority to understand composition at the highest energies. The Observatory is competitive in the search for neutrinos of all flavors above about 100 PeV by looking for very inclined showers produced deep in the atmosphere by neutrinos interacting either in the atmosphere or in the Earth’s crust. It covers a large field of view between −85◦ and 60◦ declination in equatorial coordinates. Neutrinos are expected because of the existence of ultra high energy cosmic rays. They provide valuable complementary information, their fluxes being sensitive to the primary cosmic ray masses and their directions reflecting the source positions. We report the results of the neutrino search providing competitive bounds to neutrino production and strong constraints to a number of production models including cosmogenic neutrinos due to ultra high energy protons. We also report on two recent contributions of the Observatory to multimessenger studies by searching for correlations of neutrinos both with cosmic rays and with gravitational waves. The correlations of the directions of the highest energy astrophysical neutrinos discovered with IceCube with the highest energy cosmic rays detected with the Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array revealed an excess that is not statistically significant and is being monitored. The targeted search for neutrinos correlated with the discovery of the gravitational wave events GW150914 and GW151226 with advanced LIGO has led to the first bounds on the energy emitted by black hole mergers in Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos.

  3. Ultra-high-speed imaging of the brain by the echo planar technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worthington, B.S.; Stehling, M.K.; Ordidge, R.J.; Coxon, R.; Howseman, A.M.; Chapman, B.; Turner, R.; Firth, J.L.; Mansfield, P.

    1988-01-01

    Reduced examination time, greater patient tolerance and throughput, and the ability to study vascular and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow phenomena are important advantages of ultra-high-speed brain imaging. The EPI derivatives BEST and MBEST create a complete 128 X 128-pixel image in 64 msec and 128 msec, respectively. In BEST images, T2 weighting is altered by adjusting the echo time, modulus BEST images have intrinsic T2 weighting. Repetition time alterations provide variable T1 weighting in both. Volunteer and patient studies illustrate how selective contrast manipulation allows excellent discrimination between gray and white matter and the brain and the CSF, enabling the demonstration of pathology

  4. Static, Fire and Fatigue Tests of Ultra High-Strength Fibre Reinforced Concrete and Ribbed Bars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Pilegaard; Heshe, Gert

    2001-01-01

    A new building system has been developed during the last 10 years. This new system consists of a column / slab system with 6 x 6 m distance between the columns. The slabs are precast concrete elements of size 2.9 x 5.9 m connected through joints of ultra high strength fibre reinforced concrete...... - Densit Joint Cast ®. Also the connections between the columns and the slabs are made of this very strong concrete material. The paper describes some of the static tests carried out as well as some fire tests. Further, 2 chapters deal with some fatigue tests of the reinforcing bars as well as some fatigue...

  5. Features of the galactic magnetic field regarding deflections of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirtz, Marcus; Erdmann, Martin; Mueller, Gero; Urban, Martin [III. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Most recent models of the galactic magnetic field have been derived from Faraday rotation measurements and imply strong deflections even for ultra-high energy cosmic rays. We investigate the characteristics of the different field parametrizations and point out similarities and interesting features. Among them are extragalactic regions which are invisible for an Earth bound observation and the transition from diffuse to ballistic behaviour in the 1 EeV energy regime. Applying this knowledge to a directional analysis, there are indications for deflection patterns by the galactic magnetic field in cosmic ray arrival directions measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  6. A study of some features of the ultra high vacuum systems for EPIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsey, R.J.; Bennett, J.R.J.; Dossett, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    This report covers the experimental work carried out towards the development of the ultra high vacuum for the proposed electron positron storage ring, EPIC. Experiments included outgassing tests on samples of materials and pump-down tests on full scale aluminium vessels. The effect of baking was investigated. The approval of the similar machine PETRA at Hamburg and the subsequent withdrawal of the EPIC proposal in October 1975 curtailed the vacuum work. The experiments reported here are therefore incomplete, but nevertheless proved useful in showing that there should have been no major problems with building the vacuum system for EPIC. (author)

  7. Testing and Modeling Ultra-High Temperature Ceramic (UHTC) Materials For Hypersonic Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    Ridge, D. G. Fletcher, C. O. Asma , O. Chazot, and J. Thömel, “Oxidation of ZrB2-SiC Ultra-High Temperature Ceramic Composites in Dissociated Air...Fletcher, C. O. Asma , “Characterization of ZrB2-SiC Ceramics Tested by Plasma Stream Oxidation,” poster, 32 th International Conference...Fahrenholtz, W.G., Hilmas, G.E., Zhu, S.M., Ridge, J., Fletcher, D.G., Asma , C.O., and Thomel, J., "Oxidation of ZrB2-SiC Ultrahigh-Temperature

  8. Search for continuous and single day emission from ultra-high-energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Mei-Li.

    1993-01-01

    Data from the CYGNUS experiment has been used to search the northern sky for point sources of continuous ultra-high-energy gamma radiation and to examine 51 candidate sources on a daily basis to search for episodic emission. In this paper, we make use of our most recent data to update our previously published results from these searches. The data sample is approximately twice as large as the published data set for continuous emission, and contains an additional year for the daily search. The latest results, up to the time of the conference, will be presented at the meeting

  9. Application of Ultra High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete – The Malaysia Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Voo - Yen Lei; Behzad Nematollahi; Abu Bakar Mohamed Said; Balamurugan A Gopal; Tet Shun Yee

    2012-01-01

    One of the most significant breakthroughs in concrete technology at the end of the 20th century was the development of ultra-high performance fiber reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) with compressive strength and flexure strength beyond 160 MPa and 30 MPa, respectively; remarkable improvement in workability; durability resembled to natural rocks; ductility and toughness comparable to steel. While over the last two decades a tremendous amount of research works have been undertaken by academics and e...

  10. Ultra-high vacuum system of the Brookhaven National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    The rings of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) have been supplying light to numerous users for approximately a decade and recently a fully conditioned machine vacuum at design currents was obtained. A brief description of the x-ray storage ring, the VUV storage ring and their current supply is given along with some of their features. The ultra-high vacuum system employed for the storage rings and their advantages for the necessary stored beam environments are discussed including, a brief history of time. 15 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs

  11. Low loss hollow optical-waveguide connection from atmospheric pressure to ultra-high vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermolov, A.; Mak, K. F.; Tani, F.; Hölzer, P.; Travers, J. C. [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Russell, P. St. J. [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Günther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2013-12-23

    A technique for optically accessing ultra-high vacuum environments, via a photonic-crystal fiber with a long small hollow core, is described. The small core and the long bore enable a pressure ratio of over 10{sup 8} to be maintained between two environments, while permitting efficient and unimpeded delivery of light, including ultrashort optical pulses. This delivery can be either passive or can encompass nonlinear optical processes such as optical pulse compression, deep UV generation, supercontinuum generation, or other useful phenomena.

  12. The evaluation of different environments in ultra-high frequency induction sintered powder metal compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavdar, P. S.; Cavdar, U.

    2015-01-01

    The application of the iron based Powder Metal (PM) compacts in Ultra-High Frequency Induction Sintering (UHFIS) was reviewed for different environments. The three different environments: atmosphere, argon and vacuum were applied to the PM compacts. Iron based PM compacts were sintered at 1120 degree centigrade for a total of 550 seconds by using induction sintering machines with 2.8 kW power and 900 kHz frequency. Micro structural properties, densities, roughness and micro hardness values were obtained for all environments. The results were compared with each other. (Author)

  13. Inverse problem for extragalactic transport of ultra-high energy cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ptuskin, V.S.; Rogovaya, S.I.; Zirakashvili, V.N.

    2015-01-01

    The energy spectra and composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays are changing in a course of propagation in the expanding Universe filled with background radiation. We developed a numerical code for solution of inverse problem for cosmic-ray transport equations that allows the determination of average source spectra of different nuclei from the cosmic ray spectra observed at the Earth. Employing this approach, the injection spectra of protons and Iron nuclei in extragalactic sources are found assuming that only these species are accelerated at the source. The data from the Auger experiment and the combined data from the Telescope Array + HiRes experiments are used to illustrate the method

  14. Inverse problem for extragalactic transport of ultra-high energy cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ptuskin, V.S.; Rogovaya, S.I.; Zirakashvili, V.N., E-mail: vptuskin@izmiran.ru, E-mail: rogovaya@izmiran.ru, E-mail: zirak@izmiran.ru [Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IZMIRAN), Troitsk, Moscow, 142190 (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-01

    The energy spectra and composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays are changing in a course of propagation in the expanding Universe filled with background radiation. We developed a numerical code for solution of inverse problem for cosmic-ray transport equations that allows the determination of average source spectra of different nuclei from the cosmic ray spectra observed at the Earth. Employing this approach, the injection spectra of protons and Iron nuclei in extragalactic sources are found assuming that only these species are accelerated at the source. The data from the Auger experiment and the combined data from the Telescope Array + HiRes experiments are used to illustrate the method.

  15. The characteristics of ultra-high performance concrete and cracking behavior of reinforced concrete tensile specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Rahdar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The tensile behavior of concrete depends on some factors such as member dimensions, reinforcement ratio, diameter of rebar, strength and elasticity modulus of material. In this research the experimental method is used to examine the characteristics and the behavior of ultra-high performance concrete on the tensile behavior of concrete members reinforced by steel rebar. The results show that increasing the rebar cover on diameter rebar ratio (C/d increases the initial stiffening before the cracking stage in concrete. Also, by increasing of reinforcement ratio the cracking space decreased.

  16. Optical Characteristics of a Multichannel Hybrid Integrated Light Source for Ultra-High-Bandwidth Optical Interconnections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanori Shimizu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The optical characteristics of a multi-channel hybrid integrated light source were described for an optical interconnection with a bandwidth of over 10 Tbit/s. The power uniformity of the relative intensity of a 1000-channel light source was shown, and the minimum standard deviation s of the optical power of the 200 output ports at each 25-channel laser diode (LD array was estimated to be 0.49 dB. This hybrid integrated light source is expected to be easily adaptable to a photonics-electronics convergence system for ultra-high-bandwidth interchip interconnections.

  17. Ultra high speed framing photographs of laser produced plasmas using a picosecond optical shutter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillman, G.B.; Ramsden, S.A.

    1975-01-01

    A study has been carried out of the spatial transmission properties of the optical Kerr effect shutter and it has been used to take ultra high speed framing photographs of laser produced plasmas in air and from solid targets. With a 1cm long CS 2 cell of aperture 5cm 2 a transmission of approximately 5% and an on/off contrast ratio of 10 4 was obtained. An image intensifier was necessary to obtain adequately exposed photographs of the plasma and the overall spatial resolution of the system was approximately 2μ. (author)

  18. The effect of cognitive remediation in individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenthøj, Louise Birkedal; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Kristensen, Tina Dam

    2017-01-01

    of five studies that reported a cognitive outcome found cognitive remediation to improve cognition in the domains of verbal memory, attention, and processing speed. Two out of four studies that reported on functional outcome found cognitive remediation to improve the functional outcome in the domains...... of social functioning and social adjustment. Zero out of the five studies that reported such an outcome found cognitive remediation to affect the magnitude of clinical symptoms. Research on the effect of cognitive remediation in the ultra-high risk state is still scarce. The current state of evidence...

  19. Electrical properties of single crystal Yttrium Iron Garnet ultra-thin films at high temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Thiery, Nicolas; Naletov, Vladimir V.; Vila, Laurent; Marty, Alain; Brenac, Ariel; Jacquot, Jean-François; de Loubens, Grégoire; Viret, Michel; Anane, Abdelmadjid; Cros, Vincent; Youssef, Jamal Ben; Demidov, Vladislav E.; Demokritov, Sergej O.; Klein, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    We report a study on the electrical properties of 19 nm thick Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG) films grown by liquid phase epitaxy. The electrical conductivity and Hall coefficient are measured in the high temperature range [300,400]~K using a Van der Pauw four-point probe technique. We find that the electrical resistivity decreases exponentially with increasing temperature following an activated behavior corresponding to a band-gap of $E_g\\approx 2$ eV, indicating that epitaxial YIG ultra-thin film...

  20. O-Ring sealing arrangements for ultra-high vacuum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Kyo; Flaherty, Robert

    1981-01-01

    An all metal reusable O-ring sealing arrangement for sealing two concentric tubes in an ultra-high vacuum system. An O-ring of a heat recoverable alloy such as Nitinol is concentrically positioned between protruding sealing rings of the concentric tubes. The O-ring is installed between the tubes while in a stressed martensitic state and is made to undergo a thermally induced transformation to an austenitic state. During the transformation the O-ring expands outwardly and contracts inwardly toward a previously sized austenitic configuration, thereby sealing against the protruding sealing rings of the concentric tubes.

  1. The global lambda visualization facility: An international ultra-high-definition wide-area visualization collaboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, J.; Renambot, L.; Johnson, Aaron H.; Jeong, B.; Jagodic, R.; Schwarz, N.; Svistula, D.; Singh, R.; Aguilera, J.; Wang, X.; Vishwanath, V.; Lopez, B.; Sandin, D.; Peterka, T.; Girado, J.; Kooima, R.; Ge, J.; Long, L.; Verlo, A.; DeFanti, T.A.; Brown, M.; Cox, D.; Patterson, R.; Dorn, P.; Wefel, P.; Levy, S.; Talandis, J.; Reitzer, J.; Prudhomme, T.; Coffin, T.; Davis, B.; Wielinga, P.; Stolk, B.; Bum, Koo G.; Kim, J.; Han, S.; Corrie, B.; Zimmerman, T.; Boulanger, P.; Garcia, M.

    2006-01-01

    The research outlined in this paper marks an initial global cooperative effort between visualization and collaboration researchers to build a persistent virtual visualization facility linked by ultra-high-speed optical networks. The goal is to enable the comprehensive and synergistic research and development of the necessary hardware, software and interaction techniques to realize the next generation of end-user tools for scientists to collaborate on the global Lambda Grid. This paper outlines some of the visualization research projects that were demonstrated at the iGrid 2005 workshop in San Diego, California.

