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Sample records for ulmus pumila ulmaceae

  1. Fenología de la floración de Ulmus pumila L. (Ulmaceae en la ciudad de Bahía Blanca (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Saveanu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La fenología es el estudio de los fenómenos periódicos que ocurren en los seres vivos y sus relaciones con condiciones ambientales como luz, temperatura, humedad, etc. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron describir las fases fenológicas durante la fl oración deUlmus pumilaL. para la ciudad de Bahía Blanca y relacionar la floración con datos meteorológicos de temperaturas mínimas y máximas. Durante dos periodos de floración (julio a septiembre, de 2007 y de 2008 se realizaron observaciones fenológicas semanales de ejemplares deU. pumilapresentes en el arbolado urbano de la ciudad. La fl oración se observó en los meses de julio y agosto, registrándose la máxima floración el 23 y el 7 de agosto de 2007 y 2008, respectivamente. Durante la floración del año 2007 la cantidad de flores registradas y la duración de la fase de floración fueron superiores a lo ocurrido en 2008. Estos resultados ayudan a conocer la dinámica de floración de U. pumila en la ciudad de Bahía Blanca, y a largo plazo contribuirá a la interpretación de los cambios climáticos de la región y a una mejor prevención de las alergias.

  2. Programmed cell death of Ulmus pumila L. seeds during aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yulan ZHANG; Ming ZHANG; Fang LI; Xiaofeng WANG

    2008-01-01

    The programmed cell death (PCD) character-istics of Ulmus pumila L. seeds were investigated. The seeds were treated at a high temperature of 37℃ and 100% relative humidity for six days. DAPI (4'6-diami-dino-2-phenylindole) staining revealed that the aging treatment induced condensation and margination of chro-matin, as well as the formation of apoptotic bodies. DNA electrophoresis results of U. pumila seeds on an agarose gel showed a characteristic "ladder" pattern. Levels of electrolyte leakage of seed cells showed that membranes retained their integral form during almost the entire aging time. There was an immediate increase in the production rate of superoxide anion (O2-) and in the amount of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which remained at a μmol level. All of these common characteristics indicate that seed aging can be classified as PCD.

  3. Effects of Sand Burial on Survival, Growth, Gas Exchange and Biomass Allocation of Ulmus pumila Seedlings in the Hunshandak Sandland, China

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, L.; Zhang, Z. J.; Zhang, C.Y.; Zhang, J Z

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims In the last decade, the number of young plants of Ulmus pumila in the Hunshandak Sandland has decreased sharply because of severe sand burial, and their ecological protective function has been weakened. In order to develop an understanding of the tolerance of U. pumila to sand burial and to suggest reasonable measures to protect the sparse-elm–grassland ecosystem, the effects of burial on the survival, growth, photosynthesis and biomass allocation in U. pumila were studi...

  4. Genetic variation and heritability estimates of Ulmus minor and Ulmus pumila hybrids for budburst, growth and tolerance to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solla A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Seedlings obtained by crossing Ulmus minor and U. minor × U. pumila clones were assessed for flowering, bark beetle damage, vegetative budburst, height growth and resistance to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. Ramets and open pollinated seedlings obtained from the parent trees were assessed for the same traits. Most progenies had similar traits to their parents, but some presented heterosis in annual growth or resistance to O. novo-ulmi. Leaf wilting was significantly lower in progenies with U. minor × U. pumila rather than U. minor as female parent (21.5 and 30.6%, respectively; P<0.05. Resistance to O. novo-ulmi increased significantly as a function of increased amounts of U. pumila germplasm from the female parent, suggesting that resistance to Dutch elm disease is primarily transmitted from the mother. Budburst occurred earlier in seedlings with low rather than high growth rates (P=0.0007 and percentage of wilting was negatively related to early budburst (P<0.0001. Other phenotypic relations included percentage of flowering trees and annual height growth (rp=0.44; P=0.0042, percentage of flowering trees and vegetative budburst (rp=-0.53; P=0.0004 and percentage of beetle-affected trees and annual height growth (rp=0.60; P<0.0001. Heritability estimates obtained from the regression and variance components methods ranged from 0.06 ± 0.04 to 0.64 ± 0.18, 0.10 ± 0.05 to 0.69 ± 0.17, and 0.13 ± 0.32 to 0.71 ± 0.22 for budburst, growth and tolerance to O. novo-ulmi, respectively. Broad- and narrow-sense heritability values were higher when estimated 60 days post inoculation (dpi than 15, 30 or 120 dpi. Heritability estimates and genetic gains reported indicate a high degree of additive genetic control and show the effectiveness of selection for Dutch elm disease resistance and rapid tree growth.

  5. Genetic diversity and relationships among Dutch elm disease tolerant Ulmus pumila L. accessions from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elm breeding programs worldwide have relied heavily on Asian elm germplasm, particularly U. pumila, for the breeding of Dutch elm disease tolerant cultivars. However, the extent and patterning of genetic variation in Asian elm species is unknown. Therefore, the objective of this research was to de...

  6. Evaluación de Ulmus pumila L. y Populus spp. como cultivos energéticos en corta rotación

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez García, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    El presente trabajo estudia el empleo del olmo de Siberia (Ulmus Pumila L.) y el chopo (Populus spp.) en corta rotación y alta densidad para la producción de biomasa con fines energéticos. En el área mediterránea las disponibilidades hídricas son limitadas, por lo que la mayoría de los cultivos energéticos utilizados hasta el momento requieren el aporte de agua de riego; por ello resulta fundamental encontrar especies con bajos requerimientos hídricos, analizar la eficiencia en el uso del agu...

  7. An Application of Auxin in Elm (Ulmus pumila L.) Seedling Breeding%植物生长素在榆树育苗中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵永春

    2014-01-01

    榆树(Ulmus pumila L)是重要的绿化树种.通过对榆树1年生苗进行植物生长素喷施试验,结果表明植物生长素不仅能够促进榆树幼苗的苗高、地径生长,同时更能增加苗木的重量,使苗木达到优质壮苗的要求;在选用植物生长素时,应选用商品植物生长素,如高效植物生长素、叶面宝和丰产素为佳.应避免盲目使用不必要的激素.

  8. Experimental sand burial affects seedling survivorship, morphological traits, and biomass allocation of Ulmus pumila var. sabulosa in the Horqin Sandy Land, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jiao; Busso, Carlos Alberto; Jiang, Deming; Musa, Ala; Wu, Dafu; Wang, Yongcui; Miao, Chunping

    2016-07-01

    As a native tree species, Ulmus pumila var. sabulosa (sandy elm) is widely distributed in the Horqin Sandy Land, China. However, seedlings of this species have to withstand various depths of sand burial after emergence because of increasing soil degradation, which is mainly caused by overgrazing, climate change, and wind erosion. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the changes in its survivorship, morphological traits, and biomass allocation when seedlings were buried at different burial depths: unburied controls and seedlings buried vertically up to 33, 67, 100, or 133 % of their initial mean seedling height. The results showed that partial sand burial treatments (i.e., less than 67 % burial) did not reduce seedling survivorship, which still reached 100 %. However, seedling mortality increased when sand burial was equal to or greater than 100 %. In comparison with the control treatment, seedling height and stem diameter increased at least by 6 and 14 % with partial burial, respectively. In the meantime, seedling taproot length, total biomass, and relative mass growth rates were at least enhanced by 10, 15.6, and 27.6 %, respectively, with the partial sand burial treatment. Furthermore, sand burial decreased total leaf area and changed biomass allocation in seedlings, partitioning more biomass to aboveground organs (e.g., leaves) and less to belowground parts (roots). Complete sand burial after seedling emergence inhibited its re-emergence and growth, even leading to death. Our findings indicated that seedlings of sandy elm showed some resistance to partial sand burial and were adapted to sandy environments from an evolutionary perspective. The negative effect of excessive sand burial after seedling emergence might help in understanding failures in recruitments of sparse elm in the study region.

  9. Seed Burial Depth and Soil Water Content Affect Seedling Emergence and Growth of Ulmus pumila var. sabulosa in the Horqin Sandy Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of seed burial depth and soil water content on seedling emergence and growth of Ulmus pumila var. sabulosa (sandy elm, an important native tree species distributed over the European-Asian steppe. Experimental sand burial depths in the soil were 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 cm, and soil water contents were 4%, 8%, 12% and 16% of field capacity. All two-way ANOVA (five sand burial depths and four soil water contents results showed that seed burial depths, soil water content and their interactions significantly affected all the studied plant variables. Most of the times, seedling emergence conditions were greater at the lower sand burial depths (less than 1.0 cm than at the higher (more than 1.0 cm seed burial depths, and at the lower water content (less than 12% than at the higher soil water content. However, high seed burial depths (more than 1.5 cm or low soil water content (less than 12% reduced seedling growth or change in the root/shoot biomass ratios. In conclusion, the most suitable range of sand burial was from 0.5 to 1.0 cm soil depth and soil water content was about 12%, respectively, for the processes of seedling emergence and growth. These findings indicate that seeds of the sandy elm should be kept at rather shallow soil depths, and water should be added up to 12% of soil capacity when conducting elm planting and management. Our findings could help to create a more appropriate sandy elm cultivation and understand sparse elm woodland recruitment failures in arid and semi-arid regions.

  10. Photosynthetic Characteristics of Ulmus Pumila Senescing Leaves in Autumn%榆树秋季衰老叶光合特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫江平; 高波; 努尔塔依·铁利汗; 武胜利; 韩炜; 窦晓静

    2015-01-01

    全球气候变化使得新疆植物的生长季变长,对其生理生态产生影响。文章采用 Li-6400XT便携式光合测定系统,测定乌鲁木齐市晚秋榆树的光合作用参数,总结其秋季衰老叶光合特性,揭示榆树的生理特征对气候变化的响应。研究结果表明,其净光合速率日变化呈双峰曲线,15:00出现“午休”现象,净光合速率最高峰出现在13:00,为14μmol· m-2· s-1,次峰出现在17:00,为6umol· m-2· s-1。榆树净光合速率(Pn)与气孔导度(Gs)、蒸腾速率(Tr)、水分利用率(WUE)、大气温度(Ta)以及空气相对湿度( RH)之间呈正相关,而与胞间二氧化碳浓度( Ci)呈负相关。秋季延长下,榆树仍具有较高的光合作用,属于“气孔主导型”和“气温主导型”,这有利于西北干旱区的绿洲生态建设和城市绿化植被管理。%In recent years, a warming trend has been occurring in Xinjiang, it makes the growing season of vegetation longer which has an effect on plant physiological ecology.This article measured the senescing leaves pho-tosynthetic parameters of Ulmus pumila by Li-6400XT, a portable photosynthesis system.It summarized the photo-synthetic characteristics and revealed the response to climate change.This study indicated the diurnal variation be-tween net photosynthetic rate ( Pn) , stomatal conductance ( Gs) transpiration rate( Tr) , the internal CO2 concen-tration( Ci) and efficiency of water application( WUE) .Then it told the curve of diurnal variation of net photosyn-thetic rate (Pn) was dual-peaked with obvious midday depression of the photosynthetic efficiency.The highest Net photosynthetic rate ( Pn) peak appeared at 13:00 and the second peak appeared at 17:00, the value is 14μmolm-2 · s-1 and 6μmol· m-2 · s-1 respectively.There was significant positive correlation between Pn, Gs, Tr, WUE, Ta and RH, while a negative relation between the net

  11. The diurnal release rhythm analysis of insect attack inducing Ulmus pumila volatile matter%虫害诱导家榆挥发物的日释放节律分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程彬; 陈平; 任立伟; 鹿永强; 鹿永斌

    2015-01-01

    以家榆为试验对象,分析挥发物的组分与日释放节律,结果表明:家榆的挥发物共有24种化合物,包含有醇类、烷类、酯类和萜烯类等。挥发物的释放存在昼高夜低的现象,在上午时释放量会迅速增加,到中午达到最大,然后在下午、晚上逐渐减少;在由明转暗时,挥发物的释放有一个短暂的爆发。挥发物的日夜释放节律与害虫天敌的活动规律相符,可能是植物发挥主动防御的结果。%The component and diurnal release rhythm of volatile matter was analyzed by taking Ulmus pumila as object.The result showed that volatile matter of Ulmus pumila had 24 compounds which included alcohol, alkanes, esters and terpene. The release of volatile matter was larger in daylight than in the night.Its amount of release increased fast in the morning.It got the largest in midday and it decreased in afternoon and night.There was a transitory outbreak from bright to dark.The diurnal release rhythm of volatile matter was consistent with activity routines of natural enemies of pests.Maybe it was the result of active defense of plant.

  12. 浑善达克沙地榆树疏林幼苗更新空间格局%Spatial pattern of seedling regeneration of Ulmus pumila woodland in the Otindag Sandland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振; 董智; 李红丽; 李钢铁

    2013-01-01

    Ulmus pumila woodland widely distributing in the Otindsg sandland, is a kind of sand vegetation types and adapted to semi-arid and semi-humid climate. It is a important local species to protect the ecosystem from desertification and defense the sandstorms. However, the seedlings and small trees are found to be few in natural ecosystem because of overgrazing and felling of great trees, which has seriously affected the distribution of U. pumila and regeneration of population. The aims of the study are to investigate the patterns for seedlings regeneration and the relationship between seedlings density and mature trees in two different habitats of fenced sites. With Ripley's K function statistical method, the seedlings distribution and regeneration spatial pattern of Ulmus pumila were analyzed in fenced fixed sand dunes and lowland between dunes in the Otindag sandland. The results showed that the vegetation was regenerated very well in U. pumila sparse forest after exempt from the damage of animals and human being by fence. The coverage of shrubs and grasses is getting to about 60% of land area and the density of seedlings in the two different habitats was 88 seedlings per hectare and 77 seedlings per hectare. The seedlings with the same ages have a better growth conditions in lowland between dunes than those in fixed sand dunes. So the lowland between dunes is thought to be more suitable for seedlings development than the fixed sand dunes. The patterns for distributions of Ulmus pumila seedlings were aggregated distributions in two habitats in the area with radius being 0 to 50 m, but the aggregation intensity of seedlings was higher in lowland between dunes than the fixed sand dunes. The distribution patterns were affected by seed shadow, aggregation of seedlings, arid environment and sand blown by the wind. The patterns for distribution of mature trees were aggregated distributions in radius being 0 to 30 m, and random distribution with radius > 30 m. The soil

  13. Soft Cutting Propagation Technology of Ulmus pumila ‘Zhonghuajinye’%中华金叶榆嫩枝扦插繁殖技术1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐笑玥; 佟兆庆; 闫文涛; 陆秀君; 李常猛

    2016-01-01

    以中华金叶榆( Ulmus pumila‘Jinye’)为试材,剪取当年生枝条中上部做插穗,每个插穗保留2片叶子,用ABT 1000 mg· L-1溶液处理插穗10 s,分别扦插在河沙、珍珠岩、蛭石、草炭、V(珍珠岩)∶V(蛭石)=1∶1、V (珍珠岩)∶V(蛭石)=3∶1、V(珍珠岩)∶V(草炭)=1∶1、V(珍珠岩)∶V(草炭)=3∶1,8种基质上,探究不同扦插基质对插穗生根的影响;采用3因素3水平正交试验设计,即选用ABT、IBA、NAA 3种生根促进剂,每种生根促进剂设计500、1000、1500 mg· L-13个质量浓度梯度,处理时间为10、30、60 s,扦插在V(珍珠岩)∶V(蛭石)=1∶1的基质中,筛选金叶榆嫩枝扦插最佳生根促进剂及处理时间。结果表明:蛭石为最佳基质,插穗生根率为89.17%,平均根数为10条,平均根长为12.92 cm,最长根长为38.5 cm。正交试验结果表明:用质量浓度为500 mg· L-1的IBA生根促进剂处理30 s得到的生根效果较好,生根率为82.22%,平均根长为21.12 cm,平均根数为17条。通过spss软件中的多重比较法分析推测得出,采用1500 mg· L-1 IBA生根促进剂处理插穗基部30 s,得到的金叶榆插穗生根率将会更高。%With Ulm us pumila‘Zhonghuajinye ’ , and one-year branches of the upper part as stem cuttings , each stem cutting retained two leaves .In order to test the influence of different substrates on cutting , stem cuttings were treated with ABT of 1 000 mg· L-1 solution for 10 s and inserted into eight soil substrates including river sand , perlite, vermiculite, peat, per-lite∶vermiculite=1∶1, perlite ∶vermiculite=3∶1, perlite ∶peat=1∶1, and perlite ∶peat=3∶1 ( V/V) , respective-ly.With the purpose of screening the best reagent concentration and the best treatment time for U.pumila‘Zhonghuajinye’ cutting, the experiment was conducted using three

  14. 科尔沁沙地1826年以来榆树树轮宽度年表的建立及降水重建%ESTABLISHMENT OF RING WIDTH CHRONOLOGY AND RAINFALL RECONSTRUCTION OF Ulmus pumila L.IN HORQIN SANDY LAND SINCE 1826

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马龙; 刘廷玺; 冀鸿兰; 罗艳云; 段利民; 杨颖

    2011-01-01

    利用10个采样点230个树木年轮样本,通过树轮分析程序,建立了科尔沁沙地区域1826~2008年共计183年长度的榆树树轮宽度年表.通过分析发现,水热条件与科尔沁沙地榆树生长关系密切.以标准年表及年表t+1年和t+2年序列重建了区域1826~2006年年降水.从过去181年来看,年降水重建序列具有2年、12年、18年和30年等变化准周期,分别经历了5个偏湿和5个偏干阶段,干旱和偏干年份分别占总年份的0.55%和16.02%,1950~2006年间偏干年数占1900~2006年间偏干总年数的78.57%,偏干阶段年数不断增加.降水出现了4次突变,1839年和1920年前后均发生了由少到多的突变,1861年和1958年前后均发生了由多到少的突变,这其中尤以1958年前后突变最为显著.总体上,科尔沁沙地近181年中,1826~1957年近130年间降水变化较为平缓,而后近50年,降水量趋于减少,气候趋于干旱.%The current study was done on Ulmus pumila L. in Horqin sandy land (42°36' ~ 45°20'N, 117°45' ~124°06'E). Samples were collected according to the principles of ecological environment, perception and restoration. Two hundred and thirty U. pumila L. tree ring samples were collected using the tree growth cones from 10 sites ( KLDD , MLML, KLSS , HQHST, ZZMLQ, KLWD. XAHY , ZQBGTL, KLMX. and BLYYC ) in 2009. The pretreatment and dating were carried out according to the analytical procedure for tree rings. The widths of U. pumila L. tree rings were measured and the cross-dating was performed through the COFECHA procedure. The U. pumila L. growth trend was fitted to a negative exponential function or spline calculated using the ARSTAN procedure ( the time step was assumed as 50 years) . The growth trend of U. pumila L. rings was removed , and all samples were used to establish a regional and comprehensive width chronology. The standard.residual,and self-regression chronologies of 183 years ( 1826 to 2008) were obtained. The

  15. 地下水位下降对浑善达克沙地榆树光合及抗逆性的影响%Effects of groundwater decline on photosynthetic characteristics and stress tolerance of Ulmus pumila in Hunshandake Sandy Land, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏华; 李永庚; 苏本营; 孙建新

    2012-01-01

    Aims Ulmus pumila, a widespread tree in the semiarid ecosystems of northern China, forms sparse woodlands in Hunshandake Sandy Land. However, the population of U. Pumila has been declining in recent years because of a lowered water table, mainly caused by increased human water consumption. Our objective was to clarify the relationships between tree ecophysiological activity and the water table in order to provide information for protection of the species.Methods Saplings of U. Pumila were planted in pots with simulated water tables at 1, 2, 3 and 4 m depth (U1, U2, U3 and U4, respectively). The impacts of water tables on the photosynthetic characteristics and stress tole-rence of U. Pumila were determined by analyzing photosynthetic light and CO2 curves, pigments, predawn water potential, soluble sugar and proline.Important findings Both the utilization efficiency of strong and weak light by U. Pumila and the maximum photosynthetic rate decreased with lowered water table. Compared to Ul, the light saturation point, apparent quantum yield and dark respiration rate of U2, U3 and U4 were significantly decreased successively (p < 0.05). The maximum net photosynthetic rate of U4 ((8.98 ± 0.08) μmolm-2s-1) was reduced by 16.9% compared to Ul ((10.81 ± 0.28) μmol·m-2·s-1). Light energy conversion efficiency of U. Pumila also declined with lowered water table. Compared to Ul, the photorespiratory rate, maximum RuBP saturated rate of carboxylation, maximum rate of electron transport and rate of triose-phosphate utilization decreased (p < 0.05) and CO2 compensation point increased in the order of U2 < U3 < U4 (p < 0.05). The soluble sugar and proline contents significantly increased (p < 0.05) with lowered water table, I.e. Ul < U2 < U3 < U4, indicating that the lowered water table induced thegreater stress. Therefore, groundwater decline resulted in drought stress and down-graded photosynthetic ability. This implies that the decrease in U. Pumila population might be

  16. 科尔沁沙地家榆林的种子散布及幼苗更新%Seed dispersal and seedling recruitment of Ulmus pumila woodland in the Keerqin Sandy Land, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨允菲; 白云鹏; 李建东

    2013-01-01

    家榆是典型的风播植物,在科尔沁沙地可以形成单一优势种林地.通过对林缘和孤立树不同方向从树基部向外的有序取样与林下和林窗的随机取样调查,分析了家榆林下和林窗不同生境的种子沉降和幼苗分布特征、林缘和孤立树种子散布方向的差异性与规律性.结果表明,家榆种子密度在林下生境阴坡和阳坡明显大于丘顶和丘底,在林窗生境丘顶明显大于丘底.家榆向周围不同方向种子散布的距离和累积数量均有较大差异,其中林缘和孤立树均以当地多逆风频率的西南方向最近,累积数量也最少;孤立树以多顺风频率的东北方向最远,累积数量也最多.林缘和孤立树共6个方向断面从树基部向外单位面积种子数量频度均适合于韦伯分布和对数-正态分布(X2(a)<0.500)密度函数,具有相同的种子散布格局.家榆幼苗密度在林下阴坡明显大于阳坡,林下和林窗均为丘顶明显大于丘底.林缘19 m内家榆幼苗呈连续分布.在科尔沁沙地,如果不加限制或人为扰动,家榆林不仅可以很好地进行自然更新,而且可以在适宜的沙地生境逐渐扩大其分布空间.%Ulums pumila, a typical anemochorous plant, is the single dominant species of many woodlands in the Keerqin Sandy Land, China. To understand habitat differences in the characteristics of seed deposition and seedling distribution in U. pumila, we randomly surveyed the numbers of seed and seedlings in the habitats of both understory and the wooland gaps. We also measured the abundance of seed and/or seedlings along transects of different directions starting from the woodland edges and the bases of isolated trees to illustrate differences and regulation of seed dispersal directions on the woodland edges and isolated trees. For the understory habitats, U. pumila seed densities on either shady or sunny slopes were significantly higher than both at the top of sand dunes or on the

  17. Ulmaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soepadmo, E.

    1974-01-01

    Monoecious or dioecious (?), evergreen, deciduous or semideciduous shrubs or trees, (in Mal.) unarmed and often buttressed. Growth habit (in Mal.) flush-wise, except for Trema and Parasponia. Indumentum of simple, bulbous-based unicellular hairs and/or multicellular glandular hairs. Stipules caducou

  18. Fire Occurrence Environments in Pinus pumila Forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, many serious forest fires occurred in precious Pinus pumila forests in Daxing'anling Mountains of Heilongjiang Province and Inner Mongolia. But up to now, there is still a lack of proper understanding of fire occurrence environments in P. pumila forests. In present paper, we investigated and studied the fire occurrence environments. The results showed that fires in P. pumila forests had their own special fire environments. Abundant fuel, drought weather, dry thunder and high altitude terrai...

  19. Ulmus davidiana var. japonica Nakai upregulates eosinophils and suppresses Th1 and Th17 cells in the small intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Sung Lee

    Full Text Available The bark of Ulmus davidiana var. japonica Nakai (Ulmaceae has been used in traditional Korean medicine for chronic inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. Here we investigated the frequency and cytokine profile of the major immune cells in the small intestinal lamina propria (SI LP, spleen, and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs of mice treated orally with Ulmus davidiana var. japonica Nakai bark water extract (UDE to address the immunomodulatory role of this herb in intestinal homeostasis. B6 mice were given 5g/kg UDE once daily for 14 days. They were then sacrificed, and cells were isolated from the spleen, MLNs, and SI LP. The proportion of B versus T lymphocytes, CD4(+ versus CD8(+ T lymphocytes, Th1 and Th17 cells, and Foxp3(+ regulatory T cells in the spleen, MLNs, and SI LP were analyzed. The frequency of antigen-presenting cells (APCs, including dendritic cells, macrophages, and eosinophils in the SI LP and the expression of costimulatory molecules on APCs were also evaluated. The numbers and frequencies of Th1 and Th17 cells in the SI LP were significantly reduced in the UDE-treated mice compared with PBS controls. In addition, the proportion of IL-4-producing eosinophils in the SI LP was significantly elevated in the UDE-treated mice compared with controls. Taken together, these data indicate that UDE up-regulates the number and frequency of SI LP eosinophils, which can down-regulate the Th1 and Th17 responses via IL-4 secretion and contribute to intestinal homeostasis.

  20. Resistance to Dutch elm disease reduces presence of xylem endophytic fungi in Elms (Ulmus spp..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A Martín

    Full Text Available Efforts to introduce pathogen resistance into landscape tree species by breeding may have unintended consequences for fungal diversity. To address this issue, we compared the frequency and diversity of endophytic fungi and defensive phenolic metabolites in elm (Ulmus spp. trees with genotypes known to differ in resistance to Dutch elm disease. Our results indicate that resistant U. minor and U. pumila genotypes exhibit a lower frequency and diversity of fungal endophytes in the xylem than susceptible U. minor genotypes. However, resistant and susceptible genotypes showed a similar frequency and diversity of endophytes in the leaves and bark. The resistant and susceptible genotypes could be discriminated on the basis of the phenolic profile of the xylem, but not on basis of phenolics in the leaves or bark. As the Dutch elm disease pathogen develops within xylem tissues, the defensive chemistry of resistant elm genotypes thus appears to be one of the factors that may limit colonization by both the pathogen and endophytes. We discuss a potential trade-off between the benefits of breeding resistance into tree species, versus concomitant losses of fungal endophytes and the ecosystem services they provide.

  1. Safety and efficacy of Labisia pumila containing products

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Syafiq Saleh; Shazwani Shaharuddin; Md. Moklesur Rahman Sarker; Long Chiau Ming

    2016-01-01

    Labisia pumila is a traditional medicinal plant which has wide therapeutic application including induction of labor and treatment of dysentery, dysmenorrhea and gonorrhea. We aimed for systematic review of the efficacy andsafety of L. pumila extract or its other commercial products availabe in Malaysian market. The marketed 500 mg capsule is composed of 40 mg L. pumila, 10 mg C. caudatum extract and 450 mg excipient. The commercial products did not follow the registration guidelines of Malays...

  2. Morfoanatomia da plântula de Celtis iguanaea (Jacq. Sarg. (Ulmaceae = Morphology and anatomy of Celtis iguanaea (Jacq. Sarg. (Ulmaceae seedling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemari Pilati

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Celtis iguanaea é uma espécie pioneira, típica de mata ciliar. O presente estudo visa a investigação da morfoanatomia da plântula dessa espécie, pertencente à Ulmaceae. As sementes, coletadas na planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná, foram germinadas emcâmara de germinação com temperatura constante de 30ºC e mantidas sob luz fluorescente contínua. O desenvolvimento das plântulas ocorreu em casa de vegetação. A análise anatômica foi feita em plântulas fixadas em FAA 50. Esse material foi secionado transversalmente e as seções obtidas foram coradas em safranina e azul de astra. Verificou-seque a plântula é fanerocotiledonar, epigéia, e apresenta raiz ramificada, hipocótilo desenvolvido, cotilédones obovados e persistentes, epicótilo verde e piloso e eofilo oblongo ou lanceolado. A raiz é tetrarca ou diarca. O hipocótilo possui crescimento secundário com periderme de origem profunda. O epicótilo também apresenta crescimento secundário com periderme de origem subepidérmica. Os cotilédones e o eofilo são folhas dorsiventrais comcistólitos.Celtis iguanaea it is a typical arboreal species of ciliar forest, belonging to the family Ulmaceae. This work intends to investigate the morphology and anatomy of seedling species. The seeds used were collected from several trees, in fragments of the Semideciduous Seasonal Alluvial and Submontane Forest located on Upper Paraná Riverfloodplain. The seeds were germinated at constant temperatures (30ºC, using germination chambers and kept under continuous fluorescent light. Seedling development occurred in a greenhouse. Anatomical analysis was made in seedlings fixed in FAA 50. The botanical material was sectioned by microtome and stained with safranin and astra blue. The seedling is phanerocotylar and epigeal, presents ramified root, developed hypocotyl, obovate and persistent cotyledons, green and hairy epicotyl and the first leaf in a shape oblong or lanceolate. Root is

  3. Ex situ conservation of genetic resources of field elm (Ulmus minor Mill and European white elm (Ulmus laevis Pall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Principles of the conservation of genetic resources of elms (Ulmus spp do not differ fundamentally from the general principles accepted for the conservation of genetic resources of other common Noble Hardwoods. Efficient conservation can best be achieved through appropriate combination of in situ and ex situ methods, which have distinct advantages. Besides that, ex situ conservation is employed when emergency measures are needed for rare endangered populations and when populations are too small to be managed in situ (e.g. risks of genetic drift and inbreeding. The aim of our research is ex situ conservation of genetic resources of field elm {Ulmus minor Mill and European white elm (Ulmus laevis Pall through establishment of field genebanks. Sampling was conducted in one population of field elm and one population of white elm. Plant material (buds from 8 trees of field elm and 10 trees of white elm was used for in vitro production of clones. Obtained clones will be used for establishment of field genebanks on the experimental estate of the Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment.

  4. Safety and efficacy of Labisia pumila containing products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Syafiq Saleh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Labisia pumila is a traditional medicinal plant which has wide therapeutic application including induction of labor and treatment of dysentery, dysmenorrhea and gonorrhea. We aimed for systematic review of the efficacy andsafety of L. pumila extract or its other commercial products availabe in Malaysian market. The marketed 500 mg capsule is composed of 40 mg L. pumila, 10 mg C. caudatum extract and 450 mg excipient. The commercial products did not follow the registration guidelines of Malaysian National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau (NPCB and advertisement guidelines of Malaysian Advertisement Board. Randomized, placebo controlled clinical trials reported the safe consumpotion of L. pumila water extract on postmanoposal women. Information on the efficacy and safety of commercial products are not sufficiently available. Many unregistered products (mostly capsule form are flooded in Malaysian market without having scientific information. Consumption of those products may seriously impair the health of the people.

  5. Chloroplast phylogeography of a temperate tree Pteroceltis tatarinowii (Ulmaceae) in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hong LI; Jian-Wen SHAO; Chang LU; Xiao-Ping ZHANG; Ying-Xiong QIU

    2012-01-01

    Pteroceltis tatarinowii Maxim.(Ulmaceae),one of the most widespread temperate canopy trees in mainland China,is the sole representative of the genus Pteroceltis.To illuminate the biogeographic and demographic history of this temperate tree species,we carried out a survey of chloroplast DNA sequence variation (trnS-trnG and psbA-trnH) within and among 28 populations (284 individuals in total) representing most of the distributional range of the species.Based on a total of 13 haplotypes identified,P.tatarinowii was found to harbor surprisingly high levels ofhaplotype and nucleotide diversity (hT =0.71; πT =2.83 × 10-3),possibly associated with its long evolutionary history and wide-scale geographical distribution.Significant chloroplast DNA population subdivision was detected (GST =0.898; NST =0.938),suggesting low levels of recurrent gene flow through seeds among populations and significant phylogeographical structure (NST > GST,P < 0.05).The ancestral haplotypes show clear-cut geographical distribution,and most regions possess a unique set of haplotypes,suggesting multiple potential refugia of the species occurring in montane areas of South China.The haplotype mismatch distributions analysis indicates that populations from North China underwent a spatial northward expansion,which might reflect one of the repeated Pleistocene south-to-north shifts of temperate deciduous forest in North China following cold periods.

  6. Development of microsatellites in Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae), an economically important Malaysian herb 1

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Hong Tnah; Chai Ting Lee; Soon Leong Lee; Chin Hong Ng; Kevin Kit Siong Ng

    2014-01-01

    Premise of the study: The exploitation of Labisia pumila for commercial demand is gradually increasing. It is therefore important that conservation is prioritized to ensure sustainable utilization. We developed microsatellites for L. pumila var. alata and evaluated their polymorphism across var. alata, var. pumila, and var. lanceolata. Methods and Results: Ten polymorphic microsatellites of L. pumila were developed using the magnetic bead hybridization selection approach. A total of 84, 48...

  7. Antifungal, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxicity activities of three varieties of labisia pumila benth: from microwave obtained extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, Ehsan; Jaafar, Hawa ZE; Ahmad, Syahida

    2013-01-01

    Background Labisia pumila, locally known as Kacip Fatimah, is a forest-floor plant that has tremendous potential in the herbal industry. It is one of the five herbal plants identified by the government as one of the national key economic areas to be developed for commercial purposes. There are three varieties of L. pumila namely, L. pumila var. pumila, L. pumila var. alata and L. pumila var. lanceolata and each has its own use. Methods The leaves and roots of the three varieties of L. pumila ...

  8. Development of microsatellites in Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae), an economically important Malaysian herb1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tnah, Lee Hong; Lee, Chai Ting; Lee, Soon Leong; Ng, Chin Hong; Ng, Kevin Kit Siong

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: The exploitation of Labisia pumila for commercial demand is gradually increasing. It is therefore important that conservation is prioritized to ensure sustainable utilization. We developed microsatellites for L. pumila var. alata and evaluated their polymorphism across var. alata, var. pumila, and var. lanceolata. • Methods and Results: Ten polymorphic microsatellites of L. pumila were developed using the magnetic bead hybridization selection approach. A total of 84, 48, and 66 alleles were observed in L. pumila var. alata, var. pumila, and var. lanceolata, respectively. The species is likely a tetraploid, with the majority of the loci exhibiting up to four alleles per individual. • Conclusions: This is the first report on the development of microsatellites in L. pumila. The microsatellites will provide a good basis for investigating the population genetics of the species and will serve as a useful tool for DNA profiling. PMID:25202631

  9. Development of Microsatellites in Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae, an Economically Important Malaysian Herb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Hong Tnah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: The exploitation of Labisia pumila for commercial demand is gradually increasing. It is therefore important that conservation is prioritized to ensure sustainable utilization. We developed microsatellites for L. pumila var. alata and evaluated their polymorphism across var. alata, var. pumila, and var. lanceolata. Methods and Results: Ten polymorphic microsatellites of L. pumila were developed using the magnetic bead hybridization selection approach. A total of 84, 48, and 66 alleles were observed in L. pumila var. alata, var. pumila, and var. lanceolata, respectively. The species is likely a tetraploid, with the majority of the loci exhibiting up to four alleles per individual. Conclusions: This is the first report on the development of microsatellites in L. pumila. The microsatellites will provide a good basis for investigating the population genetics of the species and will serve as a useful tool for DNA profiling.

  10. Protoplast-to-plant regeneration of American elm (Ulmus americana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A M P; Shukla, M R; Biswas, G C G; Saxena, P K

    2015-05-01

    This study describes a protocol for regeneration of plants from cell suspension-derived protoplasts of American elm (Ulmus americana). Efficient protoplast isolation was achieved from a two-phase culture system through the incorporation of 100 μM 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid, with a yield of approximately 2 × 10(6) protoplasts/ml packed cell volume. Isolated protoplasts failed to survive in liquid or alginate bead culture systems but initiated and continued to divide when embedded in low melting point agarose beads. Protoplast-derived callus proliferated and differentiated into shoot buds in response to 10 or 20 μM thidiazuron. Differentiated buds elongated and continued to proliferate on elm shoot medium supplemented with 3.0 μM GA3. The protoplast-derived shoots rooted and acclimatized to greenhouse conditions and continued to grow. This system provides the first protoplast-to-plant regeneration system for American elm and provides a framework for the development of protoplast fusion or genome editing technologies. PMID:25359187

  11. Protoplast-to-plant regeneration of American elm (Ulmus americana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A M P; Shukla, M R; Biswas, G C G; Saxena, P K

    2015-05-01

    This study describes a protocol for regeneration of plants from cell suspension-derived protoplasts of American elm (Ulmus americana). Efficient protoplast isolation was achieved from a two-phase culture system through the incorporation of 100 μM 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid, with a yield of approximately 2 × 10(6) protoplasts/ml packed cell volume. Isolated protoplasts failed to survive in liquid or alginate bead culture systems but initiated and continued to divide when embedded in low melting point agarose beads. Protoplast-derived callus proliferated and differentiated into shoot buds in response to 10 or 20 μM thidiazuron. Differentiated buds elongated and continued to proliferate on elm shoot medium supplemented with 3.0 μM GA3. The protoplast-derived shoots rooted and acclimatized to greenhouse conditions and continued to grow. This system provides the first protoplast-to-plant regeneration system for American elm and provides a framework for the development of protoplast fusion or genome editing technologies.

  12. Structure of Kalanchoë pumila Bak. leaves (Crassulaceae DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykhaylo Chernetskyy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure of Kalanchoё pumila Bak. was studied with the use of stereoscopic, light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the chlorenchymatic tissue was divided into subepidermal small-celled mesophyll and large-celled (water transporting, CAM type mesophyll, placed in the central part of the leaf. The mesophyll structure and its cell ultrastructure indicate C3 photosynthesis in this taxon, whereas CAM photosynthesis, being an adaptive syndrome, is induced by external factors. Three groups of xeromorphic traits were observed in the structure of K. pumila leaves, related to: 1 storing water in the ground and epidermal tissues, 2 decreased transpiration (the closing of stomata during heat, 3 avoiding excess insolation of the mesophyll and overheating of the leaf (striated cuticula, anthocyan pigments, tannin storage. The last two groups of xeromorphic traits also include thickening of the outer walls of cuticular cells, a thick-layered cuticula, and the presence of epicuticular wax and calcium carbonate deposits. Microchannels which enhance transpiration efficiency in developing K. pumila leaves were found in the vicinity of anticlinal walls in the outer walls of epidermal cells. Calcium deposits produced on the leaf surfaces protect them in extreme conditions. Adaptive traits in the structure of K. pumila leaves are conservative and they confirm the relations between this taxon and the conditions in their native land.

  13. Labisia pumila extract protects skin cells from photoaging caused by UVB irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun-kyung; Kim, Dong-hyun; Kim, Jin Wook; Ngadiran, Sulaiman; Sarmidi, Mohamad Roji; Park, Chang Seo

    2010-03-01

    Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae), known as "Kacip Fatimah," has been used by many generations of Malay women to induce and facilitate child birth as well as a post partum medicine. However, its topical application on skin has not been reported yet. In this study, we have focused on the anti-photoaging effects of L. pumila. Extract of L. pumila was first analyzed for their antioxidant activities using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) since UV irradiation is a primary cause of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the skin. The 50% free radical scavenging activity (FSC(50)) of L. pumila extract was determined to be 0.006%, which was equal to that produced by 156 microM ascorbic acid. TNF-alpha and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) play a primary role in the inflammation process upon UV irradiation and are known to be stimulated by UVB. Treatment with L. pumila extract markedly inhibited the TNF-alpha production and the expression of COX-2. Decreased collagen synthesis of human fibroblasts by UVB was restored back to normal level after treatment with L. pumila extract. On the other hand, the enhanced MMP-1 expression upon UVB irradiation was down regulated by L. pumila extract in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, treatment of normal keratinocytes with L. pumila extract attenuated UVB-induced MMP-9 expression. These results collectively suggest L. pumila extract has tremendous potential as an anti-photoaging cosmetic ingredient. PMID:20159580

  14. Fire Burning Characteristics, Attacking Techniques and Safety Precautions in Pinus pumila Scrubs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In China, Pinus pumila is mainly distributed in Daxing’anling, while those growing in the eastern Daxing’anling are primarily covered under the jurisdiction of Huzhong Forest Bureau. P. pumila is an evergreen shrub, 3-6 m high, and always grows vigorously. Its trunks creep along the ground, usually 10 m long or more. It is easily flammable because of the large amounts of resins and volatile oils in its body. Attacking forest fires is a dangerous work, especially in P. pumila scrubs. The fires in P. pumila s...

  15. Flavonoids and phenolic acids from Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Lee Suan; Latiff, Norliza Abdul; Lee, Sze Yean; Lee, Chew Tin; Sarmidi, Mohamad Roji; Aziz, Ramlan Abdul

    2011-08-01

    Both total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of Labisia pumila extracts were determined spectrophotometrically. L. pumila leaves extracted in 60% methanol (MeOH) were fractionated on C18 cartridge and the antioxidant property of each fraction was determined by measuring free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity. The 40% MeOH fraction exhibited the highest scavenging activity. Nine flavonols (quercetin, myricetin and kaempferol), two flavanols (catechin and epigallocatechin) and nine phenolic acids were identified from this active fraction by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS, and confirmed by comparison with the mass spectra of standard aglycones, theoretical fragments generated from MS Fragmenter software, and literature values. PMID:25214112

  16. The effects of grazing on the spatial pattern of elm (Ulmus pumila L.) in the sparse woodland steppe of Horqin Sandy Land in northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Wu, J.; Tang, Y.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effects of grazing on the formation of the spatial pattern of elm growth in a sparse woodland steppe. We used a point pattern method to analyze the elm trees within different diameter at breast height (DBH) classes in both grazed and fenced plots, which were established in Horqin Sandy Land of northeastern China. The results showed that, in the grazed plot, the distances where transformation between random and clustered patterns occurred in class 1 (10 cm ≤ DBH ≤ 15 cm) and class 2 (15 cm 20 cm) were 3.13, 3.13 and 7.85 m, respectively. In the fenced plot, at distances larger than 67.72 m there was a negative association between classes 1 and 2, which was also the case between classes 2 and 3 and between classes 1 and 3 for distances greater than 104.09 and 128.54 m, respectively. Meanwhile, negative associations occurred only at distances larger than 29.38 m in the grazed plot. These findings suggest that grazing reduced the competition intensity between elm trees; and therefore, grazing management could be an effective strategy used to regulate the elm population in the degraded sandy land of northern China.

  17. Structure of Kalanchoë pumila Bak. leaves (Crassulaceae DC.)

    OpenAIRE

    Mykhaylo Chernetskyy; Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-01-01

    The structure of Kalanchoё pumila Bak. was studied with the use of stereoscopic, light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the chlorenchymatic tissue was divided into subepidermal small-celled mesophyll and large-celled (water transporting, CAM type) mesophyll, placed in the central part of the leaf. The mesophyll structure and its cell ultrastructure indicate C3 photosynthesis in this taxon, whereas CAM photosynthesis, being an adaptive syndrome, is induced by e...

  18. Glacial Refugium of Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel in Northeastern Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shilo, N A; Lozhkin, A V; Anderson, P M; Brown, T A; Pakhomov, A Y; Solomatkina, T B

    2007-02-10

    One of the most glowing representatives of the Kolyma flora [1], ''Pinus pumila'' (Pall.) Regel (Japanese stone pine), is a typical shrub in larch forests of the northern Okhotsk region, basins of the Kolyma and Indigirka rivers, and high-shrub tundra of the Chukchi Peninsula. It also forms a pine belt in mountains above the forest boundary, which gives way to the grass-underbrush mountain tundra and bald mountains. In the southern Chukchi Peninsula, ''Pinus pumila'' along with ''Duschekia fruticosa'' (Rupr.) Pouzar and ''Betula middendorffii'' Trautv. et C. A. Mey form trailing forests transitional between tundra and taiga [2]. Pinus pumila pollen, usually predominating in subfossil spore-and-pollen spectra of northeastern Siberia, is found as single grains or a subordinate component (up 2-3%, rarely 10%) in spectra of lacustrine deposits formed during the last glacial stage (isotope stage 2) in the Preboreal and Boreal times of the Holocene. Sometimes, its content increases to 15-22% in spectra of lacustrine deposits synchronous to the last glacial stage near the northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk [3], evidently indicating the proximity of Japanese stone pine thickets.

  19. Anti-inlfammatory, analgesic and antipyretic potentials of marine spongeSigmadocia pumila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Devaraj Isaac Dhinakaran; Aaron Premnath Lipton

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the pharmacological properties ofSigmadocia pumila(S. pumila), a marine sponge, throughin-vivoanalysis. Methods: The anti-inflammatory activity was determined by the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema method. The analgesic activity was analyzed by tail immersion method. Antipyretic activity was done by using Brewer’s yeast induced hyperpyrexia method. Results:The anti-inflammatory activity using methanol extracts inS. pumila at the concentrations of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, (p.o.) on rats showed significant decrease in the paw thickness at the 5th h of administration. It was denoted that theS. pumila exerted more analgesic activity. As for the antipyretic activity during the 2nd and 3rd h, the 3rd and 4th group of rats showed the reduction in temperature inS. pumila at 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg dosages. Conclusions:The present study concludes that the marine spongeS. pumila acts as a vital role in exhibiting pharmaceutical activities. It could be used to produce novel drugs.

  20. Genetic relationship among Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae) species based on ISSR-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, E; Jaafar, H Z E; Aziz, M A; Taheri, S; AzadiGonbad, R

    2014-01-01

    The genus Labisia (Myrsinaceae) is a popular medicinal plant in Malaysia. We examined the genetic relationship among three varieties of L. pumila var. pumila, L. pumila var. alata, L. pumila var. lanceolata and Labisia paucifolia using an ISSR assay. Fifty-eight primers were tested, among which 18 gave reliable polymorphic banding patterns; these yielded 264 polymorphic markers. A similarity matrix was used to construct a dendrogram, and a principal component plot was developed to examine genetic relationships among varieties. Jaccard's similarity coefficient among species ranged from 0.09 to 0.14. At a similarity of 0.117%, species were divided into two main clusters. The mean value of the observed number of alleles, the effective number of alleles, mean Nei's gene diversity, and Shannon's information index were 1.98, 1.64, 0.38, and 0.57, respectively. PMID:24841662

  1. The Effect of Labisia pumila var. alata on Postmenopausal Women: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Azidah Abdul Kadir; Nik Hazlina Nik Hussain; Wan Mohammad Wan Bebakar; Dayang Marshitah Mohd; Wan Mohd Zahiruddin Wan Mohammad; Intan Idiana Hassan; Norlela Shukor; Nor Azmi Kamaruddin; Wan Nazaimoon Wan Mohamud

    2012-01-01

    This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study comparing the effects of a water extract of Labisia pumila var. alata at 280 mg/day with placebo, given for 6 months in postmenopausal Malay women. There were 29 patients treated with Labisia pumila and 34 patients in the placebo group. Menopausal symptoms were assessed at baseline and at 6 months. The blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, and hormonal profile (follicle stimulating...

  2. Comparative effects of plant growth regulators on leaf and stem explants of Labisia pumila var. alata

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, Anna Pick Kiong; Tan, Kinn Poay; Hussein, Sobri

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Labisia pumila var. alata, commonly known as ‘Kacip Fatimah’ or ‘Selusuh Fatimah’ in Southeast Asia, is traditionally used by members of the Malay community because of its post-partum medicinal properties. Its various pharmaceutical applications cause an excessive harvesting and lead to serious shortage in natural habitat. Thus, this in vitro propagation study investigated the effects of different plant growth regulators (PGRs) on in vitro leaf and stem explants of L. pumila. Metho...

  3. Food availability affects Osmia pumila (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) foraging, reproduction, and brood parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodell, Karen

    2003-03-01

    Food limitation can reduce reproductive success directly, as well as indirectly, if foraging imposes a risk of predation or parasitism. The solitary bee Osmia pumila suffers brood parasitism by the cleptoparasitic wasp Sapyga centrata, which enters the host nest to oviposit while the female bee is away. I studied foraging and reproduction of O. pumila nesting within cages stocked with rich or sparse floral resources, and the presence or absence of S. centrata to test (1) the response of nesting female O. pumila to food shortages, (2) the response of nesting female O. pumila to the presence of parasites, and (3) whether brood produced under scarce resources are more likely to be parasitized by S. centrata. The rate of brood cell production was significantly lower in cages with sparse floral resources, although females in sparse cages did not produce significantly fewer brood cells overall. Sapyga centrata did not influence the rate of brood cell production, but females exposed to the cleptoparasites had marginally significantly lower reproductive output. Nests in parasite cages had significantly fewer brood cells than those in parasite free cages. The mean duration of foraging bouts made by female O. pumila in sparse cages was not significantly longer than that in rich cages. O. pumila spent less time in the nest between pollen and nectar foraging bouts in sparse cages with S. centrata than those in other cages suggesting that these individuals made more frequent food foraging trips. Despite the weak effects of parasites and bloom density on foraging behavior, O. pumila brood cells experienced a 5-fold higher probability of parasitism by S. centrata in cages with sparse bloom than in those with rich bloom [corrected]. These results support the hypothesis that indirect effects of food scarcity increase O. pumila susceptibility to brood parasitism, although the exact mechanism is not entirely clear yet. PMID:12647124

  4. Efficacy and safety of Labisia pumila var alata water extract among pre- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhayati, Mohd Noor; George, Annie; Hazlina, Nik Hussain Nik; Azidah, Abdul Kadir; Idiana, Hassan Intan; Law, Kim Sooi; Bahari, Ismail Shaiful; Zahiruddin, Wan Mohamed Wan; Liske, Eckehard; Azreena, Abas

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness and safety of Labisia pumila var alata (L. pumila) water extract for improving quality of life, cardiovascular and hormonal balance. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group, 16-week study in healthy pre- and postmenopausal women aged 40-60 years was conducted in Kelantan, Malaysia. The subjects were randomized to 400 mg propriety extract of L. pumila or placebo. A Women's Health Questionnaire was used to assess quality of life. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate the data. A total of 197 subjects (L. pumila: n=102 and placebo: n=95) were analyzed. Subjects in the herbal group showed improved memory/concentration, vasomotor symptoms, menstrual symptoms, and sleep problems by 8.3%, 15.9%, 11.8%, and 31.0%, respectively. The greatest improvement was observed for the question: "I get frightened or panic feelings for apparently no reason at all" with a 53% decrease as compared with placebo. Improvements were also seen in the cardiovascular parameters, and the safety profiles were normal. Postmenopausal women supplemented with L. pumila showed no changes in gynecological relevant hormones luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and 17β-Estradiol. Water extract of L. pumila was shown to be safe and effective for improving several parameters of quality of life and cardiovascular risks factors (total cholesterol [TC], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]). PMID:25000151

  5. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic potentials of marine sponge Sigmadocia pumila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devaraj Isaac Dhinakaran

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the pharmacological properties of Sigmadocia pumila (S. pumila, a marine sponge, through in-vivo analysis. Methods: The anti-inflammatory activity was determined by the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema method. The analgesic activity was analyzed by tail immersion method. Antipyretic activity was done by using Brewer’s yeast induced hyperpyrexia method. Results: The anti-inflammatory activity using methanol extracts in S. pumila at the concentrations of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, (p.o. on rats showed significant decrease in the paw thickness at the 5th h of administration. It was denoted that the S. pumila exerted more analgesic activity. As for the antipyretic activity during the 2nd and 3rd h, the 3rd and 4th group of rats showed the reduction in temperature in S. pumila at 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg dosages. Conclusions: The present study concludes that the marine sponge S. pumila acts as a vital role in exhibiting pharmaceutical activities. It could be used to produce novel drugs.

  6. Intoxicação por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae em caprinos no Estado de Santa Catarina Poisoning by Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae in goats in the State of Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Gava

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e cinco caprinos, criados em piquetes, morreram nos cinco dias subsequentes ao fornecimento de folhas de Trema micrantha (fam.Ulmaceae, uma árvore com nome comum de grandiúva. Quatro caprinos foram necropsiados e amostras de vísceras foram coletadas para exame histológico. As principais alterações clínicas foram: apatia, anorexia, cabeça apoiada contra obstáculos, decúbito e morte. Achados macroscópicos incluíram sufusões no epicárdio e endocárdio; fígado levemente amarelado e com padrão lobular evidente e, em um caso, acompanhado de hemorragias multifocais. Na histologia observou-se necrose hepática, que variava de centrolobular a massiva, compatível com hepatopatia tóxica. No SNC havia satelitose, tumefação neuronal, edema periaxonal, perivascular. O diagnóstico de intoxicação por Trema micrantha foi baseado no quadro clínico e lesional de hepatite tóxica associado ao uso da planta para alimentação de caprinos.Twenty five goats, maintained in paddocks, had died in five subsequent days after have been offered leaves, mixed in the ration, of Trema micrantha, a tree commonly called grandiúva. Four animals were necropsied and samples were collected for histopathology. Clinical signs included apathy, anorexia, head pressing against obstacles, decubitus and death. Macroscopic findings included suffusions in the epi- and endocardium, a yellowish liver with pronounced lobular pattern, in one goat, the liver presented additionally multiple visible hemorrhages. Histological examination revealed centrilobular to massive hepatic necrosis consistent with acute liver toxicosis. In the brain, satelitosis, neuronal swelling, and perineuronal and perivascular edema was found. The diagnosis of poisoning by Trema micrantha was based in the clinical picture characteristic of toxic hepatitis associated in the feeding of the plant to the goats.

  7. Paleoclimatic implications of glacial and postglacial refugia for Pinus pumila in western Beringia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, P M; Lozhkin, A V; Solomatkina, T B; Brown, T A

    2010-02-05

    Palynological results from Julietta Lake currently provide the most direct evidence to support the existence of a glacial refugium for Pinus pumila in mountains of southwestern Beringia. Both percentages and accumulation rates indicate the evergreen shrub survived until at least {approx}19,000 14C yr B.P. in the Upper Kolyma region. Percentage data suggest numbers dwindled into the late glaciation, whereas pollen accumulation rates point towards a more rapid demise shortly after {approx}19,000 14C yr B.P. Pinus pumila did not re-establish in any great numbers until {approx}8100 14C yr B.P., despite the local presence {approx}9800 14C yr B.P. of Larix dahurica, which shares similar summer temperature requirements. The postglacial thermal maximum (in Beringia {approx}11,000-9000 14C yr B.P.) provided Pinus pumila shrubs with equally harsh albeit different conditions for survival than those present during the LGM. Regional records indicate that in this time of maximum warmth Pinus pumila likely sheltered in a second, lower-elevation refugium. Paleoclimatic models and modern ecology suggest that shifts in the nature of seasonal transitions and not only seasonal extremes have played important roles in the history of Pinus pumila over the last {approx}21,000 14C yr B.P.

  8. Sub-acute toxicity evaluation of an aqueous extract of Labisia pumila, a Malaysian herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G D; Ganjoo, M; Youssouf, M S; Koul, A; Sharma, R; Singh, S; Sangwan, P L; Koul, S; Ahamad, D B; Johri, R K

    2009-10-01

    Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae), is a popular herb among the women in Malaysia known locally as "Kacip Fatimah". Recently many nutraceutical products containing the powdered or extracted parts of the plant have become available for women's health care. However no evaluation of the effect of the repeated dosing of any herbal product of this plant had been undertaken prior to a 28-day sub-acute study presented in this report. The results showed that a dose of 50mg/kg of an aqueous extract of L. pumila corresponded to no-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL), whereas higher doses were associated with some toxicity concerns. PMID:19654032

  9. Review on Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah): bioactive phytochemicals and skin collagen synthesis promoting herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Lee Suan; Lee, Sze Yean; Abdullah, Norhanisah; Sarmidi, Mohamad Roji

    2012-12-01

    Labisia pumila is a traditional herb widely used as post-partum medication for centuries. Recently, extensive researches have been carried out on the phytochemical identification, biological and toxicological studies for the herb. Phytochemicals found in the herbal extract showed high antioxidant properties, which were essential for various pharmacological activities. The significant findings are anti-estrogenic deficiency and -immunodeficiency diseases. Another finding that has considerable impact on natural product research is the contribution of L. pumila in promoting skin collagen synthesis. The performance of the herb as anti-aging agent due to natural aging process and accelerated by UV radiation was reviewed critically. PMID:22521793

  10. Pharmacognostical and Priliminary Phytochemical Studies on the Leaf Extract of Ficus Pumila Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasreet Kaur

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ficus pumila Linn. (Family: Moraceae, commonly known as climbing fig. It is widely used as an ethno medicine in china and India. It is prescribed for a wide variety of ailments like diarrhea, hemorrhoids, treating gastrointestinal, piles, uterine problems and other infections. However, detailed scientific information is not available to identify the plant material and to ascertain its quality and purity. In present communication, morphology anatomical and physico-chemical characters along with phytochemical screening and fluorescence analysis of powdered crude drug were carried out for systemic identification and authentication of leaves. This study provides referential information for identification and characterization of Ficus pumila leaf and its extracts.

  11. Evaluation of drug interaction potential of Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah) and its constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah) is a popular herb in Malaysia that has been traditionally used in a number of women's health applications such as to improve libido, relieve postmenopausal symptoms, and to facilitate or hasten delivery in childbirth. In addition, the constituents of this plant have be...

  12. Odontites verna (Bell.) Dum. subsp. pumila (Nordst.) A. Pedersen in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedersen, Anfred

    1963-01-01

    The author gives a brief survey of ecology, distribution, and differences in flowering time of Odontites verna (Bell.) Dum. subsp. verna, subsp. litoralis (Fr.) A. Pedersen, subsp. fennica (Markl.), subsp. serotina (Wettst.) E. F. Warb., and subsp. pumila (Nordst.) A. Pedersen. In a description of t

  13. Antiproliferative and Proapoptotic Effects of Labisia pumila Ethanol Extract and Its Active Fraction in Human Melanoma HM3KO Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lope Pihie, Azimahtol Hawariah; Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin; Othman, Fezah

    2012-01-01

    The present study was to determine the anticancer potential of Labisia pumila in in vitro models. Results from the study revealed that ethanol extract of L. pumila was more cytotoxic against HM3KO cells while having reduced effects on nonmalignant cells as compared to aqueous and hexane extracts. Thus, ethanol extract was selected to be further separated by using the bioassay-guided fractionation method to give an active fraction, SF2Lp. Results obtained from the flow cytometry analysis showe...

  14. Phenolics and flavonoids compounds, phenylanine ammonia lyase and antioxidant activity responses to elevated CO₂ in Labisia pumila (Myrisinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Karimi, Ehsan

    2012-01-01

    A split plot 3 × 3 experiment was designed to examine the impact of three concentrations of CO₂ (400, 800 and 1,200 μmol·mol⁻¹) on the phenolic and flavonoid compound profiles, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and antioxidant activity in three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. (var. alata, pumila and lanceolata) after 15 weeks of exposure. HPLC analysis revealed a strong influence of increased CO₂ concentration on the modification of phenolic and flavonoid profiles, whose intensity depended on the interaction between CO₂ levels and L. pumila varieties. Gallic acid and quercetin were the most abundant phenolics and flavonoids commonly present in all the varieties. With elevated CO₂ (1,200 μmol·mol⁻¹) exposure, gallic acid increased tremendously, especially in var. alata and pumila (101-111%), whilst a large quercetin increase was noted in var. lanceolata (260%), followed closely by alata (201%). Kaempferol, although detected under ambient CO₂ conditions, was undetected in all varieties after exposure. Instead, caffeic acid was enhanced tremendously in var. alata (338~1,100%) and pumila (298~433%). Meanwhile, pyragallol and rutin were only seen in var. alata (810 μg·g⁻¹ DW) and pumila (25 μg·g⁻¹ DW), respectively, under ambient conditions; but the former compound went undetected in all varieties while rutin continued to increase by 262% after CO₂ enrichment. Interestingly, naringenin that was present in all varieties under ambient conditions went undetected under enrichment, except for var. pumila where it was enhanced by 1,100%. PAL activity, DPPH and FRAP also increased with increasing CO₂ levels implying the possible improvement of health-promoting quality of Malaysian L. pumila under high CO₂ enrichment conditions. PMID:22634843

  15. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization on Synthesis of Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Three Varieties of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Blume)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Asmah Rahmat; Zaharah Abdul Rahman

    2011-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to examine the impact of 15-week variable levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha) on the characteristics of total flavonoids (TF), total phenolics (TP), total non structurable carbohydrate (TNC), net assimilation rate, leaf chlorophyll content, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N), phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL) and protein content, and their relationships, in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume (alata, pumila and lanceolata...

  16. Fatty acid composition, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of the microwave aqueous extract of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, Ehsan; Jaafar, Hawa ZE; Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study was conducted in order to evaluate the fatty acid profile, anti-oxidant and anti-bacterial activities from the microwave aqueous extract of the leaves of three different varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Results The chemical analysis of the extract showed that fatty acids (palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic) acid as the main components in three varieties of L. pumila leaves. Furthermore, the obtained results of the anti-oxidant reveal...

  17. Phenolics and Flavonoids Compounds, Phenylanine Ammonia Lyase and Antioxidant Activity Responses to Elevated CO2 in Labisia pumila (Myrisinaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Ehsan Karimi; Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    A split plot 3 × 3 experiment was designed to examine the impact of three concentrations of CO2 (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol·mol−1) on the phenolic and flavonoid compound profiles, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and antioxidant activity in three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. (var. alata, pumila and lanceolata) after 15 weeks of exposure. HPLC analysis revealed ...

  18. The Relationship of Nitrogen and C/N Ratio with Secondary Metabolites Levels and Antioxidant Activities in Three Varieties of Malaysian Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.

    2011-01-01

    Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume), one of the most famous and widely used herbs, especially in Southeast Asia, is found to have interesting bioactive compounds and displays health promoting properties. In this study, the antioxidant activities of the methanol extracts of leaves, stems and roots of three varieties of L. pumila (var. alata, pumila and lanceolata) were evaluated in an effort to compare and validate the medicinal potential of this indigenous Malaysian herb species. The antioxi...

  19. Ecological and morphological studies in the hybrid zone between Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila

    OpenAIRE

    S.N. Goroshkevich; Popov, A. G.; G.V. Vasilieva

    2013-01-01

    In the Baikal Region, there is no phenological isolation between Siberian stone pine (P. sibirica Du Tour) and Siberian dwarf stone pine (P. pumila (Pall.) Regel) since the timing of their 'flowering' coincides. Morphologically intermediate individuals, supposedly natural hybrids,occur not very often. In the west half of Stanovoye upland area four regions were investigated: Barguzinskiy, Baikalskiy, Verchneangarskiy and the Severo-Myiskiy mountain ridges. Interspecific natural hybridization w...

  20. Labisia pumila regulates bone-related genes expressions in postmenopausal osteoporosis model

    OpenAIRE

    Fathilah, Siti Noor; Mohamed, Norazlina; Muhammad, Norliza; Mohamed, Isa Naina; Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun

    2013-01-01

    Background Labisia Pumila var. alata (LPva) has shown potential as an alternative to estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) in prevention of estrogen-deficient osteoporosis. In earlier studies using postmenopausal model, LPva was able to reverse the ovariectomy-induced changes in biochemical markers, bone calcium, bone histomorphometric parameters and biomechanical strength. The mechanism behind these protective effects is unclear but LPva may have regulated factors that regulate bone remodeling....

  1. Decontamination of dried Phyllanthus niruri (Dokong anak) and Labisa pumila (Kacip Fatimah) using gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbs, spices and dry food ingredients are gamma irradiated to control pest and microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Irradiation is an effective decontamination method for herbs. Two herbal teas of Phyllanthus niruri (Dokong anak) and Labisa pumila (Kacip Fatimah) bought from a local supplier were selected for the present study. Phyllanthus niruri from Family Euphorbiaceae is native to the tropics. This medicinal herb is found throughout South East Asia and tropical Australia. In Malaysia, it is used to treat diarrhoea, kidney ailment, gonorrhoea, syphilis, urological disorders and taken as tonic after miscarriage and childbirth. Early clinical observations showed that the plant has a great potential as a diuretic, hypotensive and hypoglycaemic drug for humans with no side effects. Labisia pumila is a well known herb for women, which is to induce and ease childbirth and as a post-mortem medication to contract the womb, delay conception, regain body strength, firm up breasts and abdominal muscles. It is also used to treat dysentery, rheumatism and gonorrhoea. The herbal samples were screened for their microbiological quality, including detecting the presence of pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp. and other coliforms. The results indicated that the total plate count (TPC) for Phyllanthus niruri and Labisa pumila were 1.44 x 109 and 1.39 x 106 colonies per g sample, respectively. No pathogenic microbes were detected in both samples. When irradiated with gamma rays using the Gamma cell, the microbial counts decreased with increasing radiation doses. No microbial colonies were detected after irradiation at greater than 10 kGy in both herbal samples. Gamma irradiation of 10 kGy were suggested as the minimum doses for the decontamination of dried preparations of Phyllanthus niruri and Labisa pumila, respectively, to reduce the microbial counts to an acceptable level of 102 colonies per g sample. (author)

  2. Evaluation of drug interaction potential of Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah) and its constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manda, Vamshi K; Dale, Olivia R; Awortwe, Charles; Ali, Zulfiqar; Khan, Ikhlas A; Walker, Larry A; Khan, Shabana I

    2014-01-01

    Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah) is a popular herb in Malaysia that has been traditionally used in a number of women's health applications such as to improve libido, relieve postmenopausal symptoms, and to facilitate or hasten delivery in childbirth. In addition, the constituents of this plant have been reported to possess anticancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Clinical studies have indicated that cytochrome P450s (CYPs), P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and Pregnane X receptor (PXR) are the three main modulators of drug-drug interactions which alter the absorption, distribution, and metabolism of drugs. Given the widespread use of Kacip Fatimah in dietary supplements, the current study focuses on determining the potential of its constituents to affect the activities of CYPs, P-gp, or PXR using in vitro assays which may provide useful information toward the risk of herb-drug interaction with concomitantly used drugs. Six compounds isolated from the roots of L. pumila (2 saponins and 4 alkyl phenols) were tested, in addition to the methanolic extract. The extract of L. pumila showed a significant time dependent inhibition (TDI) of CYP3A4, reversible inhibition of CYP2C9 and 2C19 and a weak inhibition of 1A2 and 2D6 as well as an inhibition of P-gp and rifampicin-induced PXR activation. The alkyl phenols inhibited CYP3A4 (TDI), CYP2C9, and 2C19 (reversible) while saponins inhibited P-gp and PXR. In conclusion, L. pumila and its constituents showed significant modulation of all three regulatory proteins (CYPs, P-gp, and PXR) suggesting a potential to alter the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of conventional drugs if used concomitantly. PMID:25152732

  3. Evaluation of drug interaction potential of Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah) and its constituents

    OpenAIRE

    Vamshikrishna eManda; Olivia Reed Dale; Charles eAwortwe; Zulfiqar eAli; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Walker, Larry A.; Khan, Shabana I.

    2014-01-01

    Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah) is a popular herb in Malaysia that has been traditionally used in a number of women’s health applications such as to improve libido, relieve postmenopausal symptoms, and to facilitate or hasten delivery in childbirth. In addition, the constituents of this plant have been reported to possess anticancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Clinical studies have indicated that cytochrome P450s (CYPs), P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and Pregnane X receptor (PXR) ...

  4. Evaluation of drug interaction potential of Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah and its constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamshikrishna eManda

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah is a popular herb in Malaysia that has been traditionally used in a number of women’s health applications such as to improve libido, relieve postmenopausal symptoms, and to facilitate or hasten delivery in childbirth. In addition, the constituents of this plant have been reported to possess anticancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Clinical studies have indicated that cytochrome P450s (CYPs, P-glycoprotein (P-gp, and Pregnane X receptor (PXR are the three main modulators of drug-drug interactions which alter the absorption, distribution, and metabolism of drugs. Given the widespread use of Kacip Fatimah in dietary supplements, the current study focuses on determining the potential of its constituents to affect the activities of CYPs, P-gp, or PXR using in vitro assays which may provide useful information towards the risk of herb-drug interaction with concomitantly used drugs. Six compounds isolated from the roots of Labisia pumila (2 saponins and 4 alkyl phenols were tested, in addition to the methanolic extract. The extract of Labisia pumila showed a significant time dependent inhibition (TDI of CYP3A4, reversible inhibition of CYP2C9 and 2C19 and a weak inhibition of 1A2 and 2D6 as well as an inhibition of P-gp and rifampicin-induced PXR activation. The alkyl phenols inhibited CYP3A4 (TDI, CYP2C9 and 2C19 (reversible while saponins inhibited P-gp and PXR. In conclusion, Labisia pumila and its constituents showed significant modulation of all three regulatory proteins (CYPs, P-gp and PXR suggesting a potential to alter the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of conventional drugs if used concomitantly.

  5. On the activity of alpha-glucanphosphorylase in Setaria pumila and Festuca pratensis

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Ciornea; Gabriela Vasile

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of the present study involves determination of the α-glucanphosphorylase in germinated caryopses of Setaria pumila and Festuca pratensis, through dosing of the anorganic phosphorous, seed germination being performed in Petri plates, at room temperature, for 10 days, while taking over of the samples occurred at intervals of 24 hours. In the enzymatic extracts thus obtained, starch concentration was also determined, by the polarimetric method, while the concentrat...

  6. Optimization and characterization of Tl(I) adsorption onto modified ulmus carpinifolia tree leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolgharnein, Javad; Asanjarani, Neda [Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Arak University, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mousavi, S. Norollah [Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics, Arak University, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    Ulmus carpinifolia tree leaves were successfully used to remove Tl(I) from aqueous solution in a batch system. In order to improve the uptake capacity of sorbent, it was modified by various chemical agents such as NaOH, HNO{sub 3}, NH{sub 3}, NaCl, NaHCO{sub 3}, and CaCl{sub 2}. Among the modifiers, NaCl was the best. Equilibrium behavior of sorbent with Tl(I) was examined by the several isotherms. Considering modified U. carpinifolia equilibrium data fitted well to the Langmuir model with maximum capacity of 54.6 mg/g. The other isotherms such as: Freundlich and Dubinin-Redushkevich (D-R) models were also examined. The central composite design (CCD) was successfully employed for optimization of biosorption process. An empirical model was given through using response surface methodology. Also its validation was recognized by using relevant statistical tests such as ANOVA. The optimum conditions of biosorption: pH, m (amount of sorbent) and C (initial concentration) were found to be 7.9, 11.4 g/L, and 8.8 mg/L, respectively. On the other hand thermodynamic parameters: {Delta}G, {Delta}H, and {Delta}S were evaluated: the obtained results show that biosorption process was spontaneous and exothermic. Eventually, FT-IR analysis confirmed that the main functional groups of sorbent have been involved through the biosorption process. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. The Effect of Labisia pumila var. alata on Postmenopausal Women: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Kadir, Azidah; Nik Hussain, Nik Hazlina; Wan Bebakar, Wan Mohammad; Mohd, Dayang Marshitah; Wan Mohammad, Wan Mohd Zahiruddin; Hassan, Intan Idiana; Shukor, Norlela; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi; Wan Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon

    2012-01-01

    This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study comparing the effects of a water extract of Labisia pumila var. alata at 280 mg/day with placebo, given for 6 months in postmenopausal Malay women. There were 29 patients treated with Labisia pumila and 34 patients in the placebo group. Menopausal symptoms were assessed at baseline and at 6 months. The blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, and hormonal profile (follicle stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone/estradiol) were measured during visits every two months. ANCOVA model analysis showed significantly lower triglycerides levels in LP subjects at 6 months after treatment as compared to placebo (1.4 versus 1.9 mmol/L; adj. mean difference 0.5, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.89 after adjusted for the baseline values, age, BMI, and duration of menopause placebo). Other parameters in both groups did not differ significantly. In conclusion, daily intake of Labisia pumila at 280 mg/day for six months was found to provide benefit in reducing the triglyceride (TG) values. PMID:22701504

  8. The Effect of Labisia pumila var. alata on Postmenopausal Women: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azidah Abdul Kadir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study comparing the effects of a water extract of Labisia pumila var. alata at 280 mg/day with placebo, given for 6 months in postmenopausal Malay women. There were 29 patients treated with Labisia pumila and 34 patients in the placebo group. Menopausal symptoms were assessed at baseline and at 6 months. The blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, and hormonal profile (follicle stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone/estradiol were measured during visits every two months. ANCOVA model analysis showed significantly lower triglycerides levels in LP subjects at 6 months after treatment as compared to placebo (1.4 versus 1.9 mmol/L; adj. mean difference 0.5, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.89 after adjusted for the baseline values, age, BMI, and duration of menopause placebo. Other parameters in both groups did not differ significantly. In conclusion, daily intake of Labisia pumila at 280 mg/day for six months was found to provide benefit in reducing the triglyceride (TG values.

  9. Morfoanatomia da plântula de Celtis iguanaea (Jacq. Sarg. (Ulmaceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i1.1051 Morphology and anatomy of Celtis iguanaea (Jacq. Sarg. (Ulmaceae seedling - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i1.1051

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemari Pilati

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Celtis iguanaea é uma espécie pioneira, típica de mata ciliar. O presente estudo visa a investigação da morfoanatomia da plântula dessa espécie, pertencente à Ulmaceae. As sementes, coletadas na planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná, foram germinadas em câmara de germinação com temperatura constante de 30ºC e mantidas sob luz fluorescente contínua. O desenvolvimento das plântulas ocorreu em casa de vegetação. A análise anatômica foi feita em plântulas fixadas em FAA 50. Esse material foi secionado transversalmente e as seções obtidas foram coradas em safranina e azul de astra. Verificou-se que a plântula é fanerocotiledonar, epigéia, e apresenta raiz ramificada, hipocótilo desenvolvido, cotilédones obovados e persistentes, epicótilo verde e piloso e eofilo oblongo ou lanceolado. A raiz é tetrarca ou diarca. O hipocótilo possui crescimento secundário com periderme de origem profunda. O epicótilo também apresenta crescimento secundário com periderme de origem subepidérmica. Os cotilédones e o eofilo são folhas dorsiventrais com cistólitosCeltis iguanaea it is a typical arboreal species of ciliar forest, belonging to the family Ulmaceae. This work intends to investigate the morphology and anatomy of seedling species. The seeds used were collected from several trees, in fragments of the Semideciduous Seasonal Alluvial and Submontane Forest located on Upper Paraná River floodplain. The seeds were germinated at constant temperatures (30ºC, using germination chambers and kept under continuous fluorescent light. Seedling development occurred in a greenhouse. Anatomical analysis was made in seedlings fixed in FAA 50. The botanical material was sectioned by microtome and stained with safranin and astra blue. The seedling is phanerocotylar and epigeal, presents ramified root, developed hypocotyl, obovate and persistent cotyledons, green and hairy epicotyl and the first leaf in a shape oblong or lanceolate. Root

  10. Co-overexpression of geraniol-10-hydroxylase and strictosidine synthase improves anti-cancer drug camptothecin accumulation in Ophiorrhiza pumila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lijie; Ni, Xiaoling; Ji, Qian; Teng, Xiaojuan; Yang, Yanru; Wu, Chao; Zekria, David; Zhang, Dasheng; Kai, Guoyin

    2015-01-01

    Camptothecin (CPT) belongs to a group of monoterpenoidindole alkaloids (TIAs) and its derivatives such as irinothecan and topothecan have been widely used worldwide for the treatment of cancer, giving rise to rapidly increasing market demands. Genes from Catharanthus roseus encoding strictosidine synthase (STR) and geraniol 10-hydroxylase (G10H), were separately and simultaneously introduced into Ophiorrhiza pumila hairy roots. Overexpression of individual G10H (G lines) significantly improved CPT production with respect to non-transgenic hairy root cultures (NC line) and single STR overexpressing lines (S lines), indicating that G10H plays a more important role in stimulating CPT accumulation than STR in O. pumila. Furthermore, co-overexpression of G10H and STR genes (SG Lines) caused a 56% increase on the yields of CPT compared to NC line and single gene transgenic lines, showed that simultaneous introduction of G10H and STR can produce a synergistic effect on CPT biosynthesis in O. pumila. The MTT assay results indicated that CPT extracted from different lines showed similar anti-tumor activity, suggesting that transgenic O. pumila hairy root lines could be an alternative approach to obtain CPT. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the enhancement of CPT production in O. pumila employing a metabolic engineering strategy. PMID:25648209

  11. 不同生根剂处理对金叶榆嫩枝扦插影响的研究%Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Rooting of Ulmus Pumila cv.jinye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙铭; 辛丽红

    2014-01-01

    以金叶榆当年生半木质化嫩枝为扦插材料,研究4种不同质量分数的生根剂(ABT6、NAA、IAA、IBA)对扦插生根的影响.结果表明:大部分激素处理都可不同程度的的提高金叶榆嫩枝扦插的生根率,尤以ABT6处理后的生根率最高,以200mg/L的激素配比最为理想;IAA的效果次之,以100mg/L的激素配比最好;IBA、IAA的效果相近,分别以50mg/L和400mg/L的激素配比最佳;经过生根剂处理后的金叶榆在生根数量和长度上有差异,生根时间较清水对照有所提前.