  2. Search for emission of ultra high energy radiation from active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    A search for emission of ultra-high energy gamma radiation from 13 active galactic nuclei that were detected by EGRET, using the CYGNUS extensive air-shower array, is described. The data set has been searched for continuous emission, emission on the time scale of one week, and for on the time scale of out day. No evidence for emission from any of the AGN on any of the time scales examined was found. The 90% C.L. upper limit to the continuous flux from Mrk 421 above 50 TeV is 7.5 x 10 -14 cm -2 s -1

  3. Experimental investigation on the use of highly charged nanoparticles to improve the stability of weakly charged colloidal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubir, Mohd Nashrul Mohd; Badarudin, A; Kazi, S N; Misran, Misni; Amiri, Ahmad; Sadri, Rad; Khalid, Solangi

    2015-09-15

    The present work highlighted on the implementation of a unique concept for stabilizing colloids at their incipiently low charge potential. A highly charged nanoparticle was introduced within a coagulated prone colloidal system, serving as stabilizer to resist otherwise rapid flocculation and sedimentation process. A low size asymmetry of nanoparticle/colloid serves as the new topic of investigation in addition to the well-established large size ratio nanoparticle/microparticle study. Highly charged Al2O3 nanoparticles were used within the present research context to stabilize TiO2 and Fe3O4 based colloids via the formation of composite structures. It was believed, based on the experimental evidence, that Al2O3 nanoparticle interact with the weakly charged TiO2 and Fe3O4 colloids within the binary system via absorption and/or haloing modes to increase the overall charge potential of the respective colloids, thus preventing further surface contact via van der Waal's attraction. Series of experimental results strongly suggest the presence of weakly charged colloids in the studied bimodal system where, in the absence of highly charged nanoparticle, experience rapid instability. Absorbance measurement indicated that the colloidal stability drops in accordance to the highly charged nanoparticle sedimentation rate, suggesting the dominant influence of nanoparticles to attain a well-dispersed binary system. Further, it was found that the level of colloidal stability was enhanced with increasing nanoparticle fraction within the mixture. Rheological observation revealed that each hybrid complexes demonstrated behavior reminiscence to water with negligible increase in viscosity which serves as highly favorable condition particularly in thermal transport applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Bayesian Multiresolution Variable Selection for Ultra-High Dimensional Neuroimaging Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yize; Kang, Jian; Long, Qi

    2018-01-01

    Ultra-high dimensional variable selection has become increasingly important in analysis of neuroimaging data. For example, in the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) study, neuroscientists are interested in identifying important biomarkers for early detection of the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using high resolution brain images that include hundreds of thousands voxels. However, most existing methods are not feasible for solving this problem due to their extensive computational costs. In this work, we propose a novel multiresolution variable selection procedure under a Bayesian probit regression framework. It recursively uses posterior samples for coarser-scale variable selection to guide the posterior inference on finer-scale variable selection, leading to very efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms. The proposed algorithms are computationally feasible for ultra-high dimensional data. Also, our model incorporates two levels of structural information into variable selection using Ising priors: the spatial dependence between voxels and the functional connectivity between anatomical brain regions. Applied to the resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) data in the ABIDE study, our methods identify voxel-level imaging biomarkers highly predictive of the ASD, which are biologically meaningful and interpretable. Extensive simulations also show that our methods achieve better performance in variable selection compared to existing methods.

  5. Manganese oxide micro-supercapacitors with ultra-high areal capacitance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Myers, Benjamin D.; Yan, Jian; Shekhawat, Gajendra; Dravid, Vinayak; Lee, Pooi See

    2013-05-01

    A symmetric micro-supercapacitor is constructed by electrochemically depositing manganese oxide onto micro-patterned current collectors. High surface-to-volume ratio of manganese oxide and short diffusion distance between electrodes give an ultra-high areal capacitance of 56.3 mF cm-2 at a current density of 27.2 μA cm-2.A symmetric micro-supercapacitor is constructed by electrochemically depositing manganese oxide onto micro-patterned current collectors. High surface-to-volume ratio of manganese oxide and short diffusion distance between electrodes give an ultra-high areal capacitance of 56.3 mF cm-2 at a current density of 27.2 μA cm-2. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures; optical images of micro-supercapacitors; areal capacitances of samples M-0.3C, M-0.6C and M-0.9C; illustration of interdigital finger electrodes; Nyquist plot of Co(OH)2 deposited on micro-electrodes. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00210a

  6. Nanocomposites of TiO2/cyanoethylated cellulose with ultra high dielectric constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madusanka, Nadeesh; Shivareddy, Sai G; Hiralal, Pritesh; Choi, Youngjin; Amaratunga, Gehan A J; Eddleston, Mark D; Oliver, Rachel A

    2016-01-01

    A novel dielectric nanocomposite containing a high permittivity polymer, cyanoethylated cellulose (CRS) and TiO 2 nanoparticles was successfully prepared with different weight percentages (10%, 20% and 30%) of TiO 2 . The intermolecular interactions and morphology within the polymer nanocomposites were analysed. TiO 2 /CRS nanofilms on SiO 2 /Si wafers were used to form metal–insulator–metal type capacitors. Capacitances and loss factors in the frequency range of 1 kHz–1 MHz were measured. At 1 kHz CRS-TiO 2 nanocomposites exhibited ultra high dielectric constants of 118, 176 and 207 for nanocomposites with 10%, 20% and 30% weight of TiO 2 respectively, significantly higher than reported values of pure CRS (21), TiO 2 (41) and other dielectric polymer-TiO 2 nanocomposite films. Furthermore, all three CRS-TiO 2 nanocomposites show a loss factor <0.3 at 1 kHz and low leakage current densities (10 −6 –10 −7 A cm −2 ). Leakage was studied using conductive atomic force microscopy and it was observed that the leakage is associated with TiO 2 nanoparticles embedded in the CRS polymer matrix. A new class of ultra high dielectric constant hybrids using nanoscale inorganic dielectrics dispersed in a high permittivity polymer suitable for energy management applications is reported. (paper)

  7. Highly charged ion based time-of-flight emission microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, Alex V.; Barnes, Alan V.; Magee, Ed; Newman, Mike; Schenkel, Thomas; McDonald, Joseph W.; Schneider, Dieter H.

    2000-01-01

    An emission microscope using highly charged ions as the excitation source has been designed, constructed, and operated. A novel ''acorn'' objective lens has been used to simultaneously image electron and secondary ion emission. A resistive anode-position sensitive detector is used to determine the x-y position and time of arrival of the secondary events at the microscope image plane. Contrast in the image can be based on the intensity of the electron emission and/or the presence of particular secondary ions. Spatial resolution of better than 1 μm and mass resolution m/Δm of better than 400 were demonstrated. Background rejection from uncorrelated events of greater than an order of magnitude is also achieved. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  8. Nonlinear energy loss of highly charged heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwicknagel, G.Guenter.

    2000-01-01

    For slow, highly charged heavy ions strong coupling effects in the energy transfer from the projectile-ion to an electron target plasma become important. A theoretical description of this nonlinear ion stopping has to go beyond the standard approaches like the dielectric linear response or the binary collision model which are strictly valid only at weak ion-target coupling. Here we outline an improved treatment which is based on a suitable combination of binary collision and linear response contributions. As has been verified for isotropic, nonmagnetized electron plasmas by comparison with simulations, this approach well reproduces the essential features of nonlinear stopping up to moderate coupling strength. Its extension to anisotropic, magnetized electron plasmas basically involves the fully numerical determination of the momentum and energy transfer in binary ion-electron collisions in the presence of a magnetic field. First results of such calculations are presented and discussed

  9. Highly charged ions at rest: The HITRAP project at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herfurth, F.; Beier, T.; Dahl, L.; Eliseev, S.; Heinz, S.; Kester, O.; Kluge, H.-J.; Kozhuharov, C.; Maero, G.; Quint, W.

    2005-01-01

    A decelerator will be installed at GSI in order to provide and study bare heavy nuclei or heavy nuclei with only few electrons at very low energies or even at rest. Highly-charged ions will be produced by stripping at relativistic energies. After electron cooling and deceleration in the Experimental Storage Ring the ions are ejected out of the storage ring at 4 MeV/u and further decelerated in a combination of an IH and RFQ structure. Finally, they are injected into a Penning trap where the ions are cooled to 4 K. From here, the ions can be transferred in a quasi dc or in a pulsed mode to different experimental setups. This article describes the technical concepts of this project as well as planned key experiments

  10. High cumulants of conserved charges and their statistical uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Zhu, Chen; Ye-Yin, Zhao; Xue, Pan; Zhi-Ming, Li; Yuan-Fang, Wu

    2017-10-01

    We study the influence of measured high cumulants of conserved charges on their associated statistical uncertainties in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. With a given number of events, the measured cumulants randomly fluctuate with an approximately normal distribution, while the estimated statistical uncertainties are found to be correlated with corresponding values of the obtained cumulants. Generally, with a given number of events, the larger the cumulants we measure, the larger the statistical uncertainties that are estimated. The error-weighted averaged cumulants are dependent on statistics. Despite this effect, however, it is found that the three sigma rule of thumb is still applicable when the statistics are above one million. Supported by NSFC (11405088, 11521064, 11647093), Major State Basic Research Development Program of China (2014CB845402) and Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST) (2016YFE0104800)

  11. X-ray radiography with highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrs, Roscoe E.

    2000-01-01

    An extremely small (1-250 micron FWHM) beam of slow highly charged ions deexciting on an x-ray production target generates x-ray monochromatic radiation that is passed through a specimen and detected for imaging. The resolution of the x-ray radiograms is improved and such detection is achieved with relatively low dosages of radiation passing through the specimen. An apparatus containing an electron beam ion trap (and modifications thereof) equipped with a focusing column serves as a source of ions that generate radiation projected onto an image detector. Electronic and other detectors are able to detect an increased amount of radiation per pixel than achieved by previous methods and apparati.

  12. Charge Exchange of Highly Charged Ne and Mg Ions with H and He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, D.; Cumbee, R. S.; Stancil, P. C.

    2017-10-01

    Cross sections for single electron capture (SEC), or charge exchange (CX), in collisions of Ne(8-10)+ and Mg(8-12)+ with H and He, are computed using an approximate multichannel Landau-Zener (MCLZ) formalism. Final-state-resolved cross sections for the principal (n), orbital angular momentum (ℓ), and where appropriate, total spin angular momentum (S) quantum numbers are explicitly computed, except for the incident bare ions Ne10+ and Mg12+. In the latter two cases, n{\\ell }-resolution is obtained from analytical ℓ-distribution functions applied to n-resolved MCLZ cross sections. In all cases, the cross sections are computed over the collision energy range 1 meV/u to 50 keV/u with LZ parameters estimated from atomic energies obtained from experiment, theory, or, in the case of high-lying Rydberg levels, estimated with a quantum defect approach. Errors in the energy differences in the adiabatic potentials at the avoided crossing distances give the largest contribution to the uncertainties in the cross sections, which are expected to increase with decreasing cross section magnitude. The energy differences are deduced here with the Olson-Salop-Tauljberg radial coupling model. Proper selection of an ℓ-distribution function for bare ion collisions introduces another level of uncertainty into the results. Comparison is made to existing experimental or theoretical results when available, but such data are absent for most considered collision systems. The n{\\ell }S-resolved SEC cross sections are used in an optically thin cascade simulation to predict X-ray spectra and line ratios that will aid in modeling the X-ray emission in environments where CX is an important mechanism. Details on a MCLZ computational package, Stueckelberg, are also provided.

  13. On adiabatic pair potentials of highly charged colloid particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogami, Ikuo S.

    2018-03-01

    Generalizing the Debye-Hückel formalism, we develop a new mean field theory for adiabatic pair potentials of highly charged particles in colloid dispersions. The unoccupied volume and the osmotic pressure are the key concepts to describe the chemical and thermodynamical equilibrium of the gas of small ions in the outside region of all of the colloid particles. To define the proper thermodynamic quantities, it is postulated to take an ensemble averaging with respect to the particle configurations in the integrals for their densities consisting of the electric potential satisfying a set of equations that are derived by linearizing the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. With the Fourier integral representation of the electric potential, we calculate first the internal electric energy of the system from which the Helmholtz free energy is obtained through the Legendre transformation. Then, the Gibbs free energy is calculated using both ways of the Legendre transformation with respect to the unoccupied volume and the summation of chemical potentials. The thermodynamic functions provide three types of pair potentials, all of which are inversely proportional to the fraction of the unoccupied volume. At the limit when the fraction factor reduces to unity, the Helmholtz pair potential turns exactly into the well known Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek repulsive potential. The Gibbs pair potential possessing a medium-range strong repulsive part and a long-range weak attractive tail can explain the Schulze-Hardy rule for coagulation in combination with the van der Waals-London potential and describes a rich variety of phenomena of phase transitions observed in the dilute dispersions of highly charged particles.

  14. Effects of anesthetic agents on brain blood oxygenation level revealed with ultra-high field MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Ciobanu

    Full Text Available During general anesthesia it is crucial to control systemic hemodynamics and oxygenation levels. However, anesthetic agents can affect cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in a drug-dependent manner, while systemic hemodynamics is stable. Brain-wide monitoring of this effect remains highly challenging. Because T(2*-weighted imaging at ultra-high magnetic field strengths benefits from a dramatic increase in contrast to noise ratio, we hypothesized that it could monitor anesthesia effects on brain blood oxygenation. We scanned rat brains at 7T and 17.2T under general anesthesia using different anesthetics (isoflurane, ketamine-xylazine, medetomidine. We showed that the brain/vessels contrast in T(2*-weighted images at 17.2T varied directly according to the applied pharmacological anesthetic agent, a phenomenon that was visible, but to a much smaller extent at 7T. This variation is in agreement with the mechanism of action of these agents. These data demonstrate that preclinical ultra-high field MRI can monitor the effects of a given drug on brain blood oxygenation level in the absence of systemic blood oxygenation changes and of any neural stimulation.

  15. Equal channel angular extrusion of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinitz, Steven D., E-mail: Steven.D.Reinitz.TH@Dartmouth.edu; Engler, Alexander J.; Carlson, Evan M.; Van Citters, Douglas W.

    2016-10-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), a common bearing surface in total joint arthroplasty, is subject to material property tradeoffs associated with conventional processing techniques. For orthopaedic applications, radiation-induced cross-linking is used to enhance the wear resistance of the material, but cross-linking also restricts relative chain movement in the amorphous regions and hence decreases toughness. Equal Channel Angular Extrusion (ECAE) is proposed as a novel mechanism by which entanglements can be introduced to the polymer bulk during consolidation, with the aim of imparting the same tribological benefits of conventional processing without complete inhibition of chain motion. ECAE processing at temperatures near the crystalline melt for UHMWPE produces (1) increased entanglements compared to control materials; (2) increasing entanglements with increasing temperature; and (3) mechanical properties between values for untreated polyethylene and for cross-linked polyethylene. These results support additional research in ECAE-processed UHMWPE for joint arthroplasty applications. - Highlights: • A new processing method for ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene is introduced. • The process produces a highly entangled polyethylene material. • Entanglements are hypothesized to enhance the wear resistance of polyethylene. • This process eliminates the trade-off between mechanical and wear properties.

  16. Ultra-rare mutation in long-range enhancer predisposes to thyroid carcinoma with high penetrance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiling He

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer shows high heritability but causative genes remain largely unknown. According to a common hypothesis the genetic predisposition to thyroid cancer is highly heterogeneous; being in part due to many different rare alleles. Here we used linkage analysis and targeted deep sequencing to detect a novel single-nucleotide mutation in chromosome 4q32 (4q32A>C in a large pedigree displaying non-medullary thyroid carcinoma (NMTC. This mutation is generally ultra-rare; it was not found in 38 NMTC families, in 2676 sporadic NMTC cases or 2470 controls. The mutation is located in a long-range enhancer element whose ability to bind the transcription factors POU2F and YY1 is significantly impaired, with decreased activity in the presence of the C- allele compared with the wild type A-allele. An enhancer RNA (eRNA is transcribed in thyroid tissue from this region and is greatly downregulated in NMTC tumors. We suggest that this is an example of an ultra-rare mutation predisposing to thyroid cancer with high penetrance.

  17. Behavior and strength of beams cast with ultra high strength concrete containing different types of fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Kamal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC is a special type of concrete with extraordinary potentials in terms of strength and durability performance. Its production and application implement the most up-to-date knowledge and technology of concrete manufacturing. Sophisticated structural designs in bridges and high-rise buildings, repair works and special structures like nuclear facilities are currently the main fields of applications of UHPC. This paper aimed to evaluate the behavior of ultra-high strength concrete beams. This paper also aimed to determine the effect of adding fibers and explore their effect upon the behavior and strength of the reinforced concrete beams. A total of twelve simple concrete beams with and without shear reinforcements were tested in flexure. The main variables taken into consideration in this research were the type of fibers and the percentage of longitudinal reinforcement as well as the existence or absence of the web reinforcement. Two types of fibers were used including steel and polypropylene fibers. The behavior of the tested beams was investigated with special attention to the deflection under different stages of loading, initial cracking, cracking pattern, and ultimate load. Increased number of cracks was observed at the end of loading due to the use of fibers, which led to the reduced width of cracks. This led to increased stiffness and higher values of maximum loads.

  18. Fracture Mechanisms of Zirconium Diboride Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics under Pulse Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skripnyak, Vladimir V.; Bragov, Anatolii M.; Skripnyak, Vladimir A.; Lomunov, Andrei K.; Skripnyak, Evgeniya G.; Vaganova, Irina K.

    2015-06-01

    Mechanisms of failure in ultra-high temperature ceramics (UHTC) based on zirconium diboride under pulse loading were studied experimentally by the method of SHPB and theoretically using the multiscale simulation method. The obtained experimental and numerical data are evidence of the quasi-brittle fracture character of nanostructured zirconium diboride ceramics under compression and tension at high strain rates and the room temperatures. Damage of nanostructured porous zirconium diboride -based UHTC can be formed under stress pulse amplitude below the Hugoniot elastic limit. Fracture of nanostructured ultra-high temperature ceramics under pulse and shock-wave loadings is provided by fast processes of intercrystalline brittle fracture and relatively slow processes of quasi-brittle failure via growth and coalescence of microcracks. A decrease of the shear strength can be caused by nano-voids clusters in vicinity of triple junctions between ceramic matrix grains and ultrafine-grained ceramics. This research was supported by grants from ``The Tomsk State University Academic D.I. Mendeleev Fund Program'' and also N. I. Lobachevski State University of Nizhny Novgorod (Grant of post graduate mobility).

  19. Concept of modular flexure-based mechanisms for ultra-high precision robot design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Richard

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new concept of modular flexure-based mechanisms to design industrial ultra-high precision robots, which aims at significantly reducing both the complexity of their design and their development time. This modular concept can be considered as a robotic Lego, where a finite number of building bricks is used to quickly build a high-precision robot. The core of the concept is the transformation of a 3-D design problem into several 2-D ones, which are simpler and well-mastered. This paper will first briefly present the theoretical bases of this methodology and the requirements of both types of building bricks: the active and the passive bricks. The section dedicated to the design of the active bricks will detail the current research directions, mainly the maximisation of the strokes and the development of an actuation sub-brick. As for the passive bricks, some examples will be presented, and a discussion regarding the establishment of a mechanical solution catalogue will conclude the section. Last, this modular concept will be illustrated with a practical example, consisting in the design of a 5-degree of freedom ultra-high precision robot.

  20. Effects of anesthetic agents on brain blood oxygenation level revealed with ultra-high field MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciobanu, Luisa; Reynaud, Olivier; Le Bihan, Denis; Uhrig, Lynn; Jarraya, Bechir

    2012-01-01

    During general anesthesia it is crucial to control systemic hemodynamics and oxygenation levels. However, anesthetic agents can affect cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in a drug-dependent manner, while systemic hemodynamics is stable. Brain-wide monitoring of this effect remains highly challenging. Because T2'*-weighted imaging at ultra-high magnetic field strengths benefits from a dramatic increase in contrast to noise ratio, we hypothesized that it could monitor anesthesia effects on brain blood oxygenation. We scanned rat brains at 7 T and 17.2 T under general anesthesia using different anesthetics (isoflurane, ketamine-xylazine, medetomidine). We showed that the brain/vessels contrast in T2'*- weighted images at 17.2 T varied directly according to the applied pharmacological anesthetic agent, a phenomenon that was visible, but to a much smaller extent at 7 T. This variation is in agreement with the mechanism of action of these agents. These data demonstrate that preclinical ultra-high field MRI can monitor the effects of a given drug on brain blood oxygenation level in the absence of systemic blood oxygenation changes and of any neural stimulation. (authors)

  1. Report on the FY 1999 R and D survey on ultra-high sensitive photoelectric converter; 1999 nendo chokokando koden henkan soshi ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    By the ICB method which is one of the ion engineering methods, photomultipliers were formed using organic dye thin films. By changing the energy to bond traps on thin film/metal electrode interface and electric charges by change of acceleration energy of ion beams, a technology was developed for adjusting the optimum operating temperature between -20 degrees C and +100 degrees C. The wide range of operating temperature and favorable SN ratio can be realized. It was made clear that the dark current of the photomultiplier is composed of two components of contribution by the residual charge stored on the interface at photomultiplying and of contribution by charge injection from the Schottky barrier. Based on this, the residual electric charge removal method by heating and applied pulse voltage was developed. The development for practical use was studied of ultra-high sensitive photoelectric converters. As an intelligent photo sensor, a biomimetic visual photosensor was proposed which uses amplification/memory/arithmetic functions and film formation/processability of organic thin films. The paper also described the image sensor. (NEDO)

  2. High ion charge states in a high-current, short-pulse, vacuum ARC ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, A.; Brown, I.; MacGill, R.; Dickinson, M.

    1996-01-01

    Ions of the cathode material are formed at vacuum arc cathode spots and extracted by a grid system. The ion charge states (typically 1-4) depend on the cathode material and only little on the discharge current as long as the current is low. Here the authors report on experiments with short pulses (several μs) and high currents (several kA); this regime of operation is thus approaching a more vacuum spark-like regime. Mean ion charge states of up to 6.2 for tungsten and 3.7 for titanium have been measured, with the corresponding maximum charge states of up to 8+ and 6+, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of Saha calculations and freezing of the charge state distribution

  3. High ion charge states in a high-current, short-pulse, vacuum arc ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, A.; Brown, I.; MacGill, R.; Dickinson, M.

    1995-09-01

    Ions of the cathode material are formed at vacuum arc cathode spots and extracted by a grid system. The ion charge states (typically 1--4) depend on the cathode material and only little on the discharge current as long as the current is low. Here the authors report on experiments with short pulses (several micros) and high currents (several kA); this regime of operation is thus approaching a more vacuum spark-like regime. Mean ion charge states of up to 6.2 for tungsten and 3.7 for titanium have been measured, with the corresponding maximum charge states of up to 8+ and 6+, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of Saha calculations and freezing of the charge state distribution

  4. Quality of Experience for Large Ultra-High-Resolution Tiled Displays with Synchronization Mismatch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande Sachin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper relates to quality of experience when viewing images, video, or other content on large ultra-high-resolution displays made from individual display tiles. We define experiments to measure vernier acuity caused by synchronization mismatch for moving images. The experiments are used to obtain synchronization mismatch acuity threshold as a function of object velocity and as a function of occlusion or gap width. Our main motivation for measuring the synchronization mismatch vernier acuity is its relevance in the application of tiled display systems, which create a single contiguous image using individual discrete panels arranged in a matrix with each panel utilizing a distributed synchronization algorithm to display parts of the overall image. We also propose a subjective assessment method for perception evaluation of synchronization mismatch for large ultra-high-resolution tiled displays. For this, we design a synchronization mismatch measurement test video set for various tile configurations for various interpanel synchronization mismatch values. The proposed method for synchronization mismatch perception can evaluate tiled displays with or without tile bezels. The results from this work can help during design of low-cost tiled display systems, which utilize distributed synchronization mechanisms for a contiguous or bezeled image display.

  5. Physicochemical properties and storage stability of soybean protein nanoemulsions prepared by ultra-high pressure homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Mukherjee, Dipaloke; Chang, Sam K C

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of the ultrahigh pressure homogenization (pressure, protein concentration, oil phase fraction, pH, temperature, and ionic strength) and storage on the properties of nanoemulsions (100-500nm range), which were stabilized by laboratory-prepared soybean protein isolate (SPI), β-conglycinin (7S) and glycinin (11S). The nanoemulsions made with SPI, 7S and 11S proteins exhibited considerable stability over various ionic strengths (0-500mM NaCl), pH (7), thermal treatments (30-60°C) and storage (0-45days). The far-UV spectra of SPI, 7S, 11S dispersions, and SPI-, 7S-, 11S protein-stabilized nanoemulsions were analyzed for the protein structural changes following lipid removal. The ultra-high pressure homogenization changed the secondary structure of SPI, 7S, 11S proteins in the nanoemulsions, and enhanced their stability. This study demonstrated that SPI, 7S, and 11S proteins can be used as effective emulsifiers in nanoemulsions prepared by ultra-high pressure homogenization. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. The MIDAS telescope for microwave detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Muñiz, J. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Física de Partículas, Campus Sur, Universidad, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Amaral Soares, E. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Física, Cidade Universitaria, Caixa Postal 68528, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Berlin, A.; Bogdan, M. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Boháčová, M. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Bonifazi, C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Física, Cidade Universitaria, Caixa Postal 68528, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Carvalho, W.R. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Física de Partículas, Campus Sur, Universidad, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Mello Neto, J.R.T. de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Física, Cidade Universitaria, Caixa Postal 68528, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Facal San Luis, P., E-mail: facal@kicp.uchicago.edu [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Genat, J.F.; Hollon, N.; Mills, E.; Monasor, M.; Privitera, P. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); and others

    2013-08-11

    We present the design, implementation and data taking performance of the MIcrowave Detection of Air Showers (MIDAS) experiment, a large field of view imaging telescope designed to detect microwave radiation from extensive air showers induced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays. This novel technique may bring a tenfold increase in detector duty cycle when compared to the standard fluorescence technique based on detection of ultraviolet photons. The MIDAS telescope consists of a 4.5 m diameter dish with a 53-pixel receiver camera, instrumented with feed horns operating in the commercial extended C-Band (3.4–4.2 GHz). A self-trigger capability is implemented in the digital electronics. The main objectives of this first prototype of the MIDAS telescope – to validate the telescope design, and to demonstrate a large detector duty cycle – were successfully accomplished in a dedicated data taking run at the University of Chicago campus prior to installation at the Pierre Auger Observatory. -- Highlights: • The MIDAS objective is to detect ultra high energy cosmic rays using microwaves. • GHz radiation could provide a powerful alternative to current detection methods. • The MIDAS prototype explores the potential of the microwave technique.

  7. The MIDAS telescope for microwave detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Amaral Soares, E.; Berlin, A.; Bogdan, M.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Carvalho, W.R.; Mello Neto, J.R.T. de; Facal San Luis, P.; Genat, J.F.; Hollon, N.; Mills, E.; Monasor, M.; Privitera, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present the design, implementation and data taking performance of the MIcrowave Detection of Air Showers (MIDAS) experiment, a large field of view imaging telescope designed to detect microwave radiation from extensive air showers induced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays. This novel technique may bring a tenfold increase in detector duty cycle when compared to the standard fluorescence technique based on detection of ultraviolet photons. The MIDAS telescope consists of a 4.5 m diameter dish with a 53-pixel receiver camera, instrumented with feed horns operating in the commercial extended C-Band (3.4–4.2 GHz). A self-trigger capability is implemented in the digital electronics. The main objectives of this first prototype of the MIDAS telescope – to validate the telescope design, and to demonstrate a large detector duty cycle – were successfully accomplished in a dedicated data taking run at the University of Chicago campus prior to installation at the Pierre Auger Observatory. -- Highlights: • The MIDAS objective is to detect ultra high energy cosmic rays using microwaves. • GHz radiation could provide a powerful alternative to current detection methods. • The MIDAS prototype explores the potential of the microwave technique

  8. Radio reconstruction of the mass of ultra-high cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorosti, Qader [Institut fuer Kernphysik (IKP), KIT (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays can reveal the processes of the most violent sources in the Universe, which yet has to be determined. Interaction of cosmic rays with the Earth's atmosphere results in cascades of secondary particles, i.e. air showers. Many of such particles are electrons and positrons. The induced electrons and positrons interact with the geomagnetic field and induce radio emissions. Detection of air showers along with the detection of induced radio emissions can furnish a precise measurement of the direction, energy and mass of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The Auger Engineering Radio Array consists of 124 radio stations measuring radio emission from air showers, in order to reconstruct the energy, direction and mass of cosmic rays. In this contribution, we present a method which employs a reduced hyperbolic model to describe the shape of radio wave front. We have investigated that the parameters of the reduced hyperbolic model are sensitive to the mass of cosmic rays. The obtained results are presented in this talk.

  9. Ultra-high resolution flat-panel volume CT: fundamental principles, design architecture, and system characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Rajiv; Brady, Tom; Grasruck, Michael; Suess, Christoph; Schmidt, Bernhard; Stierstorfer, Karl; Popescu, Stefan; Flohr, Thomas; Bartling, Soenke H.

    2006-01-01

    Digital flat-panel-based volume CT (VCT) represents a unique design capable of ultra-high spatial resolution, direct volumetric imaging, and dynamic CT scanning. This innovation, when fully developed, has the promise of opening a unique window on human anatomy and physiology. For example, the volumetric coverage offered by this technology enables us to observe the perfusion of an entire organ, such as the brain, liver, or kidney, tomographically (e.g., after a transplant or ischemic event). By virtue of its higher resolution, one can directly visualize the trabecular structure of bone. This paper describes the basic design architecture of VCT. Three key technical challenges, viz., scatter correction, dynamic range extension, and temporal resolution improvement, must be addressed for successful implementation of a VCT scanner. How these issues are solved in a VCT prototype and the modifications necessary to enable ultra-high resolution volumetric scanning are described. The fundamental principles of scatter correction and dose reduction are illustrated with the help of an actual prototype. The image quality metrics of this prototype are characterized and compared with a multi-detector CT (MDCT). (orig.)

  10. Ultra-high resolution flat-panel volume CT: fundamental principles, design architecture, and system characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Rajiv; Brady, Tom [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Founders House, FND-2-216, Boston, MA (United States); Grasruck, Michael; Suess, Christoph; Schmidt, Bernhard; Stierstorfer, Karl; Popescu, Stefan; Flohr, Thomas [Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim (Germany); Bartling, Soenke H. [Hannover Medical School, Department of Neuroradiology, Hannover (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    Digital flat-panel-based volume CT (VCT) represents a unique design capable of ultra-high spatial resolution, direct volumetric imaging, and dynamic CT scanning. This innovation, when fully developed, has the promise of opening a unique window on human anatomy and physiology. For example, the volumetric coverage offered by this technology enables us to observe the perfusion of an entire organ, such as the brain, liver, or kidney, tomographically (e.g., after a transplant or ischemic event). By virtue of its higher resolution, one can directly visualize the trabecular structure of bone. This paper describes the basic design architecture of VCT. Three key technical challenges, viz., scatter correction, dynamic range extension, and temporal resolution improvement, must be addressed for successful implementation of a VCT scanner. How these issues are solved in a VCT prototype and the modifications necessary to enable ultra-high resolution volumetric scanning are described. The fundamental principles of scatter correction and dose reduction are illustrated with the help of an actual prototype. The image quality metrics of this prototype are characterized and compared with a multi-detector CT (MDCT). (orig.)