  12. Elm tree (Ulmus parvifolia) bark bioprocessed with Mycelia of Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) mushrooms in liquid Culture: Composition and mechanism of protection against allergic asthma in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study investigated the antiasthma effect of a bioprocessed Ulmus parvifolia bark extract (BPUBE) from Lentinus edodes liquid mycelia culture against allergic asthma biomarkers in U266B1 leukemia cells and OVA-sensitized/challenged mice. BPUBE suppressed total IgE release from U266B1 cel...

  13. Sonication inhibited browning but decreased polyphenols contents and antioxidant activity of fresh apple (malus pumila mill, cv. Red Fuji) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yujing; Zhong, Liezhou; Cao, Lianfei; Lin, Wenwen; Ye, Xingqian

    2015-12-01

    Enzyme browning is the main challenge in the preparation of fresh apple juice. The influence of sonication on browning, as well as polyphenols and antioxidant activity of fresh apple juice was investigated. It was found that ultrasound can inhibit the browning of fresh apple (Malus pumila Mill, cv. Red Fuji) juice, but decreased the contents of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and chlorogenic acid and reduced the antioxidant activity. On the whole, ultrasound technology cannot be used to the antibrowning of fresh apple (Malus pumila Mill, cv. Red Fuji) juice.

  14. Evaluation of the Teratogenicity of Aqueous Extract of Labisia pumila var. alata in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Fuad, Wan Ezumi; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Islam, Mohamad Nazrul; Abdul Wahab, Mohd Suhaimi; Sahil Jamalullail, Syed Mohsin

    2005-01-01

    A dose range study to assess the teratogenic potential of aqueous extract of Labisia pumila var. alata (Kacip Fatimah) was conducted in rodents. The extract at doses of 0 (control), 2, 20, 200, 400, 1000 mg/kg/day were respectively administered by gavaging to 6 groups of pregnant Sprague Dawley rats from day 6 through day 16 of pregnancy and sacrificed on day 21. No significant agent-related effects including changes in maternal body weight (MBW) nor weight gain were observed. The corrected m...

  15. Alkyl phenols and saponins from the roots of Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Zulfiqar; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2011-11-01

    Recently, there is a remarkable boom in the sales of Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah) in the Malaysian market, as an extract of the plant is used to gain energy and libido as well as to treat many other ailments. A chemical analysis of its roots was undertaken and three metabolites, demethylbelamcandaquinone B (1), fatimahol (2), and dexyloprimulanin (3) together with 21 known compounds including epoxyoleanane glycosides, alkenated phenolics, cerebroside, glycerogalactolipids, and lipids were isolated and identified. Structure elucidation was achieved by spectroscopic and chemical studies. The MeOH extract of KF and compounds 12 and 13 exhibited moderate in vitro antibacterial activity. PMID:21784496

  16. First Record of a Hyalid Species, Protohyale pumila (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Hyalidae, from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Hwa Shin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A hyalid amphipod, Protohyale pumila (Hiwatari and Kajihara, 1981, collected from Jeju Island is reported for the first time in the Korean fauna. The species is characterized by the presence of a short apical spine on the palp article 4 of maxilliped, a distinctly large and blunt cusp on the propodus of male gnathopod 1, and a distal truncate process on the palm of male gnathopod 2. Herein, the present species is described and illustrated. Korean hyalid amphipods now are composed of four species belonging to three genera. Voucher specimens were deposited in the Marine Arthropod Depository Bank of Korea, Seoul National University.

  17. 75 FR 30313 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Castanea pumila

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ..., and sheltering; (b) Genetics and taxonomy; (c) Historical and current range, including distribution... scientific or commercial information indicating that the petitioned action may be warranted. We are to base... Federal Action On July 1, 1975 (40 FR 27924), Castanea pumila var. ozarkensis was included as one of...

  18. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Methanol Extract of Ficus pumila L. in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ren Liao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated possible analgesic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the methanol extract of Ficus pumila (FPMeOH. Analgesic effects were evaluated in two models including acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin-induced paw licking. The results showed FPMeOH decreased writhing response in the acetic acid assay and licking time in the formalin test. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by λ-carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema and histopathological analyses. FPMeOH significantly decreased the volume of paw edema induced by λ-carrageenan. Histopathologically, FPMeOH abated the level of tissue destruction and swelling of the edema paws. This study indicated anti-inflammatory mechanism of FPMeOH may be due to declined levels of NO and MDA in the edema paw through increasing the activities of SOD, GPx, and GRd in the liver. Additionally, FPMeOH also decreased the level of inflammatory mediators such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and COX-2. HPLC fingerprint was established and the contents of three active ingredients, rutin, luteolin, and apigenin, were quantitatively determined. This study provided evidence for the classical treatment of Ficus pumila in inflammatory diseases.

  19. Evaluation of the Teratogenicity of Aqueous Extract of Labisia pumila var. alata in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Fuad, Wan Ezumi; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Islam, Mohamad Nazrul; Abdul Wahab, Mohd Suhaimi; Sahil Jamalullail, Syed Mohsin

    2005-07-01

    A dose range study to assess the teratogenic potential of aqueous extract of Labisia pumila var. alata (Kacip Fatimah) was conducted in rodents. The extract at doses of 0 (control), 2, 20, 200, 400, 1000 mg/kg/day were respectively administered by gavaging to 6 groups of pregnant Sprague Dawley rats from day 6 through day 16 of pregnancy and sacrificed on day 21. No significant agent-related effects including changes in maternal body weight (MBW) nor weight gain were observed. The corrected maternal body weights (CMBW) were slightly higher in animals receiving low dose extracts (2 mg/kg/day) as compared to all groups of animals. However, body weight differences were not statistically significant. Gravid uterine weight, number of corpora lutea, number of implantation sites, percentage of foetal resorptions, number of life foetuses, foetal weight and foetal sex ratio showed no significant differences among all group animals. None of the foetuses from all dams showed evidence of external congenital malformations. These findings may suggest that aqueous extracts of Labisia pumila var. alata up to 1000 mg/kg/day statistically do not show any significant teratogenic effects in rats but do affect the maternal body weight and this is dose dependent. PMID:22605953

  20. Enhancement of Leaf Gas Exchange and Primary Metabolites under Carbon Dioxide Enrichment Up-Regulates the Production of Secondary Metabolites in Labisia pumila Seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.

    2011-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of primary metabolites (soluble sugar and starch), secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF) and leaf gas exchange of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under three levels of CO2 enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol−1) for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contrib...

  1. Involvement of Nitrogen on Flavonoids, Glutathione, Anthocyanin, Ascorbic Acid and Antioxidant Activities of Malaysian Medicinal Plant Labisia pumila Blume (Kacip Fatimah)

    OpenAIRE

    Zaharah Abdul Rahman; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Asmah Rahmat

    2011-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of gluthatione (GSH), oxidized gluthatione (GSSG), total flavonoid, anthocyanin, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activities (FRAP and DPPH) in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha) for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by nitrogen application; there was ...

  2. The Relationship between Phenolics and Flavonoids Production with Total Non Structural Carbohydrate and Photosynthetic Rate in Labisia pumila Benth. under High CO2 and Nitrogen Fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Asmah Rahmat; Zaharah Abdul Rahman

    2010-01-01

    A factorial split plot 4 × 3 experiment was designed to examine and characterize the relationship among production of secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF), carbohydrate content and photosynthesis of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Benth. namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata under CO2 enrichment (1,200 µmol mol-1) combined with four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N ha-1). No varietal differences w...

  3. Structure and diversity of ground mesofauna inUlmus and Populus consortia in the industrial areas of mining and smelting complex of krivyi rig basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kachinskaya

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure and biological diversity of ground mesofauna on a consortium level of organisation of ecosystems are considered. Indicators of structural organisation and biodiversity of ground mesofauna were analised in Ulmus and Populus consortia in the conditions of industrial territories of mining and smelting complex of Krivyi Rig Basin. It is established that taxonomical structure of ground mesofauna is characterised by insignificant number and quantity of taxonomical groups. Prevalence of hortobionts and herpetobionts in morpho-ecological structure of the community testifies to their attachment to consortium’s determinants and influence of steppe climate on its structure. Dominance of phytophages and polyphages in trophic structure is caused by a combination of consortium determinants specificity and «a zone source» of the fauna formations. The structural organisation of ground mesofauna in consortia of Ulmus and Populus in the conditions of industrial sites is characterised by simplified taxonomical structure with low biodiversity at all levels.

  4. The Relationship of Nitrogen and C/N Ratio with Secondary Metabolites Levels and Antioxidant Activities in Three Varieties of Malaysian Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume, one of the most famous and widely used herbs, especially in Southeast Asia, is found to have interesting bioactive compounds and displays health promoting properties. In this study, the antioxidant activities of the methanol extracts of leaves, stems and roots of three varieties of L. pumila (var. alata, pumila and lanceolata were evaluated in an effort to compare and validate the medicinal potential of this indigenous Malaysian herb species. The antioxidant activity determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay, as well as the total amount of phenolics and flavonoids were the highest in the leaves, followed by the stems and roots in all the varieties. A similar trend was displayed by the ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP activity, suggesting that the L. pumila varieties possess high foliar antioxidant properties. At low FRAP activity concentrations, the values of the leaves’ inhibition activity in the three varieties were significantly higher than those of the stems and roots, with var. alata exhibiting higher antioxidant activities and total contents of phenolics and flavonoids compared to the varieties pumila and lanceolata. The high production of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activities in var. alata were firmly related to low nitrogen content and high C/N ratio in plant parts. The study also demonstrated a positive correlation between secondary metabolite content and antioxidant activities, and revealed that the consumption of L. pumila could exert several beneficial effects by virtue of its antioxidant activity.

  5. The relationship of nitrogen and C/N ratio with secondary metabolites levels and antioxidant activities in three varieties of Malaysian kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

    2011-01-01

    Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume), one of the most famous and widely used herbs, especially in Southeast Asia, is found to have interesting bioactive compounds and displays health promoting properties. In this study, the antioxidant activities of the methanol extracts of leaves, stems and roots of three varieties of L. pumila (var. alata, pumila and lanceolata) were evaluated in an effort to compare and validate the medicinal potential of this indigenous Malaysian herb species. The antioxidant activity determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, as well as the total amount of phenolics and flavonoids were the highest in the leaves, followed by the stems and roots in all the varieties. A similar trend was displayed by the ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) activity, suggesting that the L. pumila varieties possess high foliar antioxidant properties. At low FRAP activity concentrations, the values of the leaves' inhibition activity in the three varieties were significantly higher than those of the stems and roots, with var. alata exhibiting higher antioxidant activities and total contents of phenolics and flavonoids compared to the varieties pumila and lanceolata. The high production of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activities in var. alata were firmly related to low nitrogen content and high C/N ratio in plant parts. The study also demonstrated a positive correlation between secondary metabolite content and antioxidant activities, and revealed that the consumption of L. pumila could exert several beneficial effects by virtue of its antioxidant activity. PMID:21716173

  6. Changes in foliar nutrient content and resorption in Fraxinus excelsior L., Ulmus minor Mill. and Clematis vitalba L. after prevention of floods

    OpenAIRE

    Trémolières, Michèle; Schnitzler, Annik; Sanchez-Pérez, José-Miguel; Schmitt, Diane

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the impact of flood on tree mineral nutrition through measurement of resorption (i.e. transfer of nutrients from leaves to perennial organs). Nutrient (N, P, K, Mg, Ca) concentrations in leaves of three representative species, Fraxinus excelsior L., Ulmus minor Mill. and Clematis vitalba L. were measured before and after abscission on flooded and unflooded hardwood forests of the upper Rhine plain. The nutrient concentrations in the soils, which were measured in the top ...

  7. The Cooperation of Life-stage Between Wiebesia pumilae(Hill) Wieb.(Agaoindae) and Ficus pumila L.(Moraceae)%薜荔榕小蜂与薜荔生活期的配合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗光坦; 李宏庆; 马炜梁; 陈勇

    2000-01-01

    @@ 薜荔榕小蜂(Wiebesia pumilae(Hill) Wieb.)与薜荔(Ficus pumila L.)的形态结构特点及其共生关系已有报道[1].本文仅就在福建泉州市区对薜荔榕小蜂的出飞及其与薜荔在生活期的配合所进行的观察,作一初步分析,为深入研究它们之间的共生关系以及在生产实践上的应用提供基础资料.

  8. Comparative field performance of some agricultural crops under a ca-nopy of Populus deltoides and Ulmus wallichiana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tariq Hussian Masoodi; Nasir Ahmad Masoodi; Sajad Ahmad Gangoo; Shah Murtaza Mushtaq; Hillal Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The performance of maize, beans and sunflower was evalu-ated under a canopy of Populus deltoides and Ulmus wallichiana at Fac-ulty of Agriculture, Wadura. The germination, growth and yield of the three test crops were suppressed under both tree species. The reduction, however, decreased when the cultivation of test crops was continued for three years. The inhibition potential generally is in the order of P. del-toides U. wallichiana for beans. Available soil N, P and K increased under the canopy of the selected tree species. The soils under U. wallichiana were more fertile than those under P. deltoides. Chromatographic investigation of extracts showed that the soils under P. deltoides and U. wallichiana differed in their composition of phenolic acids and phenolic glycocides. Except for caffic acid, all other allelochemicals disappeared and were no longer recovered in soil samples obtained after the second or third year of cultivation. Tree-crop compatibility can be explored in greater detail for improved management of traditional agro-ecosystems in Kashmir to increase the overall productivity of the land.

  9. First report of Geosmithia langdonii and Geosmithia spp. isolated from a decaying elm (Ulmus minor in Geneva, Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hänzi Martine

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The mortality of a young elm Ulmus minor in 2014 in Geneva prompted a search for the microorganisms potentially involved. Symptoms included foliar chlorosis and wilting followed by defoliation of branches. Wood symptoms included a brown streaking of sap wood and brown stains in trunk and branches. The comparison of the resulting ITS rDNA sequences to the NCBI Nucleotide database allowed to identify 10 different organisms. The genus Geosmithia represented 48% of the isolates belonging to three species: Geosmithia langdonii (7 isolates and 2 unknown morphologically and genetically different Geosmithia sp. 1 and sp. 2 (4 isolates. Geosmithia species are very little known ascomycetes, which have been recently shown to be opportunistic pathogens on broadleaved trees and conifers, living as saprobes in galleries of many bark beetle species. In the case described here, Geosmithia langdonii, and the unknown Geosmithia species were found in symptomatic wood while bark beetle galleries were found in close regions of the symptomatic wood. Geosmithia langdonii was the major fungus retrieved from the symptomatic wood and could have contributed, along with other identified fungal species, to a pathogenic complex producing symptoms similar to the ones of the Dutch Elm Disease and led to the dieback of this elm tree. Geosmithia langdonii and 2 yet unknown Geosmithia species (sp. 1 and sp. 2, different from any other reported Geosmithia species are reported from an elm tree in Switzerland for the first time.

  10. [Estimating nonstructural carbon content of tree crown considering its spatial variability: A case study on Juglans mandshurica and Ulmus japonica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fang-yan; Wang, Chuan-kuan

    2015-08-01

    Using Juglans mandshurica and Ulmus japonica as test materials, we examined the variability in nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) concentrations in the branches with different basal diameters with a branch analysis method and explored potential errors in estimating the crown-scale NSC content introduced from various sampling protocols. The results showed that organs significantly influenced the crown NSC concentrations for both species. The mean concentrations of the sum of soluble sugars and starch (TNC) of the leaves, new twigs, old branches, and dead branches were 17.6%, 12.6%, 5.7% and 2.9%, respectively. Most of the NSC concentrations in leaves and new twigs varied insignificantly with basal diameter, age, length and height of the branch. However, the NSC concentration in old branches increased significantly with decreasing the basal diameter, age and length of the branch, and with increasing the relative height of the branch. Among the branch traits, basal diameter was the best predictor for the NSC concentration of the old branch (the R2 between 0.87 and 0.95). The mean TNC contents of leaves, new branches, and old branches for the two species accounted for 28%, 2% and 70% of the crown TNC content, respectively. Considering the effect of the spatial variability in the estimation of NSC content, we recommend the sampling protocol that applies the NSC concentration of new twigs and old branches with a diameter of 3 cm to up-scale the crown NSC content as a simple and practical method.

  11. HPLC and GC-MS Determination of Bioactive Compounds in Microwave Obtained Extracts of Three Varieties of Labisia pumila Benth.

    OpenAIRE

    Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Ehsan Karimi

    2011-01-01

    Microwave extraction of phytochemicals from medicinal plant materials has generated tremendous research interest and shown great potential. This research highlights the importance of microwave extraction in the analysis of flavonoids, isoflavonoid and phenolics and the antioxidant properties of extracts from three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb, Labisia pumila Benth. High and fast extraction performance ability, equal or higher extraction efficiencies than other methods, and the ne...

  12. Airborne-pollen pool and mating pattern in a hybrid zone between Pinus pumila and P. parviflora var. pentaphylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Megumi; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Ohsawa, Takeshi A; Watano, Yasuyuki

    2008-12-01

    The reproductive isolation barriers and the mating patterns among Pinus pumila, P. parviflora var. pentaphylla and their hybrids were examined by flowering phenology and genetic assays of three life stages: airborne-pollen grains, adults and seeds, in a hybrid zone on Mount Apoi, Hokkaido, Japan. Chloroplast DNA composition of the airborne-pollen was determined by single-pollen polymerase chain reaction. Mating patterns were analysed by estimating the molecular hybrid index of the seed parent, their seed embryos and pollen parents. The observation of flowering phenology showed that the flowering of P. pumila precedes that of P. parviflora var. pentaphylla by about 6 to 10 days within the same altitudinal ranges. Although this prezygotic isolation barrier is effective, the genetic assay of airborne-pollen showed that the two pine species, particularly P. pumila, still have chances to form F(1) hybrid seeds. Both parental species showed a strong assortative mating pattern; F(1) seeds were found in only 1.4% of seeds from P. pumila mother trees and not at all in P. parviflora var. pentaphylla. The assortative mating was concluded as the combined result of flowering time differentiation and cross-incompatibility. In contrast to the parental species, hybrids were fertilized evenly by the two parental species and themselves. The breakdown of prezygotic barriers (intermediate flowering phenology) and cross-incompatibility may account for the unselective mating. It is suggested that introgression is ongoing on Mount Apoi through backcrossing between hybrids and parental species, despite strong isolation barriers between the parental species. PMID:19120991

  13. Time and Dose-Dependent Effects of Labisia pumila on Bone Oxidative Status of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Rat Model

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia Mohd Effendy; Ahmad Nazrun Shuid

    2014-01-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis can be associated with oxidative stress and deterioration of antioxidant enzymes. It is mainly treated with estrogen replacement therapy (ERT). Although effective, ERT may cause adverse effects such as breast cancer and pulmonary embolism. Labisia pumila var. alata (LP), a herb used traditionally for women’s health was found to protect against estrogen-deficient osteoporosis. An extensive study was conducted in a postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model using several ...

  14. Studies on Labisia pumila var. alata extract with phytoestrogenic effects: impact on biological activities and gene expression

    OpenAIRE

    Mansor, Fazliana

    2010-01-01

    In Malaysia, Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva) has been used by women for generations. Traditionally, the plant is boiled, either alone or in decoction with other herbs. It is claimed to have health benefits such as to contract the uterus after childbirth, allay painful menstruation and irregular periods and to generally alleviate fatigue. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the scientific basis of LPva phytoestrogenic activities in different animal models and cell lines. In Pape...

  15. Time and dose-dependent effects of Labisia pumila on the bone strength of postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Effendy, Nadia; Abdullah, Shahrum; Yunoh, Mohd Faridz Mod; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun

    2015-01-01

    Background Post-menopausal osteoporosis has long been treated and prevented by estrogen replacement therapy (ERT). Despite its effectiveness, ERT is associated with serious adverse effects. Labisia pumila var. alata (LP) is a herb with potential as an alternative agent to ERT due to its phytoestrogenic, antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects on bone. This study aimed to determine the effects of LP supplementation on bone biomechanical strength of postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model. Me...

  16. Labisia pumila Prevents Complications of Osteoporosis by Increasing Bone Strength in a Rat Model of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Noor Fathilah; Shahrum Abdullah; Norazlina Mohamed; Ahmad Nazrun Shuid

    2012-01-01

    Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) is the main treatment postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, ERT causes serious side effects, such as cancers and thromboembolic problems. Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva) is a herb with potential as an alternative to ERT to prevent complications of osteoporosis, especially fragility fractures. This study was conducted to determine the effects of LPva on the biomechanical strength of femora exposed to osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency, using the postmen...

  17. Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Leaf, Stem and Root from Different Varieties of Labisa pumila Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Karimi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A local herb, Kacip Fatimah, is famous amongst Malay women for its uses in parturition; however, its phytochemical contents have not been fully documented. Therefore, a study was performed to evaluate the phenolics, flavonoids, and total saponin contents, and antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaf, stem and root of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Total saponins were found to be higher in the leaves of all three varieties, compared to the roots and stems. Leaves of var. pumila exhibited significantly higher total saponin content than var. alata and lanceolata, with values of 56.4, 43.6 and 42.3 mg diosgenin equivalent/g dry weight, respectively. HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids in all three varieties revealed the presence of gallic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, and myricetin in all plant parts. Higher levels of flavonoids (rutin, quercitin, kaempferol were observed in var. pumila compared with alata and lanceolata, whereas higher accumulation of phenolics (gallic acid, pyrogallol was recorded in var. alata, followed by pumila and lanceolata. Antibacterial activities of leaf, stem and root extracts of all varieties determined against both Gram positive (Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis B145, Bacillus cereus B43, Staphylococcus aureus S1431 and Gram negative (Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia K36, Escherichia coli E256, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PI96 pathogens showed that crude methanolic extracts are active against these bacteria at low concentrations, albeit with lower antibacterial activity compared to kanamycin used as the control. Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of all plant parts against Fusarium sp., Candida sp. and Mucor using the agar diffusion disc exhibited moderate to appreciable antifungal activities compared to streptomycin used as positive control.

  18. Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Leaf, Stem and Root from Different Varieties of Labisa pumila Benth

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan Karimi; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Sahida Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    A local herb, Kacip Fatimah, is famous amongst Malay women for its uses in parturition; however, its phytochemical contents have not been fully documented. Therefore, a study was performed to evaluate the phenolics, flavonoids, and total saponin contents, and antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaf, stem and root of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Total saponins were found to be higher in the leaves of all three varieties, compared to the roots and stems. Leaves of var. p...

  19. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of leaf, stem and root from different varieties of Labisa pumila Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Ehsan; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Ahmad, Sahida

    2011-01-01

    A local herb, Kacip Fatimah, is famous amongst Malay women for its uses in parturition; however, its phytochemical contents have not been fully documented. Therefore, a study was performed to evaluate the phenolics, flavonoids, and total saponin contents, and antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaf, stem and root of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Total saponins were found to be higher in the leaves of all three varieties, compared to the roots and stems. Leaves of var. pumila exhibited significantly higher total saponin content than var. alata and lanceolata, with values of 56.4, 43.6 and 42.3 mg diosgenin equivalent/g dry weight, respectively. HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids in all three varieties revealed the presence of gallic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, and myricetin in all plant parts. Higher levels of flavonoids (rutin, quercitin, kaempferol) were observed in var. pumila compared with alata and lanceolata, whereas higher accumulation of phenolics (gallic acid, pyrogallol) was recorded in var. alata, followed by pumila and lanceolata. Antibacterial activities of leaf, stem and root extracts of all varieties determined against both Gram positive (Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis B145, Bacillus cereus B43, Staphylococcus aureus S1431) and Gram negative (Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia K36, Escherichia coli E256, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PI96) pathogens showed that crude methanolic extracts are active against these bacteria at low concentrations, albeit with lower antibacterial activity compared to kanamycin used as the control. Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of all plant parts against Fusarium sp., Candida sp. and Mucor using the agar diffusion disc exhibited moderate to appreciable antifungal activities compared to streptomycin used as positive control. PMID:21623314

  20. Increased Carbon Dioxide Concentration Improves the Antioxidative Properties of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.

    2011-01-01

    A randomized complete randomized design (RCBD) 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF), gluthatione (GSH), oxidized gluthatione (GSSG), soluble carbohydrate and antioxidant activities of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume under three levels of CO2 enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol−1) for 15 weeks. It was found that the treatment effects were solely...

  1. Impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers application on the phytochemical and antioxidant activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

    2013-09-05

    A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah) in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P₂O₅:10% K₂O) and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P₂O₅, 15% K₂O)] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb.

  2. Impact of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Application on the Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Karimi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P2O5:10% K2O and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P2O5, 15% K2O] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb.

  3. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization on Synthesis of Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Three Varieties of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Blume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to examine the impact of 15-week variable levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha on the characteristics of total flavonoids (TF, total phenolics (TP, total non structurable carbohydrate (TNC, net assimilation rate, leaf chlorophyll content, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N, phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL and protein content, and their relationships, in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume (alata, pumila and lanceolata. The treatment effects were solely contributed by nitrogen application; there was neither varietal nor interaction effect observed. As nitrogen levels increased from 0 to 270 kg N/ha, the production of TNC was found to decrease steadily. Production of TF and TP reached their peaks under 0 followed by 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha treatment. However, net assimilation rate was enhanced as nitrogen fertilization increased from 0 to 270 kg N/ha. The increase in production of TP and TF under low nitrogen levels (0 and 90 kg N/ha was found to be correlated with enhanced PAL activity. The enhancement in PAL activity was followed by reduction in production of soluble protein under low nitrogen fertilization indicating more availability of amino acid phenyl alanine (phe under low nitrogen content that stimulate the production of carbon based secondary metabolites (CBSM. The latter was manifested by high C/N ratio in L. pumila plants.

  4. Impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers application on the phytochemical and antioxidant activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah) in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P₂O₅:10% K₂O) and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P₂O₅, 15% K₂O)] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb. PMID:24013410

  5. Antiproliferative and Proapoptotic Effects of Labisia pumila Ethanol Extract and Its Active Fraction in Human Melanoma HM3KO Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lope Pihie, Azimahtol Hawariah; Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin; Othman, Fezah

    2012-01-01

    The present study was to determine the anticancer potential of Labisia pumila in in vitro models. Results from the study revealed that ethanol extract of L. pumila was more cytotoxic against HM3KO cells while having reduced effects on nonmalignant cells as compared to aqueous and hexane extracts. Thus, ethanol extract was selected to be further separated by using the bioassay-guided fractionation method to give an active fraction, SF2Lp. Results obtained from the flow cytometry analysis showed that SF2Lp was able to arrest the HM3KO cell cycle at the G1 phase, while morphological findings from AO-EB nuclear staining assays along with the Apoptotic Index confirmed the induction of apoptosis by SF2Lp in HM3KO cells. Results from the mechanistic study further revealed that SF2Lp treatment was able to concurrently increase the expression level of p53 and pro-apoptotic protein Bax and also reduce the expression level of anti-apoptotic protein BCl-2 in HM3KO cells, directly contributing to the increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. These findings, therefore, suggested that L. pumila was able to inhibit HM3KO cell growth possibly by arresting the cell cycle at G1 phase and inducing apoptosis in HM3KO cells via the up- and down-regulation of Bax/Bcl-2 protein, mediated through a p53-dependent pathway. PMID:22474490

  6. Effects of nitrogen fertilization on synthesis of primary and secondary metabolites in three varieties of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah; Rahman, Zaharah Abdul

    2011-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to examine the impact of 15-week variable levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha) on the characteristics of total flavonoids (TF), total phenolics (TP), total non structurable carbohydrate (TNC), net assimilation rate, leaf chlorophyll content, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N), phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL) and protein content, and their relationships, in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume (alata, pumila and lanceolata). The treatment effects were solely contributed by nitrogen application; there was neither varietal nor interaction effect observed. As nitrogen levels increased from 0 to 270 kg N/ha, the production of TNC was found to decrease steadily. Production of TF and TP reached their peaks under 0 followed by 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha treatment. However, net assimilation rate was enhanced as nitrogen fertilization increased from 0 to 270 kg N/ha. The increase in production of TP and TF under low nitrogen levels (0 and 90 kg N/ha) was found to be correlated with enhanced PAL activity. The enhancement in PAL activity was followed by reduction in production of soluble protein under low nitrogen fertilization indicating more availability of amino acid phenyl alanine (phe) under low nitrogen content that stimulate the production of carbon based secondary metabolites (CBSM). The latter was manifested by high C/N ratio in L. pumila plants. PMID:21954355

  7. Antiproliferative and Proapoptotic Effects of Labisia pumila Ethanol Extract and Its Active Fraction in Human Melanoma HM3KO Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azimahtol Hawariah Lope Pihie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was to determine the anticancer potential of Labisia pumila in in vitro models. Results from the study revealed that ethanol extract of L. pumila was more cytotoxic against HM3KO cells while having reduced effects on nonmalignant cells as compared to aqueous and hexane extracts. Thus, ethanol extract was selected to be further separated by using the bioassay-guided fractionation method to give an active fraction, SF2Lp. Results obtained from the flow cytometry analysis showed that SF2Lp was able to arrest the HM3KO cell cycle at the G1 phase, while morphological findings from AO-EB nuclear staining assays along with the Apoptotic Index confirmed the induction of apoptosis by SF2Lp in HM3KO cells. Results from the mechanistic study further revealed that SF2Lp treatment was able to concurrently increase the expression level of p53 and pro-apoptotic protein Bax and also reduce the expression level of anti-apoptotic protein BCl-2 in HM3KO cells, directly contributing to the increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. These findings, therefore, suggested that L. pumila was able to inhibit HM3KO cell growth possibly by arresting the cell cycle at G1 phase and inducing apoptosis in HM3KO cells via the up- and down-regulation of Bax/Bcl-2 protein, mediated through a p53-dependent pathway.

  8. Involvement of Nitrogen on Flavonoids, Glutathione, Anthocyanin, Ascorbic Acid and Antioxidant Activities of Malaysian Medicinal Plant Labisia pumila Blume (Kacip Fatimah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaharah Abdul Rahman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of gluthatione (GSH, oxidized gluthatione (GSSG, total flavonoid, anthocyanin, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activities (FRAP and DPPH in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by nitrogen application; there was neither varietal nor interaction effects observed. As the nitrogen levels decreased from 270 to 0 kg N/ha, the production of GSH and GSSG, anthocyanin, total flavonoid and ascorbic acid increased steadily. At the highest nitrogen treatment level, L. pumila exhibited significantly lower antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP than those exposed to limited nitrogen growing conditions. Significant positive correlation was obtained between antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP, total flavonoid, GSH, GSSG, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid suggesting that an increase in the antioxidative activities in L. pumila under low nitrogen fertilization could be attributed to higher contents of these compounds. From this observation, it could be concluded that in order to avoid negative effects on the quality of L. pumila, it is advisable to avoid excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer when cultivating the herb for its medicinal use.

  9. Involvement of nitrogen on flavonoids, glutathione, anthocyanin, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activities of Malaysian medicinal plant Labisia pumila Blume (Kacip Fatimah).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah; Rahman, Zaharah Abdul

    2012-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of gluthatione (GSH), oxidized gluthatione (GSSG), total flavonoid, anthocyanin, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activities (FRAP and DPPH) in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha) for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by nitrogen application; there was neither varietal nor interaction effects observed. As the nitrogen levels decreased from 270 to 0 kg N/ha, the production of GSH and GSSG, anthocyanin, total flavonoid and ascorbic acid increased steadily. At the highest nitrogen treatment level, L. pumila exhibited significantly lower antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP) than those exposed to limited nitrogen growing conditions. Significant positive correlation was obtained between antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP), total flavonoid, GSH, GSSG, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid suggesting that an increase in the antioxidative activities in L. pumila under low nitrogen fertilization could be attributed to higher contents of these compounds. From this observation, it could be concluded that in order to avoid negative effects on the quality of L. pumila, it is advisable to avoid excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer when cultivating the herb for its medicinal use. PMID:22312260

  10. Population genetic structure and mating system in the hybrid zone between Pinus sibirica Du Tour and P. pumila (Pall. Regel at the Eastern Baikal Lake shore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Petrova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic structure of sympatric Pinus sibirica Du Tour and P. pumila (Pall. Regel populations and putative interspecific hybrids between them was analyzed in the Baikal Lake region (Barguzin Biosphere Natural Reserve, Davsha River basin by means of 31 allozyme loci controlling 18 enzyme systems. Several alleles at loci Adh-1, Fest-2, Lap-3, Pgi-1, Sod-3 and Skdh-1 were diagnostic for P. sibirica, while alleles typical for P. pumila were detected at loci Gdh, Got-3, Lap-3, Mdh-2, Mdh-4, Pepca, Pgi-1, Pgd-2, Pgd-3, Pgm-1 and Pgm-2. All hybrids were heterozygous for the diagnostic Skdh-2 locus. Classification into hybrids and parental species using PCA analysis of multilocus allozyme genotypes had good correspondence with diagnoses made by morphological and anatomical analyses. Approximately 27% of embryos in P. pumila seeds had P. sibirica paternal contribution, and 8% of haplotypes in effective pollen pool combined alleles typical for P. pumila and P. sibirica, and therefore were classified as pollinated by the hybrids. About 83% of embryos in seeds from the hybrids most likely originated from fertilization by P. sibirica pollen, 14% from P. pumila and 3% from hybrid trees. This result favours the view that hybrids make both male and female contributions to the reproductive output of the population and confirm the presence of backcrosses and F2 hybrids.

  11. Massive sequencing of Ulmus minor's transcriptome provides new molecular tools for a genus under the constant threat of Dutch elm disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro ePerdiguero

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Elms, especially Ulmus minor and Ulmus americana, are carrying out a hard battle against Dutch elm disease (DED. This vascular wilt disease, caused by Ophiostoma ulmi and O. novo-ulmi, appeared in the twentieth century and killed millions of elms across North America and Europe. Elm breeding and conservation programmes have identified a reduced number of DED tolerant genotypes. In this study, three U. minor genotypes with contrasted levels of tolerance to DED were exposed to several biotic and abiotic stresses in order to (i obtain a de novo assembled transcriptome of U. minor using 454 pyrosequencing, (ii perform a functional annotation of the assembled transcriptome, (iii identify genes potentially involved in the molecular response to environmental stress, and (iv develop gene-based markers to support breeding programmes. A total of 58,429 putative unigenes were identified after assembly and filtering of the transcriptome. 32,152 of these unigenes showed homology with proteins identified in the genome from the most common plant model species. Well-known family proteins and transcription factors involved in abiotic, biotic or both stresses were identified after functional annotation. A total of 30,693 polymorphisms were identified in 7,125 isotigs, a large number of them corresponding to SNPs (27,359. In a subset randomly selected for validation, 87 % of the SNPs were confirmed. The material generated may be valuable for future Ulmus gene expression, population genomics and association genetics studies, especially taking into account the scarce molecular information available for this genus and the great impact that DED has on elm populations.

  12. Elm Tree (Ulmus parvifolia) Bark Bioprocessed with Mycelia of Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) Mushrooms in Liquid Culture: Composition and Mechanism of Protection against Allergic Asthma in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Phil; Lee, Sang Jong; Nam, Seok Hyun; Friedman, Mendel

    2016-02-01

    Mushrooms can break down complex plant materials into smaller, more digestible and bioactive compounds. The present study investigated the antiasthma effect of an Ulmus parvifolia bark extract bioprocessed in Lentinus edodes liquid mycelium culture (BPUBE) against allergic asthma in chicken egg ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized/challenged mice. BPUBE suppressed total IgE release from U266B1 cells in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity. Inhibitory activity of BPUBE against OVA-specific IgE secretion in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was observed in OVA-sensitized/challenged asthmatic mice. BPUBE also inhibited OVA-specific IgG and IgG1 secretion into serum from the allergic mice, suggesting the restoration of a Th2-biased immune reaction to a Th1/Th2-balanced status, as indicated by the Th1/Th2 as well as regulatory T cell (Treg) cytokine profile changes caused by BPUBE in serum or BALF. Inflammatory cell counts in BALF and lung histology showed that leukocytosis and eosinophilia induced by OVA-sensitization/challenge were inhibited by the oral administration of BPUBE. Amelioration of eosinophil infiltration near the trachea was associated with reduced eotaxin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) levels. Changes in proinflammatory mediator levels in BALF suggest that BPUBE decreased OVA-sensitization-induced elevation of leukotriene C4 (LTC4) and prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). The finding that asthma-associated biomarker levels of OVA-sensitized/challenged mice were much more inhibited with BPUBE treatment than NPUBE (not-bioprocessed Ulmus parvifolia extract) treatment suggested the production of new bioactive compounds by the mushroom mycelia that may be involved in enhancing the observed antiasthmatic properties. The possible relation of the composition determined by proximate analysis and GC/MS to observed bioactivity is discussed. The results suggest that the elm tree (Ulmus parvifolia) bark bioprocessed with mycelia of shiitake (Lentinus edodes

  13. Factores anatómicos y químicos del xilema de Ulmus minor Mill. relacionados con la resistencia a Ophiostoma novo-ulmi Brasier

    OpenAIRE

    Martín García, Juan Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Las poblaciones de Ulmus minor europeas se encuentran seriamente amenazadas por la grafiosis, la enfermedad más devastadora y difundida de los olmos. Ophiostoma novo-ulmi se desarrolla en el interior de los vasos del xilema cusando su cavitación. Este proceso origina marchitamiento foliar y, en la casi totalidad de los casos, la muerte del árbol. En el presente trabajo, se ha estudiado en U. minor la variación de la susceptibilidad con la edad y su posible relación con la variación de las car...

  14. The in vivo rodent micronucleus assay of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaizuhana, Shahrim; Puteri J Noor, M B; Noral'ashikin, Yahya; Muhammad, Hussin; Rohana, A B; Zakiah, I

    2006-12-01

    Kacip Fatimah also known as Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae), is a traditional herbal medicine with a long history in the Malay community. It has been used by many generations of Malay women to induce and facilitate childbirth as well as a post-partum medicine. We tested the genotoxic potential of Kacip Fatimah in bone marrow cells obtained from Sprague-Dawley rats using micronuclei formation as the toxicological endpoints. Five groups of five male rats each were administered orally for two consecutive days with doses of 100, 700 and 2000 mg/kg body weight of Kacip Fatimah extract dissolved in distilled water. Micronucleus preparation was obtained from bone marrow cells of the animals following standard protocols. No statistically significant increase in micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs) was observed at any dose level and sacrifice/harvest time point (24, 48 and 72h). However, a significant decrease in polychromatic erythrocytes/normochromatic erythrocytes (PCE:NCE) ratio was observed from the highest dose level (2000 mg/kg of body weight) at 48h harvest time point. In this study, we investigated the effect of Kacip Fatimah on mammalian bone marrow cells using micronuclei formation to assess the genotoxicity of the herb. PMID:17322824

  15. Alkenylresorcinols and cytotoxic activity of the constituents isolated from Labisia pumila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mekhlafi, Nabil Ali; Shaari, Khozirah; Abas, Faridah; Kneer, Ralf; Jeyaraj, Ethel Jeyaseela; Stanslas, Johnson; Yamamoto, Naoshi; Honda, Toshio; Lajis, Nordin H

    2012-08-01

    Phytochemical investigation on the leaves of Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae), an important medicinal herb in Malaysia, has led to the isolation of 1-O-methyl-6-acetoxy-5-(pentadec-10Z-enyl)resorcinol (1), labisiaquinone A (2) and labisiaquinone B (3). Along with these, 16 known compounds including 1-O-methyl-6-acetoxy-5-pentadecylresorcinol (4), 5-(pentadec-10Z-enyl)resorcinol (5), 5-(pentadecyl)resorcinol (6), (-)-loliolide (7), stigmasterol (8), 4-hydroxyphenylethylamine (9), 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid (10), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (11), (+)-catechin (12), (-)-epicatechin (13), kaempferol-3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-7-O-β-glycopyranoside (14), kaempferol-4'-O-β-glycopyranoside (15), quercetin-3-O-α-rhamnopyranoside (16), kaempferol-3-O-α-rhamnopyranoside (17), (9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid (18) and stigmasterol-3-O-β-glycopyranoside (19) were also isolated. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy techniques (¹H, ¹³C, COSY, HSQC, NOESY and HMBC experiments), mass spectrometry and chemical derivatization. Among the constituents tested 1 and 4 exhibited strongest cytotoxic activity against the PC3, HCT116 and MCF-7 cell lines (IC₅₀ values ≤ 10 μM), and they showed selectivity towards the first two-cell lines relative to the last one. PMID:22633846

  16. The Anti-Inflammatory, Phytoestrogenic, and Antioxidative Role of Labisia pumila in Prevention of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Nadia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is characterized by skeletal degeneration with low bone mass and destruction of microarchitecture of bone tissue which is attributed to various factors including inflammation. Women are more likely to develop osteoporosis than men due to reduction in estrogen during menopause which leads to decline in bone-formation and increase in bone-resorption activity. Estrogen is able to suppress production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-7, and TNF-α. This is why these cytokines are elevated in postmenopausal women. Studies have shown that estrogen reduction is able to stimulate focal inflammation in bone. Labisia pumila (LP which is known to exert phytoestrogenic effect can be used as an alternative to ERT which can produce positive effects on bone without causing side effects. LP contains antioxidant as well as exerting anti-inflammatory effect which can act as free radical scavenger, thus inhibiting TNF-α production and COX-2 expression which leads to decline in RANKL expression, resulting in reduction in osteoclast activity which consequently reduces bone loss. Hence, it is the phytoestrogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative properties that make LP an effective agent against osteoporosis.

  17. Protective effect of Labisia pumila on stress-induced behavioral, biochemical, and immunological alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kour, Kiranjeet; Sharma, Neelam; Chandan, Bal Krishan; Koul, Surrinder; Sangwan, Payare Lal; Bani, Sarang

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the antistress potential of LABISIA PUMILA aqueous extract (LPPM/A003) using a battery of tests widely employed in different stressful situations. Pretreatment of experimental animals with LPPM/A003 caused an increase in the swimming endurance and hypoxia time and also showed the recovery of physical stress-induced depletion of neuromuscular coordination and scopolamine induced memory deficit. LPPM/A003 at graded doses reversed the chronic restraint stress (RST), induced depletion of CD4 (+) and CD8 (+) T lymphocytes, NK cell population, and corresponding cytokines expression besides downregulating the stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone, a major stress hormone. In addition, LPPM/A003 reversed the chronic stress-induced increase in adrenal gland weight, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and hepatic lipid peroxidation (LP) levels and augmented the RST induced decrease in hepatic glutathione (GSH), thymus and spleen weight. Thus, we conclude that LPPM/A003 has the ability to reverse the alterations produced by various stressful stimuli and therefore restores homeostasis. PMID:20217640

  18. The Anti-Inflammatory, Phytoestrogenic, and Antioxidative Role of Labisia pumila in Prevention of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadia, M E; Nazrun, A S; Norazlina, M; Isa, N M; Norliza, M; Ima Nirwana, S

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by skeletal degeneration with low bone mass and destruction of microarchitecture of bone tissue which is attributed to various factors including inflammation. Women are more likely to develop osteoporosis than men due to reduction in estrogen during menopause which leads to decline in bone-formation and increase in bone-resorption activity. Estrogen is able to suppress production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-7, and TNF-α. This is why these cytokines are elevated in postmenopausal women. Studies have shown that estrogen reduction is able to stimulate focal inflammation in bone. Labisia pumila (LP) which is known to exert phytoestrogenic effect can be used as an alternative to ERT which can produce positive effects on bone without causing side effects. LP contains antioxidant as well as exerting anti-inflammatory effect which can act as free radical scavenger, thus inhibiting TNF-α production and COX-2 expression which leads to decline in RANKL expression, resulting in reduction in osteoclast activity which consequently reduces bone loss. Hence, it is the phytoestrogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative properties that make LP an effective agent against osteoporosis. PMID:22611381

  19. Protective effect of Labisia pumila on stress-induced behavioral, biochemical, and immunological alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kour, Kiranjeet; Sharma, Neelam; Chandan, Bal Krishan; Koul, Surrinder; Sangwan, Payare Lal; Bani, Sarang

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the antistress potential of LABISIA PUMILA aqueous extract (LPPM/A003) using a battery of tests widely employed in different stressful situations. Pretreatment of experimental animals with LPPM/A003 caused an increase in the swimming endurance and hypoxia time and also showed the recovery of physical stress-induced depletion of neuromuscular coordination and scopolamine induced memory deficit. LPPM/A003 at graded doses reversed the chronic restraint stress (RST), induced depletion of CD4 (+) and CD8 (+) T lymphocytes, NK cell population, and corresponding cytokines expression besides downregulating the stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone, a major stress hormone. In addition, LPPM/A003 reversed the chronic stress-induced increase in adrenal gland weight, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and hepatic lipid peroxidation (LP) levels and augmented the RST induced decrease in hepatic glutathione (GSH), thymus and spleen weight. Thus, we conclude that LPPM/A003 has the ability to reverse the alterations produced by various stressful stimuli and therefore restores homeostasis.

  20. Phenolics and Flavonoids Compounds, Phenylanine Ammonia Lyase and Antioxidant Activity Responses to Elevated CO2 in Labisia pumila (Myrisinaceae

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    Hawa Z.E. Jaafar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A split plot 3 × 3 experiment was designed to examine the impact of three concentrations of CO2 (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol·mol−1 on the phenolic and flavonoid compound profiles, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL and antioxidant activity in three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. (var. alata, pumila and lanceolata after 15 weeks of exposure. HPLC analysis revealed a strong influence of increased CO2 concentration on the modification of phenolic and flavonoid profiles, whose intensity depended on the interaction between CO2 levels and L. pumila varieties. Gallic acid and quercetin were the most abundant phenolics and flavonoids commonly present in all the varieties. With elevated CO2 (1,200 µmol·mol−1 exposure, gallic acid increased tremendously, especially in var. alata and pumila (101–111%, whilst a large quercetin increase was noted in var. lanceolata (260%, followed closely by alata (201%. Kaempferol, although detected under ambient CO2 conditions, was undetected in all varieties after exposure. Instead, caffeic acid was enhanced tremendously in var. alata (338~1,100% and pumila (298~433%. Meanwhile, pyragallol and rutin were only seen in var. alata (810 µg·g−1 DW and pumila (25 µg·g−1 DW, respectively, under ambient conditions; but the former compound went undetected in all varieties while rutin continued to increase by 262% after CO2 enrichment. Interestingly, naringenin that was present in all varieties under ambient conditions went undetected under enrichment, except for var. pumila where it was enhanced by 1,100%. PAL activity, DPPH and FRAP also increased with increasing CO2 levels implying the possible improvement of health-promoting quality of Malaysian L. pumila

  1. Increased carbon dioxide concentration improves the antioxidative properties of the Malaysian herb kacip fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

    2011-01-01

    A randomized complete randomized design (RCBD) 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF), gluthatione (GSH), oxidized gluthatione (GSSG), soluble carbohydrate and antioxidant activities of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume under three levels of CO₂ enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol⁻¹) for 15 weeks. It was found that the treatment effects were solely contributed by interaction of CO₂ levels and secondary metabolites distribution in plant parts, GSH, GSHH and antioxidant activities (peroxyl radicals (ROO), superoxide radicals (O₂), hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) and hydroxyl radicals (OH). The records of secondary metabolites, glutahione, oxidized gluthathione and antioxidant activities in a descending manner came from the leaf enriched with 1,200 µmol/mol CO₂ > leaf 800 µmol/mol CO₂ > leaf 400 µmol/mol CO₂ > stem 1,200 µmol/mol CO₂ > stem 800 µmol/mol CO₂ > stem 400 µmol/mol CO₂ > root 1,200 µmol/mol CO₂ > root 800 µmol/mol CO₂ > root 400 µmol/mol CO₂. Correlation analyses revealed strong significant positive coefficients of antioxidant activities with total phenolics, flavonoids, GSH and GSHH indicating that an increase in antioxidative activity of L. pumila under elevated CO₂ might be up-regulated by the increase in production of total phenolics, total flavonoids, GSH, GSHH and soluble sugar. This study implied that the medicinal potential of herbal plant such as L. pumila can be enhanced under elevated CO₂, which had simultaneously improved the antioxidative activity that indicated by the high oxygen radical absorbance activity against ROO, O₂, H₂O₂, and OH radicals. PMID:21775936

  2. Increased Carbon Dioxide Concentration Improves the Antioxidative Properties of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A randomized complete randomized design (RCBD 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF, gluthatione (GSH, oxidized gluthatione (GSSG, soluble carbohydrate and antioxidant activities of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume under three levels of CO2 enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol−1 for 15 weeks. It was found that the treatment effects were solely contributed by interaction of CO2 levels and secondary metabolites distribution in plant parts, GSH, GSHH and antioxidant activities (peroxyl radicals (ROO, superoxide radicals (O2, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and hydroxyl radicals (OH. The records of secondary metabolites, glutahione, oxidized gluthathione and antioxidant activities in a descending manner came from the leaf enriched with 1,200 µmol/mol CO2 > leaf 800 µmol/mol CO2 > leaf 400 µmol/mol CO2 > stem 1,200 µmol/mol CO2 > stem 800 µmol/mol CO2 > stem 400 µmol/mol CO2 > root 1,200 µmol/mol CO2 > root 800 µmol/mol CO2 > root 400 µmol/mol CO2. Correlation analyses revealed strong significant positive coefficients of antioxidant activities with total phenolics, flavonoids, GSH and GSHH indicating that an increase in antioxidative activity of L. pumila under elevated CO2 might be up-regulated by the increase in production of total phenolics, total flavonoids, GSH, GSHH and soluble sugar. This study implied that the medicinal potential of herbal plant such as L. pumila can be enhanced under elevated CO2, which had simultaneously improved the antioxidative activity that indicated by the high oxygen radical absorbance activity against ROO, O2, H2O2, and OH radicals.

  3. Inhibition of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis increases cell wall digestibility, protoplast isolation, and facilitates sustained cell division in American elm (Ulmus americana

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    Jones A Maxwell P

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protoplast technologies offer unique opportunities for fundamental research and to develop novel germplasm through somatic hybridization, organelle transfer, protoclonal variation, and direct insertion of DNA. Applying protoplast technologies to develop Dutch elm disease resistant American elms (Ulmus americana L. was proposed over 30 years ago, but has not been achieved. A primary factor restricting protoplast technology to American elm is the resistance of the cell walls to enzymatic degradation and a long lag phase prior to cell wall re-synthesis and cell division. Results This study suggests that resistance to enzymatic degradation in American elm was due to water soluble phenylpropanoids. Incubating tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. leaf tissue, an easily digestible species, in aqueous elm extract inhibits cell wall digestion in a dose dependent manner. This can be mimicked by p-coumaric or ferulic acid, phenylpropanoids known to re-enforce cell walls. Culturing American elm tissue in the presence of 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP; 10-150 μM, an inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, reduced flavonoid content, decreased tissue browning, and increased isolation rates significantly from 11.8% (±3.27 in controls to 65.3% (±4.60. Protoplasts isolated from callus grown in 100 μM AIP developed cell walls by day 2, had a division rate of 28.5% (±3.59 by day 6, and proliferated into callus by day 14. Heterokaryons were successfully produced using electrofusion and fused protoplasts remained viable when embedded in agarose. Conclusions This study describes a novel approach of modifying phenylpropanoid biosynthesis to facilitate efficient protoplast isolation which has historically been problematic for American elm. This isolation system has facilitated recovery of viable protoplasts capable of rapid cell wall re-synthesis and sustained cell division to form callus. Further, isolated protoplasts survived

  4. Seasonal changes in the amount of carbohydrates and photosynthetic activity of Pinus pumila Regal on alpine in central Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Kibe,Takeshi; Masuzawa, Takehiro

    1992-01-01

    Branches and needles of Pmus pumila REGEL were collected from a site in the Yatsugatake mountain range in central Japan They were divided into current, 1-year-old, 2-year-old and 3-year-old parts Then, soluble carbohydrate (total sugars and starch) included in each of them was analyzed by SOMOGYI-NELSON method Photosynthetic rate of needles was measured by an infrared CO_2 gas analyzer Total sugar contents of branches and needles showed high levels in the winter season, but starch content lev...

  5. Impact of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Application on the Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth)

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan Karimi; Ali Ghasemzadeh; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah) in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P2O5:10% K2O) and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P2O5, 15% K2O)] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic f...

  6. Light intensity influences variations in the structural and physiological traits in the leaves of Iris pumila L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuleta Ana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambient light significantly influences the structural and physiological characteristics of Iris pumila leaves. A random sample of Iris clones native to an exposed site at the Deliblato Sands, Serbia was partially covered with a neutral screen that transmitted 35% of daylight, so that each clone experienced reduced and full sunlight at the same time. The sun-exposed leaves were significantly thicker, had greater stomatal density, exhibited higher lipid peroxidation, increased activities of SOD, APX, CAT enzymes and higher contents of non-enzymatic antioxidants (anthocyanins and phenols and water deficit relative to shade-leaves. The activities of GR, GPX, and GST enzymes was unaffected by the irradiance level.

  7. Photosynthesis and respiration in the needles of Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila and their putative hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Zotikova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A putative interspecific hybridization in Pinaceae family was investigated. Very rarely the physiological methods were involved in hybridization processes that occurs in the hybrid zones. It is well known that in most gymnosperms, the plastid genome is inherited from the paternal component while the mitochondrion is inherited from the maternal one. Therefore functioning pattern of organelles in the hybrid plant can suggest parent, from which they were inherited. The aim of this study was to indirectly establish the inheritance energy-transducing organelles (mitochondria, chloroplast according to their functioning. Current year needles from Siberian Stone Pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour and Japanese Stone Pine (Pinus pumila (Pall. Regel as parent species and their putative hybrids were collected from Baikal Region. The photosynthesis rate was determined by using the spectrophotometer. The study of emission CO2 under dark respiration of needle was conducted with laser optical-acoustic gasanalyzer. The quantity was measured at 1, 2 and 3 hour after experiment start. The rate of the photoreduction ferricyanide potassium was characterized by the primary photochemical processes activity at the level of photosystem II. Comparison of pure species was shown that Japanese Stone Pine had higher functional activity of chloroplast as compared with SiberianStone Pine in spite of the fact that they are growing in similar environment conditions. Two of three analyzed hybrids had decreasedactivity of their chloroplasts. Unfortunately, in this case we can't conclude if the chloroplasts were inherited from Siberian Stone Pine orfrom Japanese Stone Pine. Chloroplast activity of the third hybrid was approximately similar to that of Japanese Stone Pine suggesting thatits chloroplasts were inherited from this parent. Consequently, the Siberian Stone Pine and the Japanese Stone Pine were maternal and paternal, respectively parents of

  8. Distribution of nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes in three pollinator fig wasps associated with Ficus pumila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Liu, Min; Compton, Stephen G.; Chen, Xiao-Yong

    2014-05-01

    Nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes (NUMTs) are nuclear sequences transferred from mitochondrial genomes. Although widespread, their distribution patterns among populations or closely related species are rarely documented. We amplified and sequenced the mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cytb) gene to check for NUMTs in three fig wasp species that pollinate Ficus pumila (Wiebesia sp. 1, 2 and 3) in Southeastern China using direct and cloned sequencing. Unambiguous sequences (332) of 487 bp in length belonging to 33 haplotypes were found by direct sequencing. Their distribution was highly concordant with those of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI). Obvious signs of co-amplification of NUMTs were indicated by their uneven distribution. NUMTs were observed in all individuals of 12 populations of Wiebesia sp. 3, and 13 individuals of three northern populations of Wiebesia sp. 1. Sequencing clones of potential co-amplification products confirmed that they were NUMTs. These NUMTs either clustered as NUMT clades basal to mtDNA Cytb clades (basal NUMTs), or together with Cytb haplotypes. Basal NUMTs had either stop codons or frame-shifting mutations resulting from deletion of a 106 bp fragment. In addition, no third codon or synonymous substitutions were detected within each NUMT clade. The phylogenetic tree indicated that basal NUMTs had been inserted into nuclei before divergence of the three species. No significant pairwise differences were detected in their ratios of third codon substitutions, suggesting that these NUMTs originated from one transfer event, with duplication in the nuclear genome resulting in the coexistence of the 381 bp copy. No significant substitution differences were detected between Cytb haplotypes and NUMTs that clustered with Cytb haplotypes. However, these NUMTs coexisted with Cytb haplotypes in multiple populations, suggesting that these NUMT haplotypes were recently inserted into the nuclear genome. Both basal and recently inserted NUMTs were rare

  9. Impact of soil field water capacity on secondary metabolites, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), maliondialdehyde (MDA) and photosynthetic responses of Malaysian kacip fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Mohamad Fakri, Nur Farhana

    2012-01-01

    A randomized complete block design 2 × 4 experiment was designed and conducted for 15 weeks to characterize the relationships between production of total phenolics, flavonoid, anthocyanin, leaf gas exchange, total chlorophyll, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) activity in two varieties of Labisia pumila Benth, namely the var. alata and pumila, under four levels of evapotranspiration replacement (ER) (100%; well watered), (75%, moderate water stress), (50%; high water stress) and (25%; severe water stress). The production of total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanin, soluble sugar and relative leaf water content was affected by the interaction between varieties and SWC. As the ER levels decreased from 100% to 25%, the production of PAL and MDA activity increased steadily. At the highest (100%) ER L. pumila exhibited significantly higher net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (f(v)/f(m)) and lower dark respiration rates compared to the other treatment. The production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin was also found to be higher under high water stress (50% ER replacement) compared to severe water stress (25% ER). From this study, it was observed that as net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield and chlorophyll content were downregulated under high water stress the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin were upregulated implying that the imposition of high water stress can enhance the medicinal properties of L. pumila Benth. PMID:22695235

  10. Quantitative determination of triperpene saponins and alkenated-phenolics from Labisia pumila using LC-UV/ELSD method and confirmation by LC-ESI-TOF

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study describes the first analytical method for the determination of saponins and alkenated-phenolics from the leaves, leaves/stems and roots of Labisia pumila using a HPLC-UV-ELSD method. The separation was achieved using a reversed phase column, PDA and ELS detection, and a water/acetonitrile...

  11. Quantitative determination of triterpene saponins and alkenated-phenolics from Labisia pumila using LC-UV/ELSD method and confirmation by LC-ESI-TOF

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study describes the first analytical method for the determination of saponins and alkenated-phenolics from the leaves, leaves/stems and roots of Labisia pumila using a HPLC-UV-ELSD method. The separation was achieved using a reversed phase column, PDA and ELS detection, and a water/acetonitrile...

  12. Labisia pumila Prevents Complications of Osteoporosis by Increasing Bone Strength in a Rat Model of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathilah, Siti Noor; Abdullah, Shahrum; Mohamed, Norazlina; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun

    2012-01-01

    Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) is the main treatment postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, ERT causes serious side effects, such as cancers and thromboembolic problems. Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva) is a herb with potential as an alternative to ERT to prevent complications of osteoporosis, especially fragility fractures. This study was conducted to determine the effects of LPva on the biomechanical strength of femora exposed to osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency, using the postmenopausal rat model. Thirty-two female rats were randomly divided into four groups: Sham-operated (Sham), ovariectomized control (OVXC), ovariectomized with Labisia pumila var. alata (LP), and ovariectomized with ERT (Premarin) (ERT). The LPva and ERT were administered via oral gavage daily at doses of 17.5 mg/kg and 64.5 μg/kg, respectively. Following two months of treatment, the rats were euthanized, and their right femora were prepared for bone biomechanical testing. The results showed that ovariectomy compromised the femoral strength, while LPva supplementation to the ovariectomized rats improved the femoral strength. Therefore, LPva may be as effective as ERT in preventing fractures due to estrogen-deficient osteoporosis. PMID:22991574

  13. HPLC and GC-MS determination of bioactive compounds in microwave obtained extracts of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Ehsan; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

    2011-01-01

    Microwave extraction of phytochemicals from medicinal plant materials has generated tremendous research interest and shown great potential. This research highlights the importance of microwave extraction in the analysis of flavonoids, isoflavonoid and phenolics and the antioxidant properties of extracts from three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb, Labisia pumila Benth. High and fast extraction performance ability, equal or higher extraction efficiencies than other methods, and the need for small samples and reagent volumes are some of the attractive features of this new promising microwave assisted extraction (MAE) technique. The aims of the present research were to determine the foliar phenolics and flavonoids contents of extracts of three varieties of L. pumila obtained by a microwave extraction method while flavonoid, isoflavonoid and phenolic compounds were analyzed using RP-HPLC. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities were measured by the DPPH and FRAP methods and finally, the chemical composition of the crude methanolic extracts of the leaves of all three varieties were analyzed by GS-MS. PMID:21829154

  14. Reduced photoinhibition under low irradiance enhanced Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth) secondary metabolites, phenyl alanine lyase and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

    2012-01-01

    A randomized complete block design experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of total flavonoids and phenolics, anthocyanin, photosynthesis, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), electron transfer rate (Fm/Fo), phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL) and antioxidant (DPPH) in Labisia pumila var. alata, under four levels of irradiance (225, 500, 625 and 900 μmol/m(2)/s) for 16 weeks. As irradiance levels increased from 225 to 900 μmol/m(2)/s, the production of plant secondary metabolites (total flavonoids, phenolics and antocyanin) was found to decrease steadily. Production of total flavonoids and phenolics reached their peaks under 225 followed by 500, 625 and 900 μmol/m(2)/s irradiances. Significant positive correlation of production of total phenolics, flavonoids and antocyanin content with Fv/Fm, Fm/Fo and photosynthesis indicated up-regulation of carbon-based secondary metabolites (CBSM) under reduced photoinhibition on the under low light levels condition. At the lowest irradiance levels, Labisia pumila extracts also exhibited a significantly higher antioxidant activity (DPPH) than under high irradiance. The improved antioxidative activity under low light levels might be due to high availability of total flavonoids, phenolics and anthocyanin content in the plant extract. It was also found that an increase in the production of CBSM was due to high PAL activity under low light, probably signifying more availability of phenylalanine (Phe) under this condition. PMID:22754297

  15. Reduced Photoinhibition under Low Irradiance Enhanced Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth Secondary Metabolites, Phenyl Alanine Lyase and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawa Z.E. Jaafar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A randomized complete block design experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of total flavonoids and phenolics, anthocyanin, photosynthesis, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm, electron transfer rate (Fm/Fo, phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL and antioxidant (DPPH in Labisia pumila var. alata, under four levels of irradiance (225, 500, 625 and 900 µmol/m2/s for 16 weeks. As irradiance levels increased from 225 to 900 µmol/m2/s, the production of plant secondary metabolites (total flavonoids, phenolics and antocyanin was found to decrease steadily. Production of total flavonoids and phenolics reached their peaks under 225 followed by 500, 625 and 900 µmol/m2/s irradiances. Significant positive correlation of production of total phenolics, flavonoids and antocyanin content with Fv/Fm, Fm/Fo and photosynthesis indicated up-regulation of carbon-based secondary metabolites (CBSM under reduced photoinhibition on the under low light levels condition. At the lowest irradiance levels, Labisia pumila extracts also exhibited a significantly higher antioxidant activity (DPPH than under high irradiance. The improved antioxidative activity under low light levels might be due to high availability of total flavonoids, phenolics and anthocyanin content in the plant extract. It was also found that an increase in the production of CBSM was due to high PAL activity under low light, probably signifying more availability of phenylalanine (Phe under this condition.

  16. HPLC and GC-MS Determination of Bioactive Compounds in Microwave Obtained Extracts of Three Varieties of Labisia pumila Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawa Z.E. Jaafar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Microwave extraction of phytochemicals from medicinal plant materials has generated tremendous research interest and shown great potential. This research highlights the importance of microwave extraction in the analysis of flavonoids, isoflavonoid and phenolics and the antioxidant properties of extracts from three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb, Labisia pumila Benth. High and fast extraction performance ability, equal or higher extraction efficiencies than other methods, and the need for small samples and reagent volumes are some of the attractive features of this new promising microwave assisted extraction (MAE technique. The aims of the present research were to determine the foliar phenolics and flavonoids contents of extracts of three varieties of L. pumila obtained by a microwave extraction method while flavonoid, isoflavonoid and phenolic compounds were analyzed using RP-HPLC. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities were measured by the DPPH and FRAP methods and finally, the chemical composition of the crude methanolic extracts of the leaves of all three varieties were analyzed by GS-MS.

  17. Labisia pumila Prevents Complications of Osteoporosis by Increasing Bone Strength in a Rat Model of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Noor Fathilah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT is the main treatment postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, ERT causes serious side effects, such as cancers and thromboembolic problems. Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva is a herb with potential as an alternative to ERT to prevent complications of osteoporosis, especially fragility fractures. This study was conducted to determine the effects of LPva on the biomechanical strength of femora exposed to osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency, using the postmenopausal rat model. Thirty-two female rats were randomly divided into four groups: Sham-operated (Sham, ovariectomized control (OVXC, ovariectomized with Labisia pumila var. alata (LP, and ovariectomized with ERT (Premarin (ERT. The LPva and ERT were administered via oral gavage daily at doses of 17.5 mg/kg and 64.5 μg/kg, respectively. Following two months of treatment, the rats were euthanized, and their right femora were prepared for bone biomechanical testing. The results showed that ovariectomy compromised the femoral strength, while LPva supplementation to the ovariectomized rats improved the femoral strength. Therefore, LPva may be as effective as ERT in preventing fractures due to estrogen-deficient osteoporosis.

  18. Elm Tree (Ulmus parvifolia) Bark Bioprocessed with Mycelia of Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) Mushrooms in Liquid Culture: Composition and Mechanism of Protection against Allergic Asthma in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Phil; Lee, Sang Jong; Nam, Seok Hyun; Friedman, Mendel

    2016-02-01

    Mushrooms can break down complex plant materials into smaller, more digestible and bioactive compounds. The present study investigated the antiasthma effect of an Ulmus parvifolia bark extract bioprocessed in Lentinus edodes liquid mycelium culture (BPUBE) against allergic asthma in chicken egg ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized/challenged mice. BPUBE suppressed total IgE release from U266B1 cells in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity. Inhibitory activity of BPUBE against OVA-specific IgE secretion in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was observed in OVA-sensitized/challenged asthmatic mice. BPUBE also inhibited OVA-specific IgG and IgG1 secretion into serum from the allergic mice, suggesting the restoration of a Th2-biased immune reaction to a Th1/Th2-balanced status, as indicated by the Th1/Th2 as well as regulatory T cell (Treg) cytokine profile changes caused by BPUBE in serum or BALF. Inflammatory cell counts in BALF and lung histology showed that leukocytosis and eosinophilia induced by OVA-sensitization/challenge were inhibited by the oral administration of BPUBE. Amelioration of eosinophil infiltration near the trachea was associated with reduced eotaxin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) levels. Changes in proinflammatory mediator levels in BALF suggest that BPUBE decreased OVA-sensitization-induced elevation of leukotriene C4 (LTC4) and prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). The finding that asthma-associated biomarker levels of OVA-sensitized/challenged mice were much more inhibited with BPUBE treatment than NPUBE (not-bioprocessed Ulmus parvifolia extract) treatment suggested the production of new bioactive compounds by the mushroom mycelia that may be involved in enhancing the observed antiasthmatic properties. The possible relation of the composition determined by proximate analysis and GC/MS to observed bioactivity is discussed. The results suggest that the elm tree (Ulmus parvifolia) bark bioprocessed with mycelia of shiitake (Lentinus edodes

  19. Impact of Soil Field Water Capacity on Secondary Metabolites, Phenylalanine Ammonia-lyase (PAL), Maliondialdehyde (MDA) and Photosynthetic Responses of Malaysian Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth)

    OpenAIRE

    Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Nur Farhana Mohamad Fakri; Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    A randomized complete block design 2 × 4 experiment was designed and conducted for 15 weeks to characterize the relationships between production of total phenolics, flavonoid, anthocyanin, leaf gas exchange, total chlorophyll, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) activity in two varieties of Labisia pumila Benth, namely the var. alata and pumila, under four levels of evapotranspiration replacement (ER) (100%...

  20. Comparative effects of plant growth regulators on leaf and stem explants of Labisia pumila var.alata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna Pick Kiong LING; Kinn Poay TAN; Sobri HUSSEIN

    2013-01-01

    Objective:Labisia pumi/a var.a/ata,commonly known as ‘Kacip Fatimah’ or ‘Selusuh Fatimah’ in Southeast Asia,is traditionally used by members of the Malay community because of its post-partum medicinal properties.Its various pharmaceutical applications cause an excessive harvesting and lead to serious shortage in natural habitat.Thus,this in vitro propagation study investigated the effects of different plant growth regulators (PGRs) on in vitro leaf and stem explants of L.pumila.Methods:The capabilities of callus,shoot,and root formation were evaluated by culturing both explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with various PGRs at the concentrations of 0,1,3,5,and 7 mg/L.Results:Medium supplemented with 3 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) showed the optimal callogenesis from both leaf and stem explants with (72.34± 19.55)% and (70.40± 14.14)% efficacy,respectively.IBA was also found to be the most efficient PGR for root induction.A total of (50.00±7.07)% and (77.78±16.47)% of root formation were obtained from the in vitro stem and leaf explants after being cultured for (26.5±5.0) and (30.0±8.5) d in the medium supplemented with 1 and 3 mg/L of IBA,respectively.Shoot formation was only observed in stem explant,with the maximum percentage of formation ((100.00±0.00)%) that was obtained in 1 mg/L zeatin after (11.0±2.8) d of culture.Conclusions:Callus,roots,and shoots can be induced from in vitro leaf and stem explants of L.pumila through the manipulation of types and concentrations of PGRs.

  1. Ecological and morphological studies in the hybrid zone between Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila

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    S.N. Goroshkevich

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Baikal Region, there is no phenological isolation between Siberian stone pine (P. sibirica Du Tour and Siberian dwarf stone pine (P. pumila (Pall.Regel since the timing of their 'flowering' coincides. Morphologically intermediate individuals, supposedly natural hybrids,occur not very often. In the west half ofStanovoye upland area four regions were investigated: Barguzinskiy, Baikalskiy, Verchneangarskiy and the Severo-Myiskiy mountain ridges. Interspecific natural hybridization was found to take place in several overlapping regions of the species' ranges; however there are some differences in frequency of natural hybrid occurrencebetween regions as well as within each region. Great numbers of natural hybrids arefound only in a specific habitat which occurs rarely and occupies a relatively small area. At the north-east coast of Lake Baikal the lakeside zone is occupied by Siberianstone pine forests with moderate participation of Siberian dwarf stone pine in theundergrowth. The natural hybrid are widespread everywhere. The ratio of fructiferousSiberian stone pine, Siberian dwarf stone pine and natural hybrid was found tobe approximately 300:10:1. About 90% of the examined natural hybrids took anintermediate position between the two parental species by most features (structure ofneedles, shoots, and crown, i.e. representing putatively the first generation hybrids.Therefore, in contrast to the parental species they are subjected to the destructiveeffect of snowbreak (broken off or dislocated from part of the root system. Like theSiberian dwarf stone pine the natural hybrid has specific root sources forming fromlatent buds. Therefore, the hybrids are not subjected to ageing, as well as have nointernal limitation of age and size. Siberian dwarf stone pine, Siberian stone pine andtheir natural hybrid grow together in the Upper Angara delta in the bog regions. Inthe most productive sites the ratio of fructiferous Siberian dwarf stone pine

  2. Ecological and morphological studies in the hybrid zone between Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Goroshkevich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Baikal Region, there is no phenological isolation between Siberian stone pine (P. sibirica Du Tour and Siberian dwarf stone pine (P. pumila (Pall. Regel since the timing of their 'flowering' coincides. Morphologically intermediate individuals, supposedly natural hybrids,occur not very often. In the west half of Stanovoye upland area four regions were investigated: Barguzinskiy, Baikalskiy, Verchneangarskiy and the Severo-Myiskiy mountain ridges. Interspecific natural hybridization was found to take place in several overlapping regions of the species' ranges; however there are some differences in frequency of natural hybrid occurrence between regions as well as within each region. Great numbers of natural hybrids are found only in a specific habitat which occurs rarely and occupies a relatively small area. At the north-east coast of Lake Baikal the lakeside zone is occupied by Siberian stone pine forests with moderate participation of Siberian dwarf stone pine in the undergrowth. The natural hybrid are widespread everywhere. The ratio of fructiferous Siberian stone pine, Siberian dwarf stone pine and natural hybrid was found to be approximately 300:10:1. About 90% of the examined natural hybrids took an intermediate position between the two parental species by most features (structure of needles, shoots, and crown, i.e. representing putatively the first generation hybrids. Therefore, in contrast to the parental species they are subjected to the destructive effect of snowbreak (broken off or dislocated from part of the root system. Like the Siberian dwarf stone pine the natural hybrid has specific root sources forming from latent buds. Therefore, the hybrids are not subjected to ageing, as well as have no internal limitation of age and size. Siberian dwarf stone pine, Siberian stone pine and their natural hybrid grow together in the Upper Angara delta in the bog regions. In the most productive sites the ratio of fructiferous Siberian dwarf

  3. Labisia pumila Upregulates Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Expression in Rat Adipose Tissues and 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Fazliana Mansor; Gu, Harvest F.; Claes-Göran Östenson; Louise Mannerås-Holm; Elisabet Stener-Victorin; Wan Nazaimoon Wan Mohamud

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates lipid and glucose metabolism. We investigated the effects of Labisia pumila (LP) standardized water extract on PPARgamma transcriptional activity in adipocytes in vitro and in vivo. We used a rat model of dihydrotestosterone- (DHT-) induced polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition characterized by insulin resistance. At 9 weeks of age, the PCOS rats were randomly subdivi...

  4. Reduced Photoinhibition under Low Irradiance Enhanced Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth) Secondary Metabolites, Phenyl Alanine Lyase and Antioxidant Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    A randomized complete block design experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of total flavonoids and phenolics, anthocyanin, photosynthesis, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), electron transfer rate (Fm/Fo), phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL) and antioxidant (DPPH) in Labisia pumila var. alata, under four levels of irradiance (225, 500, 625 and 900 µmol/m2/s) for...

  5. Primary, Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity and Antioxidant Activity of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Benth) Exposed to Potassium Fertilization under Greenhouse Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Ghasemzadeh; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Ehsan Karimi; Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    A randomized complete block design was used to characterize the relationship between production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carbohydrate content, leaf gas exchange, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), soluble protein, invertase and antioxidant enzyme activities (ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in Labisia pumila Benth var. alata under four levels of potassium fertilization experiments (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg K/ha) conducted for 12 week...