  11. Encoding methods for B1+ mapping in parallel transmit systems at ultra high field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Desmond H. Y.; Poole, Michael S.; Magill, Arthur W.; Felder, Jörg; Brenner, Daniel; Jon Shah, N.

    2014-08-01

    Parallel radiofrequency (RF) transmission, either in the form of RF shimming or pulse design, has been proposed as a solution to the B1+ inhomogeneity problem in ultra high field magnetic resonance imaging. As a prerequisite, accurate B1+ maps from each of the available transmit channels are required. In this work, four different encoding methods for B1+ mapping, namely 1-channel-on, all-channels-on-except-1, all-channels-on-1-inverted and Fourier phase encoding, were evaluated using dual refocusing acquisition mode (DREAM) at 9.4 T. Fourier phase encoding was demonstrated in both phantom and in vivo to be the least susceptible to artefacts caused by destructive RF interference at 9.4 T. Unlike the other two interferometric encoding schemes, Fourier phase encoding showed negligible dependency on the initial RF phase setting and therefore no prior B1+ knowledge is required. Fourier phase encoding also provides a flexible way to increase the number of measurements to increase SNR, and to allow further reduction of artefacts by weighted decoding. These advantages of Fourier phase encoding suggest that it is a good choice for B1+ mapping in parallel transmit systems at ultra high field.

  12. Ultra-high-speed oscillographic techniques; Techniques d'oscillographie ultra-rapide; Metody sverkhskorostnoj ostsillografii; Metodos oscilograficos ultrarrapidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, S; Elphick, B; Foster, H [Atomic Weapons Research Establishment, Aldermaston (United Kingdom)

    1962-04-15

    After a brief history of high-speed transient oscillograph technique, the practical limitations are discussed. A survey of suitable cathode-ray tubes is presented with particular reference to travelling-wave deflection types. The following components of a complete transient signal oscillograph are dealt with: (a) A travelling-wave (TW) deflector cathode-ray tube with balanced co-axial connection, and a bandwidth of 2 GHz; (b) A phase-splitting transformer of 100 and 50-{Omega} characteristic impedance and a bandwidth of 1.5 kHz to 1.5 GHz; (c) Co-axial terminating resistors with GHz performance; (d) Coupling capacitors, compensated for inclusion in co-axial lines for the frequency range 5 kHz - 3 GHz, with characteristic impedances of 100 {Omega}; (e) Wide band resistive pads for the extraction of timebase triggering signals; ( / ) Nanosecond timebases with triggering and blanking facilities; (g) A wide-aperture camera is described. In conclusion, nuclear-electronics applications, are discussed. (author) [French] Apres avoir brievement relate l'evolution de la technique d'emploi des oscillographes transistoires ultra-rapides, le memoire examine les limites de l'application pratique de cette technique. Il passe ensuite en revue les tubes a rayons cathodiques qui se pretent a cet usage en s'attachant plus particulierement aux tubes de deflexion d'ondes progressives. Les auteurs decrivent les elements constitutifs ci-apres des oscillographes a signal transistoire: a) Un tube cathodique de deflexion d'ondes progressives et a connexion equilibree coaxiale; largeur de bande: 2 GHz; b) Un transformateur coupeur de phase d'une impedance caracteristique de 100 et 50 {Omega}; largeur de bande: de 1,5 kHz a 1,5 GHz; c) Des termineurs coaxiaux capables de transmettre des frequences se comptant par GHz; d) Des condensateurs de couplage compenses pour inclusion dans des lignes coaxiales, couvrant la bande de frequences de 5 kHz a 3 GHz et ayant une impedance caracteristique de

  13. Effect of an 8K ultra-high-definition television system in a case of laparoscopic gynecologic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Yoichi; Matsuura, Masahiko; Chiba, Toshio; Yamashita, Hiromasa

    2017-09-01

    Various endoscopic devices have been developed for advanced minimally invasive surgery. We recently applied a new 8K ultra-high-definition television system during laparoscopic treatment of endometriosis. The procedure, which is described in detail, stands as the first reported application of an 8K ultra-high-definition system for laparoscopic gynecologic surgery. Comparison is made between depiction of the lesion by the new system and depiction by a full high-definition system. Improved diagnostic accuracy resulted from the increased image resolution, and we believe that this and other advantages will lead to widespread acceptance and further application of 8K ultra-high-definition systems in the field of gynecologic surgery.

  14. Effects of the ultra-high pressure on structure and α-glucosidase inhibition of polysaccharide from Astragalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Luo, You; Dong, Guo-Ling; Ren, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Li-Jing; Guo, Ming-Zhu; Wang, Xiao-Ting; Yang, Xue-Ying; Zhang, Yongmin

    2016-06-01

    A novel homogeneous polysaccharide fraction (APS) was extracted from Astragalus by hot water and purified by Sephadex G-100 and G-75 column. Its molecular weight was 693kDa. APS and APS with ultra-high pressure treatment exhibited significant inhibitory abilities on a-glucosidase, inhibition rate from high to low in order was 400MPa-APS, 300MPa-APS, 500MPa-APS and APS. The inhibition ​percentage of 400MPa-APS (1.5mg/mL) was 49% (max.). This suggested that the inhibitory activity of APS on a-glucosidase was improved by ultra-high pressure treatment. FT-IR, SEM, CD spectra, atomic force microscope and Congo red test analysis of APS and 400MPa-APS showed ultra-high pressure treatment didn't change the preliminary structure but had an effect on its advanced structure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Optical Method for Detecting Displacements and Strains at Ultra-High Temperatures During Thermo-Mechanical Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Russell W. (Inventor); Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor); Sikora, Joseph G. (Inventor); Roth, Mark C. (Inventor); Johnston, William M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An ultra-high temperature optical method incorporates speckle optics for sensing displacement and strain measurements well above conventional measurement techniques. High temperature pattern materials are used which can endure experimental high temperature environments while simultaneously having a minimum optical aberration. A purge medium is used to reduce or eliminate optical distortions and to reduce, and/or eliminate oxidation of the target specimen.

  16. High-resolution x-ray scattering studies of charge ordering in highly correlated electron systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazi, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    Many important properties of transition metal oxides such as, copper oxide high-temperature superconductivity and colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) in manganites are due to strong electron-electron interactions, and hence these systems are called highly correlated systems. These materials are characterised by the coexistence of different kinds of order, including charge, orbital, and magnetic moment. This thesis contains high-resolution X-ray scattering studies of charge ordering in such systems namely the high-T C copper oxides isostructural system, La 2-x Sr x NiO 4 with various Sr concentrations (x = 0.33 - 0.2), and the CMR manganite system, Nd 1/2 Sr 1/2 MnO 3 . It also includes a review of charge ordering in a large variety of transition metal oxides, such as ferrates, vanadates, cobaltates, nickelates, manganites, and cuprates systems, which have been reported to date in the scientific literature. Using high-resolution synchrotron X-ray scattering, it has been demonstrated that the charge stripes exist in a series of single crystals of La 2-x Sr x NiO 4 with Sr concentrations (x = 0.33 - 0.2) at low temperatures. Satellite reflections due to the charge ordering were found with the wavevector (2ε, 0, 1) below the charge ordering transition temperature, T CO , where 2ε is the amount of separation from the corresponding Bragg peak. The charge stripes are shown to be two-dimensional in nature both by measurements of their correlation lengths and by measurement of the critical exponents of the charge stripe melting transition with an anomaly at x = 0.25. The results show by decreasing the hole concentration from the x = 0.33 to 0.2, the well-correlated charge stripes change to a glassy state at x = 0.25. The electronic transition into the charge stripe phase is second-order without any corresponding structural transition. Above the second-order transition critical scattering was observed due to fluctuations into the charge stripe phase. In a single-crystal of Nd

  17. Charge state distributions from highly charged ions channeled at a metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folkerts, L.; Meyer, F.W.; Schippers, S.

    1994-01-01

    The vast majority of the experimental work in the field of multicharged ion-surface interactions, to date, has focused on x-ray and particularly on electron emission. These experiments include measurements of the total electron yield, the emission statistics of the electrons, and, most of all, the electron energy distributions. So far, little attention has been paid to the fate of the multicharged projectile ions after the scattering. To our knowledge, the only measurement of the charge state distribution of the scattered ions is the pioneering experiment of de Zwart et al., who measured the total yield of scattered 1+, 2+, and 3+ ions as a function of the primary charge state q (q = 1--11) for 20 key Ne, Ar, and Kr ions after reflection from a polycrystalline tungsten target. Their main finding is the sudden onset of scattered 3+ ions when inner-shell vacancies are present in the primary particles. This suggests that a certain fraction of the inner-shell vacancies survives the entire collision event, and decays via autoionization on the outgoing path. Since the projectiles scattered in the neutral charge state could not be detected in the experiment of de Zwart et al., they were not able to provide absolute charge state fractions. In our present experiment, we focus on the scattered projectiles, measuring both the final charge state and the total scattering angle with a single 2D position sensitive detector (PSD). This method gives us the number of positive, as well as neutral and negative, scattered ions, thus allowing us to extract absolute charge state fractions. Using a well-prepared single Au(110) crystal and a grazing incidence geometry, we were able to observe surface channeling along the [001] channels

  18. Biomechanical testing of new meniscal repair techniques containing ultra high-molecular weight polyethylene suture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, F Alan; Herbert, Morley A; Schroeder, F Alexander; Aziz-Jacobo, Jorge; Sutker, Michael J

    2009-09-01

    To evaluate the biomechanical characteristics of current meniscal repair techniques containing ultra high-molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) suture with and without cyclic loading. Vertical longitudinal cuts made in porcine menisci were secured with a single repair device. Noncycled and cycled (500 cycles) biomechanical tests were performed on the following groups: group 1, No. 2-0 Mersilene vertical suture (Ethicon, Somerville, NJ); group 2, No. 2-0 Orthocord vertical suture (DePuy Mitek, Westwood, MA); group 3, No. 0 Ultrabraid vertical suture (Smith & Nephew Endoscopy, Andover, MA); group 4, No. 2-0 FiberWire vertical suture (Arthrex, Naples, FL); group 5, vertically oriented mattress suture by use of an Ultra FasT-Fix device (Smith & Nephew Endoscopy) with No. 0 Ultrabraid; group 6, vertically oriented mattress suture by use of a RapidLoc A2 device (DePuy Mitek) with No. 2-0 Orthocord suture; group 7, vertically oriented stitch by use of a MaxFire device with MaxBraid PE suture (Biomet Sports Medicine, Warsaw, IN); and group 8, an obliquely oriented stitch of No. 0 UHMWPE suture inserted by use of a CrossFix device (Cayenne Medical, Scottsdale, AZ). Endpoints were failure loads, failure modes, stiffness, and cyclic displacement. Mean single-pull loads were calculated for Ultra FasT-Fix (121 N), FiberWire (110 N), MaxFire (130 N), Mersilene (84 N), Orthocord (124 N), RapidLoc A2 (86 N), CrossFix (77 N), and Ultrabraid (109 N). After 500 cyclic loads, the Orthocord (222 N) repair was stronger than the others: Ultra FasT-Fix (110 N), FiberWire (117 N), MaxFire (132 N), Mersilene (89 N), RapidLoc A2 (108 N), CrossFix (95 N), and Ultrabraid (126 N) (P Fix, RapidLoc A2, and MaxFire) were comparable to the isolated UHMWPE-containing suture repairs on single-failure load testing. UHMWPE-containing suture repairs are stronger than braided polyester suture repairs, but pure UHMWPE suture (Ultrabraid) elongated more during cycling. Orthocord suture is significantly

  19. Dynamics of laser mass-limited foil interaction at ultra-high laser intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, T. P., E-mail: tongpu@nudt.edu.cn [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); State Key Laboratory of High Performance Computing, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Sheng, Z. M. [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (MoE) and Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); SUPA, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Yin, Y.; Zhuo, H. B.; Ma, Y. Y.; Shao, F. Q. [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Pukhov, A. [Institut für Theoretische Physik I, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, 40225 Düsseldorf (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    By using three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations with synchrotron radiation damping incorporated, dynamics of ultra-intense laser driven mass-limited foils is presented. When a circularly polarized laser pulse with a peak intensity of ∼10{sup 22} W/cm{sup 2} irradiates a mass-limited nanofoil, electrons are pushed forward collectively and a strong charge separation field forms which acts as a “light sail” and accelerates the protons. When the laser wing parts overtake the foil from the foil boundaries, electrons do a betatron-like oscillation around the center proton bunch. Under some conditions, betatron-like resonance takes place, resulting in energetic circulating electrons. Finally, bright femto-second x rays are emitted in a small cone. It is also shown that the radiation damping does not alter the foil dynamics radically at considered laser intensities. The effects of the transverse foil size and laser polarization on x-ray emission and foil dynamics are also discussed.

  20. Ultra-High Gradient S-band Linac for Laboratory and Industrial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faillace, L.; Agustsson, R.; Dolgashev, V.; Frigola, P.; Murokh, A.; Rosenzweig, J.; Yakimenko, V.

    2010-11-01

    A strong demand for high gradient structures arises from the limited real estate available for linear accelerators. RadiaBeam Technologies is developing a Doubled Energy Compact Accelerator (DECA) structure: an S-band standing wave electron linac designed to operate at accelerating gradients of up to 50 MV/m. In this paper, we present the radio-frequency design of the DECA S-band accelerating structure, operating at 2.856 GHz in the π-mode. The structure design is heavily influenced by NLC collaboration experience with ultra high gradient X-band structures; S-band, however, is chosen to take advantage of commonly available high power S-band klystrons.

  1. Ultra-high vacuum compatible optical chopper system for synchrotron x-ray scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hao, E-mail: hc000211@ohio.edu [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Nanoscale and Quantum Phenomena Institute, Physics & Astronomy Department, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701 (United States); Cummings, Marvin; Shirato, Nozomi; Stripe, Benjamin; Preissner, Curt; Freeland, John W. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Rosenmann, Daniel [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Kersell, Heath; Hla, Saw-Wai [Nanoscale and Quantum Phenomena Institute, Physics & Astronomy Department, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701 (United States); Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Rose, Volker, E-mail: vrose@anl.gov [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2016-01-28

    High-speed beam choppers are a crucial part of time-resolved x-ray studies as well as a necessary component to enable elemental contrast in synchrotron x-ray scanning tunneling microscopy (SX-STM). However, many chopper systems are not capable of operation in vacuum, which restricts their application to x-ray studies with high photon energies, where air absorption does not present a significant problem. To overcome this limitation, we present a fully ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible chopper system capable of operating at variable chopping frequencies up to 4 kHz. The lightweight aluminum chopper disk is coated with Ti and Au films to provide the required beam attenuation for soft and hard x-rays with photon energies up to about 12 keV. The chopper is used for lock-in detection of x-ray enhanced signals in SX-STM.

  2. APPLICATION OF ULTRA-HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE TO PEDESTRIAN CABLE-STAYED BRIDGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHI-DONG LEE

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC, which enables reducing the cross sectional dimension of the structures due to its high strength, is expected in the construction of the super-long span bridges. Unlike conventional concrete, UHPC experiences less variation of material properties such as creep and drying shrinkage and can reduce uncertainties in predicting time-dependent behavior over the long term. This study describes UHPC’s material characteristics and benefits when applied to super-long span bridges. A UHPC girder pedestrian cable-stayed bridge was designed and successfully constructed. The UHPC reduced the deflections in both the short and long term. The cost analysis demonstrates a highly competitive price for UHPC. This study indicates that UHPC has a strong potential for application in the super-long span bridges.

  3. Structural modifications of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) processed in attritor type mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, Melina C.; Carvalho, Benjamim de M.; Pinheiro, Luis A.; Cintho, Osvaldo M.; Capocchi, Jose D.T.; Kubaski, Evaldo T.

    2009-01-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a polyethylene that has a high melt viscosity, hence its processing becomes very difficult. High-energy mechanical milling provides physical and chemical changes in polymers that have been studied recently. In order to study these changes in UHMWPE, powder of this polymer was mechanical milled in attritor type mill with a ball-to-powder weight ratio of 40:1 for 8 hours, varying the rotation speed: 200, 300, 400, 500 e 600 rpm. The polymer was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and xray diffraction (XRD). From the XRD results it was noted that as the rotation speed increased the monoclinic phase also increased up to 500 rpm. For 600 rpm, the amount of monoclinic phase apparently decreased. At this rotation speed, the deformation rate probably increased the process temperature, allowing the monoclinic phase to return to its initial structural orthorhombic form. (author)

  4. Ultra-High Density Electron Beams for Beam Radiation and Beam Plasma Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Scott; Frigola, Pedro; Gibson, David J; Hartemann, Fred V; Jacob, Jeremy S; Lim, Jae; Musumeci, Pietro; Rosenzweig, James E; Travish, Gil; Tremaine, Aaron M

    2005-01-01

    Current and future applications of high brightness electron beams, which include advanced accelerators such as the plasma wake-field accelerator (PWFA) and beam-radiation interactions such as inverse-Compton scattering (ICS), require both transverse and longitudinal beam sizes on the order of tens of microns. Ultra-high density beams may be produced at moderate energy (50 MeV) by compression and subsequent strong focusing of low emittance, photoinjector sources. We describe the implementation of this method used at LLNL's PLEIADES ICS x-ray source in which the photoinjector-generated beam has been compressed to 300 fsec duration using the velocity bunching technique and focused to 20 μm rms size using an extremely high gradient, permanent magnet quadrupole (PMQ) focusing system.

  5. Ultra high risk of psychosis on committal to a young offender prison: an unrecognised opportunity for early intervention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flynn, Darran

    2012-08-01

    The ultra high risk state for psychosis has not been studied in young offender populations. Prison populations have higher rates of psychiatric morbidity and substance use disorders. Due to the age profile of young offenders one would expect to find a high prevalence of individuals with pre-psychotic or ultra-high risk mental states for psychosis (UHR). Accordingly young offender institutions offer an opportunity for early interventions which could result in improved long term mental health, social and legal outcomes. In the course of establishing a mental health in-reach service into Ireland\\'s only young offender prison, we sought to estimate unmet mental health needs.

  6. Efficient Ultra-High Speed Communication with Simultaneous Phase and Amplitude Regenerative Sampling (SPARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowitz, Christian; Girg, Thomas; Ghaleb, Hatem; Du, Xuan-Quang

    2017-09-01

    For ultra-high speed communication systems at high center frequencies above 100 GHz, we propose a disruptive change in system architecture to address major issues regarding amplifier chains with a large number of amplifier stages. They cause a high noise figure and high power consumption when operating close to the frequency limits of the underlying semiconductor technologies. Instead of scaling a classic homodyne transceiver system, we employ repeated amplification in single-stage amplifiers through positive feedback as well as synthesizer-free self-mixing demodulation at the receiver to simplify the system architecture notably. Since the amplitude and phase information for the emerging oscillation is defined by the input signal and the oscillator is only turned on for a very short time, it can be left unstabilized and thus come without a PLL. As soon as gain is no longer the most prominent issue, relaxed requirements for all the other major components allow reconsidering their implementation concepts to achieve further improvements compared to classic systems. This paper provides the first comprehensive overview of all major design aspects that need to be addressed upon realizing a SPARS-based transceiver. At system level, we show how to achieve high data rates and a noise performance comparable to classic systems, backed by scaled demonstrator experiments. Regarding the transmitter, design considerations for efficient quadrature modulation are discussed. For the frontend components that replace PA and LNA amplifier chains, implementation techniques for regenerative sampling circuits based on super-regenerative oscillators are presented. Finally, an analog-to-digital converter with outstanding performance and complete interfaces both to the analog baseband as well as to the digital side completes the set of building blocks for efficient ultra-high speed communication.

  7. STM and transport measurements of highly charged ion modified materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomeroy, J.M.; Grube, H.; Perrella, A.C.; Gillaspy, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Careful measurements of highly charged ions (HCIs) colliding with gases and surfaces have provided glimpses of intense electronic interactions, but a comprehensive model for the interaction mechanisms, time scales, and resultant nano-features that bridges materials systems is yet to be realized. At the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility, new apparatus is now connected to the HCI beamline to allow preparation of clean, atomically flat surfaces of single crystals, e.g. gold, tungsten and silicon, and deposition and patterning of thin films, e.g. high resistivity oxides, ferromagnetic metals, normal metals and superconductors. Experiments reported here focus on the electronic and morphological structure of HCI induced nano-features. Current activities are focused on using in situ scanning tunneling microscope (STM) on Au(1 1 1) and (separately) ex situ transport measurements to study electronic properties within HCI modified magnetic multilayer systems. Specifically, we are fabricating magnetic multilayers similar to magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) (important in advanced magnetic field sensors and superconducting Josephson junction devices) and using HCIs to adjust critical electronic properties. The electrical response of the tunnel junction to HCIs provides a novel approach to performing HCI-induced nanostructure ensemble measurements

  8. Cold highly charged ions in a cryogenic Paul trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Versolato, O. O., E-mail: oscar.versolato@mpi-hd.mpg.de; Schwarz, M.; Windberger, A.; Ullrich, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik (Germany); Schmidt, P. O. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany); Drewsen, M. [University of Aarhus, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J. R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    Narrow optical transitions in highly charged ions (HCIs) are of particular interest for metrology and fundamental physics, exploiting the high sensitivity of HCIs to new physics. The highest sensitivity for a changing fine structure constant ever predicted for a stable atomic system is found in Ir{sup 17 + }. However, laser spectroscopy of HCIs is hindered by the large ({approx} 10{sup 6} K) temperatures at which they are produced and trapped. An unprecedented improvement in such laser spectroscopy can be obtained when HCIs are cooled down to the mK range in a linear Paul trap. We have developed a cryogenic linear Paul trap in which HCIs will be sympathetically cooled by {sup 9}Be{sup + } ions. Optimized optical access for laser light is provided while maintaining excellent UHV conditions. The Paul trap will be connected to an electron beam ion trap (EBIT) which is able to produce a wide range of HCIs. This EBIT will also provide the first experimental input needed for the determination of the transition energies in Ir{sup 17 + }, enabling further laser-spectroscopic investigations of this promising HCI.

  9. Advanced MR methods at ultra-high field (7 Tesla) for clinical musculoskeletal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trattnig, Siegfried [Medical University of Vienna/Vienna General Hospital, MR Centre - High Field MR, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Experimental and Clinical Traumatology, Austrian Cluster for Tissue Regeneration, Vienna (Austria); Zbyn, Stefan; Schmitt, Benjamin; Friedrich, Klaus; Bogner, Wolfgang [Medical University of Vienna/Vienna General Hospital, MR Centre - High Field MR, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Juras, Vladimir; Szomolanyi, Pavol [Medical University of Vienna/Vienna General Hospital, MR Centre - High Field MR, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Slovak Academy of Sciences, Department of Imaging Methods, Institute of Measurement Science, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-11-15

    This article provides an overview of the initial clinical results of musculoskeletal studies performed at 7 Tesla, with special focus on sodium imaging, new techniques such as chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) and T2* imaging, and multinuclear MR spectroscopy. Sodium imaging was clinically used at 7 T in the evaluation of patients after cartilage repair procedures because it enables the GAG content to be monitored over time. Sodium imaging and T2* mapping allow insights into the ultra-structural composition of the Achilles tendon and help detect early disease. Chemical exchange saturation transfer was, for the first time, successfully applied in the clinical set-up at 7 T in patients after cartilage repair surgery. The potential of phosphorus MR spectroscopy in muscle was demonstrated in a comparison study between 3 and 7 T, with higher spectral resolution and significantly shorter data acquisition times at 7 T. These initial clinical studies demonstrate the potential of ultra-high field MR at 7 T, with the advantage of significantly improved sensitivity for other nuclei, such as {sup 23}Na (sodium) and {sup 31}P (phosphorus). The application of non-proton imaging and spectroscopy provides new insights into normal and abnormal physiology of musculoskeletal tissues, particularly cartilage, tendons, and muscles. (orig.)

  10. Ferrite channel effect on ductility and strain hardenability of ultra high strength dual phase steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravi, Kumar B., E-mail: ravik@nmlindia.org [CSIR-National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur 831007 (India); Patel, Nand Kumar [O.P Jindal University, Raigarh 496001 (India); Mukherjee, Krishnendu; Walunj, Mahesh; Mandal, Gopi Kishor [CSIR-National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur 831007 (India); Venugopalan, T. [Tata Steel Limited, Jamshedpur 831001 (India)

    2017-02-08

    This study describes an effect of controlled austenite decomposition on microstructure evolution in dual phase steel. Steel sheets austenitized at various annealing temperatures were rapidly cooled to the inter-critical annealing temperature of 800 °C for the isothermal decomposition of austenite and then ultra fast cooled to room temperature. The scanning electron microscope analysis of evolving microstructure revealed ferrite nucleation and growth along prior austenite grain boundaries leading to ferrite network/channel formation around martensite. The extent of ferrite channel formation showed a strong dependence on the degree of undercooling in the inter-critical annealing temperature regime. Uniaxial tensile deformation of processed steel sheets showed extensive local inter-lath martensite damage activity. Extension/propagation of these local micro cracks to neighboring martensite grains was found to be arrested by ferrite channels. This assisted in delaying the onset of global damage which could lead to necking and fracture. The results demonstrated an alternate possible way of inducing ductility and strain hardenability in ultra high strength dual phase steels.

  11. Excitation and ionization of highly charged ions by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampson, D.H.

    1989-01-01

    Two approaches for very rapid calculation of atomic data for high temperature plasma modeling have been developed. The first uses hydrogenic basis states and has been developed and applied in many papers discussed in previous progress reports. Hence, it is only briefly discussed here. The second is a very rapid, yet accurate, fully relativistic approach that has been developed over the past two or three years. It is described in more detail. Recently it has been applied to large scale production of atomic data. Specifically, it has been used to calculate relativistic distorted wave collision strengths and oscillator strengths for the following: all transitions from the ground level to the n=3 and 4 excited levels in the 71 Neon-like ions with nuclear charge number Z in the range 22 ≤ Z ≤ 92; all transitions among the 2s 1/2 , 2p 1/2 and 2p 3/2 levels and from them to all nlj levels with n=3,4 and 5 in the 85 Li-like ions with 8 ≤ Z ≤ 92; all transitions among the 3s 1/2 , 3p 3/2 , 3d 3/2 and 3d 5/2 levels and from them to all nlj levels with n=4 and 5 in the 71 Na-like ions with 22 ≤ Z ≤ 92; and all transitions among 4s 1/2 , 4p 1/2 , 4p 3/2 , 4d 3/2 , 4d 5/2 , 4f 5/2 and 4f 7/2 levels and from them to all nlj levels with n=5 in the 33 Cu-like ions with 60 ≤ Z ≤ 92. Also the program has been extended to give cross-sections for excitation to specific magnetic sublevels of the target ion by an electron beam and very recently it has been extended to give relativistic distorted wave cross sections for ionization of highly charged ions by electron impact

  12. Social Cognition in Individuals at Ultra-High Risk for Psychosis: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R J M van Donkersgoed

    Full Text Available Treatment in the ultra-high risk stage for a psychotic episode is critical to the course of symptoms. Markers for the development of psychosis have been studied, to optimize the detection of people at risk of psychosis. One possible marker for the transition to psychosis is social cognition. To estimate effect sizes for social cognition based on a quantitative integration of the published evidence, we conducted a meta-analysis of social cognitive performance in people at ultra high risk (UHR.A literature search (1970-July 2015 was performed in PubMed, PsychINFO, Medline, Embase, and ISI Web of Science, using the search terms 'social cognition', 'theory of mind', 'emotion recognition', 'attributional style', 'social knowledge', 'social perception', 'empathy', 'at risk mental state', 'clinical high risk', 'psychosis prodrome', and 'ultra high risk'. The pooled effect size (Cohen's D and the effect sizes for each domain of social cognition were calculated. A random effects model with 95% confidence intervals was used.Seventeen studies were included in the analysis. The overall significant effect was of medium magnitude (d = 0.52, 95% Cl = 0.38-0.65. No moderator effects were found for age, gender and sample size. Sub-analyses demonstrated that individuals in the UHR phase show significant moderate deficits in affect recognition and affect discrimination in faces as well as in voices and in verbal Theory of Mind (TOM. Due to an insufficient amount of studies, we did not calculate an effect size for attributional bias and social perception/ knowledge. A majority of studies did not find a correlation between social cognition deficits and transition to psychosis, which may suggest that social cognition in general is not a useful marker for the development of psychosis. However some studies suggest the possible predictive value of verbal TOM and the recognition of specific emotions in faces for the transition into psychosis. More research is needed on

  13. Social Cognition in Individuals at Ultra-High Risk for Psychosis: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Donkersgoed, R. J. M.; Wunderink, L.; Nieboer, R.; Aleman, A.; Pijnenborg, G. H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Treatment in the ultra-high risk stage for a psychotic episode is critical to the course of symptoms. Markers for the development of psychosis have been studied, to optimize the detection of people at risk of psychosis. One possible marker for the transition to psychosis is social cognition. To estimate effect sizes for social cognition based on a quantitative integration of the published evidence, we conducted a meta-analysis of social cognitive performance in people at ultra high risk (UHR). Methods A literature search (1970-July 2015) was performed in PubMed, PsychINFO, Medline, Embase, and ISI Web of Science, using the search terms ‘social cognition’, ‘theory of mind’, ‘emotion recognition’, ‘attributional style’, ‘social knowledge’, ‘social perception’, ‘empathy’, ‘at risk mental state’, ‘clinical high risk’, ‘psychosis prodrome’, and ‘ultra high risk’. The pooled effect size (Cohen’s D) and the effect sizes for each domain of social cognition were calculated. A random effects model with 95% confidence intervals was used. Results Seventeen studies were included in the analysis. The overall significant effect was of medium magnitude (d = 0.52, 95% Cl = 0.38–0.65). No moderator effects were found for age, gender and sample size. Sub-analyses demonstrated that individuals in the UHR phase show significant moderate deficits in affect recognition and affect discrimination in faces as well as in voices and in verbal Theory of Mind (TOM). Due to an insufficient amount of studies, we did not calculate an effect size for attributional bias and social perception/ knowledge. A majority of studies did not find a correlation between social cognition deficits and transition to psychosis, which may suggest that social cognition in general is not a useful marker for the development of psychosis. However some studies suggest the possible predictive value of verbal TOM and the recognition of specific emotions in faces