  6. Enhancement of leaf gas exchange and primary metabolites under carbon dioxide enrichment up-regulates the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

    2011-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of primary metabolites (soluble sugar and starch), secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF) and leaf gas exchange of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under three levels of CO₂ enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol⁻¹) for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by CO₂ enrichment levels; no varietal differences were observed. As CO₂ levels increased from 400 to 1,200 µmol mol⁻¹, the production of carbohydrates also increased steadily, especially for starch more than soluble sugar (sucrose). TF and TP content, simultaneously, reached their peaks under 1,200 µmol exposure, followed by 800 and 400 µmol mol⁻¹. Net photosynthesis (A) and quantum efficiency of photosystem II (f(v)/f(m)) were also enhanced as CO₂ increased from 400 to 1,200 µmol mol⁻¹. Leaf gas exchange characteristics displayed a significant positive relationship with the production of secondary metabolites and carbohydrate contents. The increase in production of TP and TFs were manifested by high C/N ratio and low protein content in L. pumila seedlings, and accompanied by reduction in cholorophyll content that exhibited very significant negative relationships with total soluble sugar, starch and total non structural carbohydrate. PMID:21544039

  7. Enhancement of Leaf Gas Exchange and Primary Metabolites under Carbon Dioxide Enrichment Up-Regulates the Production of Secondary Metabolites in Labisia pumila Seedlings

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    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A split plot 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of primary metabolites (soluble sugar and starch, secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF and leaf gas exchange of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under three levels of CO2 enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol−1 for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by CO2 enrichment levels; no varietal differences were observed. As CO2 levels increased from 400 to 1,200 µmol mol−1, the production of carbohydrates also increased steadily, especially for starch more than soluble sugar (sucrose. TF and TP content, simultaneously, reached their peaks under 1,200 µmol exposure, followed by 800 and 400 µmol mol−1. Net photosynthesis (A and quantum efficiency of photosystem II (fv/fm were also enhanced as CO2 increased from 400 to 1,200 µmol mol−1. Leaf gas exchange characteristics displayed a significant positive relationship with the production of secondary metabolites and carbohydrate contents. The increase in production of TP and TFs were manifested by high C/N ratio and low protein content in L. pumila seedlings, and accompanied by reduction in cholorophyll content that exhibited very significant negative relationships with total soluble sugar, starch and total non structural carbohydrate.

  8. Labisia pumila extract down-regulates hydroxysteroid (11-beta) dehydrogenase 1 expression and corticosterone levels in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazliana, Mansor; Gu, Harvest F; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Yusoff, Mashitah Mohd; Wan Nazaimoon, W M

    2012-04-01

    We evaluated the effects of a standardized Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva) extract on body weight change, hydroxysteroid (11-beta) dehydrogenase 1 (HSD11B1) expressions and corticosterone (CORT) level in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The decoction of LPva has been used for generations among Malay women in Malaysia to maintain a healthy reproductive system.Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley OVX rats were treated orally with LPva extract (10, 20 or 50 mg/kg/day) or estrogen replacement (ERT) for 30 days. Sham operated rats were used as controls. Compared to untreated OVX rats, LPva-treated rats showed less weight gain and had significantly down-regulated HSD11B1 mRNA in liver tissues. HSD11B1 mRNA in adipose tissues increased by 55% (p rats but normalized in rats treated with LPva. Similarly, there was significant down-regulation (p rats. This is the first study ever conducted to evaluate the beneficial effects of LPva in relation to weight gain caused by estrogen insufficiency. Results implied that the bioactive components in LPva extract affect not only HSD11B1 expressions in both adipose and liver tissues but also decrease circulating CORT. The extract should be explored for its potential use as a natural remedy for weight management. PMID:21833773

  9. Primary, secondary metabolites, photosynthetic capacity and antioxidant activity of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Benth) exposed to potassium fertilization under greenhouse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

    2012-01-01

    A randomized complete block design was used to characterize the relationship between production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carbohydrate content, leaf gas exchange, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), soluble protein, invertase and antioxidant enzyme activities (ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in Labisia pumila Benth var. alata under four levels of potassium fertilization experiments (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg K/ha) conducted for 12 weeks. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and carbohydrate content was affected by the interaction between potassium fertilization and plant parts. As the potassium fertilization levels increased from 0 to 270 kg K/ha, the production of soluble protein and PAL activity increased steadily. At the highest potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha) L. pumila exhibited significantly higher net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (g(s)), intercellular CO(2) (C(i)), apparent quantum yield (ξ) and lower dark respiration rates (R(d)), compared to the other treatments. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid are also higher under 270 kg K/ha compared to 180, 90 and 0 kg K/ha. Furthermore, from the present study, the invertase activity was also found to be higher in 270 kg K/ha treatment. The antioxidant enzyme activities (APX, CAT and SOD) were lower under high potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha) and have a significant negative correlation with total phenolics and flavonoid production. From this study, it was observed that the up-regulation of leaf gas exchange and downregulation of APX, CAT and SOD activities under high supplementation of potassium fertilizer enhanced the carbohydrate content that simultaneously increased the production of L. pumila secondary metabolites, thus increasing the health promoting effects of this plant. PMID:23203128

  10. Primary, Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity and Antioxidant Activity of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Benth Exposed to Potassium Fertilization under Greenhouse Conditions

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    Ali Ghasemzadeh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A randomized complete block design was used to characterize the relationship between production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carbohydrate content, leaf gas exchange, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, soluble protein, invertase and antioxidant enzyme activities (ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD in Labisia pumila Benth var. alata under four levels of potassium fertilization experiments (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg K/ha conducted for 12 weeks. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and carbohydrate content was affected by the interaction between potassium fertilization and plant parts. As the potassium fertilization levels increased from 0 to 270 kg K/ha, the production of soluble protein and PAL activity increased steadily. At the highest potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha L. pumila exhibited significantly higher net photosynthesis (A, stomatal conductance (gs, intercellular CO2 (Ci, apparent quantum yield (ɸ and lower dark respiration rates (Rd, compared to the other treatments. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid are also higher under 270 kg K/ha compared to 180, 90 and 0 kg K/ha. Furthermore, from the present study, the invertase activity was also found to be higher in 270 kg K/ha treatment. The antioxidant enzyme activities (APX, CAT and SOD were lower under high potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha and have a significant negative correlation with total phenolics and flavonoid production. From this study, it was observed that the up-regulation of leaf gas exchange and downregulation of APX, CAT and SOD activities under high supplementation of potassium fertilizer enhanced the carbohydrate content that simultaneously increased the production of L. pumila secondary metabolites, thus increasing the health promoting effects of this plant.

  11. Allocation of Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity, and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth) in Response to CO2 and Light Intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Ehsan Karimi; Ali Ghasemzadeh

    2014-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites, soluble sugar, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5) activity, leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity (DPPH), and lipid peroxidation under three levels of CO2 (400, 800, and 1200  μ mol/mol) and four levels of light intensity (225, 500, 625, and 900  μ mol/m2/s) over 15 weeks in Labisia pumila. The production of plant secondary m...

  12. Involvement of Carbohydrate, Protein and Phenylanine Ammonia Lyase in Up-Regulation of Secondary Metabolites in Labisia pumila under Various CO2 and N2 Level

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.

    2011-01-01

    A split plot factorial 2 × 3 experiment was designed to examine and characterize the relationships among secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF), carbohydrate content, C/N ratio, protein synthesis and L–phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5) activity in the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila (Blume) Fern-Vill. under different CO2 concentrations (400 = ambient and 1,200 µmol mol−1 CO2) and three levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90 and 270 kg N ha−1) fo...

  13. Protective Effects of Labisia pumila var. alata on Biochemical and Histopathological Alterations of Cardiac Muscle Cells in Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Roza Dianita; Ibrahim Jantan; Athirah Z. Amran; Juriyati Jalil

    2015-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of the standardized aqueous and 80% ethanol extracts of Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva) in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. The extracts were administered to Wistar rats orally for 28 days with three doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of body weight) prior to ISO (85 mg/kg)-induced MI in two doses on day 29 and 30. The sera and hearts were collected for biochemical and histopathological analysis after t...

  14. The Relationship between Phenolics and Flavonoids Production with Total Non Structural Carbohydrate and Photosynthetic Rate in Labisia pumila Benth. under High CO2 and Nitrogen Fertilization

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    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A factorial split plot 4 × 3 experiment was designed to examine and characterize the relationship among production of secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF, carbohydrate content and photosynthesis of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Benth. namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata under CO2 enrichment (1,200 µmol mol-1 combined with four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N ha-1. No varietal differences were observed, however, as the levels of nitrogen increased from 0 to 270 kg N ha-1, the production of TP and TF decreased in the order leaves>roots>stems. The production of TP and TF was related to increased total non structural carbohydrate (TNC, where the increase in starch content was larger than that in sugar concentration. Nevertheless, the regression analysis exhibited a higher influence of soluble sugar concentration (r2 = 0.88 than starch on TP and TF biosynthesis. Photosynthesis, on the other hand, displayed a significant negative relationship with TP and TF production (r2 = -0.87. A decrease in photosynthetic rate with increasing secondary metabolites might be due to an increase in the shikimic acid pathway that results in enhanced production of TP and TF. Chlorophyll content exhibited very significant negative relationships with total soluble sugar, starch and total non structural carbohydrate.

  15. Allocation of secondary metabolites, photosynthetic capacity, and antioxidant activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth) in response to CO2 and light intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

    2014-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites, soluble sugar, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5) activity, leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity (DPPH), and lipid peroxidation under three levels of CO2 (400, 800, and 1200 μ mol/mol) and four levels of light intensity (225, 500, 625, and 900 μ mol/m(2)/s) over 15 weeks in Labisia pumila. The production of plant secondary metabolites, sugar, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity, and malondialdehyde content was influenced by the interactions between CO2 and irradiance. The highest accumulation of secondary metabolites, sugar, maliondialdehyde, and DPPH activity was observed under CO2 at 1200 μ mol/mol + light intensity at 225 μ mol/m(2)/s. Meanwhile, at 400 μ mol/mol CO2 + 900 μ mol/m(2)/s light intensity the production of chlorophyll and maliondialdehyde content was the highest. As CO2 levels increased from 400 to 1200 μ mol/mol the photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, f v /f m (maximum efficiency of photosystem II), and PAL activity were enhanced. The production of secondary metabolites displayed a significant negative relationship with maliondialdehyde indicating lowered oxidative stress under high CO2 and low irradiance improved the production of plant secondary metabolites that simultaneously enhanced the antioxidant activity (DPPH), thus improving the medicinal value of Labisia pumila under this condition. PMID:24683336

  16. The relationship between phenolics and flavonoids production with total non structural carbohydrate and photosynthetic rate in Labisia pumila Benth. under high CO2 and nitrogen fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah; Rahman, Zaharah Abdul

    2011-01-01

    A factorial split plot 4 × 3 experiment was designed to examine and characterize the relationship among production of secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF), carbohydrate content and photosynthesis of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Benth. namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata under CO(2) enrichment (1,200 µmol mol(-1)) combined with four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N ha(-1)). No varietal differences were observed, however, as the levels of nitrogen increased from 0 to 270 kg N ha(-1), the production of TP and TF decreased in the order leaves>roots>stems. The production of TP and TF was related to increased total non structural carbohydrate (TNC), where the increase in starch content was larger than that in sugar concentration. Nevertheless, the regression analysis exhibited a higher influence of soluble sugar concentration (r(2) = 0.88) than starch on TP and TF biosynthesis. Photosynthesis, on the other hand, displayed a significant negative relationship with TP and TF production (r(2) = -0.87). A decrease in photosynthetic rate with increasing secondary metabolites might be due to an increase in the shikimic acid pathway that results in enhanced production of TP and TF. Chlorophyll content exhibited very significant negative relationships with total soluble sugar, starch and total non structural carbohydrate. PMID:21191319

  17. Time and Dose-Dependent Effects of Labisia pumila on Bone Oxidative Status of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Rat Model

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    Nadia Mohd Effendy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Postmenopausal osteoporosis can be associated with oxidative stress and deterioration of antioxidant enzymes. It is mainly treated with estrogen replacement therapy (ERT. Although effective, ERT may cause adverse effects such as breast cancer and pulmonary embolism. Labisia pumila var. alata (LP, a herb used traditionally for women’s health was found to protect against estrogen-deficient osteoporosis. An extensive study was conducted in a postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model using several LP doses and duration of treatments to determine if anti-oxidative mechanisms were involved in its bone protective effects. Ninety-six female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups; baseline group (BL, sham-operated (Sham, ovariectomised control (OVXC, ovariectomised (OVX and given 64.5 μg/kg of Premarin (ERT, ovariectomised and given 20 mg/kg of LP (LP20 and ovariectomised and given 100 mg/kg of LP (LP100. The groups were further subdivided to receive their respective treatments via daily oral gavages for three, six or nine weeks of treatment periods. Following euthanization, the femora were dissected out for bone oxidative measurements which include superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and malondialdehyde (MDA levels. Results: The SOD levels of the sham-operated and all the treatment groups were significantly higher than the OVX groups at all treatment periods. The GPx level of ERT and LP100 groups at the 9th week of treatment were significantly higher than the baseline and OVX groups. MDA level of the OVX group was significantly higher than all the other groups at weeks 6 and 9. The LP20 and LP100 groups at the 9th week of treatment had significantly lower MDA levels than the ERT group. There were no significant differences between LP20 and LP100 for all parameters. Thus, LP supplementations at both doses, which showed the best results at 9 weeks, may reduce oxidative stress which in turn may prevent bone loss via its

  18. Adaptive flexibility of enzymatic antioxidants SOD, APX and CAT to high light stress: The clonal perennial monocot Iris pumila as a study case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuleta, Ana; Manitašević Jovanović, Sanja; Tucić, Branka

    2016-03-01

    High solar radiation has been recognized as one of the main causes of the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress in plants. To remove the excess of ROS, plants use different antioxidants and tune their activity and/or isoform number as required for given light conditions. In this study, the adaptiveness of light-induced variation in the activities and isoform patterns of key enzymatic antioxidants SOD, APX and CAT was tested in leaves of Iris pumila clonal plants from two natural populations inhabiting a sun exposed dune site and a forest understory, using a reciprocal-transplant experiment. At the exposed habitat, the mean enzymatic activity of total SODs was significantly greater than that in the shaded one, while the amount of the mitochondrial MnSOD was notably higher compared to the plastidic Cu/ZnSOD. However, the number of Cu/ZnSOD isoforms was greater in the forest understory relative to the exposed site (three vs. two, respectively). An inverse relationship recorded between the quantities of MnSOD and Cu/ZnSOD in alternative light habitats might indicate that the two enzymes compensate each other in maintaining intracellular ROS and redox balance. The adaptive population differentiation in APX activity was exclusively recorded in the open habitat, which indicated that the synergistic effect of high light and temperature stress could be the principal selective factor, rather than high light alone. The enzymatic activity of CAT was similar between the two populations, implicating APX as the primary H2O2 scavenger in the I. pumila leaves exposed to high light intensity. PMID:26841194

  19. Allocation of Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity, and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth in Response to CO2 and Light Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites, soluble sugar, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5 activity, leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity (DPPH, and lipid peroxidation under three levels of CO2 (400, 800, and 1200 μmol/mol and four levels of light intensity (225, 500, 625, and 900 μmol/m2/s over 15 weeks in Labisia pumila. The production of plant secondary metabolites, sugar, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity, and malondialdehyde content was influenced by the interactions between CO2 and irradiance. The highest accumulation of secondary metabolites, sugar, maliondialdehyde, and DPPH activity was observed under CO2 at 1200 μmol/mol + light intensity at 225 μmol/m2/s. Meanwhile, at 400 μmol/mol CO2 + 900 μmol/m2/s light intensity the production of chlorophyll and maliondialdehyde content was the highest. As CO2 levels increased from 400 to 1200 μmol/mol the photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, fv/fm (maximum efficiency of photosystem II, and PAL activity were enhanced. The production of secondary metabolites displayed a significant negative relationship with maliondialdehyde indicating lowered oxidative stress under high CO2 and low irradiance improved the production of plant secondary metabolites that simultaneously enhanced the antioxidant activity (DPPH, thus improving the medicinal value of Labisia pumila under this condition.

  20. Reduced Photoinhibition under Low Irradiance Enhanced Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth Secondary Metabolites, Phenyl Alanine Lyase and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawa Z.E. Jaafar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A randomized complete block design experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of total flavonoids and phenolics, anthocyanin, photosynthesis, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm, electron transfer rate (Fm/Fo, phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL and antioxidant (DPPH in Labisia pumila var. alata, under four levels of irradiance (225, 500, 625 and 900 µmol/m2/s for 16 weeks. As irradiance levels increased from 225 to 900 µmol/m2/s, the production of plant secondary metabolites (total flavonoids, phenolics and antocyanin was found to decrease steadily. Production of total flavonoids and phenolics reached their peaks under 225 followed by 500, 625 and 900 µmol/m2/s irradiances. Significant positive correlation of production of total phenolics, flavonoids and antocyanin content with Fv/Fm, Fm/Fo and photosynthesis indicated up-regulation of carbon-based secondary metabolites (CBSM under reduced photoinhibition on the under low light levels condition. At the lowest irradiance levels, Labisia pumila extracts also exhibited a significantly higher antioxidant activity (DPPH than under high irradiance. The improved antioxidative activity under low light levels might be due to high availability of total flavonoids, phenolics and anthocyanin content in the plant extract. It was also found that an increase in the production of CBSM was due to high PAL activity under low light, probably signifying more availability of phenylalanine (Phe under this condition.

  1. Impact of Soil Field Water Capacity on Secondary Metabolites, Phenylalanine Ammonia-lyase (PAL, Maliondialdehyde (MDA and Photosynthetic Responses of Malaysian Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawa Z. E. Jaafar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A randomized complete block design 2 × 4 experiment was designed and conducted for 15 weeks to characterize the relationships between production of total phenolics, flavonoid, anthocyanin, leaf gas exchange, total chlorophyll, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL and malondialdehyde (MDA activity in two varieties of Labisia pumila Benth, namely the var. alata and pumila, under four levels of evapotranspiration replacement (ER (100%; well watered, (75%, moderate water stress, (50%; high water stress and (25%; severe water stress. The production of total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanin, soluble sugar and relative leaf water content was affected by the interaction between varieties and SWC. As the ER levels decreased from 100% to 25%, the production of PAL and MDA activity increased steadily. At the highest (100% ER L. pumila exhibited significantly higher net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (fv/fm and lower dark respiration rates compared to the other treatment. The production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin was also found to be higher under high water stress (50% ER replacement compared to severe water stress (25% ER. From this study, it was observed that as net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield and chlorophyll content were downregulated under high water stress the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin were upregulated implying that the imposition of high water stress can enhance the medicinal properties of L. pumila Benth.

  2. Expression Analysis of GFP Gene in Olimarabidopsis pumila and Arabidopsis thaliana%GFP基因在新疆小拟南芥和拟南芥中的表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    院海英; 吴祥辉; 东锐; 崔百明; 黄先忠

    2012-01-01

    以质粒pMCB30为模板,扩增GFP基因,连接到载体pCMBIA2300-35S-OCS上,构建过量表达载体p35S:GFP,将其转入农杆菌GV3101.通过农杆菌介导法将p35S:GFP载体分别转入新疆特色植物小拟南芥和拟南芥中.T0代经含有卡那霉素的1/2MS培养基筛选,获得了Tt代转基因小拟南芥2株,T1代转基因拟南芥9株.通过激光共聚焦显微镜观察,在转基因小拟南芥和拟南芥的根尖细胞中均可检测到GFP绿色荧光蛋白;对转基因植株进行PCR扩增,均可检测到GFP基因,表明GFP基因已成功转入小拟南芥和拟南芥中.该研究建立了小拟南芥的遗传转化体系,为进一步利用GFP基因和进一步研究小拟南芥的功能基因奠定基础.%GFP gene was amplified by PCR using the plasmid of pMCB30 as template, and the corrected GFP fragment was ligatcd into the plant expression vector of pCMBIA2300-35S-OCS. The p35S:GFP vector was transformed into Agrobacterium GV3101,then p35S;GFP transferred into Olimarabidopsis pumila and Arabidopsis thaliana through Agrobacterium-mediated method. 2 independent plants of T1 generation of transgenic O. pumila and 9 independent plants of T1 generation of transgenic A. thaliana were screened on 1/2 MS medium containing kanamycin. GFP protein can be detected in the root tip cells of transgenic O. pumila and A. thaliana by confocal laser microscopy. GFP gene was confirmed by PCR amplification using DNA of transgenic plants,indicated that GFP gene had been successfully transformed into transgenic plants. The study layed foundations for further using of GFP gene and set up the genetic transformation system of O. pumila,which will benefit a lot in further study of the functional genes of O. pumila.

  3. Protective effects of Labisia pumila var. alata on biochemical and histopathological alterations of cardiac muscle cells in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianita, Roza; Jantan, Ibrahim; Amran, Athirah Z; Jalil, Juriyati

    2015-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of the standardized aqueous and 80% ethanol extracts of Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva) in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. The extracts were administered to Wistar rats orally for 28 days with three doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of body weight) prior to ISO (85 mg/kg)-induced MI in two doses on day 29 and 30. The sera and hearts were collected for biochemical and histopathological analysis after the rats were sacrificed 48 h after the first induction. The main components of the extracts, gallic acid, alkylresorcinols and flavonoids were identified and quantitatively analyzed in the extracts by using a validated reversed phase HPLC method. The extracts showed significant protective effects as pretreated rats showed a significant dose-dependent decrease (p rats. There were significant rises (p rats, when compared with ISO-control group. Histopathological examination showed an improvement in membrane cell integrity in pre-treated rats compared to untreated rats. The major components of LPva extracts can be used as their biomarkers and contributed to the cardioprotective effects against ISO-induced MI rats. PMID:25786162

  4. Labisia pumila Upregulates Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Expression in Rat Adipose Tissues and 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazliana Mansor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates lipid and glucose metabolism. We investigated the effects of Labisia pumila (LP standardized water extract on PPARgamma transcriptional activity in adipocytes in vitro and in vivo. We used a rat model of dihydrotestosterone- (DHT- induced polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, a condition characterized by insulin resistance. At 9 weeks of age, the PCOS rats were randomly subdivided into two groups: PCOS-LP (50 mg/kg/day of LP and PCOS-control (1 mL of deionised water for 4-5 weeks on the same schedule. Real-time RT-PCR was performed to determine the PPARgamma mRNA levels. LP upregulated PPARgamma mRNA level by 40% in the PCOS rats. Western blot analysis further demonstrated the increased PPARgamma protein levels in parallel with upregulation in mRNA. These observations were further proven by adipocytes culture. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with final concentration of 100 μg/mL LP and compared to untreated control and 10 μM of rosiglitazone (in type of thiazolidinediones. LP increased PPARgamma expressions at both mRNA and protein levels and enhanced the effect of glucose uptake in the insulin-resistant cells. The data suggest that LP may ameliorate insulin resistance in adipocytes via the upregulation of PPARgamma pathway.

  5. Labisia pumila Upregulates Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Expression in Rat Adipose Tissues and 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansor, Fazliana; Gu, Harvest F; Ostenson, Claes-Göran; Mannerås-Holm, Louise; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Wan Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates lipid and glucose metabolism. We investigated the effects of Labisia pumila (LP) standardized water extract on PPARgamma transcriptional activity in adipocytes in vitro and in vivo. We used a rat model of dihydrotestosterone- (DHT-) induced polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition characterized by insulin resistance. At 9 weeks of age, the PCOS rats were randomly subdivided into two groups: PCOS-LP (50 mg/kg/day of LP) and PCOS-control (1 mL of deionised water) for 4-5 weeks on the same schedule. Real-time RT-PCR was performed to determine the PPARgamma mRNA levels. LP upregulated PPARgamma mRNA level by 40% in the PCOS rats. Western blot analysis further demonstrated the increased PPARgamma protein levels in parallel with upregulation in mRNA. These observations were further proven by adipocytes culture. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with final concentration of 100  μ g/mL LP and compared to untreated control and 10  μ M of rosiglitazone (in type of thiazolidinediones). LP increased PPARgamma expressions at both mRNA and protein levels and enhanced the effect of glucose uptake in the insulin-resistant cells. The data suggest that LP may ameliorate insulin resistance in adipocytes via the upregulation of PPARgamma pathway. PMID:23935612

  6. Quantitative determination of triperpene saponins and alkenated-phenolics from Labisia pumila using an LC-UV/ELSD method and confirmation by LC-ESI-TOF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Ali, Zulfiqar; Smillie, Troy J; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2011-10-01

    This study describes the first analytical method for the determination of four triterpene saponins (ardisicrenoside B, ardisiacrispin A, 3- O- α- L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-α-L-arabinopynanosyl cyclamiretin A and ardisimamilloside H) and three alkenated-phenolics (irisresorcinol, belamcandol B, and demethylbelamcandaquinone B) from the leaves, leaves/stems, and roots of LABISIA PUMILA using an HPLC-UV-ELSD method. The separation was achieved using a reversed-phase (C-18) column, PDA and ELS detection, and a water/acetonitrile gradient as the mobile phase. The major triterpenoid (ardisiacrispin A) and irisresorcinol compounds were detected at a concentration as low as 10.0 and 0.2 µg/mL, respectively. Analysis of various samples showed considerable variation of 0.11-2.46 % for the major triterpenoid compound, ardisiacrispin A. LC-mass spectrometry method coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI) is described for the identification of compounds in plant samples. This method involved the use of the [M + Na]+ and [M + NH₄]+ ions for compounds 1-4 in the positive ion mode with extractive ion chromatogram (EIC). PMID:21590653

  7. Crouania pumila sp. nov. (Callithamniaceae: Rhodophyta), a new species of marine red algae from the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve, Caribbean Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavio, Brigitte; Reyes-Gómez, Viviana P; Wynne, Michael J

    2013-09-01

    In the Colombian Caribbean, the marine macroalgal flora of the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve has been little studied, despite its ecological importance. Historical records have reported only 201 macroalgae species within its area of almost 350,000 km2. However, recent surveys have shown a diversity of small algae previously overlooked. With the aim to determine the macroalgal diversity in the Reserve, we undertook field surveys in different ecosystems: coral reefs, seagrass beds, and rocky and sandy substrates, at different depths, from intertidal to 37 m. During these field surveys, we collected a small described species belonging to the genus Crouania (Callithamniaceae, Rhodophyta), Crouania pumila sp. nov. that is decribed in this paper. This new species was distinguished from other species of the genus by a distinctive suite of traits including its diminutive size (to only 3.5 mm in length), its decumbent, slightly calcified habit (epiphytic on other algae), its ramisympodial branching, the ecorticate main axes, and the elongate shape of the terminal cells of the cortical filaments. The observations were provided for both female (cystocarpic) and tetrasporangiate thalli; however, male thalli were not seen. Further studies have to be undertaken in this Reserve in order to carry out other macroalgal analysis and descriptions. PMID:24027904

  8. The Height Growth of Ulmus elongata Seedlings and Its Correlations with Climatic Factors%长序榆苗木的高生长及与气象因子的关联分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖文胜

    2001-01-01

    The investigated results show that there exists obviously a “slow-fast-slow” growth rhythm in height growth process of Ulmus elongata. Then this growth process are simulated and divided into three stages by Logistic equation. There is a positive correlation between rate of height gr owth and rate of leaf increment. Using relation analysis method, it has been re vealed that the temperature is the essential environmental factor affecting the seedling growth.%研究表明:长序榆苗高生长呈现明显的节律,Logistic 方程能较好地模拟苗高的生长过程,采用Logistic方程可划分出苗木的生长时期、苗高生长 速率与叶面积增长速率之间的相关性达极显著水平.关联分析表明,气温是影响苗木高生长 的主要气象因子.

  9. Protective Effects of Labisia pumila var. alata on Biochemical and Histopathological Alterations of Cardiac Muscle Cells in Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roza Dianita

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of the standardized aqueous and 80% ethanol extracts of Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva in isoproterenol (ISO-induced myocardial infarction (MI in rats. The extracts were administered to Wistar rats orally for 28 days with three doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of body weight prior to ISO (85 mg/kg-induced MI in two doses on day 29 and 30. The sera and hearts were collected for biochemical and histopathological analysis after the rats were sacrificed 48 h after the first induction. The main components of the extracts, gallic acid, alkylresorcinols and flavonoids were identified and quantitatively analyzed in the extracts by using a validated reversed phase HPLC method. The extracts showed significant protective effects as pretreated rats showed a significant dose-dependent decrease (p < 0.05 in cardiac enzyme activities, i.e., cardiac troponin I (cTnI, creatine kinase MB isoenzyme (CK-MB, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, alanine transaminase (ALT and aspartate transaminase (AST, when compared with ISO-control rats. There were significant rises (p < 0.05 in the activity of oxidase enzymes, i.e., glutathione peroxide (GPx, catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD of the pretreated rats, when compared with ISO-control group. Histopathological examination showed an improvement in membrane cell integrity in pre-treated rats compared to untreated rats. The major components of LPva extracts can be used as their biomarkers and contributed to the cardioprotective effects against ISO-induced MI rats.

  10. Involvement of Carbohydrate, Protein and Phenylanine Ammonia Lyase in Up-Regulation of Secondary Metabolites in Labisia pumila under Various CO2 and N2 Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A split plot factorial 2 × 3 experiment was designed to examine and characterize the relationships among secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF, carbohydrate content, C/N ratio, protein synthesis and L–phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5 activity in the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila (Blume Fern-Vill. under different CO2 concentrations (400 = ambient and 1,200 µmol mol−1 CO2 and three levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90 and 270 kg N ha−1 for 15 weeks. The interaction between CO2 and nitrogen levels imposed a significant impact on plant secondary metabolite production, protein, PAL activity and fructose levels. Highest TP and TF were recorded under 1,200 µmol mol−1 CO2 when N fertilizer was not applied; lowest values were obtained at 400 µmol mol−1 CO2 fertilized with the highest N level. Concurrently, fructose contents increased tremendously. Increase in fructose content might also enhance erythose-4-phosphate production (substrate for lignin and phenolic compounds, which shares a common precursor transdalolase in the pentose phosphate pathway. PAL activity was noted to be highest under 1,200 µmol mol−1 CO2 + 0 kg N ha−1 coinciding with subsequent recording of the lowest protein content. The results implied that the increase in plant secondary metabolites production under the tested conditions might be due to diversion of phenylalanine for protein synthesis to production of secondary metabolites. It was also found that the sucrose to starch ratio was also high under high levels of nitrogen fertilization, indicating an enhanced sucrose phosphate synthase activity (SPS; EC 2.4.1.14 under such condition.

  11. Intoxicação experimental por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae em bovinos Experimental poisoning by Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Davi Traverso

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Folhas de Trema micrantha foram fornecidas a 13 bovinos. Dez deles receberam folhas verdes em dose única, dois receberam folhas verdes em doses fracionadas e um recebeu dose única de planta dessecada. Oito dos bovinos apresentaram sinais clínicos e seis morreram. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram a partir de 16 horas após a ingestão da planta. Os animais apresentavam apatia, anorexia, sialorréia, fraqueza progressiva, coma e morte. Sinais neurológicos, tais como pressionar a cabeça contra obstáculos e movimentos laterais da cabeça, foram observados em quatro animais. As mortes ocorreram entre 67 e 153 horas após o término da ingestão da planta. O achado de necropsia mais significativo foi observado no fígado que era friável com padrão lobular acentuado e com áreas de hemorragia, exceto um bovino, que apresentou o fígado difusamente vermelho escuro. Hemorragias petequiais nas serosas e edema da vesícula biliar foram alterações adicionais observadas com freqüência. Rins pálidos com pontos avermelhados na cortical foram observados em um bovino. O exame histológico revelou, em 5 animais, necrose de coagulação massiva associada à hemorragia centrolobular acentuada. Um animal apresentou necrose centrolobular. Dois animais apresentaram alterações nos rins, caracterizadas por necrose tubular renal. Altrações histológicas no sistema nervoso central, que consistiam de edema perineuronal e perivascular com basofilia e retração de neurônios, principalmente no córtex frontal, foram observadas em cinco bovinos. T. micrantha causou sinais clínicos com 50g/kg e morte a partir de 54g/kg de peso. As doses fracionadas e a planta dessecada não causaram sinais de intoxicação.Leaves of Trema micrantha were orally given to 13 cattle. Ten animals received green leaves in a single dose, two animals received green leaves in fractionated doses, and one received the dried leaves in a single dose. Eight animals showed clinical signs and six of them died. Clinical signs were observed 16 hours after administration and included apathy, anorexia, drooling, progressive weakness, coma and death. Neurological signs as pressing the head against obstacles and head shaking were observed in four animals . Death occurred between 67 and 153 hours after the end of plant ingestion. The main gross lesions were observed in the liver, and included friable consistency, pronounced lobular pattern and areas of haemorrhages. The liver of one bovine was homogeneously dark reddened. Petechial hemorrhages in serosal membranes and edema in the gall bladder were frequently seen. Pale kidneys with red spots in the cortex were observed in one animal. Microscopically, the most striking lesion in the liver was massive coagulative necrosis, associated with centrolobular haemorrhages, observed in four animals. In the liver of one bovine centrolobular necrosis was observed . Tubular renal necrosis was noted in two animals. Additional microscopic lesions were found in the central nervous system of five bovines, especially in the frontal cortex, and included perineuronal and perivascular edema with basophilia and retraction of the neurons. T T. micrantha caused clinical signs with 50g/kg and death with doses of 54g/kg or higher. The fractionated administration of the green leaves as well as the dried leaves did not cause poisoning.

  12. Intoxicação experimental por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) em bovinos Experimental poisoning by Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Davi Traverso; André Mendes Ribeiro Corrêa; Milene Schmitz; Edson Moleta Colodel; David Driemeier

    2004-01-01

    Folhas de Trema micrantha foram fornecidas a 13 bovinos. Dez deles receberam folhas verdes em dose única, dois receberam folhas verdes em doses fracionadas e um recebeu dose única de planta dessecada. Oito dos bovinos apresentaram sinais clínicos e seis morreram. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram a partir de 16 horas após a ingestão da planta. Os animais apresentavam apatia, anorexia, sialorréia, fraqueza progressiva, coma e morte. Sinais neurológicos, tais como pressionar a cabeça contra obstácul...

  13. Intra-and inter-specific competition of rare and endangered plant Ulmus lamellosa in Shanxi Province of China%山西稀有濒危植物脱皮榆种内和种间竞争

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓霞; 张钦弟; 毕润成; 白玉芳

    2013-01-01

    Based on the field investigation data of 128 Ulmus lamellosa target trees and 1093 competing species individuals in a 100 m× 100 m sampling plot in Taiyue Mountain of Shanxi,this paper analyzed the intra-and inter-specific competition intensities of U.lamellosa by using Hegyi' s competition index (CI).The intraspecific competition intensity of U.lamellosa decreased gradually with its increasing DBH.In the plot,there were many other species,but their individual number was fewer than that of U.lamellose,and thus,the interspecific competition intensity of U.lamellosa was relatively weaker than its intraspecific competition.The order of the intra-and inter-specific competition intensities was U.lamellosa-U.lamellosa > Carpinus cordata-U.lamellosa > Acer elegantulum-U.lamellosa > other species-U.lamellosa.The relationships between the competition intensity and the DBH of U.lamellosa followed the equation CI=AD-B.When the DBH of U.lamellosa reached 25 cm,the competition intensity had less change,and the model could well simulate and predict the intra-and inter-specific competition intensities of U.lamellosa.%通过对山西太岳山一块100 m×100 m样地中128株脱皮榆对象木及1093株竞争木的调查,运用Hegyi的单木竞争指数计算分析了脱皮榆的种内和种间竞争强度.结果表明:(1)脱皮榆种群所受到的竞争强度随着对象木胸径的增大而逐渐减小;(2)调查样地内尽管其他物种种类较多,但数量较少,与脱皮榆种间竞争相对较弱,脱皮榆种内与种间竞争关系的顺序为:脱皮榆-脱皮榆>千金榆-脱皮榆>五角枫-脱皮榆>茶条槭-脱皮榆>其他树种-脱皮榆;(3)竞争强度和对象木胸径的关系服从幂函数关系,当脱皮榆胸径在25 cm以上时,竞争强度变化不大,所得的预测模型能很好地预测脱皮榆种内种间竞争强度.

  14. 薛荔籽果胶对去势雌性大鼠矿物质吸收的影响%Effect of Pectin from Ficus pumila L. Seeds on Mineral Absorption in Ovariectomized Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 冯媛嫒; 刘雄; 陈宗道

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨薛荔籽果胶对去势雌性大鼠矿物质吸收的影响。方法:将30只SD成年雌鼠随机分为5组。4组大鼠做双侧卵巢切除手术,一周后分为空白组和薛荔籽果胶高、中、低剂量组;用伪切除同龄大鼠作对照(Sham组)。喂养4周后解剖,测定盲肠内容物pH值、短链脂肪酸、骨钙、骨磷含量及矿物质元素的表观吸收等指标。结果:去势雌性大鼠对钙、镁、磷、锌和铁元素的表观吸收率及骨钙和骨磷含量显著低于正常大鼠(P〈0.05)。薛荔籽果胶能显著增加去势雌性大鼠短链脂肪酸含量和盲肠面积(P〈0.05),降低盲肠pH值,并且在一定程度上抑制钙、镁、磷、锌和铁元素的表观吸收率。结论:薛荔籽果胶能降低去势雌性大鼠矿物质的表观吸收率。%Objective: To investigate the effect of pectin from Ficus pumila L. seeds on mineral absorption in ovariectomized rats. Methods: Thirty SD female rats were divided into five groups. The mice in four of them were double ovariectomized and one week later assigned as model control group and high, medium and low dose groups ofFicuspumila L. pectin. The mice in the fifth group were sham-ovariectomized as sham control. All rats were sacrificed after 4 weeks of feeding to assay pH values and short-chain fatty acids in cecum contents, calcium and phosphorus in bone, and apparent absorption rate of minerals. Results: Compared to the sham control group, the apparent absorption rates of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc and iron, calcium and phosphorus in bone significantly decreased in OVX rats (P〈0.05). Pectin from Ficus pumila L. seeds drastically increased the concentration of short-chain fatty acids in cecum content and the area of cecum, decreased the pH of cecum contents, and inhibited the absorption of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc and iron in ovariectomized rats. Conclusions: Ficus pumila L. seed

  15. 红肉苹果MpMYBPA1的克隆及表达分析%Cloning and expression analysis of MpMYBPA1 from Malus pumila var.niedzwetzkyana Schneid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕东; 李春霞; 展蔷; 都贝贝; 张计育; 章镇; 渠慎春

    2012-01-01

    In this study, Malus pumila var. Niedzwetzkyana Schneid was employed as the experimental material. The full-length sequence of one MYB transcription factor named MpMYBPAl was cloned by RACE and silico cloning technology from Malus pumila var. Niedzwetzkyana Schneid. Along with the bioinformatics analysis and subcellular localization to the MYB protein, the gene expression research on MpMYBPAl was conducted. The result showed that the full length of this gene from apple was 1 020 bp, which was to code 340 amino acids,and with a highest homology with MYBPA1 from Vitis viniferna. This gene was named MpMYBPAl, which had two MYB HTH DNA-binding domains with 55 amino acids in parathormone-N te. It was proved from the subcellular localization that MpMYBPAl protein was located in nucleus. Through quantitative real-time PCR,the expression of MpMYBPAl was observed in different organs such as root,stem,leaf and peel,with a highest level in peel,which might be influenced by temperature and ABA. After 4 days with 20 ℃ treatment, the expression level rose, however, the increase of the gene expression was not significant with 30 ℃ treatment, which might suggest that low temperature should be positive to the expression of MYBPA1. It could be concluded from the research results that MpMYBPAl might have been involved in the process of coloration for apple.%利用RACE和电子克隆技术相结合的方法从野生红肉苹果(Malus pumila var.niedzwetzkyana Schneid)中克隆了1个MYB类转录因子的全长序列,利用生物信息学方法对其进行分析,同时进行了亚细胞定位分析以及表达特性的研究.结果表明:该基因全长为1 020 bp,编码340个氨基酸;其核苷酸序列与葡萄MYBPA1同源性最高,命名为MpMYBPA1,其N端含2个约有55个氨基酸组成的MYB特征结构域.亚细胞定位分析结果表明MpMYBPA1蛋白定位在细胞核中.荧光定量PCR结果表明:MpMYBPA1基因在根、茎、叶、果皮中均有表

  16. The extraction technology of total flavonoides from the leaves and receptacle of inflorescence of Ficus pumila L.%薜荔叶及花序托中总黄酮的提取工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文珊; 纪小苹; 王扬飞; 方玉霖

    2000-01-01

    @@ 薜荔(Ficus pumila L.)为桑科(Moraceae)榕属(Ficus L.)植物,广布我国长江以南各省区.《本草纲目》记载木莲即薜荔,有壮阳固精,消肿散毒,止血,下乳,治久痢肠痔等功效[1].中国科学院药物研究所在抗肿瘤药物的筛选中曾发现薜荔有一定效果[1].作者在对薜荔进行成分预试验中发现,其叶和花序托的黄酮类物质的含量颇高,而黄酮类化合物是一类生理活性较强的化合物,近年来在医疗、保健及食品上的应用越来越广泛.为了充分开发利用薜荔,扩大黄酮的提取资源,对薜荔叶和花序托的总黄酮提取工艺进行了研究,获得了相应的工艺参数,为大规模生产提供理论依据.

  17. Determination of Phenolic Acids and Flavan-3-ols in Dry Cider of Both Fuji and Rails Apples (Malus pumila Mill. )%苹果酒中酚酸、黄烷-3-醇的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜志奇; 王秀芹; 战吉宬; 黄卫东

    2012-01-01

    The fresh of Ralls apples (Malus pumila Mill. ) , Fuji and apple cider were selected as the test mate- rials. The contents of phenolic compounds in apple juice and cider were determined by HPLC. The result indicated that there were 4 phenolic acids ( Chlorogenic acid, Caffeic acid, Protocatechuic acid and p-coumaric acid) and 2 fla- van-3-ols ( (-)-epicatechin and ( + )-catechin) in apples and ciders. Contents of phenolic compounds in different varieties of apple juice and apple cider are significantly different. The total contents of phenolic compounds in Rails apples and cider from Ralls apples were higher than that from the other two. The most important phenolic compounds were Chlorogenic acid and (-)-epicatechin. The flavan-3-ols with highest content was (-)-Epicatechin. The result in- dicated that the contents of all the phenolic compounds increased obviously during the fermentation, and phenolic compounds in ciders were more than that in apples. Contents showed an increasing trend of S-type. The increasing trend was first flat and then faster and then fiat.%以小国光(Rails)和富士(Fuji)及其所酿制的新鲜苹果酒为试验材料,采用反相高效液相色谱法测定分析苹果原汁、发酵中酒样和苹果成品酒中11种酚酸、5种黄烷-3-醇的含量。结果表明:苹果和苹果酒中存在4种酚酸(原儿茶酸、绿原酸、咖啡酸、对-香豆酸)、2种黄烷-3-醇(儿茶素和表儿茶素);不同品种的苹果原汁和苹果成品酒中酚类物质的含量都存在显著差异。其中,小国光苹果和小国光苹果酒中的酚类物质总含量较高;对于每个品种,绿原酸都是最主要的酚酸类物质,含量最高的黄烷-3-醇类物质都是表儿茶素。随着发酵过程的进行,苹果酒中酚类物质的含量有不同程度的增加。其增加趋势为s型曲线,即先平缓再较快再平缓。

  18. Intoxicação experimental por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) em caprinos

    OpenAIRE

    Traverso Sandra Davi; Corrêa André Mendes Ribeiro; Pescador Caroline Argenta; Colodel Edson Moleta; Cruz Cláudio Estêvão Farias da; Driemeier David

    2002-01-01

    Sete caprinos receberam, por sonda esofágica, uma suspensão aquosa de folhas verdes de Trema micrantha moídas e um outro recebeu folhas verdes da planta à vontade. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram-se 2 dias após a ingestão e ocorreram em seis caprinos, cinco dos quais morreram em até 4 dias. Os animais doentes permaneciam longos períodos em estação, com cabeça baixa, olhar fixo, apáticos e inapetentes. Tenesmo, incoordenação e movimentos rítmicos laterais da cabeça também foram observados. T. mic...

  19. Phytotoxic potential of celtis australis L. (family ulmaceae) against four crop species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioassays were conducted to test the phytotoxic potential of Celtis australis against Trifolium alexandrinum, Brassica campestris, Triticum aestivum and Lactuca sativa under laboratory condition. Aqueous extracts from twigs and leaves were obtained by soaking 5 and 10g plant material in 100 ml distilled water for 24 and 48hr durations. Aqueous extracts significantly delayed/retarded the germination and reduced the plumule and radicle growth of all the four test species. Generally, extracts soaked for 48h especially 10 gm/100ml were inhibitory than 24h extracts of 5 or 10gm material. Extracts from twigs were inhibitory to germination of wheat while same extracts inhibited the plumule growth of B. campestris. Radicle growth of T. alexandrinum was inhibited more by twig extracts. Hot water extracts from twigs were less inhibitory than leaf extracts. Litter and mulch also significantly delayed the seed germination and retarded the overall growth of seedlings of all test species. The number and length of seminal roots of T. aestivum was suppressed by all aqueous extracts, added litter and mulch. The inhibitory response depended upon the test species, concentration, soaking duration and physiological parameters. The results suggested that Celtis australis has strong phytotoxic potential. (author)

  20. A mini review on chemistry and biology of Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb. Planch (Ulmaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dinesh Kumar; Karunesh Kumar; Jyoti Gupta; Navita Bishnoi; Sunil Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb. (Indian Elm) is a very useful and popular traditional medicinal plant in India. During the last three decades, apart from the chemistry of plant compounds, considerable progress regarding the biological activity and medicinal applications of Indian Elm has been achieved. Ethno-medically, the leaves and stem bark of this plant have been used by tribes as antiviral, antioxidant, antimicrobial, abortifacient preparations and in the management of cancer. Recent studies on plant show that it has potential to fight against tumor and obesity as well. Phytochemical investigation shows the presence of chemical constituents such as terpenoids, alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, steroids, sterols, saponins, tannins, proteins and flavanoids. The isolated principles such as β-amyrin, β-sitosterol, holoptelin-A, holoptelin-B, hederagenin, hexacosanol, β-D-glucose, friedelin, epifriedelin, 2-amino naphthoquinone, 1,4-naphthalenedione, are considered as responsible for various activities. This review highlights the traditional uses, reported biological/pharmacological activities, isolated compounds and therapeutic applications of Holoptelea integrifolia which might be helpful for scientists and researchers to find out new chemical entities responsible for its claimed traditional uses.

  1. Intoxicação experimental por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae em caprinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traverso Sandra Davi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Sete caprinos receberam, por sonda esofágica, uma suspensão aquosa de folhas verdes de Trema micrantha moídas e um outro recebeu folhas verdes da planta à vontade. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram-se 2 dias após a ingestão e ocorreram em seis caprinos, cinco dos quais morreram em até 4 dias. Os animais doentes permaneciam longos períodos em estação, com cabeça baixa, olhar fixo, apáticos e inapetentes. Tenesmo, incoordenação e movimentos rítmicos laterais da cabeça também foram observados. T. micrantha mostrou-se tóxica a partir de 30g/kg de peso corporal. A alteração macroscópica mais significativa foi observada no fígado, que se apresentou friável, amarelado e com acentuado padrão lobular. Ao corte, havia áreas vermelhas, deprimidas e entremeadas por áreas mais claras. Em um animal, a coloração do fígado era vermelha, homogênea, mais clara que o normal e sem evidenciação do padrão lobular. Petéquias foram constatadas entre a escápula e o esterno, no epicárdio, no mediastino e nas serosas dos órgãos da cavidade abdominal. A principal alteração histológica foi necrose coagulativa centro-lobular que, em alguns casos, atingia todo o lóbulo, associada à congestão, hemorragia e alterações degenerativas nos hepatócitos circunjacentes. No sistema nervoso, havia tumefação de neurônios, mais proeminente no córtex frontal, associado a edema perineuronal e perivascular.

  2. 黄河三角洲五个耐盐树种苗木生物量比较%A study on seedling biomass of five salt-tolerant tree species in Yellow River Delta area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王月海; 许景伟; 韩友吉; 侣庆柱; 姜福成

    2013-01-01

    Morphological feature and biomass characteristics of five salt-tolerant tree seedlings(Ailanthus altissima Swingle,Salix americana Linn.,Ulmus pumila Linn.,Fraxinnus chinensis Roxb and Acer truncatum Bunge) planted for two years in Yellow River Delta area were analyzed.The results showed that above-ground part of seedlings in four species including Ailanthus altissima Swingle,Salix americana,Ulmus pumila Linn.And Fraxinnus chinensis Roxb grew well,but seedlings of Acer truncatum Bunge grew poorly.Principal root and branch root of Ulmus pumila Linn.and Fraxinnus chinensis Roxb seedlings grew longer and wider.Seedlings with large root in diameter was the main portion for root system of Ailanthus altissima Swingle and Salix americana.Seedlings with medium and slim root in diameter were the main portion for root system of Acer truncatum Bungeseedling.Ranking sequence of seedling biomass for five species was Ulmus pumila Linn.> Fraxinnus chinensis Roxb > Salix americana > Ailanthus altissima Swingle > Acer truncatum Bunge.Cluster analysis of seven variables in seedling productivity of five species showed that seedling production of Ulmus pumila Linn.,Fraxinnus chinensis Roxb and Salix americana Linn.was high,seedling production of Ailanthus altissima Swingle was medium,seedling production of Acer truncatum Bunge was low.According to situation of seedling growth and development in saline-alkali soil,Ulmus pumila Linn.,Fraxinnus chinensis Roxb were more suitable for saline-alkali soil improyement and utilization.%对黄河三角洲盐渍土上所育的2年生臭椿、美国竹柳、白榆、白蜡和五角枫5个耐盐树种苗木分别进行了生长、形态与生物量的比较分析.结果表明,臭椿、美国竹柳、白榆和白蜡4个树种苗木地上部分生长较好,五角枫苗木生长较差;白榆和白蜡2个树种主、侧根系发达,根系数量多、长度大,臭椿和美国竹柳2个树种苗木以粗根为主,中细根较少,五角枫根

  3. Seasonal variation of bacterial endophytes in urban trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Yi eShen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial endophytes, non-pathogenic bacteria residing within plants, contribute to the growth and development of plants and their ability to adapt to adverse conditions. In order to fully exploit the capabilities of these bacteria, it is necessary to understand the extent to which endophytic communities vary between species and over time. The endophytes of Acer negundo, Ulmus pumila and Ulmus parvifolia were sampled over three seasons and analyzed using culture dependent and independent methods (culture on two media, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, and tagged pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal amplicons. The majority of culturable endophytes isolated were Actinobacteria, and all the samples harbored Bacillus, Curtobacterium, Frigoribacterium, Methylobacterium, Paenibacilllus and Sphingomonas species. Regardless of culture medium used, only the culturable communities obtained in the winter for A. negundo could be distinguished from those of Ulmus spp.. In contrast, the nonculturable communities were dominated by Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, particularly Erwinia, Ralstonia and Sanguibacter spp.. The presence and abundance of various bacterial classes and phyla changed with the changing seasons. Multivariate analysis on the culture independent data revealed significant community differences between the endophytic communities of A. negundo and Ulmus spp., but overall season was the main determinant of endophytic community structure. This study suggests investigations of the studies ofendophytic populations of urban trees should expect to find significant seasonal and species-specific community differences and sampling should proceed accordingly.

  4. The Spatial Pattern and Interactions of Woody Plants on the Temperate Savanna of Inner Mongolia, China: The Effects of Alternating Seasonal Grazing-Mowing Regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Kebin; Zhou, Jinxing; Ahmad, Bilal

    2015-01-01

    Ulmus pumila tree-dominated temperate savanna, which is distributed widely throughout the forest-steppe ecotone on the Mongolian Plateau, is a relatively stable woody-herbaceous complex ecosystem in northern China. Relatively more attention has been paid to the degradation of typical steppe areas, whereas less focus has been placed on the succession of this typical temperate savanna under the present management regime. In this study, we established 3 sample plots 100 m×100 m in size along a gradient of fixed distances from one herder's stationary site and then surveyed all the woody plants in these plots. A spatial point pattern analysis was employed to clarify the spatial distribution and interaction of these woody plants. The results indicated that old U. pumila trees (DBH ≥ 20 cm) showed a random distribution and that medium U. pumila trees (5 cm ≤ DBH succession in a U. pumila tree community in this typical temperate savanna ecosystem. This might eventually result in the degradation of the original tree-dominated savanna to a xerophytic shrub-dominated savanna. PMID:26196956

  5. Semiochemical-mediated flight strategies of two invasive elm bark beetles: a potential factor in competitive displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jana C; Hamud, Shakeeb M; Negrón, José F; Witcosky, Jeffrey J; Seybold, Steven J

    2010-04-01

    A seven-state survey showed that the recently detected invasive Asian banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov, was abundant in areas of Colorado and Wyoming, whereas the long-established European elm bark beetle, S. multistriatus (Marsham), was not as abundant. In one of a series of studies to evaluate whether S. schevyrewi is competitively displacing S. multistriatus in their North American zone of sympatry, we characterized long-range flight responses infested or uninfested to small cut logs of American, Chinese, and Siberian elm, Ulmus americana, U. parvifolia, and U. pumila. Trials were conducted in Colorado and Wyoming to test the flight response of S. schevyrewi; in California to test the response of S. multistriatus; and in Nevada to test the responses of both species simultaneously. Studies with S. schevyrewi showed that males and females aggregated toward Ulmus spp. host volatiles but provided no evidence of a putative aggregation pheromone during the 0- to 48- or 48- to 96-h period of infestation. In contrast, S. multistriatus was attracted to U. pumila over unbaited controls, more to U. pumila infested with conspecific females than without, and more during the 48- to 96- versus 0- to 48-h period of infestation. This confirmed that male and female S. multistriatus aggregated toward host volatiles and that females produced an aggregation pheromone. In a cross-attraction study, S. schevyrewi displayed neither flight preference nor interruption to U. pumila infested with conspecifics, heterospecifics, or a mix of both species. Response of S. multistriatus was too low to draw conclusions. Although S. multistriatus aggregates moderately to host volatiles and strongly to female-derived pheromones emitted after a few days, S. multistriatus may have a relative disadvantage by selecting elm hosts more slowly than S. schevyrewi, which aggregates very strongly to host volatiles. The differential long-range host location strategy may be one factor in a

  6. Influence of Ficus Pumila Linn.on Calmodulin mRNA Expression Level in Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis of Rats with Kidney-Yang Deficiency%奶母果对肾阳虚大鼠下丘脑-垂体-性腺轴中钙调蛋白m RNA表达量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余世荣

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究奶母果对肾阳虚大鼠模型下丘脑-垂体-性腺(HPG)轴钙调蛋白(CaM)mRNA表达量的影响。方法应用外源性糖皮质激素(氢化可的松)制作肾阳虚大鼠模型,检测各组大鼠HPG轴中CaM mRNA表达量,分析奶母果对HPG轴中下丘脑、睾丸CaM mRNA的影响。结果高剂量的奶母果瘿果可提高肾阳虚大鼠HPG轴下丘脑CaMmRNA的表达量,降低睾丸CaMmRNA的表达量,而奶母果瘿果低剂量组和花序托组作用不明显。结论奶母果可通过提高肾阳虚大鼠下丘脑CaMmRNA的表达改善其肾阳虚症状。%Objective To study the influence of Ficus pumila Linn.(FPL)on calmodulin mRNA expression level in hypothalamic-pitu-itary-gonadal(HPG)axis of rats with kidney-yang deficiency.Methods Rats with kidney-yang deficiency were induced by exoge-nous glucocorticoids(Hydrocortisone)to analyze the influence of FPL on calmodulin mRNA expression level in hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function by detecting calmodulin mRNA expression level in HPG axis.Results High dose of FPL had obvious regulating effect on calmodulin mRNA expression level in HPG axis of rats with kidney-yang deficiency.Conclusion FPL can tonify the kidney by regulating calmodulin mRNA expression level in HPG axis of rats with kidney-yang deficiency.

  7. Diversidad de Anamorfos de Ascomycota en bosques nativos de Celtis tala (Ulmaceae en la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina Diversity of anamorphic fungi in Celtis tala (Ulmaceae native forest from Buenos Aires province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Allegrucci

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se analizó la diversidad de microhongos que constituyen la comunidad fúngica saprótrofa (anamorfos de Ascomycota presente en hojarasca y suelo en bosques nativos de Celtis tala (tala en el partido de Magdalena, provincia de Buenos Aires. Se realizaron muestreos estacionales durante dos años (2004-2005 y se aislaron e identificaron los hongos presentes. Se calculó la frecuencia relativa porcentual de cada taxón; estos datos fueron utilizados para evaluar la diversidad fúngica mediante el cálculo del Indice de Diversidad de Shanon y Weaver ( H '. Para discriminar las comunidades fúngicas se utilizó el coeficiente de similitud de Sorensen ( S '. Se identificaron 104 taxones de anamorfos de Ascomycota, de los cuales 54 fueron aislados de hojarasca y 58 de suelo, registrándose 8 especies en común para ambos tipos de muestra. De las especies compartidas, las que presentaron frecuencias más altas para hojarasca fueron las menos representadas en suelo y viceversa. El resultado del cálculo del coeficiente de similitud de Sorensen fue de 0.14, indicando que la comunidad de hongos saprótrofos que crece en la hojarasca de tala está integrada por diferentes especies a las que caracterizan la micobiota del suelo de la misma área. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en el índice de diversidad.In this paper we analyze the diversity of species that compose the saprotrophic (anamorphic Ascomycota fungi community in the leaf litter and soil in Celtis tala forest in Magdalena , located in the province of Buenos Aires . Seasonal samples were taken during two years (2004-2005, and fungi were isolated and identified. The relative frequencies of fungi were calculated. To compare the similarity of the fungi composition between different habitats, Sorensen's index of similarity (S´ was applied. The frequencies of occurrence of these fungi were recorded and Shannon Weaver index (H´ was applied to evaluate fungal diversity. A total of 104 taxa of anamorphic fungi were identified from which 54 were isolated from leaf litter, 58 from soil, and 8 species common for both types of substrate. From the taxa identified, those that had higher frequencies for leaf litter were the less represented in soil and vice versa. Sorensen´s index of similarity resulted 0.14, which means that the saprotrophic fungi community that grows in leaf litter of Celtis tala is composed by different species than those that characterized the mycobiota from the soil of the same area. Nevertheless, no significant differences were found in the index of diversity.

  8. THE SELECTION ASSESSMENT OF HIBRIDES OF THE FAMILY ULMACEAE MIRB. FOR DECORATIVE GARDENING OF THE LOWER VOLGA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Podkovyrov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issues of selection of the elm for decorative gardening. On the basis of complex analysis of the estimation of economically valuable selection of samples. Shown the advantage of individual selection. Investigated the variability of morphological characteristics of the form of the crown, of leaves and fruits. Allocated promising group of plants that allows you to continue breeding work. Summarizes the results of the hybridization of species of elm.

  9. [Herbalogical textual research of Wuyi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hai-liang; Zhang, Rui-xian

    2015-11-01

    Wuyi is one of the Chinese medicine recorded in Shennong's Herbal Classic and many other herbal books during the long history period. Up to now, Wuyi is still an important medicine used for insecticidal and removing food retention. Recent researches indicated that Wuyi also had the function of anti-malaria and treating herpetic simplex keratitis. Therefore, Wuyi had notable value on clinic and development of new medicine. The herbalogical textual research on Wuyi was conducted through investigation of the literature of materia medica during the long historical period from Han Dynasty. It was demonstrated by this work that the original plants of Wuyi include Ulmus macrocarpa Hance and Hemiptelea davidii (Hance) Planch, in which, U. macrocarpa was the quality specie. U. pumila was the false specie which cause confusing. The medicine Wuyi was the processed product made from the nutlet of the plants through fermentation with other additive agents. PMID:27097433

  10. Cross Breeding of Populus and Its Hybrids for Cold Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Populus tomentosa was crossed with P. tremuloidis, P. grandidentata, P. alba × P. grandidentata and P. alba × Ulmus pumila in order to maintain its rapid growth and high wood quality and improve its resistance to cold. Two methods were used to increase the germination rate from 1.5% to 41.1% and the remaining rate from 1.7% to 44.2%. Forty crossing combinations were conducted and 2 744 hybrid seedlings were obtained. MX4 × P. grandidentata (G-1-58), MX3 × P. tremuloidis (T-44-60), MX2 × P. tremuloidis (l-13-87-37) and MX2 × (P. alba × P. grandidentata) were regarded as superior combinations after analysis and selection. Thirty seedlings of these combinations and 11 triploid seedlings identified by counting their chromosomes were selected as super plants.

  11. Spontaneous changes a basis for new ornamental woody plant cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Matilda

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In nursery stock production of some ornamental woody plants the appearance of spontaneous variability was identified in the form of atypical pigmentation of leaves (albinism, variegated, red colored, leaves shape (jaggy and dwarfs. Mutated plants with variegated leaves were observed among hybrid plane (Platanus x acerifolia (Ait. Willd., Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L., laurel cherry (Prunus laurocerasus L. and Lawson false-cypress (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Murr. Parl. Seedlings. The type of variegation and frequency were analyzed. Among plane tree and Siberian elm seedlings there were observed red colored leaves. Atypical, jaggy shaped leaves were found among laurel cherry seedlings. Dwarf growth was identified at Siberian elm and birch (Betula pendula Roth. where also found fruits at one year seedling. There were not significant differences in some morphological and physiological properties in plane tree seedlings with various pigmented leaves. .

  12. Ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard

    2007-09-30

    This paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. The majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. Two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. The following plants were used as anthelmintics: Artemisia cina O. Berg and C.F. Schmidt, Artemisia vulgaris L., Artemisia annua, Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (all Asteraceae), Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae), Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Juglans nigra L. (Juglandaceae), Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) and Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)). Stomach problems were treated with: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae), Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski (Poaceae), Frangula purshiana (DC.) Cooper (Rhamnaceae), Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae), Melissa officinalis L. and M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae), Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae), Plantago major L. and Plantago ovata Forssk. (Plantaginaceae) Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). There is insufficient information available to assess the anthelmintic efficacies of C. officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Eugenia caryophyllata and O. europaea; the other plants have mid- to high-level validity for their ethnoveterinary uses.

  13. Ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard

    2007-09-30

    This paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. The majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. Two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. The following plants were used as anthelmintics: Artemisia cina O. Berg and C.F. Schmidt, Artemisia vulgaris L., Artemisia annua, Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (all Asteraceae), Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae), Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Juglans nigra L. (Juglandaceae), Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) and Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)). Stomach problems were treated with: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae), Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski (Poaceae), Frangula purshiana (DC.) Cooper (Rhamnaceae), Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae), Melissa officinalis L. and M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae), Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae), Plantago major L. and Plantago ovata Forssk. (Plantaginaceae) Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). There is insufficient information available to assess the anthelmintic efficacies of C. officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Eugenia caryophyllata and O. europaea; the other plants have mid- to high-level validity for their ethnoveterinary uses. PMID:17628343

  14. A Contribution to the Problem of Tree Necrosis in Cities: Soil Properties in the Habitat of Ulmus glabra Huds. and Ulmus minor Mill. Greenery Elements of the City of Kielce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Świercz Anna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical properties of soils have a significant impact on the growth and development of vegetation. In urban areas, because of increased human activity, changes occur in both grain-size composition as well as physical and chemical properties of soils. These soils are frequently saline and contaminated with heavy metals, which limit the development of vegetation and cause its necrosis. Elm is a commonly growing tree with low habitat requirements, whose population has been considerably reduced because of progressing Dutch elm disease. This study attempts to assess the relationship of dependency between physicochemical parameters of soils and health status of elms from the area of the City of Kielce. Two elms were selected for the study, that is, one alive tree being a natural monument and one necrotic tree. The soil analysis concerned physicochemical parameters such as size composition, reaction, salinity measured by means of proper electrolyte conductivity (PEC, acidity, organic carbon content, carbonates, nitrogen, and selected elements including heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Mn. The study indicates differentiation amongst the physicochemical parameters of the analysed soils. A characteristic feature of the soils being the habitat of the necrotic elm is that they have considerably higher salinity than those being the habitat of the alive elm. Increased levels of sodium and chlorides could negatively affect water transportation in vegetation what might have resulted, amongst others, in necrosis of the tree.

  15. Conservation of genetic diversity in slippery elm (Ulmus rubra) in Wisconsin despite the devastating impact of Dutch elm disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest trees tend to be genetically diverse, a condition related to their longevity, outcrossing mating system and extensive gene flow that maintains high levels of genetic diversity within populations. Forest pest epidemics are responsible for many historic and contemporary population declines repo...

  16. Palynological and palaeobotanical investigations in the Miocene of the Yatağan basin, Turkey: High-resolution taxonomy and biostratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Güner, Tuncay H.; Denk, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    , Sapindaceae (Acer), Ulmaceae (Cedrelospermum, Ulmus, Zelkova), and Zingiberales (Spirematospermum). In addition, more than two thousand plant macrofossils were collected in the course of repeated field trips, including remains of Pinaceae, Berberidiaceae (Mahonia), Betulaceae (Alnus, Carpinus), Buxaceae (Buxus), Fagaceae (Fagus, Quercus), Lauraceae, Malvaceae (Tilia), Myricaceae (Myrica), Rosaceae, Salicaceae (Populus, Salix), Sapindaceae (Acer), Smilacaceae (Smilax), Typhaceae (Typha), Ulmaceae (Zelkova). A combined analysis integrating these rich and diverse plant macro- and microfossil records will lead to a better understanding and refined reconstruction of the vegetation in the Yatağan basin during the middle to late Miocene.

  17. The Spatial Pattern and Interactions of Woody Plants on the Temperate Savanna of Inner Mongolia, China: The Effects of Alternating Seasonal Grazing-Mowing Regimes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wang

    Full Text Available Ulmus pumila tree-dominated temperate savanna, which is distributed widely throughout the forest-steppe ecotone on the Mongolian Plateau, is a relatively stable woody-herbaceous complex ecosystem in northern China. Relatively more attention has been paid to the degradation of typical steppe areas, whereas less focus has been placed on the succession of this typical temperate savanna under the present management regime. In this study, we established 3 sample plots 100 m×100 m in size along a gradient of fixed distances from one herder's stationary site and then surveyed all the woody plants in these plots. A spatial point pattern analysis was employed to clarify the spatial distribution and interaction of these woody plants. The results indicated that old U. pumila trees (DBH ≥ 20 cm showed a random distribution and that medium U. pumila trees (5 cm ≤ DBH < 20 cm showed an aggregated distribution at a smaller scale and a random distribution at a larger scale; few or no juvenile trees (DBH < 5 cm were present, and seedlings (without DBH formed aggregations in all 3 plots. These findings can be explained by an alternate seasonal grazing-mowing regime (exclosure in summer, mowing in autumn and grazing in winter and spring; the shrubs in all 3 plots exist along a grazing gradient that harbors xerophytic and mesophytic shrubs. Of these shrubs, xerophytic shrubs show significant aggregation at a smaller scale (0-5.5 m, whereas mesophytic shrubs show significant aggregation at a larger scale (0-25 m, which may be the result of the dual effects of grazing pressure and climate change. Medium trees and seedlings significantly facilitate the distributions of xerophytic shrubs and compete significantly with mesophytic shrubs due to differences in water use strategies. We conclude that the implementation of an alternative grazing-mowing regime results in xerophytic shrub encroachment or existence, breaking the chain of normal succession in a U. pumila

  18. Anti-proliferative effect of Ficus pumila Linn. on human leukemic cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Larbie

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: These findings suggest that crude extracts of FPS and FPL have anti-proliferative effect on the leukemia cells. The antioxidant properties of the plant including phenolics may be partly responsible for the anti-proliferative activity. Further studies are required to isolate chemical components of the plant and establish their anti-proliferative activities and mechanism of action. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(2.000: 330-336

  19. Emissions of volatile organic compounds from heated needles and twigs of Pinus pumila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Feng-jun; SHU Li-fu; WANG Qiu-hua; WANG Ming-yu; TIAN Xiao-rui

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to explore the mechanism that emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from heated needles and twigs (200℃, within 15 min) of Pinus purnila affect fire behaviours using the technology of Thermal Desorption - Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). The results indicated that the main components of VOC from heated needles and twigs are terpenoids. Most of these terpenoids are monoterpenes. Terpenoids account for 72.93% for the needles and 92.40% for the twigs of the total VOC, and their emis sion ratios are 61.200 μg·g-1 and 217.060 μtg·g-1 respectively. Heated twigs can emit more terpenoids than heated needles because twigs had more volatile oils than needles. In actual fires, these large amounts of terpenoid emissions, especially the monoterpene emissions, have strong effects on fire behaviors that are not only in the initial stage but also in the fast propagation stage of fires. These flammable gases are capable of causing violent combustion and creating crown fires. In addition, if these gases accumulate in an uneven geographical area, there will be a possible for eruptive fires and/or fires fiashover to occur.

  20. Photosynthesis and respiration in the needles of Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila and their putative hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    A.P. Zotikova; G. Vasilieva

    2013-01-01

    A putative interspecific hybridization in Pinaceae family was investigated. Very rarely the physiological methods were involved in hybridization processes that occurs in the hybrid zones. It is well known that in most gymnosperms, the plastid genome is inherited from the paternal component while the mitochondrion is inherited from the maternal one. Therefore functioning pattern of organelles in the hybrid plant can suggest parent, from which they were inherited. The aim of this study was to i...

  1. The Anti-Inflammatory, Phytoestrogenic, and Antioxidative Role of Labisia pumila in Prevention of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia, M. E.; Nazrun, A. S.; Norazlina, M.; N.M. Isa; M. Norliza; S. Ima Nirwana

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by skeletal degeneration with low bone mass and destruction of microarchitecture of bone tissue which is attributed to various factors including inflammation. Women are more likely to develop osteoporosis than men due to reduction in estrogen during menopause which leads to decline in bone-formation and increase in bone-resorption activity. Estrogen is able to suppress production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-7, and TNF-α. This is why these ...

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: apple [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pumila_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Malus+pumila&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Malus+pumila&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Malus+pumila&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Malus+pumila&t=NS ...

  3. How to help woody plants to overcome drought stress?-a control study of four tree species in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaozhen; Zhang, Shuoxin

    2010-05-01

    Water is essential for plants and involves most physical and chemical processes within their lifecycles. Drought stress is a crucial limiting factor for plant growth and production. 48% of the land in China is arid and semi-arid, and non-irrigated land occupies approximately 51.9% of the total cultivated areas. Therefore, studies on plant drought resistant mechanisms have great significance for improving water use efficiency and thus increasing productivity of economical plants. Prior research has shown that the application of nitrogenous fertilizer affects the drought-resistant characteristics of plants. This study aimed to reveal the effect of nitrogenous fertilizer on physiological aspects and its impact on the drought resistance of four tree species (Robinia pseudoacacia L., Ligustrum lucidum Ait., Acer truncatum Bge. and Ulmus pumila L. ) in northwest China. Three levels of nitrogen fertilization (46% N based of urea adjusted to: 5g/15g soil, 15g/15g soil and 25g/15g soil) and an additional control study were applied to 2-year-old well-grown seedlings under drought conditions (30% field moisture capacity). Stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and net photosynthetic rate were measured by a LI-6400 photosynthesis system, while water use efficiency was calculated from net photosynthesis rate and transpiration rate. The results revealed that as the amount of urea applied was raised, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and net photosynthetic rate decreased significantly, and thus water use efficiency significantly increased. It is therefore concluded that the application of nitrogenous fertilizer regulated physiological parameters by reducing stomata conductance to improve water use efficiency. In addition, among the four tree species, U. pumila had the maximum value of water use efficiency under the same drought condition. The outcome of this study provides a guided option for forest management in arid and semi-arid areas of northwest China.

  4. Integración de impactos ecológicos causados por plantas exóticas invasoras: propuesta metodológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Castro-Díez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanto en España como en Europa existen demasiadas plantas exóticas invasoras para poder afrontar la gestión de todas ellas, por lo que es necesario priorizar las más nocivas. Sin embargo, ello requiere disponer de medidas cuantitativas, sistemáticas y comparables de su impacto. La información disponible es desigual en cuanto a los criterios y variables para medir impactos y por tanto difícil de integrar. Proponemos el siguiente método para integrar medidas de impactos procedentes de distintos estudios: 1 Búsqueda de casos de estudio, 2 cálculo de tamaños del efecto; 3 clasificación de los casos por nivel de organización, 4 integración de los tamaños del efecto para cada especie y nivel de impacto con técnicas de meta-análisis, y 5 estima de un índice de fiabilidad (basado en el número de casos y otro de consistencia (basado en la heterogeneidad entre casos. Aplicamos este método para estimar los impactos en España de tres árboles invasores (Ailanthus altissima, Robinia pseudoacacia y Ulmus pumila. Encontramos 50 casos para A. altissima, 39 para R. pseudoacacia y 15 para U. pumila. Los impactos en el nivel de ecosistema (fertilidad fueron los más estudiados, mientras que los de comunidad e individuo están menos documentados. Robinia pseudoacacia tiende a incrementar la fertilidad, mientras que A. altissima no altera esta propiedad. La metodología propuesta tiene la ventaja de permitir estimar el impacto con datos de estudios diversos, pero su aplicación está limitada por la disponibilidad de casos de estudio.

  5. 北京地区主要行道树树种适应性评价及病虫害防治%Adaptability Assessment and Pest Control for Major Avenue Tree Species in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国静; 杨伟强

    2012-01-01

    通过2009和2010年对行道树生长情况的调查,初步总结北京地区现有十余个行道树树种的生长、生态习性、主要病虫害发生规律及防治方法;考虑极端天气的耐受能力以及应用前景,特别推荐适应性强的传统树种"杨、柳、榆、槐、椿"以及栾树、白蜡作行道树,建议减少悬铃木、银杏等适应性差的树种的使用。%Through the investigation of avenue tree growth in 2009 - 2010, the growth, ecological properties, and oc- currence rules of main pests and their control methods were preliminarily summarized. In view of the tolerance capaci- ty against extreme weather and the application prospect, the conventional species including Populus, Salix matsu- dana, Ulmus pumila, Sophora japonica, Ailanthus altissima, as well as additionally Koelreuteria paniculata and Fraxinus velutina, were strongly recommend as avenue trees in Beijing. It was suggested that the use of species like Platanus and Ginkgo biloba with poor adaptability should be reduced

  6. Rooting depths of plants on low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1981-1982 an extensive bibliographic study was done to reference rooting depths of native plants in the United States. The data base presently contains 1034 different rooting citations with approximately 12,000 data elements. For this report, data were analyzed for rooting depths related to species found on low-level waste (LLW) sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Average rooting depth and rooting frequencies were determined and related to present LLW maintenance. The data base was searched for information on rooting depths of 53 species found on LLW sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The study indicates 12 out of 13 grasses found on LLW sites root below 91 cm. June grass [Koeleria cristata (L.) Pers.] (76 cm) was the shallowest rooting grass and side-oats grama [Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr.] was the deepest rooting grass (396 cm). Forbs were more variable in rooting depths. Indian paintbrush (Castelleja spp.) (30 cm) was the shallowest rooting forb and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was the deepest (>3900 cm). Trees and shrubs commonly rooted below 457 cm. The shallowest rooting tree was elm (Ulmus pumila L.) (127 cm) and the deepest was one-seed juniper [Juniperus monosperma (Engelm) Sarg.] (>6000 cm). Apache plume [Fallugia paradoxa (D. Don) Endl.] rooted to 140 cm, whereas fourwing saltbush [Atriplex canecens (Pursh) Nutt.] rooted to 762 cm

  7. Impacts of mixed litter decomposition from Robinia pseudoacacia and other tree species on C loss and nutrient release in the Loess Plateau of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoxi Zhang; Zengwen Liu; Bochao Zhu; Yuanhao Bing; Nhu Trung Luc; Liangzhen Du; Zhenhua Zhu

    2016-01-01

    The productivity of Robinia pseudoacacia (R.p.) pure forest usually declines at the late growth stage, and reforming it into mixed forests could be a promising way to resolve this problem. When choosing a suitable tree species that can be mixed with R.p., the interspecific relationship is an important issue. Therefore, we gathered the autumn litter fall from R.p. and 10 other species from the Loess Plateau of China were mixed in dual species litterbags (R.p. ? each other species) and buried them in soil for a 345 days lab decay incubation. We measured the litter mass loss and nutrient contents to determine whether the nutrient release was affected by mixed species litter decomposition. The impacts of mixed litter decomposition on macro-elements release were more obvious than on micro-elements. The litters with similar substrate quality might show variable impacts on nutrients release in mixed decomposition. The C loss and release of nutrient was improved by descending order when R.p. litter was mixed with Hippophae rhamnoides, Ulmus pumila, Populus simonii, Larix principis-rupprechtii and Quercus liaotun-gensis (Q.l.). But, except for Q.l., only the other species were recommended as suitable mix-plants for R.p. since promoting a high turnover of the nutrient in the litter compartment and a rapid availability for tree.

  8. Bionomics of the tingid, Eteoneus anuglatus, and its control%泡桐网蝽的发生规律及防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王穿才; 刘万成

    2007-01-01

    泡桐网蝽Eteoneus anuglatus Darke et Maa在湖南宁远、冷水滩等县区1年发生5~6代,以成虫在树枝缝隙及枯草从、土缝等处群集越冬.8~9月高温干燥时发生严重.人工饲养及田间观察,该虫仅在毛泡桐(Paulownia tomentosa(Thunb)Steud)、泡桐(Paulownia fortunei(Seem)Hems)及榆树(Ulmus pumila L.)上取食为害,以3~7年树龄泡桐受害最重.在成虫和若虫高峰期用40%氧化乐果,50%敌敌畏乳油1 200~1 500倍或2.5%溴氰菊脂乳油2 500倍稀释液喷洒叶面,可控制该虫为害.

  9. Elevated CO2 does not offset greater water stress predicted under climate change for native and exotic riparian plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Laura G.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Blumenthal, Dana M.; Morgan, Jack A.; LeCain, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    * In semiarid western North American riparian ecosystems, increased drought and lower streamflows under climate change may reduce plant growth and recruitment, and favor drought-tolerant exotic species over mesic native species. We tested whether elevated atmospheric CO2 might ameliorate these effects by improving plant water-use efficiency. * We examined the effects of CO2 and water availability on seedlings of two native (Populus deltoides spp. monilifera, Salix exigua) and three exotic (Elaeagnus angustifolia, Tamarix spp., Ulmus pumila) western North American riparian species in a CO2-controlled glasshouse, using 1-m-deep pots with different water-table decline rates. * Low water availability reduced seedling biomass by 70–97%, and hindered the native species more than the exotics. Elevated CO2 increased biomass by 15%, with similar effects on natives and exotics. Elevated CO2 increased intrinsic water-use efficiency (Δ13Cleaf), but did not increase biomass more in drier treatments than wetter treatments. * The moderate positive effects of elevated CO2 on riparian seedlings are unlikely to counteract the large negative effects of increased aridity projected under climate change. Our results suggest that increased aridity will reduce riparian seedling growth despite elevated CO2, and will reduce growth more for native Salix and Populus than for drought-tolerant exotic species.

  10. Relationships between xylem embolism and eco-physiological indices in eight woody plants in sltu(Ⅱ):The relationship with photosynthetic eco-physiological indices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Feng; CAI Jing; JIANG Zaimin; ZHANG Yuanying; ZHAO Pingjuan; ZHANG Shuoxin

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between xylem embolism and eco-physiology indices (I.e.photosynthetic available radiation,temperature,relative humidity,photosynthetic rate,transpiration rate,stomatal conductance and water use efficiency) in eight tree species was investigated in situ.The species studied,Robinia pseudoacacia L.,Acer truncatum Bge.,Hippophae rhamnoides L.,Ulmus pumila L.,Pinus tabulaeformis Carr., Pinus bungeana Zucc.ex Endl.,Ligustrum lucidum Ait.,and Salix matsudana Koidz.f.pendula Schneid,grow well on the Xilin campus of Northwest A&F University.Results indicated that photosynthetic available radiation,air temperature and relative humidity can affect xylem embolism by daily adjustment of stomatal conductance,transpiration rate and water relations of a tree.Embolism was a common case in the daily growth of the plants,and there was some correlation between xylem embolism and photosynthetic rate,transpiration rate,stornatal conductance,and water use efficiency.Embolism may thus be an adaptive mechanism by some tree species to water stress.

  11. 45S rDNA在多种植物中期染色体上的定位%Physical Mapping of 45S rDNA on Metaphase Chromosomes in Several Plant Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘博; 陈成彬; 李秀兰; 陈瑞阳; 宋文芹

    2006-01-01

    应用荧光原位杂交技术首次确定了日本小檗(Berberis thunbergii DC)、车前(Plantago major L.)、野芹菜(Sanicula lamelligera Hance)、荔枝(Litchi chinensis Sonn.)、槭树(Acer buergerianum Miq.)、天目琼花(Viburnum sargentii Koehne.)、丹参(Salvia miltorrhiza Bunge.)、榆树(Ulmus pumila L.)中45S rDNA在中期染色体上的位置.根据rDNA的位点数和位置的变化,分为四种类型:①在日本小檗、车前和野芹菜中,荧光信号正好位于随体染色体的次缢痕或端部;②荔枝和槭树,分别有1对和3对染色体具随体,但荧光原位杂交却检测到3对和5对染色体上具有杂交信号;③天目琼花,具有4对随体染色体,但仅在其中一对随体上显示了杂交信号;④在丹参和榆树中,有的杂交信号位于着丝粒部位或长臂的末端,杂交信号的数目成奇数.黄瓜(Cucumis sativus L.)的染色体45S rDNA信号正好位于6条染色体的着丝粒部位,这与Dal-Hoe和Hoshi等人的结果是一致的.上述结果表明:45S rDNA可以作为染色体的一个识别指标,对识别染色体的个体性具有一定的参考价值.另外还对45S rDNA位点分布的多态性进行了讨论.%The genomic distribution of ribosomal RNA genes has been determined for the first time by fluo rescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in Berberis thunbergii DC. , Plantago major L. , Sanicula lamelligera Hance, Litchi chinensis Sonn. , Acer buergerianum Miq. , Viburnum sargentii Koehne. , Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. , and Ulmus pumila L.. These species could be divided into four groups based on the difference on the number and sites of their rDNA loci: the fluorescence signals lay in the secondary constrictions or the terminal regions of SAT-chromosomes in B. thunbergii, P. major, and S. lamelligera; 3 and 5 pairs of signals were de tected in L. chinensis and A. buergerianum, respectively which had 1 and 3 pairs of satellites respectively ; there were 4 pairs of SAT-chromosomes in V

  12. Taxonomic and nomenclatural notes on Laccaria B. & Br. Laccaria amethystea, L. fraterna, L. laccata, L. pumila, and their synonyms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Gregory M.; Vellinga, Else C.

    1986-01-01

    Laccaria amethystea, not L. amethystina nor L. calospora, is shown to be the correct name for the amethyst colored Laccaria. A neotype for L. amethystea is proposed and a complete list of its synonyms is given. Data which support placing L. ohiensis and L. tetraspora in synonymy with L. laccata are

  13. Study on Characteristics of Calcium Uptake by Young Fruit of Apple (Malus pumila) and Its Regulation by Hormone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Field trial, pot experiment with 45Ca tracer, plant analysis were used to investigate the characteristics of calcium uptake by young fruit of apple and its regulation by IAA, GA and NAA. The results indicated that calcium should be applied directly on the surface of young fruits because calcium applied on leaves could be hardly transfered to fruits. The proper Ca applying period was the first month of young fruits formation, and the proper concentration of CaCl2 applied was 0. 5%. Applying Ca directly on the surface of young fruits could increase the weight and quality of fruits. The process of transfering Ca2+ from fruit surface into pulp tissue could be accelerated by IAA, GA or NAA, which also led to an increment on 2% HOAc extractable Ca. Meanwhile, the Ca existed in the stalk and leaves could be strongly transported into fruits by applying IAA on the fruit surface, resulting in too much accumulation of Ca in fruit and bad quality of fruit, while no such sighs were observed with GA or NAA.

  14. Forecasting Fruit Diameter of ‘Fuji’Apples (Malus pumila Mill )at Harvest During Early Growing Season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Guo-qing; YU Ke-shun; LI Shao-hua; LIU Guo-jie; MENG Zhao-qing; ZHU Jun

    2002-01-01

    The fruit growth evolution on 35 tagged‘Fuji'apple trees was studied in three successive growing seasons from 1994 to 1996 to explore a new method for forecasting the fruit diameter at harvest during early growing season. Daily fruit growth rate (DFGR) (based on fruit diameter, fruit dry weight, fruit fresh weight, or fruit volume) during the early growing season, 30 - 50 d after full bloom (DAFB), or during midgrowing season (60 - 120 DAFB), displayed a strong positive linear correlation with the fruit diameter at harvest, and the correlation between the fruit diameter at harvest and DFGR during early and mid-growing season was much better than that between the fruit diameter at harvest and either fruit diameter at a given time or the relative growth rate during early or mid-growing season. The fruit diameters obtained in the field were compared with the mean fruit diameters estimated based on different criteria, such as DFGRs (based on fruit diameter, fruit dry weight, fruit fresh weight, or fruit volume) during early and mid-growing season, and fruit diameter at 120 DAFB. Results showed that daily growth rate of fruit diameter during 30 - 50 DAFB was the best criterion for forecasting fruit diameter at harvest. There was no significant difference in mean fruit diameter between the value measured in the field at harvest and that estimated based on the daily growth rate of fruit diameter during 30 - 50 DAFB (equations for forecasting: y = 153. 571 x + 73. 492) either for the individual trees or for different vigor groups of trees. Daily growth rate of fruit diameter during 30 - 50 DAFB can be used as the basis for forecasting fruit diameter at harvest.

  15. Calcium Forms,Subcelluar Distribution and Ultrastructure of Pulp Cells as Influenced by Calcium Deficiency in Apple (Malus pumila) Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian-hui; ZHOU Wei

    2004-01-01

    Calcium in Red Fuji and Starkrimson apples during storage were fractionated by sequent extracting. Localization and distribution of calcium and influence of calcium nutrition on cell ultrastructure were observed by transmission electron microscopy combined with in situ precipitation of calcium with an improved method of potassium pyroantimonate technique. Results indicated that spraying calcium solution on surface of young fruits increased contents of calcium in all forms. During storage, contents of soluble calcium and pectic calcium declined and thosein calcium phosphate, calcium oxalate and calcium silicate increased. Calcium contents of Red Fuji in all forms were higher than those of Starkrimson, indicating that calcium accumulating capability of Red Fuji fruits preceded that of Starkrimson. Under transmission electron microscopy, calcium antimonite precipitates (CaAP) was mainly distributed in cell wall, tonoplast, nuclear membrane and nucleoplasm,much more CaAP deposited in vacuole. Calcium deficiency during storage leads to decrease of CaAP in locations mentioned above, disappearance of compartmentation, and entrance of CaAP to cytoplasm. Transformation from soluble calcium and pectic calcium to calcium phosphate,oxalate and damages of biomembranes structuraly and functionally resulted from calcium deficiency during storage were the crucial causation of physiological disorder.

  16. Geographical Distribution, Ecological Position, and Formation Causes of Temperate Zone Sparse Forest in China%中国温带疏林的地理分布、生态地位及成因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于顺利

    2011-01-01

    中国分布的疏林类型众多,除了在热带分布的疏林(或稀树干草原)外,还有温带阔叶疏林和温带山地针叶疏林两种生态系统,具体包括榆树( Ulmus pumila)疏林、天山云杉(Picea schrekiana)疏林、侧柏(Platycladus orientalis)疏林、杜松(Juniperusngida)疏林、樟子松(Pinus sylvestnis var.mongolica)疏林、西藏落叶松(Larix tibetica)疏林、亚东冷杉(Abies densa)疏林、巨柏(Cupressus gigantea)疏林、大果圆柏(Sabina tibetica)疏林、滇藏方枝柏(Sabina wallichiana)疏林、方枝柏(Sabina saltuaria)疏林、大果红杉(Larix potaninii var.macrocarpa)疏林、西藏柏木(Cupressus torulosa)疏林、密枝圆柏(Sabina convallium)疏林、长叶松(Pinus roxburghii)疏林、云南松(Pinus yunnanensis)疏林、川西云杉(Picea likiangensis var.balfouriana)疏林、黄榆(Ulmusmacrocarpa)疏林、臭椿(Ailanthus altissima)疏林等生态系统类型,疏林生态系统(或疏林植被)应该是介于森林和草原(或灌丛)之间的一种过渡的植被类型,是一种地带性植被类型.疏林的分布是系列生态因子综合作用的结果,但其决定因子是水分.在中国大陆,沿纬度梯度从低到高的地带性植被应为雨林、季雨林、常绿阔叶林、落叶阔叶林、疏林、灌丛或草原,从东到西沿经度梯度依次为(阔叶和针叶)森林、(阔叶和针叶)疏林、草原、荒漠.在高原地区,沿海拔梯度的分布从低到高主要是森林、疏林、灌丛、草原或草甸.与森林、灌丛和草原相比,疏林的分布面积相对较小.中国疏林的分布区域大体位于农牧交错带地区,即从森林到草原过渡的地区.对疏林成因的理解,有利于区域生态恢复措施的选择.%China possesses various types of sparse forests. Except sparse forests in tropic regions of China, other two types of sparse forests are classified, namely, temperate zone spare forests and temperate zone mountain spare forests. In

  17. Reinvestigation of the Miocene palynoflora from the Daotaiqiao Formation of north-eastern China using SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyurt, Elvan; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Zetter, Reinhard; Leng, Qin; Bouchal, Johannes Martin

    2016-04-01

    Here we report the first results of an ongoing study on the Miocene palynoflora from the Daotaiqiao Formation of north-eastern China. Using the single grain technique, we examined individual pollen and spores using both light and scanning electron microscopy. A previous study by Grímsson et al. (2012) on Onagraceae pollen grains from this locality, using the same technique identified five different species. Such a variety of Onagraceae from a single palynoflora is unknown elsewhere. The ongoing study suggests a remarkably rich pollen and spore flora with at least 15 different types of spores, one Ginkgo and one Ephedra type pollen, 11 conifer pollen types and approximately 145 angiosperm pollen types. Spores are very rare in the samples (≤1%). Conifer pollen grains are regularly observed but are not a dominant component (ca. 16 %). The samples yield a high quantity and diversity of angiosperm pollen (ca. 80%). The conifers include representatives of Cupressaceae (2 spp.), Pinaceae (Larix, Picea, Pinus, Tsuga) and Sciadopityaceae. The angiosperm pollen cover at least 40 families. Prominent elements are pollen of the Betulaceae (Alnus, Betula, Carpinus, Corylus), Cercidiphyllaceae (Cercidiphyllum), Ericaceae (8 spp.), Eucommiaceae (Eucommia), Fagaceae (Fagus, Quercus spp., Castaneoideae), Juglandaceae (Carya, Cyclocarya, Juglans, Pterocarya), Rosaceae (11 spp.), Sapindaceae (Acer, Aesculus) and Ulmaceae (Hemiptelia, Ulmus, Zelkova). The high angiosperm pollen diversity indicates a varying landscape with a relatively high variety of niches including riparian, dry and mesic forests. Most of the potential modern analogues of the fossil taxa are currently thriving under humid temperate (Cfa- and Cwa)-climates, pointing to paleoclimate conditions not unlike those found today in the lowlands and adjacent mountain regions of the (south-) eastern United States, the humid-meridional region of western Eurasia, and central and southern China, and Honshu (Japan). References

  18. 1983-2003年浑善达克沙地中部沙丘植被在放牧条件下的比较%Vegetation Change in Response to Continuous Grazing in the Center of Hunshandak Sandland During the Period of 1983 -2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭羽; 薛达元; 牛书丽; 刘美珍; 李永庚; 蒋高明

    2011-01-01

    为了研究长期放牧条件下植被的变化,采用样方调查方法分析了1983-2003年浑善达克沙地中部的沙丘植被在放牧条件下的变化.期间,物种多样性、生物量和盖度在第1个10年缓慢下降,而第2个10年则加速下降,在沙丘阳坡形成了以适口性差的一年生草本植物为主的稀疏植被,阴坡以木本树木为主.且表现为木本植物的降低速度比草本植物慢.1983年,沙丘阳坡植物以褐沙蒿(Artemisia intramongolica)、展枝唐松草(Thalictrum squarrosum)、叉分蓼(Polygonum davaricatum)为主;阴坡植物以白榆(Ulmus pumila)、圆叶桦(Betula rotundifolia)、糙隐子草(Cleistogenes squarrosa)为主.而到了2003年,沙丘阳坡植被主要为褐沙蒿、雾冰藜(Bassia dasyphylla)、虫实(Corispermum heptapotamicum);阴坡植被主要为稠李(Prunus padus)、柴桦(Betulafruticosa)、耧斗叶绣线菊(Spiraea aquilegifolia)等.分析表明,20年间植被变化主要是由放牧造成的,气候变化并非主因.20年来,牛羊数量剧增,超过了草原承载力,而气温和降水则没有明显变化.%The vegetation changes in response to continuous grazing in the center of Hunshandak Sandland, northern China during the period of 1983 -2003 was investigated in field. Results indicated that species diversity, biomass and coverage decreased slowly in the first 10-year period and decreased quickly in the second 10-year period, and woody plant declined more slowly than herbaceous plant. The vegetation type mainly consisted of a sparse cover of unpalatable annual grass and shrubs on the sunny slope, and woody trees on the shady slope of sandy dune. The vegetation was dominated by Artemisia intramongolica, Thalictrum squarrosum, Polygonum davaricatum on the sunny slope and by Ulmus pumila, Betula rotundifolia, Cleistogenes squarrosa on the shady slope of sandy dune in 1983. However, the dominant species were replaced by Artemisia intramongolica, Bassia dasyphylla, Corispermum

  19. 我国东北4种常见阔叶乔木物候对气候变化的响应%Response of 4 Common Broad-Leaved Arbors Phenology to Climate Change in the Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴顺祥; 郭泉水; 辛学兵; 刘玮; 洪明

    2011-01-01

    物候现象是指示气候及自然环境变化的重要指标(Pe(n)uelas et al.,2001;Moresette et al.,2009).自然物候记录可以提供全球环境变化最直接和最有效的证据.已有研究结果表明,受全球气候变化影响,1952-2000年地中海地区(Pe(n)uelas et al.,2001)、1851-1994年匈牙利(Walkovszky,1998)、1936-1998年美国Wisconsin地区(Bradley et al.,1999)和1970-1999年美国华盛顿地区(Abu-Asab et al.,2001)的许多植物花期提前了1个星期左右;中国北纬33°左右地区植物的早春物候每10年提前1.1 ~4.3天,晚春物候提前1.4~5.4天(Zheng et al.,2006).%In order to reveal the response of four broad - leaved arbors to climate change, we studied relationships between interannual variations of air temperature and various phenophases (I.e., seasonal biological events) of broad-leaved arbors species ( Betula platyphylla, Juglans mandshurica, Ulmus pumila and Morus alba ) in the Harbin, based on meteorological data from 1951 -2008 and phenological data from 1963 -2008. Results showed that the air temperature in Harbin had an increasing trend from 1951 to 2008, especially after 1978. The increase of the annual minimum temperature was greater than that of the annual maximum temperature and annual mean temperature. Annual precipitation slightly increased, but not significantly. In the period of 1963 -2008, bud burst, beginning of leaf expansion and first flowering of the 4 species all shifted to 5. 7 d, 10. 2 d and 7. 9 d earlier, respectively, and end of leaf - falling was delayed for 7. 5 d. The pattern of phenological change was consistent with that of air temperature change. The phenophases earlier or later was mainly subjected to air temperature, especially the mean temperature of the same month and previous month when phenophase began. The phenophase had little correlation with the precipitation. When the mean temperature in March rose up by 1 ℃ , Betula platyphylla, Juglans mandshurica, Ulmus pumila

  20. Natural Regeneration Pattern of Urban Forests in Harbin%哈尔滨城市森林自然演替格局研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅琳琳; 冯树丹; 达良俊; 宋坤; 王冰; 关兵兵

    2012-01-01

    In order to strengthen the urban protects of the variety of vegetation biodiversity and reasonable utilization, to perfect the system of ecology theory about the urban vegetation, the author did a lot of research about Haerbin urban forest natural succession pattern. The author decided to adopt the vegetation sociology research combine with every wood investigation research, researching 11 kinds of urban forest natural regeneration pattern in Harbin. The results showed that the difference kinds and quantities of composition about the woody plants under the forest different types of urban forest in maintaining woody plant diversity were quite different. Based on frequency distribution of DBH, population structure of each tree species fell into 3 types: unimodal type, L type and sporadic type. In the case, 4 representative species belonged to unimodal type: Populus berolinensis, Pinus tabulaeformis var. mukdensis, Larix gmelini, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolic; 4 L-types were: Populus davidiana, Phellodendron amurense, Fraxinus mandshurica, and Ulmus pumila; 3 sporadic types were: Juglans mandshurica, Betula platyphylla, and Picea koraiensis. It was suggested that the habitat, the seed resources and the seed dispersal pattern were the key limitation of urban forests.%为了加强城市植被生物多样性的保护与合理利用,完善城市植被生态学研究的理论体系,对哈尔滨城市森林自然演替格局进行研究.采用植被社会学调查与每木调查相结合的方法,对哈尔滨11种城市森林类型进行天然更新格局研究.结果表明,林下木本植物的种类和数量组成有所差异,不同城市森林类型在维持木本植物多样性方面存在较大差异.根据胸径级频率分布的形状,将各树种的种群结构归纳为3种类型:种群结构单峰型的为中东杨(Populus berolinensis)、黑皮油松(Pinus tabulaeformis var.mukdensis)、兴安落叶松(Larix gmelini)、樟子松(Pinus sylvestris var

  1. Soil characterization and differential patterns of heavy metal accumulation in woody plants grown in coal gangue wastelands in Shaanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakun, Shi; Xingmin, Mu; Kairong, Li; Hongbo, Shao

    2016-07-01

    Soil contamination by heavy metals in coal mine wastelands is a significant environmental issue in most developing countries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate contamination characteristics in the coal mine wastelands of Sanlidong coal mine, Tongchuan, China. To achieve this goal, we conducted field sampling work, followed by further analysis of the properties of soil contamination and accumulation characteristics in woody plants. At this site, the pH value ranged from 4.41 to 7.88, and the nutrient content of the soil rose gradually with the time after deposition due to the weathering effect improving the soil quality. Meanwhile, the levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn gradually decreased with the passage time. Generally, heavy metal contamination was found to be more serious in the discharge refuse area, with Cd contamination at moderate or heavy levels; Ni, Zn, and Cu contamination at light levels; and with no Cr contamination. The geoaccumulation index (I geo) was highest for Cd (2.38-3.14), followed by Ni, Zn, Cu, and Cr. Heavy metals accumulated on the lower slopes and spread to the surrounding areas via hydrodynamic effects and wind. According to transfer and enrichment coefficient analyses, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila, and Hippophae rhamnoides with considerable biomass could be used as pollution-resistant tree species for vegetation restoration. This study provided a theoretical basis for the restoration of the ecological environment in the mining area. This report described a link between heavy metal contamination of soils and growth dynamics of woody plants in China. PMID:27025220

  2. 沈阳地区美国白蛾危害树种及分布研究%Tree Species Damaged by Hyphantria cunea and its Distribution in Shenyang Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘士军

    2015-01-01

    Hyphantria cunea,which belongs to Lepidoptera,Arctiidae,was listed as an international phytosanitary pests.The damage status of Hyphantria cunea were investigated.Result shows that Hyphantria cunea mainly damaged green belt and residential area trees in Shenyang City.Hyphantria cunea mainly damage the farmland shelterbelts and trees in resident sub-district Xinmin City and Liaozhong County.Occurrence is rarely found in Kan-gping County and Faku County.The favorite species mainly areAcernegundo,Cornusalba,Crataeguspinnatifida, fast-growing poplar,Ulmus pumila,Ailanthusaltissima,Prunussalicina.The unfavorite species are Ginkgobiloba, Juglans mandshurica & Phellodendron amurense.It provides a reference for selecting resistant species on Hyphantria cunea and silvicultural techniques to against Hyphantria cunea.%美国白蛾(Hyphantria cunea Drury)系鳞翅目灯蛾科,被列为国际植物检疫害虫。通过对沈阳地区美国白蛾为害情况的调查,结果表明:在沈阳市美国白蛾主要为害绿化带和居民小区树木,在辽中县和新民市主要为害农田防护林和村屯绿化树木,而康平县和法库县危害较轻;美国白蛾喜食的树种主要是糖槭、红瑞木、山楂、速生杨、家榆、臭椿、李子,不喜食树种有银杏、胡桃楸和黄檗。研究结果可为城市和社区绿化选择美国白蛾抗性树种和营林技术防治美国白蛾提供参考。

  3. Metal bioaccumulation in plant leaves from an industrious area and the Botanical Garden in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan-ju; DING Hui; ZHU Yong-guan

    2005-01-01

    The concentrations of Fe, Mn, Al, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cr, and As were measured in soils and leaves from 21 plant species growing on hills near the Beijing Steel Factory(BSF) and 17 plant species in the Beijing Botanical Garden(BBG). The results showed that soils from BSF were Zn contaminated according to the threshold of natural background of China. There was a metal contamination of the soils by Ni,and Cr in BSF comparing with those in BBG. The comparison between concentrations of metals in leaves from both sites indicated that, in general, accumulation of metals in the leaves of the same species was significantly different between the two sites. Even within the same locality each species accumulation of metals was significantly variable. The study aimed to screen landscape plants for the capacity to clean-up toxic metals in soils, and developed an overall metal accumulation index(MAI) for leaves and then categorized the MAI that can be applied broadly in the selection of species in polluted areas. To do this, the spectrum of MAI values were divided into four classes:strongly accumulated(SA or grade Ⅰ), moderately accumulated(MA or grade Ⅱ), intermediately accumulated( IA or grade Ⅲ), and weakly accumulated(WA or grade Ⅳ). The results showed that elemental association between Fe, Al, Ni, and As was generally highly correlated with each other in the sampling sites. This may suggest their common biochemical characteristics. Generally, those species containing strong and moderate accumulation in both sites are considered including Vitex negundo, Broussonetia papyrifera, Ulmus pumila, and Rubia cordifolia. At BSF and other industrial sites with a similar ecosystem, strong and moderate accumulation species include Sophora japonica, Ampelopsis aconitifolia var. glabra, Platycladus orientalis, Wikstroemia chamaedaphne, Cleistogenes squarro sa, Grewia biloba, and in BBG, in addition Setaria viridis, Cotinus coggygria, Lespedeza floribunda, Rhamnus parvifolia, Lespedeza

  4. [Soil humus differentiation and correlation with other soil biochemical properties in pure forests in semi-arid low-hilly area of Inner Mongolia, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Xi; Liu, Zeng-Wen; Bing, Yuan-Hao; Zhu, Bo-Chao; Huang, Liang-Jia

    2014-10-01

    Whether the content and composition of soil humus in pure forest change due to its simple component of litter and specificity of single-species dominant community is a key problem for forest sustainable management. In this study, soils from 6 kind of pure forests in semi-arid low-hilly area of Inner Mongolia were collected and their humus and other biochemical properties were measured to investigate the differentiation of soil humus and the impact factors. The results showed that the soil of Picea asperata and Betula platyphylla pure forests had the highest contents of humus and better condensation degrees and stabilities, followed by that of Populus simonii, Larix principis-rupprechtii and Ulmus pumila pure forests, while the soil of Pinus tabuliformis pure forest had the lowest content of humus, condensation degree and stability. There were significant positive correlations between soil microorganism biomass, activity of phosphatase and the content and stability of soil humus. In contrast, the soil peroxidate, dehydrogenase activity and soil humus content showed significant negative correlations with each other. Furthermore, the enhancement of dehydrogenase activity might decrease the stability of humus. There were significant positive correlations between available N and the content and stability of soil humus, but total Cu, Zn and Fe had negative correlations with them, and total Cu and Fe might reduce the stability of humus as well. The particularity of pure forest environment and litter properties might be the key inducement to soil humus differentiation, thus reforming the pure forest through mixing with other tree species or planting understory vegetation would be the fundamental way to improve the soil humus composition and stability. PMID:25796887

  5. Análisis de la invasión del hábitat ribereño por tres árboles exóticos en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cabra-Rivas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio diagnostica y valora la invasión de las especies exóticas Ailanthus altissima (Mill. Swingle, Robinia pseudoacacia L. y Ulmus pumila L. en hábitats ribereños españoles. Se recorrieron las riberas de los ríos Henares, Oria y el tramo medio del río Ebro en busca de rodales de estas tres especies, con la intención de determinar el grado de invasión de cada zona y especie, así como las características de los rodales y de los hábitats que ocupan cada una de ellas. Se anotó el origen (plantado/espontáneo, tamaño, densidad y características del hábitat (bióticas, abióticas e influencia humana de todos ellos. El grado de invasión fue mayor en la ribera del Henares, donde existe una mayor influencia antrópica y densidad de fuentes de propágulos. Cada especie presentó un mayor grado de invasión en una zona diferente. Los rodales espontáneos de las riberas del Henares y del Ebro son pequeños comparados con los del Oria. Las tres especies coexisten en hábitats con alta disponibilidad de luz, baja competencia y fuerte influencia antrópica, pero también pueden ocupar zonas de mayor cobertura arbórea. Las diferentes condiciones del hábitat en que se plantaron las especies y el hábitat donde se naturalizan podrían explicarse en gran medida por los mecanismos de dispersión utilizados por cada una.

  6. Tree Species Damaged by Hyphantria cunea and its Distribution in Shenyang Region%沈阳地区美国白蛾危害树种及分布研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘士军

    2015-01-01

    Hyphantria cunea,which belongs to Lepidoptera,Arctiidae,was listed as an international phytosanitary pests.The damage status of Hyphantria cunea were investigated.Result shows that Hyphantria cunea mainly damaged green belt and residential area trees in Shenyang City.Hyphantria cunea mainly damage the farmland shelterbelts and trees in resident sub-district Xinmin City and Liaozhong County.Occurrence is rarely found in Kan-gping County and Faku County.The favorite species mainly areAcernegundo,Cornusalba,Crataeguspinnatifida, fast-growing poplar,Ulmus pumila,Ailanthusaltissima,Prunussalicina.The unfavorite species are Ginkgobiloba, Juglans mandshurica & Phellodendron amurense.It provides a reference for selecting resistant species on Hyphantria cunea and silvicultural techniques to against Hyphantria cunea.%美国白蛾(Hyphantria cunea Drury)系鳞翅目灯蛾科,被列为国际植物检疫害虫。通过对沈阳地区美国白蛾为害情况的调查,结果表明:在沈阳市美国白蛾主要为害绿化带和居民小区树木,在辽中县和新民市主要为害农田防护林和村屯绿化树木,而康平县和法库县危害较轻;美国白蛾喜食的树种主要是糖槭、红瑞木、山楂、速生杨、家榆、臭椿、李子,不喜食树种有银杏、胡桃楸和黄檗。研究结果可为城市和社区绿化选择美国白蛾抗性树种和营林技术防治美国白蛾提供参考。

  7. [Soil humus differentiation and correlation with other soil biochemical properties in pure forests in semi-arid low-hilly area of Inner Mongolia, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Xi; Liu, Zeng-Wen; Bing, Yuan-Hao; Zhu, Bo-Chao; Huang, Liang-Jia

    2014-10-01

    Whether the content and composition of soil humus in pure forest change due to its simple component of litter and specificity of single-species dominant community is a key problem for forest sustainable management. In this study, soils from 6 kind of pure forests in semi-arid low-hilly area of Inner Mongolia were collected and their humus and other biochemical properties were measured to investigate the differentiation of soil humus and the impact factors. The results showed that the soil of Picea asperata and Betula platyphylla pure forests had the highest contents of humus and better condensation degrees and stabilities, followed by that of Populus simonii, Larix principis-rupprechtii and Ulmus pumila pure forests, while the soil of Pinus tabuliformis pure forest had the lowest content of humus, condensation degree and stability. There were significant positive correlations between soil microorganism biomass, activity of phosphatase and the content and stability of soil humus. In contrast, the soil peroxidate, dehydrogenase activity and soil humus content showed significant negative correlations with each other. Furthermore, the enhancement of dehydrogenase activity might decrease the stability of humus. There were significant positive correlations between available N and the content and stability of soil humus, but total Cu, Zn and Fe had negative correlations with them, and total Cu and Fe might reduce the stability of humus as well. The particularity of pure forest environment and litter properties might be the key inducement to soil humus differentiation, thus reforming the pure forest through mixing with other tree species or planting understory vegetation would be the fundamental way to improve the soil humus composition and stability.

  8. 兰州盆地早第三纪植物及古气候意义%Early Tertiary fossil plants and paleoclimate of Lanzhou Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿宝印; 陶君容; 颉光普

    2001-01-01

    化石采自甘肃省兰州盆地咸水河组底部, 经研究认为有29种, 归属20属12科。它们是:樟科Lauraceae (Daphnogene), 木通科Lardizabalaceae (Akebia), 小檗科Berberidaceae (Berberis), 榆科Ulmaceae (Planera, Ulmus, Zelkova),桦木科Betulaceae (Alnus,Carpinus),杨梅科 Myricaceae(Myrica),杨柳科Salicaceae (Populus,Salix),紫金牛科Myrsinaceae(Ardisia),蔷薇科Rosaceae (Prunus, Sorbus, Sorbaria, Spiraea),豆科 Leguminosae (Gleditsia, Sophora),漆树科 Anacardiaceae (Rhus),忍冬科Caprifoliaceae(Viburnum)等。经植物区系组成与叶相分析显示, 该植物区系的大多数成员是落叶阔叶乔、灌木, 少数为常绿灌木。其中特殊的分子是Rhus turcomanica Korov. ex Vassilvesk, 该成分是早第三纪中、晚期的标志化石植物。另一化石植物Sorbaria callicomifolia Kornilova 曾出现在中亚的早渐新世, 最晚至早中新世。同一层位采集的孢粉样分析结果显示:该组合仅约20种, 种类相对贫乏, 并以被子植物的花粉占优势。其中出现裸子植物的麻黄粉, 被子植物的白刺粉及蒿粉等, 这几个类型均指示沉积时期经历干旱气候。综合植物大化石及孢粉分析研究, 均出现一些指示气候为亚热带干旱或周期性干旱气候的特点, 并据Rhus turcomanica出现的最晚记录, 推测咸水河组底部的地质时代大约是早渐新世晚期。%Fossil plants from the lower part of Xianshuihe Formation in the Lanzhou Basin, Gansu Province were studied. The flora contains 29 species, representing 20 genera and 12 families, which include Lauraceae (Daphnogene), Lardizabalaceae (Akebia), Berberidaceae (Berberis), Ulmaceae (Planera, Ulmus, Zelkova), Betulaceae (Alnus,Carpinus), Myricaceae(Myrica), Salicaceae (Populus,Salix), Myrsinaceae(Ardisia), Rosaceae (Prunus, Sorbus, Sorbaria, Spiraea), Leguminosae (Gleditsia, Sophora), Anacardiaceae (Rhus), Caprifoliaceae(Viburnum). An analysis of the floristic elements and their

  9. Post-harvest of the Annurca apples in Campania region. Studies by the Istituto Sperimentale per la Frutticoltura [Malus pumila L.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The harvest and post-harvest of Annurca apples involves a high utilization of manpower and high production costs. The low yield and the need to also compete on the market, in terms of price, specially in the Spring period, with the fresh apples imported by foreign Countries, has induced the ISF of Caserta, in collaboration with the Istituto per la Valorizzazione dei Prodotti Agricoli of Milan, to promote studies to decrease the costs of production, to improve the quality, to eliminate the necessity of redness or to artificially induce it

  10. Dendrocola Mycoflorn of Boles on Pinus pumila%偃松干栖真菌种类组成的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秀帋; 刘雪峰

    2008-01-01

    以生长于黑龙江大兴安岭9~10年生健康的偃松林为对象,研究了其林木干栖真菌种类的组成状况.经取样分离培养,从偃松的树干上分离培养出干栖真菌29属(种).偃松的冬季干栖真菌的优势种为Trichoderma、Penicillium、Penicillium cyclopium,而春季干栖真菌的优势种为Trichoderma、Penicillium、Gliocladium.偃松春季和冬季干栖真菌种类真菌种类的变化不大,其优势菌种亦没有太大变化.从偃松树干基部的木质部分离培养出的冬季干栖真菌种类较春季干栖真菌略少,而皮部则相反,相差悬殊.偃松中部、梢部的冬季干栖真菌种类比春季的干栖真菌种类丰富.

  11. Development of population structure and spatial distribution patterns of a restored forest during 17-year succession (1993-2010) in Pingshuo opencast mine spoil, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhongqiu; Wang, Lianhua; Bai, Zhongke; Pan, Ziguan; Wang, Yun

    2015-07-01

    Afforestation of native tree species is often recommended for ecological restoration in mining areas, but the understanding of the ecological processes of restored vegetation is quite limited. In order to provide insight of the ecological processes of restored vegetation, in this study, we investigate the development of the population structure and spatial distribution patterns of restored Robinia pseudoacacia (ROPS) and Pinus tabuliformis (PITA) mixed forests during the 17 years of the mine spoil period of the Pingshuo opencast mine, Shanxi Province, China. After a 17-year succession, apart from the two planted species, Ulmus pumila (ULPU), as an invasive species, settled in the plot along with a large number of small diameter at breast height (DBH) size. In total, there are 10,062 living individual plants, much more than that at the plantation (5105), and ROPS had become the dominant species with a section area with a breast height of 9.40 m(2) hm(-2) and a mean DBH of 6.72 cm, much higher than both PITA and ULPU. The DBH size classes of all the total species showed inverted J-shaped distributions, which may have been a result of the large number of small regenerated ULPU trees. The DBH size classes of both ROPS and PITA showed peak-type structures with individuals mainly gathering in the moderate DBH size class, indicating a relatively healthy DBH size class structure. Meanwhile, invasive ULPU were distributed in a clear L shape, concentrating on the small DBH size class, indicating a relatively low survival rate for adult trees. Both ROPS and PITA species survival in the plantation showed uniform and aggregated distribution at small scales and random with scales increasing. ULPU showed a strong aggregation at small scales as well as random with scales increasing. Both the population structure and spatial distribution indicated that ROPS dominates and will continue to dominate the community in the future succession, which should be continuously monitored

  12. Estimation of tree transpiration and response of tree conductance to meteorological variables in desert-oasis system of Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Rensheng; KANG; Ersi; ZHANG; Zhihui; ZHAO; Wenzhi; S

    2004-01-01

    Transpirations of three dominated tree species, namely Mongol Scotch Pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica Litvin), White elm (Ulmus pumila) and Gansu Poplar (Populus gansuensis Wang et Yang) in oasis shelter forest (Linze site) and of two dominated tree species,namely Euphrates Poplar (Populus euphratica Oliv.) and Russia olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia Linn.) in lowland desert (Erjinaqi site) have been estimated using measured sapflow in summer,autumn and winter, 2002 and in spring, 2003. An ENVIS System was used for each site to measure microclimate variables, soil moisture and sapflow every half an hour, and the study time scale is one day. In the 104 days of observation during the growing season at the Linze site, the average daily sapflow of Gansu Poplar is 9.93L·d-1,and the average transpiration per unit leaf area is 1.99mm·d-1.For White elm tree,the daily average sapflow is 4.08L·d-1,while the daily average transpiration per unit leaf area is 0.49mm·d-1.The values for Mongol Scotch Pine are 3.91L·d-1 and 0.25mm·d-1,respectively.In the total 73 days of observation during the growing season at the Erjinaqi site, the daily average sapflows of Russia olive and Euphrates Poplar are 12.1 and 20.97L·d-1,respectively,and the average transpirations per unit leaf area are 0.22 amd 0.31mm·d-1,respectively.In the observation period of the growing season,tree conductances of Mongol Scotch Pine, White elm, Gansu Poplar or Russia olive show an exponential relationship with the daily average air temperature or vapour pressure deficit, but the relationship is not so obvious between tree conductance and global radiation. The transpiration process of each tree species is affected by all the observed four environmental variables. The response of tree conductance to different climatic factors changes with tree species. The effect of the same factor to the same tree species is also variable in different growing stages. The sapflow of every tree species is relatively large

  13. 吉林市松花江沿江绿地木本植物群落树种组成与α多样性%Species Composition and Alpha Diversity of Woody Plant Community in Green Space along Songhua River in Jilin City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马赛; 孙晓刚; 丁言

    2015-01-01

    采用样方法,对吉林市松花江沿江绿地木本植物群落进行了调查研究。结果表明:共调查木本植物998棵,隶属于20科、34属、56种。裸子植物门中松科物种最多,被子植物门中蔷薇科物种最多。在绿化带群落乔木、灌木中东北杏、玫瑰分别具有最大的重要值,在游园群落乔木、灌木中家榆、接骨木分别具有最大的重要值,在亲水群落乔木、灌木中旱柳、茶条槭分别具有最大的重要值。 Menhinick、Margalef、Shannon-Wiener和Simpson指数均表现为绿化带群落>亲水群落>游园群落,而修正的Hill指数和Pielou指数表现为亲水群落>绿化带群落>游园群落。%The author investigated the species composition and alpha diversity of woody plant community in green space along the Songhua River in Jilin city through using quadrat method .The results indicated that a total of 998 woody plants were investiga-ted, and they belonged to 56 species, 34 genera and 20 families.In gymnosperm, Pinaceae had the most species .In angiosperm, Rosaceae had the most species .Armeniaca mandshurica and Rosa rugosa had the highest importance value in green belt community;Ulmus pumila and Sambucus williamsii had the highest importance value in garden community;Salix matsudana and Acer ginnalahad the highest importance value in waterfront community .The Menhinick index , Margalef index , Shannon-Wiener index and Simpson index of various woody plant communities all showed the following sequence :green belt community>waterfront community>garden community, while the modified Hill index and the Pielou index revealed the following order:waterfront community>green belt com-munity>garden community .

  14. 黄土高原半干旱丘陵区不同树种纯林土壤性质极化研究%SOIL POLARIZATION UNDER PURE STANDS OF DIFFERENT TREE VARIETIES IN SEMI-ARID HILLY AREAS OF THE LOESS PLATEAU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘增文; 段而军; 刘卓玛姐; 冯顺煜

    2009-01-01

    to polarization (I = P/R) were proposed for polarization analysis based on results of determination of soil properties of soil samples collected from a variety of mature stands of pure and mixed forests using a multi-point mixed sampling method at multiple sites in the semi-arid, hilly area of loess plateau. Results show very strong polarization (P>0.20) of the following soil properties: chemical properties under Pinus tabulaeformis forest; chemical and biological properties under Platycladus orientalis, Robinia pseudoacacia and Hippophae rhamnoides forests; chemical, biological properties and trace elements content under Ulmus pumila forest; biological properties under Betula platyphylla forest; and biological and physical properties under Acer ginnala forest. Among the species in this study, pure stands of P. tabulaeformis and R.pseudoacia resulted in serious depletion of soil nutrient reserves; Pure stands of P. orientalis increased soil fertility; Pure stands of U. pumila increased soil fertility but decreased trace elements content; Pure stands of B. platyphylla worsened soil biological properties; Pure stands of A. ginnala led to depletion of soil nutrient reserves and deterioration of soil biological properties; and Pure stands of H. rhamnoides did to depletion of soil nutrient reserves and degradation of soil biological and physical properties. The anti-polarization capacities of P. simonii and P. tabulaeformis were the highest and of U. pumila the lowest. Relative to anti-polarization capacity, the ratios of polarization resistance to polarization of the stands fell into the category of more than "medium" (I_a>0.40)including chemical and physical properties under P. tabulaeformis forest, all the soil properties as a whole under P. orientalis, R.pseudoacia and U. pumila forests, and biological, physical and chemical properties under B. platyphylla forest.

  15. 不同植被恢复模式下煤矸石山复垦土壤性质及煤矸石风化物的变化特征%Reclaimed soil properties and weathered gangue change characteristics under various vegetation types on gangue pile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽艳; 韩有志; 张成梁; 裴宗阳

    2011-01-01

    many studies on eco-environmental effects of vegetation on gangue piles. Study of the relationship between environment and vegetation on gangue piles is helpful to reveal the stability and dynamic development of existing ecosystem, and to build up the foundation for vegetation regulation on gangue piles. In this study, different reclaimed lands from 280 gangue piles of No. 3 coal mine of Yangquan Coal Industry Group in Shanxi Province were included. The effect of different vegetation restoration patterns were analyzed on reclaimed soil and weathered coal gangue. The soil, physical and chemical properties of weathered coal gangue and heavy metals under 6 different vegetation types ( platation of Robinia pseudoacacia L. , mixed plantation of Robinia pseudoacacia L. And Caragana intermedia, mixed plantation of Ulmus pumila L. And Amorpha fruticosa L. , mixed plantation of Platycladus orientals (L. ) Franco and Robinia pseudoacacia L. , Vitex negundo var. Heterophylla and grass vegetation of Medicago saliva L. ) on coal gangue piles were compared. The results showed: (1) The vegetation, particularly the tree plantation on coal gangue piles significantly influenced the soil bulk density, soil water holding capacity and porosity. As the vegetation was recovered, the nutrient content in the soil significantly increased. Soil nutrient content varied with the difference between vegetation restoration types. The mixed plantation of R. Pseudoacacia and C. Intermedia was much better than other vegetation types. The order of different vegetation types according to their positive effects on soil bulk density and mechanical components of coal gangue were; coniferous> mixed shrub and tree forest> broad-leaf tree pure forest> shrub> grass; (2) The vegetation order according to the accumulation of organic matter and total nitrogen were: mixed plantation of P. Orientalis and R. Pseudoacacia > R. Pseudoacacia plantation > mixed plantation of R. Pseudoacacia and C. Intermedia > mixed

  16. Effect of Slope Micro-topography on Spatial Distribution of Trees in Loess Area of North Shaanxi Province,China%陕北黄土区坡面微地形对乔木空间分布的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任正颵; 朱清科; 张恰咛; 马欢; 黄正佳

    2016-01-01

    [Objective]The purpose of this research is to analyze the coupling between gully,collapse,platform and other micro-topography with spatial distribution of exising forest stand,which can provide references for near-natural vegetation restoration and the structure configuration of soil and water conservation tree-shrub mixed stand.[Meth-od]Based on the investigaition data of the vegetations in Sandaochuan valley in Wuqi County of Shaanxi Province, the effects of slope micro-topography on spatial distribution of trees were analysed by using spatial analysis tools of software Arcgis 9 .3 .[Result]The results showed that the area of all types of micro-topography account for 2 1 .03%in undisturbed slope area,but the amount of trees on micro-topography account for 5 1 .77% of the total amount. Trees were distributed mainly in various type of micro-topography,and showed an aggregated distribution at gully and platform,but showed a random distribution at collapse and scrap.The trees in different micro-topography dis-played very significant difference,Ulmus pumila,Populus simonii,and Prunus sibirica showed an aggregated distri-bution at gully;Populus hopeiensis showed an aggregated distribution at gully and platform,while Robinia pseud-oacacia showed an aggregated distribution at platform.[Conclusion]The soil moisture of various slope micro-topog-raphy and its microhabitat have significant effects on the spatial distribution of trees.It is necessary to maintain the long term point of configuration trees planted in near-natural vegetation restoration according to various slope micro-topography habitats and spatial distributions of trees.Therefore,Populus hopeiensis,Populus simonii,Ulmus pumila and other tree species could be planted on gully,Populus hopeiensis,and Robinia pseudoacacia could be planted on platform,and the tree specvies such like Populus hopeiensis and Populus simonii should be planted on scrap.%[目的]传统造林树木种植点设计忽略了黄土坡面

  17. Proteomic analysis of B-aminobutyric acid priming and aba-induction of drought resistance in crabapple (Malus pumila): effect on general metabolism, the phenylpropanoid pathway and cell wall enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a variety of annual crops and model plants, the xenobiotic compound, DL-beta-aminobutyric acid (BABA), has been shown to enhance disease resistance and increase salt, drought, and thermotolerance. BABA does not activate stress genes directly but rather sensitizes plants to respond more quickly a...

  18. 苹果过氧化氢酶的纯化及性质研究%Purification and properties of catalase from apple (Malus pumila cv. FuJi)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓向军; 余筱洁

    2006-01-01

    新鲜苹果经匀浆、抽提、硫酸铵盐析、DEAE-Cellulose柱层析,获得纯化苹果过氧化氢酶(CAT)液.纯化CAT酶液蛋白含量26.8mg/mL,活力843Units/mL,比活力31.5Units/mg.经过温度和pH考察,酶的最适温度为50℃、最适pH值为5.0.金属离子影响为:Cu2+和Mn2+对该酶有不同程度的激活作用,Na+对该酶有一定程度的抑制作用.以过氧化氢为底物,Lineweaver-Burk双倒数作图法求得此酶的Km和Vmax分别为2.27mmol/L和2.5μmol/min.

  19. Effects of Pruning on Fruit Production of Canopy Closured Malus pumila Mill.cv.Fuji Orchard%修剪调节对郁闭苹果园果品生产的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏伟; 张连忠

    2009-01-01

    [目的]通过改造郁闭老果园,探讨提高果品质量的途径.[方法]对郁闭红富士苹果果园连续进行了2年的重疏剪和中疏剪处理,测定了果树枝量、透光率、果实着色、硬度以及叶片叶绿素含量、比叶重.[结果]果园第2、3年的总枝量可保持基本不变,枝类组成趋向合理;通风透光条件得到改善,树冠下透光率达25%左右;功能叶中叶绿素含量提高,比叶重增加;重疏剪处理的果树优质果比例可达80%.[结论]通过疏剪方式,可改造郁闭老果园,提高果品生产能力和品质.%[Objective]The research aimed to improve fruit quality of old coverage Fuji apple orchard.[Method] Heavy prune and moderate prune were used in high-density Fuji apple tree. And total shoot biomass,transmittance,toughness of fruit,color of fruit and chlorophyll of leaves were determined in the following two years.[Result] Total shoot biomass was steady and the shoot type of trees was reasonable. Ventilation condition was improved and mean transmittance of tree was enhanced with 25%. The content of chlorophyll was improved and special leaf weight was increased too. The proportion of high quality fruit from heavy pruned trees was higher with 80% than controlled tree.[Conclusion] The technology of pruning not only changed the coverage orchard,but also improved fruit quality and ability of production.

  20. Effect of Vaccinium vitis-idaea-Pinus pumila Elfin Forest on Pine-nut Yield%经营对越桔-偃松矮曲林松籽产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马文海; 朱万昌

    2007-01-01

    通过对越枯-偃松矮曲林经营试验和进行松籽产量调查,进行了经营对其松籽产量影响的分析.结果表明:疏伐经营可有效促进偃松的开花结实,提高松籽的产量和质量;保留木的覆盖度与单位面积的松籽产量关系密切;疏伐经营促进结实的主要影响因子是光照,其次是地面温度等因子;越桔-偃松矮曲林经营最佳的保留木覆盖度为60%.

  1. Propagation Velocity of Stress Wave and Ultrasonic Wave Transmitting on Indefectible Cross Section of Standing Trees%应力波和超声波在立木无缺陷断面的传播速度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐华东; 王立海; 游祥飞; 刘铁男; 杨学春

    2011-01-01

    In order to make nondestructive evaluation of the health of standing trees, 120 standing trees including 4 species were detected by Arobotom, Resistograph and RSM-SY5 ultrasonic instrument respectively. The data on the propagation velocity of stress wave and ultrasonic wave transmitting in indefectible cross section of standing trees were analyzed. Results showed that: when standing tree was detected with 8 testing points, stress and ultrasonic wave transmitted most slowly along Path A (adjacent point) and most quickly along Path D( radial direction) on indefectible cross section, the propagation velocity was increasing from Path A to Path D. For indefectible Populus simonii, Ulmus pumila, Salix matsudana and Fraxinus mandshurica, the radial propagation velocity of stress wave tested by Arobotom was 788.46,1 025.45,940. 62 and 1 146. 06 m·s-1 respectively; the corresponding radial propagation velocity of ultrasonic wave tested by RSM-SY5 was 1 159.57,1 537.5,1 323.15 and 1 558. 6 m· s -1 respectively. Through regression analysis,the correlation between the radial propagation velocity of stress wave and ultrasonic wave was significant, R2 > 0.77, so it was feasible to non-destructive test standing trees with these two instruments.%为进行立木无损健康检测,采用Arbotom应力波成像系统、Resistograph针式阻抗仪和RSM-SY5超声仪对4个树种共计120株树分断面进行测试,研究超声波和应力波在立木108个无缺陷断面传播速度变化规律,并对比分析二者的差异和相关性.结果表明:1)采用8个测点对立木测试时,超声波和应力波在立木无缺陷断面具有类似的传播规律,即沿Path A(相邻两传感器)传播时速度最低,沿Path D(径向传播)传播时速度最高,从Path A到Path D传播速度呈递增的变化趋势;2)对于小叶杨、愉树、早柳、水曲柳4种立木,Arbotom测得的无缺陷断面应力波径向传播速度平均值分别为788.46,1 025.45,940.62和1 146.06m·s(-1

  2. Effects of Mixed Forests in Coastal Saline Soil%滨海盐碱地混交林效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜振宇; 马海林; 马丙尧; 刘方春; 邢尚军

    2015-01-01

    In order to explore the long-term effects of mixed afforestation in costal saline soil in the Yellow River delta,current status of 3 mixed and 4 pure plantations was investigated and the differences between mixed and pure plantations in growth,leaf nutrition and physico-biochemical characteristics were compared in this study.The results showed that the general growth status of mixed plantations was less desirable,only having a survival percentage of 43.3%-70.4%,due to long-term soil salinization.Compared with pure locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) plantation,DBH (diameter at breast height),tree height and survival percentage of locust were all significantly reduced after mixed-planted with velvet ash (Fraxinus velutina),siberian elm (Ulmus pumila) and Tree-of-Heaven (Ailanthus altissima).Similarly,the contents of N,P,K and chlorophyll in leaves,leaf relative water content and stress tolerance ability of locust decreased in mixed plantations.Mixed afforestation constrained the growth and leaf characteristics of velvet ash in comparison to its pure plantation.The DBH,tree height,leaf nutritional element and chlorophyll contents of Siberian elm and Tree-of-Heaven were higher than those of pure plantations,respectively.The stress tolerance ability of both siberian elm and Tree-of-Heaven was elevated much due to the significant increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD),peroxidase (POD) activities and proline content,and the decrease of the ratio of bound water to free water and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in leaves.%为探讨混交造林在黄河三角洲滨海盐碱地上的长期应用效果,调查了3个不同混交林和4个树种纯林的生长现况,对比研究了混交林中各树种与相应纯林之间在生长状况、叶片营养和生理生化特性上的差异.结果表明,土壤盐渍化的长期影响造成该地区人工混交林的总体生长状况较差,27 a后的保存率处于43.3%~70.4%之间.与刺槐纯林相比,刺槐与白蜡、白榆和

  3. 建平半干旱地区石质山地造林技术研究%Afforestation Technology in Rocky Mountain in Semi -arid Area in Jianping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴生广

    2012-01-01

    The survival rate of forestation, the change of soil chemical properties with the planting years, and the in- fluence of planting measures on soil chemical properties and the annual net growth of dbh and tree height have been studied for different plants in rocky mountain. The results show that the survival rates of different plants in rocky mountain are from 21% to 85% , and the survival rates of Ulmus pumila and Astragalus adsurgens are 81% and 85% seperaterly, and the survival rates of Populus simonii, Robinia~pseudoacacia and Koelreuteria paniculata are a- bout 70%. The vegetation can improve the content of organic matter, total nitrogen and P2Os, which the increasing degree is different with the different soil depth, nutrient varieties and planting years. In the same layer, bio - com- pound fertilizer, inocula and water retaining agent can increase the content of organic matter (p 〈 0. 01 ) and de- crease the content of PzO5 ( p 〈 0. 01 ) obviously. Only water retaining agent can increase the content of total potas- sium obviously. The bio - compound fertilizer, inocula and water retaining agent can obviously increase the annual net growth of dbh and tree height of Populus simonii, Robinia pseudoacacia and Koelreuteria paniculata, which the water retaining agent has the highest improvement.%研究了不同植物在石质山地的造林成活率、土壤化学性质随造林年限的变化和造林措施对土壤化学性质和植物胸径、树高年净生长量的影响。结果表明:不同植物在石质山地的成活率在21%~85%之间,其中白榆和沙打旺的成活率分别为81%和85%,而小叶杨、刺槐、栾树的成活率均在70%左右;植被能明显提高石质山地不同土层的有机质、全N、P2O5含量,但提高程度随土层深度、养分种类和造林年限的不同而不同;在同一土层,生物复合肥料、菌剂和保水剂均显著提高土壤有机质含量(p〈0.01)并显著降低土壤P2O5含量(p〈0.01

  4. Ground-level ozone distribution pattern in summer of Beijing and its foliar injury effect upon plants%北京夏季地表臭氧污染分布特征及其对植物的伤害效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红星; 孙旭; 姚余辉; 万五星; 肖扬; 孙滨峰; William J.Manning; 韩春萌; 郜世奇

    2014-01-01

    臭氧是重要的空气氧化剂,适当浓度的臭氧可以消菌杀毒,但过高浓度的臭氧可能对生物健康构成威胁.随着城市汽车保有量的迅速上升,臭氧的前体物氮氧化物和VOCs排放增多,臭氧浓度随之不断升高,地表臭氧污染日趋严重.地表臭氧的分布特征以及其对植物的胁迫伤害效应引起了人们的重视.是通过监测北京夏季地表臭氧污染分布规律,鉴定是否有植物受到臭氧伤害,以及受伤害植物的种类及地理分布特征,为城市与区域臭氧风险评估提供依据.从2012年7月4日到8月30日,采用被动采样分析的方法,在北京东北、西北、西南、东南郊区以及城区设置了10个研究样点,监测平均臭氧浓度的变化.同时,运用“森林健康专家咨询系统”鉴定植物受臭氧伤害的特征.结果表明:(1)监测期间,北京西部和北部山区的臭氧浓度高于平原地区;在平原地区,公园中的臭氧浓度高于道旁绿化带;山区的臭氧浓度平均为105.39 μg/m3,公园中为68.49μg/m3,道旁绿化带为56.54 μg/m3;(2)在北京的公园和山区发现了18种植物符合“森林健康专家咨询系统”所述臭氧伤害特征,有五叶地锦(Parthenocissus quinquefolia)、核桃(Juglans regia)、臭椿(Ailanthus altissima)、喇叭花(Pharbitis purpurea)、桑树(Morus alba)、榆树(Ulmus pumila)、国槐(Sophora japonica)金叶槐(Sophora japonica f.flavi-rameus)、木槿(Hibiscus syriacus)、重瓣棣棠花(Kerria japonica)、山香(Hyptis suaveolens)、决明(Cassia tora)、毛白杨(Populus tomentosa、黄花柳(Salix caprea)、大花地榆(Sanguisorba sitchensis)、火炬树(Rhus typhina)、大豆(Glycine max)、向日葵(Helianthus annuus);没有在道旁绿化带的植物叶片发现臭氧伤害症状;(3)臭椿(Ailanthus altissima)幼树臭氧伤害症状明显,易于辨认,且臭椿出现频率最高,是分布广泛的乡土树种,适合作为臭氧污染指示植物.

  5. Trema orientalis Linn. Blume: A potential for prospecting for drugs for various uses

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Buenor Adinortey; Galyuon, Isaac K.; Nicholas Oteng Asamoah

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used by traditional practitioners to treat several ailments. Ethnomedicinal studies on Trema orientalis Linn. Blume (Ulmaceae) have shown that it is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, respiratory diseases, oliguria, and malaria. This article is aimed at providing comprehensive information on the medicinal uses, biology, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological data available on T. orientalis. This has been done to explore its therapeutic potential for futu...

  6. Systematic wood anatomy and affinities of the Urticaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Bonsen, K.J.; Welle, ter, B.J.H.

    1984-01-01

    The wood anatomy of all tribes of the Urticaceae, a family of herbs, shrublets, and sometimes shrubs, trees or lianas, has been studied and described in detail. Special attention is given to the interpretation of the characters in terms of taxonomy and phylogeny. A classification, in part deviating from the existing morphological classification, is presented. Finally, the relationship within the Urticaceae, as well as the relationships with the Ulmaceae and Moraceae (including Cecropiaceae) a...

  7. Immediate skin and mucosal symptoms from pot plants and vegetables in gardeners and greenhouse workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, E; Skov, Per Stahl; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1998-01-01

    cacti, Stephanotis floribunda, Euphorbia pulcherrima and Gerbera reactions. Other new species implicated in immediate-type reactions included Ficus pumila, Gardenia jasminoides, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Campanula, Columnea, Epipremnum aureum, Pelargonium and Primula vulgaris. Because of the high...

  8. Fig - Wasps (Chalcidoidea) of Hong Kong I. Agaonidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hill, D.S.

    1967-01-01

    New taxa described and figured, with complete and comparative host data, include Dolichoris vasculosae gen. nov., spec. nov., Liporrhopalum gibbosae spec. nov., Blastophaga (Parapristina) verticillata (Waterston) subgen. nov., comb. nov., Blastophaga nervosae spec. nov., and B. pumilae spec. nov., a

  9. Comparative study of three Marantodes pumilum varieties by microscopy, spectroscopy and chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Nor-Ashila Aladdin; Jamia Azdina Jamal; Noraini Talip; Nur Ain M. Hamsani; Mohd Ruzi A. Rahman; Carla W. Sabandar; Kartiniwati Muhammad; Khairana Husain; Juriyati Jalil

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Marantodes pumilum (Blume) Kuntze (synonym: Labisia pumila (Blume) Fern.-Vill), Primulaceae, is well known for its traditional use as a post-partum medication among women in Malaysia. Three varieties of M. pumilum, var. alata Scheff., var. pumila and var. lanceolata (Scheff.) Mez. are commonly used. Nowadays, M. pumilum powder or extracts are commercially available as herbal supplements and beverages. Authentication of the variety is an important component of product quality control....

  10. Spring Ephemerals Adapt to Extremely High Light Conditions via an Unusual Stabilization of Photosystem II

    OpenAIRE

    Tu, Wenfeng; Li, Yang; Liu, Wu; Wu, Lishuan; Xie, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yuanming; Wilhelm, Christian; Yang, Chunhong

    2016-01-01

    Ephemerals, widely distributed in the Gobi desert, have developed significant characteristics to sustain high photosynthetic efficiency under high light (HL) conditions. Since the light reaction is the basis for photosynthetic conversion of solar energy to chemical energy, the photosynthetic performances in thylakoid membrane of the spring ephemerals in response to HL were studied. Three plant species, namely two C3 spring ephemeral species of Cruciferae: Arabidopsis pumila (A. pumila) and Si...

  11. Genetic diversity of volatile components in Xinjiang Wild Apple (Malus sieversii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuesen; Feng, Tao; Zhang, Yanmin; He, Tianming; Feng, Jianrong; Zhang, Chunyu

    2007-02-01

    To evaluate genetic relationships using qualitative and/or quantitative differentiation of volatile components in Xinjiang Wild Apple (Malus sieversii (Lebed.) Roem.) and to acquire basic data for the conservation and utilization of the species, aroma components in ripe fruit of M. sieversii obtained from 30 seedlings at Mohe, Gongliu County, Xinjiang Autonomic Region, China, and in ripe fruit of 4 M. pumila cultivars ('Ralls', 'Delicious', 'Golden Delicious', and 'Fuji') were analyzed using head space-solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results indicated that the values of similarity coefficient concerning volatile types between the two species were in accordance with the evolution of M. pumila cultivars (forms), and that M. sieversii seedlings showed considerable genetic variations in these aspects: the total content of volatile components, the classes and contents of each compound classes, the segregation ratio, and content of main components. The results showed significant difference among seedlings and wide genetic diversity within the populations. Comparison of the volatile components in M. sieversii with those in M. pumila cultivars showed that the common compounds whose number were larger than five with the contents over 0.04 mg/L simultaneously between M. sieversii and M. pumila cultivars belonged to esters, alcohols, aldehydes or ketones. This suggests fundamental identity in main volatile components of M. sieversii and M. pumila cultivars. The results above sustained the conclusion "M. sieversii is probably the ancestor of M. pumila". However, there were 48 compounds present in M. pumila that were not detected in M. sieversii, including 6 character impact components (i.e., propyl acetate, (Z)-3-hexenal, 2-methyl-1-butanol acetate, pentyl acetate, 3-furanmethanol, and benzene acetaldehyde). This suggested that in the domestication of M. pumila, introgression of other apple species, except for M. sieversii, by

  12. Allelopathic activity of tree species leaf litter, soil and coprolites in the dnepropetrovsk parks

    OpenAIRE

    Крючкова, Анжелина Илларионовна; Кульбачко, Юрий Люцинович

    2014-01-01

    The article examines the impact of leaf litter allelopathic properties and earthworms trophy metabolic activity of earthworms (Lumbricidae) on the soil allelopathic properties under the Acer platanoides L., Aesculus hippocastanum L., Ulmus minor Mill. In the Dnepropetrovsk parks. It was established that earthworms trophy metabolic activity positively influenced on soils allelopathic status.

  13. 7 CFR 301.51-2 - Regulated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulated articles. 301.51-2 Section 301.51-2... Regulated articles. The following are regulated articles: (a) Firewood (all hardwood species), and green... (sycamore), Populus (poplar), Salix (willow), Sorbus (mountain ash), and Ulmus (elm). (b) Any other...

  14. Contrasting secondary growth and water use efficiency patterns in native and exotic trees co-occurring in inner Spain riparian forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    González Muñoz, N.; Linares, J.C.; Castro-Diez, P.; Sass-Klaassen, U.G.W.

    2015-01-01

    Aim of study: The invasive trees Ailanthus altissima and Robinia pseudoacacia are widely spreading in inner Spain riparian forests, where they co-occur with the natives Fraxinus angustifolia and Ulmus minor. In a climate change context, we aimed to identify some of the species traits that are leadin

  15. Is bark pH more important than tree species in determining the composition of nitrophytic or acidophytic lichen floras?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spier, L.; Dobben, van H.F.; Dort, van K.W.

    2010-01-01

    To study the pH preference of epiphytic lichens, the bark pH of Fraxinus, Tilia, Quercus and Ulmus trees in an urban environment was measured using a flat surface electrode. The total number of trees was 253. A survey was made of the lichens in a 40 x 40 cm quadrat surrounding the pH measurement poi

  16. Nieuwe autochtone herkomsten van fladderiep en boskers op de Rassenlijst Bomen

    OpenAIRE

    Buiteveld, J.; Vries, de, H.J.C.

    2010-01-01

    De aanbevelende Rassenlijst Bomen bevat twee nieuwe herkomsten van fladderiep (Ulmus laevis) en een nieuwe herkomst van boskers (Prunus avium). De Raad voor plantenrassen en het Bosschap maakten dit bekend. Het gaat in alle drie de gevallen om genenbankmateriaal dat is opgenomen in de categorie 'naar herkomst geïdentificeerd'.

  17. Nieuwe autochtone herkomsten van fladderiep en boskers op de Rassenlijst Bomen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiteveld, J.; Vries, de S.M.G.

    2010-01-01

    De aanbevelende Rassenlijst Bomen bevat twee nieuwe herkomsten van fladderiep (Ulmus laevis) en een nieuwe herkomst van boskers (Prunus avium). De Raad voor plantenrassen en het Bosschap maakten dit bekend. Het gaat in alle drie de gevallen om genenbankmateriaal dat is opgenomen in de categorie 'naa

  18. A new species of Neosilba (Diptera, Lonchaeidae from Brazil Uma nova espécie de Neosilba (Diptera, Lonchaeidae do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro C. Strikis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Neosilba McAlpine, 1962, N. pradoi sp. nov., is described and illustrated. This new species was found in the south of Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, in the southeast (State of São Paulo and center west (State of Mato Grosso do Sul. It has been reared from fruits of guava (Psidium guajava, Myrtaceae, "araçá" (Psidium cattleyanum, Myrtaceae, "guabiroba" (Campomanesia xanthocarpa, Myrtaceae, Surinam cherry (Malpighia emarginata, Malpighiaceae, cherry (Prunus avium, Rosaceae, orange (Citrus sinensis, Rutaceae, "ingá" (Inga laurina, Fabaceae, "esporão-de-galo" (Celtis iguanae, Ulmaceae and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis, Passifloraceae.Uma nova espécie de Neosilba McAlpine, 1962, N. pradoi sp. nov., é descrita e ilustrada. Esta nova espécie foi encontrada no sul do Brasil (Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina, no sudeste (Estado de São Paulo e na região centro-oeste (Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul. Foi obtida de frutos de goiaba (Psidium guajava, Myrtaceae, araçá (Psidium cattleyanum, Myrtaceae, guabiroba (Campomanesia xanthocarpa, Myrtaceae, acerola (Malpighia emarginata, Malpighiaceae, cereja (Prunus avium, Rosaceae, laranja (Citrus sinensis, Rutaceae, ingá (Inga laurina, Fabaceae, esporão-de-galo (Celtis iguanae, Ulmaceae e maracujá (Passiflora edulis, Passifloraceae.

  19. 刺槐与其他树种枯落叶混合分解对微量元素释放的影响%Influences of mixed leaf litter decomposition of Robinia pseudoacacia with other trees on microelements release

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜良贞; 刘增文; 祝振华; 李茜

    2012-01-01

    whole Loess Plateau, through collecting leaf litter of R. pseudoacacia and other 10 trees at the end of autumn,cutting the leaf to some fragments (a=l cm) or 1 cm needles,and gathering humus soil (0-20 cm) of no forested land as medium,the incubation of mixed leaf litter decomposition had been carried out for 345 d with the method of nylon mesh bag buried with soil in the same condition of tem- perature and moisture. Then,the microelements (Cu,Zn,Ni,Cd) contents before and after leaf litter de-composition were determinated with the Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy(AAS)method. [Result] The re- lease rates of Cu,Zn,Ni and Cd during unique leaf litter decomposition of Populus simonii ,Hippophae rh- amnoides ,Platycladus orientalis and Quercus liaotungensis are all the fastest and the turnover period is 1 year or a little more. Mixing litter decomposition of R. pseudoacacia with P. simonii,Ulmus pumila, H. rh- amnoides separately would produce promoted actions on release of the microelements, whereas mixed litter decomposition of R. pseudoacacia with Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica, P. orientalis, Betula platyphylla and Caragana microphylla separately would produce inhibitory actions on release of the 4 microelements. Mixed litter decomposition of R. pseudoacacia with Pinus tabulaeformis and Larix principis-rupprechtii separately would promote release of Cu, but inhibit releases of Zn, Ni and Cd. Mixed litter decomposition of R. pseudoacacia with Q. liaotungensis would promote releases of Zn and Cd,but inhibit releases of Cu and Ni. [Conclusion] Mixed forestation of R. pseudoacacia with other trees which promote release of microele- ments after mixed litter decomposition would be helpful for the microelement cycling and utilization in for- estland.

  20. Comparison of photosynthesis and water use efficiency between three plant functional types in Hunshandak sandland%浑善达克沙地不同植物功能型光合作用和水分利用特征的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛书丽; 蒋高明; 高雷鸣; 李永庚; 姜闯道; 刘美珍; 崔红霞; 丁莉; 彭羽

    2005-01-01

    为了比较不同植物功能型在沙地生境下光合作用和水分利用效率的差异,测定了浑善达克沙地3种功能型的代表种的气体交换特征来比较它们的光合碳固定能力和水分利用状况.3个代表种的气体交换日变化结果表明乔木的光合速率和水分利用效率比草本和灌木的低,而蒸腾速率和气孔导度较高,经过中午的光合午休后,乔木的光合速率在下午没有恢复,而草本和灌木都有不同程度的恢复.在所测定的所有代表物种中,研究地全部的乔木(3种)和灌木(6种)以及典型的草本(25种),气孔导度与光合速率和蒸腾速率都成显著的正相关关系;另外,在同样的叶片水势情况下,乔木植物的气孔导度最低,在同样的蒸腾速率情况下,乔木植物的光合速率最低.这些结果表明乔木在CO2同化和H2O蒸腾平衡上具有低的水分利用效率.从这个角度考虑,我们认为在对沙地进行恢复时,一些草本和灌木种比乔木更合适.%Stomata controls carbon-water balance in plants by acting as transport for diffusive CO2 uptake and water vapor loss.Plants with lower photosynthesis and higher transpiration rate may function with less stomatal control and inefficient water usage. To test the hypothesis that tree is improper for the purpose of degraded land restoration in arid or semi-arid environment, we investigated gas exchanges of three plant functional types (PFTs) (3 tree species, 6 shrub species and 25 herb species) in Hunshandak Sandland, China, to compare their carbon assimilation ability and water use efficiency. Our research aimed to look into how those plants with different PFTs design carbon and water cycling in semi-arid areas in order to select the ecologically and economically suitable species for the seek of controlling of sandland degradation.We investigated the typical species of each PFT, I.e. Ulmus pumila (tree), Salix gordejevii (shrub) and Leymus chinensis(herb) to compare

  1. Revision of the genus Labisia (Myrsinaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sunarno, B.

    2005-01-01

    The genus Labisia (Myrsinaceae) is revised for the Flora Malesiana region. Seven species are recognised. Several earlier described species are synonymous to L. pumila and reduced to varieties of that species: var. alata, var. lanceolata, var. neriifolia and var. sessilifolia. A new record of L. longistyla is mentioned. Labisia malouiana and L. obtusifolia are excluded from the genus.

  2. New species of the genus Sinularia (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea) from Nha Trang Bay, South China Sea, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dautova, T.N.; Ofwegen, van L.P.; Savinkin, O.V.

    2010-01-01

    A total of eight Sinularia species is described and depicted, all from Nha Trang Bay, Vietnam (South China Sea). Six are new to science: S. capricornis, S. multiflora, S. pumila, S. sarmentosa, S. torta, and S. uva. Two other ones represent just new records for Vietnam: S. rigida (Dana, 1846) and S.

  3. On a collection of bats (Chiroptera) from Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Cakenberghe, V.; de Vree, F.; Leirs, Herwig

    1999-01-01

    The collection of vertebrates made in Kikwit in the aftermath of the 1995 Ebola haemorrhagic fever epidemic included 538 bat specimens, representing 18 species. This collection contains large numbers of a very common species, Chaerephon pumila, but also of Chaerephon ansorgei, which was not yet...

  4. КЕДРОВЫЙ СТЛАНИК (PINUS PUMILA) ДРЕВОВИДНОЙ ФОРМЫ НА СЕВЕРЕ ЗАБАЙКАЛЬСКОГО КРАЯ

    OpenAIRE

    Бобринев, В.; Пак, Л.

    2014-01-01

    Изложены эколого-морфологические признаки кедрового стланика древовидной формы, произрастающего на севере Забайкальского края в бассейне р. Чара (левый приток р. Лены). Для сравнения приводятся описания кедрового стланика, произрастающего вместе с древовидным и кедром сибирским, произрастающим в 200 км севернее места исследования кедрового стланика. Анализ морфологических признаков трех представителей рода Pinus дает основание утверждать, что кедровый стланик древовидной формы является гибрид...