  14. Ultra-High-Contrast Laser Acceleration of Relativistic Electrons in Solid Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higginson, Drew Pitney [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The cone-guided fast ignition approach to Inertial Con nement Fusion requires laser-accelerated relativistic electrons to deposit kilojoules of energy within an imploded fuel core to initiate fusion burn. One obstacle to coupling electron energy into the core is the ablation of material, known as preplasma, by laser energy proceeding nanoseconds prior to the main pulse. This causes the laser-absorption surface to be pushed back hundreds of microns from the initial target surface; thus increasing the distance that electrons must travel to reach the imploded core. Previous experiments have shown an order of magnitude decrease in coupling into surrogate targets when intentionally increasing the amount of preplasma. Additionally, for electrons to deposit energy within the core, they should have kinetic energies on the order of a few MeV, as less energetic electrons will be stopped prior to the core and more energetic electrons will pass through the core without depositing much energy. Thus a quantitative understanding of the electron energy spectrum and how it responds to varied laser parameters is paramount for fast ignition. For the rst time, this dissertation quantitatively investigates the acceleration of electrons using an ultra-high-contrast laser. Ultra-high-contrast lasers reduce the laser energy that reaches the target prior to the main pulse; drastically reducing the amount of preplasma. Experiments were performed in a cone-wire geometry relevant to fast ignition. These experiments irradiated the inner-tip of a Au cone with the laser and observed electrons that passed through a Cu wire attached to the outer-tip of the cone. The total emission of K x-rays is used as a diagnostic to infer the electron energy coupled into the wire. Imaging the x-ray emission allowed an e ective path-length of electrons within the wire to be determined, which constrained the electron energy spectrum. Experiments were carried out on the ultra-high-contrast Trident laser at Los

  15. submitter Projects for ultra-high-energy circular colliders at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Bogomyagkov, A V; Levichev, E B; Piminov, P A; Sinyatkin, S V; Shatilov, D N; Benedict, M; Oide, K; Zimmermann, F

    2016-01-01

    Within the Future Circular Collider (FCC) design study launched at CERN in 2014, it is envisaged to construct hadron (FCC-hh) and lepton (FCC-ee) ultra-high-energy machines aimed to replace the LHC upon the conclusion of its research program. The Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics is actively involved in the development of the FCC-ee electron–positron collider. The Crab Waist (CR) scheme of the collision region that has been proposed by INP and will be implemented at FCC-ee is expected to provide high luminosity over a broad energy range. The status and development of the FCC project are described, and its parameters and limitations are discussed for the lepton collider in particular.

  16. Determining the Environmental Benefits of Ultra High Performance Concrete as a Bridge Construction Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande Larsen, Ingrid; Granseth Aasbakken, Ida; O'Born, Reyn; Vertes, Katalin; Terje Thorstensen, Rein

    2017-10-01

    Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC) is a material that is attracting attention in the construction industry due to the high mechanical strength and durability, leading to structures having low maintenance requirements. The production of UHPC, however, has generally higher environmental impact than normal strength concrete due to the increased demand of cement required in the concrete mix. What is still not sufficiently investigated, is if the longer lifetime, slimmer construction and lower maintenance requirements lead to a net environmental benefit compared to standard concrete bridge design. This study utilizes life cycle assessment (LCA) to determine the lifetime impacts of two comparable highway crossing footbridges spanning 40 meters, designed respectively with UHPC and normal strength concrete. The results of the study show that UHPC is an effective material for reducing lifetime emissions from construction and maintenance of long lasting infrastructure, as the UHPC design outperforms the normal strength concrete bridge in most impact categories.

  17. Porous carbon with small mesoporesas an ultra-high capacity adsorption medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Biaofeng; Zhou, Haitao; Chen, De; Yang, Jianhong

    2017-10-01

    Resins (732-type), abundant and inexpensive resources were used to prepare porous carbon with small mesopores (CSM) by carbonization and post-chemical-activation with potassium hydroxide (KOH). The N2 adsorption measurements revealed that CSM had high surface areas (1776.5 m2 g-1), large pore volumes (1.10 cm3 g-1), and nearly optimal narrow small mesopore sizes ranging from 2 to 7 nm. CSM was used as adsorbent to investigate the adsorption behavior for Rhodamine B (RhB). Due to the optimal pore size distributions (PSD), intensive-stacking interaction, S-doped, and electrostatic attraction, the CSM exhibited an ultra-high-capacity of 1590 mg g-1 for RhB in aqueous solutions.

  18. Ultra High Electrical Performance of Nano Nickel Oxide and Polyaniline Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Cai

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The cooperative effects between the PANI (polyaniline/nano-NiO (nano nickel oxide composite electrode material and redox electrolytes (potassium iodide, KI for supercapacitor applications was firstly discussed in this article, providing a novel method to prepare nano-NiO by using β-cyelodextrin (β-CD as the template agent. The experimental results revealed that the composite electrode processed a high specific capacitance (2122.75 F·g−1 at 0.1 A·g−1 in 0.05 M KI electrolyte solution, superior energy density (64.05 Wh·kg−1 at 0.2 A·g−1 in the two-electrode system and excellent cycle performance (86% capacitance retention after 1000 cycles at 1.5 A·g−1. All those ultra-high electrical performances owe to the KI active material in the electrolyte and the PANI coated nano-NiO structure.

  19. Calibration of ultra-high frequency (UHF) partial discharge sensors using FDTD method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Asnor Mazuan; Ishak, Mohd Taufiq

    2018-02-01

    Ultra-high frequency (UHF) partial discharge sensors are widely used for conditioning monitoring and defect location in insulation system of high voltage equipment. Designing sensors for specific applications often requires an iterative process of manufacturing, testing and mechanical modifications. This paper demonstrates the use of finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique as a tool to predict the frequency response of UHF PD sensors. Using this approach, the design process can be simplified and parametric studies can be conducted in order to assess the influence of component dimensions and material properties on the sensor response. The modelling approach is validated using gigahertz transverse electromagnetic (GTEM) calibration system. The use of a transient excitation source is particularly suitable for modeling using FDTD, which is able to simulate the step response output voltage of the sensor from which the frequency response is obtained using the same post-processing applied to the physical measurement.

  20. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays from white dwarf pulsars and the Hillas criterion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobato, Ronaldo V.; Coelho, Jaziel G.; Malheiro, M.

    2017-01-01

    The origins of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays ( E ≳ 10 19 eV) are a mystery and still under debate in astroparticle physics. In recent years some efforts were made to understand their nature. In this contribution we consider the possibility of Some Soft Gamma Repeaters (SGRs) and Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXPs) beeing white dwarf pulsars, and show that these sources can achieve large electromagnetic potentials on their surface that accelerate particle almost at the speed of light, with energies E ∼ 10 20-21 eV. The sources SGRs/AXPs considered as highly magnetized white dwarfs are well described in the Hillas diagram, lying close to the AR Sorpii and AE Aquarii which are understood as white dwarf pulsars. (paper)

  1. Ultra-high aspect ratio replaceable AFM tips using deformation-suppressed focused ion beam milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savenko, Alexey; Yildiz, Izzet; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Bøggild, Peter; Bartenwerfer, Malte; Krohs, Florian; Oliva, Maria; Harzendorf, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    Fabrication of ultra-high aspect ratio exchangeable and customizable tips for atomic force microscopy (AFM) using lateral focused ion beam (FIB) milling is presented. While on-axis FIB milling does allow high aspect ratio (HAR) AFM tips to be defined, lateral milling gives far better flexibility in terms of defining the shape and size of the tip. Due to beam-induced deformation, it has so far not been possible to define HAR structures using lateral FIB milling. In this work we obtain aspect ratios of up to 45, with tip diameters down to 9 nm, by a deformation-suppressing writing strategy. Several FIB milling strategies for obtaining sharper tips are discussed. Finally, assembly of the HAR tips on a custom-designed probe as well as the first AFM scanning is shown. (paper)

  2. Required developments towards ultra high pressure and temperature subsea tree system solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queseth, Per-Olaf

    2010-07-01

    For the subsea High Pressure High Temperature oil and gas production systems, the primary challenge is to provide good, reliable solutions for HPHT reservoir exploitation based on an overview of parameters for already discovered potential fields. The paper will present a resume of Aker Solutions' previous development in this area exemplified with experiences from testing and operator observations during production start of HPHT fields in the North Sea. Further improvements are required to comply with the extreme pressures and temperatures sought to overcome. 'The Devil is in the details' is a very relevant proverb. A program to qualify subsea production X-mas trees for Ultra HPHT use will be presented with highlight on sealing systems, feed-through solutions and materials as well as impact on interfacing systems. Preliminary and intermediate analytical and test results will be presented and remaining activities summarised. (Author)

  3. An ultra short pulse reconstruction software applied to the GEMINI high power laser system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galletti, Mario, E-mail: mario.gall22@gmail.com [INFN – LNF, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Galimberti, Marco [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom); Hooker, Chris [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom); University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Chekhlov, Oleg; Tang, Yunxin [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom); Bisesto, Fabrizio Giuseppe [INFN – LNF, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Curcio, Alessandro [INFN – LNF, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Sapienza – University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Rome (Italy); Anania, Maria Pia [INFN – LNF, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Giulietti, Danilo [Physics Department of the University and INFN, Pisa (Italy)

    2016-09-01

    The GRENOUILLE traces of Gemini pulses (15 J, 30 fs, PW, shot per 20 s) were acquired in the Gemini Target Area PetaWatt at the Central Laser Facility (CLF), Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). A comparison between the characterizations of the laser pulse parameters made using two different types of algorithms: Video Frog and GRenouille/FrOG (GROG), was made. The temporal and spectral parameters came out to be in great agreement for the two kinds of algorithms. In this experimental campaign it has been showed how GROG, the developed algorithm, works as well as VideoFrog algorithm with the PetaWatt pulse class. - Highlights: • Integration of the diagnostic tool on high power laser. • Validation of the GROG algorithm in comparison to a well-known commercial available software. • Complete characterization of the GEMINI ultra-short high power laser pulse.

  4. Herpin effective media resonant underlayers and resonant overlayer designs for ultra-high NA interference lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Levi; Blaikie, Richard J

    2017-12-01

    Dielectric waveguide resonant underlayers are employed in ultra-high NA interference photolithography to effectively double the depth of field. Generally a single high refractive index waveguiding layer is employed. Here multilayer Herpin effective medium methods are explored to develop equivalent multilayer waveguiding layers. Herpin equivalent resonant underlayers are shown to be suitable replacements provided at least one layer within the Herpin trilayer supports propagating fields. In addition, a method of increasing the intensity incident upon the photoresist using resonant overlayers is also developed. This method is shown to greatly enhance the intensity within the photoresist making the use of thicker, safer, non-absorbing, low refractive index matching liquids potentially suitable for large-scale applications.

  5. Shape Memory Alloy connectors for Ultra High Vacuum applications: a breakthrough for accelerator technologies

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2091326; Garion, Cedric

    Beam-pipe coupling in particle accelerators is nowadays provided by metallic flanges that are tightly connected by several screws or heavy collars. Their installation and dismounting in radioactive areas contribute to the radiation doses received by the technical personnel. Owing to the increased proton-beam intensity and luminosity of the future High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), radioactivity in some specific zones will be significantly higher than in the present LHC; the presence of the technical staff in these areas will be strictly controlled and minimized. Remote interventions are being considered, too. Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) offer a unique possibility to generate tight connections and fast clamping/unclamping by remotely changing the temperature of the junction unit. In fact, SMAs exhibit unique strain and stress recovery capabilities which are related to reversible phase transition mechanisms, induced thermally or mechanically. In this PhD work, a novel Ultra-High Vacuum (UHV) coupling system based on ...

  6. The nano-mechanical signature of Ultra High Performance Concrete by statistical nanoindentation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorelli, Luca; Constantinides, Georgios; Ulm, Franz-Josef; Toutlemonde, Francois

    2008-01-01

    Advances in engineering the microstructure of cementitious composites have led to the development of fiber reinforced Ultra High Performance Concretes (UHPC). The scope of this paper is twofold, first to characterize the nano-mechanical properties of the phases governing the UHPC microstructure by means of a novel statistical nanoindentation technique; then to upscale those nanoscale properties, by means of continuum micromechanics, to the macroscopic scale of engineering applications. In particular, a combined investigation of nanoindentation, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) indicates that the fiber-matrix transition zone is relatively defect free. On this basis, a four-level multiscale model with defect free interfaces allows to accurately determine the composite stiffness from the measured nano-mechanical properties. Besides evidencing the dominant role of high density calcium silicate hydrates and the stiffening effect of residual clinker, the suggested model may become a useful tool for further optimizing cement-based engineered composites

  7. Equilibrium charge state distributions of high energy heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.B.; Grant, I.S.; King, R.; Eastham, D.A.; Joy, T.

    1976-01-01

    Equilibrium charge state fractions have been measured for N, O, Ne, S, Ar and Kr ions at 1.04 MeV/nucleon after passing through various stripping materials. Further data were obtained at higher energy for S ions (4.12 MeV/nucleon) and Ar ions (4.12 and 9.6 MeV/nucleon). The mean charge fractions can be fitted to universal curves for both solid and gaseous strippers. Measurements of the equilibrium fraction of krypton ions at 1.04 MeV/nucleon passing through heavy vapours have shown that a higher average charge state is obtained than for lighter gaseous strippers. (Auth.)

  8. Local damage to Ultra High Performance Concrete structures caused by an impact of aircraft engine missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, Werner; Noeldgen, Markus; Strassburger, Elmar; Thoma, Klaus; Fehling, Ekkehard

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Experimental series on UHPC panels subjected to aircraft engine impact. → Improved ballistic limit of fiber reinforced UHPC in comparison to conventional R/C. → Detailed investigation of failure mechanisms of fiber reinforced UHPC panel. - Abstract: The impact of an aircraft engine missile causes high stresses, deformations and a severe local damage to conventional reinforced concrete. As a consequence the design of R/C protective structural elements results in components with rather large dimensions. Fiber reinforced Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC) is a concrete based material which combines ultra high strength, high packing density and an improved ductility with a significantly increased energy dissipation capacity due to the addition of fiber reinforcement. With those attributes the material is potentially suitable for improved protective structural elements with a reduced need for material resources. The presented paper reports on an experimental series of scaled aircraft engine impact tests with reinforced UHPC panels. The investigations are focused on the material behavior and the damage intensity in comparison to conventional concrete. The fundamental work of is taken as reference for the evaluation of the results. The impactor model of a Phantom F4 GE-J79 engine developed and validated by Sugano et al. is used as defined in the original work. In order to achieve best comparability, the experimental configuration and method are adapted for the UHPC experiments. With 'penetration', 'scabbing' and 'perforation' all relevant damage modes defined in are investigated so that a full set of results are provided for a representative UHPC structural configuration.

  9. Fabrication of high quality, ultra-long fiber Bragg gratings: up to 2 million periods in phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, Mathieu; Loranger, Sébastien; Lapointe, Jerome; Kashyap, Raman

    2014-01-13

    The fabrication and characterization of high quality ultra-long (up to 1m) fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) is reported. A moving phase mask and an electro-optic phase-modulation (EOPM) based interferometer are used with a high precision 1-meter long translation stage and compared. A novel interferometer position feedback scheme to simplify the fabrication process is proposed and analyzed. The ultra-long uniform FBGs show near perfect characteristics of a few picometers bandwidth, symmetrical, near theory-matching group-delay and transmission spectra. Grating characterization using optical backscattering reflectometry and chirped FBGs are also demonstrated. Limitations of the schemes are discussed.

  10. Flexible mechanoprosthesis made from woven ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene fibres: proof of concept in a chronic sheep model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basir, Amir; Grobben, Remco B.; Cramer, Maarten Jan; van Herwaarden, Joost A.; Vink, Aryan; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Kluin, Jolanda; Gründeman, Paul F.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibres are flexible, have high tensile strength, and platelet and bacterial adhesion is low. Therefore, UHMWPE may overcome limitations of current mechanical valves and bioprostheses. In this study, the bio-compatibility and functionality

  11. Kinome expression profiling of human neuroblastoma tumors identifies potential drug targets for ultra high-risk patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Roberta; Cimmino, Flora; Pezone, Lucia; Manna, Francesco; Avitabile, Marianna; Langella, Concetta; Koster, Jan; Casale, Fiorina; Raia, Maddalena; Viola, Giampietro; Fischer, Matthias; Iolascon, Achille; Capasso, Mario

    2017-10-01

    Neuroblastoma (NBL) accounts for >7% of malignancies in patients younger than 15 years. Low- and intermediate-risk patients exhibit excellent or good prognosis after treatment, whereas for high-risk (HR) patients, the estimated 5-year survival rates is still <40%. The ability to stratify HR patients that will not respond to standard treatment strategies is critical for informed treatment decisions. In this study, we have generated a specific kinome gene signature, named Kinome-27, which is able to identify a subset of HR-NBL tumors, named ultra-HR NBL, with highly aggressive clinical behavior that not adequately respond to standard treatments. We have demonstrated that NBL cell lines expressing the same kinome signature of ultra-HR tumors (ultra-HR-like cell lines) may be selectively targeted by the use of two drugs [suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and Radicicol], and that the synergic combination of these drugs is able to block the ultra-HR-like cells in G2/M phase of cell cycle. The use of our signature in clinical practice will allow identifying patients with negative outcome, which would benefit from new and more personalized treatments. Preclinical in vivo studies are needed to consolidate the SAHA and Radicicol treatment in ultra-HR NBL patients. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Two-photon processes in highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahrsetz, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Two-photon processes are atomic processes in which an atom interacts simultaneously with two photons. Such processes describe a wide range of phenomena, such as two-photon decay and elastic or inelastic scattering of photons. In recent years two-photon processes involving highly charged heavy ions have become an active area of research. Such studies do not only consider the total transition or scattering rates but also their angular and polarization dependence. To support such examinations in this thesis I present a theoretical framework to describe these properties in all two-photon processes with bound initial and final states and involving heavy H-like or He-like ions. I demonstrate how this framework can be used in some detailed studies of different two-photon processes. Specifically a detailed analysis of two-photon decay of H-like and He-like ions in strong external electromagnetic fields shows the importance of considering the effect of such fields for the physics of such systems. Furthermore I studied the elastic Rayleigh as well as inelastic Raman scattering by heavy H-like ions. I found a number of previously unobserved phenomena in the angular and polarization dependence of the scattering cross-sections that do not only allow to study interesting details of the electronic structure of the ion but might also be useful for the measurement of weak physical effects in such systems.

  13. Quantum interference in laser spectroscopy of highly charged lithiumlike ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Pedro; Loureiro, Ulisses; Safari, Laleh; Fratini, Filippo; Indelicato, Paul; Stöhlker, Thomas; Santos, José Paulo

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the quantum interference induced shifts between energetically close states in highly charged ions, with the energy structure being observed by laser spectroscopy. In this work, we focus on hyperfine states of lithiumlike heavy-Z isotopes and quantify how much quantum interference changes the observed transition frequencies. The process of photon excitation and subsequent photon decay for the transition 2 s →2 p →2 s is implemented with fully relativistic and full-multipole frameworks, which are relevant for such relativistic atomic systems. We consider the isotopes 79+207Pb and 80+209Bi due to experimental interest, as well as other examples of isotopes with lower Z , namely 56+141Pr and 64+165Ho. We conclude that quantum interference can induce shifts up to 11% of the linewidth in the measurable resonances of the considered isotopes, if interference between resonances is neglected. The inclusion of relativity decreases the cross section by 35%, mainly due to the complete retardation form of the electric dipole multipole. However, the contribution of the next higher multipoles (e.g., magnetic quadrupole) to the cross section is negligible. This makes the contribution of relativity and higher-order multipoles to the quantum interference induced shifts a minor effect, even for heavy-Z elements.

  14. Two-photon processes in highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahrsetz, Thorsten

    2015-03-05

    Two-photon processes are atomic processes in which an atom interacts simultaneously with two photons. Such processes describe a wide range of phenomena, such as two-photon decay and elastic or inelastic scattering of photons. In recent years two-photon processes involving highly charged heavy ions have become an active area of research. Such studies do not only consider the total transition or scattering rates but also their angular and polarization dependence. To support such examinations in this thesis I present a theoretical framework to describe these properties in all two-photon processes with bound initial and final states and involving heavy H-like or He-like ions. I demonstrate how this framework can be used in some detailed studies of different two-photon processes. Specifically a detailed analysis of two-photon decay of H-like and He-like ions in strong external electromagnetic fields shows the importance of considering the effect of such fields for the physics of such systems. Furthermore I studied the elastic Rayleigh as well as inelastic Raman scattering by heavy H-like ions. I found a number of previously unobserved phenomena in the angular and polarization dependence of the scattering cross-sections that do not only allow to study interesting details of the electronic structure of the ion but might also be useful for the measurement of weak physical effects in such systems.

  15. High energy particle detectors utilizing cryogenic charge storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coon, D; Engels, E Jr; Plants, D; Shepard, P F; Yang, Y [Pittsburgh Univ., PA (USA); Sopira, M; Papania, R [Westinghouse Research and Development Labs., Monroeville, PA (USA)

    1984-09-15

    The mechanism of cryogenic charge storage as a method of particle detection is reviewed. A description of a simple multielement strip detector operated in this mode is given, and partial results on its operating characteristics presented.

  16. Social cognition deficits and the 'ultra high risk' for psychosis population: a review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Andrew D; Bartholomeusz, Cali; Yung, Alison R

    2011-08-01

    A number of risk factors for developing a psychotic disorder have been investigated in the 'ultra high risk' (UHR) population, including neurocognitive abilities, social functioning and, more recently, social cognition. We aimed to review the literature on social cognition in the UHR population. Literature was restricted to English articles and identified using Pubmed, Medline, PsychINFO and CINAHLplus, as well as the reference lists of published studies and reviews. Search terms included social cognition, theory of mind, emotion recognition, attributional style, social knowledge, social perception, 'at risk mental state', psychosis prodrome 'clinical high risk' and 'ultra high risk'. Inclusion criteria were an outcome measure of a social cognition task and an UHR population defined by a structured validated instrument. Seven original research articles met the inclusion criteria, one of which was a conference abstract. One of the two studies that assessed theory of mind, two of the four studies that assessed emotion recognition and both the two studies that assessed social perception/knowledge found significant deficits in UHR patients. The single study that assessed attributional bias also reported differences in UHR patients compared with healthy controls. There is limited published literature on social cognitive performance in the UHR population. Despite this, deficits in certain social cognitive abilities do appear to be present, but further research with more reliable cross-cultural measures is needed. The characterization of social cognitive deficits in the UHR populations may aid in the identification of potential markers for development of a subsequent psychotic disorder, as well as targets for early intervention. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Ultra high vacuum compatible microwave beam launcher for ECRH in SST - 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, B.K.; Sathyanarayana, K.; Biswas, P.; Pragnesh, D.; Bora, D.

    2005-01-01

    Microwave beam launcher for Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) system is used to focus the microwave beam at plasma center of SST -1. The beam launcher consists of an ultra high vacuum (UHV) compatible mirror box with two mirrors mounted in it. One mirror is focusing mirror while other one is a plane mirror. The total volume of the launcher is ∼ 60000 cc and the total surface area exposed to UHV is around ∼ 1.0x10 4 cm 2 . The mirrors are cooled with water for high power and long pulse operation. UHV compatible SS hoses provide flexible cooling connection to the mirrors. Flexible cooling connection helps in adjustment and steering of the mirrors. SS hoses are welded at both the ends and this is necessary to avoid any flange connection inside ultra high vacuum. The system has been tested for UHV compatibility. The leak rate is checked with helium leak detector and found better than l x 10 -9 mbar.lt/s. The system has been baked to 150 deg C for ∼14 hours and the ultimate vacuum achieved with turbomolecular pump (TMP) is ∼ 5x10 -9 mbar. The mirror assembly is tested for leak in pressurized condition using a sniffer probe. The mirrors of the launcher along with the welded bellow are pressurized with helium gas up to a water equivalent pressure of ∼3kg/cm 2 . No increase in the background (∼-10 -6 mbar.lt/s) of the sniffer probes has been observed during the test. The plane mirror is connected with two UHV linear motion feedthroughs with suitable hinges and smooth movement is checked in vacuum. (author)

  18. The interactions of high-energy, highly charged Xe ions with buckyballs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, R.; Berry, H.G.; Cheng, S.

    1994-01-01

    Ionization and fragmentation have been measured for C 60 molecules bombarded by highly charged (up to 35+) xenon ions with energies ranging up to 625 MeV. The observed mass distribution of positively charged fragments is explained in terms of a theoretical model indicating that the total interaction cross section contains roughly equal contributions from (a) excitation of the giant plasmon resonance, and (b) large-energy-transfer processes that lead to multiple fragmentation of the molecule. Preliminary results of measurements on VUV photons emitted in these interactions are also presented

  19. Consideration of ultra-high temperature nuclear heat sources for MHD conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, R.R.; Tobin, J.M.; Young, W.E.

    1975-01-01

    The nuclear technology reactors developed and tested in the Nuclear Engine Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program operated with fuel exit gas temperatures in excess of 2600 K. This experience provided a significant ultra-high temperature technology base and design insight for commercial power applications. Design approaches to accommodate fission product retention and other key prevailing requirements are examined in view of the basic overriding functional requirements, and some interesting reconsiderations are suggested. Predicted overall system performance potentials for a 2000 K MHD conversion system and reactor parameter requirements are compared and related to existing technology status. Needed verification and development efforts are suggested. A reconsideration of basic design approaches is suggested that could open the door for immediate development of ultrahigh temperature nuclear heat sources for advanced energy systems

  20. Monte Carlo simulations of ultra high vacuum and synchrotron radiation for particle accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2082330; Leonid, Rivkin

    With preparation of Hi-Lumi LHC fully underway, and the FCC machines under study, accelerators will reach unprecedented energies and along with it very large amount of synchrotron radiation (SR). This will desorb photoelectrons and molecules from accelerator walls, which contribute to electron cloud buildup and increase the residual pressure - both effects reducing the beam lifetime. In current accelerators these two effects are among the principal limiting factors, therefore precise calculation of synchrotron radiation and pressure properties are very important, desirably in the early design phase. This PhD project shows the modernization and a major upgrade of two codes, Molflow and Synrad, originally written by R. Kersevan in the 1990s, which are based on the test-particle Monte Carlo method and allow ultra-high vacuum and synchrotron radiation calculations. The new versions contain new physics, and are built as an all-in-one package - available to the public. Existing vacuum calculation methods are overvi...

  1. Ultra-high-throughput screening method for the directed evolution of glucose oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostafe, Raluca; Prodanovic, Radivoje; Nazor, Jovana; Fischer, Rainer

    2014-03-20

    Glucose oxidase (GOx) is used in many industrial processes that could benefit from improved versions of the enzyme. Some improvements like higher activity under physiological conditions and thermal stability could be useful for GOx applications in biosensors and biofuel cells. Directed evolution is one of the currently available methods to engineer improved GOx variants. Here, we describe an ultra-high-throughput screening system for sorting the best enzyme variants generated by directed evolution that incorporates several methodological refinements: flow cytometry, in vitro compartmentalization, yeast surface display, fluorescent labeling of the expressed enzyme, delivery of glucose substrate to the reaction mixture through the oil phase, and covalent labeling of the cells with fluorescein-tyramide. The method enables quantitative screening of gene libraries to identify clones with improved activity and it also allows cells to be selected based not only on the overall activity but also on the specific activity of the enzyme. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Low temperature growth of ultra-high mass density carbon nanotube forests on conductive supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugime, Hisashi; Esconjauregui, Santiago; Yang, Junwei; D'Arsié, Lorenzo; Robertson, John; Oliver, Rachel A.; Bhardwaj, Sunil; Cepek, Cinzia

    2013-01-01

    We grow ultra-high mass density carbon nanotube forests at 450 °C on Ti-coated Cu supports using Co-Mo co-catalyst. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows Mo strongly interacts with Ti and Co, suppressing both aggregation and lifting off of Co particles and, thus, promoting the root growth mechanism. The forests average a height of 0.38 μm and a mass density of 1.6 g cm −3 . This mass density is the highest reported so far, even at higher temperatures or on insulators. The forests and Cu supports show ohmic conductivity (lowest resistance ∼22 kΩ), suggesting Co-Mo is useful for applications requiring forest growth on conductors

  3. Ballistic behavior of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene composite: effect of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Andreia L. dos Santos; Nascimento, Lucio F.C.; Suarez, Joao C. Miguez; lucio2002bol.com.br

    2003-01-01

    Since World War II, textile composites have been used as ballistic armor. Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers are used in the production of armor materials. As they have been developed and commercialized only recently, there is not enough information about the effect of environmental agents in the ballistic performance of UHMWPE composites. In the present work, was evaluated the ballistic behavior of composite plates manufactured with UHMWPE fibers after exposure to gamma radiation. The ballistic tests results were related to the macromolecular alterations induced by the radiation through mechanical (hardness, impact and flexure) and physicochemical (Ftir/Mir. DSC and TGA) testing. It was observed that irradiation induces changes in the UHMWPE, degrading the ballistic performance of the composite. These results are presented and discussed. (author)

  4. Application of Ultra High Pressure Cavitation Peening to Prevent PWSCC on Primary Plant Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poling, G.R.

    2015-07-01

    Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) on Alloy 600/82/182 susceptible materials can lead to increased costs for maintenance and repair/replacement activities on nuclear power plant primary components. A process called Ultra High Pressure (UHP) cavitation peening can be safely and cost effectively applied to the susceptible materials to generate compressive stresses on the surface and prevent PWSCC initiation. AREVA has developed the tooling systems to apply the UHP cavitation peening process on reactor vessel head penetration nozzles, bottom mounted nozzles and primary nozzles. Applying the UHP cavitation peening process before PWSCC initiation will prevent future repairs/replacements, reduce maintenance costs, and provide more effective on-time for the reactor. (Author)

  5. Ultra high energy cosmic rays: clustering, GUT scale and neutrino masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodor, Z.