  5. Embryo rescue from interspecific crosses in apple rootstocks Resgate de embriões a partir de cruzamentos interespecíficos em porta-enxerto de macieira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cibele de Mesquita Dantas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objetive of this work was to rescue immature embryos of apple rootstocks Malus prunifolia (Marubakaido and Malus pumila (M9 after 40-60 days of pollination and to put them into MS culture media supplemented with agar (6 g L-1 and casein hydrolysate (500 mg L-1. Embryos originated from interspecific crosses and open pollination showed differences in the in vitro responses, depending on the female parent, the developmental stage of the embryo, and the culture medium composition. Embryos of the M. pumila rootstock, rescued within 40 days after pollination and put in culture medium supplemented with indolacetic acid (IAA, gibberellic acid (GA3, kinetin and maltose, resulted in a normal development of plantlets. However, embryos originating from hand-pollination, cultivated in medium supplemented with 14 µM IAA, 5 µM kinetin and 1.5 µM Ga3 (MS1, mainly those of M. prunifolia x M. pumila, showed a high percentage of rusted embryos (96.2%. Embryos from open pollination of M. prunifolia and M. pumila formed calluses. It was possible to identify the influence of the female parent by the enhanced development of M. pumila shoots derived from open or hand-pollination. The crossing of responsive species and the use of the technique of embryo culture provided a rapid and uniform germination and, consequently, the development of fully normal seedlings.O objetivo deste trabalho foi resgatar embriões imaturos de porta-enxertos de macieira Malus prunifolia (Marubakaido e Malus pumila (M9 depois de 40 e 60 dias de polinização e colocá-los em meio de cultura MS suplementado com ágar (6 g L-1 e hidrolisado de caseína (500 mg L-1. Embriões originados do cruzamento interespecífico dirigido e de polinização aberta mostraram diferenças significativas in vitro, tendo sido observadas diferenças quanto ao progenitor feminino, quanto à fase de desenvolvimento do embrião e à composição do meio de cultura. Embriões do porta-enxerto M. pumila

  6. Effect of SO/sub 2/ on stomatal aperture and sulfur uptake of woody angiosperm seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noland, T.L.; Kozlowski, T.T.

    1979-01-01

    Effects of SO/sub 2/ pollution on stomatal aperture and sulfur uptake varied with SO/sub 2/ dosage and plant species. Fumigation of Ulmus americana L. seedlings with 1 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 8 h inhibited stomatal closure and fumigation with 2 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 12 h induced stomatal closure. Sulfur uptake of fumigated Ulmus americana seedlings depended on stomatal aperture and was much higher in the light than in the dark. Fumigation of water-stressed Ginkgo biloba L. seedlings with 2 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 6.5 h tended to prevent stomatal closure. However, the effects of SO/sub 2/ on stomatal aperture were modulated and often overridden by environmental stresses such as low light intensity and drought.

  7. A review of traditional plants used in the treatment of epilepsy amongst the Hausa/Fulani tribes of northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muazu, J; Kaita, A H

    2008-01-01

    Five prescriptions used in the treatment of epilepsy amongst the Hausa/Fulani tribe of Northern Nigeria were collected from traditional healers. The five prescriptions containing eight plants were reviewed as in literature to ascertain scientific basis of their use in treatment of epilepsy. Securidaca longipedunculata (family Polygalaceace) was reported to have such property; Mitragyna inermis (family Rubiaceae) has alkaloids structurally similar to clinically useful anticonvulsant. Celtis integrefolia (family Ulmaceae) was reported to contain gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) that its deficiency may lead to convulsions. The remaining plants were basically helpful in alleviation of associated symptoms of epilepsy except Centaurea praecox (family Asteraceae) which was reported to have neurotoxic substances that may worsen the disease. PMID:20161961

  8. Multi-gene analysis provides a well-supported phylogeny of Rosales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-dong; Soltis, Douglas E; Yang, Yang; Li, De-zhu; Yi, Ting-shuang

    2011-07-01

    Despite many attempts to resolve evolutionary relationships among the major clades of Rosales, some nodes have been extremely problematic and have remained unresolved. In this study, we use two nuclear and 10 plastid loci to infer phylogenetic relationships among all nine families of Rosales. Rosales were strongly supported as monophyletic; within Rosales all family relationships are well-supported with Rosaceae sister to all other members of the order. Remaining Rosales can be divided into two subclades: (1) Ulmaceae are sister to Cannabaceae plus (Urticaceae+Moraceae); (2) Rhamnaceae are sister to Elaeagnaceae plus (Barbeyaceae+Dirachmaceae). One noteworthy result is that we recover the first strong support for a sister relationship between the enigmatic Dirachmaceae and Barbeyaceae. These two small families have distinct morphologies and potential synapomorphies remain unclear. Future studies should try to identify nonDNA synapomorphies uniting Barbeyaceae with Dirachmaceae.

  9. The phenology of flowering and fluctuations of airborne pollen concentrations of selected trees in Poznań, 2003-2004

    OpenAIRE

    Alicja Stach; Magdalena Kluza-Wieloch; Alicja Zientarska

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the relationships between the flowering phase of selected tree species, whose pollen is known to be allergenic, and fluctuations in the pollen in the air, and to use results obtained for making allergological forecasts. Studies were conducted of five tree taxa: Populus, Ulmus, Salix, Aesculus, and Tilia, in the years 2003-2004. Aeropalinological analyses concerned the above mentioned genera, while in phenological studies specific species were investigated,...

  10. Rapportage onderzoek aantasting van de bast bij laanbomen

    OpenAIRE

    Lammeren, van, ACAP Andre; Ruiter, N.C.A.; Kieft, H

    2009-01-01

    In dit verslag zijn aantastingen op de stam onderzocht van Carpinus betulus ‘Frans Fontaine’, Fagus sylvatica “ Atropurpurea”, Fraxinus excelsior ‘Atlas’, Quercus palustris, Quercus robur, Sorbus latifolia “Henk Vink” en Ulmus ‘Clusius’ Daarbij is aandacht besteed aan het voorkomen en de aard en ontwikkeling van bastknobbels, baststrepen, bastscheuren, verkleuringen en het effect van epifyten zoals schimmels en korstmossen

  11. SYNTAXONOMY OF HY GROPHILOUS WOODS OF THE ALNO-QUERCION ROBORIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. BRULLO

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A syntaxonomical revision of the hygrophilous woods occurring in marshy places of the flood-plains from SE Europe is given. This vegetation is included in the Alno-Quercion roboris, alliance of the Populetalia albae, which comprises numerous associations characterized by the dominance of hard-wood trees, such as Quercus robur, Fraxinus oxycarpa, Ulmus minor, Alnus glutinosa, etc. For each association the synonyms, nomenclature type, diagnostic species, ecology, structure and chorology are given.

  12. Evaluation of effects of hydrogel on allergic dermatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Deok [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    In this study, radiation-irradiated natural extracts including Houttuynia cordata Thunb, Ulmus macrocarpa Hance, Glechoma longituba, Plantago asiatica, and Morus alba were selected as the effective materials on allergy and inflammation. Hydroatogel and cosmetics that are made of radiation-irradiated natural extracts showed no skin irritation. Hydroatogel showed beneficial effect on atopy dermatitis in clinical test. It also showed significant skin barrier recovery effect

  13. Interactive Effects of Imazapyr plus Triclopyr ester and Imazapyr plus Glyphosate Mixtures on Woody Weed Seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Nespeca, Mathew C.

    1997-01-01

    A rapid primary herbicide screening experiment was conducted to determine if synergism or antagonism occurs with imazapyr(Arsenal®) plus triclopyr ester (Garlon 4®) and imazapyr plus glyphosate(Accord®) mixtures applied to woody weed seedlings. Using a booth sprayer, 66 herbicide treatments were applied to greenhouse grown black cherry (Prunus serotina), winged elm (Ulmus alata), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), red maple (Acer rubrum), black ...

  14. Three new species of the armored catfish genus Loricaria (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from river channels of the Amazon basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Loricaria are described from large white- and black-water river channels of the Amazon basin of Brazil, the upper rio Negro drainage of southern Venezuela, and clear waters of the lower rio Tocantins. Loricaria spinulifera and L. pumila differ from other species of Loricaria by having unique patterns of abdominal plate development and hypertrophied odontodes forming conspicuous crests on dorsal surfaces of the head and predorsal plates. Both are small species of Loricaria, reaching sexual maturity at less than 120 mm SL, and exhibiting sexually dimorphic characters consistent with members of the L. cataphracta complex. Loricaria spinulifera differs from L. pumila in having a unique arrangement of buccal papillae and large thorn-like odontodes on the dorsum of the head. Loricaria pumila is the smallest known Loricaria, reaching sexual maturity at less than 80 mm SL. Loricaria lundbergi differs from other Loricaria by having a unique abdominal plate pattern, broad head, and small basicaudal plate. Loricaria lundbergi is sympatric with L. spinulifera in the lower rio Negro drainage, but is also known from the rio Baria system of the Casiquiare drainage. Loricaria pumila occurs in the lower rio Amazonas and lower rio Tocantins. All three new species exhibit varying degrees of reduction in eye size and pigmentation seen in other fishes inhabiting deep river channels of South America.Três novas espécies de Loricaria são descritas provenientes dos canais de grandes rios de águas brancas e pretas da bacia Amazônica brasileira, da bacia do alto rio Negro no sul da Venezuela e das águas claras do baixo rio Tocantins. Loricaria lundbergi é simpátrica com L. spinulifera no baixo rio Negro, mas também é conhecida para o sistema do rio Baria, drenagem do Cassiquiare. Loricaria pumila ocorre no baixo rio Amazonas e baixo rio Tocantins. Loricaria spinulifera e L. pumila diferem de outras Loricaria por apresentarem odont

  15. Genus Malus Mill. in Arboretum collection of Peter the Great Botanic Garden

    OpenAIRE

    Firsov Gennadiy; Vasiliev Nikolay; Tkachenko Kirill

    2015-01-01

    Genus Apples (Malus Mill.) have been known at Peter the Great Botanic Garden of the Komarov Botanical Institute Russian Academy of Sciences since the end of the XVIII century, the first exotic species was M. pumila Mill. (M. domestica Borkh.). It is here M. floribunda Siebold ex van Houtte, M. sachalinensis (Kom.) Juz. and M. sieboldii (Regel) Rehd. apparently were firstly introduced into general cultivation. The hardiest is M. baccata (L.) Borkh. which is represented here constantly since 18...

  16. РОД ЯБЛОНЯ (MALUS MILL.) В КОЛЛЕКЦИИ БОТАНИЧЕСКОГО САДА ПЕТРА ВЕЛИКОГО

    OpenAIRE

    Газиев, Махач; Асадулаев, Заирбек; Абдуллатипов, Рустам

    2015-01-01

    Genus Apples (Malus Mill.) have been known at Peter the Great Botanic Garden of the Komarov Botanical Institute Russian Academy of Sciences since the end of the XVIII century, the first exotic species was M. pumila Mill. (M. domestica Borkh.). It is here M. floribunda Siebold ex van Houtte, M. sachalinensis (Kom.) Juz. and M. sieboldii (Regel) Rehd. apparently were firstly introduced into general cultivation. The hardiest is M. baccata (L.) Borkh. which is represented here constantly since 18...

  17. Embryo rescue from interspecific crosses in apple rootstocks Resgate de embriões a partir de cruzamentos interespecíficos em porta-enxerto de macieira

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Cibele de Mesquita Dantas; José Itamar Boneti; Rubens Onofre Nodari; Miguel Pedro Guerra

    2006-01-01

    The objetive of this work was to rescue immature embryos of apple rootstocks Malus prunifolia (Marubakaido) and Malus pumila (M9) after 40-60 days of pollination and to put them into MS culture media supplemented with agar (6 g L-1) and casein hydrolysate (500 mg L-1). Embryos originated from interspecific crosses and open pollination showed differences in the in vitro responses, depending on the female parent, the developmental stage of the embryo, and the culture medium composition. Embryos...

  18. Actividade antioxidante de plantas medicinais angolanas

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Nelson António Freitas

    2010-01-01

    Nos últimos anos tem crescido o interesse pela descoberta de novos compostos antioxidantes, a partir de fontes naturais, aplicáveis quer na indústria alimentar como na medicina preventiva. Neste trabalho foi estudada a capacidade antioxidante de extractos de dez plantas medicinais Angolanas em diferentes solventes orgânicos (Hymenodictyon floribundum, Parinari pumila, Tinnea antiscorbutica, Eragrostis viscosa, Xylopia odoratissima, Peucedanum angolense, Boscia microphylla, Aden...

  19. Mutations in topoisomerase I as a self-resistance mechanism coevolved with the production of the anticancer alkaloid camptothecin in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Sirikantaramas, Supaart; Yamazaki, Mami; Saito, Kazuki

    2008-01-01

    Plants produce a variety of toxic compounds, which are often used as anticancer drugs. The self-resistance mechanism to these toxic metabolites in the producing plants, however, remains unclear. The plant-derived anticancer alkaloid camptothecin (CPT) induces cell death by targeting DNA topoisomerase I (Top1), the enzyme that catalyzes changes in DNA topology. We found that CPT-producing plants, including Camptotheca acuminata, Ophiorrhiza pumila, and Ophiorrhiza liukiuensis, have Top1s with ...

  20. Carbon allocation, sequestration and carbon dioxide mitigation under plantation forests of north western Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandana Devi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The organic carbon and soils of the world comprise bulk of the terrestrial carbon and serve as a major sink and source of atmospheric carbon. Increasing atmospheric concentrations of green house gases may be mitigated by increasing carbon sequestration in vegetation and soil. The study attempted to estimate biomass production and carbon sequestration potential of different plantation ecosystems in north western Himalaya, India. Biomass, carbon density of biomass, soil, detritus, carbon sequestration and CO2 mitigation potential were studied under different plantation forest ecosystems comprising of eight different tree species: Quercus leucotrichophora, Pinus roxburghii, Acacia catechu, Acacia mollissima, Albizia procera, Alnusnitida, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Ulmus villosa. Above (185.57±48.99tha-1 and below ground (42.47±10.38 tha-1 biomass was maximum in Ulmus villosa. The vegetation carbon density was maxium in Albizia procera(118.37±1.49 tha-1 and minimum (36.50±9.87 tha-1 in Acacia catechu. Soil carbon density was maximum (219.86±10.34 tha-1 in Alnus nitida, and minimum (170.83±20.60 tha-1 in Pinus roxburghii. Detritus was higher in Pinus roxburghii (6.79±2.0 tha-1. Carbon sequestration (7.91±3.4 tha-1 and CO2 mitigation potential (29.09±12.78 tha-1 was maximum in Ulmus villosa. Pearson correlation matrix revealed significant positive relationship of ecosystem carbon with plantation biomass, soil carbon and CO2 mitigation potential. With the emerging threat of climate change, such assessment of forest and soil carbon inventory would allow to devise best land management and policy decisions for sustainable management of fragile hilly ecosystem.

  1. Quaternary forest and climate history of Hokkaido, Japan, from marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Yaeko

    Pollen data from Quaternary marine sediments deposited in central Hokkaido, northern Japan provide insight into northeast Asian vegetation and climatic changes over the last few million years. During the Early Pleistocene, coniferous forest, dominated by Picea and Cryptomeria japonica, and taiga composed of Larix and Picea developed under cool/wet and cold/dry climates, respectively. Strong climatic contrasts are inferred from Late Pleistocene interglacial and glacial pollen assemblages which precede the last glacial cycle. In the former, cool temperate broad-leaf forest, mainly composed of Fagus, reflects a warmer and wetter climate than now. In the latter, taiga similar to that now found in northern Sakhalin apparently flourished in Hokkaido. The composition of pollen assemblages correlated with Oxygen Isotope Stage 5, changed from cool temperate forest of Quercus, Ulmus and Juglans (Substage 5e), to Picea-Larix taiga (Substage 5d), cool temperate forest of Quercus and Ulmus (Substage 5c) and Picea-Abies forest (Substage 5b). Compared with present conditions, climate during Stage 5 in northern Japan apparently fluctuated from warmer/wetter to colder/drier. Taiga composed of Picea, Pinus and Larix indicating colder/dry conditions during Stage 4, was replaced by Picea-Abies forest and Picea-Larix taiga in Stage 3, suggesting relatively cool and cold/dry environments. Taiga and mixed forest with taiga and cool temperate components characterize Stage 2. Holocene forests with Juglans-Betula and Quercus-Juglans were succeeded by Picea and Abies during the early Holocene warm interval ˜7000 BP. Subsequently, Quercus-Ulmus and Abies-Alnus assemblages reflect climatic deterioration. 'Pan-mixed' forest has been developed in Hokkaido since 2000 BP.

  2. PALYNOLOGICAL ASSEMBLAGES FROM THE BOREHOLE ZKA4 AT DAQIAO TOWN, JIANGDU CITY, JIANGSU PROVINCE AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL MEANINGS%江苏省江都市大桥镇ZKA4钻孔第四纪孢粉组合及其环境变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宗言; 于俊杰; 蒋仁; 韩芳; 柯学; 徐亚东; 何卫红

    2014-01-01

    本文依据江苏省江都市大桥镇第四系钻孔(ZKA4)中孢粉的分布,自下至上划分了11个孢粉组合:1.Betula-Ulmus-Artemisia,2.Ulmus-Chenopodiaceae-Quercus,3.ArtemisiaGramineae-Quercus,4.Liquidambar-Polypodiaceae-Ulmus,5.Pinus-Quercus-Betula-Juglans,6.Quercus-Juglans-Artemisia,7.Quercus-Polygonum-Juglans-Carya,8.Betula-Gramineae-Artemisia,9.Quercus-Polypodiaceae,10.Podocarpus-Triorites-Polypodiaceae,11.Pinus-Podocarpus-Juglans-Pterocarya.依据孢粉组合,识别出更新世以来七个气候冷暖变化阶段.孢粉组合1为常绿落叶针阔叶混交林,气候以冷干为主,向上气候回暖;孢粉组合2为高寒灌丛—落叶针阔叶混交林,以冷干为主;孢粉组合3为草本—落叶针阔叶混交林,较前一阶段气候变暖,偏暖干;孢粉组合4-5以落叶阔叶为主,整体上以变暖为主;孢粉组合6-7为落叶针阔叶混交林,整体气候为暖湿,早期略干;孢粉组合8-9为以针叶为主的针阔叶混交林,气候温凉偏湿;孢粉组合10-11为常绿落叶阔叶混交林,气候以湿暖为主.

  3. Carbon allocation, sequestration and carbon dioxide mitigation under plantation forests of north western Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandana Devi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The organic carbon and soils of the world comprise bulk of the terrestrial carbon and serve as amajorsink and source of atmospheric carbon. Increasing atmospheric concentrations of green house gases may be mitigated by increasing carbon sequestration in vegetation and soil. The study attempted to estimate biomass production and carbon sequestration potential of different plantation ecosystems in north western Himalaya, India. Biomass, carbon density of biomass, soil, detritus, carbon sequestration and CO2 mitigation potential were studied underdifferent plantation forest ecosystems comprising of eight different tree species viz. Quercus leucotrichophora, Pinus roxburghii, Acacia catechu, Acacia mollissima, Albizia procera, Alnus nitida, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Ulmus villosa. Above (185.57 ą 48.99 tha-1 and below ground (42.47 ą 10.38 tha-1 biomass was maximum in Ulmus villosa. The vegetation carbon density was maxium in Albizia procera (118.37 ą 1.49 tha-1 and minimum (36.50 ą 9.87 tha-1 in Acacia catechu. Soil carbon density was maximum (219.86ą 10.34 tha-1 in Alnus nitida, and minimum (170.83ą 20.60 tha-1in Pinus roxburghii. Detritus was higher in Pinus roxburghii (6.79 ą 2.0 tha-1. Carbon sequestration (7.91ą 3.4 tha-1 and CO2 mitigation potential (29.09 ą 12.78 tha-1 was maximum in Ulmus villosa. Pearson correlation matrix revealed significant positive relationship of ecosystem carbon with plantation biomass, soil carbon and CO2 mitigation potential. With the emerging threat of climate change, such assessment of forest and soil carbon inventory would allow to devise best land management and policy decisions forsustainable management of fragile hilly ecosystem. 

  4. Variability of morphometric characteristics of the leaves of European white elm from the area of Great War Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devetaković Jovana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The European White Elm (Ulmus effusa Willd. is indicated as a rare and endangered species in the growing stock of the Republic of Serbia. In the area of Great War Island, its natural populations were reduced to 56 registered trees, which occur in three spatially isolated subpopulations. On the basis of the research conducted on the level of variability of adaptible morphometric characteristics of leaves from 14 selected test trees of European White Elm, it can be concluded that the degree of interpopulation variability is satisfactory, which is a good basis for the conservation of the available gene pool.

  5. Long-term forest dynamics at Gribskov, eastern Denmark with early-Holocene evidence for thermophilous broadleaved tree species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overballe-Petersen, Mette V; Nielsen, Anne Birgitte; Hannon, Gina E.;

    2012-01-01

    thermophilous broadleaved trees, including Quercus sp., Tilia sp. and Ulmus sp. The macrofossils contribute to the vegetation reconstruction with evidence for local presence of species with low pollen productivity or easily degraded pollen types such as Populus. The charcoal record shows frequent burning during...... no clear indication of post-depositional disturbance, although a possible short-lived hiatus occurs around 6500 cal. BP. The early pollen record from thermophilous trees could indicate that there may have been some downwash following sediment desiccation through wood peat layers deposited between c. 6500...

  6. PHENOECOLOGY STUDIES ON SOME ANEMOPHILE LIGNEOUS MAGNOLIATAE FROM TIMIŞOARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Faur

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence show that weather changes in the recent years manifested through warming-up conditions in the spring months in many European regions. Our researches focussed on the blooming phenophasic comparison in eight species of anemophile ligneous Magnoliatae (Acer, Alnus, Corylus, Fraxinus, Juglans, Morus, Tilia, Ulmus between years 1950-1959 and 2000-2002. Studies show that data of season start in ligneous Magnoliatae pollen progressively became more early in the last 50 years as a response to climate changes.

  7. Spatial structure of the 8200 cal yr BP event in northern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Seppä, H.; H. J. B. Birks; Giesecke, T.; D. Hammarlund; Alenius, T.; Antonsson, K.; Bjune, A.E.; Heikkilä, M.; MacDonald, G. M.; Ojala, A. E. K.; Telford, R J; Veski, S.

    2007-01-01

    A synthesis of well-dated high-resolution pollen records suggests a spatial structure in the 8200 cal yr BP event in northern Europe. The temperate, thermophilous tree taxa, especially Corylus, Ulmus, and Alnus, decline abruptly between 8300 and 8000 cal yr BP at most sites located south of 61° N, whereas there is no clear change in pollen values at the sites located in the North-European tree-line region. Pollen-based quantitat...

  8. Competitive exclusion among fig wasps achieved via entrainment of host plant flowering phenology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Liu

    Full Text Available Molecular techniques are revealing increasing numbers of morphologically similar but co-existing cryptic species, challenging the niche theory. To understand the co-existence mechanism, we studied phenologies of morphologically similar species of fig wasps that pollinate the creeping fig (F. pumila in eastern China. We compared phenologies of fig wasp emergence and host flowering at sites where one or both pollinators were present. At the site where both pollinators were present, we used sticky traps to capture the emerged fig wasps and identified species identity using mitochondrial DNA COI gene. We also genotyped F. pumila individuals of the three sites using polymorphic microsatellites to detect whether the host populations were differentiated. Male F. pumila produced two major crops annually, with figs receptive in spring and summer. A small partial third crop of receptive figs occurred in the autumn, but few of the second crop figs matured at that time. Hence, few pollinators were available to enter third crop figs and they mostly aborted, resulting in two generations of pollinating wasps each year, plus a partial third generation. Receptive figs were produced on male plants in spring and summer, timed to coincide with the release of short-lived adult pollinators from the same individual plants. Most plants were pollinated by a single species. Plants pollinated by Wiebesia sp. 1 released wasps earlier than those pollinated by Wiebesia sp. 3, with little overlap. Plants occupied by different pollinators were not spatially separated, nor genetically distinct. Our findings show that these differences created mismatches with the flight periods of the other Wiebesia species, largely 'reserving' individual plants for the resident pollinator species. This pre-emptive competitive displacement may prevent long term co-existence of the two pollinators.

  9. Spring Ephemerals Adapt to Extremely High Light Conditions via an Unusual Stabilization of Photosystem II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Wenfeng; Li, Yang; Liu, Wu; Wu, Lishuan; Xie, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yuanming; Wilhelm, Christian; Yang, Chunhong

    2016-01-01

    Ephemerals, widely distributed in the Gobi desert, have developed significant characteristics to sustain high photosynthetic efficiency under high light (HL) conditions. Since the light reaction is the basis for photosynthetic conversion of solar energy to chemical energy, the photosynthetic performances in thylakoid membrane of the spring ephemerals in response to HL were studied. Three plant species, namely two C3 spring ephemeral species of Cruciferae: Arabidopsis pumila (A. pumila) and Sisymbrium altissimum (S. altissimum), and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) were chosen for the study. The ephemeral A. pumila, which is genetically close to A. thaliana and ecologically in the same habitat as S. altissimum, was used to avoid complications arising from the superficial differences resulted from comparing plants from two extremely contrasting ecological groups. The findings manifested that the ephemerals showed significantly enhanced activities of photosystem (PS) II under HL conditions, while the activities of PSII in A. thaliana were markedly decreased under the same conditions. Detailed analyses of the electron transport processes revealed that the increased plastoquinone pool oxidization, together with the enhanced PSI activities, ensured a lowered excitation pressure to PSII of both ephemerals, and thus facilitated the photosynthetic control to avoid photodamage to PSII. The analysis of the reaction centers of the PSs, both in terms of D1 protein turnover kinetics and the long-term adaptation, revealed that the unusually stable PSs structure provided the basis for the ephemerals to carry out high photosynthetic performances. It is proposed that the characteristic photosynthetic performances of ephemerals were resulted from effects of the long-term adaptation to the harsh environments. PMID:26779223

  10. Stature of Sub-arctic Birch in Relation to Growth Rate, Lifespan and Tree Form

    OpenAIRE

    JÓNSSON, THORBERGUR HJALTI

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Sub-arctic mountain birch Betula pubescens var. pumila communities in the North Atlantic region are of variable stature, ranging from prostrate scrubs to forests with trees up to 12 m high. Four hypotheses were tested, relating growth and population characteristics of sub-arctic birch woodland and scrub to tree stature; i.e. the variable stature of birch woods is due to differences in (1) the mean growth rate; (2) the age-related patterns of growth rate; (3) the life exp...

  11. The Effect on the Selectivity of Tetranychus viennensis forDifferent Host Plants by Vilatiles From Plant%山楂叶螨对不同寄主植物的选择性与挥发性物质的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙绪艮; 乔鲁芹

    2004-01-01

    山楂叶螨(Tetranychus viennenis)仁果类和核果类果树的主要害螨之一。该螨在我国分布广泛,其寄主主要有:苹果(Malus pumila)、梨(Pyrus bretschneideri)、桃(Amygdalus persica)、杏(Armeniaca vulgaris)、山楂(Crataegus pinnatifida)、海棠(Malus spectabilis)、樱桃(Cerasus pseudocerasus)、沙果(Malus asiatica)、榆叶梅

  12. Calorific values of plant and insect species of a tropical grassland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, J.S.; Yadava, P.S.

    1973-01-01

    Data are given on the calorific value of plant tops in various months of the year for a range of species from a grassland community at Kurukshetra, India, including Aeschynomene indica, Bothriochloa pertusa, Brachiaria reptans, Cassia occidentalis, C. pumila, Crotaleria medicaginea, Cynodon dactylon, Desmostachya bipinnata, Digitaria sanguinalis, Prosopis sp., Rhynchosia minima and Sporobolus diander. Data on energy content of below-ground plant parts in May are given for Polypogon monspeliensisand Cenchrus ciliaris, and on both the above parameters for C. setigerus, Alhagi camelorum, Apluda mutica, Dichanthium annulatum, Panicum miliare and Sorghum halepense. Energy contents of standing dead material and of litter are given for each month of the year.

  13. Dating the introduction of cereal cultivation to the British Isles: early palaeoecological evidence from the Isle of Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, James B.; Blackford, Jeffrey J.; Davey, Peter J.

    2003-10-01

    The adoption of cereal cultivation is a key benchmark in the transition from Mesolithic hunter-gatherer foraging to Neolithic farming economies, but the nature, timing and ecological-cultural context of the earliest cereal use in the British Isles and northwest Europe is still uncertain. We present AMS radiocarbon dating and fine-resolution pollen evidence from the Isle of Man for cereal growing in the latter stages of a distinct episode of forest disturbance at almost 6000 yr BP (uncalibrated). The coherent ecological structure of this phase at the fine resolution level suggests that it records cereal cultivation well before the Ulmus decline, rather than wild grass pollen grains. This example is one of a cluster of early dates for cereal-type pollen near the start of the sixth millenium BP, including several around the Irish Sea, which indicate that the introduction of cereal agriculture probably occurred as early in the central British Isles as in the northern European plain. This early cereal phase is followed later by a probable phase of pre-Ulmus decline pastoral activity. We also report Mesolithic age woodland disturbance around 7000 yr BP (uncalibrated) and the first radiocarbon dates for mid-Holocene forest history of the Isle of Man. Copyright

  14. A paleoecological reconstruction of the Late Glacial and Holocene based on multidisciplinary studies at Steregoiu site (Gutai Mts., Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Feurdean

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available High resolution analyses of pollen, mineral magnetic properties, loss of ignition, lithostratigraphy and AMS 14C measurements of lake sediments and peat deposits accumulated in the former crater lake of Steregoiu (Gutâiului Mts., NW Romania, gave new and important information about vegetation and climate changes from the period GS-2 to the present. During the Lateglacial, three cold events were recorded: before 14,700 cal. years BP (GS-2, 14,050–13,800 cal. years BP (GI-1d, 12,900-11,500 cal. years BP (GS-1, and a warm climatic event between 13,800-12,950 cal. years BP (GI-1c to GL-1a. The Late Glacial/Holocene transition around 11,500 cal. years BP, was determined by an expansion of Betula, Alnus and Picea, followed by a rapid and strong expansion of Ulmus. At 10,700 cal. years BP, dense and highly diverse forests with Ulmus, Quercus, Tilia, Fraxinus and a few Acer and Corylus individuals dominated the area. Corylus and Picea were the dominant species in the forests from 10,150 to 8,500 cal. years BP. The first occurrence of single Fagus pollen grains was around 8,000 cal years BP. Only at 4,700 cal year BP Fagus and Carpinus became widespread and established trees in the local woodlands.

  15. Supply of fatty acid is one limiting factor in the accumulation of triacylglycerol in developing embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, X.; Ohlrogge, J.

    1999-08-01

    The metabolic factors that determine oil yield in seeds are still not well understood. To begin to examine the limits on triacylglycerol (TAG) production, developing Cuphea lanceolata, Ulmus carpinifolia, and Ulmus parvifolia embryos were incubated with factors whose availability might limit oil accumulation. The addition of glycerol or sucrose did not significantly influence the rate of TAG synthesis. However, the rate of {sup 14}C-TAG synthesis upon addition of 2.1 mM {sup 14}C-decanoic acid (10:0) was approximately four times higher than the in vivo rate of TAG accumulation in C. lanceolata and two times higher than the in vivo rate in U. carpinifolia and U. parvifolia. In C. lanceolata embryos, the highest rate of {sup 14}C-TAG synthesis (14.3 nmol h{sup {minus}1} embryo {sup {minus}1}) was achieved with the addition of 3.6 mM decanoic acid. {sup 14}C-Decanoic acid was incorporated equally well in all three acyl positions of TAG. The results suggest that C. lancelata, U. Carpinifolia, and U. parvifolia embryos have sufficient acyltransferase activities and glycerol-3-phosphate levels to support rates of TAG synthesis in excess of those found in vivo. Consequently, the amount of TAG synthesized in these oilseeds may be in part determined by the amount of fatty acid produced in plastids.

  16. Genetic Diversity of Volatile Components in Xinjiang Wild Apple (Malus sieversii)%新疆野苹果挥发性化合物组分的遗传多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈学森; 冯涛; 张艳敏; 何天明; 冯建荣; 张春雨

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate genetic relationships using qualitative and/or quantitative differentiation of volatile components in Xinjiang Wild Apple (Malus sieversii (Lebed.) Roem.) and to acquire basic data for the conservation and utilization of the species, aroma components in ripe fruit of M. sieversii obtained from 30 seedlings at Mohe, Gongliu County, Xinjiang Autonomic Region, China,and in ripe fruit of 4 M. pumila cultivars ('Ralls', 'Delicious', 'Golden Delicious', and 'Fuji') were analyzed using head space-solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results indicated that the values of similarity coefficient concerning volatile types between the two species were in accordance with the evolution of M. pumila cultivars (forms), and that M. sieversii seedlings showed considerable genetic variations in these aspects: the total content of volatile components, the classes and contents of each compound classes, the segregation ratio, and content of main components. The results showed significant difference among seedlings and wide genetic diversity within the populations. Comparison of the volatile components in M. sieversii with those in M. pumila cultivars showed that the common compounds whose number were larger than five with the contents over 0.04 mg/L simultaneously between M. sieversii and M. pumila cultivars belonged to esters, alcohols, aldehydes or ketones. This suggests fundamental identity in main volatile components of M. sieversii and M. pumila cultivars. The results above sustained the conclusion "M. sieversii is probably the ancestor of M. pumila". However, there were 48 compounds present in M. pumila that were not detected in M. sieversii, including 6 character impact components (i.e., propyl acetate, (Z)-3-hexenal, 2-methy1-1-butanol acetate, pentyl acetate, 3-furanmethanol, and benzene acetaldehyde). This suggested that in the domestication of M. pumila, introgression of other apple species, except for M. sieversii, by

  17. Trema orientalis Linn. Blume: A potential for prospecting for drugs for various uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Buenor Adinortey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are used by traditional practitioners to treat several ailments. Ethnomedicinal studies on Trema orientalis Linn. Blume (Ulmaceae have shown that it is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, respiratory diseases, oliguria, and malaria. This article is aimed at providing comprehensive information on the medicinal uses, biology, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological data available on T. orientalis. This has been done to explore its therapeutic potential for future research opportunities. This review was compiled with information obtained from databases such as Medline, Elsevier, Springer, Science Direct, Pubmed, Google Scholar, and a library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Compounds present in the plant include tannins, saponins, flavanoids, triterpenes, phytosterols, and several constituents of xanthones. Some pharmacological research done on the plant has focused on, hypoglycemic activity, analgesic, anti-inflammatory activities, anti-plasmodial activity, diuretic activity, laxativity effect, anti-convulsant activity, anti-helmintic activity, anti-sickling effect, anti-oxidant, and anti-bacterial activity. This compilation strongly supports the view that T. orientalis has beneficial therapeutic properties, and indicates its potential as an effective herbal remedy for several diseases. The promising results from several research works could be further substantiated by clinical trials.

  18. Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb. Planch: A Review of Its Ethnobotany, Pharmacology, and Phytochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Showkat Ahmad Ganie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Holoptelea integrifolia (Ulmaceae is a versatile medicinal plant used in various indigenous systems of medicine for curing routine healthcare maladies. It is traditionally used in the treatment and prevention of several ailments like leprosy, inflammation, rickets, leucoderma, scabies, rheumatism, ringworm, eczema, malaria, intestinal cancer, and chronic wounds. In vitro and in vivo pharmacological investigations on crude extracts and isolated compounds showed antibacterial, antifungal, analgesic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, antidiabetic, antidiarrhoeal, adaptogenic, anticancer, wound healing, hepatoprotective, larvicidal, antiemetic, CNS depressant, and hypolipidemic activities. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of terpenoids, sterols, saponins, tannins, proteins, carbohydrates, alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, glycosides, and quinines. Numerous compounds including Holoptelin-A, Holoptelin-B, friedlin, epifriedlin, β-amyrin, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, 1, 4-napthalenedione, betulin, betulinic acid, hexacosanol, and octacosanol have been identified and isolated from the plant species. The results of several studies indicated that H. integrifolia may be used as an effective therapeutic remedy in the prevention and treatment of various ailments. However, further studies on chemical constituents and their mechanisms in exhibiting certain biological activities are needed. In addition, study on the toxicity of the crude extracts and the compounds isolated from this plant should be assessed to ensure their eligibility to be used as source of modern medicines.

  19. Trema orientalis Linn. Blume: A potential for prospecting for drugs for various uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinortey, Michael Buenor; Galyuon, Isaac K; Asamoah, Nicholas Oteng

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used by traditional practitioners to treat several ailments. Ethnomedicinal studies on Trema orientalis Linn. Blume (Ulmaceae) have shown that it is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, respiratory diseases, oliguria, and malaria. This article is aimed at providing comprehensive information on the medicinal uses, biology, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological data available on T. orientalis. This has been done to explore its therapeutic potential for future research opportunities. This review was compiled with information obtained from databases such as Medline, Elsevier, Springer, Science Direct, Pubmed, Google Scholar, and a library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Compounds present in the plant include tannins, saponins, flavanoids, triterpenes, phytosterols, and several constituents of xanthones. Some pharmacological research done on the plant has focused on, hypoglycemic activity, analgesic, anti-inflammatory activities, anti-plasmodial activity, diuretic activity, laxativity effect, anti-convulsant activity, anti-helmintic activity, anti-sickling effect, anti-oxidant, and anti-bacterial activity. This compilation strongly supports the view that T. orientalis has beneficial therapeutic properties, and indicates its potential as an effective herbal remedy for several diseases. The promising results from several research works could be further substantiated by clinical trials. PMID:23922459

  20. Changes in floral diversities, floral turnover rates, and climates in Campanian and Maastrichtian time, North Slope of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, N.O.

    1989-01-01

    One-hundred-and-ten angiosperm pollen taxa have been found in upper Campanian to Masstrichtian rocks of the Colville River region, North Slope of Alaska. These are the highest paleolatitude Campanian and Maastrichtian floras known from North America. Total angiosperm pollen diversity rose during the Campanian and declined toward the end of the Maastrichtian. However, anemophilous porate pollen of the Betulaceae-Myricaceae-Ulmaceae complex increased gradually in diversity during the late Campanian and Maastrichtian and into the Paleocene. Turnover of angiosperm taxa was active throughout most of late Campanian and Maastrichtian time; rapid turnover affected mainly the taxa of zoophilous herbs, representing an bundant but ecologically subordinate element of the vegetation. Last appearances of pollen taxa during the late Campanian and Maastrichtian probably represented mainly extinctions rather than emigrations; end- Cretaceous angiosperm extinctions in the North American Arctic began well before the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary event. The last appearances in the late Maastrichtian took place in bursts; they appear to represent stepwise rather than gradual events, which may indicate the existence of pulses of climatic change particularly in late Maastrichtian time. ?? 1989.

  1. Cytotoxic glucosphingolipid from Celtis Africana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shagufta Perveen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Literature survey proved the use of the powdered sun-dried bark and roots of Celtis africana for the treatment of cancer in South Africa. Objective: The aim of this study was to do further isolation work on the ethyl acetate fraction and to investigate the cytotoxic activities of the various fractions and isolated compound. Materials and Methods: Cytotoxicity of petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol fractions and compound 1 were tested on mouse lymphoma cell line L5178Y using the microculture tetrazolium assay. Results: One new glucosphingolipid 1 was isolated from the aerial parts of C. africana. The structure of the new compound was determined by extensive analysis by one-dimensional and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The ethyl acetate fraction and compound 1 showed strong cytotoxic activity with an EC 50 value of 8.3 μg/mL and 7.8 μg/mL, respectively, compared with Kahalalide F positive control (6.3 μg/mL. Conclusion: This is the first report of the occurrence of a cytotoxic glucosphingolipid in family Ulmaceae.

  2. Comparative study of three Marantodes pumilum varieties by microscopy, spectroscopy and chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor-Ashila Aladdin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Marantodes pumilum (Blume Kuntze (synonym: Labisia pumila (Blume Fern.-Vill, Primulaceae, is well known for its traditional use as a post-partum medication among women in Malaysia. Three varieties of M. pumilum, var. alata Scheff., var. pumila and var. lanceolata (Scheff. Mez. are commonly used. Nowadays, M. pumilum powder or extracts are commercially available as herbal supplements and beverages. Authentication of the variety is an important component of product quality control. Thus, the present work was aimed to compare the three varieties using microscopic, spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques. Microscopic anatomical examination and powder microscopy were performed on fresh and dried plant materials, respectively. Fingerprint profiles of the varieties were obtained using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer, high performance thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The microscopic examination showed presence of anisocytic stomata, scale and capitate glandular trichome in all varieties. The type of stomata and trichomes, outline structure of stem and leaf margin, petiole and midrib, organization of vascular system, areolar venation, pattern of anticlinal walls, the distribution of secretory canals and cell inclusion as well as the measurement of selected structures could be used to distinguish and identify each variety of M. pumilum. In addition, spectroscopic and chromatographic fingerprint analyses of the three varieties exhibited distinguishable profiles based on the intensity of certain peaks or bands. The findings from this study will provide systematic identification for these varieties.

  3. Micropropagation of herbal plants for mass production of in vitro plantlets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysia herbal industry is considered to be one of the most dynamic enterprises with annual growth estimated at 20 % a year. The total import value of the medicinal and aromatic plants increased from RM 141 million in 1986 to RM 431 million in 1996. Species that have been identified in terms of current priority are Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali), Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah), Andrographis paniculata (Hempedu Bumi), Morinda citrifolia (Mengkudu), Centella asiatica (Pegaga), Orthosiphon aristatus (Misai Kucing) and Gynura procumbens (Sambung Nyawa). Herbal and medicinal plants have a larger pool of genetic resources for the production of compounds valuable to the industry and human well being such as in pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and health food. The use of tissue culture technology has long been considered as an attractive solution to the problem of limited supply of raw materials for the industries. Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila) has been well known to increase female hormone, overcome tiredness and regain overall health. Misai Kucing (Orthosiphon aristatus) has proven to be active against kidney stones, high blood pressure, diabetes and gout and Sambung Nyawa (Gynura procumbens) is active against hypertension, diabetes and cancer. Tissue culture protocols had been optimized for the mass production of in vitro plantlets of these three selected herbal plants. (Author)

  4. Two new plant varieties from Putuo Island,Zhejiang Province%发现于浙江普陀山岛的2个植物新变种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李根有; 陈征海; 胡军飞; 金水虎; 马丹丹; 欧丹燕

    2010-01-01

    报道了发现于浙江普陀山岛的2个植物新分类群,分别是桑科Moraceae薜荔Ficus pumila的新变种小果薜荔Ficus pumila Linn.var.microcarpa G.Y.Li et Z.H.Chen和杜鹃花科Eriaceae映山红Rhododendron simsii的新变种普陀杜鹃Rhododendron simsii Planch.var.putuoense G.Y.Li et Z.H.Chen.小果薜荔与原变种薜荔Ficus pumila var.pumila的区别是隐花果较小,椭圆形或宽椭圆形,稀近球形,长2.0~4.0 cm,直径1.7~2.6 cm,顶端钝;果枝之叶明显较小,叶缘通常反卷.普陀杜鹃与原变种映山红Rhododendron simsii var.simsii的区别是花冠紫色.

  5. 西藏植物的新分布属和新分布种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于顺利; 李晖; 土艳丽

    2008-01-01

    根据西藏高原生物研究所标本馆馆藏标本,发现有西藏新分布属2个,即马甲子属(Paliurus)和菠萝蜜属(Arctocarpus);西藏新分布种23个,即马甲子(Paliurus ramossissimus)、扁担杆(Grewia biloba)、儿茶(Acacia catechu)、华南皂角(Gleditsia fera)、白背桤叶树(Clethra petelotii)、思茅铁线莲(Clematis ranunculoides var.pterantha)、疏果山蚂蝗(Desmodium griffithianum)、滇南山蚂蝗(Desmodium megaphyllum var.megaphyllum)、芹叶铁线莲(Clematis aethusifolia)、棱喙毛茛(Ranunculus trigonus)、中华水龙骨(Polypodiodes chinensis)、贡山猕猴桃(Actinidia pilosula)、长齿木蓝(Indigofera dolichochaeta)、线叶柳(Salix wihelmsiana var.wihelmsiana)、透茎冷水花(Pilea pumila var.pumila)等.发现栽培种及逸生种3个,即棒叶槭Acer negundo)、木槿(Hibiscus syriacus)和欧洲千里光(Senecio vulgaris).

  6. Juvenile phase of seedling development in six Eurasian 5-needle Pine species: pattern and character of interspecific differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Popov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A species-specific trait system is formed as a result of two main factors: phylogenetic (origin, relationships and adaptive (environment within a modern natural habitat. Traits themselves also may be ranged by theirphylogenetic stability and adaptive value. Species are usually characterized by definitive traits. Meanwhile, ontogenetic traits may alsobe useful for understanding both species' phylogenesis and adaptation to climatic conditions. The purpose of the present study is toinvestigate the juvenile shoot structure in some Eurasian Pinus species from the section strobus. In the southern part of the WesternSiberian Plain forest zone, seedling growth and development were studied on six Eurasian species: stone pines (Pinus sibirica, P. cembra,P. pumila, P. koraiensis and white pines (P. parviflora, P. armandii. Shoot growth duration increases with an increase in vegetation season duration and the number of effective temperatures in the species' natural habitat: growth began slightly later, but it finished significantlylater. As far as shoot growth duration is concerned, the studied species were divided into 4 groups: (1 subarctic-subalpine P. pumila - 45-50 days, (2 boreal-mountain P. sibirica and P. cembra - 50-55 days, (3 nemoral from the monsoon forests P. koraiensis and P. parviflora - 60-65 days, (4 subtropical P. armandii - 75-80 days. The differences instructure and development of the juvenile shoots were not related to the climate in the natural habitat of species. On the basis of the juvenile morphogenesis duration and the presence of the mature organ type (5-needle short shoots on the juvenile shoot, three pairs ofspecies were distinguished: P. sibirica and P. cembra (1 year, do not have short shoots; P. koraiensis and P. armandii (1 year, shortshoots are present; P. parviflora and P. pumila (2 years, short shoots are present. It is shown that there is a close relationship between the species within

  7. Contribución al estudio paleobotánico mediante análisis de polen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víaz-Fierros Viqueira, F.

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available The palynological of two sedimentary organic sequences placed over the present sea level, one located in the southern atlantic coast and the other in the cantabric coast of Galicia (Spain, shows an important tree-like cover (Pinus sylvestris L. & Alnus Miller in the preceding phase to the pre-Boreal period, more intense on the N. It brings into the pre-Boreal period, and it reappears with Quercus L. and Alnus Miller into the Atlantic period. Likewise, there are differences concerning vegetacional data windscreen the depot of the N and of the S: there is more tree-Iike outstanding presence of the Ulmus L. the marked manifestation of Corylus L. and ample and prolonged performance of the Ericaceae they are outstanding characteristics of the N depot. In the Atiantic period in the coast as log as the Asteraceae Cichorioideae increase in the southern Atlantic coast. We propose that the erosion of the soil have different risk intensity. Generally that is pussy in the Preboreal and major during the Holoceno, it is due at stage of forest degradation.El análisis de dos series sedimentarias orgánicas, situadas sobre el nivel actual del mar, localizadas una en la costa atlántico-meridional y otra en la cantábrica de Galicia (España, ha puesto de manifiesto la existencia de una importante cobertura arbórea (Pinus sylvestris L., Alnus Millar en una etapa anterior al pre-Boreal y resurgimiento con Quercus L. y Ulmus L. en el Atlantico. Se establecen asimismo diferencias en cuanto a los datos de vegetación obtenidos para los depósitos del N y del S: más intensa cobertura arbórea en el N. presencia singular de Ulmus L. abundante manifestación de Corylus L. y una amplia y prolongada representación de Ericáceas son características destacables para el sedimento del N. Las compuestas cichorioideas alcanzan un importante incremento en la costa cantábrica durante el periodo Atlántico, mientras que en la atlántico-meridional lo alcanzan las arteroideas

  8. Avoidance by early flushing: a new perspective on Dutch elm disease research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghelardini L

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available European elms (Ulmus glabra Huds., Ulmus laevis Pall. and Ulmus minor Mill. have been severely damaged and are still endangered by an alien hypervirulent pathogen, Ophiostoma ulmi s. l., agent of the Dutch elm disease (DED. Consequently, several ex situ clone collections have been established throughout Europe for elm breeding and conservation. In this paper we summarise the studies carried out within the EU project RESGEN CT96-78, which launched the EU-coordinated evaluation of these collections. Our aim was to analyse the variation in timing of bud burst and to acquire basic knowledge on the environmental control of this adaptive trait in European elms, under the hypothesis that DED susceptibility is related to spring phenology. The variation in the bud burst date of European elms among collections and years was explained by a phenological model assuming that the thermal time required for bud burst decreases exponentially with increasing chilling during winter down to a level where chilling requirement is fully met. According to the fitted curves, European elms have low dormancy and short chilling requirement for dormancy release. Although no simulation was performed, on the basis of the model applied we can hypothesise that under climate warming elms would flush earlier in most of Europe. The bud burst date was directly related to latitude and elevation in U. minor. The order of bud burst of clones from different origins was stable among years. The observed geographic trends were largely determined by differences in chilling requirements that increased with latitude and elevation. Susceptibility to DED varied greatly within U. minor and was directly correlated with geographic origin and bud burst date, southern and early flushing clones showing the least symptoms. Our results suggest that early flushing represents a mechanism of disease avoidance owing to asynchrony between host’s susceptible period and time of natural infection by DED

  9. Managing invasive populations of Asian longhorned beetle and citrus longhorned beetle: a worldwide perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Robert A; Hérard, Franck; Sun, Jianghua; Turgeon, Jean J

    2010-01-01

    The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), and citrus longhorned beetle (CLB), Anoplophora chinensis (Forster) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), are polyphagous xylophages native to Asia and are capable of killing healthy trees. ALB outbreaks began in China in the 1980s, following major reforestation programs that used ALB-susceptible tree species. No regional CLB outbreaks have been reported in Asia. ALB was first intercepted in international trade in 1992, mostly in wood packaging material; CLB was first intercepted in 1980, mostly in live plants. ALB is now established in North America, and both species are established in Europe. After each infestation was discovered, quarantines and eradication programs were initiated to protect high-risk tree genera such as Acer, Aesculus, Betula, Populus, Salix, and Ulmus. We discuss taxonomy, diagnostics, native range, bionomics, damage, host plants, pest status in their native range, invasion history and management, recent research, and international efforts to prevent new introductions. PMID:19743916

  10. Ecological risk assessment of heavy metal (HM) pollution in the ambient air using a new bio-indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miri, Mohammad; Allahabadi, Ahmad; Ghaffari, Hamid Reza; Fathabadi, Zeynab Abaszadeh; Raisi, Zahra; Rezai, Mehrab; Aval, Mohsen Yazdani

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this descriptive-analytical study was to measure the concentration of heavy metals (HMs) in the leaf and bark of Ulmus carpinifolia as new biological indicators, and the ecological risk assessment of these metals in the ambient air. To achieve these goals, 48 sampling locations were selected in the city and concentration of four HMs-zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd)-was measured in the mentioned indicator using atomic absorption spectroscopy method. After this, ecological risk assessment, source appointment, and spatial distribution were conducted. In this regard, the enrichment factor (EF), potential ecological risk factor (E r), potential ecological risk index (RI), correlation coefficient (r), and other indices were calculated. The results showed that the concentration of HMs in the leaf and bark in ascending order is as Cdheavy metals in the ambient air and ecological risk imposed by them. PMID:27053049

  11. Parasitoid complex of Zygaena filipendulae L. (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žikić V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Caterpillars of Zygaena filipendulae Linnaeus were sampled during May and June in the Sićevo Gorge in southern Serbia. All parasitized larvae were found on grey elm trees (Ulmus canescens. During the short period before metamorphosis of Z. filipendulae, we found the whole specter of parasitoid wasps: Cotesia zygaenarum Marshall (Braconidae, Gelis agilis (Fabricius and Mesochorus velox Holmgren (Ichneumonidae, Elasmus platyedrae Ferrière and Pediobius sp. (Eulophidae, Eupelmus vesicularis (Retzius (Eupelmidae and Brachymeria tibialis (Walker (Chalcididae. Beside hymenopteran parasitoids, we found parasitoid flies from the family Tachinidae, Phryxe nemea (Meigen (Diptera. All 46 observed Z. filipendulae larvae found on grey elm trees were parasitized, but three pupae were found directly on Lotus corniculatus. Two species are newly reported as parasitoids of Z. filipendulae: E. platyedrae and Eupelmus vesicularis and three species (G. agilis, M. velox and E. platyedrae are new to the fauna of Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43001

  12. Study on cytokine modulation in mast cell-induced allergic reactions by using gamma-irradiated natural herbal extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwon, Hui Jeong; Lim, Youn Mook; Kim, Yong Soo; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kim Hae Kyoung [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    We previously described that some natural herbal extracts such as Houttuynia cordata (H), Centella asiatica (C), Plantago asiatica (P), Morus alba L. (M), and Ulmus davidiana (U), differentially suppress an atopic dermatitis like skin lesions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pro-inflammatory cytokine modulation of the water extract of the H, C, P, M, U, and those mixtures (M) and their mechanism in a phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) plus calcium inopore A23187 treated human mast cell line (HMC-1). The H, C, P, M, U, and M inhibited the inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-{alpha}, IL-6 and IL-8 stimulated by PMA plus A23187 from HMC-1 cells. In addition, the M did not significantly affect the cell viability and had no toxicity on the HMC-1 cells. Based on these results, M can be used for the treatment of an allergic inflammation response.

  13. Evaluation of cell cytotoxic effect on herbal extracts mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Soo; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Choi, Bo Ram; Lim, Youn Mook; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Herbal extracts (HE) such as Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Eucommia ulimoides, Plantago asiatica var., Morus alba L., and Ulmus davidiana var., are known to suppress an atopic dermatitis like skin lesions. In this study, to evaluate the cell cytotoxicity effect on L929, HaCaT and HMC-1 cell by the HE, the herbs were extracted with distilled water (at 75 .deg. C) and then the HE mixtures were freeze-dried for 5 days and sterilized with {gamma}-rays. The cytotoxicity was measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. The result showed that the HE mixtures did not significantly affect cell viability and had no toxicity on the cells. These findings indicate that the HE mixtures can be used as a potential therapeutic agent.

  14. Effect of gamma-ray irradiated natural herbal extracts on NF-kB activation in HMC-1 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Soo; Lim, Youn Mook; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Choi, Bo Ram; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Recently, studies have documented various health benefits of some natural herbal extracts (NHE) such as Houttuynia cordata (H), Centella asiatica (C), Plantago asiatica (P), Morus alba L. (M), and Ulmus davidiana (U). The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the radiation effect on NF-kB activation of the NHE in the human mast cell line (HMC-1). The HMC-1 cells were stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187. Both non-and irradiated NHE also significantly inhibited the PMA plus A23187-induced nuclear factor NF-kB activation and also suppressed the expression of activation of NF-kB. These results indicated that the NHE exerted a regulatory effect on inflammatory reactions mediated by mast cells.

  15. Fossil plants from Romanian deposits of Bacles, Dolj District, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae T̡icleanu

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available From the Middle Romanian lacustrine deposits of the Oltenia province, the authors describe the youngest fossil flora known until now in Oltenia. The inventory of the fossil flora includes the following taxa: Taxodium dubium, ?Platanus platanifolia, Ulmus laevis, Quercus roburoides, Q. cf. muehlenbergii, Carya serraefolia, Acer cf. tricuspidatum and Salix sp. In the Bâcleş fossil flora, Glyptostrobus europaeus, which is a thermophilous and shows a high frequency in all Oltenia area till the XV-th coal seam, is absent. Consequently, having in view the high frequency of Taxodium dubium, which indicate temperate climate conditions, the other consider that the fossil flora from Bâcleş is much more younger and marks an important cooling. From palaeofloristic point of view, the study of Bâcleş fossil flora is indicative for river meadow forest and, probably, flat plain forest environments.

  16. METHODS OF BIOMONITORING IN URBAN ENVIRONMENT: ALLERGENIC POLLEN IN WESTERN ROMANIA AND RELATIONSHIPS WITH METEOROLOGICAL VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomonitoring results showed that a total of 23 pollen types were located in the air of the study area. The analysis of the airborne pollen content concerned 20 taxa, whose pollen has allergenic properties and occurs in large quantities in the air of Timisoara: Alnus, Taxaceae/Cupressaceae, Salix, Populus, Ulmus, Fraxinus, Juglans, Quercus, Tilia, Pinaceae, Corylus, Carpinus, Betula, Poaceae, Rumex, Plantago, Urticaceae, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Ambrosia and Artemisia. Analysis of the pollen count in Timisoara was performed on the basis of the data collected in the year 2009. Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Urticaceae and Poaceae reached the highest atmospheric pollen concentrations in Timisoara. Multiple regression analysis was found to be a very valuable tool for identifying the weather variables most closely associated with atmospheric pollen seasons.

  17. Karyotypes, B-chromosomes and meiotic abnormalities in 13 populations of Alebra albostriella and A. wahlbergi (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Cicadellidae from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Kuznetsova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work 13 populations of the leafhopper species Alebra albostriella (Fallén, 1826 (6 populations and A. wahlbergi (Boheman, 1845 (7 populations (Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae from Greece were studied cytogenetically. We examined chromosomal complements and meiosis in 41 males of A. albostriella sampled from Castanea sativa, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus cerris and in 21 males of A. wahlbergi sampled from C. sativa, Acer opalus and Ulmus sp. The species were shown to share 2n = 22 + X(0 and male meiosis of the chiasmate preductional type typical for Auchenorrhyncha. In all populations of A. albostriella and in all but two populations of A. wahlbergi B chromosomes and/or different meiotic abnormalities including the end-to-end non-homologous chromosomal associations, translocation chains, univalents, anaphasic laggards besides aberrant sperms were encountered. This study represents the first chromosomal record for the genus Alebra and one of the few population-cytogenetic studies in the Auchenorrhyncha.

  18. Is bark pH more important than tree species in determining the composition of nitrophytic or acidophytic lichen floras?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spier, L. [Alterra, Landscape Center, POB 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Dobben, H. van, E-mail: han.vandobben@wur.n [Alterra, Landscape Center, POB 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Dort, K. van [Alterra, Landscape Center, POB 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2010-12-15

    To study the pH preference of epiphytic lichens, the bark pH of Fraxinus, Tilia, Quercus and Ulmus trees in an urban environment was measured using a flat surface electrode. The total number of trees was 253. A survey was made of the lichens in a 40 x 40 cm quadrat surrounding the pH measurement point. Our data analysis using multivariate and univariate statistical techniques indicates that the tree species is the most important factor influencing lichen colonisation, and that bark pH alone is of less importance. We hypothesize that the changed pollution climate, with strong decreases in both sulphur dioxide and ammonia concentrations over the past two decades and a concomitant general increase in bark pH, has made epiphytes less sensitive to pH. - Tree species, rather than bark pH determines the occurrence of acidophytes and nitrophytes on trees.

  19. Reproduction and dispersal in an ant-associated root aphid community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivens, A.B.F.; Kronauer, Daniel Jan Christoph; Pen, I.;

    2012-01-01

    above ground, whereas dispersal constraints and dependence on ant-tending may differentially affect the costs and benefits of sex in subterranean aphids. Here, we studied reproductive mode and dispersal in a community of root aphids that are obligately associated with the ant Lasius flavus. We assessed...... viscosity is high and winged aphids rare, consistent with infrequent horizontal transmission between ant host colonies. The absence of the primary host shrub (Pistacia) may explain the absence of sex in three of the studied species, but elm trees (Ulmus) that are primary hosts of the fourth species (T....... ulmi) occurred within a few km of the study population. We discuss the extent to which obligate ant-tending and absence of primary hosts may have affected selection for permanent parthenogenesis, and we highlight the need for further study of these aphids in Southern Europe where primary hosts may occur close...

  20. Karyotypes, B-chromosomes and meiotic abnormalities in 13 populations of Alebra albostriella and A. wahlbergi (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Cicadellidae) from Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Valentina G; Golub, Natalia V; Aguin-Pombo, Dora

    2013-11-26

    In this work 13 populations of the leafhopper species Alebra albostriella (Fallén, 1826) (6 populations) and A. wahlbergi (Boheman, 1845) (7 populations) (Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae) from Greece were studied cytogenetically. We examined chromosomal complements and meiosis in 41 males of A. albostriella sampled from Castanea sativa, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus cerris and in 21 males of A. wahlbergi sampled from C. sativa, Acer opalus and Ulmus sp. The species were shown to share 2n = 22 + X(0) and male meiosis of the chiasmate preductional type typical for Auchenorrhyncha. In all populations of A. albostriella and in all but two populations of A. wahlbergi B chromosomes and/or different meiotic abnormalities including the end-to-end non-homologous chromosomal associations, translocation chains, univalents, anaphasic laggards besides aberrant sperms were encountered. This study represents the first chromosomal record for the genus Alebra and one of the few population-cytogenetic studies in the Auchenorrhyncha. PMID:24455103

  1. Dalby Söderskog revisited: long-term vegetation changes in a south Swedish deciduous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Oheimb, Goddert; Brunet, Jörg

    2007-03-01

    In this study, we report on 67 years of secondary succession in the temperate deciduous forest Dalby Söderskog, southern Sweden. In 2002 vegetation analyses were conducted in 74 systematically distributed plots and the results compared with similar investigations during the years 1935, 1969 and 1976. Additionally, a floristic survey of the forest was made and compared with inventories of the years 1925, 1935 and 1970. From 1970 to 2002, overall species richness of the forest continued to decline, but at a lower rate than before. In 2002, for the first time, shade-tolerant forest species constituted the largest group. In the upper tree layer Fraxinus excelsior became the most important species, at the expense of Quercus robur and Ulmus glabra. In the herb layer, no changes in total or mean species richness were exhibited at plot scale between 1976 and 2002. In contrast to the lack of quantitative changes in species richness, we observed major changes in species composition at the plot level. In particular, the former dominant species Mercurialis perennis had declined markedly. After release from a historical regime of livestock grazing and irregular cuttings, the predicted steady-state community dominated by Ulmus and Mercurialis only prevailed for a few decades before unexpected external events, in this particular case Dutch elm disease and invasion by the slug Arion lusitanicus, initiated a successional change. We conclude that unexpected diseases or pests or rare climatic extremes can play a decisive role in forest dynamics and strongly interact with more gradual autogenic changes of forest structure and composition.

  2. The phenology of flowering and fluctuations of airborne pollen concentrations of selected trees in Poznań, 2003-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Stach

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to describe the relationships between the flowering phase of selected tree species, whose pollen is known to be allergenic, and fluctuations in the pollen in the air, and to use results obtained for making allergological forecasts. Studies were conducted of five tree taxa: Populus, Ulmus, Salix, Aesculus, and Tilia, in the years 2003-2004. Aeropalinological analyses concerned the above mentioned genera, while in phenological studies specific species were investigated, i.e. the most common representatives of a given genus found in Poland, that is Populus wilsonii, Ulmus laevis Pall. C. K.Schneid., Salix caprea L., Aesculus hippocastanum L. and Tilia cordata Mill. Aerobiological monitoring was performed using a the volumetric method and phenological observations of flowering phases were made according to the Łukasiewicz method. While observing the emergence of individual phenological symptoms and measurements of the concentration of pollen of the investigated taxa in the air of Poznań, a distinct acceleration was observed in 2004, a year that was characterized by a milder winter. This applied not only to the species blooming in early spring, but also to the later ones. Pollen grains of the investigated taxa, except for Aesculus, appeared earlier in aeropalinological observations than the macroscopically observed beginning of flowering in selected trees. Apart from a poplar, the end of flowering in the other trees occurred each year earlier than would follow from the aerobiological observations. This may be explained by the abundance of species within a taxon, and the effect of medium - and long-distance transport.

  3. Phylogenetic relationships of the enigmatic angiosperm family Podostemaceae inferred from 18S rDNA and rbcL sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltis, D E; Mort, M E; Soltis, P S; Hibsch-Jetter, C; Zimmer, E A; Morgan, D

    1999-03-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of some angiosperm families have remained enigmatic despite broad phylogenetic analyses of rbcL sequences. One example is the aquatic family Podostemaceae, the relationships of which have long been controversial because of major morphological modifications associated with their aquatic habit. Podostemaceae have variously been associated with Piperaceae, Nepenthaceae, Polygonaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Rosaceae, Crassulaceae, and Saxifragaceae. Two recent analyses of rbcL sequences suggest a possible sister-group relationship of Podostemaceae to Crassulaceae (Saxifragales). However, the branch leading to Podostemaceae was long, and use of different outgroups resulted in alternative placements. We explored the phylogenetic relationships of Podostemaceae using 18S rDNA sequences and a combined rbcL + 18S rDNA matrix representing over 250 angiosperms. In analyses based on 18S rDNA data, Podostemaceae are not characterized by a long branch; the family consistently appears as part of a Malpighiales clade that also includes Malpighiaceae, Turneraceae, Passifloraceae, Salicaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Violaceae, Linaceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Trigoniaceae, Humiriaceae, and Ochnaceae. Phylogenetic analyses based on a combined 18S rDNA + rbcL data set (223 ingroup taxa) with basal angiosperms as the outgroup also suggest that Podostemaceae are part of a Malpighiales clade. These searches swapped to completion, and the shortest trees showed enhanced resolution and increased internal support compared to those based on 18S rDNA or rbcL alone. However, when Gnetales are used as the outgroup, Podostemaceae appear with members of the nitrogen fixing clade (e.g., Elaeagnaceae, Ulmaceae, Rhamnaceae, Cannabaceae, Moraceae, and Urticaceae). None of the relationships suggested here for Podostemaceae receives strong bootstrap support. Our analyses indicate that Podostemaceae are not closely allied with Crassulaceae or with other members of the

  4. Characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers in Pinus armandii (Pinaceae), an endemic conifer species to China1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wan-Lin; Wang, Ruo-Nan; Yan, Xiao-Hao; Niu, Chuan; Gong, Lin-Lin; Li, Zhong-Hu

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Pinus armandii (Pinaceae) is an important conifer tree species in central and southwestern China, and it plays a key role in the local forest ecosystems. To investigate its population genetics and design effective conservation strategies, we characterized 18 polymorphic microsatellite markers for this species. Methods and Results: Eighteen novel polymorphic and 16 monomorphic microsatellite loci of P. armandii were isolated using Illumina MiSeq technology. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to five. The expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.061 to 0.609 with an average of 0.384, and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.063 to 0.947 with an average of 0.436. Seventeen loci could be successfully transferred to five related Pinus species (P. koraiensis, P. griffithii, P. sibirica, P. pumila, and P. bungeana). Conclusions: These novel microsatellites could potentially be used to investigate the population genetics of P. armandii and related species.

  5. Role of medicinal plants and natural products on osteoporotic fracture healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Jalil, Mohd Azri; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Muhammad, Norliza

    2012-01-01

    Popularly known as "the silent disease" since early symptoms are usually absent, osteoporosis causes progressive bone loss, which renders the bones susceptible to fractures. Bone fracture healing is a complex process consisting of four overlapping phases-hematoma formation, inflammation, repair, and remodeling. The traditional use of natural products in bone fractures means that phytochemicals can be developed as potential therapy for reducing fracture healing period. Located closely near the equator, Malaysia has one of the world's largest rainforests, which are homes to exotic herbs and medicinal plants. Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali), Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah), and Piper sarmentosum (Kaduk) are some examples of the popular ethnic herbs, which have been used in the Malay traditional medicine. This paper focuses on the use of natural products for treating fracture as a result of osteoporosis and expediting its healing. PMID:22973405

  6. Role of Medicinal Plants and Natural Products on Osteoporotic Fracture Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Azri Abd Jalil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Popularly known as “the silent disease” since early symptoms are usually absent, osteoporosis causes progressive bone loss, which renders the bones susceptible to fractures. Bone fracture healing is a complex process consisting of four overlapping phases—hematoma formation, inflammation, repair, and remodeling. The traditional use of natural products in bone fractures means that phytochemicals can be developed as potential therapy for reducing fracture healing period. Located closely near the equator, Malaysia has one of the world’s largest rainforests, which are homes to exotic herbs and medicinal plants. Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali, Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah, and Piper sarmentosum (Kaduk are some examples of the popular ethnic herbs, which have been used in the Malay traditional medicine. This paper focuses on the use of natural products for treating fracture as a result of osteoporosis and expediting its healing.

  7. 多肉植物宝典古朴自然的普米拉

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兑宝峰

    2010-01-01

    普米拉(Agave pumila)也称浦米拉、姬龙舌,为龙舌兰科、龙舌兰属多肉植物.植株无茎,肉质叶呈莲座状排列.幼株株幅10~15厘米,甚至更小.叶片肥厚、三角形、顶端尖,叶色灰绿或蓝绿色,叶背有暗色细线条,叶缘具细锯齿,这种形态能保持8~12年之久.以后-旦有了足够的生长空间,植株就会长成成年株,其叶变长,达30厘米左右,呈剑形,莲座状植株则会增大至60~70厘米.

  8. Effect of Timing on Callus Formation and Rooting Ability in IBA-Treated Hardwood Stem Cuttings of Persian Walnut, Hazelnut and Apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi TAJBAKHSH

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Promotion of callus formation and rooting in hardwood stem cuttings of Persian walnut (Juglans regia L., hazelnut (C. maxima and apple Malus pumila were evaluated by taking cuttings every two weeks from December 2001 through November 2002. Cuttings were treated with 4-indol-3-butyric acid (IBA at 3000 ppm for 6 s, placed in a greenhouse under intermittent mist, and evaluated after 8 weeks. There were three replications of each species and sampling date. The results showed that the rooting of cuttings was zero in late spring, summer, and early autumn, whereas there was a significant increase in percentage rooting, with rapid and complete callus formation in late autumn, winter, and early spring. For example, in December, callus formation and rooting percentages were: Persian walnut (80 and 6%, hazelnut (49 and 36%, and Apple (43 and 31.5%, respectively.

  9. Effects of certain atmospheric pollutants (SO2, NO2 and CO) on the soluble amino acids, molecular weight and antigenicity of some airborne pollen grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffin, J; Liu, M Y; Sessoms, R; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, U C

    1986-01-01

    The pure pollen grains of Red Oak (Quercus rubra), Meadow Fescue (Festuca elatior) and Chinese Elm (Ulmas pumila) were exposed to carbon monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). After exposure, the soluble free amino acids were determined from the extracts using two-dimensional thin layer chromatography, and the molecular weight of the extracts were determined by SDS-gel electrophoresis (PAGE). The results indicated that after contamination, both the amino acids and molecular weight profiles were changed. In addition, the double immunodiffusion method was used against rabbit-antisera to determine the antigenicity of contaminated and non-contaminated pollen grain extracts. The results also showed that there were antigenic changes after contamination.

  10. Actividad fitotóxica de un extracto N-Hexano obtenido de la corteza de Drimys Winteri sobre cuatro especies de malezas Phytotoxic activity of N-Hexane extract obtained from Drimys Winteri bark on four weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zapata

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar el efecto fitotóxico de un extracto obtenido con n-hexano de la corteza de Drimys winteri sobre la germinación y el crecimiento de Convolvulus arvensis, Setaria pumila, Daucus carota y Cichorium intybus. El efecto fitotóxico del extracto sobre la germinación de las malezas se determinó mediante bioensayos en placas de Petri y la aplicación del extracto en el medio de germinación en concentraciones de 100 a 1.000 mg L-1. En bioensayos en macetas, se determinó el efecto fitotóxico del extracto sobre la emergencia y crecimiento de las plántulas de malezas, en los cuales se aplicó el extracto mezclado con el sustrato de cultivo en concentraciones de 500 a 4.000 mg kg-1. También se determinó el efecto fitotóxico del extracto asperjado sobre plantas de malezas en concentraciones de 800 a 6.400 mg L-1. En los ensayos de germinación, el extracto retrasó la germinación y redujo el crecimiento de tallo y radícula de todas las malezas, el porcentaje de germinación disminuyó en todas las malezas, excepto en C. arvensis. La aplicación del extracto al sustrato de cultivo disminuyó y retrasó la emergencia de todas las malezas. Las plantas tratadas con extracto presentaron menor altura y hubo disminución de la biomasa acumulada. De igual modo, la aplicación del extracto al follaje de las malezas redujo la altura y la biomasa acumulada y llegó a causar la muerte de C. intybus, S. pumila y D. carota.The objective of this research was to determine the phytotoxic effect of the n-hexane extract obtained from the bark of Drimys winteri on germination and growth of Convolvulus arvensis, Setaria pumila, Daucus carota and Cichorium intybus. The phytotoxic effects of the extract on the germination of weeds were determined by bioassays in Petri dishes, adding the extract on the germination medium at concentrations of 100 to 1,000 mg L-1. The phytotoxic effects of the extract on the emergence and

  11. Taxonomic notes on some species of Ophiorrhiza (Rubiaceae) from China%中国蛇根草属(茜草科)几种植物的分类学订正

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段林东; 林祁

    2007-01-01

    根据对中国蛇根草属Ophiorrhiza植物标本的研究和野外调查, 将琼崖蛇根草O. aureolina f. qiongyaensis Lo和溪畔蛇根草O. humilis Tseng归并入短小蛇根草O. pumila Champ. ex Benth., 将海南蛇根草O. hainanensis Tseng归并入垂花蛇根草O. nutans C. B. Clarke, 将广西蛇根草O. kwangsiensis Merr. ex Li和变黑蛇根草O. nigricans Lo归并入日本蛇根草O. japonica Bl., 将龙州蛇根草O. longzhouensis Lo和圆锥蛇根草O. paniculiformis Lo归并入广州蛇根草O. cantoniensis Hance.

  12. Frost Hardiness and Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy of Shoots in Several Pear and Apple Varieties during Hardening%抗寒锻炼期间几种梨、苹果枝条的抗寒性和电阻抗图谱比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雪; 张殿生; 张钢

    2014-01-01

    以采自秦皇岛昌黎果树研究所的3个梨树品种黄冠(Pyrus sp.‘Huangguan’)、雪花(Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm.f.)Nakai)、红香酥(Pyrus spp.‘Hongxiangsu’)和2个苹果树品种金冠(Malus pumila millapple ‘Golden Delicious’)、宫崎短枝富士(Malus pumila millapple ‘Gongqi Fuji,)的当年生枝条为材料,用电导(EL)法测定抗寒锻炼期间不同品种梨和苹果枝的抗寒性;研究不经冷冻处理枝的电阻抗图谱(EIS)参数,并与EL法求出的抗寒性进行分析对比.结果表明,抗寒锻炼期间,不同品种的梨和苹果枝的抗寒性存在显著差异,不同梨品种抗寒性强弱排序为红香酥>黄冠>雪花,不同苹果品种抗寒性强弱排序为金冠>宫崎短枝富士;EIS图谱随抗寒锻炼的进程呈现不同的变化趋势;未经冷冻处理枝的EIS参数与抗寒性具有一定的相关性,胞外电阻率(re)、胞内电阻率(ri)分别是估测梨枝条和苹果枝条抗寒性的适宜参数.

  13. 浙江地产药材地龙藤基原考证与鉴定研究%Textual Research and Identification of Dilongteng Origin on Native Medicnal Materalse in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Native medicinal materials of Dilongteng in Zhejiang province were studied.Methods: We investigated the classification, resources, distribution and medicinal function of Native medicinal materials of Dilongteng. Results:4 species of Native medicinal materials is similar in plant morphology. i.e. It is Ficus pumila Linn, Euonymus fortunei Hand.-Mazz., Hederae nepalensis K. Koch. var. sinensis (Tobl.) Rehd. and Trachelospermum jasminoides (Lindl.) Lem. Conclusion:Origin of Dilongteng is Hederae nepalensis K. Koch. var. sinensis (Tobl.) Rehd.%  目的:为了促进浙江地产药材研究,更好地利用本地资源。方法:利用历史典籍、地方志,考证和识别地龙藤的名称、起源、分布和用药;同时通过实地考察、利用防谈、调查编目、传统医药文化研究和定量评估。结果:地龙藤最为相似的种类有4种。即:桑科Moraceae薜荔Ficus pumila Linn;卫矛科Celastraceae扶芳藤Euonymus fortunei Hand.-Mazz.;五加科Araliaceae中华常春藤Hederae nepalensis K. Koch. var. sinensis (Tobl.) Rehd.;夹竹桃科Apocynaceae络石藤Trachelospermum jasminoides (Lindl.) Lem.。结论:地龙藤为五加科Araliaceae中华常春藤Hederae nepalensis K. Koch. var. sinensis (Tobl.) Re⁃hd.,理由是该植物从产地、生长习性和性味功效与原文献记载最为接近。

  14. 苹果果胶研究进展%Research progress of apple pectin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙立军; 郭玉蓉; 田兰兰

    2012-01-01

    苹果(Malus pumila Mill.)是我国北方广泛种植的经济作物。近年来,很多学者从苹果渣中提取分离得到苹果果胶。现代医学和生物学研究表明,苹果果胶具有抗氧化、降血脂、抗菌及抗癌的功效。本文介绍了苹果果胶的结构、组分分级与特性研究,着重阐述了目前国内外对于苹果果胶的提取、分离的最新进展及其生物活性,讨论了目前研究中存在的问题,并对其发展前景进行了展望。%Apple(Malus pumila Mill.) tree is a common kind of plant in the northern part of our country.In recent years,apple pectin has been isolated from apple pomace by many researchers.Researchers in medicine and biology have proved that apple pectin has many biology activities such as oxidation resistance,hypolipemic,antibiosis and anticancer.In this review,structure of apple pectin,pectin fraction and properties of different molecular weights were reviewed and the latest methods of extraction,biological activities,problems of studies on apple pectin and its prospects were also elaborated.

  15. Relative sensitivity of greenhouse pot plants to long-term exposures of NO- and NO2-containing air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxe, H

    1994-01-01

    Thirty-five cultivars of pot plants of 20 families were exposed for 50-64 days in a greenhouse facility to either 1 microl litre(-1) NO with 0.5 microl litre(-1) NO2, or 1 microl litre(-1) NO2 with 0.1 microl litre(-1) NO for 15 h each day, with air which was free from these gases as the reference. A sensitivity ranking of the pot plants was compiled, with the highest priority on visible injuries, followed by growth reductions, primarily as a response to the NO-dominated exposures, simulating the NOx-polluted environment in direct-fired, CO2-enriched greenhouses. This treatment reduced the leaf dry weight more than the number and area of the leaves. Twenty-two cultivars were significantly injured, while two (Hibicus sp, Epipremnum pinnatum, green) were significantly improved. The NOx-sensitivity of pot plants was highest in cultivars with variegated, small or narrow leaves, and in the Moraceae family. Nine cultivars (Ficus elastica 'Robusta', F. benjamina, F. pumila 'Sonny', Dieffenbachia maculata 'Camilla', F. elastica 'Tineke', Epipremnum pinnatum 'Marble Queen', Begonia elatior 'Nelson', Cyclamen persica, Poinsettia 'Mini') were specifically sensitive to the NO-containing exposure; six were specifically sensitive to the NO2-containing exposure (F. elastica 'Robusta', Asparagus den. 'Sprengeri', Hedera helix 'Shamrock', Aspledium nidus, Aster novo-belgii, Hypoestes phyl. 'Betina'); and 12 (Soleirolia soleirolii, Asparagus den. 'Sprengeri', H. helix 'Ester', Codiaeum 'Pictum', Rosa 'Minimo Red', F. benjamina 'Starlight', Saintpaulia ionantha 'light blue', F. pumila, Rhododendron simsii, H. helix 'Shamrock', Hibiscus sp., E. pinnatum) were equally sensitive to mixtures dominated by either gas, as measured by at least one response parameter. PMID:15091658

  16. Plants traditionally used for industrial and artisanal purposes in the Arribes del Duero (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, José Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present ethnobotanical study, performed between 2005 and 2009 at the Natural Park of the Arribes del Duero (Salamanca-Zamora, Spain, documents the traditional use for technological purposes of 68 vascular plants belonging to 33 families. We interviewed 80 people of different ages native to the zone (mean 72. For each plant species we provide the vernacular terms, the parts used, and the uses made of them (furniture, the elaboration of household utensils, plant fibres, etc.. The species most frequently cited were Quercus ilex L. subsp. ballota (Desf. Samp., Q. pyrenaica Willd., Ulmus minor Mill. and Olea europaea L. The results of this study confirm the persistence of a rich traditional knowledge in Spanish rural communities; a type of knowledge that affords abundant data for improving and adapting modern production activities to a sustainable model of development, above all as regards the rational consumption of raw materials.El presente estudio etnobotánico, llevado a cabo entre 2005 y 2009 en el Parque Natural de Arribes del Duero (Salamanca-Zamora, España, documenta el uso tradicional con fines tecnológicos de 68 plantas vasculares, pertenecientes a 33 familias. Se entrevistaron a 80 personas nativas de la zona y de diferentes edades (media de 72 años. Para cada especie de planta se proporcionan sus nombres vernáculos, las partes utilizadas y los usos a que son destinadas (fabricación de muebles, elaboración de utensilios domésticos, fibras vegetales, etc.. Las especies más frecuentemente citadas fueron Quercus ilex L. subsp. ballota (Desf. Samp., Q. pyrenaica Willd., Ulmus minor Mill. y Olea europaea L. El presente estudio confirma la permanencia de un rico conocimiento tradicional en las comunidades rurales españolas, conocimiento que proporciona abundantes datos para mejorar y adecuar las actividades modernas de producción al modelo de desarrollo sostenible, sobre todo en relación al consumo racional de materias primas.

  17. Feeding habitats of blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur)during winter and spring in Helan Mountains,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhensheng; WANG Xiaoming; LI Zhigang; CUI Duoying; LI Xinqing

    2007-01-01

    The feeding habitat selection of blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur)was studied by direct observation method in the Helan Mountains,China during winter (from November to December)and spring (from April to June)from 2003 to 2004.We established 25 line transects to collect information on feeding habitats used by blue sheep.Blue sheep in the study area preferred mountain savanna forests,a habitat dominated by Ulmus glaucescens,with medium tree density (<4 individuals/400 m2),moderate tree height (4-6 m),higher shrub density (>5 individuals/100 m2),higher shrub (>1.3 m),higher food abundance (>50 g),moderate distance to human disturbance (<500 m),and mild distance to bare rock (<2 m).Such habitats characterized by 12 ecological factors were preferred as feeding areas by blue sheep during winter.Similar to habitat selection by the species during winter,blue sheep also showed a preference for mountain savanna with tree dominated by Ulmus glaucescens and medium tree density (<4 individuals/400 m2)during spring.Nevertheless,blue sheep preferred medium tree height (<6 m),moderate tree density (5-10 individuals/100 m2),medium shrub height (1.3-1.7 m),higher food abundance (>100 g),moderate altitude (<2 000 m),moderate distance to water resource (<500 m),and medium hiding cover (50%-75%)during spring.Selection of the feeding habitats by sheep showed a significant difference in vegetation type,landform feature,dominant tree,tree height,shrub density,distance to the nearest shrub,food abundance,slope direction,slope degree,distance to water resource,and hiding cover between winter and spring.Results of principal components analysis indicated that the first principal component accounted for 24.493%of the total variance among feeding habitat variance during winter,with higher loadings for vegetation type,dominant tree,tree height,distance to the nearest tree,shrub density,shrub height,altitude,distance to water resource,and distance to human disturbance.In spring

  18. Antifeeding and Insecticide Properties of Aqueous and Ethanolic Fruit Extracts from Melia azedarach L.on the Elm Leaf Beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller Propiedades Antialimentaria e Insecticida de Extractos Acuosos y Etanólicos del Fruto de Melia azedarach L. en el Escarabajo de la Hoja del Olmo Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo Chiffelle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, a defoliator of Ulmus species currently present in several regions of central Chile, causes severe damage to trees, mainly in park areas, street tree-lines and gardens. The antifeeding and insecticidal activities of extracts from immature fruit of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae were determined on adults of X. luteola in laboratory bioassays. Several concentrations of the extracts obtained with water and ethanol were used and their effectiveness and LC50 were determined. The antifeeding action of the water extracts caused 100% deterrence over concentrations of 3.6% w/v. Both extracts were effective insecticides against adults, causing 86% mortality (2.4% w/v, with a better performance of the ethanol extracts, with a LC50 of 0.9% w/v on the 3rd day after exposure, and 6.6% w/v on the 5th day with the water extract.Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, un defoliador de especies de Ulmus presente en varias regiones de Chile central, causa daño severo en árboles principalmente en áreas de parques, árboles de calles, y jardines. Se determinó el efecto antialimentario e insecticida de extractos de frutos inmaduros de Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae sobre adultos de X. luteola en bioensayos de laboratorio. Se usaron varias concentraciones con agua y etanol de los extractos y se determinó su efectividad y su CL50. La acción antialimentaria de los extractos de agua causó un 100% de deterrencia sobre concentraciones de 3,6% p/v. Ambos extractos fueron efectivos como insecticidas contra los adultos, causando un 86% de mortalidad (2,4% p/v, con un mejor comportamiento de los extractos con etanol con una CL50 de 0,9% p/v al tercer día después de la exposición, y 6,6% p/v al quinto día con los extractos acuosos.

  19. THE BIOTECHNOLOGY OF EMBRYOGENIC CELL LINES OBTAINING AND PLANTLETS OF CONIFEROUS SPECIES IN SIBERIA IN CULTURE IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tretiakova I.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Experiments of culturing the immature isolated embryos and megagamethophytes of Siberian coniferous species were carried out on different modified media: ½ LV medium for Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila, MSG and AI media (patent № 2431651 for Larix sibirica and Larix gmelinii, DCR medium for Picea ajanensis. For induction of embryogenic callus every species needs the optimized medium supplemented with L-glutamine, casein hydrolysate, ascorbic acid and hormones with different concentrations and their different proportions. The active proliferation of embryonal masses is observed on the same medium with reduced concentration of cytokinins. The proliferation of embryonal masses was significantly improved when they were subcultured after dispersing in liquid medium. The somatic embryos from embryonal masses are matured on basal medium with ABA (60-120 mM and PEG. In spite of species specificity the embryogenesis of morphogenic structures had the same scheme: elongation and asymmetric division of somatic cells, formation of initial cells and embryonal tubes, development of globular, torpedo and bipolar somatic embryos, embryos maturation and germination. However, not all donor-plants of coniferous species can form the embryogenic cell lines and somatic embryos. The active development of embryonal masses and formation of somatic embryos are observed from zygotic embryo of hybrid seeds of P. sibirica and L. sibirica. The obtained embryogenic lines were characterized by different proliferative activity. During 10 months cultivation the value of embryonal masses in different lines was 140-570 g. The number of somatic embryos varies from 210 to 410 per 100 mg of callus fresh weight. Decreasing proliferation activity did not observed during 24-45 months cultivation. However, development of somatic embryos in long cultivated lines decreased. Maturation of somatic embryos and development of plantlets were established in L. sibirica and P. pumila 50

  20. Comparison of Photosynthetic Characteristics of 18 Apple Germplasm Resources%18个苹果种质资源光合特性的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新娟; 马锋旺; 冯凤娟; 李翠英; 尹蓉

    2011-01-01

    以18个苹果种质资源为试材,嫁接在2 a生平邑甜茶(Malus hupehensis Rehd.)砧木上.在塑料大棚条件下,用LI-6400XT光合仪控制环境条件方法测定净光合速率(Pn)、蒸腾速率(Tr)、气孔导度(Gs)、胞间CO2摩尔分数(C1)及叶绿素含量,并计算水分利用效率(WUE)及气孔限制值(Ls),用方差分析和相关性分析对苹果种质资源光合特性进行综合评价.结果表明,18个苹果种质资源光合作用各个参数均存在显著差异,Pn与G,和Tr等显著相关,叶片单位鲜质量的叶绿素含量与Pn无显著相关性.18个苹果种质资源光合作用总体能力最高的是卡拉阿尔玛(M.niedzwetzkyana Dieck)、红海棠(M.prunifolia Mill.)和白海棠(M.prunifolia(wild.)Mill.),红沙果(M.pumila Mill.)和夏红肉(M.niedzwetzkyana Dieck.)光合能力较低.%18 apple germplasm resources were grafted on the 2-year-old rootstocks of Malus hupehensis Rehd.. The net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), a stomatal conductance (Gs) and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) were measured by means of LI-6400XT Portable Photosynthesis System within vinyl tunnel. The chlorophyll contents were analyzed with UNICAMhelios-aultravioletvisible light spectrometer in laboratory. Water use efficiency (WUE) and stomata limitation (Ls)were calculated together with a comprehensive evaluation of photosynthetic characteristics by the analysis of variance and correlation analysis. The results showed that the photosynthesis parameters of 18 apple germplasm resources were obviously different and there was a significant correlation between different Pn and Gs, Tr. The chlorophyll content of unit mass of fresh leaves was not obviously relative to Pn. Among the 18 apple germplasm resources, M. niedzwetzkyana Dieck. , M. prunifolia Mill.and M. prunifolia (Wild.) Mill. had the highest total capacity of photosynthesis, while M. pumila Mill. and M. niedzwetzkyana Dieck. had a relatively low capacity of

  1. Observation and Analysis of Growing Speeds and Heights of 6 Evergreen Lianas%6种常绿藤本植物的生长速度与高度的观测与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晓岗; 童丽丽

    2012-01-01

    [目的]观测与分析6种常绿藤本植物的生长速度与高度.[方法]通过对南京及周边地区的常绿攀缘植物调查和引种栽培,选出6个具开发应用潜力的常绿种络石、洋常春藤、扶芳藤、南五味子、宁油麻藤、薛荔,并对这6种攀缘植物的生长速度和高度方面作了定性的和定量的观测和分析.[结果]前10年生长速度由快至慢的顺序为:洋常春藤>扶芳藤>宁油麻藤>薜荔>络石>南五味子,前10年中生长高度由高至低的顺序为:洋常春藤>扶芳藤>薜荔>络石>南五味子>宁油麻藤.[结论]藤本植物的攀缘高度与其寄主有关,不同种间攀缘高度差异较大,灰色系统模型并不能描述所有这6种攀缘植物的生长高度.%[Objective] Growing speeds and heights of 6 evergreen lianas were observated and analyzed. [ Method ] By surveying the evergreen liana resources, introductiing and cultivatiing them in Nanjing region, 6 potential evergreen species were screened for ornamental application purposes. Qualitative and quantitative measurements were applied to test their growing speeds and heights. [Result]The growing speeds in the first ten years from fast to slow was: Hedera helix > Euonymus fortunei > Mucuna paohwashanica > Fiats pumila > Trachelospermum jasmi- noides > Kadsura longipedunadata. The growing heights in the first ten years from high to low was; Hedera helix > Euonymus fortunei > Ficus pumila > Trachelospermum jasmirwides > Kadsura longipedunadata > Mucuna paohwashanica. [Conclusion]The climbing heights of lianas were correlated with their hosts. There was a great difference between of climbing height among different species of liana. The gray system can not fit the growing speed and height of all the 6 species of liana.

  2. Intradiurnal variations of allergenic tree pollen in the atmosphere of Toledo (central Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Badia, Rosa; Vaquero, Consolación; Sardinero, Santiago; Galán, Carmen; García-Mozo, Herminia

    2010-01-01

    To study the impact of inhaling airborne pollen on health, it is important to know not only their average daily concentrations but also the intradiurnal behaviour of these biological particles. This study reports the bi-hourly distribution of the arboreal airborne pollen types more abundant in the atmosphere of Toledo (central Spain), many of them triggering important allergic processes in Toledo citizens and tourist visitors. Knowledge of bi-hourly pattern atmospheric variation pollen may help pollinosis patients to adopt preventive measures and plan their outdoor activities accordingly. Intradiurnal variation has been studied for the arboreal pollen types: Cupressaceae, Fraxinus, Olea, Platanus, Populus, Quercus and Ulmus, during the period 2005-2008. The main hourly pollen concentrations were observed during sunlight hours and the maximum pollen values obtained at midday and in the afternoon, except for pollen types Quercus and Platanus, whose maximum pollen concentrations were obtained during the night. The statistical analyses performed to compare pollen concentration and main hourly meteorological variables proved to be significant for most of the taxa. The results show a significant and positive effect of temperature, solar radiation and wind speed on the daily variability undergone by atmospheric pollen. Relative humidity influenced in a negative way on the intradiurnal variation of pollen in the atmosphere of Toledo. PMID:21186770

  3. Regeneration in bottomland forest canopy gaps 6 years after variable retention harvests to enhance wildlife habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Somershoe, Scott G.; Guldin, James M.

    2013-01-01

    To promote desired forest conditions that enhance wildlife habitat in bottomland forests, managers prescribed and implemented variable-retention harvest, a.k.a. wildlife forestry, in four stands on Tensas River National Wildlife Refuge, LA. These treatments created canopy openings (gaps) within which managers sought to regenerate shade-intolerant trees. Six years after prescribed harvests, we assessed regeneration in 41 canopy gaps and 4 large (>0.5-ha) patch cut openings that resulted from treatments and in 21 natural canopy gaps on 2 unharvested control stands. Mean gap area of anthropogenic gaps (582 m²) was greater than that of natural gaps (262 m²). Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) and red oaks (Quercus nigra, Q. nuttallii, and Q. phellos) were common in anthropogenic gaps, whereas elms (Ulmus spp.) and sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) were numerous in natural gaps. We recommend harvest prescriptions include gaps with diameter >25 m, because the proportion of shade-intolerant regeneration increased with gap area up to 500 m². The proportion of shade-intolerant definitive gap fillers (individuals likely to occupy the canopy) increased with gap area: 35 percent in natural gaps, 54 percent in anthropogenic gaps, and 84 percent in patch cuts. Sweetgum, green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), and red oaks were common definitive gap fillers.

  4. Indicative role of urban tree vegetation in the assessment of natural and man-made complex in Akhtubinsk and its local areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonchar, L V; Volkova, I V

    2016-09-01

    The study was conducted as a part of the selection of the objects of phytomonitoring for the environmental assessment on the value of fluctuating asymmetry of bilateral morphological parameters. The territorial structure of flora of tree layer in Akhtubinsk and its local areas was determined as of 2013. The living conditions and species and quantitative composition of the tree layer of urban landscape were examined. The vital status of trees was assessed on a ten-point scale of the categories: good condition; satisfactory; weakened plants (Bukharina and Dvoeglazova 2010). The quantitative assessment of biodiversity of tree layer was made on the basis of conventional indices of individual dominance and dominating structures, as well as the method of multivariate statistical analysis. This is an objective method that has been used by other authors in a variety of the environmental studies for a long time, but it has not been actively used in the studies of the Astrakhan area vegetation yet. The results of the study make it possible to believe that the most appropriate indicator of tree vegetation for biomonitoring of intact floodplain, residential and recreational areas in the urban territory in the arid climate of the Volga-Akhtuba floodplain is the Chinese elm (Ulmus parvifolia Jacq.),as the most widespread, numerous and sensitive. It is noted that the tree vegetation cannot be a universal bioindicator of the urban environment in Akhtubinsk and its local areas by fluctuating asymmetry of bilateral morphological parameters. PMID:27485614

  5. Influence of wind direction on pollen concentration in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Palacios, I.; Tormo Molina, R.; Muñoz Rodríguez, A. F.

    The daily pollen concentration in the atmosphere of Badajoz (SW Spain) was analysed over a 6-year period (1993-1998) using a volumetric aerobiological trap. The results for the main pollination period are compared with the number of hours of wind each day in the four quadrants: 1 (NE), 2 (SE), 3 (SW) and 4 (NW). The pollen source distribution allowed 16 pollen types to be analysed as a function of their distribution in the four quadrants with respect to the location of the trap. Four of them correspond to species growing in an irrigated farmland environment (Amaranthaceae-Chenopodiaceae, Plantago, Scirpus, and Typha), five to riparian and woodland species (Salix, Fraxinus, Alnus, Populus, and Eucalyptus), four to urban ornamentals (Ulmus, Arecaceae, Cupressaceae, and Casuarina), and three which include the most frequent pollen grains of widely distributed species (Poaceae, Quercus, and Olea). The results show that the distribution of the sources and the wind direction play a very major role in determining the pollen concentration in the atmosphere when these sources are located in certain quadrants, and that the widely distributed pollen sources show no relationship with wind direction. In some years the values of the correlations were not maintained, which leads one to presume that, in order to draw significant conclusions and establish clear patterns of the influence of wind direction, a continuous and more prolonged study will be required.

  6. Changes in vegetation since the late glacial on peat bog in the Small Carpathians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mires are ecosystems accumulating high amount of organic matter with preserved micro- and macro-fossils. Thus they can serve as natural archives allowing reconstruction of local vegetation and landscape development. Main aim of this study was to bring evidence of the whole Holocene history of mire birch woodland located on the ridge of the Male Karpaty Mts (SW Slovakia) using pollen analysis. One peat core was sampled from the middle part containing the whole Holocene sequence. The local development of study site started with small lake in a terrain depression, which arose at the end of the Late Glacial (Middle Dryas). The Late Glacial landscape was mosaic of birch-pine forests on suitable places and Artemisia steppes. Early Holocene is characterized by steep decline of pine and increase of Corylus and other mesophilous trees (Quercus, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus). Fagus started dominate in middle Holocene (about 5000 cal BP). The recent vegetation established only several hundred years ago (ca 500 cal. BP), when birch started dominate. (author)

  7. Chlorophyll Catabolites in Fall Leaves of the Wych Elm Tree Present a Novel Glycosylation Motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherl, Mathias; Müller, Thomas; Kreutz, Christoph R; Huber, Roland G; Zass, Engelbert; Liedl, Klaus R; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2016-07-01

    Fall leaves of the common wych elm tree (Ulmus glabra) were studied with respect to chlorophyll catabolites. Over a dozen colorless, non-fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (NCCs) and several yellow chlorophyll catabolites (YCCs) were identified tentatively. Three NCC fractions were isolated and their structures were characterized by spectroscopic means. Two of these, Ug-NCC-27 and Ug-NCC-43, carried a glucopyranosyl appendage. Ug-NCC-53, the least polar of these NCCs, was identified as the formal product of an intramolecular esterification of the propionate and primary glucopyranosyl hydroxyl groups of Ug-NCC-43. Thus, the glucopyranose moiety and three of the pyrrole units of Ug-NCC-53 span a 20-membered ring, installing a bicyclo[17.3.1]glycoside moiety. This structural motif is unprecedented in heterocyclic natural products, according to a thorough literature search. The remarkable, three-dimensional bicyclo[17.3.1]glycoside architecture reduces the flexibility of the linear tetrapyrrole. This feature of Ug-NCC-53 is intriguing, considering the diverse biological effects of known bicyclo[n.3.1]glycosidic natural products. PMID:27128523

  8. [Tree uprooting of coniferous-broad leaved Korean pine mixed forest in Lesser Khingan Mountains, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiao-wen; Hou, Jie-jian; Wang, Li-hai; Wang, Xing-long; Rong, Bin-bin

    2016-02-01

    The morphological parameters, root wad indexes and site conditions of 127 uprooting trees from 76 plots (20 mx20 m) in Lesser Khingan coniferous-broad leaved Korean pine mixed forest were measured. Then the influencing factors of uprooting differences and the relationship between uprooting trees and disturbed soil were analyzed. Results showed that the number of uprooting trees varied significantly among species. Abies nephrolepis suffered the most serious uprooting damage, then Pinus koraiensis, and Ulmus spp. the least. Deciduous species had a stronger uprooting-resistant capacity than broad-leaved species. With the increase of tree DBH and height, tree' s uprooting resistance declined rapidly first and then was gradually enhanced, and finally reached the minimum at diameter class of 20 cm and height class of 14 m, respectively. The smaller the taper degree and projected area of crown were, the stronger the uprooting resistance was. Uprooting rate was negatively correlated with stand density. Trees lying in wet ground, flat terrain, medium low altitude area and windward slope had a greater risk of uprooting. There were significant positive correlation between the depth, area and volume of disturbed soil and the DBH, height, volume of uprooting trees.

  9. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii from trunk hollows of living trees in Buenos Aires City, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refojo, N; Perrotta, D; Brudny, M; Abrantes, R; Hevia, A I; Davel, G

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this work was to describe the distribution of the members of the Cryptococcus species complex (Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii) in hollows of trees from seven parks in Buenos Aires City, to determine the serotypes and genotypes of these environmental isolates and to compare them with the ones reported in the 2001 survey. Four hundred and eighty nine samples were collected by swabbing all trees which had hollows or fissures in the seven parks studied. Each tree was sampled once during the study period and one or more isolates were recovered from each swab. Eight isolates of C. neoformans and 18 isolates of C. gattii were recovered from 15 out of 489 tree samples. C. neoformans was isolated from Tipuana tipu, Eucalyptus spp., and Phoenix sp. All isolates were serotype A and belonged to genotype VNI. C. gattii was isolated from Tipuana tipu, Cedrus deodara, Eucalyptus spp., Acacia visca, Cupresus sempervirens and Ulmus campestrus. All isolates were serotype B and genotype VGI, like both C. gattii strains isolated in 2001. On two occasions, both species were isolated from the same tree sample. These results reinforce and extend our previous findings especially about the presence of C. gattii serotype B, genotype VGI, in Argentina.

  10. [Quantitative analysis of urban forest structure: a case study on Shenyang arboretum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenquan; He, Xingyuan; Chen, Wei; Chen, Yunhao; Zhang, Yue; Ning, Zhuhua

    2003-12-01

    The spatial features and attribute data of urban forests in Shenyang arboretum were acquired by using aerial photographs and field investigation. After systemic and quantitative analysis of the species composition and spatial distribution pattern of urban forest community based on geographic information system (GIS), the following results were achieved: 1) the vegetation in the arboretum was rich and in a good condition. Phellodendron amurense, Robinia pseudoacacia, and Ulmus punita were the main species according to their abundant individuals and relative dominance. The spatial distribution pattern of this vegetation indicated that it was in a growing level and in the best state for ecological benefits; 2) the tree species relative dominance based on vegetation quantity had no distinct relationship with the species abundance, and the species having abundant individuals might have a low relative dominance; and 3) the curve displayed in the relationship diagram between tree individuals and tree height showed ascending and protruding. With the increment of tree height class, the individuals were unchanged nearly at the beginning, but when the height was more than 12 m, the individuals reduced distinctly, and the curve displayed a quickly declined trend. The relationship between tree individuals and tree diameter at the breast height (DBH) showed the same result. PMID:15031894

  11. Estimating forest crown area removed by selection cutting: a linked regression-GIS approach based on stump diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S.C.; Kupfer, J.A.; Wilson, R.R.; Cooper, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a model that could be used to provide a spatial representation of uneven-aged silvicultural treatments on forest crown area. We began by developing species-specific linear regression equations relating tree DBH to crown area for eight bottomland tree species at White River National Wildlife Refuge, Arkansas, USA. The relationships were highly significant for all species, with coefficients of determination (r(2)) ranging from 0.37 for Ulmus crassifolia to nearly 0.80 for Quercus nuttalliii and Taxodium distichum. We next located and measured the diameters of more than 4000 stumps from a single tree-group selection timber harvest. Stump locations were recorded with respect to an established gl id point system and entered into a Geographic Information System (ARC/INFO). The area occupied by the crown of each logged individual was then estimated by using the stump dimensions (adjusted to DBHs) and the regression equations relating tree DBH to crown area. Our model projected that the selection cuts removed roughly 300 m(2) of basal area from the logged sites resulting in the loss of approximate to 55 000 m(2) of crown area. The model developed in this research represents a tool that can be used in conjunction with remote sensing applications to assist in forest inventory and management, as well as to estimate the impacts of selective timber harvest on wildlife.

  12. Winter browse selection by white-tailed deer and implications for bottomland forest restoration in the Upper Mississippi River Valley, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogger, Benjamin J.; De Jager, Nathan R.; Thomsen, Meredith; Adams, Carrie Reinhardt

    2014-01-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) forage selectively, modifying upland forest species composition and in some cases shifting ecosystems to alternative stable states. Few studies, however, have investigated plant selection by deer in bottomland forests. Herbaceous invasive species are common in wetlands and their expansion could be promoted if deer avoid them and preferentially feed on native woody species. We surveyed plant species composition and winter deer browsing in 14 floodplain forest restoration sites along the Upper Mississippi River and tributaries. Tree seedling density declined rapidly with increasing cover of invasive Phalaris arundinacea, averaging less than 1 per m2 in all sites in which the grass was present. Deer browsed ∼46% of available tree seedling stems (branches) at mainland restorations, compared to ∼3% at island sites. Across all tree species, the number of browsed stems increased linearly with the number available and responded unimodally to tree height. Maximum browsing rates were observed on trees with high stem abundances (>10 per plant) and of heights between 50 and 150 cm. Deer preferred Ulmus americana and Acer saccharinum, and avoided Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Acer negundo, and Quercus spp. at mainland sites, and did not browse Phalaris arundinacea if present. Depending on plant growth responses to herbivory and the competitive effects of unbrowsed species, our results suggest that selective foraging could promote the expansion of invasive species and/or alter tree species composition in bottomland forest restorations. Islands may, however, serve as refuges from browsing on a regional scale.

  13. Effects of the feeding of wild Yeso sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) on the prevention of damage due to bark stripping and the use of feeding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuko, Takayoshi; Souma, Kousaku; Kudo, Hirofumi; Takasaki, Yukari; Fukui, Emi; Kitazawa, Reiko; Nishida, Rikihiro; Niida, Toshimitsu; Suzuki, Teiji; Nibe, Akio

    2011-08-01

    Feeding sites for wild Yeso sika deer around Lake Akan, Japan, were established. Effects on the number of deer using the feeding sites, the prevention of bark stripping damage, the amount of feeding, and eating time in a 5-year period (1999-2003) were evaluated. The number of deer using feeding sites increased with years during the feeding period. The damaged tree ratio after the initiation of feeding markedly decreased compared with 16.5% before the initiation of feeding. After the start of feeding, there were no trees with damage the entire circumference. According to tree species, the number of damaged trees of Ulmus laciniata Mayr as a percentage of all investigated trees was high (5.2%). The total amount of beet pulp feeding increased with the feeding year, showing 4.5-fold increase. At feeding sites in deer culling, eating behavior was observed during the night. The preventive effects on bark stripping damage continued during the 5-year feeding period. However, with the course of feeding years, the number of deer using feeding sites and the level of feeding increased. PMID:21794018

  14. Effects of timber harvest on structural diversity and species composition in hardwood forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARZAM TAVANKAR

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tavankar F, Bonyad AE. 2015. Effects of timber harvest on structural diversity and species composition in hardwood forests. Biodiversitas 16: 1-9. Forest management leads to changes in structure and species composition of stands. In this research vertical and horizontal structure and species composition were compared in two harvested and protected stands in the Caspian forest of Iran. The results indicated the tree and seedling density, total basal area and stand volume was significantly (P < 0.01 higher in the protected stand. The Fagus orientalis L. had the most density and basal area in the both stands. Species importance value (SIV of Fagus orientalis in the protected stand (92.5 was higher than in the harvested stand (88.5. While, the SIV of shade-intolerant tree species such as Acer insigne, Acer cappadocicum and Alnus subcordata was higher in the harvested stand. The density of trees and seedling of rare tree species, such as Ulmus glabra, Tilia begonifolia, Zelkova caprinifolia and Fraxinus coriarifolia, was also higher in the protected stand. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index in the protected stand (0.84 was significantly higher (P < 0.01 than in the harvested stand (0.72. The highest diversity value in the harvested stand was observed in DBH of 10-40 cm class, while DBH of 40-70 cm had the highest diversity value in the protected stand.

  15. Vegetation history of the English chalklands: a mid-Holocene pollen sequence from the Caburn, East Sussex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Martyn P.; Hamilton, Sue

    2000-03-01

    A pollen diagram has been produced from the base of the Caburn (East Sussex) that provides a temporally and spatially precise record of vegetation change on the English chalklands during the mid-Holocene (ca. 7100 to ca. 3800 cal. yr BP). During this period the slopes above the site appear to have been well-wooded, with vegetation analogous to modern Fraxinus-Acer-Mercurialis communities in which Tilia was also a prominent constituent. However, scrub and grassland taxa such as Juniperus communis, Cornus sanguinea and Plantago lanceolata are also regularly recorded along with, from ca. 6000 cal. yr BP onwards, species specific to Chalk grassland (e.g. Sanguisorba minor). This supports suggestions that elements of Chalk grassland persisted in lowland England through the Holocene. Such communities are most likely to have occupied the steepest slopes, although the processes that maintained them are unclear. Human interference with vegetation close to the site may have begun as early as ca. 6350 cal. yr BP and initially involved a woodland management practice such as coppicing. From the primary Ulmus decline (ca. 5700 cal. yr BP) onwards, phases of limited clearance accompanied by cereal cultivation occurred. Taxus baccata was an important component of the woodland which regenerated between these phases.

  16. Electrostatic forces in wind-pollination—Part 1: Measurement of the electrostatic charge on pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, George E.; Crenshaw, Hugh C.

    Under fair weather conditions, a weak electric field exists between negative charge induced on the surface of plants and positive charge in the air. This field is magnified around points (e.g. stigmas) and can reach values up to 3×10 6 V m -1. If wind-dispersed pollen grains are electrically charged, the electrostatic force (which is the product of the pollen's charge and the electric field at the pollen's location) could influence pollen capture. In this article, we report measurements of the electrostatic charge carried by wind-dispersed pollen grains. Pollen charge was measured using an adaptation of the Millikan oil-drop experiment for seven anemophilous plants: Acer rubrum, Cedrus atlantica, Cedrus deodara, Juniperus virginiana, Pinus taeda, Plantago lanceolata and Ulmus alata. All species had charged pollen, some were positive others negative. The distributions (number of pollen grains as a function of charge) were bipolar and roughly centered about zero although some distributions were skewed towards positive charges. Most pollen carried small amounts of charge, 0.8 fC in magnitude, on average. A few carried charges up to 40 fC. For Juniperus, pollen charges were also measured in nature and these results concurred with those found in the laboratory. For nearly all charged pollen grains, the likelihood that electrostatics influence pollen capture is evident.

  17. Influence of wind on daily airborne pollen counts in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    tareq Majeed, Husam; Periago, Cristina; Alarcón, Marta; De Linares, Concepción; Belmonte, Jordina

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to analize the influence of wind (speed and direction) on the daily airborne pollen counts recorded in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula) of 21 pollen taxa recorded at 6 aerobiological stations: Barcelona, Bellaterra, Girona, Lleida Manresa, and Tarragona for the period 2004-2014. The taxa studied are Alnus, Betula, Castanea, Cupressaceae, Fagus, Fraxinus, Olea, Pinus, Platanus, total Quercus, Quercus deciduous type, Quercus evergreen type, Ulmus, Corylus, Pistacia, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Plantago, Poaceae, Polygonaceae, and Urticaceae. The mean daily wind direction was divided into 8 sectors: N, NE, E, SE, S, SW, W and NW. For each sector, the correlation between the daily pollen concentrations and wind speed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was computed and compared with the wind rose charts. The results showed that Tarragona was the station with more significant correlations followed by Bellaterra, Lleida and Manresa. On the other hand, Artemisia was the most correlated taxon with mainly negative values, and Fagus was the least. The W wind direction showed the largest number of significant correlations, mostly positive, while the N direction was the least and negatively correlated.

  18. [Tree uprooting of coniferous-broad leaved Korean pine mixed forest in Lesser Khingan Mountains, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiao-wen; Hou, Jie-jian; Wang, Li-hai; Wang, Xing-long; Rong, Bin-bin

    2016-02-01

    The morphological parameters, root wad indexes and site conditions of 127 uprooting trees from 76 plots (20 mx20 m) in Lesser Khingan coniferous-broad leaved Korean pine mixed forest were measured. Then the influencing factors of uprooting differences and the relationship between uprooting trees and disturbed soil were analyzed. Results showed that the number of uprooting trees varied significantly among species. Abies nephrolepis suffered the most serious uprooting damage, then Pinus koraiensis, and Ulmus spp. the least. Deciduous species had a stronger uprooting-resistant capacity than broad-leaved species. With the increase of tree DBH and height, tree' s uprooting resistance declined rapidly first and then was gradually enhanced, and finally reached the minimum at diameter class of 20 cm and height class of 14 m, respectively. The smaller the taper degree and projected area of crown were, the stronger the uprooting resistance was. Uprooting rate was negatively correlated with stand density. Trees lying in wet ground, flat terrain, medium low altitude area and windward slope had a greater risk of uprooting. There were significant positive correlation between the depth, area and volume of disturbed soil and the DBH, height, volume of uprooting trees. PMID:27396108

  19. Analysis of Airborne Pollen Fall in Edirne,Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adem BICAKCI; Goksel OLGUN; Mehmet AYBEKE; Perihan ERKAN; Hulusi MALYER

    2004-01-01

    In the atmosphere of Edirne 12 691 pollen grains belonging to 42 taxa were identified by using of Durham sampler in 2000 and 2001. A total of 6 189 pollen grains per cm2 were recorded in 2000 and a total of 6 502 pollen grains per cm2 in 2001. Total pollen grains consisted of 71.81% grains from arboreal plants, 25.88% grains from non-arboreal plants and 2.31% unidentified pollen grains. Pollen from the following taxa were also found to be prevalent in the atmosphere of Edirne: Gramineae, Pinus sp., Quercus sp.,Cupressaceae/Taxaceae, Platanus sp., Salix sp., Morus sp., Populus sp., Carpinus sp., Juglans sp.,Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Fraxinus sp., Fagus sp., Ulmus sp., Ailanthus sp., Alnus sp., Ostrya sp.,Helianthus sp. The season of maximum pollen fall was from April to June, with a prevalence of arboreal pollen in the first month, and of pollen from non-arboreal plants in the last months of the year.

  20. Analysis of Airborne Pollen Fall in Edirne, Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AdemBICAKCI; GokselOLGUN; MehmetAYBEKE; PerihanERKAN; HulusiMALYER

    2004-01-01

    In the atmosphere of Edirne 12 691 pollen grains belonging to 42 taxa were identified by using of Durham sampler in 2000 and 2001. A total of 6 189 pollen grains per cm2 were recorded in 2000 and a total of 6 502 pollen grains per cm2 in 2001. Total pollen grains consisted of 71.81% grains from arboreal plants, 25.88% grains from non-arboreal plants and 2.31% unidentified pollen grains. Pollen from the following taxa were also found to be prevalent in the atmosphere of Edirne: Gramineae, Pinus sp., Quercus sp., Cupressaceae/Taxaceae, Platanus sp., Salix sp., Morus sp., Populus sp., Carpinus sp., Juglans sp., Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Fraxinus sp., Fagus sp., Ulmus sp., Ailanthus sp., Alnus sp., Ostrya sp., Helianthus sp. The season of maximum pollen fall was from April to June, with a prevalence of arboreal pollen in the first month, and of oollen from non-arboreal olants in the last months of the vear.

  1. Impact of tree species on soil carbon stocks and soil acidity in southern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of tree species on soil carbon stocks and acidity in southern Sweden was studied in a non-replicated plantation with monocultures of 67-year-old ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.), beech (Fagus silvatica L.), elm (Ulmus glabra Huds.), hornbeam (Carpinusbetulus L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) and oak (Quercus robur L.). The site was characterized by a cambisol on glacial till. Volume-determined soil samples were taken from the O-horizon and mineral soil layers to 20 cm. Soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), pH (H2O), cation-exchange capacity and base saturation at pH 7 and exchangeable calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium ions were analysed in the soil fraction hornbeam > oak > beech > ash > elm. The pH in the O-horizon ranged in the order elm > ash > hornbeam > beech > oak > spruce. In the mineral soil, SOC and TN ranged in the order elm > oak > ash = hornbeam > spruce > beech, i.e. partly reversed, and pH ranged in the same order as for the O-horizon. It is suggested that spruce is the best option for fertile sites in southern Sweden if the aim is a high carbon sequestration rate, whereas elm, ash and hornbeam are the best solutions if the aim is a low soil acidification rate

  2. A COMPARISON OF THE COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE OF TWO OAK FORESTS IN MARSHALL AND POTTAWATOMIE COUNTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce A. Smith

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In October 2011, high school students from McLoud High School sampled an oak forest in Earlsboro, Pottawatomie County. In July, 2012, students in the Pre-collegiate Field Studies Camp at the University of Oklahoma Biological Station sampled the Marshall County forest at the Buncombe Creek camp ground, located approximately 100 miles south of the Earlsboro forest and 1 mile north of the University of Oklahoma Biological Station. One component of each botany course was to study the composition and structure of an oak forest. These 2 forests were chosen to compare because of their similarity in composition and physical distance apart. They found 10 hardwood species in the Marshall County forest and 9 in the PottawatomieCounty forest, with 6 species common to both. Quercus stellata was most important in both forests and most frequent in the Pottawatomie forest where the total density was 0.141/m2. Quercus stellata and Ulmus alata were most frequent in the Marshall County forest where the total density was 0.107/m2.

  3. Woody invasions of urban trails and the changing face of urban forests in the great plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, K.T.; Allen, C.R.; Alai, A.; Clements, G.; Kessler, A.C.; Kinsell, T.; Major, A.; Stephen, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Corridors such as roads and trails can facilitate invasions by non-native plant species. The open, disturbed habitat associated with corridors provides favorable growing conditions for many non-native plant species. Bike trails are a corridor system common to many urban areas that have not been studied for their potential role in plant invasions. We sampled five linear segments of urban forest along bike trails in Lincoln, Nebraska to assess the invasion of woody non-native species relative to corridors and to assess the composition of these urban forests. The most abundant plant species were generally native species, but five non-native species were also present: white mulberry (Morus alba), common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica), tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima), honeysuckle (Lonicera spp.) and elm (Ulmus spp.). The distribution of two of the woody species sampled, common buckthorn and honeysuckle, significantly decreased with increasing distance from a source patch of vegetation (P = 0.031 and 0.030). These linear habitats are being invaded by non-native tree and shrub species, which may change the structure of these urban forest corridors. If non-native woody plant species become abundant in the future, they may homogenize the plant community and reduce native biodiversity in these areas. ?? 2011 American Midland Naturalist.

  4. Reconstruction of vegetation and lake level at Moon Lake, North Dakota, from high-resolution pollen and diatom data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, E.C.; Laird, K.R.; Mueller, P.G. [Illinois State Museum, Springfield, IL (United States)]|[Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1995-06-01

    High-resolution fossil-pollen and diatom data from Moon Lake, North Dakota, reveal major climate and vegetation changes near the western margin of the tall-grass prairie. Fourteen AMS radiocarbon dates provide excellent time control for the past {approximately}11,800 {sup 14}C years B.P. Picea dominated during the late-glacial until it abruptly declined {approximately}10,300 B.P. During the early Holocene ({approximately}10,300-8000 B.P.), deciduous trees and shrubs (Populus, Betula, Corylus, Quercus, and especially Ulmus) were common, but prairie taxa (Poaceae, Artemisia, and Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae) gradually increased. During this period the diatoms indicate the lake becoming gradually more saline as water-level fell. By {approximately}8000 B.P., salinity had increased to the point that the diatoms were no longer sensitive to further salinity increases. However, fluctuating pollen percentages of mud-flat weeds (Ambrosia and Iva) indicate frequently changing water levels during the mid-Holocene ({approximately}8000-5000 B.P.). The driest millennium was 7000-6000 B.P., when Iva annua was common. After {approximately}3000 B.P. the lake became less-saline, and the diatoms were again sensitive to changing salinity. The Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age are clearly evident in the diatom data.

  5. Inhibition of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L.: a novel approach to reduce oxidative browning in plant tissue culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Maxwell Phineas Jones

    Full Text Available Oxidative browning is a common and often severe problem in plant tissue culture systems caused by the accumulation and oxidation of phenolic compounds. The current study was conducted to investigate a novel preventative approach to address this problem by inhibiting the activity of the phenylalanine ammonia lyase enzyme (PAL, thereby reducing the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds. This was accomplished by incorporating 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP, a competitive PAL inhibitor, into culture media of Artemisia annua as a model system. Addition of AIP into culture media resulted in significant reductions in visual tissue browning, a reduction in total phenol content, as well as absorbance and autoflourescence of tissue extracts. Reduced tissue browning was accompanied with a significant increase in growth on cytokinin based medium. Microscopic observations demonstrated that phenolic compounds accumulated in discrete cells and that these cells were more prevalent in brown tissue. These cells were highly plasmolyzed and often ruptured during examination, demonstrating a mechanism in which phenolics are released into media in this system. These data indicate that inhibiting phenylpropanoid biosynthesis with AIP is an effective approach to reduce tissue browning in A. annua. Additional experiments with Ulmus americana and Acer saccharum indicate this approach is effective in many species and it could have a wide application in systems where oxidative browning restricts the development of biotechnologies.

  6. On the species status of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne ulmi Palmisano & Ambrogioni, 2000 (Nematoda, Meloidogynidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne ulmi is synonymised with Meloidogyne mali based on morphological and morphometric similarities, common hosts, as well as biochemical similarities at both protein and DNA levels. M. mali was first described in Japan on Malus prunifolia Borkh.; and M. ulmi in Italy on Ulmus chenmoui W.C. Cheng. Morphological and morphometric studies of their holo- and paratypes revealed important similarities in the major characters as well as some general variability in a few others. Host test also showed that besides the two species being able to parasitize the type hosts of the other, they share some other common hosts. Our study of the esterase and malate dehydrogenase isozyme phenotypes of some M. ulmi populations gave a perfectly comparable result to that already known for M. mali. Finally, phylogenetic studies of their SSU and LSU rDNA sequence data revealed that the two are not distinguishable at DNA level. All these put together, leave strong evidences to support the fact that M. ulmi is not a valid species, but a junior synonym of M. mali. Brief discussion on the biology and life cycle of M. mali is given. An overview of all known hosts and the possible distribution of M. mali in Europe are also presented.

  7. Broad-range and binary-range acyl-acyl-carrier protein thioesterases suggest an alternative mechanism for medium-chain production in seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, T A; Jones, A; Cranmer, A M; Davies, H M; Knutzon, D S

    1997-06-01

    In the current model of medium-chain (C8-14) fatty acid biosynthesis in seeds, specialized FatB acyl-acyl-carrier-protein (ACP) thioesterases are responsible for the production of medium chains. We have isolated and characterized FatB cDNAs from the maturing seeds of elm (Ulmus americana) and nutmeg (Myristica fragrans), which accumulate predominantly caprate (10:0)- and myristate (14:0)-containing oils, respectively. In neither species were we able to find cDNAs encoding enzymes specialized for these chain lengths. Nutmeg FatB hydrolyses C14-18 substrates in vitro and expression in Brassica napus seeds leads to an oil enriched in C14-18 saturates. Elm FatB1 displays a binary specificity: one activity is centered on 10:0-ACP, and a second is centered on palmitate (16:0)-ACP. After expression in B. napus seeds the oil is enriched in C10-18 saturates, predominantly 16:0, 14:0, and 10:0. The composition of free fatty acids produced by elm FatB1 in Escherichia coli shifts from C14-16 to mostly C8-10 by increasing the rate of chain termination by this enzyme. These results suggest the existence of an alternative mechanism used in the evolution of medium-chain production, a model of which is presented. PMID:9193098

  8. Seasonal habitat selection of the red deer (Cervus elaphus alxaicus in the Helan Mountains, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Zhang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied the seasonal habitat selection of the red deer, Cervus elaphus alxaicus Bobrinskii & Flerov, 1935, in the Helan Mountains, China, from December 2007 to December 2008. Habitat selection varied widely by season. Seasonal movements between high and low elevations were attributed to changes in forage availability, alpine topography, the arid climate of the Helan Mountains, and potential competition with blue sheep, Pseudois nayaur (Hodgson, 1833. The use of vegetation types varied seasonally according to food availability and ambient temperature. Red deer used montane coniferous forest and alpine shrub and meadow zones distributed above 2,000 m and 3,000 m in summer, alpine shrub and meadows above 3,000 m in autumn, being restricted to lower elevation habitats in spring and winter. The winter habitat of C. elaphus alxaicus was dominated by Ulmus glaucescens Franch. and Juglans regia Linnaeus, deciduous trees, and differed from the habitats selected by other subspecies of red deer. Cervus elaphus alxaicus preferred habitats with abundant vegetation coverage to open habitats in winter, but the reverse pattern was observed in summer and autumn. Red deer preferred gentle slopes (<10° but the use of slope gradient categories varied seasonally. Red deer avoidance of human disturbance in the Helan Mountains varied significantly by season. Information on red deer habitat selection can help understand the factors affecting seasonal movements and also support decision making in the management and conservation of red deer and their habitats.

  9. Wood Species for the Biedermeier Furniture - A Microscopic Characterisation for Scientific Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gurau

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Wood species identification is an important, compulsory step in the scientific conservation of the historic furniture as a significant part of the cultural heritage. It is known that a visual examination of an investigated sample does not always bring enough information about the original species and that a microscopic approach is more reliable. Species identification can be performed if the microscopic images are interpreted for common, but also for specific features and characteristics, by means of identification keys and in comparison with reference images. This paper provides the microscopic characterization with identification keys for six hardwood species, some of the most common in Biedermeier furniture (elm - Ulmus glabra Huds., cherry - Prunus avium L., walnut - Juglans regia L.,pear - Pyrus communis L., aspen - Populus tremula L., African mahogany - Khaya ivorensis A. Chev.. The characterization can be used for wood identification purposes by laboratories working in the field of cultural heritage wood conservation. This work is part of a recent research project that aims to develop and implement a scientific investigation for furniture conservation.

  10. THE COPĂCEL HILL FOREST, BETWEEN BĂLA AND ERCEA, A FUTURE RESERVE OF MUREŞ COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OROIAN SILVIA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The forest lies in the region known as the “Transylvanian Plain”, on the Copăcel hill, between Băla and Ercea. The specific landscape of this region is characterized by medium altitude hills, with wide and soft slopes. In this forest, the presence of the Delphinium simonkaianum Pawł. var. psilocarpum (Simk. Pawł species, a threatened endemic taxon, was reported in 1953. In 2011, this globally threatened taxon was identified, after 58 years, on the upper side of the Copăcel slope, in a mixed oak and hornbeam forest. These oak and hornbeam mixtures are the result of impacts exerted on oak forests. The identified association, Melampyro bihariensis-Carpinetum (Borza 1941 Soó 1964 em. Coldea 1975, has three distinct layers: the arborescent layer dominated by Carpinus betulus and Quercus petraea, along with Quercus robur, Prunus avium, Acer campestre, Ulmus glabra, etc., with good canopy cover (0.8-0.9; the shrub layer, represented by species such as: Crataegus monogyna, Corylus avellana, Cornus mas, Ligustrum vulgare, Rosa canina, Sambucus nigra, Staphylea pinnata, etc., is relatively poor in individuals, which are present particularly in forest clearings or at the edge of the forest. Grass synusia is well developed, sometimes forming an almost continuous cover (Asarum europaeum, Convallaria majalis, Dactylis glomerata ssp. aschersoniana, Galium odoratum, Melampyrum bihariense, Stellaria holostea, Aconitum anthora, Aconitum moldavicum, Lilium martagon, Arum orientale.

  11. Geoarchaeological investigations at Sormás-Török-földek, in Southwestern Transdanubia, Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin NÁFRÁDI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive and detailed picture was gained about the historical events and the natural environment of Southwestern Hungary at the beginning of the 5th millennia BC. Wood charcoal analysis provided site-related information about the natural milieu of the site. Anthracological analysis has not been carried out in Southwestern Hungary so far, whereby more than 3600 fragments of charred wood remains were identified. Our dataset was compared to pollen analytical, archaeobotanical and archaeological data to create a more accurate vegetation picture for this period of time and to reconstruct the utilization of wood during Middle and Late Neolithic.Charcoal assemblage reflects the composition of the woodland around the site. Based on the results a thermophilous Quercus forest mixed with Fagus, Fraxinus, Acer, Alnus and Ulmus existed in the study site during the Middle and Late Neolithic and different types of wood were used for fire wood and for construction purposes as well. Anthracological analysis of samples from Sormás-Török-földek enabled a more accurate vegetation reconstruction for the study site by the comparison to previously known pollen analytical data and added extra information regarding the local vegetation and wood utilization for the Middle and Late Neolithic.

  12. Putative forest glacial refugia in the Western and Eastern Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Mitka

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An examination of thermophilous species pollen deposits found in the Plenivistulian river alluvial terraces in the Polish Western Carpathians was conducted. Of the 16 palaeobotanical sites evaluated, most often noted were Alnus and Betula t. alba; Abies, Carpinus and Corylus occurred less frequently, and Quercus, Tilia and Ulmus were rare. Fagus and Fraxinus pollen were absent. Abies and Carpinus were relatively overrepresented, because their frequency of occurrence was similar to Corylus avellana, i.e. one of the most cold-resistant species. Based on a literature survey of phylogeographic studies and data regarding the forest species Aconitum moldavicum, A. variegatum, Bromus benekenii, Carpinus betulus, Lathyrus vernus, Lonicera nigra, and the moderately thermophilous Rosa pendulina, 47 cryptic refugial areas of temperate plant species are postulated. The combined analysis indicates that they could have survived the last glaciation in the W & E Carpathian microrefugia close to 650 m a.s.l., and in Podolia (north of the Eastern Carpathians along a contour of 300 m a.s.l.

  13. Introduction to Distribution and Ecology of Sterile Conks of Inonotus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Woong; Hur, Hyeon; Chang, Kwang-Choon; Lee, Tae-Soo; Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Jankovsky, L

    2008-12-01

    Inonotus obliquus is a fungus that causes white heart rot on several broad-leaved species. This fungus forms typical charcoal-black, sterile conks (chaga) or cinder conks on infected stems of the birche (Betula spp). The dark brown pulp of the sterile conk is formed by a pure mycelial mass of fungus. Chaga are a folk remedy in Russia, reflecting the circumboreal distribution of I. obliquus in boreal forest ecosystems on Betula spp. and in meridional mountain forests on beech (Fagus spp.) in Russia, Scandinavia, Central Europe, and Eastern Europe. Distribution at lower latitudes in Western and Southern Europe, Northern America, Asia, Japan, and Korea is rare. Infected trees grow for many years without several symptoms of decline. The infection can penetrate through stem injuries with exterior sterile conks developing later. In the Czech Republic, cinder conk is found on birches inhabiting peat bogs and in mountain areas with a colder and more humid climate, although it is widespread in other broad leaved species over the Czech Republic. The most common hosts are B. pendula, B. pubescens, B. carpatica, and F. sylvatica. Less frequent hosts include Acer campestre, Acer pseudoplatanus, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus cerris, Q. petraea, Q. robur, Q. delachampii, and Ulmus sp.

  14. Resource characteristics and distribution pattern of ancient trees in Shenzhen City%深圳市古树资源特征与分布格局

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄应锋; 孙冰; 廖绍波; 陈勇; 陈雷; 陆钊华

    2015-01-01

    在收集资料的基础上,采用实地调查和走访相结合的方法,对深圳市古树资源的种类组成、区系分布、结构特征和生长状况进行了分析;并采用网格法对古树资源空间分布状况进行了统计分析。结果表明:深圳市共有古树1482株,隶属于35科63属78种,古树数量多且种类丰富;主要以桑科( Moraceae)、无患子科( Sapindaceae)、桃金娘科( Myrtaceae)、大戟科( Euphorbiaceae)、樟科( Lauraceae)和榆科( Ulmaceae)等优势科和榕树( Ficus microcarpa Linn. f.)、樟树〔Cinnamomum camphora ( Linn.) Presl〕、龙眼( Dimocarpus longan Lour.)、荔枝( Litchi chinensis Sonn.)和朴树( Celtis sinensis Pers.)等乡土树种为主;深圳古树资源的科、属分布类型具有明显的热带性质和由热带向亚热带、温带过渡的特点。从深圳市古树资源的结构上看,树龄主要集中在100~200 a,平均树龄为145.2 a;树高主要集中在8.0~16.0 m,平均树高为12.4 m;胸径主要集中在0.5~1.5 m,平均胸径为1.1 m;冠幅主要集中在10.0~20.0 m,平均冠幅为15.8 m。从空间分布状况看,深圳市古树分布广泛,但不同区域古树的种数和株数差异显著,主要集中在深圳市的中南部和东南部。从生长状况看,生长良好(Ⅰ级)、一般(Ⅱ级)、较差(Ⅲ级)和濒死(Ⅳ级)的古树分别有729、616、100和37株,分别占古树总株数的49.19%、41.57%、6.75%和2.50%。相关性分析结果表明:深圳市古树的树高与胸径、树高与冠幅、胸径与冠幅间均极显著正相关;古树树种丰富度与古树数量和土地性质极显著正相关;古树生长状况与所处环境的近自然程度和树池的有无极显著正相关,与树龄则无显著相关性,表明区域土地利用性质是影响古树空间分布的关键因素。根据调查结果,对深圳市古树资源的保护提出了建议。%Based on collection data, species composition, flora distribution, structure

  15. The effect of different agrotechnical levels on weed infestation in crops of naked and husked varieties of oat (Avena sativa L.

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    Sylwia Andruszczak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in the period 2007- 2009 in the Experimental Farm in Bezek near the city of Chełm. The aim of the investigation was to compare weed infestation of the husked (Krezus and naked (Cacko oat cultivars cultivated under conditions of different weed control treatments. The following weed control levels were compared: A - control object; B - harrowing twice; C - application of the herbicide Mustang 306 SE; D - herbicide Mustang 306 SE + foliar fertilizer Insol 3; E - herbicide Mustang 306 SE + two foliar fertilizers: Insol 3 and FoliCare 18:18:18. The husked oat cv. Krezus was more competitive against weeds. Number of dicotyledonous weeds and of monocotyledonous weeds, total weeds, and air-dry weight of above-ground parts of weeds in the crop of this cultivar were all significantly lower compared to the naked cv. Cacko. From the group of dicotyledonous species, Chenopodium album, Galinsoga parviflora, Matricaria maritima ssp. inodora, Polygonum aviculare, and Stellaria media were the dominant species in the crops of the oat varieties under investigation, whereas among the monocotyledonous species Echinochloa crus-galli, Setaria pumila, Apera spica-venti, and Elymus repens occurred in greatest numbers. The application of the herbicide Mustang 306 SE decreased the number of dicotyledonous weeds and air-dry weight of weeds, compared to the treatment in which mechanical weed control had been used.

  16. Weed infestation in canopy of spring barley in condition of different tillage systems and fertilization and plant protection levels

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    Piotr Kraska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine the influence of conventional tillage (fall ploughing at 25 cm and minimum tillage systems (chisel ploughing at 30 cm and two differentiated fertilization and plant protection levels on number, species composition and air dry weed mass in spring barley cv. Rataj. This spring barley was cultivated in crop rotation potato - spring barley - winter rye. The analysis of field infestation was made prior to spring barley harvest with quantitative- weighting method. There was estimated number of weeds, weed species composition and air dry weight of weeds in two randomly chosen areas of each plot of 0.5 m2. The density of weeds and weed air dry weight was statistically analysed by means of variance analysis, and the mean values were estimated with Tukey's confidence intervals (p=0.05. Intensive level of fertilization and chemical crop protection decreased number of monocotyledonous weeds and total weeds in canopy of spring barley. Conventional system of soil cultivation decreased in a canopy of spring barley the following species of weeds: Geranium pusillum, Galinsoga parviflora, Stellaria media, Apera spica-venti, Poa annua and Echinochloa crusgalli. Conventional tillage increases number of Chamomilla suaveolens and Fallopia convolvulus in a canopy of spring barley. Intensive fertilization and plant protection levels decreased weed infestation first of all through Echinochloa crusgalli, Apera spica-venti, Fallopia convolvulus, Galinsoga parviflora, Geranium pusillum, Chenopodium album and Setaria pumila.

  17. Variation in weed infestation of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris depending on the intensity of chemical protection of plantations

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    Krzysztof Domaradzki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A floristic study was conducted over the period 2010–2012, using the Braun-Blanquet method, under which vegetation relevés were made in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris plantations in Lower Silesia. Fields with similar habitat conditions, which differed in the intensity of herbicide application to control weed infestation, were selected for observation. A total of 144 relevés were made and based on them a list was prepared of species found in fields in which different levels of chemical protection were used. A cover index and a constancy class were determined for each species found in the phytocoenoses studied. On the basis of these observations, the study found floristic  variation in the investigated agrophytocenoses as af- fected by the level of intensity of weed control chemicals used. In  herbicide-untreated plots, a total of 25 weed species were found and their aggregate cover index was 8705. Chenopodium album L., Polygonum persicaria L. and Setaria pumila (POIR. ROEM. & SCHULT by far dominated among them. Herbicide use caused an impoverishment in the floristic list. 20 taxa were observed in the plots treated with the lowest herbicide rates, while with increasing rates the number of species dropped to 18. The sum of the cover indices also decreased with increasing rates, successively reaching the values of 5907, 5212 and 4356.

  18. Squamate diversity in different croplands of district Chakwal, Punjab, Pakistan

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    Sara Balouch

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We studied squamate diversity in 5 different croplands (wheat, sorghum, millet, maize and groundnut of district Chakwal, North Punjab, Pakistan, in February and September, 2013, using area-constrained searches for squamates and line intercept method for vegetation. We recorded 11 squamate species (6 lizards; 5 snakes. Based on diversity index value (H the highest squamate diversity was recorded from maize (1.91, followed by wheat (1.54, groundnut (1.51, sorghum (1.34 and millet (1.21. We recorded Calotes versicolor versicolor, Ophisops jerdonii and Eutropis dissimilis as most frequently sighted species in all croplands. The multivariate generalized model revealed that sightings of species differed significantly (F(5,40 = 2.89, P < 0.05; Wilk’s Λ = 0.30, Partial η2 = 0.94 among cropland types and their boundary vegetation. The cluster analysis of boundary vegetation produced two main clusters: (1 groundnut and wheat, and (2 sorghum, millet and maize. We concluded that herbs (Parthenium hysterophorus Chenopodium album, shrubs (Calotropis procera, Ziziphus jujube, Gymnosporia royleana, and grasses (Cynodon dactylon, Setaria pumila along the cropland boundary provided abode for lacertids (O. jerdonii and skinks (E. dissimilis, while tress (Acacia nilotica, Prosopis juliflora, Ziziphus mauritiana for agamids (Calotes versicolor. We suggest the inclusion of maintaining cropland boundary vegetation particularly grasses and shrubs in agricultural practices to ensure the conservation of squamate and their habitat.

  19. Influence of Soil Compaction and Drought on the Growth,Photosynthesis and Carbohydrates in Fugi/M.9EMLA Apple Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Yun-cong; John G Streeter; David C Ferree

    2003-01-01

    Greenhouse-grown 1-year-old potted M.9EMLA apple trees (Malus pumila Borkh) were subjected to the soil compaction and, after growing under compacted or non-compacted conditions for 6 weeks, were subjected to drought stress by withholding water for an additional six-week period. Soil compaction and drought stress significantly reduced plant height, number of leaves, and leaf area. Although drought significantly inhibited photosynthesis and transpiration, compaction only depressed transpiration. Furthermore, the effects of drought on plant growth, photosynthesis and transpiration were much greater than the effects of compaction. The rate of water loss from compacted plants was lower than the rate from non-compacted controls and this may explain the insignificant impact of compaction on photosynthesis. Sorbitol, glucose, and fructose concentrations increased over time during the drought stress period whereas sucrose concentration declined. In well-watered controls, sucrose concentration was much higher in leaves of compacted plants than in the leaves on non-compacted controls. For most of the sampling dates the leaf sorbitol concentration was lower in leaves on plants growing in compacted soil than in the leaves of those of the non-compacted controls. Although interactions between the effects of compaction and drought were highly significant for plant growth variables during the onset of drought, interactive effects on photosynthesis, transpiration, relative water content and carbohydrate variables were inconsistent. Compaction and drought both have major effects on apple plants and the interactions between these two stresses are complex.

  20. Archaeobotanical reconstructions of field habitats and crops: the grange in Pomorzany near Kutno, 18th/19th c.

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    Koszałka Joanna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research of plant macrofossils from the grain deposit deriving from the 18th/19th centuries. The analysed material included 24760 diaspores representing 73 taxa. The majority were cultivated cereal crop species, and there was also abundance of accompanying segetal weed species. About 95% of the gathered crop material was Secale cereale. Another important crop was Hordeum vulgare and there were also some remains of Avena sativa, Triticum aestivum, Fagopyrum esculentum. Cannabis sativa and Linum usitatissimum were found as well. Weeds competing with these crops were, among others, the following species: Agrostemma githago, Raphanus raphanistrum, Apera spica-venti, Bromus secalinus, Centaurea cyanus, Spergula arvensis, Thlaspi arvense, Viola arvensis/tricolor, Fallopia convolvulus, Polygonum persicaria, Mentha arvensis, Anthemis arvensis, Papaver rhoeas, Rumex acetosella, Scleranthus annuus, Aphanes arvensis, Setaria pumila, Setaria viridis/verticilata. Extremely large presence of wild plant diaspores in the material allowed conducting economic and environmental interpretations. Reconstruction methods applied, used primarily in the case of macroremains from granaries, were fully applicable to the analysed plant residues. Weed species composition in the analysed material showed that they were mostly typical for the main winter crop. Some amount of species typical for other habitats were also found and they probably came from the near-by rye field. The presence of perennial diaspores indicated that the field was probably set aside

  1. [The plant origins of herbal medicines and their quality evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishibe, Sansei

    2002-06-01

    The caulis (stem and leaf) of Trachelospermum jasminoides (Lindl.) Lem. (Apocynaceae) is listed as the plant origin of Luoshiteng in the Chinese Pharmacopeia. However, preparations from the caulis of Ficus pumila L. (Moraceae) or Psychotria serpens L. (Rubiaceae) are distributed on the Chinese market. The fruit of Forsythia suspensa Vahl (Oleaceae) is listed as the plant origin of Forsythia Fruit in the Chinese Pharmacopeia, although the fruits of two Forsythia species, F. suspensa and F. viridissima Lindley, are listed as the plant origins in the Japanese Pharmacopeia, and fruits of three Forsythia species, F. viridissima, F. koreana Nakai, and F. suspensa, are listed in the Korean Pharmacopeia. The whole plant of Plantago asiatica L. (Plantaginaceae) is listed as the plant origin of Plantago Herb in the Japanese Phamacopeia, but the whole plants of two Plantago species, P. asiatica and P. depressa Wild, are listed as the plant origins in the Chinese Pharmacopeia. The leaves of two Plantago species, P. lanceolata L. and P. major L., are distributed as Plantain on the European market. Each of these herbal medicines is reviewed based on the differences in plant origins and their quality evaluation from the viewpoints of the morphological properties, chemical components, and biological activities, respectively.

  2. Phenological adaptations in Ficus tikoua exhibit convergence with unrelated extra-tropical fig trees.

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    Ting-Ting Zhao

    Full Text Available Flowering phenology is central to the ecology and evolution of most flowering plants. In highly-specific nursery pollination systems, such as that involving fig trees (Ficus species and fig wasps (Agaonidae, any mismatch in timing has serious consequences because the plants must balance seed production with maintenance of their pollinator populations. Most fig trees are found in tropical or subtropical habitats, but the dioecious Chinese Ficus tikoua has a more northerly distribution. We monitored how its fruiting phenology has adapted in response to a highly seasonal environment. Male trees (where fig wasps reproduce had one to three crops annually, whereas many seed-producing female trees produced only one fig crop. The timing of release of Ceratosolen fig wasps from male figs in late May and June was synchronized with the presence of receptive figs on female trees, at a time when there were few receptive figs on male trees, thereby ensuring seed set while allowing remnant pollinator populations to persist. F. tikoua phenology has converged with those of other (unrelated northern Ficus species, but there are differences. Unlike F. carica in Europe, all F. tikoua male figs contain male flowers, and unlike F. pumila in China, but like F. carica, it is the second annual generation of adult wasps that pollinate female figs. The phenologies of all three temperate fig trees generate annual bottlenecks in the size of pollinator populations and for female F. tikoua also a shortage of fig wasps that results in many figs failing to be pollinated.

  3. Magnetic properties of highroad-side pine tree leaves in Beijing and their environmental significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chunxia; HUANG Baochun; LI Zhenyu; LIU He

    2006-01-01

    This is a report on magnetic properties of highroad-side tree (Pinus pumila Regel) leaves collected along an expressway linking Beijing City and the Capital International Airport and further focus on their environmental contributions. A series of rock magnetic experiments show that the primary magnetic mineral of leaf samples was identified to be magnetite, in the pseudo-single domain (PSD) grain size range 0.2-5.0μm. On the other hand, magnetite concentration and grain size in leaves are ascertained to decrease with increasing of sampling distance to highroad asphalt surface, suggesting that high magnetic response to traffic pollution is localized within a distance of some two meters away from highroad asphalt surface. Although magnetic susceptibility is ordinarily regarded as a simple, rapid and low-cost method for monitoring traffic pollution,saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM)can be treated as a valid proxy for monitoring air particulate matter (PM) when samples are magnetically weak. It is believed that a synthetic rock magnetic study is an effective method for determining concentration and grain size of ferromagnets in the atmospheric PM, and then it should be a rapid and feasible technique for monitoring atmospheric pollution.

  4. Herbaceous vegetation restoration potential and soil physical condition in a mountain grazing land of Eastern Tigray, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebrewahd Amha Abesha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An existence of information in the form database and full knowledge of grazing land vegetation resources and trend over time is essential for management decisions. This study was conducted in Kiltew -Awelaelo, eastern Tigray, Ethiopia. The study aimed to investigate species composition and diversity of the herbaceous vegetation, and examine the physical soil condition of the grazing lands. A total of 45 quadrats measuring 20m×20m (400m2 were laid out in 15 sample sites from three corresponding land use types (i.e. ten year enclosure, five year enclosure and open grazing land. From each land use type five sites having three quadrats were investigated. Each quadrat was laid out at an interval of 400m in five parallel transects each 200m apart from other. To collect data of herbaceous and soil five randomly located 1m2 area each, was selected and marked, within each 400m2 sample quadrat of sample sites located along the main transect. There was significant (PBracharia sp., Bromus pectinatus, Chloris gayana, Cenchurs cilarias, chloris radiata, Cynodon dactylon, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Digitaria Velutina, Eragrostis teniufolia, Lintonia nutans, Setaria pumila, Seteria verticillate, and Tragus racemosus all occurred frequently forming the major constituents of the sites. Therefore, regeneration from area enclosure can be on advocated practice for grazing lands rehabilitation.

  5. Physical and chemical characterization of biochars derived from different agricultural residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindo, K.; Mizumoto, H.; Sawada, Y.; Sanchez-Monedero, M. A.; Sonoki, T.

    2014-12-01

    Biochar is widely recognized as an efficient tool for carbon sequestration and soil fertility. The understanding of its chemical and physical properties, which are strongly related to the type of the initial material used and pyrolysis conditions, is crucial to identify the most suitable application of biochar in soil. A selection of organic wastes with different characteristics (e.g., rice husk (RH), rice straw (RS), wood chips of apple tree (Malus pumila) (AB), and oak tree (Quercus serrata) (OB)) were pyrolyzed at different temperatures (400, 500, 600, 700, and 800 °C) in order to optimize the physicochemical properties of biochar as a soil amendment. Low-temperature pyrolysis produced high biochar yields; in contrast, high-temperature pyrolysis led to biochars with a high C content, large surface area, and high adsorption characteristics. Biochar obtained at 600 °C leads to a high recalcitrant character, whereas that obtained at 400 °C retains volatile and easily labile compounds. The biochar obtained from rice materials (RH and RS) showed a high yield and unique chemical properties because of the incorporation of silica elements into its chemical structure. The biochar obtained from wood materials (AB and OB) showed high carbon content and a high absorption character.

  6. Boreal Forests of Kamchatka: Structure and Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus P. Eichhorn

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Central Kamchatka abounds in virgin old-growth boreal forest, formed primarily by Larix cajanderi and Betula platyphylla in varying proportions. A series of eight 0.25–0.30 ha plots captured the range of forests present in this region and their structure is described. Overall trends in both uplands and lowlands are for higher sites to be dominated by L. cajanderi with an increasing component of B. platyphylla with decreasing altitude. The tree line on wet sites is commonly formed by mono-dominant B. ermanii forests. Basal area ranged from 7.8–38.1 m2/ha and average tree height from 8.3–24.7 m, both being greater in lowland forests. Size distributions varied considerably among plots, though they were consistently more even for L. cajanderi than B. platyphylla. Upland sites also contained a dense subcanopy of Pinus pumila averaging 38% of ground area. Soil characteristics differed among plots, with upland soils being of lower pH and containing more carbon. Comparisons are drawn with boreal forests elsewhere and the main current threats assessed. These forests provide a potential baseline to contrast with more disturbed regions elsewhere in the world and therefore may be used as a target for restoration efforts or to assess the effects of climate change independent of human impacts.

  7. Die Makrofauna und ihre Verteilung im Nordost-Felswatt von Helgoland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Klaus

    1986-03-01

    The macrofauna and its distribution in the sheltered, rocky intertidal zone of Helgoland (North Sea) was studied at 9 vertically and/or morphologically different stations from March to September in 1984. Seasonal variations in the communities were described based on each species' “conspicuousness”. A total of 172 species was found. The macrofauna shows a zoned pattern, but also the different substrata, for example, affect its distribution. The number of species increases from the upper intertidal to the upper sublittoral zone from 23 to 133 species. The upper intertidal is characterized by Littorina saxatilis, Chaetogrammarus marinus and Hyale nilssonii. Typical and abundant species of the middle and lower intertidal are Flustrellidra hispida, Littorina mariae/obtusata, Littorina littorea, Mytilus edulis and Spirorbis spirorbis. The upper sublittoral zone is characterized by Gibbula cineraria and increasing species numbers of Bryozoa, Nemertini and Opisthobranchia. Only few species (e.g. Dynamena pumila, Laomedea flexuosa, Polydora ciliata, Fabricia sabella, Jaera albifrons, Carcinus maenas) occur in the entire intertidal zone. In comparison to other very sheltered shores in Great Britain, which are also dominated by Fucaceae, the macrofauna in the Helgoland intertidal zone lacks several littoral species, such as Patella spp., Monodonta lineata, Gibbula umbilicalis, Littorina neritoides, Chthamalus spp., whereas Littorina littorea and Gibbula cineraria are highly abundant.

  8. Palynology of cushion bogs of the Cordillera Pelada, Province of Valdivia, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusser, Calvin J.

    1982-01-01

    Fossil pollen identified in the earliest sediments of three cushion bogs in the Cordillera Pelada (40°10'S, 73°30'W) dated 10,425 14C yr B.P. includes the subantarctic species Dacrydium fonckii, Tetroncium magellanicum, Astelia pumila, Gaimardia australis, Donatia fascicularis, and Drosera uniflora. All grow today in the Cordillera Pelada and range poleward to the southernmost Province of Magallanes; one species, Drapetes muscosa, included with the pollen of these plants in the earliest record, is no longer a constituent of the flora but is limited only to subantarctic Chile. Available evidence indicates that plants survived the last glaciation north of the glacial border with the course of postglacial migration southward following the wastage of the glacier complex. Holocene climatic and vegetational changes in the Cordillera Pelada are interpreted in the context of regional reconstructions which show maximum warmth about 9000 yr ago with a pronounced dry period lasting from 9000 to 6500 yr B.P. Maximum precipitation was later reached around 4000 yr ago but has decreased overall since then. The regional decline of the endemic gymnosperm Fitzroya cupressoides, which today is extensively destroyed in the Cordillera Pelada, follows this decrease in precipitation. These climatic data suggest a net south ward shift in the zone of westerly winds that bring rainfall to the region over the past 4000 yr.