    2002-01-01

    The clustering of ultra high energy (above 5 · 10 19 eV) cosmic rays (UHECR) suggests that they might be emitted by compact sources. We present a statistical analysis on the source density based on the multiplicities. The propagation of UHECR protons is studied in detail. The UHECR spectrum is consistent with the decay of GUT scale particles and/or with the Z-burst. The predicted GUT mass is m x = 10 b GeV, where b 14.6 -1.7 +1.6 . Our neutrino mass prediction depends on the origin of the power part of the spectrum: m ν = 2.75 -0.97 +1.28 eV for halo and 0.26 -0.14 +0.20 eV for extragalactic (EG) origin

  6. Ultra-high-resolution alpha spectrometry for nuclear forensics and safeguards applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacrania, Minesh K.; Croce, Mark; Bond, Evelyn; Dry, Donald; Moody, W. Allen; Lamont, Stephen; Rabin, Michael; Rim, Jung; Smith, Audrey; Beall, James; Bennett, Douglas; Kotsubo, Vincent; Horansky, Robert; Hilton, Gene; Schmidt, Daniel; Ullom, Joel; Cantor, Robin

    2010-01-01

    We will present our work on the development of ultra-high-resolution detectors for alpha particle spectrometry. These detectors, based on superconducting transition-edge sensors, offer energy resolution that is five to ten times better than conventional silicon detectors. Using these microcalorimeter detectors, the isotopic composition of mixed-actinide samples can be determined rapidly without the need for actinide separation chemistry to isolate each element, or mass spectrometry to separate isotopic signatures that can not be resolved using traditional alpha spectrometry (e.g. Pu-239/Pu-240, or Pu-238/Am-241). This paper will cover the detector and measurement system, actinide source preparation, and the quantitative isotopic analysis of a number of forensics- and safeguards-relevant radioactive sources.

  7. CGLXTouch: A multi-user multi-touch approach for ultra-high-resolution collaborative workspaces

    KAUST Repository

    Ponto, Kevin

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents an approach for empowering collaborative workspaces through ultra-high resolution tiled display environments concurrently interfaced with multiple multi-touch devices. Multi-touch table devices are supported along with portable multi-touch tablet and phone devices, which can be added to and removed from the system on the fly. Events from these devices are tagged with a device identifier and are synchronized with the distributed display environment, enabling multi-user support. As many portable devices are not equipped to render content directly, a remotely scene is streamed in. The presented approach scales for large numbers of devices, providing access to a multitude of hands-on techniques for collaborative data analysis. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Telescope Array Radar (TARA) observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasi, R.; Othman, M. Abou Bakr [University of Utah, 115 S 1400 E #201 JFB, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Allen, C. [University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); Beard, L. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Belz, J. [University of Utah, 115 S 1400 E #201 JFB, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Besson, D. [University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute, 31 Kashirskaya Shosse, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Byrne, M.; Farhang-Boroujeny, B.; Gardner, A. [University of Utah, 115 S 1400 E #201 JFB, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Gillman, W.H. [Gillman and Associates, Salt Lake City, UT 84106 (United States); Hanlon, W. [University of Utah, 115 S 1400 E #201 JFB, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Hanson, J. [University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); Jayanthmurthy, C. [University of Utah, 115 S 1400 E #201 JFB, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Kunwar, S. [University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); Larson, S.L. [Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322 (United States); Myers, I., E-mail: isaac@cosmic.utah.edu [University of Utah, 115 S 1400 E #201 JFB, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Prohira, S.; Ratzlaff, K. [University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); Sokolsky, P. [University of Utah, 115 S 1400 E #201 JFB, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Takai, H. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); and others

    2014-12-11

    Construction was completed during summer 2013 on the Telescope Array RAdar (TARA) bi-static radar observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR). TARA is co-located with the Telescope Array, the largest “conventional” cosmic ray detector in the Northern Hemisphere, in radio-quiet Western Utah. TARA employs an 8 MW Effective Radiated Power (ERP) VHF transmitter and smart receiver system based on a 250 MS/s data acquisition system in an effort to detect the scatter of sounding radiation by UHECR-induced atmospheric ionization. TARA seeks to demonstrate bi-static radar as a useful new remote sensing technique for UHECRs. In this report, we describe the design and performance of the TARA transmitter and receiver systems.

  9. Influence of Carbide Modifications on the Mechanical Properties of Ultra-High-Strength Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Joo-Young; Park, Soo-Keun; Kwon, Hoon; Cho, Ki-Sub

    2017-10-01

    The mechanical properties of ultra-high-strength secondary hardened stainless steels with varying Co, V, and C contents have been studied. A reduced-Co alloy based on the chemical composition of Ferrium S53 was made by increasing the V and C content. This changed the M2C-strengthened microstructure to a MC plus M2C-strengthened microstructure, and no deteriorative effects were observed for peak-aged and over-aged samples despite the large reduction in Co content from 14 to 7 wt pct. The mechanical properties according to alloying modification were associated with carbide precipitation kinetics, which was clearly outlined by combining analytical tools including small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) as well as an analytical TEM with computational simulation.

  10. High-performance UV detector made of ultra-long ZnO bridging nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yanbo; Della Valle, Florent; Simonnet, Mathieu; Yamada, Ichiro; Delaunay, Jean-Jacques

    2009-01-01

    A nanowatt UV photoconductive detector made up of ultra-long (∼100 μm) ZnO bridging nanowires has been fabricated by a single-step chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. The electrodes, forming comb-shaped thick ZnO layers, and the sensing elements, consisting of ZnO nanowires bridging the electrodes, were fabricated simultaneously in a single-step CVD process. The device showed drastic changes (10-10 5 times) in current under a wide range of UV irradiances (10 -8 -10 -2 W cm -2 ). Moreover, the detector exhibited fast response (rise and decay times of the order of 1 s) to UV illumination in air, but no response to visible light (hν<3.2 eV). Our approach provides a simple and cost-effective way to fabricate high-performance 'visible-blind' UV detectors.

  11. Selection and evaluation of an ultra high vacuum gate valve for Isabelle beam line vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, C.L.; McCafferty, D.

    1980-01-01

    A minimum of eighty-four (84) Ultra High Vacuum Gate Valves will be utilized in ISABELLE to protect proton beam lines from catastrophic vacuum failure and to provide sector isolation for maintenance requirements. The valve to be selected must function at less than 1 x 10 -11 Torr pressure and be bakeable to 300 0 C in its open or closed position. In the open position, the valve must have an RF shield to make the beam line walls appear continuous. Several proposed designs were built and evaluated. The evaluation consisted mainly of leak testing, life tests, thermal cycling, mass spectrometer analysis, and 10 -12 Torr operation. Problems with initial design and fabrication were resolved. Special requirements for design and construction were developed. This paper describes the tests on two final prototypes which appear to be the best candidates for ISABELLE operation

  12. Hot stuff : ultra-high temperature ESP system installed in SAGD wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-10-15

    Ultra-temperature electrical submersible pumping (ESP) systems have been installed in steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) wells for the first time at a thermal project in Christina Lake, Alberta. The Centrilift XP ESP production system that is being field tested can operate at fluid temperatures reaching 250 degrees C, higher than conventional systems, which is expected to result in an increase in production with a larger steam chamber and less viscous oil at higher steaming temperatures. The more robust system is expected to extend run life and lower operating costs. Years of research and development at specialized testing facilities went into creating the system. The unique testing facilities simulated the horizontal orientation and temperature cycling characteristics of SAGD wells and permitted the system to be tested at temperatures up to 300 degrees C. The new system is expected to lower infrastructure costs for SAGD wells that require high temperatures. 1 fig.

  13. Pressure measurements in the AGS Booster ultra-high vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabusi, J.; Geller, J.; Hseuh, H.C.; Mapes, M.; Stattel, P.

    1992-01-01

    An average pressure of mid 10 -11 Torr has been achieved and maintained in the AGS Booster ring vacuum system during its first year of operation. This ultra-high vacuum system is monitored through remote controlled Bayard-Alpert Gauges (BAGs). The characteristics of the pressure measurements with BAGs over the long cable lengths (up to 200 m) and under various accelerator operating conditions will be described. Two types of noise in the pressure readouts have been identified; the electromagnetic interference (EMI) associated with the acceleration cycles of the Booster and the environment noise associated with the temperature of the collector cables. The magnitude of the noise pickup depends on the routing of the collector cables and reaches the equivalent pressure of low 10 -9 Torr

  14. Development and data analysis of a radio-detection of ultra high energy cosmic rays experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belletoile, A.

    2007-10-01

    The radio-detection of cosmic rays was first attempted in the sixties. Unfortunately at that time, the results suffered from poor reproducibility and the technique was abandoned in favour of direct particle and fluorescence detection. Taking advantage of recent technological improvements the radio-detection of ultra high energy cosmic rays is being reinvestigated. In this document, first, we remind the reader of the global problematic of cosmic rays. Then, the several mechanisms involved in the emission of an electric field associated with extensive air showers are discussed. The CODALEMA (cosmic detection array with logarithmic electro magnetic antenna) experiment that aims to demonstrate the feasibility of cosmic ray radio-detection, is extensively described along with the first experimental results. A radio-detection test experiment implanted at the giant detector Pierre Auger is presented. It should provide inputs to design the future detector using this technique at extreme energies. (author)

  15. The clinical potential of ultra-high-speed echo-planar imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worthington, B.S.; Firth, J.L.; Morris, G.K.; Johnson, I.R.; Coxon, R.; Blamire, A.M.; Gibbs, P.; Mansfield, P.

    1990-01-01

    Ultra-high-speed echo-planar imaging (EPI) allows acquisition of a complete two-dimensional image in 64 to 128 ms devoid of movement artefact and without sacrifice of contrast due to relaxation time effects. In conventional whole-body MRI, however, obtrusive movement artefact and extended imaging time, resulting from the need to apply multiple sequences to facilitate lesion detection and pathological characterization, remain limitations. Reduced total examination time increases patient tolerance and throughput; furthermore optimization of contrast to achieve maximal conspicuity of particular features in liver or brain pathology is achieved simply and interactively by real time adjustment of the imaging parameters. The method provides the opportunity to study in real time dynamic events such as flow phenomena in the vascular and cerebrospinal fluid compartments of the brain as well as the kinetics of administered contrast agents. EPI is the only means of capturing the irregular motion of aperiodic cardiac events and bowel peristalsis. (author)

  16. Development of filter element from nanocomposites of ultra high molar mass polyethylene having silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizzo, Maurizio A.; Wang, S. Hui

    2015-01-01

    The production of polymer based filter elements for water is widespread in the market but has an undesirable characteristic, they are not always efficient and capable of retaining or eliminating microorganisms. This paper proposes the production of filters with biocidal activity, comprised by nanocomposites of ultra-high molar mass polyethylene (UHMMPE) containing silver nanoparticles. The polymer is responsible for the uniform porous structure of the filter element and the Ag nanoparticles for its biocidal action. The filter elements were produced from two kinds of UHMMPE particles with different particle size distributions, one in the range of 150 to 200μm and the other of 300 to 400μm. Samples were collected from the obtained filter elements and characterized by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy and microanalysis. The results indicated the formation of nanocomposite containing silver nanoparticles. (author)

  17. Quantification of sulphur amino acids by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography in aquatic invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thera, Jennifer C; Kidd, Karen A; Dodge-Lynch, M Elaine; Bertolo, Robert F

    2017-12-15

    We examined the performance of an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method to quantify protein-bound sulphur amino acids in zooplankton. Both cysteic acid and methionine sulfone were linear from 5 to 250 pmol (r 2  = 0.99), with a method detection limit of 13 pmol and 9 pmol, respectively. Although there was no matrix effect on linearity, adjacent peaks and co-eluting noise from the invertebrate proteins increased the detection limits when compared to common standards. Overall, performance characteristics were reproducible and accurate, and provide a means for quantifying sulphur amino acids in aquatic invertebrates, an understudied group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Ultra-long-pulse microwave negative high voltage power supply with fast protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Weihua; Wu Junshuan; Zheng Guanghua; Huang Qiaolin; Yang Chunsheng; Zhou Yuanwei; Chen Yonghao

    1998-01-01

    Two 1.4 MW high voltage power supply (HVPS) modules with 3-5 s pulse duration have been developed for LHCD experiment in the HT-7 tokamak. The power source consists of a pulsed generator and the electric circuit. Duration of the ultra-long-pulse is controlled by switching-on dc relay immediately and switching-off ac contactor after a given time, and the fast protection is executed by a crowbar. Due to the soft starting of the power source, the problem of overvoltage induced by dc relay switching-on has been solved. Each power supply module outputs a rated power (-35 kV, 40 A) on the dummy load. With the klystrons connected as the load of the power supply modules, LHCD experiments have been conducted successfully in the HT-7 tokamak

  19. Telescope Array Radar (TARA) observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, R.; Othman, M. Abou Bakr; Allen, C.; Beard, L.; Belz, J.; Besson, D.; Byrne, M.; Farhang-Boroujeny, B.; Gardner, A.; Gillman, W.H.; Hanlon, W.; Hanson, J.; Jayanthmurthy, C.; Kunwar, S.; Larson, S.L.; Myers, I.; Prohira, S.; Ratzlaff, K.; Sokolsky, P.; Takai, H.

    2014-01-01

    Construction was completed during summer 2013 on the Telescope Array RAdar (TARA) bi-static radar observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR). TARA is co-located with the Telescope Array, the largest “conventional” cosmic ray detector in the Northern Hemisphere, in radio-quiet Western Utah. TARA employs an 8 MW Effective Radiated Power (ERP) VHF transmitter and smart receiver system based on a 250 MS/s data acquisition system in an effort to detect the scatter of sounding radiation by UHECR-induced atmospheric ionization. TARA seeks to demonstrate bi-static radar as a useful new remote sensing technique for UHECRs. In this report, we describe the design and performance of the TARA transmitter and receiver systems

  20. The MIDAS telescope for microwave detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Amaral Soares, E.; Berlin, A.; Bogdan, M.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Carvalho, W. R.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; Facal San Luis, P.; Genat, J. F.; Hollon, N.; Mills, E.; Monasor, M.; Privitera, P.; Ramos de Castro, A.; Reyes, L. C.; Richardson, M.; Rouille d'Orfeuil, B.; Santos, E. M.; Wayne, S.; Williams, C.; Zas, E.; Zhou, J.

    2013-08-01

    We present the design, implementation and data taking performance of the MIcrowave Detection of Air Showers (MIDAS) experiment, a large field of view imaging telescope designed to detect microwave radiation from extensive air showers induced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays. This novel technique may bring a tenfold increase in detector duty cycle when compared to the standard fluorescence technique based on detection of ultraviolet photons. The MIDAS telescope consists of a 4.5 m diameter dish with a 53-pixel receiver camera, instrumented with feed horns operating in the commercial extended C-Band (3.4-4.2 GHz). A self-trigger capability is implemented in the digital electronics. The main objectives of this first prototype of the MIDAS telescope - to validate the telescope design, and to demonstrate a large detector duty cycle - were successfully accomplished in a dedicated data taking run at the University of Chicago campus prior to installation at the Pierre Auger Observatory.