  9. Programmed cell death features in apple suspension cells under low oxygen culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Chang-jie(徐昌杰); CHEN Kun-song(陈昆松); FERGUSON Ian B.

    2004-01-01

    Suspension-cultured apple fruit cells (Malus pumila Mill. cv. Braeburn) were exposed to a low oxygen atmosphere to test whether programmed cell death (PCD) has a role in cell dysfunction and death under hypoxic conditions. Protoplasts were prepared at various times after low oxygen conditions were established, and viability tested by triple staining with fluorescein diacetate (FDA), propidium iodide (PI) and Hoechst33342 (HO342). DNA breakdown and phosphatidylserine exposure on the plasma membrane were observed using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), and annexin V binding. About 30% of protoplasts from cells after 48 h under low oxygen showed an increased accumulation of HO342, indicating increased membrane permeability. Positive TUNEL and annexin V results were also only obtained with protoplasts from cells under low oxygen. The results suggest that apple cell death under low oxygen is at least partially PCD mediated, and may explain tissue breakdown under controlled atmosphere (low oxygen) conditions in apple fruit.

  10. 木本植物缺铁性黄化病研究进展%Research progress of yellow leaf disease of woody plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐万泰; 郭伟红; 秦飞; 马占元; 周素侠

    2011-01-01

    The iron-deficiency yellow of woody plant in our country have covered Ginkgo biloba,Malus pumila,Pyrus bretschneideri,Prunus persica,Vitis vinifera.,Prunus armeniaca,Prunus salicina,Citrus reticulata,Actinidia chinensis,Cinnamomum camphora),Magnolia denudate,Gardenia jasminoides,Areca catechu,Populus tomentosa,Ziziphus jujube,Morus alba and so on.The research on yellow leaf disease of woody plant is mainly concentrated on the performance symptoms,the pathogenesis,controlling techniques and so on.This article reviewed the main achievements of researches on iron-deficiency yellow of woody plant,and the forecast the research prospect.%我国木本植物缺铁性黄化病的研究主要集中于银杏、苹果、梨、桃、葡萄、杏、李、桔、猕猴桃、香樟、白玉兰、栀子、槟榔、毛白杨、枣树、桑树等,研究内容包括表现症状、发病机理、防治技术等。该文综述了木本植物缺铁性黄化病研究的主要成果,并对研究前景进行了展望。

  11. Inhibition of chemiluminescence and chemotactic activity of phagocytes in vitro by the extracts of selected medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantan, Ibrahim; Harun, Nurul Hikmah; Septama, Abdi Wira; Murad, Shahnaz; Mesaik, M A

    2011-04-01

    The methanol extracts of 20 selected medicinal plants were investigated for their effects on the respiratory burst of human whole blood, isolated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and isolated mice macrophages using a luminol/lucigenin-based chemiluminescence assay. We also tested the effect of the extracts on chemotactic migration of PMNs using the Boyden chamber technique. The extracts of Curcuma domestica L., Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn and C. xanthorrhiza Roxb. were the samples producing the strongest oxidative burst of PMNs with luminol-based chemiluminescence, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 μg/ml. For macrophage cells, the extracts which showed strong suppressive activity for luminol-based chemiluminescence were C. xanthorrhiza and Garcinia mangostana L. Among the extracts studied, C. mangga Valton & Vazsjip, Piper nigrum L. and Labisia pumila var. alata showed strong inhibitory activity on lucigenin-amplified oxidative burst of PMNs, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.9 to 1.5 μg/ml. The extracts of Zingiber officinale Rosc., Alpinia galangal (L.) Willd and Averrhoa bilimbi Linn showed strong inhibition on the chemotaxic migration of cells, with IC(50) values comparable to that of ibuprofen (1.5 μg/ml). The results suggest that some of these plants were able to modulate the innate immune response of phagocytes at different steps, emphasizing their potential as a source of new immunomodulatory agents. PMID:21184195

  12. Concerning the preliminary results of space experiment with the seeds of rare plants (on the boad of BION-M No.1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelov, Yury; Kurganskaya, Lubov; Ilyin, Vyacheslav; Ruzaeva, Irina; Rozno, Svetlana; Kavelenova, Ludmila

    species of Samara region (Сlematis integrifolia L.; Aster alpinus L.; Dianthus andrzejowskianus Kulcz.; Linum perenne L.; Polemonium caeruleum L.; Primula macrocalyx Bunge; Iris pumila L.; Lilium martagon L.; Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill., 8 from 9 are the plants of Samara Region Reed book) were packed into 3 marked plastic test tubes (Ø12/75, 4 ml). After the landing of “Bion-M” the seeds were sown on the experimental plot in the Botanical garden of Samara State University (25 July 2013). The sow time was near to the time of seeds ripening when they can fall on the ground in natural ecosystems. The abundant rains in the beginning of August 2013 made the beneficial conditions for sprouting and the first seedlings we found 10-15 days after sowing. The ground germination parameters varied from 3 to 78% for 6 different species (Сlematis integrifolia L. 3%; Dianthus andrzejowskianus Kulcz. 8%; Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill 15%; .Linum perenne L. 67%; Polemonium caeruleum L. 75%; Iris pumila L. 78%), whereas 3 species did not sprout for that time (Lilium martagon L.; Aster alpinus L.; Primula macrocalyx Bunge). The most native flora species normally have no synchronic seed germination and many seeds each year are added in soil seed bank. Many ripe seeds are in dormancy that must be removed passing by autumn-winter period. That is a possible reason of seedlings absence in 3 of our species. We can mention the increase of ground germination parameters (comparing with their common germination levels) for Linum perenne L. and Iris pumila L. as a positive (stimulating) effect of space flight factors complex. These seeds normally never demonstrate germination on the level of 70-80%. Also we found the increase of plants diversity on their initial stage of development. Some more developed and big specimens appeared among the seedlings, what more clearly demonstrated Linum perenne L. and Iris pumila L.. Maybe such heterogeneity is connected with different seed mass and size what

  13. Bioassay and Identification of Root Exudates of Three Fruit Tree Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang-Hong Zhang; Zhi-Quan Mao; Li-Qin Wang; Huai-Rui Shu

    2007-01-01

    A laboratory bioassay was designed to determine the allelopathic potential of root exudates of three fruit tree species on apple germination. The results showed that root exudates of apple (Malus pumila L.) and peach (Prunus persica L.), each at concentrations of 0.02 and 0.2 mg/L, inhibited germination and radicle growth of apple seeds by 56.7%, 60.7%, 51.5%, and 59.3%, respectively. The corresponding shoot growth inhibition rate was 49.5%, 46.7%, 36.4%, and 44%, respectively. Root exudates of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) had no significant effect on apple seeds.Qualitative determination of root exudates of apple, peach, and jujube tree was developed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The root exudates of apple seedlings mainly contain organic acids, glycol, esters, and benzenphenol derivatives. Peach root exudates contained phenolic acids and benzenphenol derivatives in addition to two unidentified compounds. The root exudates of jujube did not contain any phenolic acids.

  14. Intercropping competition between apple trees and crops in agroforestry systems on the Loess Plateau of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lubo; Xu, Huasen; Bi, Huaxing; Xi, Weimin; Bao, Biao; Wang, Xiaoyan; Bi, Chao; Chang, Yifang

    2013-01-01

    Agroforestry has been widely practiced in the Loess Plateau region of China because of its prominent effects in reducing soil and water losses, improving land-use efficiency and increasing economic returns. However, the agroforestry practices may lead to competition between crops and trees for underground soil moisture and nutrients, and the trees on the canopy layer may also lead to shortage of light for crops. In order to minimize interspecific competition and maximize the benefits of tree-based intercropping systems, we studied photosynthesis, growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by measuring photosynthetically active radiation, net photosynthetic rate, soil moisture and soil nutrients in a plantation of apple (Malus pumila M.) at a spacing of 4 m × 5 m on the Loess Plateau of China. The results showed that for both intercropping systems in the study region, soil moisture was the primary factor affecting the crop yields followed by light. Deficiency of the soil nutrients also had a significant impact on crop yields. Compared with soybean, peanut was more suitable for intercropping with apple trees to obtain economic benefits in the region. We concluded that apple-soybean and apple-peanut intercropping systems can be practical and beneficial in the region. However, the distance between crops and tree rows should be adjusted to minimize interspecies competition. Agronomic measures such as regular canopy pruning, root barriers, additional irrigation and fertilization also should be applied in the intercropping systems.

  15. Effect of Volatiles from Plants on the Selectivity of Tetranychus viennensis for Different Host Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Xugen; Qiao Luqin

    2006-01-01

    Olfactory responses of Tetranychus viennensis to different plant odors were studied with a"Y"olfactometer and petri dishes,and volatiles from leaves of different plants were absorbed with solid phase microextraction and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy.The study showed that olfaction took place in the response when the Hawthorn Spider Mite looked for host plants,indicating that T.viennensis were attracted by odors from host plants.Different host plants have different attractions to T.viennensis;some attract strongly,while others do so to a lesser extent.The nonhost plants tested have neither attraction nor repulsion to the mite.The volatiles from leaves of different host plants such as Malus pumila,P.bretschneideri,Amygdalus persica,Armeniaca vulgaris,Malus spectabilis,Crataegus pinnatifida,and Prunus yedoensis consist of trans-3-hexen-l-ol,acetate,trans-3-hexenyl ester butanolic acid,α-farensene,etc.,which do not exist in the nonhost plants such as Euonymus japonicus.

  16. Eradication of Propionibacterium acnes biofilms by plant extracts and putative identification of icariin, resveratrol and salidroside as active compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenye, Tom; Brackman, Gilles; Rigole, Petra; De Witte, Evy; Honraet, Kris; Rossel, Bart; Nelis, Hans J

    2012-03-15

    Propionibacterium acnes is a Gram-positive bacterium that plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. This organism is capable of biofilm formation and the decreased antimicrobial susceptibility of biofilm-associated cells may hamper efficient treatment. In addition, the prolonged use of systemic antibiotic therapy is likely to lead to the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. In the present study we investigated whether P. acnes biofilms could be eradicated by plant extracts or their active compounds, and whether other mechanisms besides killing of biofilm cells could be involved. Out of 119 plant extracts investigated, we identified five with potent antibiofilm activity against P. acnes (extracts from Epimedium brevicornum, Malus pumila, Polygonum cuspidatum, Rhodiola crenulata and Dolichos lablab). We subsequently identified icariin, resveratrol and salidroside as active compounds in three of these extracts. Extracts from E. brevicornum and P. cuspidatum, as well as their active compounds (icariin and resveratrol, respectively) showed marked antibiofilm activity when used in subinhibitory concentrations, indicating that killing of microbial cells is not their only mode of action. PMID:22305279

  17. Plant species visited by the Horned Sungem Heliactin bilophus (Aves, Trochilidae at Chapada dos Veadeiros, during the rainy season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Baruffaldi Ghiringhello

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The feeding habits of the Horned Sungem remain little known. This study aimed to identify the plant species most often visited by H. bilophus with feeding purposes (consumption of nectar during the rainy season at Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park, Goiás. Observations were made during two rainy seasons (January 2006 and February 2008. The methodology consisted of walking through trails within two areas of campo sujo and two areas of campo rupestre. The record of an individual consuming the nectar of a flowering plant was considered to constitute a visit. A total of 296 visits were observed, comprising eight species of shrubs and herbs. The most often visited plant species were Bauhinia tenella (Caesalpinoideae and Vochysia pumila (Vochysiaceae in campo sujo, and Lychnophora ericoides (Asteraceae in campo rupestre. These three species were commonly found at the study sites. In both physiognomies, Heliactin bilophus consumed the nectar of few plant species. The most frequently visited species bore high numbers of flowers.

  18. Reproduction of Pratylenchus penetrans on 24 Common Weeds in Potato Fields in Québec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélair, G; Dauphinais, N; Benoit, D L; Fournier, Y

    2007-12-01

    Twenty-four weeds commonly found in commercial potato fields in Quebec were evaluated for their host suitability to the root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus penetrans, under greenhouse conditions. Brown mustard (Brassica juncea) and rye (Secale cereale) were included as susceptible controls and forage pearl millet hyb. CFPM 101 (Pennisetum glaucum) as a poor host. Pratylenchus penetrans multiplied well on 22 of the 24 weed species tested (Pf/Pi >/= rye or brown mustard). Cirsium arvense, Leucanthemum vulgare and Matricaria discoida were classified as very good hosts with a Pf/Pi ranging from 1.60 to 2.54, while Ambrosia artemisiifolia and Cyperus esculentus were classified as poor hosts with a Pf/Pi from 0.01 to 0.15. Amaranthus powellii, A. retrqflexus, Raphanus raphanistrum, Rorippa palustris, Cerastium fontanum, Spergula arvensis, Stellaria media, Chenopodium album, Vicia cracca, Elytrigia repens, Digitaria ischaemum, Echinochloa crusgalli, Panicum capillare, Setaria faberii, S. pumila, S. viridis, Polygonum convolvulus, P. scabrum and P. persicaria were intermediate hosts with Pf/Pi values ranging from 0.33 to 2.01. The plant species and the botanical family had a significant impact on nematode reproduction. The Brassicaceae family resulted in the greatest reproduction of P. penetrans, and the Cyperaceae resulted in the least. The plant life-cycle (annual vs. perennial) had no impact on nematode population. PMID:19259506

  19. Programmed cell death features in apple suspension cells under low oxygen culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐昌杰; 陈昆松; FERGUSONIanB

    2004-01-01

    Suspension-cultured apple fruit cells (Malus pumila Mill. cv. Braeburn) were exposed to a low oxygen atmosphere to test whether programmed cell death (PCD) has a role in cell dysfunction and death under hypoxic conditions. Protoplasts were prepared at various times after low oxygen conditions were established, and viability tested by triple staining with fluorescein diacetate (FDA), propidium iodide (PI) and Hoechst33342 (HO342). DNA breakdown and phosphatidylserine exposure on the plasma membrane were observed using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), and annexin V binding. About 30% of protoplasts from cells after 48 h under low oxygen showed an increased accumulation of HO342, indicating increased membrane permeability. Positive TUNEL and annexin V results were also only obtained with protoplasts from cells under low oxygen. The results suggest that apple celi death under low oxygen is at least partially PCD mediated, and may explain tissue breakdown under controlled atmosphere (low oxygen) conditions in apple fruit.

  20. 贵州植物的新记录种%New Record Species of Plants in Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨成华; 安明态; 戴晓勇; 罗扬

    2010-01-01

    通过对贵州境内采集的植物标本鉴定和相关文献检索,报道了贵州的10个新记录种,其中1个新记录种为新记录属.它们是勿忘草Myosotis silvatica Ehrh.ex Hoffm.、短小蛇根草Ophiorrhiza pumila Champ.ex Benth.、细叶亚婆潮Hedyotis auricularia L.var.mina W.C.Ko、多刺山黄皮Fagerlindia depauperata(Drake)Tirveng、短梗乌饭Vaccinium brevipedicellatum C.Y.Wu ex Fang et Z.H.Pan、林生越橘Vaccinium sciaphilum C.Y.Wu、变叶树参Dendropanax proteus(Champ.)Benth.、滇赤杨叶Alniphyllum eberhardtii Guill、滇黄堇Corydalis yunnanensis Franch.、矮小山麦冬Liriope minor(Maxim.)Makino,新记录属为勿忘草属.

  1. The Induction of Root Formation by Urea, IBA and Sheep Dung in Young Apple Tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hong-qiang; JIE Yu-ling; HUANG Tian-dong; SHU Huai-rui

    2002-01-01

    The effect of plant growth substance and fertilizer on root formation was studied in a newly planted apple tree (Malus pumila Mill / Malus hupenensis Rhed). The results indicated that urea and IBA (indole butyric acid) and sheep dung all increased the total number and activity of new roots and changed the ratio of absorbing root to extensive roots obviously. Urea increased the number of extensive root and decreased the ratio of the root to shoot mostly. IBA lengthened the extensive root and increased the ratio of root to shoot obviously. Sheep dung increased the nu mber of absorbing root and increased the ratio of absorbing root to ex-tensive root, divided new root into many branches, increased the fresh weight of the root and thickened the extensive root. The fresh weight of root increased and the ratio of root to shoot declined after urea was added to sheep dung. Both the ratio of absorbing root to extensive root and root fresh weight was increased after IBA was added to sheep dung, then the ratio of root to shoot had no change obviously.

  2. 阿克苏市5种常见绿化树种滞尘规律%Patterns of dust retention by five common tree species for urban greening in Aksu City, Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿丽亚·拜都热拉; 玉米提·哈力克; 塔依尔江·艾山; 艾克热木·吾布力; 喀哈尔·扎依木; 金华

    2014-01-01

    绿化树种在截留沙尘、降低大气颗粒污染物浓度、改善城市生态环境等方面发挥着不可替代的作用。该文选取新疆南部典型绿洲城市--阿克苏市不同功能区的绿化树种,用多重比较法对比分析了二球悬铃木(Platanus × acerifolia)、新疆杨(Populus alba var. pyramidalis)、圆冠榆(Ulmus densa)、天山梣(Fraxinus sogdiana)和垂柳(Salix babylonica)5个树种叶片平均滞尘量随时间变化及不同高度叶片的滞尘能力,探讨了阿克苏市主要绿化树种的滞尘规律,得出以下结论:不同绿化树种单位叶面积滞尘量差异显著,差距在1.15-2.17倍之间,绿化树种滞尘量随着时间延长而增加;同一树种在城市不同功能区的滞尘能力不同:工业区>交通枢纽区>居民区>清洁区;不同高度的叶片,其滞尘量在工业区和交通枢纽区差异显著:高度1m的叶片滞尘量>高度2m的叶片滞尘量>高度4m的叶片滞尘量。%Aims Air pollution poses a long-term threat to human health and life quality of urban residents. In particular, dust pollution in oasis cities of arid regions has been associated with reduced life expectancy. Trees (especially their leaves) in cities can absorb airborne particulate matter and reduce the impacts of air pollution on people and urban environment. This study examined dust retention capacity of the leaves of Platanus × acerifolia, Populus alba var. pyramidalis, Ulmus densa, Fraxinus sogdiana, and Salix babylonica in different functional areas in Aksu City, Northwest China. Our objectives were to determine that how much dust can be removed on unit leaf area basis by each of the tree species and that how the patterns of dust removal may vary with time, among different sites, and the height where leaves are positioned. Methods Dust samples were washed off the leaf surfaces and weighed by electronic scales with an accuracy of 1μg (PTX-FA-210, Polestar, Hartford, USA). Individual

  3. Species richness and relative abundance of breeding birds in forests of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, C.O.; Twedt, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    In 1992, the Vicksburg Field Research Station of the National Wetlands Research Center initiated research on the ecology of migratory birds within forests of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV). The MAV was historically a nearly contiguous bottomland hardwood forest, however, only remnants remain. These remnants are fragmented and often influenced by drainage projects, silviculture, agriculture, and urban development. Our objectives are to assess species richness and relative abundance, and to relate these to the size, quality, and composition of forest stands. Species richness and relative abundance were estimated for 53 randomly selected forest sites using 1 to 8 point counts per site, depending on the size of the forest fragment. However, statistical comparisons among sites will be restricted to an equal number ofpoint counts within the sites being compared. Point counts, lasting five minutes, were conducted from 11 May to 29 June 1992, foltowing Ralph, Sauer, and Droege (Point Count Standards; memo dated 9 March 1992). Vegetation was measured at the first three points on each site using a modification of the methods employed by Martin and Roper (Condor 90: 5 1-57; 1988). During 252 counts, 7 1 species were encountered, but only 62 species were encountered within a 50-m radius of point center. The mean number of species encountered within 50 m of a point, was 7.3 (s.d. = 2.7) and the mean number of individuals was 11.2 (s.d. = 4.2). The mean number of species detected at any distance was 9.6 (s.d, = 2.8) and the mean number of individuals was 15.6 (s.d. = 7.9). The most frequently encountered warblers in the MAV were Prothonotary Warbler and Northern Parula. Rarely encountered warblers were American Redstart and Worm-eating Warbler. The genera, Quercus, Ulmus, Carya, and Celtis were each encountered at 80 or more of the 152 points at which vegetation was sampled. Species most frequentlyencountered were: sugarberry (Celtis laevagata), water hickory (Caqa

  4. Palynostratigraphical correlation of the excavated Miocene lignite seams of the Yataǧan basin (Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Denk, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    (basswood, mallow family), Myricaceae (bayberry), Oleaceae (olive family), Onagraceae (evening primrose family), Plumbaginaceae (sea-lavender), Polygonaceae (docks, knotweed), Ranunculaceae (buttercup family), Rosaceae (rose family), Salicaceae (willow), Sapindaceae (maple), Sapotaceae, and Ulmaceae (elm, Zelkova). The objectives of this investigation were (1) to evaluate whether the three palynological sections were deposited at the same time, and (2) to show regional vegetation differences within a single sedimentary basin. We found three general pollen zones corresponding to different sedimentary settings and palaeoenvironments. The first pollen zone was linked to lignite formation (swamp forest, fern spores, Alnus, Decodon). The second pollen zone reflects lacustrine conditions (Typhaceae) and surrounding hinterland vegetation dominated by Fagaceae. The third pollen zone is dominated by herbaceous taxa, whereas woody taxa are less diverse and less abundant. In general, the three palynological sections are congruent in reflecting distinct pollen zones. However main vegetation types may be represented by different dominating taxa (e. g. Alnus dominace in Eskihisar and Tı naz localities while absent in Salihpaşalar) and rare taxa may differ between localities. Our results demonstrate that in order to achieve a comprehensive understanding of environmental and vegetation conditions in a sedimentary basin, a single palynological section (locality) may not capture the entirety of environmental conditions and changes.

  5. 安徽合肥大蜀山维管植物区系地理成分研究%Geographical Composition of Vascular Plants in Dashu Mountain in Hefei, Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程红梅

    2011-01-01

    Based on the investigation of the vegetation and collection of samples, the flora composition of Dashu Mountain in terms of families, genera, and species were analyzed and the R/T rate were compared with floras in similar latitude sites.A total of 508 plant species, belonging to 315 genera and 120 families were recorded,among which Pteridophyte had 10 families,13 genera and 14 species;gymnosperms had 7 families,19 genera and 47 species;and angiosoerms had 103 families,283 genera and 447 species.The dominants of the forest community was mainly composed of Fagaceae, Pinaceae, Ulmaceae, Aceaceae ,Tiliaceae, and Leguminosae,etc.The analysis of floristic geographical elements indicated that the 226 genera fell into 14 types.Athough the temperate zone component held a certain proportion,tropical species were rich,with temperate affinities elements accounting for 23.81% and the tropic affinities accounting for 18.52% ,which presents an especially transitional nature.The number of species endemic to China was few.The deciduous broad-leaved forest in temperate zone component was still a relatively stable forest cover of the area.According to the comparison analysis in terms of R/T rate,the tropic characteristics of Mt.Dashu flora were higher than those of the Yaoluoping Nature Reserve,Anhui and Mt.Huangcangyu,Anhui,lower than those of Mt.Mufu, Nanjing and Mt.Langya, Chuzhou, and similar to those of Mt.Zijin, Nanjing and Mt.Niushou, Nanjing in terms of genera.%在野外调查和标本采集的基础上,对合肥大蜀山植物区系基本组成和科属地理成分进行了分析,并与邻近山地植物区系进行了R/T比值的比较.统计共有维管束植物120科、315属、508种(含种下等级),其中蕨类植物10科、13属、14种,裸子植物7科、19属、47种,被子植物103科、283属、447种.壳斗科、松科、榆科、槭树科、椴树科和豆科等是该区系的主要表征科,构成了其各森林类型的主要树种组成.种子植物区

  6. Comparison of modern pollen distribution between northern and southern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, C.; Chen, M.; Xiang, R.; Liu, J.; Zhang, L.; Lu, J.

    2013-12-01

    To understand pollen transport mechanic and terrigenous area is the base to explain pollen data correctly in Southern South China Sea (Fig.1). Based on Palynology analyzing the following preliminary conclusions are listed. 1. Air pollen differences between northern and southern South China Sea 15 air pollen samples were collected from northern part of the South China Sea from August to September 2011. 13 air pollen samples were collected from southern South China Sea in December 2011. It was found that the air pollen are different between northern and southern part of South China Sea: the pollen types in the north are more abundant than in the south, Ulmaceae, Monolete spore, Cyperaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, Rosaceae, Labiatae occur only in the north, they do not occur or is just sporadic in the south. The total pollen number and concentration in the north is 10 times of the south, one of the reasons may be that the sampling season in the north is autumn with more flowering plants, the sampling season in the south is winter, with fewer flowering plants; the second reason might be that pollen and spore in autumn and winter are mainly spread by the winter wind, thus they reduce from north to south. 2. Pollen differences of the surface sediments between northern and southern South China Sea 14 samples were collected from surface sediments in the northern part of the South China Sea from August to October, 2011. 12 samples were collected from surface sediments in the southern part of the South China Sea from year 1997 to 2002. The differences of pollen characteristics from the surface sediments between northern and southern part of South China Sea are: pollen types and quantities in the north are richer than in south. There are Trilete spores (35-100%), Pinus (3-65%) in northern of SCS, with pollen concentration of 33-1031grain/g. There are only a small amount of Trilete-spore and Pinus pollen in southern of SCS. Pollen concentration in

  7. Using Sex Pheromone and a Multi-Scale Approach to Predict the Distribution of a Rare Saproxylic Beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Najihah; Andersson, Klas; Burman, Joseph; Andersson, Fredrik; Hedenström, Erik; Jansson, Nicklas; Paltto, Heidi; Westerberg, Lars; Winde, Inis; Larsson, Mattias C; Bergman, Karl-Olof; Milberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    The European red click beetle, Elater ferrugineus L., is associated with wood mould in old hollow deciduous trees. As a result of severe habitat fragmentation caused by human disturbance, it is threatened throughout its distribution range. A new pheromone-based survey method, which is very efficient in detecting the species, was used in the present study to relate the occurrence of E. ferrugineus to the density of deciduous trees. The latter data were from a recently completed regional survey in SE Sweden recording >120,000 deciduous trees. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus increased with increasing amount of large hollow and large non-hollow trees in the surrounding landscape. Quercus robur (oak) was found to be the most important substrate for E. ferrugineus, whereas two groups of tree species (Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Ulmus glabra, vs. Acer platanoides, Aesculus hippocastanum, Fraxinus excelsior, Tilia cordata) were less important but may be a complement to oak in sustaining populations of the beetle. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus was explained by the density of oaks at two different spatial scales, within the circle radii 327 m and 4658 m. In conclusion, priority should be given to oaks in conservation management of E. ferrugineus, and then to the deciduous trees in the genera listed above. Conservation planning at large spatial and temporal scales appears to be essential for long-term persistence of E. ferrugineus. We also show that occurrence models based on strategic sampling might result in pessimistic predictions. This study demonstrates how pheromone-based monitoring make insects excellent tools for sustained feedback to models for landscape conservation management. PMID:23840415

  8. Аллелопатическая активность листового опада древесных растений, почвы и копролитов в парках г. Днепропетровск

    OpenAIRE

    Анжелина Илларионовна Крючкова; Юрий Люцинович Кульбачко

    2014-01-01

    В работе рассматривается влияние аллелопатических свойств опада древесных растений и трофометаболической деятельности дождевых червей (Lumbricidae) на аллелопатические свойства почвы под древесными породами Acer platanoides L., Aesculus hippocastanum L., Ulmus minor Mill. в парках г. Днепропетровск. Установлено, что трофометаболическая деятельность червей положительно влияет на аллелопатический статус почв....

  9. Diversity, Distribution and Prioritization of Fodder Species for Conservation in Kullu District, Northwestern Himalaya, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In the Indian Himalayan Region predominantly rural in character, livestock is one of the main sources of livelihood and integral part of the economy. Livestock mostly rely on fodder from wild.The diversity, distribution, utilization pattern, nativity,endemism, rarity, seasonality of availability, nutritive values, perceived economic values and pressure use index of livestock have not been studied. The present study attempts to enumerate 150 species of fodder representing trees (51 spp.), shrubs (54 spp.) and herbs (45 spp.). Poaceae (19 spp.) and Fabaceae (13 spp.) amongst families and Salix (6 spp.), Ficus,Clematis, and Desmodium (5 spp., each) amongst genera are rich in species. Maximum species were found in the 1801 ~ 2600 m zone, and the remaining two zones showed relatively low diversity. Out of the 150 species, 109 are used in summer, 5 winter and 36 throughout year. During rainy season, mostly grasses are used as fodder. Only 83 species are native to the Himalayan region, one species, Strobilanthus atropuroureus is endemic and 35 species are near endemic. The nutritive values of the fodder species were reviewed, and economic values and status of the species were also assessed. The pressure use index of the species was calculated on the basis of cumulative values of the utilization pattern,altitudinal distribution, availability, status, nativity and endemism. Amongst the species, Grewia oppositifoilia, Morus serrata, Indigofera heterantha,Quercus leucotrichphora, Ulmus villosa, U.wallichiana and Aesculus indica showed highest PUI indicating high preference and pressure. Season wise prioritization of the species for different altitudinal ones has been done. Appropriate strategy and action plan have been suggested for the conservation and management of fodder species.

  10. Estimating Biophysical Parameters of Individual Trees in an Urban Environment Using Small Footprint Discrete-Return Imaging Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randolph H. Wynne

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of biophysical parameters of urban trees is important for urban planning, and for assessing carbon sequestration and ecosystem services. Airborne lidar has been used extensively in recent years to estimate biophysical parameters of trees in forested ecosystems. However, similar studies are largely lacking for individual trees in urban landscapes. Prediction models to estimate biophysical parameters such as height, crown area, diameter at breast height, and biomass for over two thousand individual trees were developed using best subsets multiple linear regression for a study area in central Oklahoma, USA using point cloud distributional metrics from an Optech ALTM 2050 lidar system. A high level of accuracy was attained for estimating individual tree height (R2 = 0.89, dbh (R2 = 0.82, crown diameter (R2 = 0.90, and biomass (R2 = 0.67 using lidar-based metrics for pooled data of all tree species. More variance was explained in species-specific estimates of biomass (R2 = 0.68 for Juniperus virginiana to 0.84 for Ulmus parviflora than in estimates from broadleaf deciduous (R2 = 0.63 and coniferous (R2 = 0.45 taxonomic groups—or the data set analysed as a whole (R2 = 0.67. The metric crown area performed particularly well for most of the species-specific biomass equations, which suggests that tree crowns should be delineated accurately, whether manually or using automatic individual tree detection algorithms, to obtain a good estimation of biomass using lidar-based metrics.

  11. [Composition and seasonal dynamics of litter falls in a broad-leaved Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) mixed forest in Changbai Mountains, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zuo-qiang; Li, Bu-hang; Bai, Xue-jiao; Lin, Fei; Shi, Shuai; Ye, Ji; Wang, Xu-gao; Hao, Zhan-qing

    2010-09-01

    In order to understand the composition and spatiotemporal dynamics of the litter falls at community level in a broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in Changbai Mountains, litter falls were collected from 150 containers in a 25 hm2 permanent plot in 2008. The leaf litters in the containers were from 35 tree species, accounting for 67.3% of the total number (52) of the tree species with DBH > or =1 cm in the plot. The litter falls had a weight 29.39 kg, equivalent to 3918.4 kg x hm(-2) among which, broad leaves, miscellany, needle leaves, and branches occupied 61.7%, 18.0%, 11.7%, and 8.6%, respectively. About 83.8% of the broad leaves were from Tilia amurensis, Fraxinus mandshurica, Quercus mongolica, Acer mono, and Ulmus japonica. The litter falls showed an evident seasonal dynamics, with the peaks occurred from 13 September to 10 October, e.g., the litter falls from T. amurensis and Pinus koraiensis peaked in 13-26 September, while those from Q. mongolica, U. japonica, and A. pseudo-sieboldianum peaked in 27 September to 10 October. There was a great difference in the mass of the litter falls among the containers, e.g., with 150-200 g litters in 68 containers and >500 g litters in 1 container. The species number of the litter falls in a container was 18 in maximum, and was 12 in common (32 containers). Litter falls mass was positively proportional to the sum of the basal area at breast height of parent trees in the plot, and the amount of the litter falls in the containers was related with the locations of the containers, exhibiting an evident spatial heterogeneity in the plot. PMID:21265134

  12. [Quantitative analysis on sharp-tooth oak stands in Qinling Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yonghua; Lei, Ruide; Jia, Xia; He, Xingyuan; Chen, Wei

    2003-12-01

    The arbor stratum of Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata stands included two substratums. Phanerophyta synusium was in first position, and hemicryptophyta was inferior to it. The DBH structures of Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata and Pinus armandii were sinister normal school, which could finish self-regeneration under the natural conditions. The small DBH class individuals of Pinus tabulaeformis were dominant, their DBH classes being distributed irregularly and absent very much. The large DBH classes of Toxicodendron vernicifluum took biggish proportion, belonging to declining population. Young trees were the principal individuals of Castanea mollissima, and in transitional age stage from the young to the middle. Populus davidiana was in the transitional stage from progressive to stable and young-middle age stands. The stands DBH structure was mainly influenced by the DBH variety of Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata population. Quantitative classification (ward's method ward) and ordination (PCA) were used to study the community types of sharp-tooth oak. The results showed that the community could be divided into 6 types: 1. Ass. Smilax stans + Rosa multiflora-Quercus variabilis + Ulmus glaucescens-Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata; 2. Ass. Smilax stans + Lespedeza bicolor-Castanea mollissima-Q. aliena var. acuteserrata; 3. Ass. Corylus mandshurica-Populus davidiana + Dendrobenthamia angustata-Q. aliena var. acuteserrata; 4. Ass. Prunus pseudoccrasus + Corylus mandshurica-Toxicodendron vernicifluum-Q. aliena var. acuteserrata; 5. Ass. Corylus mandshurica + Rosa multiflora-Pinus armandii-Q. aliena var. acuteserrata; and 6. Ass. Sinarundinaria nitida-Pinus armandii + Pinus tabulaeformis-Q. aliena var. acuteserrata. Ward's method ward was better for classifying community types than the other clustering analyses in Qinling Mountains. The PCA results were consistent with the clustering, and demonstrated that the sharp-tooth oak stands were influenced by the altitude, site

  13. Mercury pollution onto soil and plants in the non-ferrous metallurgy and chemical industrial areas of Huludao city%葫芦岛市有色冶金-化工区土壤与植物汞污染

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑冬梅; 王起超; 郑娜; 张少庆

    2007-01-01

    通过对有色冶金-化工区土壤汞、植物汞空间特征的分析,确定不同源对土壤、植物的影响.土壤表层汞含量以锌冶炼厂和氯碱厂及其附近为中心,向外围辐散降低,呈双中心分布,其含量为0.055~14.575 mg·kg-1,平均值为1.435 mg·kg-1;植物叶汞含量为柳树(Salix)>榆树(Ulmus)>槐树(Sophora)>丁香(Cytisus)>杨树(Populus)>松树(Pinus)>柏树(Cyparissus),其汞含量为0.029~2.700 mg·kg-1,平均为0.182 mg·kg-1.植物汞的空间分布特征是以锌冶炼厂及其附近为中心,表明大气沉降作用对植物汞的含量有显著的影响,锌冶炼厂是植物汞含量的主要来源,有色冶金-化工区是我国汞污染最重的地区之一,其生态风险应引起重视.

  14. The effect of natural and planted forest stands on soil fertility in the Hyrcanian region, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAZIYEH RAFEIE JAHED

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rafeie Jahed R, Hosseini SM, Kooch Y. 2014. The effect of natural and planted forest stands on soil fertility in the Hyrcanian region, Iran. Biodiversitas 15: 206-214. In the present work, we studied the effect of natural and planted forest stands on soil fertility in the Hyrcanian region of northern Iran. Natural forest stands (including Acer velutinum Bioss., Zelkova carpinifolia (Pall, Parrotia persica (DC. C.A.Mey, Quercus castaneifolia C.A. Mey., Carpinus betulus L, Mixed planted stand (including Acer velutinum, Ulmus carpinifolia G. Suckow Quercus castaneifolia C.A. Mey, Carpinus betulus L., Tilia begonifolia Scop. Subsp. caucasia (Rupr. Loria; maple (Acer velutinum Bioss plantation, pine (Pinus taeda L. plantation and also clear-cut region (control were considered in this research. Soil samples were collected at two different depths, i.e., 0-15 and 15-30 cm, and characterized with respect to organic carbon (C, total nitrogen (N, available nutrient elements (P, K, Ca and Mg; pH and soil texture. The results showed that the highest amount of total N was found in mixed plantation. The highest amount of available P was detected in maple plantation and pine plantation had the highest available K and organic C than other treatments. The highest and the lowest available Ca and Mg were found in natural forest and control area, respectively. In addition, it was observed that nutrients accumulate in upper layers of the soil. Hardwood stands have been more successful than the conifers stands, so this should be considered in the sustainable management of forests.

  15. Soil magnetic susceptibility reflects soil moisture regimes and the adaptability of tree species to these regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.-S.; Grimley, D.A.; Xu, C.; Dawson, J.O.

    2008-01-01

    Flooded, saturated or poorly drained soils are frequently anaerobic, leading to dissolution of the strongly magnetic minerals, magnetite and maghemite, and a corresponding decrease in soil magnetic susceptibility (MS). In this study of five temperate deciduous forests in east-central Illinois, USA, mean surface soil MS was significantly higher adjacent to upland tree species (31 ?? 10-5 SI) than adjacent to floodplain or lowland tree species (17 ?? 10-5 SI), when comparing regional soils with similar parent material of loessal silt. Although the sites differ in average soil MS for each tree species, the relative order of soil MS means for associated tree species at different locations is similar. Lowland tree species, Celtis occidentalis L., Ulmus americana L., Acer saccharinum L., Carya laciniosa (Michx. f.) Loud., and Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. were associated with the lowest measured soil MS mean values overall and at each site. Tree species' flood tolerance rankings increased significantly, as soil MS values declined, the published rankings having significant correlations with soil MS values for the same species groups. The three published classifications of tree species' flood tolerance were significantly correlated with associated soil MS values at all sites, but most strongly at Allerton Park, the site with the widest range of soil drainage classes and MS values. Using soil MS measurements in forests with soil parent material containing similar initial levels of strongly magnetic minerals can provide a simple, rapid and quantitative method to classify soils according to hydric regimes, including dry conditions, and associated plant composition. Soil MS values thus have the capacity to quantify the continuum of hydric tolerances of tree species and guide tree species selection for reforestation. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Late Mesolithic and early Neolithic forest disturbance: a high resolution palaeoecological test of human impact hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, James B.; Blackford, Jeffrey J.; Rowley-Conwy, Peter A.

    2013-10-01

    The transition in north-west Europe from the hunter-gatherer societies of the Late Mesolithic to the pioneer farming societies of the early Neolithic is not well understood, either culturally or palaeoecologically. In Britain the final transition was rapid but it is unclear whether novel Neolithic attributes were introduced by immigrants who supplanted the native hunter-gatherers, or whether the latest Mesolithic foragers gradually adopted elements of the Neolithic economic package. In this study, relatively coarse- (10 mm interval) and fine-resolution (2 mm), multi-proxy palaeoecological data including pollen, charcoal and NPPs including fungi, have been used to investigate two phases of vegetation disturbance of (a) distinctly Late Mesolithic and (b) early Neolithic age, at an upland site in northern England in a region with both a Neolithic and a Late Mesolithic archaeological presence. We identify and define the palaeoecological characteristics of these two disturbance phases, about a millennium apart, in order to investigate whether differing land-use techniques can be identified and categorised as of either foraging or early farming cultures. The Late Mesolithic phase is defined by the repetitive application of fire to the woodland to encourage a mosaic of productive vegetation regeneration patches, consistent with the promotion of Corylus and to aid hunting. In this phase, weed species including Plantago lanceolata, Rumex and Chenopodiaceae are frequent, taxa which are normally associated with the first farmers. The early Neolithic phase, including an Ulmus decline, has characteristics consistent with 'forest farming', possibly mainly for domestic livestock, with an inferred succession of tree girdling, fire-prepared cultivation, and coppice-woodland management. Such fine-resolution, potentially diagnostic land-use signatures may in future be used to recognise the cultural complexion of otherwise enigmatic woodland disturbance phases during the centuries of

  17. Pollen record from red clay sequence in the central Loess Plateau between 8.10 and 2.60 Ma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Yuzhen; WU Fuli; FANG Xiaomin; LI Jijun; AN Zhisheng; WANG Wei

    2005-01-01

    The Late Miocene and Pliocene are the key periods for understanding the origin and development of the present Asian monsoon circulations and ecologic environments. Here we present a pollen record from Chaona Red Clay section located in the central Loess Plateau in attempt to establish the histories of vegetation and associated climate changes between 8.10 and 2.60 Ma. Our results show that Gramineae-dominated woodland-grasslands developed in this region with Cedrus- and Pinus-characterized montane coniferous forests distributing in higher elevations from 8.10 to 6.73 Ma, probably suggesting a semi-humid climate in a warm-temperate zone. A subsequent expansion of Ulmus- dominated deciduous forests and a synchronous increase of Gramineae-dominated grassland reflect a warmer and more humid climate between 6.73 and 5.67 Ma. The vegetation changed to an Artemisia- and Gramineae-characterized steppe in lower elevations and to a coniferous forest in higher elevations from 5.67 to 3.71 Ma, implying probably a warm and semiarid climate in lowland and hill, and a colder and moister climate in mountain. During this period, a considerable warmer and more humid climate occurred between 4.61 and 4.07 Ma as indicated by pollen assemblages. The period between 3.71 and 2.58 Ma was characterized by the disappearance of Cedrus and Tsuga and also by an abrupt expansion of Cupressaceae, reflecting a drastic enhancement of monsoon-related climatic seasonality.

  18. Environmental changes of Northern Anatolia/Black Sea region during the Eemian and the Holocene: pollen and dinocyst records from sediment cores 22-GC3/8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumilovskikh, Lyudmila; Arz, Helge; Fleitmann, Dominik; Behling, Hermann

    2013-04-01

    In order to improve the knowledge about regional climate development in the Eastern Mediterranean, the DFG-Project "Dynamics of Mid-latitude / Mediterranean climate during the last 150 ka: Black Sea / Northern Anatolian Paleoenvironmental Reconstructions" (DynNAP) was established. For this goal, marine cores 22-GC3 and 22-GC8 from SE Black Sea cover the last 140 kyr BP and were studied by high resolution analysis of pollen and dinoflagellate cysts. These records were used to reconstruct vegetation of Northern Anatolia and hydrological changes of the SE Black Sea during the Holocene and the last interglacial. Age-control of the time series is based on shell oxygen isotopes (ostracods, bivalve) correlated to the isotope records of Uranium series dated stalagmites from Solufar Cave, NW Anatolia. The results show a dominance of steppe vegetation during glacial periods and the spreading of oak steppe forest during the deglaciation periods. The interglacial periods are characterized by the development of more humid forest vegetation (Fagus, Carpinus, Corylus, Ulmus/Zelkova, Ostrya). During both interglacial periods, the Holocene and the Eemian, a Mediterranean - Black Sea reconnection took place, inducing transition from freshwater/brackish to more marine conditions. Patterns of vegetation and hydrological changes during interglacials were not identical during both interglacials. During the Eemian, the submediterranean Ostrya-type dominated during the first half of the interglacial, indicating warm summers, whereas more humid Fagus-Carpinus forests dominated in the second half. During the Holocene, the dominance of Pinus in pollen record indicates generally cooler conditions than in the Eemian. An increase of anthropogenic indicators such as Plantago lanceolata-type, Rumex, Juglans in the late Holocene suggests elevated human activities in Northern Anatolia. Sea-surface temperature and salinity of the Black Sea achieved significant higher values in the Eemian compared to

  19. Using Sex Pheromone and a Multi-Scale Approach to Predict the Distribution of a Rare Saproxylic Beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najihah Musa

    Full Text Available The European red click beetle, Elater ferrugineus L., is associated with wood mould in old hollow deciduous trees. As a result of severe habitat fragmentation caused by human disturbance, it is threatened throughout its distribution range. A new pheromone-based survey method, which is very efficient in detecting the species, was used in the present study to relate the occurrence of E. ferrugineus to the density of deciduous trees. The latter data were from a recently completed regional survey in SE Sweden recording >120,000 deciduous trees. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus increased with increasing amount of large hollow and large non-hollow trees in the surrounding landscape. Quercus robur (oak was found to be the most important substrate for E. ferrugineus, whereas two groups of tree species (Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Ulmus glabra, vs. Acer platanoides, Aesculus hippocastanum, Fraxinus excelsior, Tilia cordata were less important but may be a complement to oak in sustaining populations of the beetle. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus was explained by the density of oaks at two different spatial scales, within the circle radii 327 m and 4658 m. In conclusion, priority should be given to oaks in conservation management of E. ferrugineus, and then to the deciduous trees in the genera listed above. Conservation planning at large spatial and temporal scales appears to be essential for long-term persistence of E. ferrugineus. We also show that occurrence models based on strategic sampling might result in pessimistic predictions. This study demonstrates how pheromone-based monitoring make insects excellent tools for sustained feedback to models for landscape conservation management.

  20. Using Sex Pheromone and a Multi-Scale Approach to Predict the Distribution of a Rare Saproxylic Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Najihah; Andersson, Klas; Burman, Joseph; Andersson, Fredrik; Hedenström, Erik; Jansson, Nicklas; Paltto, Heidi; Westerberg, Lars; Winde, Inis; Larsson, Mattias C.; Bergman, Karl-Olof; Milberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    The European red click beetle, Elater ferrugineus L., is associated with wood mould in old hollow deciduous trees. As a result of severe habitat fragmentation caused by human disturbance, it is threatened throughout its distribution range. A new pheromone-based survey method, which is very efficient in detecting the species, was used in the present study to relate the occurrence of E. ferrugineus to the density of deciduous trees. The latter data were from a recently completed regional survey in SE Sweden recording >120,000 deciduous trees. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus increased with increasing amount of large hollow and large non-hollow trees in the surrounding landscape. Quercus robur (oak) was found to be the most important substrate for E. ferrugineus, whereas two groups of tree species (Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Ulmus glabra, vs. Acer platanoides, Aesculus hippocastanum, Fraxinus excelsior, Tilia cordata) were less important but may be a complement to oak in sustaining populations of the beetle. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus was explained by the density of oaks at two different spatial scales, within the circle radii 327 m and 4658 m. In conclusion, priority should be given to oaks in conservation management of E. ferrugineus, and then to the deciduous trees in the genera listed above. Conservation planning at large spatial and temporal scales appears to be essential for long-term persistence of E. ferrugineus. We also show that occurrence models based on strategic sampling might result in pessimistic predictions. This study demonstrates how pheromone-based monitoring make insects excellent tools for sustained feedback to models for landscape conservation management. PMID:23840415

  1. Analysis of serpentinophytes from north-east of Portugal for trace metal accumulation--relevance to the management of mine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, H; Prasad, M N V; Pratas, J

    2004-03-01

    In north-east of Portugal, the serpentinized area is about 8000 ha with a characteristic geology and flora. The serpentine plant community and respective soils were analyzed to examine the trace metal budget in different tissues of the plants exhibiting resistance to trace metals. One hundred and thirty five plant species belonging to 39 families and respective soils have been analyzed for total Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn. Substantial amounts of Ni, Cr, Co and Mn were detected in plant tissues which are listed below: NI: Alyssum serpyllifolium (38105); Bromus hordeaceus (1467); Linaria spartea (492); Plantago radicata (140); Lavandula stoechas (118) and Cistus salvifolius (114); CR: L. spartea (706.7); Ulmus procera (173.4); A. serpyllifolium (129.3); Cistus ladanifer (40.8); L. stoechas (29.5); P. radicata (27.81); Setariopsis verticillata (25.7); Plantago lanceolata (24); Digitalis purpurea (23.4); Logfia minima (23.1); Arenaria querioides (23); Hieracium peleteranum (22.7); Arenaria montana (14.5); CO: A. serpyllifolium (145.1); L. spartea (63.2); P. radicata (10.4); H. peleteranum (7.3); Lepidium heterophyllum (6.9); A. querioides (6.6); C. salvifolius (6.5); C. ladanifer (6.3); L. stoechas (6.1); Anthyllis lotoides (6.1); L. minima (6.1); Euphorbia falcata (5.7) and B. hordeaceus (5.6); MN: A. serpyllifolium (830); L. spartea (339); L. stoechas (187.1); L. minima (182.7); Castanea sativa (125); Spergula pentandra (124); P. radicata (119); Cytisus striatus (115.4); Quercus pyrenaica (110); Teucrium scorodonia (109.4); Fraxinus vulgaris (109); Anthyllis sampaiana (108); Quercus ilex (108). The significance of serpentine flora, need for conservation of these fragile and environmentally invaluable plant resources for possible use for in situ remediation of metalliferous substrates are presented in this paper. PMID:14675842

  2. Vegetation response to climate forcing during the last glacial maximum and deglaciation in the East Carpathians: attenuated response to maximum cooling and increased biomass burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eniko M. MAGYARI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Carpathian Mountains were one of the main mountain reserves of the boreal and cool temperate flora during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM in East-Central Europe. Previous studies demonstrated late glacial vegetation dynamics in this area; however, our knowledge on the LGM vegetation composition is limited due to the scarcity of suitable sedimentary archives. Here we present a new record of vegetation, fire and lacustrine sedimentation from the youngest volcanic crater of the Carpathians (Lake St Anne, Lacul Sfânta Ana, Szent-Anna-tó to examine environmental change in this region during the LGM and the subsequent deglaciation. Our record indicates the persistence of boreal forest steppe vegetation (Pinus sylvestris, Pinus mugo, Pinus cembra, Betula, Salix, Populus, Picea abies in the foreland and low mountain zone of the East Carpathians and Juniperus shrubland at higher elevation. We demonstrate attenuated response of the regional vegetation to maximum global cooling. Between ~22,870 and 19,150 cal yr BP we find increased regional biomass burning that is antagonistic with the global trend. Increased regional fire activity suggests extreme continentality likely with relatively warm and dry summers. We also demonstratexerophytic steppe expansion directly after the LGM, from ~19,150 cal yr BP, and regional increase in boreal woodland cover with Pinus and Betula from 16,300 cal yr BP. Plant macrofossils indicate local (950 m a.s.l. establishment of Betula nana and B. pubescens at 15,150 cal yr BP, Pinus sylvestris at 14,700 cal yr BP and Larix decidua at 12,870 cal yr BP. Pollen data furthermore hints at the regional presence of some temperate deciduous trees during the LGM (Fagus sylvatica, Carpinus betulus, Corylus avellana, Fraxinus excelsior, Ulmus. We also present pollen based quantitative climate reconstruction from this site and discuss its connection with other climate reconstructions and climate modeling results. 

  3. Seeing the forest through the trees: Considering roost-site selection at multiple spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachowski, David S.; Rota, Christopher T.; Dobony, Christopher A.; Ford, W. Mark; Edwards, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of bat species is one of the most daunting wildlife conservation challenges in North America, requiring detailed knowledge about their ecology to guide conservation efforts. Outside of the hibernating season, bats in temperate forest environments spend their diurnal time in day-roosts. In addition to simple shelter, summer roost availability is as critical as maternity sites and maintaining social group contact. To date, a major focus of bat conservation has concentrated on conserving individual roost sites, with comparatively less focus on the role that broader habitat conditions contribute towards roost-site selection. We evaluated roost-site selection by a northern population of federally-endangered Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) at Fort Drum Military Installation in New York, USA at three different spatial scales: landscape, forest stand, and individual tree level. During 2007–2011, we radiotracked 33 Indiana bats (10 males, 23 females) and located 348 roosting events in 116 unique roost trees. At the landscape scale, bat roost-site selection was positively associated with northern mixed forest, increased slope, and greater distance from human development. At the stand scale, we observed subtle differences in roost site selection based on sex and season, but roost selection was generally positively associated with larger stands with a higher basal area, larger tree diameter, and a greater sugar maple (Acer saccharum) component. We observed no distinct trends of roosts being near high-quality foraging areas of water and forest edges. At the tree scale, roosts were typically in American elm (Ulmus americana) or sugar maple of large diameter (>30 cm) of moderate decay with loose bark. Collectively, our results highlight the importance of considering day roost needs simultaneously across multiple spatial scales. Size and decay class of individual roosts are key ecological attributes for the Indiana bat, however, larger-scale stand structural

  4. Species Structure of Plants in the Báb Forest Clearcuts

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    Pilková Ivana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we have summarized the results of a research which was realized in the Báb forest (Veľký Báb, Nitra upland. The target of the research is the evaluation of species composition in the clearcuts in 2012. In the Báb forest, during spring records there were 80 and during summer records 102 taxa of taxons recorded. The woody plants of spring and summer reports were mainly represented by typical forest species. Moreover, these are woody plants of forest open parts and there are also two invasive woody Ailanthus altissima, Robinia pseudoacacia plants documented. During the summer reports, three new woody plants Clematis vitalba, Lonicera caprifolium, Ulmus minor appeared in the herb layer. Herbs are represented during the spring reports by typical spring ephemeroids, geophytes and forest herbs presenting the spring synusia. During the summer reports, ephemeroids are absent and there were new species, mainly Alliaria petiolata, Convallaria majalis, Lithospermum purpurocaeruleum, Melica nutans of forest herbs reported. In the clearcut areas also clearcut, synanthropic, mainly Cirsium vulgare, Lamium purpureum, Sambucus ebulus, Serratula tinctoria, Torilis japonica and invasive species Aster lanceolatus, A. novi-belgii agg., Erigeron annuus ssp. annuus, Impatiens parviflora occurred. Generally, we can state that the diversity of clearcut plant taxa is high. Taxa are represented by forest woody plants, woody plants of clearcuts, forest open parts and forest edges. Within clearcut herbs, there are typical forest species of oak-hornbeam forests represented, species of clearcuts and human-influenced posts and there are also invasive taxa found

  5. Windthrow and salvage logging in an old-growth hemlock-northern hardwoods forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, K.D.; Schulte, L.A.; Guntenspergen, G.R.

    2009-01-01

    Although the initial response to salvage (also known as, post-disturbance or sanitary) logging is known to vary among system components, little is known about longer term forest recovery. We examine forest overstory, understory, soil, and microtopographic response 25 years after a 1977 severe wind disturbance on the Flambeau River State Forest in Wisconsin, USA, a portion of which was salvage logged. Within this former old-growth hemlock-northern hardwoods forest, tree dominance has shifted from Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) to broad-leaf deciduous species (Ulmus americana, Acer saccharum, Tilia americana, Populus tremuloides, and Betula alleghaniensis) in both the salvaged and unsalvaged areas. While the biological legacies of pre-disturbance seedlings, saplings, and mature trees were initially more abundant in the unsalvaged area, regeneration through root suckers and stump sprouts was common in both areas. After 25 years, tree basal area, sapling density, shrub layer density, and seedling cover had converged between unsalvaged and salvaged areas. In contrast, understory herb communities differed between salvaged and unsalvaged forest, with salvaged forest containing significantly higher understory herb richness and cover, and greater dominance of species benefiting from disturbance, especially Solidago species. Soil bulk density, pH, organic carbon content, and organic nitrogen content were also significantly higher in the salvaged area. The structural legacy of tip-up microtopography remains more pronounced in the unsalvaged area, with significantly taller tip-up mounds and deeper pits. Mosses and some forest herbs, including Athyrium filix-femina and Hydrophyllum virginianum, showed strong positive responses to this tip-up microrelief, highlighting the importance of these structural legacies for understory biodiversity. In sum, although the pathways of recovery differed, this forest appeared to be as resilient to the compound disturbances of windthrow

  6. New insights on Late Quaternary Asian palaeomonsoon variability and the timing of the Last Glacial Maximum in southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Charlotte G.; Jones, Richard T.; Langdon, Peter G.; Leng, Melanie J.; Zhang, Enlou

    2011-04-01

    A ˜6.35 m core (06SD) was retrieved from Lake Shudu, Yunnan Province, China. The sediments spanning the period ˜22.6-10.5 kcal. yr BP (6.35-1.44 m) were analysed using a combination of variables including pollen, charcoal, particle size, magnetic susceptibility and loss-on-ignition. The resulting palaeorecord provides a high-resolution reconstruction of Late Pleistocene to Early Holocene climatic and environmental changes in southwestern China. Our findings indicate that from c. 22.6 to 17.7 kcal. yr BP, vegetation assemblages were primarily aligned to sparse xerophytic grassland/tundra or cold-tolerant boreal Pinus forest, indicating that climatic conditions in southwestern China were cold and dry. However, from c. 17.7 to 17.4 kcal. yr BP, the Lake Shudu record is punctuated by marked environmental changes. These include the establishment of denser vegetation cover, a marked expansion of boreal Pinus forest and enhanced hydrological activity in the catchment over centennial timescales, perhaps suggesting that stepwise variations in the Asian Monsoon were triggering fundamental environmental changes over sub-millennial timescales. Thereafter, the pollen record captures a period of environmental instability reflected in fluctuations across all of the variables, which persists until c. 17.1 kcal. yr BP. After c. 17.1 kcal. yr BP, the expansion of steppe vegetation cover and cold-cool mixed forest consisting of mesophilous vegetation such as Tsuga and Picea, thermophilous trees including Ulmus and deciduous Quercus inferred from the Lake Shudu pollen record point to the establishment of warmer, wetter and perhaps more seasonal conditions associated with a strengthening Asian Summer Monsoon during the shift from Pleistocene to Holocene climatic conditions.

  7. Empty seeds are not always bad: simultaneous effect of seed emptiness and masting on animal seed predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Ramón; Venturas, Martin; Gil, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal) and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered) to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis). In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P). Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds) was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds) did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators) consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed. PMID:23776503

  8. Empty seeds are not always bad: simultaneous effect of seed emptiness and masting on animal seed predation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Perea

    Full Text Available Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis. In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P. Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed.

  9. Tree and stand transpiration in a Midwestern bur oak savanna after elm encroachment and restoration thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbjornsen, H.; Tomer, M.D.; Gomez-Cardenas, M.; Brudvig, L.A.; Greenan, C.M.; Schilling, K.

    2007-01-01

    Oak savannas, once common in the Midwest, are now isolated remnants within agricultural landscapes. Savanna remnants are frequently encroached by invasive trees to become woodlands. Thinning and prescribed burning can restore savanna structure, but the ecohydrological effects of managing these remnants are poorly understood. In this study, we measured sap flow (Js) to quantify transpiration in an Iowa bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa) savanna woodland encroached by elms (Ulmus americana), and in an adjacent restored savanna after thinning to remove elms, during summer 2004. Savanna oaks had greater mean daily Js (35.9 L dm-2 day-1) than woodland oaks (20.7 L dm-2 day-1) and elms (12.4 L dm-2 day-1). The response of Js to vapor pressure deficit (D) was unexpectedly weak, although oaks in both stands showed negative correlation between daily Js and D for D > 0.4 kPa. An earlier daily peak in Js in the elm trees showed a possible advantage for water uptake. As anticipated, the woodland's stand transpiration was greater (1.23 mm day-1) than the savanna's (0.35 mm day-1), yet the savanna achieved 30% of the woodland's transpiration with only 11% of its sapwood area. The difference in transpiration influenced water table depths, which were 2 m in the savanna and 6.5 m in the woodland. Regionally, row-crop agriculture has increased groundwater recharge and raised water tables, providing surplus water that perhaps facilitated elm encroachment. This has implications for restoration of savanna remnants. If achieving a savanna ecohydrology is an aim of restoration, then restoration strategies may require buffers, or targeting of large or hydrologically isolated remnants. ?? 2007.

  10. 温度及盐胁迫对新疆两种锦鸡儿种子萌发的影响%Influence of Temperature and Salt Stress on Seed Germination of Two Species of Caragana Fabr.in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋彬; 朱小虎; 韩娜; 李芳; 黄俊华

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigated the specific properties of the seeds of two species of Caragana from Xinjiang, the characteristics of their germination under different heterothermic conditions and the salt tolerance at their germination stage. The results indicated that: Low temperature(5 ℃/2 ℃) completely suppressed seed germination of two speceis of Caragana. Temperature elevation can obviously promote the seed germination. The optimal temperature of seed germination for C. pumila and C. stenophylla is 30 ℃/15 ℃. Under the conditions of salt stress,there were significant negative relationships between seed germination rate of two species of Caragana and salinity. NaCl solution stress lower than 0. 3 mol/L had little influence on seed germination of two species of Caragana . When the ungerminated seeds of Caragana in NaCI solution were transfered into distilled water,the seeds of Caragana still had a certain germination ability. Their germination rate was decreased with the increase of NaCI solution concentration. The salt tolerance of C. stenophylla at germination stage were a little stronger than that of C. pumila . The salt tolerance ability of the seeds at germination stage and salt content in habitat soil were basically consistent with each other.%对新疆天然分布的两种锦鸡儿属植物种子特性、在不同变温条件下的种子萌发特点及种子萌发期的耐盐性进行了研究.结果表明,5℃/2℃低温完全抑制了种子的萌发,温度的升高对种子萌发具有明显的促进作用,草原锦鸡儿与狭叶锦鸡儿种子萌发的最适变温均为30℃/15℃.盐胁迫条件下,两种锦鸡儿种子发芽率、发芽指数与盐浓度之间存在着显著的负相关关系,低于0.3 mol/L的NaCl溶液胁迫对草原锦鸡儿、狭叶锦鸡儿种子萌发的影响不大.将在盐溶液中不萌发的锦鸡儿种子转移至蒸馏水后,种子仍具有一定的萌发能力,恢复萌发率表现为随盐溶

  11. A Preliminary Survey of AM Fungal Diversity in Eastern Shandong Orchards%山东东部地区果园AM真菌多样性的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪滨; 郭绍霞; 李敏; 刘润进; 赵洪海

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the species diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal ( AM) fungi in fruit tree plantations, root zone soil samples of pear ( Pyrus bretschneideri ) , grape ( Vitis vinifera ) , cherry ( Cerasus pseudocerasus ) , apple ( Malus pumila ) and Chinese date ( Zizyphus jujuba ) grown in orchards in Weifang, Qingdao, and Yantai of Eastern Shandong were collected in October 2011 to isolate and identify AM fungal species. A total of 29 species belonging to Acaulospora, Glomus, Gigaspora and Scutellospora were identified. Acaulospora and Glomus were the dominant genera, and Acaulospra bireticulata and Glomus reticulatum were the dominant species in all of the orchard investigated. The spore density of AM fungi in the root zone soil of pear, grape, cherry, apple and jujube trees was 137/50g, 109 /50g, 268/50g, 216/50g andl88/50g soil respectively, while the species richness was 12, 14, 12,12 and 11 respectively. Shannon indexes AM fungal species in various orchards showed pear orchard > grape orchard > Cherry orchard > apple orchard > Chinese date orchard. There were significant positive correlation between available P contents and spore density, and a negative correlation between soil pH and Shannon indices of AM fungi under the conditions of within the range of chemical and physical property of the present investigation regions.%作者于2011年10月对山东潍坊、青岛和烟台等地果树种植园土壤中丛枝菌根(AM)真菌物种多样性进行了调查.共分离到AM真菌4属:无梗囊霉属(Acaulospora)、球囊霉属(Glomus)、巨孢囊霉属(Gigaspora)和盾巨孢囊霉属(Scutellospora)共29种.其中,无梗囊霉属和球囊霉属是山东东部地区果园的优势属,双网无梗囊霉(Acaulospora bireticulata)和网状球囊霉(Glomus reticulatum)则是优势种.梨(Pyrus bretschneideri)、葡萄(Vitis vinifera)、樱桃(Cerasus pseudocerasus)、苹果(Malus pumila)和枣(Zizyphus jujuba)根围AM真菌孢子密度分别为137个/50g

  12. Evaluación de la calidad del aceite de once semillas de leguminosas del desierto sonorense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortega-Nieblas, M.

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to generate information that lead to an efficient and diversifícate use of the natural resources that the Sonoran Desert offers, as it is the great variety of Leguminosae or Fabaceae plants, oils from seeds or Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis velutina (mezquite, Cercidium floridium (palo azul, Cercidium praecox (palo de brea, Acacia constricta (vinorama, Acacia cymbyspina (chirahui, Acacia occidentalis (tesota, Acacia mcmurphy (tepehuaje, Desmanthus palmeri (mezquitillo, Caesalpinia caladenia (palo dorado, and Caesalpinia pumila (palo piojo were analyzed. The oils were extracted from each seed with hexane, and their physicochemical characteristics were evaluated. The oil content varied from 9 to 16% in the different seeds. Their indexes of acidity, peroxides and free fatty acid content were low and within the accepted values. Fatty acids separated by gas chromatography predominating indicate the oleic and linoleic. All analyzed crude oils were of good quality, comparable to commercial and oils of wild legume seeds from the same region.

    A fin de generar información que conduzca a un uso eficiente y diversificado de los recursos naturales que ofrece el Desierto Sonorense, como es la gran variedad de plantas de la familia Leguminosae ó Fabaceae, se analizaron los aceites de las semillas: Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis velutina (mezquite, (palo azul, Cercidium praecox (palo de brea, Acacia constricta (vinorama, Acacia cymbyspina (chirahui, Acacia occidentalis (tésota, Acacia mcmurphy (tepeguaje, Desmanthus palmeri (mezquitillo, Caesalpinia caladenia (palo dorado, y Caesalpinia pumila (palo piojo. Los aceites de cada semilla fueron extraídos con hexano, se evaluaron las características fisico-químicas de calidad y la cuantificación de ácidos grasos por cromatografía de gases. El contenido de

  13. 蔷薇科中5种多毛小蠹寄主植物的挥发物成分研究%Volatile Constituents of Five Rosaceous Host Plants of Scolytus seulensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任龙; 许志春; 田呈明

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]Scolytus seulensis is an important boring insect and a major threat to five kinds of Rosaceae trees; Amygdalus communi,Prunus salicina, Malus pumila,Amygdalus persica, Prunus armeniaca. We here tried to identify and analyze the volatiles from five kinds of Rosaceae trees in order to provide information for finding the behavioral chemicals for this bark beetle. [ Method ] The volatiles from five important host plant trees were analyzed by using ATD - GC - MS. The relative levels of each chemical component were determined by applying normalization methods. [Result] In total, 18 different compounds were identified in the Amygdalus communis, 12 were present in Prunus salicina, 17 in Malus pumila, 22 in Amygdalus persica, 24 in Prunus armeniaca. They fall into five categories; alkenes, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones and esters. The major volatile components of these five plants were alkenes. Importantly, 9 of the volatile components were common to all five plants. They were 3 - Methylbutyraldehyde, Hexanal, Heptaldehyde, alpha - pinene, Benzaldehyde, methyl - heptenone, Octylaldehyde, Nonylaldehyde, Decenol. [Conclusion] Volatiles of each tree species is different in type and content, but volatiles of the five kinds of plants have a common characteristic, they all have highest concentrations of aldehydes. These substances may constitute a specific chemical fingerprint of the Rosaceae trees.%[目的]系统研究多毛小蠹5种蔷薇科寄主:巴旦杏树、李树、苹果树、桃树以及杏树等5种果树的挥发性物质,为多毛小蠹植物源引诱剂的开发提供依据.[方法]采用动态顶空和气相色谱-质谱联用技术,对5种寄主植物的挥发性物质进行采集,检测和分析.[结果]5种植物分别鉴定出83种挥发性物质,主要有醛类、烯类、醇类、酮类、酯类等,各树种的挥发物中醛类物质最为丰富.5种植物共有的化合物有9种,分别为异戊醛、己醛、庚醛、苯甲醛、辛醛、壬醛

  14. 浙江天童常绿阔叶林藤本植物的适应生态学 Ⅰ. 叶片解剖特征的比较%ADAPTIVE ECOLOGY OF LIANAS IN TIANTONG EVERGREEN BROAD-LEAVED FOREST, ZHEJIANG, CHINA I. LEAF ANATOMICAL CHARACTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡永立; 宋永昌

    2001-01-01

    The ecological adaptations and leaf characters of ten genera (including eleven species of liana) were studied in evergreen broad-leaved forest of Tiantong Forest Park, Zhejiang province, China. The results are as follows: 1) Despite the mesophyte leaf form of the eleven liana species there were significant differences in leaf anatomical characters among them and some differences among different plants of an individual. These differences are mainly controlled by genetic factors, but environmental factors (mainly light and water or humidity) also had an important influence on them and these may oppose forms required in climbing methods; 2) Based on leaf adaptive characters the 11 species may be divided into three adaptive kinds: sun-adapted taxa or xerophytes (Broussonetia kaempferi, Ficus pumila and F. sarmentosa var. henryi), shade-adapted taxa (Morinda umbellata, Millettia reticulata) and mesophytes (Ampelopsis cantoniensis, Hedera nepalensis var. sinensis, Smilax lanceiofolia var. opaca, Celastrus rosthonianus, Dioscorea cirrhosa, Dalbergia millettii); 3) Rates of variation of different anatomical characters adapting to light or humidity differed among species. The ability to vary these characters, which may be influenced by changing environmental factors during the growth of liana, may be important for liana to adapt to the different environmental conditions it experiences through its life.%利用解剖学方法对浙江天童森林公园常绿阔叶林的10属11种木质藤本叶片的解剖特征进行了比较和因子分析,结果表明:藤本植物叶片结构在不同种类之间具有明显的差异,同种藤本的不同植物体的叶片也存在一定的差异; 这些差异除受遗传因子控制外,环境因子(主要为光照和水分)也有重要作用; 攀援方式对藤本叶片特征有一定影响,但未表现出规律性。尽管叶片的基本结构仍属中生类型,但也表现出一定的趋异适应,根

  15. Vegetation drives belowground biogeochemical gradients and C accumulation in an ombrotrophic bog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Klaus-Holger; Galka, Mariusz; Borken, Werner

    2016-04-01

    Peat decomposition and C accumulation is determined by hydrology and climate and by concomitant changes in vegetation and changes in the quality of carbon inputs. Especially changes from moss dominated to vascular plant dominated vegetation affect belowground biogeochemistry and decomposition, as Sphagnum mosses provide refractory, nutrient poor litter, while vascular plants produce more labile litter and may have aerenchymatic rooting systems. In-site variability in moisture and vegetation, e.g. hummock-hollow structures, lawns, and medium scale surface topography, could thus cause large differences in decomposition and C accumulation within a site. In order to understand within-site variability and to see how C accumulation, common decomposition indices, and major biogeochemical parameters in the pore waters are affected by site specific conditions and vegetation, we investigated a moisture-vegetation gradient along a 800 m transect in an oceanic, ombrotrophic bog in Southern Patagonia. Along the transect, conditions changed from wet, Sphagnum dominated (S. magellanicum), to intermediate drier and wetter with Sphagnum/shrubs mixtures, sedges and rushes to more wind exposed, dominated by cushion plants (mainly Astelia pumila). We hypothesized that under arenchymatic vascular plants, decomposition is enhanced and C accumulation is decreased. Vegetation development was elucidated by plant macrofossils and carbon accumulation was attributed to the respective vegetation. The transect demonstrated a high variability of depth records within the bog. At the two most contrasting sites, the uppermost 1 meter persistently dominated by either Sphagnum magellanicum or Astelia pumila had accumulated over 2400 or 4200 years, respectively. Accordingly, the peat under cushion plants was much more decomposed, with C/N ratios of 20-50 compared to C/N ratios of 40-80 under Sphagnum patches. Mixed sites in between had C/N ratios of 30-90, depending on plant community, and

  16. 大兴安岭北部森林景观对气候变化的响应%Responses of boreal forest landscape in northern Great Xing' an Mountains of Northeast China to climate change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓娜; 贺红士; 吴志伟; 梁宇

    2012-01-01

    With the combination of forest landscape model (LANDIS) and forest gap model (LINKAGES) , this paper simulated the effects of climate change on the boreal forest landscape in the Great Xing' an Mountains, and compared the direct effects of climate change and the effects of climate warming-induced fires on the forest landscape. The results showed that under the current climate conditions and fire disturbances, the forest landscape in the study area could maintain its dynamic balance, and Larix gmelinii was still the dominant tree species. Under the future climate and fire disturbances scenario, the distribution area of L. gmelinii and Pinus pumila would be decreased , while that of Betula platyphylla, Populus davidiana, Populus suaveolens, Chosenia arbuti-folia, and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica would be increased, and the forest fragmentation and forest diversity would have an increase. The changes of the forest landscape lagged behind climate change. Climate warming would increase the growth of most tree species except L. gmelinii, while the increased fires would increase the distribution area of P. davidiana, P. suaveolens, and C. ar-butifolia and decrease the distribution area of L. gmelinii, P. sylvestris var. mongolica, and P. pumila. The effects of climate warming-induced fires on the forest landscape were almost equal to the direct effects of climate change, and aggravated the direct effects of climate change on forest composition, forest landscape fragmentation, and forest landscape diversity.%将森林景观模型LANDIS和林窗模型LINKAGES相结合,模拟气候变化对大兴安岭森林景观的影响,并比较分析了气候变化对森林景观的直接影响与通过火干扰改变所产生的影响.结果表明:维持当前气候和火干扰情景的条件下,森林景观保持动态平衡,兴安落叶松占据优势树种地位,未来气候情景下,兴安落叶松和偃松的分布面积降低,白桦、山杨、甜杨和钻天柳等阔叶树

  17. Inhibition of human cytochrome p450 2c8-catalyzed amodiaquine n-desethylation: Effect of five traditionally and commonly used herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasotha Devi Muthiah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Southeast Asia and many parts of the world, herbal products are increasingly used in parallel with modern medicine. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effects of herbs commonly used in Southeast Asia on activity of cytochrome P450 2C8 (CYP2C8, an important human hepatic enzyme in drug metabolism. Materials and Methods: The selected herbs, such as Eurycoma longifolia Jack (ELJ, Labisia pumila (LP, Echinacea purpurea (EP, Andrographis paniculata (AP, and Ginkgo biloba (GB, were subjected to inhibition studies using an in vitro CYP2C8 activity marker, amodiaquine N-desethylase assay. Inhibition parameters, inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50, and Kivalues were determined to study the potency and mode of inhibition. Results: All herbs inhibited CYP2C8 with the following order of potency: LP > ELJ > GB > AP > EP. LP and ELJ inhibited potently at Ki's of 2 and 4 times the Kiof quercetin, the positive control. The inhibition by LP was uncompetitive in nature as compared to competitive or mixed type inhibition observed with other herbs. GB exhibited moderate inhibitory effect at a Ki6 times larger than quercetin Ki. AP and EP, on the other hand, showed only weak inhibition. Conclusion: The herbs we chose represented the more commonly used herbs in Southeast Asia where collision of tradition and modernization in healthcare, if not properly managed, may lead to therapeutic misadventures. We conclude that concurrent consumption of some herbs, in particular, LP and ELJ, may have relevance in drug-herb interactions via CYP2C8 inhibition in vivo.

  18. Integrated assessment of climate change impact on surface runoff contamination by pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Patrick; Sheedy, Claudia; Rousseau, Alain N; Bourgeois, Gaétan; Chouinard, Gérald

    2016-07-01

    Pesticide transport by surface runoff depends on climate, agricultural practices, topography, soil characteristics, crop type, and pest phenology. To accurately assess the impact of climate change, these factors must be accounted for in a single framework by integrating their interaction and uncertainty. This article presents the development and application of a framework to assess the impact of climate change on pesticide transport by surface runoff in southern Québec (Canada) for the 1981-2040 period. The crop enemies investigated were: weeds for corn (Zea mays); and for apple orchard (Malus pumila), 3 insect pests (codling moth [Cydia pomonella], plum curculio [Conotrachelus nenuphar], and apple maggot [Rhagoletis pomonella]), 2 diseases (apple scab [Venturia inaequalis], and fire blight [Erwinia amylovora]). A total of 23 climate simulations, 19 sites, and 11 active ingredients were considered. The relationship between climate and phenology was accounted for by bioclimatic models of the Computer Centre for Agricultural Pest Forecasting (CIPRA) software. Exported loads of pesticides were evaluated at the edge-of-field scale using the Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM), simulating both hydrology and chemical transport. A stochastic model was developed to account for PRZM parameter uncertainty. Results of this study indicate that for the 2011-2040 period, application dates would be advanced from 3 to 7 days on average with respect to the 1981-2010 period. However, the impact of climate change on maximum daily rainfall during the application window is not statistically significant, mainly due to the high variability of extreme rainfall events. Hence, for the studied sites and crop enemies considered, climate change impact on pesticide transported in surface runoff is not statistically significant throughout the 2011-2040 period. Integr Environ Assess Managem 2016;12:559-571. © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada 2015; Published 2015 SETAC. PMID:26331624

  19. Cuticular behavior of cadmium studies using isolated plant cuticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamel, A.R.; Gambonnet, B.; Genova, C.; Jourdain, A.

    The cuticular retention and penetration of /sup 115m/Cd (metastable cadmium-115) were studied using isolated pear (Pyrus communis L. Passe Crassane) leaves, and apple (Malus pumila Mill. Akane) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruit cuticles to obtain a better understanding of the behavior of Cd deposited on the aerial parts of plants. Results show that Cd, as CdCl/sub 2/, may be taken up by isolated cuticles. The mean value calculated from results obtained with different cuticular species was 1.4 ..mu..g/ Cd/cm/sup 2/ with CdCl/sub 2/ (11.8 mg Cd/L, pH approx. = 6). The cuticular retention depended greatly on the plant species when results are expressed on the basis of the dry weight. The study of the washing with water or exchange solutions suggests that the retention corresponds to a fraction sorbed as solute and to another fraction constituted by exchangeable Cd ions. At first it increased rapidly, then progressively tended to a saturation level as the concentration varied from 0.5 mg to 1.1 Cd/L. It was observed with dewaxed cuticles that the cuticular matrix was predominantly implicated in the retention. There appeared an interaction with Zn, suggesting a competition for the same sites of fixation. It was possible to reveal the cuticular penetration of Cd through intact cuticles; it was very slow but was greater with diluted HCl than with pure water as a receiver. These results are consistent with data obtained from experiments on the entire plants, showing that the greatest part of Cd deposited on leaves is recovered at the deposit place.

  20. Relationship between soil environment and occurrence of crown gall disease in Shanghai%上海地区果树根癌病发生与土壤环境的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任利利; 王焱; 马风林; 何兴兵; 宋福强; 田兴军

    2007-01-01

    果树根癌病(致病菌为根癌土壤杆菌Agrobacterium tumefaciens)目前在上海地区大面积发生,严重危害桃(Amygdalus persica L.)、梨(Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.)、苹果(Malus pumila Mill.)等果树的生长.本文采用化学分析及微生物培养等方法,研究了上海地区桃树和梨树根癌病的发生与土壤因子(土壤含水量、pH值、有机质含量),土壤细菌以及与不同果树品种之间的关系.结果表明:土壤含水量、pH值、有机质含量、土壤中微生物的多样性和微生物总体数目与病害的发生没有显著的相关性,但是土壤中存在的个别菌种对病害的发生有显著的影响,初步分析显示Agrobacterium sp.和 Bacillus sp.对根癌病的发生具有抑制作用,而Psuedomonas sp. 对根癌病的发生可能具有一定的促进作用.同时不同果树品种的病害发生率之间有显著性的差异.

  1. Absent or low rate of adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus of bats (Chiroptera.

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    Irmgard Amrein

    Full Text Available Bats are the only flying mammals and have well developed navigation abilities for 3D-space. Even bats with comparatively small home ranges cover much larger territories than rodents, and long-distance migration by some species is unique among small mammals. Adult proliferation of neurons, i.e., adult neurogenesis, in the dentate gyrus of rodents is thought to play an important role in spatial memory and learning, as indicated by lesion studies and recordings of neurons active during spatial behavior. Assuming a role of adult neurogenesis in hippocampal function, one might expect high levels of adult neurogenesis in bats, particularly among fruit- and nectar-eating bats in need of excellent spatial working memory. The dentate gyrus of 12 tropical bat species was examined immunohistochemically, using multiple antibodies against proteins specific for proliferating cells (Ki-67, MCM2, and migrating and differentiating neurons (Doublecortin, NeuroD. Our data show a complete lack of hippocampal neurogenesis in nine of the species (Glossophaga soricina, Carollia perspicillata, Phyllostomus discolor, Nycteris macrotis, Nycteris thebaica, Hipposideros cyclops, Neoromicia rendalli, Pipistrellus guineensis, and Scotophilus leucogaster, while it was present at low levels in three species (Chaerephon pumila, Mops condylurus and Hipposideros caffer. Although not all antigens were recognized in all species, proliferation activity in the subventricular zone and rostral migratory stream was found in all species, confirming the appropriateness of our methods for detecting neurogenesis. The small variation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis within our sample of bats showed no indication of a correlation with phylogenetic relationship, foraging strategy, type of hunting habitat or diet. Our data indicate that the widely accepted notion of adult neurogenesis supporting spatial abilities needs to be considered carefully. Given their astonishing longevity, certain bat

  2. Bioreactor technology for herbal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plants have been an important source of medicine for thousands of years and herbs are hot currency in the world today. During the last decade, popularity of alternative medicine increased significantly worldwide with noticeable trend. This in turn accelerated the global trade of herbal raw materials and herbal products and created greater scope for Asian countries that possess the major supply of herbal raw materials within their highly diversified tropical rain forest. As such, advanced bioreactor culture system possesses a great potential for large scale production than the traditional tissue culture system. Bioreactor cultures have many advantages over conventional cultures. Plant cells in bioreactors can grow fast and vigorously in shorter period as the culture conditions in bioreactor such as temperature, pH, concentrations of dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide and nutrients can be optimised by on-line manipulation. Nutrient uptake can also be enhanced by continuous medium circulation, which ultimately increased cell proliferation rate. Consequently, production period and cost are substantially reduced, product quality is controlled and standardized as well as free of pesticide contamination and production of raw material can be conducted all year round. Taking all these into consideration, current research efforts were focused on varying several parameters such as inoculation density, air flow, medium formulation, PGRs etc. for increased production of cell and organ cultures of high market demand herbal and medicinal plants, particularly Eurycoma longifolia, Panax ginseng and Labisia pumila. At present, the production of cell and organ culture of these medicinal plants have also been applied in airlift bioreactor with different working volumes. It is hope that the investment of research efforts into this advanced bioreactor technology will open up a bright future for the modernization of agriculture and commercialisation of natural product. (author)

  3. Integrated assessment of climate change impact on surface runoff contamination by pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Patrick; Sheedy, Claudia; Rousseau, Alain N; Bourgeois, Gaétan; Chouinard, Gérald

    2016-07-01

    Pesticide transport by surface runoff depends on climate, agricultural practices, topography, soil characteristics, crop type, and pest phenology. To accurately assess the impact of climate change, these factors must be accounted for in a single framework by integrating their interaction and uncertainty. This article presents the development and application of a framework to assess the impact of climate change on pesticide transport by surface runoff in southern Québec (Canada) for the 1981-2040 period. The crop enemies investigated were: weeds for corn (Zea mays); and for apple orchard (Malus pumila), 3 insect pests (codling moth [Cydia pomonella], plum curculio [Conotrachelus nenuphar], and apple maggot [Rhagoletis pomonella]), 2 diseases (apple scab [Venturia inaequalis], and fire blight [Erwinia amylovora]). A total of 23 climate simulations, 19 sites, and 11 active ingredients were considered. The relationship between climate and phenology was accounted for by bioclimatic models of the Computer Centre for Agricultural Pest Forecasting (CIPRA) software. Exported loads of pesticides were evaluated at the edge-of-field scale using the Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM), simulating both hydrology and chemical transport. A stochastic model was developed to account for PRZM parameter uncertainty. Results of this study indicate that for the 2011-2040 period, application dates would be advanced from 3 to 7 days on average with respect to the 1981-2010 period. However, the impact of climate change on maximum daily rainfall during the application window is not statistically significant, mainly due to the high variability of extreme rainfall events. Hence, for the studied sites and crop enemies considered, climate change impact on pesticide transported in surface runoff is not statistically significant throughout the 2011-2040 period. Integr Environ Assess Managem 2016;12:559-571. © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada 2015; Published 2015 SETAC.

  4. Identification of the Er1 resistence gene and RNase S-alleles in Malus prunifolia var. ringo rootstock

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    Sarah Zanon Agapito-Tenfen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Woolly apple aphid (WAA; Eriosoma lanigerum Hausm. is a major insect pest that has significant economic impact on apple growers worldwide. Modern breeding technologies rely on several molecular tools to help breeders select genetic determinants for traits of interest. Consequently, there is a need for specific markers linked to the genes of interest. Apple scions and rootstocks have an additional barrier to the introduction of pest resistance genes due to the presence of self-incompatibility S-RNase alleles. The genetic characterization and early identification of these alleles can amplify the contribution of a breeding program to the selection of resistant genitors that are as compatible as possible. In this study, we identified the Er1 gene involved in the resistance to WAA in Malus prunifolia var. ringo, also known as ‘Maruba Kaido’ rootstock, and we analyzed the inheritance pattern of the WAA resistance Er1 gene in a segregant population derived from Malus pumila ‘M.9’ and ‘Maruba Kaido’ rootstocks. The self-incompatibility of S-RNase alleles S6S26 of ‘Maruba Kaido’ were also identified along with their inheritance pattern. We also confirmed the identification of the S1S3 alleles in the ‘M.9’ rootstock. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to characterize WAA resistance and RNase S-alleles in ‘Maruba Kaido’. Furthermore, we discuss the potential use of the genetic markers for these genes and their potential impact on apple breeding programs.

  5. Cloning, expression, and characterization of sorbitol transporters from developing sour cherry fruit and leaf sink tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhifang; Maurousset, Laurence; Lemoine, Remi; Yoo, Sang-Dong; van Nocker, Steven; Loescher, Wayne

    2003-04-01

    The acyclic polyol sorbitol is a primary photosynthetic product and the principal photosynthetic transport substance in many economically important members of the family Rosaceace (e.g. almond [Prunus dulcis (P. Mill.) D.A. Webber], apple [Malus pumila P. Mill.], cherry [Prunus spp.], peach [Prunus persica L. Batsch], and pear [Pyrus communis]). To understand key steps in long-distance transport and particularly partitioning and accumulation of sorbitol in sink tissues, we have cloned two sorbitol transporter genes (PcSOT1 and PcSOT2) from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) fruit tissues that accumulate large quantities of sorbitol. Sorbitol uptake activities and other characteristics were measured by heterologous expression of PcSOT1 and PcSOT2 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Both genes encode proton-dependent, sorbitol-specific transporters with similar affinities (K(m) sorbitol of 0.81 mM for PcSOT1 and 0.64 mM for PcSOT2). Analyses of gene expression of these transporters, however, suggest different roles during leaf and fruit development. PcSOT1 is expressed throughout fruit development, but especially when growth and sorbitol accumulation rates are highest. In leaves, PcSOT1 expression is highest in young, expanding tissues, but substantially less in mature leaves. In contrast, PcSOT2 is mainly expressed only early in fruit development and not in leaves. Compositional analyses suggest that transport mediated by PcSOT1 and PcSOT2 plays a major role in sorbitol and dry matter accumulation in sour cherry fruits. Presence of these transporters and the high fruit sorbitol concentrations suggest that there is an apoplastic step during phloem unloading and accumulation in these sink tissues. Expression of PcSOT1 in young leaves before completion of the transition from sink to source is further evidence for a role in determining sink activity. PMID:12692316

  6. Physical and chemical characterizations of biochars derived from different agricultural residues

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    K. Jindo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Biochar has received large attention as a strategy to tackle against carbon emission. Not only carbon fixation has been carried out but also other merits for agricultural application due to unique physical and chemical character such as absorption of contaminated compounds in soil, trapping ammonia and methane emission from compost, and enhancement of fertilizer quality. In our study, different local waste feed stocks (rice husk, rice straw, wood chips of apple tree (Malus Pumila and oak tree (Quercus serrata, in Aomori, Japan, were utilized for creating biochar with different temperature (400–800 °C. Concerning to the biochar production, the pyrolysis of lower temperature had more biochar yield than higher temperature pyrolysis process. On the contrary, surface areas and adsorption characters have been increased as increasing temperature. The proportions of carbon content in the biochars also increased together with increased temperatures. Infrared-Fourier spectra (FT-IR and 13C-NMR were used to understand carbon chemical compositions in our biochars, and it was observed that the numbers of the shoulders representing aromatic groups, considered as stable carbon structure appeared as the temperature came closer to 600 °C, as well as in FT-IR. In rice materials, the peak assigned to SiO2, was observed in all biochars (400–800 °C in FT-IR. We suppose that the pyrolysis at 600 °C creates the most recalcitrant character for carbon sequestration, meanwhile the pyrolysis at 400 °C produces the superior properties as a fertilizer by retaining volatile and easily labile compounds which promotes soil microbial activities.

  7. Mires and mire types of Peninsula Mitre, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

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    A. Grootjans

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, a field visit by members of the International Mire Conservation Group (IMCG to the Atlantic coast of Peninsula Mitre (the easternmost part of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, Argentina gathered information on mire diversity in this remote wild area with largely pristine mires. Our expedition showed that Peninsula Mitre hosts a wide variety of habitats across two exciting ecological gradients: (i a regional west–east gradient from Sphagnum magellanicum dominated mires in the west to Astelia pumila dominated mires in the east; and (ii a gradient from extremely acid to extremely carbonate rich mire types induced by local bedrock. The large variety of hydromorphological mire types comprises raised bogs, blanket bogs, sloping fens, string fens, flat fens and calcareous spring fens. In the Atlantic coastal area, the abundance of Sphagnum magellanicum in the ombrogenic systems decreases conspicuously from west to east with the species being almost absent in the east. However, the fossil record shows thick layers of Sphagnum peat close beneath mire surfaces everywhere, indicating that substantial hydrological and ecological changes have taken place in the recent past. We observed large scale erosion in the mires along the Atlantic coast. Locally, well-developed fen systems are present, including calcareous spring fens with active travertine (tufa deposition. The regional vegetation can be regarded as a parallel to that of boreal oceanic regions in the northern hemisphere. The mires and peatlands of the peninsula are of global significance. They are impressive, peculiar, extensive and largely pristine mires in a globally very rare climatic and biogeographical context embedded in a landscape with significant natural dynamics. The damaging impact of free-roaming cattle on the mires and upland vegetation is, however, conspicuous and needs urgent attention. Peninsula Mitre deserves the highest possible protection, e.g. as a provincial protected

  8. Experimental study of terrestrial plant litter interaction with aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraysse, F.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Meunier, J.-D.

    2010-01-01

    Quantification of silicon and calcium recycling by plants is hampered by the lack of physico-chemical data on reactivity of plant litter in soil environments. We applied a laboratory experimental approach for determining the silica and calcium release rates from litter of typical temperate and boreal plants: pine ( Pinus laricio), birch ( Betula pubescens), larch ( Larix gmelinii), elm ( Ulmus laevis Pall.), tree fern ( Dicksonia squarrosa), and horsetail (Equisetum arvense) in 0.01 M NaCl solutions, pH of 2-10 and temperature equals to 5, 25 and 40 °C. Open system, mixed-flow reactors equipped with dialysis compartment and batch reactors were used. Comparative measurements were performed on intact larch needles and samples grounded during different time, sterilized or not and with addition or not of sodium azide in order to account for the effect of surface to mass ratio and possible microbiological activity on the litter dissolution rates. Litter degradation results suggest that the silica release rate is independent on dissolved organic carbon release (cell breakdown) which implies the presence of phytoliths in a pure "inorganic" pool not complexed with organic matter. Calcium and DOC are released at the very first stage of litter dissolution while Si concentration increases gradually suggesting the presence of Ca and Si in two different pools. The dry-weight normalized dissolution rate at circum-neutral pH range (approx. 1-10 μmol/g DW/day) is 2 orders of magnitude higher than the rates of Si release from common soil minerals (kaolinite, smectite, illite). Minimal Ca release rates evaluated from batch and mixed-flow reactors are comparable with those of most reactive soil minerals such as calcite and apatite, and several orders of magnitude higher than the dissolution rates of major rock-forming silicates (feldspars, pyroxenes). The activation energy for Si liberation from plant litter is approx. 50 kJ/mol which is comparable with that of surface

  9. Contrasting secondary growth and water-use efficiency patterns in native and exotic trees co-occurring in inner Spain riparian forests

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    Noelia González-Muñoz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The invasive trees Ailanthus altissima and Robinia pseudoacacia are widely spreading in inner Spain riparian forests, where they co-occur with the natives Fraxinus angustifolia and Ulmus minor. In a climate change context, we aimed to identify some of the species traits that are leading these species to success (Basal Area Increment (BAI and water-use efficiency (iWUE. We also aimed to describe the main environmental variables controlling studied species BAI. Area of study: Riparian forests of central Spain Material and Methods: We measured tree-ring width and converted it to basal area increment (BAI; intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE was estimated from tree ring carbon isotopes (δ13C. We compared the BAI and iWUE of the last 20 years between origins (native vs exotic and among species. For each species, we evaluated iWUE and BAI relationships. Linear mixed-effect models were performed to identify the main environmental variables (temperature, precipitation, river flow affecting BAI. Main result: Native trees showed higher mean BAI than invaders, mainly due to the rising growth rate of U. minor. Invaders showed higher mean iWUE than natives. We did not find significant correlations between iWUE and BAI in any case. Warm temperatures in autumn positively affected the BAI of the natives, but negatively that of the invaders. Research highlights: The contrasting effect of autumn temperatures on native and invasive species BAI suggests that invaders will be more hampered by the rising temperatures predicted for this century. The higher iWUE found for the invaders did not translate into increased radial growth, suggesting that drought stress may have prevented them of taking advantage of increased atmospheric CO2 for a faster growth. These findings point out that neither climate change nor rising CO2 seem to enhance the success of study invasive species over the natives in riparian forests of central Spain. Furthermore, the low BAI

  10. Аллелопатическая активность листового опада древесных растений, почвы и копролитов в парках г. Днепропетровск

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    Анжелина Илларионовна Крючкова

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available В работе рассматривается влияние аллелопатических свойств опада древесных растений и трофометаболической деятельности дождевых червей (Lumbricidae на аллелопатические свойства почвы под древесными породами Acer platanoides L., Aesculus hippocastanum L., Ulmus minor Mill. в парках г. Днепропетровск. Установлено, что трофометаболическая деятельность червей положительно влияет на аллелопатический статус почв.

  11. АЛЛЕЛОПАТИЧЕСКАЯ АКТИВНОСТЬ ЛИСТОВОГО ОПАДА ДРЕВЕСНЫХ 20РАСТЕНИЙ, ПОЧВЫ И КОПРОЛИТОВ В ПАРКАХ Г. ДНЕПРОПЕТРОВСК

    OpenAIRE

    Крючкова, А.; Кульбачко, Ю.

    2014-01-01

    В работе рассматривается влияние аллелопатических свойств опада древесных растений и трофометаболической деятельности дождевых червей (Lumbricidae) на аллелопатические свойства почвы под древесными породами Acer platanoides L., Aesculus hippocastanum L., Ulmus minor Mill. в парках г. Днепропетровск. Установлено, что трофометаболическая деятельность червей положительно влияет на аллелопатический статус почв.The article examines the impact of leaf litter allelopathic properties and earthworms t...

  12. Research on the Carbonized Plant in Chahai Site, Fuxin, Liaoning%辽宁阜新查海遗址炭化植物遗存研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王育茜; 吴文婉; 辛岩; 靳桂云; 王海玉

    2012-01-01

    We may know something about the ancient settling village, the plant growing in the ancient time, the method the ancient people used them, and the kind of their business economy mode, through analyzing the charcoal, the carbonized seed, the fruit relic found in the village. Around the village, there had been a deciduous broad - leaved forest, mainly consisted of the Genus quercus, and the Betula, the Poplar, the Ulmus, the Pu Shu etc. Perhaps the kind of the forest growing in that time was connected with the warm and moist climate at the beginning of the Recent Epoch. People living in the village used the woods to build their houses and got firewood from the forest. They should make a living mainly by collecting according to the fact that the Prunus Armeniaca, Manchurian Walnut, Filbert genus and the relics of the Grass Family and the Pulse Family were found here, and there is no evidence to prove they had planted.%通过分析查海遗址的木炭和炭化种子、果实遗存,获得了对该遗址聚落周围植被及人类利用方式以及生业经济模式的初步认识:聚落周围广泛分布阔叶落叶林,以麻栎属为主,此外包括桦木属、杨属、榆树属、朴树属等,这种植被组合可能与全新世初期温暖湿润的气候有关;聚落居民在房屋建筑材料和薪柴获取活动中利用了聚落周围的森林资源;山杏、核桃楸、榛子和一些禾本科、豆科植物遗存的发现,可能说明采集是获取植物性食物的主要方式,目前没有发现植物栽培的证据。

  13. The period from the Last Interglacial to the Last Glacial Maximum (MIS 5 - 2) in different archives of southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Daniela; Wagner, Stephen; Al-Sharif, Riyad; Brückner, Helmut; Scarciglia, Fabio; Mastronuzzi, Giuseppe; Stahr, Karl

    2010-05-01

    Sediment cores from S Italy provide excellent archives of Late Pleistocene climate and vegetation changes, particularly from the Lago Grande di Monticchio (Allen et al., 2000; Brauer et al., 2007), the crater lakes of the central West coast of Italy, Valle di Castiglione, Lagaccione, Lago di Vico, Stracciacappa (Follieri et al., 1998) and the marine core GNS84-C106 in the Gulf of Salerno (Di Donato et al., 2008). These records show that woody Mediterranean vegetation covered the region during most of the Last Interglacial (from 129-127 ka BP until 115-116 ka BP). In the last phase of the interglacial (from 115-116 ka BP until about 110 ka BP), the forest composition changed, showing an increase in Abies and Alnus and a decrease in Mediterranean taxa. The interglacial was terminated by the Melisey I Stadial, during which grasses and Betula predominated. Forests spread again during St. Germain I, but they consisted mainly of Fagus, Abies and various deciduous trees. A steppe phase (Melisey II) followed, in which Chenopodiaceae prevailed, before St. Germain II set in, with forests dominated by Abies, Ulmus and Carpinus. From the end of St. Germain II until the Lateglacial, steppe, composed of Artemisia, Gramineae and Chenopodiaceae, predominated, with week expansions of trees (mainly Pinus and Juniperus) during several periods. What information can be obtained from terrestrial geo-archives for the same region and time? Sea level highstands, corresponding to interglacial and interstadial periods, created marine terraces along the coasts of S Italy. We are currently carrying out a geomorphological, sedimentological and pedological study on a flight of 11 uplifted marine terraces in the central Gulf of Taranto, the lowermost of them falling into the time span of interest. The terraces generally comprise a gravel body, deposited in a littoral environment, covered by a layer of fine sediments of varying thickness. The latter were deposited when the terrace was still close

  14. An elm EST database for identifying leaf beetle egg-induced defense genes

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    Büchel Kerstin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants can defend themselves against herbivorous insects prior to the onset of larval feeding by responding to the eggs laid on their leaves. In the European field elm (Ulmus minor, egg laying by the elm leaf beetle ( Xanthogaleruca luteola activates the emission of volatiles that attract specialised egg parasitoids, which in turn kill the eggs. Little is known about the transcriptional changes that insect eggs trigger in plants and how such indirect defense mechanisms are orchestrated in the context of other biological processes. Results Here we present the first large scale study of egg-induced changes in the transcriptional profile of a tree. Five cDNA libraries were generated from leaves of (i untreated control elms, and elms treated with (ii egg laying and feeding by elm leaf beetles, (iii feeding, (iv artificial transfer of egg clutches, and (v methyl jasmonate. A total of 361,196 ESTs expressed sequence tags (ESTs were identified which clustered into 52,823 unique transcripts (Unitrans and were stored in a database with a public web interface. Among the analyzed Unitrans, 73% could be annotated by homology to known genes in the UniProt (Plant database, particularly to those from Vitis, Ricinus, Populus and Arabidopsis. Comparative in silico analysis among the different treatments revealed differences in Gene Ontology term abundances. Defense- and stress-related gene transcripts were present in high abundance in leaves after herbivore egg laying, but transcripts involved in photosynthesis showed decreased abundance. Many pathogen-related genes and genes involved in phytohormone signaling were expressed, indicative of jasmonic acid biosynthesis and activation of jasmonic acid responsive genes. Cross-comparisons between different libraries based on expression profiles allowed the identification of genes with a potential relevance in egg-induced defenses, as well as other biological processes, including signal transduction

  15. Implementing the dynamic conservation of elm genetic resources in Europe: case studies and perspectives

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    Collin E

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Many European countries have undertaken the static preservation of native elm genotypes in clone collections maintained ex situ. Less development has been devoted to the dynamic conservation of elm populations in situ. Case studies of elm conservation in France are given here as an illustration of methods employed at country level. We also briefly review the process used by the “European Forest Genetic Resources Programme” (EUFORGEN to monitor elm dynamic conservation in a pan-European perspective. Dynamic conservation methods were promoted by EUFORGEN through leaflets, strategies, Technical Guidelines and the geo-referenced database EUFGIS on Dynamic Conservation Units (DCUs. Because the network of DCUs needs to be representative of the partitioning of adaptive diversity across the species distribution range, a GIS-aided approach has been developed to position DCUs in environmental zones and identify conservation gaps. The two DCUs of European white elm (Ulmus laevis Pall. selected in riparian forests of two different climatic zones of France show that management oriented toward habitat protection is compatible with dynamic conservation, and that the species can still be conserved in situ in spite of Dutch Elm Disease (DED. Collaboration with habitat conservationists enabled the monitoring of losses to DED and the assessment of within-population diversity for flowering phenology. Collaboration with forest geneticists revealed that the diversity of the Garonne population was low, but that it contained rare DNA variants and adaptive traits. Since 1987, experimental restoration of countryside hedges has been carried out, using field elm clones (U. minor Mill. selected from the French national collection and tested for lower susceptibility to the agent of DED in artificial inoculation tests. Such plantations can be viewed as a very dynamic form of conservation if they permit the local gene pool to be reinforced with trees able to reach sexual

  16. Evaluating methyl jasmonate for induction of resistance to Fusarium oxysporum, F. circinatum and Ophiostoma novo-ulmi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivas, M.; Martin, J. a.; Gil, L.; Solla, A.

    2012-11-01

    Damping off is probably the most common disease affecting seedlings in forest nurseries. In south-western Europe, the pitch canker and the Dutch elm disease cause relevant economic looses in forests, mostly in adult trees. The ability of the chemical plant elicitor methyl jasmonate (MeJA) to induce resistance in Pinus pinaster against Fusarium oxysporum and F. circinatum, and in Ulmus minor against Ophiostoma novo-ulmi was examined. In a first experiment, an aqueous solution of MeJA 5 mM was applied to P. pinaster seeds by immersion or spray, and different concentrations of MeJA (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 mM) were tested in seedlings before inoculations with F. oxysporum (105 and 107 spores mL{sup -}1). In a second experiment, 6-months-old P. pinaster seedlings were sprayed with 0 and 25 mM of MeJA, and later challenged with mycelium of F. circinatum. Finally, 4-year-old U. minor trees were sprayed with 0, 50 and 100 mM of MeJA and subsequently inoculated with O. novo-ulmi (106 spores mL{sup -}1). MeJA did not protect P. pinaster seeds and seedlings against F. oxysporum, probably because plants were too young for the physiological mechanisms responsible for resistance to be induced. Based on the morphological changes observed in the treated 6-months-old P. pinaster seedlings (reduction of growth and increased resin duct density), there is evidence that MeJA could have activated the mechanisms of resistance. However, 25 mM MeJA did not reduce plant mortality, probably because the spread of the virulent F. circinatum strain within the tree tissues was faster than the formation of effective defense responses. Based on the lack of phenological changes observed in the treated elms, there is no evidence that MeJA would cause induction of resistance. These results suggest that the use of MeJA to prevent F. oxysporum and F. circinatum in P. pinaster seedlings in nurseries and O. novo-ulmi in U. minor trees should be discarded. (Author) 42 refs.

  17. Seeing the Forest through the Trees: Considering Roost-Site Selection at Multiple Spatial Scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Jachowski

    Full Text Available Conservation of bat species is one of the most daunting wildlife conservation challenges in North America, requiring detailed knowledge about their ecology to guide conservation efforts. Outside of the hibernating season, bats in temperate forest environments spend their diurnal time in day-roosts. In addition to simple shelter, summer roost availability is as critical as maternity sites and maintaining social group contact. To date, a major focus of bat conservation has concentrated on conserving individual roost sites, with comparatively less focus on the role that broader habitat conditions contribute towards roost-site selection. We evaluated roost-site selection by a northern population of federally-endangered Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis at Fort Drum Military Installation in New York, USA at three different spatial scales: landscape, forest stand, and individual tree level. During 2007-2011, we radiotracked 33 Indiana bats (10 males, 23 females and located 348 roosting events in 116 unique roost trees. At the landscape scale, bat roost-site selection was positively associated with northern mixed forest, increased slope, and greater distance from human development. At the stand scale, we observed subtle differences in roost site selection based on sex and season, but roost selection was generally positively associated with larger stands with a higher basal area, larger tree diameter, and a greater sugar maple (Acer saccharum component. We observed no distinct trends of roosts being near high-quality foraging areas of water and forest edges. At the tree scale, roosts were typically in American elm (Ulmus americana or sugar maple of large diameter (>30 cm of moderate decay with loose bark. Collectively, our results highlight the importance of considering day roost needs simultaneously across multiple spatial scales. Size and decay class of individual roosts are key ecological attributes for the Indiana bat, however, larger-scale stand

  18. Seeing the Forest through the Trees: Considering Roost-Site Selection at Multiple Spatial Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachowski, David S; Rota, Christopher T; Dobony, Christopher A; Ford, W Mark; Edwards, John W

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of bat species is one of the most daunting wildlife conservation challenges in North America, requiring detailed knowledge about their ecology to guide conservation efforts. Outside of the hibernating season, bats in temperate forest environments spend their diurnal time in day-roosts. In addition to simple shelter, summer roost availability is as critical as maternity sites and maintaining social group contact. To date, a major focus of bat conservation has concentrated on conserving individual roost sites, with comparatively less focus on the role that broader habitat conditions contribute towards roost-site selection. We evaluated roost-site selection by a northern population of federally-endangered Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) at Fort Drum Military Installation in New York, USA at three different spatial scales: landscape, forest stand, and individual tree level. During 2007-2011, we radiotracked 33 Indiana bats (10 males, 23 females) and located 348 roosting events in 116 unique roost trees. At the landscape scale, bat roost-site selection was positively associated with northern mixed forest, increased slope, and greater distance from human development. At the stand scale, we observed subtle differences in roost site selection based on sex and season, but roost selection was generally positively associated with larger stands with a higher basal area, larger tree diameter, and a greater sugar maple (Acer saccharum) component. We observed no distinct trends of roosts being near high-quality foraging areas of water and forest edges. At the tree scale, roosts were typically in American elm (Ulmus americana) or sugar maple of large diameter (>30 cm) of moderate decay with loose bark. Collectively, our results highlight the importance of considering day roost needs simultaneously across multiple spatial scales. Size and decay class of individual roosts are key ecological attributes for the Indiana bat, however, larger-scale stand structural components

  19. 琅琊山不同植被枯落物下土壤性状调查与分析%Analysis on the Properties of Soil under Different Vegetation Types in the Langya Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜瑀

    2014-01-01

    Based on the flora of Langya mountain for reference,selected eleven typical Langya mountain veg-etation type,and collected soil samples. By using the method of field sampling and indoor test analysis, physicochemical properties of soil in different vegetation types in Langya mountain was analyzed. The re-sults show that:(1)The difference of soil physical properties under different types of vegetation is larger, from the content of soil moisture,the soil moisture of metasequoia is the maximal and the elderberry is the minimum;from the soil bulk density,the soil bulk density of elderberry is the maximal,and the german oak is the minimum. (2)From the chemical properties of soil,the pH of lycoris radiata is the maximal and the phyllostachys praecox is the minimum;the organic matter of Ulmus chenmoui is the maximal and the german oak is the minimum.%以琅琊山植物志为参考,选取11个典型的琅琊山植被类型,并采集土壤样本。利用野外采样与室内测试分析相结合的方法,对琅琊山不同植被类型下土壤的理化性质进行了分析。结果表明:(1)不同植被类型下土壤物理性质差异较大,从土壤含水量看,含水量最大的是水杉,最小的是接骨木;从土壤容重看,容重最大的是接骨木,最小的是麻栎。(2)从土壤化学性质看,pH值最大是石蒜,最小的是早竹;有机质含量最高的是金线松,最少的是麻栎。

  20. Quantitative relationship between pollen and vegetation in northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU QingHai; LI YueCong; YANG XiaoLan; ZHENG ZhenHua

    2007-01-01

    205 surface pollen samples from different communities in Northern China were analyzed to understand the quantitative relationship between pollen and its original vegetation. Pollen analysis and vegetation investigation show that the pollen assemblages differ a lot in different vegetation regions. Arboreal pollen account for more than 30%in temperate broad-deciduous forests region. In temperate steppe regions, herb pollen percentages are more than 90%,where Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae are dominant pollen types with Artemisia percentages more than 30%.In temperate desert, Chenopodiaceae pollen percentages are more than Artemisia, where ferns are rare. Cyperaceae pollen percentages are more than 20% in sub-alpine or cold meadows. The relations between pollen percentages and vegetation cover indicate that most arboreal pollen shows a close relationship with parent plant covers, most shrubby pollen types have more or less correlations, but most herbs do not show clear correlations. For arboreal pollen types, Picea pollen shows the closest correlation with spruce trees coverage, then is Quercus and Carpinus. Betula, Larix and Juglans have also high correlation coefficients with their plants coverage, but Betula pollen is of overrepresented pollen type and more than 40% in birch forest, while Larix and Juglans pollen is underrepresented and pollen percentages are more than 10%in Larix or Juglans pure forests. Pinus is of overrepresented pollen type, and pollen percentages have some relations with plants cover. Pine forest might present when Pinus pollen percentages are more than 30%.The relations between Ulmus and Populus pollen percentages and vegetation cover are not close, where they are mixed with other arbors. They cannot be recorded easily, but if their pollen percentages are more than 1%,Uimus or Populus trees should exist. For shrubby pollen types, the correlation between Vitex pollen percentages and vegetation cover is the highest, then is Corylus, Tamariaceae

  1. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brauer Gerhard

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of medicinal plants is an option for livestock farmers who are not allowed to use allopathic drugs under certified organic programs or cannot afford to use allopathic drugs for minor health problems of livestock. Methods In 2003 we conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. Medicinal plants are used to treat a range of conditions. A draft manual prepared from the data was then evaluated by participants at a participatory workshop. Results There are 128 plants used for ruminant health and diets, representing several plant families. The following plants are used for abscesses: Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium Echinacea purpurea, Symphytum officinale, Bovista pila, Bovista plumbea, Achillea millefolium and Usnea longissima. Curcuma longa L., Salix scouleriana and Salix lucida are used for caprine arthritis and caprine arthritis encephalitis.Euphrasia officinalis and Matricaria chamomilla are used for eye problems. Wounds and injuries are treated with Bovista spp., Usnea longissima, Calendula officinalis, Arnica sp., Malva sp., Prunella vulgaris, Echinacea purpurea, Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium, Achillea millefolium, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hypericum perforatum, Lavandula officinalis, Symphytum officinale and Curcuma longa. Syzygium aromaticum and Pseudotsuga menziesii are used for coccidiosis. The following plants are used for diarrhea and scours: Plantago major, Calendula officinalis, Urtica dioica, Symphytum officinale, Pinus ponderosa, Potentilla pacifica, Althaea officinalis, Anethum graveolens, Salix alba and Ulmus fulva. Mastitis is treated with Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Salix alba, Teucrium scorodonia and Galium aparine. Anethum graveolens and Rubus sp., are given for increased milk production.Taraxacum officinale, Zea mays, and Symphytum officinale are used for udder edema. Ketosis is treated with Gaultheria shallon, Vaccinium sp., and

  2. 上海地区气传花粉的监测%Monitoring of the airborne pollen grains in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建花; 王幼芳; 沈春琳; 吕森林

    2013-01-01

    于2009年10月开始,进行为期一年的花粉采样.共设6个采样点,采用Cour风标式花粉收集器,对气传花粉的含量、种类和飘散规律进行了监测.共鉴定气传花粉5 324 164粒,隶属32科27属种.其中普陀区监测点气传花粉总数最高,其次分别是松江区、闸北区、浦东新区、徐汇区和宝山区.松江区花粉种数最多,为48种;徐汇最少,为37种.主要气传花粉为葎草、悬铃木属、松科、杉科、禾本科、榆属、蒿属和柳属等.春季3~4月和秋季9月为气传花粉散布高峰.最后,讨论了植被分布对本次监测的影响,不同域区气传花粉种类及散布规律比较,采样方法的影响,气传花粉与过敏捷性病病的联系等问题.%In order to investigate the quantity, species and distribution pattern of the airborne pollen grains in Shanghai, a one-year monitoring project using Cour samplers from October 2009 was carried out in six sites of Shanghai. A total of 5 324 164 pollen grains were collected, inelud-ing 32 families, 27 genera or species. The largest quantity of the grains was observed in Putuo District and was followed by Songjiang, Zhabei, Pudong, Xuhui and Baoshan District in that order. Songjiang District has the most diverse species of pollen grains (48) and Xuhui has the least (37). The most commonly observed types are Humulus scandens, Platanus, Pinaceae, Taxodi-aceae, Gramineae, Ulmus, Artemisia and Salix. The peak of the grains distribution occurred during two seasons of the year: spring (March and April) and autumn (September).

  3. Climate signal detected in sub-fossil and living oak trees data. An analysis of signal frequency components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Nechita; Francisca, Chiriloaei; Maria, Radoane; Ionel, Popa; Nicoae, Radoane

    2016-04-01

    This study is focused on analysis the frequency components of the signal detected in living and sub-fossil tree ring series from different time periods. The investigation is oriented to analyze signal frequency components (low and high) of the two categories of trees. The interpretation technique of tree ring width is the instrument most often used to elaborate past climatic reconstructions. The annual resolution, but also, the high capacity of trees to accumulate climatic information are attributes which confer to palaeo-environmental reconstructions the biggest credibility. The main objective of the study refers to the evaluation of climatic signal characteristics, both present day climate and palaeo-climate (last 7000 years BP). Modern dendrochronological methods were applied on 350 samples of sub-fossil trees and 400 living trees. The subfossil trunks were sampled from different fluvial environments (Siret, Suceava, Moldova). Their age was determined using radiocarbon, varying from under 100 years to almost 7000 years BP. The subfossil tree species investigated were Quercus, Alnus, Ulmus. Considering living trees, these were identified on eastern part of Romania, in different actual physico-geographical conditions. The studied living tree species consisted in Quercus species (robur and petraea). Each site was investigated regarding stress factors of the sampled tree. The working methods were applied to the total wood series, both late and early, to detect intra-annual level climate information. Each series has been tested to separate individual trees with climatic signal of other trees with different signals (noises determined by competition between individuals or site stress, or anthropic impact). Comparing dendrochronological series (sub-fossil and living trees) we want to identify what significant causes determined the difference in the signal frequencies. Especially, the human interventions registered in the last 2 centuries will be evaluated by these

  4. Declines in populations of Salix caprea L.during forest regeneration after strong herbivore pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz B. Faliński

    2014-02-01

    (Carpinus betulus, Tilia cordata, Acer platanoides and Ulmus glabra under the canopy of light-seeded trees, and the non-creation of a new generation of pioneer species points to the imminent end of the process of regeneration in the forest communities of Białowieża National Park.

  5. ФОТОСИНТЕТИЧЕСКИЕ И ДЫХАТЕЛЬНЫЕ ПРОЦЕССЫ В ХВОЕ КЕДРА СИБИРСКОГО, КЕДРОВОГО СТЛАНИКА И ГИБРИДОВ МЕЖДУ НИМИ

    OpenAIRE

    Зотикова, Альбина; Васильева, Галина; Бендер, Ольга

    2014-01-01

    Проведено сравнительное исследование фотосинтетических и дыхательных процессов у кедра сибирского (Pinus sibirica Du Tour), кедрового стланика (Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel) и их естественных гибридов. Показано, что хвоя кедрового стланика текущего года содержала меньше хлорофиллов и каротиноидов по сравнению с кедром сибирским. Подобная закономерность наблюдалась при исследовании функциональной активности изолированных хлоропластов на уровне фотосистемы II, т.е. скорость реакции Хилла у кедров...

  6. Development of a dense SNP-based linkage map of an apple rootstock progeny using the Malus Infinium whole genome genotyping array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antanaviciute Laima

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A whole-genome genotyping array has previously been developed for Malus using SNP data from 28 Malus genotypes. This array offers the prospect of high throughput genotyping and linkage map development for any given Malus progeny. To test the applicability of the array for mapping in diverse Malus genotypes, we applied the array to the construction of a SNP-based linkage map of an apple rootstock progeny. Results Of the 7,867 Malus SNP markers on the array, 1,823 (23.2% were heterozygous in one of the two parents of the progeny, 1,007 (12.8% were heterozygous in both parental genotypes, whilst just 2.8% of the 921 Pyrus SNPs were heterozygous. A linkage map spanning 1,282.2 cM was produced comprising 2,272 SNP markers, 306 SSR markers and the S-locus. The length of the M432 linkage map was increased by 52.7 cM with the addition of the SNP markers, whilst marker density increased from 3.8 cM/marker to 0.5 cM/marker. Just three regions in excess of 10 cM remain where no markers were mapped. We compared the positions of the mapped SNP markers on the M432 map with their predicted positions on the ‘Golden Delicious’ genome sequence. A total of 311 markers (13.7% of all mapped markers mapped to positions that conflicted with their predicted positions on the ‘Golden Delicious’ pseudo-chromosomes, indicating the presence of paralogous genomic regions or mis-assignments of genome sequence contigs during the assembly and anchoring of the genome sequence. Conclusions We incorporated data for the 2,272 SNP markers onto the map of the M432 progeny and have presented the most complete and saturated map of the full 17 linkage groups of M. pumila to date. The data were generated rapidly in a high-throughput semi-automated pipeline, permitting significant savings in time and cost over linkage map construction using microsatellites. The application of the array will permit linkage maps to be developed for QTL analyses in a

  7. Holocene climate and environmental change in north-eastern Kamchatka (Russian Far East), inferred from a multi-proxy study of lake sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrén, Elinor; Klimaschewski, Andrea; Self, Angela E.; St. Amour, Natalie; Andreev, Andrei A.; Bennett, Keith D.; Conley, Daniel J.; Edwards, Thomas W. D.; Solovieva, Nadia; Hammarlund, Dan

    2015-11-01

    pumila), indicating a shift to a cooler climate with a thicker and more long-lasting snow cover. This vegetational change was accompanied by marked shifts in the diatom and chironomid stratigraphies, which are also indicative of colder climate and more extensive ice-cover.

  8. he study on anti-transpiration of postharvest pak choi and apple%青菜和苹果采后抗蒸腾研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王向阳; 熊燕; 应永帅; 董占宏

    2001-01-01

    @@ 采后果蔬会因失水引起萎焉、皱缩,影响外观和品质。防止采后果蔬失水是保鲜的关键[1]。目前,减少采后果蔬失水的方法主要有薄膜袋包装、低温贮藏、果蔬涂膜、增加环境湿度等。在常温下用薄膜袋包装贮藏容易引起大量腐烂,增加环境湿度只能在库内进行,而国内目前能用于果蔬低温贮藏的设施很少,能否用化学药剂处理的方法减少果蔬采后失水,是值得研究的课题。黄腐酸(FHA)是一种抗蒸腾剂,处理后会引起果蔬气孔关闭,在我国西北地区普遍用于大田抗旱[2];蔗糖酯(SE)能在果蔬表面形成微膜,减少果蔬采后失水;虫胶常与其他药剂一起用于苹果和柑桔等水果打蜡,能增加水果亮度,减少失水[3]。这三种试剂对防止青菜(Brassica rapa var.Chinensis)和苹果(Malus pumila Mill.)采后失水的效果如何,目前研究报道还很少。为此,我们开展此项研究。

  9. Holocene environmental changes in southern Kamchatka, Far Eastern Russia, inferred from a pollen and testate amoebae peat succession record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimaschewski, A.; Barnekow, L.; Bennett, K. D.; Andreev, A. A.; Andrén, E.; Bobrov, A. A.; Hammarlund, D.

    2015-11-01

    , wet conditions dominate as dry indicating testate amoebae decrease. After 1800 cal yr BP soil conditions become more variable again but this time with dry dominating testate amoebae. In contrast to surrounding regions, there is no evidence of trees such as spruce or larch growing in the surroundings of the site even though those trees are characteristic of many eastern Siberian sites. This difference might be because of the maritime influence of the Okhotsk Sea. Even dwarf pine (Pinus pumila), which is currently widely dispersed in northern Kamchatka, became part of the local vegetation only during the last 700 yr.

  10. A Comparative Investigation in Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics of 11 Moraceae Plants from Karst Areas of Northwest Guangxi%桂西北岩溶地区11种桑科植物生理生化特性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃勇荣; 潘振兴; 黄江滨; 农艳春; 梁文忠; 刘旭辉

    2011-01-01

    In order to select excellent species suitable for economic development and vegetation restoration in karst areas, leaves of 11 species in the famly Moraceae were collected from Karst areas of northwest Cuangxi to investigate the physiological and biochemical characteristics in the current work. A total of 13 parameters, including the contents of chlorophyll, soluble sugar and proline etc were determined. The results showed that there were marked differences in physiological and biochemical characteristics among the different species. Moraceae plants demonstrated complex adaptation mechanisms and survival strategy to the Karst environment. The species well - suited for vegetation rehabilitation in rocky hill are Broussonetia papyrifer, Ficus virens, F. Microcarpa, Cudrania tricuspidata and F. Pumila, etc. Plants suitable for wild fruit prodction are F. Esquiro-liona and F. Variegata Bl. Var. And that for scale management of cash crops are F. Carica and M. Alba.%为筛选适合岩溶地区经济开发和植被恢复的优良物种,采集了构树、大叶榕、小叶榕、无花果等11种桂西北岩溶地区常见桑科植物的叶片,测定其叶绿素、可溶性总糖、脯氨酸含量等13个生理生化指标,并用数理统计方法对有关数据进行处理分析.结果表明:不同桑科植物的生理生化特性有明显差异,桑科植物对岩溶环境具有复杂的适应机制和不同的生存策略,对岩溶环境具有良好的适应性.适合石山植被恢复的优良树种为构树、大叶榕、小叶榕、柘树和薜荔等;适合作为野果资源开发的树种为黄毛榕和青果榕;适合作为经济作物进行规模化经营的树种为无花果和桑树.

  11. Composition and conservation of Orchidaceae on an inselberg in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and floristic relationships with areas of Eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessanha, Alexandre Soares; Menini Neto, Luiz; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade

    2014-06-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Forest presents high levels of richness and endemism of several taxonomic groups. Within this forest, the Orchidaceae may be highlighted as the richest family of Angiosperms found there, and is highly threatened due to collection and habitat destruction. The inselbergs of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest are mostly unknown regarding their floristic composition, but the available information points to occurrence of endemic species, with adaptations to survive to this dry environment. The objectives of this study were to conduct a floristic survey of the Orchidaceae species on the Maciço do Itaoca, an inselberg located in the Northern region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, make a comparative analysis with other sites in Eastern Brazil, and discuss the geographic distribution, floristic relationships and conservation status of the orchid species present on the inselbergs. The floristic composition of the study area was compared with 24 other locations in Eastern Brazil (of which 13 are inselbergs) and the influence of the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the Orchidaceae flora on the inselbergs. On Maciço do Itaoca we recorded 18 species from 17 genera: Brasiliorchis picta, Brassavola tuberculata, Campylocentrum robustum; C sellowii, Catasetum luridum, Cattleya guttata, Cyclopogon congestus, Cyrtopodium glutiniferum, Leptotes bicolor, Lophiaris pumila, Miltonia moreliana, Oeceoclades maculata, Phymatochilum brasiliense, Prescottia plantaginifolia, Pseudolaelia vellozicola, Sarcoglottis fasciculata, Sophronitis cernua. and Vanilla chamissonis. The highest floristic similarity was with the Pedra da Botelha (0.43), an inselberg located in the North of Espírito Santo. This result is probably due to the similarity in altitude and distance from the coast in both areas despite the geographical distance between them. Apparently, little influence is exerted by the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the flora of

  12. 利用藤本植物治理石漠化的成效、存在的问题与对策%Problems and countermeasures of using vines for rocky desertification control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴易雄; 陶抵辉; 邓沛怡

    2015-01-01

    Taking Sangzhi County of Hunan Province as the test base of using vine for rocky desertification control, combined with evergreen and deciduous vines, large and small plant combination test. The results showed that it is feasible of using vines for rocky desertification control, Mucuna sempervirens, Campsis grandiflora, Lonicera japonica, Parthenocissus spp., Ficus pumila, Euonymus fortunei, Trachelospermum jasminoides, Hedera nepalensis var. sinensis, Celastrus aculeatus, Millettia spp., Tripterygium wilfordii and other vine plants were suitable for rocky desertification control, but it is difficult to manage, the government paid insufficient attention, basic research is not deep and other important problems were found in the process of experiment and observation. Therefore, it need to increase the intensity of management and protection, sufficient attention of government and strengthen basic research have vital significance for speeding up the restoration of vegetation, improving the ecological environment and promoting the sustainable development of local society.%以湖南省桑植县作为藤本植物石漠化治理试验基地,采用常绿与落叶藤本植物相结合,大型与中小型藤本植物相结合进行试验。结果显示,利用藤本植物进行石漠化治理是完全可行的,常春油麻藤,凌霄,金银花,爬山虎类,薜荔,扶芳藤,络石,常春藤,过山枫,崖豆藤,雷公藤等藤本植物适用于石漠化治理,但在试验和观测过程中也发现了管护难度大、政府重视不够、基础研究不深等一些重要的问题。因此,需要加大管护力度,政府高度重视,加强基础研究,对加速植被恢复,改善生态环境,促进当地社会可持续发展具有十分重要的意义。

  13. 小兴安岭凉水典型阔叶红松林动态监测样地:物种组成与群落结构%Species composition and community structure of a typical mixed broad-leaved-Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) forest plot in Liangshui Nature Reserve, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丽娜; 金光泽

    2012-01-01

    The mixed broadleaved-Korean pine {Pinus koraiensis) forest (MBKF) represents the climax vegetation type of the eastern mountainous area of Northeast China. It is divided into three categories according to community structure and species composition, including southern MBKF, typical MBKF, and northern MBKF. To monitor long-term dynamics of the typical MBKF, we established a 9-ha plot following the field protocol of the 50 ha plot in Panama (Barro Colorado Island, BCI) in 2005 in Liangshui National Nature Reserve of Heilongjiang Province. All free-standing plant species with DBH (diameter at breast height) =1 cm were mapped, tagged, and identified to species in the plot. In the 2010 census, we documented 48 woody species with 21,355 individuals, belonging to 34 genera and 20 families. Most of the species belong to the Changbai Mountain plant flora, with a minor subtropical plant species component. The DBH distribution of all individuals showed a reversed "J" type, indicating well regenerated for the community. The DBH distribution for the canopy, sub-canopy, and middle layers and the understory layer showed the reversed "J" and "L" distributions, respectively. The DBH pattern of the nine dominant species can be classified into three categories: approximate normal, reversed "J", and "L" distribution. Spatial pattern analysis showed that the major tree species were aggregated, and aggregation intensity decreased as DBH increased. Further analysis showed that spatial distribution was closely related to topography and varied with DBH classes. For example, the distribution of Pinus koraiensis and Tilia amurensis was significantly affected by topography (P < 0.05); however, the distribution of Abies nephrolepis, Acer ukurunduense, and Ulmus laciniata correlated significantly with topography at diameter classes of I (DBH < 10 cm) and II (10 cm < DBH < 30 cm). The distribution of Betula costata and Acer tegmentosum was also significantly correlated with topography at a

  14. LANDFORM,LOESS DEPOSIT AND PALEOENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES IN THE SOUTH LUOHE RIVER(CENTRAL CHINA) DURING THE HOMININ OCCUPATIONS%中国中部南洛河流域地貌、黄土堆积与更新世古人类生存环境

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鹿化煜; 弋双文; 马萧林; Ming Wei; 张红艳; 孙雪峰; 王社江; Richard Cosgrove; Chen Shen; 张文超; 张小兵; 王先彦

    2012-01-01

    in this catchment,and its features are controlled by landform and local wind. The loess thickness is 2 ~25m in the upper part,to 30 ~90m in the middle and lower parts,with clear loess-paleosol alternations.The loess deposits are dated from the ca. 1100ka to 30ka. We have used the loess chronology to age the stone artifacts buried in their layers. The results show that hominines have occupied this catchment for at least 800ka to 30ka,with several episodes of relative intensive human activity. Preliminary investigations on past environmental changes and hominine responses to them show that; 1) landforms along the South Luohe River were relatively stable during Pleistocene, because the mountains and intermountain basins were formed before the hominines occupied this region. Stone tools are found both in situ and scattered across these landforms surfaces reaching altitudes of 600m. 2)a very preliminary spore-pollen analyses show that tree pollen was 25.3% ~28.2% and grass pollen was 64.5% ~ 71.4% during the glacial periods; it changed to 47.0% ~54.7% and 34. 9% ~40. 3% respectively during the interglacial period,with Pinus and Ulmaceae dominated the forest. The vegetation probably provided a wealth of food resources for early humans who adapted to the paleoclimate changes during these time periods.Our preliminary investigation shows that the South Luohe River is an important region for investigating early human behaviors and changing environments during Pleistocene. More detailed research works are needed to advance our understanding of the interplay between climate, human adaptation and technology during the Middle Paleolithic period of China.%本文结合最近获得的新资料,对南洛河流域的地貌、黄土沉积和更新世环境进行综合分析.结果表明,南洛河上、中游地貌表现为河流峡谷和山间盆地相间分布的特征,盆地中河流阶地发育;下游为平缓的山前平原和低山丘陵.黄土在全流域的山顶、河流阶

  15. Diet composition and foraging ecology of Asian elephants in Shangyong,Xishuangbanna, China%西双版纳尚勇亚洲象的食物组成与取食生态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈进; 邓晓保; 张玲; 白智林

    2006-01-01

    .6 % ), Rosaceae (3 spp.,3.6% ), Euphorbiaceae (5 spp., 3.3% ), Ulmaceae (2 spp., 3.0% ) and Mimosaceae (4 spp., 2.9% ). The most important plants in elephants' diet are Ficus spp. ( Moraceae, 9.0 % ), Dendrocalamus spp. ( Gramineae, 4.5 % ), Musa acuminata ( Musaceae, 4.2 % ), Microstegium ciliatum ( Gramineae, 3.5 % ) and Amalocalyx yunnanensis ( Apocynaceae, 3.1% ). Asian elephants consumed a variety of plants in terms of life form, including tree, vine, shrub and herb. Early successional species comprise a higher proportion of diet than late successional plants (42 spp. taking 59% vs. 32 spp. taking 37% ). Browse species contributed a larger proportion of diet compared to grazing species (77 spp. taking 91% vs. 6 spp. taking 9% ). The number of plant taxa (species, genus, family) in elephant's diet each month is negatively correlated with monthly rainfall and mean temperature. The study may help to develop proper strategies for wildlife management especially referring to the human-elephant conflict, which is now a serious issue in the conservation of Asian elephants in this area.

  16. 苹果果实细胞质中依赖活体组织的ABA高亲和力特异结合蛋白%In Vivo Tissue-dependent Abscisic Acid Specific-binding Proteins with High Affinity in Cytosol of Developing Apple Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张大鹏; 陈尚武

    2001-01-01

    The in vivo highly tissue-dependent abscisic acid (ABA) specific-binding sit es localized in cytosol were identified and characterized in the flesh of develo ping apple (Malus pumila L. cv. Starkrimon) fruits. ABA binding activity was scarcely detectable in the microsomes and the cytosolic fraction isolated from the freshly harvested fruits via an in vitro ABA binding incubation of the s ubcellular fractions. If, however, instead that the subcellular fractions were in vitro incubated in 3H-ABA binding medium, the flesh tissue discs we re directly in vivo incubated in 3H-ABA binding medium, a high ABA bin ding activity to the cytosolic fraction isolated from these tissue discs was detect ed. The in vivo ABA binding capacity of the cytosolic fraction was lost if the tissue discs had been pretreated with boiling water, indicating that the ABA bin ding needs a living state of tissue. The in vivo tissue-dependent binding si tes were shown to possess protein nature with both active serine residua and thiol-g roup of cysteine residua in their functional binding center. The ABA binding of the in vivo tissue-dependent ABA binding sites to the cytosolic fraction was shown to be saturable, reversible, and of high affinity. The scatchard plotting g ave evidence of two different classes of ABA binding proteins, one with a higher affinity (Kd=2.9 nmol/L) and the other with lower affinity (Kd=71.4 nmo l/L). Ph aseic acid, 2-trans-4-trans-ABA or cis-trans-(-)-ABA had substantia lly no affinity to the binding proteins, indicating their stereo-specificity to bind physiologically active ABA. The time course, pH- and temperature-dependence of the in vivo tissue-dependent binding proteins were determined. It is hyp othesized that the detected ABA-binding proteins may be putative ABA-receptors t hat mediate ABA signals during fruit development.%将苹果(Malus pumila L. cv. Starkrimon)果肉微粒体和细胞可溶组分在含有 3H-ABA的缓冲介质中分别温育,仅在细胞

  17. Effect of Thinning on the Structure and Succession of Secondary Forest Communities in Changbai Mountains of China%抚育对长白山幼龄次生林群落结构与动态的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏广新; 牟长城

    2012-01-01

    采用抚育采伐试验方法,研究了不同经营方式(对照、常规经营和优化经营)对长白山林区5种典型幼龄次生林林群落(落叶松—白桦林、杨桦林、杂木林、硬阔林及阔叶红松林)的树种组成结构、径级结构及演替趋势的影响规律.结果表明:优化经营能够提升高幼龄林群落中红松、水曲柳等珍贵树种的地位(重要值提高37.5%~400.0%),提高森林经营价值;优化经营能够显著降低各类型幼龄林的小径木株数比例(7.2% ~ 29.9%)及提高中径级林木的比例(5.1%~26.4%),充分发挥森林的生产潜力;优化经营能够改变幼龄林的演替趋势(由次生林转化为阔叶红松林),从而加速地带性顶极植被阔叶红松林的恢复进程.%Effects of three thinning regimes ( control, routine thinning and optimal thinning) on the composition of tree species, diameter distribution and succession trend of five typical young secondary forest communities dominated by Larix olgensis, Betula platyphylla; Populus davidiana, B. Platyphylla and Quercus mongolica; P. Davidiana, Tilia amurensis, Acer Mono and Phellodendron amurensis ; Ulmus davidiana var. Japonica, Fraxinus mandshurica and Juglans mandshurica; Pinus ko-raiensis, F. Mandshurica, P. Davidiana and B. Platyphylla, respectively, were studied in Changbai Mountain of China. Importance values of some high-value tree species such as P. Koraiensis and F. Mandshurica in optimal thinning communities increased by 37. 5% -400. 0% compared with those in the control communities, so the silvicultural value was much improved. Small diameter trees decreased by 7. 2% -29. 9% and medium diameter trees by 5. 1% -26. 4% in optimal thinning communities compared with the un-thinning communities, so its potential productivity was fully realized. The succession trends of un-thinning communities were still secondary forest communities generally, but that of optimal thinning developed towards climax

  18. Biodiversity of understory vegetation in different-aged Manchurian walnut plantations%不同林龄胡桃楸林下植物多样性的差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨立学; 孙跃志

    2013-01-01

    Taking 16-, 23-, and 51 years old Manchurian walnut (Juglans mandshurica) plantations at Maoershan of Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China as test objects, and with the consideration of allelochemicals, this paper studied the differences in the understory vegetation biodiversity among the plantations. With the increasing age of the plantations, the understory shrub richness index (IMa) , diversity index (Isw) , and Pielou evenness index (J) all presented an increasing trend, while the understory herb IMa and Isw were decreasing, and the herb species number decreased from 14 to 10. The most important plant species in the different-aged plantations were Rubus kanayamensis, Erigeron annuus, Taraxacum officinale, and Potentilla centigrana in 16 years old plantation, Ulmus japonica, Syringare ticulata, and Diarrhena manshurica in 23 years old plantation, and Syringare ticulata, Hippochaete hiemale, and Brachybotrys paridiformis in 51 years old plantation. The plant biodiversity of the plantations was less affected by juglone, but the understory shrub biodiversity was more affected by soil available P and K. The understory shrubs and herbs adapted differently to various soil pH ranges. Other soil factors such as bulk density, moisture content, organic matter, and total N had opposite effects on the biodiversity of understory shrubs and herbs.%以黑龙江省帽儿山地区不同林龄胡桃楸(Juglans mandshurica)人工林为对象,在考虑化感物质影响的基础上,研究了不同林龄林分植物多样性的差异.结果表明:随着胡桃楸林龄的增加,林下灌木丰富度指数(IMa)、多样性指数(Isw)及Pielou均匀度指数(J)均呈现递增趋势;林下草本,除均匀度指数外,其他2个指数随着林龄的增长呈递减趋势;随着胡桃楸年龄的增加,草本种类由14种逐渐减少到10种;16年生的胡桃楸林分重要值较大的物种有蔷薇科的山楂叶悬钩子,菊科的一年蓬、蒲公英和

  19. Pollen indication to source plants in the eastern desert of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yuecong; XU Qinghai; ZHAO Yingkui; YANG Xiaolan; XIAO Jule; CHEN Hui; L(U) Xinmiao

    2005-01-01

    , but the higher Xp and the lower Xa values make that these pollen types can also indicate source plants moderately. Allium, Leguminosae, Roseceae, Pedicularis and Compositae have low A scores (less than 0.5), high O and/or U scores, so they cannot indicate source plants clearly. Some other pollen types, such as Pinus, Picea, Betula, Quercus, Ulmus, Ephedra, Elaegnaceae, Ranunculaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Polygonaceae, Saxifragaceae, only appear in pollen assemblages, so their indication cannot be decided. Just like the pollen percentage ratios of Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae (A/C), the ratios of Ephedra and Artemisia (E/A), Nitraria and Ephedra (N/E) can also indicate the aridity of environment. In typical desert communities, A/C ratios are less than 0.5, E/A ratios are more than 0.1, and N/E ratios are less than 1. In steppe desert, A/C ratios are 0.5―2, E/A ratios are less than 0.1, and N/E ratios are more than 1.

  20. Airborne pollen spectrum of Dnіpropetrovsk city as a basis of hay fever control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Rodinkova

    2013-02-01

    other representatives of Asteraceae constituted of 5% each. The most abundant tree pollen rain (4% from total annual count was produced by the Populus species. Betula pollen was the next having up 2% of annual pollen rain in Dnipropetrovsk. As can be seen, the first arboreal spring-summer pollination wave was not massive in Dnipropetrovsk. It was represented by Populus, Betula, Acer, Fraxinus, Quercus, Ulmus, Pinus, Juglans pollen spread in the end of March, whole April and the first weeks of May mostly. However, the second wave was intensively seen from the mid of July till the mid of October. Important airborne pollen producing taxa were Artemisisia, Ambrosia, Asteraceae, Chenopodiaceae, Urtica, Plantago, Polygonaceae pollen at that time. Important airborne pollen allergens of Poaceae family (grasses held the 7th position in the total annual pollen rain and were recorded between two pollination waves from the mid of May till the end of June mostly. The worst period for the patients was associated with the Betula, Acer and Quercus pollination from 13th of April  till the mid of May and with Ambrosia and Artemisia pollination from 28th of July, till September, 30. The present airborne pollen calendar should be considered while diagnosing the hay fever symptoms in sensitive patients. It’s important to continue the pollen count and control in Dnіpropetrovsk due to constant changing of climatic and anthropogenic conditions impacting the pollen production and release.

  1. Ecological implications of Laurel Wilt infestation on Everglades Tree Islands, southern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, James R.

    2014-01-01

    There is a long history of introduced pests attacking native forest trees in the United States (Liebhold and others, 1995; Aukema and others, 2010). Well-known examples include chestnut blight that decimated the American chestnut (Castanea dentata), an extremely important tree in the eastern United States, both as a food source for wildlife and humans and for the wood; Dutch elm disease that attacks native elms (Ulmus spp.), including those commonly planted as shade trees along city streets; and the balsam wooly adelgid (Adelges piceae), an insect that is destroying Fraser firs (Abies fraseri) in higher elevations of Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Laurel wilt, a fungal disease transmitted by the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus), is a 21st-century example of an introduced forest pest that attacks native tree species in the laurel family (Lauraceae) (Mayfield, 2007; Hulcr and Dunn, 2011).The introduction of laurel wilt disease has been traced to the arrival of an Asian ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus) at Port Wentworth, Georgia, near Savannah, in 2002, apparently accidently introduced in wooden shipping material (Mayfield, 2007). Within the next 2 years, it was determined that the non-native wood-boring insect was the vector of an undescribed species of fungus, responsible for killing large numbers of red bay (Persea borbonia) trees in the surrounding area. Dispersing female redbay ambrosia beetles drill into live trees and create tunnels in the wood. They carry with them fungal spores in specialized organs called mycangia at the base of each mandible and sow the spores in the tunnels they excavate. The fungus, since named Raffaelea lauricola (Harrington and others, 2008), is the food source for adults and larvae. The introduction of Raffaelea lauricola causes the host plant to react in such a way as to block the vascular tissue, resulting in loss of water conduction, wilt, and death (Kendra and others, 2013).Although first seen in red bay

  2. Reconstruction of full glacial environments and summer temperatures from Lago della Costa, a refugial site in Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samartin, Stéphanie; Heiri, Oliver; Kaltenrieder, Petra; Kühl, Norbert; Tinner, Willy

    2016-07-01

    Vegetation and climate during the last ice age and the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ∼23,000-19,000 cal BP) were considerably different than during the current interglacial (Holocene). Cold climatic conditions and growing ice-sheets during the last glaciation radically reduced forest extent in Europe to a restricted number of so-called "refugia", mostly located in the southern part of the continent. On the basis of paleobotanical analyses the Euganian Hills (Colli Euganei) in northeastern Italy have previously been proposed as one of the northernmost refugia of temperate trees (e.g. deciduous Quercus, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer, Abies alba, Fagus sylvatica, Carpinus and Castanea) in Europe. In this study we provide the first quantitative, vegetation independent summer air temperature reconstruction for Northern Italy spanning the time ∼31,000-17,000 cal yr BP, which covers the coldest periods of the last glacial, including the LGM and Heinrich stadials 1 to 3. Chironomids preserved in a lake sediment core from Lago della Costa (7m a.s.l.), a small lake at the south-eastern edge of the Euganean Hills, allowed quantitative reconstruction of Full and Late Glacial summer air temperatures using a combined Swiss-Norwegian temperature inference model based on chironomid assemblages from 274 lakes. Chironomid and pollen evidence from Lago della Costa derives from finely stratified autochthonous organic gyttja sediments, which excludes major sediment mixing or reworking. After reconstructing paleo-temperatures, we address the question whether climate conditions were warm enough to permit the local survival of temperate tree species during the LGM and whether local expansions and pollen-inferred contractions of temperate tree taxa coincided with chironomid-inferred climatic changes. Our results suggest that chironomids at Lago della Costa have responded to major climatic fluctuations such as temperature decreases during the LGM and Heinrich stadials. The

  3. Influences of Environment-friendly Soil Conditioner on Chlorophyll and Photosynthetic Rate of Sand Plants%环保型土壤改良剂对沙区植物叶绿素和光合速率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志洪; 郭建斌; 张宾宾; 吴凤; 吴玉晴; 唐思凌

    2012-01-01

    To explore the way to improve the physical and chemical properties,fertility status of sandy soil and promote vegetation growth excellently,this study focused on the self-made natural environment-friendly soil conditioner which was processed with natural clay minerals,municipal sewage and sludge by a certain percentage through specific production craft through pot culture method using orthogonal experimental design,and using the Amorpha fruticosa,Ulmus laevis,Populus canadensis Moench 108 and Salix psammophila for object of study,which were main afforestation tree species in North China.By observing leaf chlorophyll content and photosynthetic characteristics of the species,the application effect of environment-friendly soil conditioner was tested.The results showed that in terms of increasing chlorophyll content,the best outcome was the group of Salix psammophila,environment-friendly soil conditioner③,mineral additive amount of 150 g and sludge additive amount of 250 g;with regard to increasing photosynthetic rate,the best outcome was the group of Populus canadensis Moench 108,environment-friendly soil conditioner①,mineral additive amount of 250 g and sludge additive amount of 200 g.Research has an extraordinary important significance on improving physical and chemical properties of sandy soil and making the vegetation coverage better in arid and semi-arid areas of north China.%为探索改善沙区沙化土壤的理化性状和肥力状况、促进植物优良生长。应用特定生产工艺将天然黏土矿物、城市生活污水和污泥按一定比例加工成自制天然环保型土壤改良剂(简称环保型土壤改良剂),并采用正交试验设计盆栽法,以沙区主要造林树种紫穗槐、白榆、欧美杨108和沙柳为研究对象,通过观测植物叶片叶绿素含量和光合作用特性,研究了不同环保型土壤改良剂的应用效果。结果表明:在提高植物叶绿素含量方面,以沙柳、环保型土壤

  4. 江汉平原石家河谭家岭遗址新石器时代环境考古%Environmental archaeology of the Tanjialing Neolithic Site in the Shijiahe Ancient City, the Jianghan Plain of Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴立; 朱诚; 李冰; 李枫; 孙伟; 王晓翠; 刘辉; 孟华平; 孙珏

    2016-01-01

    . The date of the whole proifle was determined by the feature of unearthed artifacts in T0620, combined with six 14C dates from cultural layers of the Tanjialing Site and other sites which are in the near. The charcoal sample at the depth of 180 cm in the Tanjialing Site was submitted for AMS 14C dating at the Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University. Results The culture layers of the T0620 profile from the Tanjialing Neolithic Site provide detailed pollen, TOC, TN,δ13Corg and magnetic susceptibility records of the vegetation history, climate change and human activity in the Jianghan Plain. The results showed that, during the early period of Shijiahe Culture (4.6—4.4 ka BP), the pollen concentration was high, especially for a majority of hygrophilous plants, and the vegetation coverage was good, indicating the site and the surrounding area were little suffered from human disturbance. The pollen assemblages showed large concentrations of Quercus E, Pinus, Gramineae, Artemisia, Ulmaceae, Leguminosae and Euphorbiaceae. The area witnessed a short-term expansion of water regime in this period, indicated by the abrupt change of proxies in Pollen Zone Ⅰ-2. TOC, TN, C/N and δ13Corg content indicate the thrive vegetation and C3 plants occupied most parts around the study area, suggesting the warm and humid climate condition. The site can be wetland with lower magnetic susceptibility, and the ancient city plays an important role in the lfood defense and invasion. In the mid-late period of Shijiahe Culture (4.4—4.0 ka BP), a remarkable decline in pollen concentration and plant types, as well as an increase of herbaceous pollen, especially Gramineae, suggest forest destruction and large-scale agriculture activities. The continuous decline of TOC, TN and C/N indicate the cool and drought climate. It is reasonable to conclude that the site has changed into residential

  5. Identification of Xiphinema rivesi intercepted from Italy seedlings%进境意大利苗木中里夫丝剑线虫的鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高菲菲; 顾建锋; 王江岭; 王暄; 李红梅

    2013-01-01

    An Xiphinema population was intercepted from the Italy seedlings of Mediterranean cedar (Cupressus sempervirens) and apple (Malus pumila)imported at Ningbo Port in Spring of 2012.Based on the morphological characters and molecular identification,the Italian population was identified as Xiphinema rivesi Dalmasso,1969,which is one of the members of X.americanum group.The morphological characters of the Italian populationwere mainly as follows:median size body with average length of 1.9 mm; the lip region continuous,sometimes little constricted; the tail bluntly conical,dorsally convex and ventrally straight or slightly convex,c' value was 1.3-1.9;double gonads opposed and ovary reflexed.The phylogeny trees constructed by sequences of ITS and 28S D2/D3 region of ribosomal DNA revealed that the Italian population is closest to X.rivesi X.rivesi can transmit 3 kinds of plant viruses and was listed as the imported plant quarantine pest in China.There was no report about the distribution of X.rivesi in China up-to-date and the paper was the first report for the interception from Chinese ports.%2012年春季从宁波口岸进境的意大利地中海柏木和苹果苗木根际介质中检测到1种剑属线虫,通过形态学特征鉴定结合分子序列特征分析的方法,将其鉴定为里夫丝剑线虫(Xiphinema rivesi Dalmasso,1969),是美洲剑线虫组(X.americanum)成员之一.该意大利群体的主要形态鉴别特征为:虫体中等大小,平均长1.9 mm;唇区连续,有时稍缢缩;尾部钝圆锥形,背面弯曲,腹面直或稍弯曲;c'值为1.3~1.9;双生殖管对生,卵巢回折.结合基于rDNA的ITS区和28S的D2/D3区序列构建的系统发育树揭示其与里夫丝剑线虫的亲缘关系最近.里夫丝剑线虫能传播3种植物病毒,是中国进境植物检疫性线虫,目前国内尚无分布的报道,这是中国口岸首次截获.

  6. Study on Ecosystem Service Function of Urban Forest in Beijing%北京市城市森林生态服务功能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李少宁; 王燕; 商建东; 鲁绍伟; 潘青华; 张玉平

    2011-01-01

    .-Mazz.〉Buxus microphylla〉Euonymus alatus〉Pinus tabulaeformis 〉Biota orientalis〉Populus canadensis Moench,Pyrus pyrifolia〉P.persica〉P.armeniaca〉Malus pumila Mill.cerasum and Cerasus.④The most significant noise abatement capacity in the Third Ring Road,the Fourth Ring Road and the Fifth Ring Road was at 10 meters,150 meters and 50 meters place of the forest belt where the noise reduction rate was 8.39 percent,5.81 percent and 6.91 percent.Regression relation of cube function between noise abatement capability and distance of forest belt in each ring road was significant.

  7. 阿克苏市城郊林10种果树叶面形态与滞尘量的关系%Relationship between Morphological Structure and Dust-holding Capacity of Ten Fruit Tree Leaves in Peri-urban Area of Aksu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迈迪娜·吐尔逊; 玉米提·哈力克; 祖皮艳木·买买提; 阿衣古丽·艾力亚斯

    2016-01-01

    As an important component of urban ecosystem,suburb orchard forests can not only supply many kinds of fruit for urban residents,but also provide sustainable ecological services that were beneficial for the cities and their residents.A comparison study was conducted on the amount of the dust retained by the leaves of trees among 10 fruit species in Kokyar artificial afforestation project in the suburb area of Aksu,a typical oasis city in Sothern Xinjiang.The results showed that the ten fruit tree species could be classified into three categories based on the amount of the dust retained.The first category that had the highest amount of the dust retained included Vitis vini fera > Pyrus sinkiangensis>Ziziphus jujuba >Juglans regia,followed by the second category,including Ficus carica > Punicagranatum>Armeniaca vulgaris,and the third one,including Prunus pseudocerasus > Amnygdalus persica > Malus pumila.In conclusion,trees with big leaf area,coarse surface,short petiole,moderate height and crown demonstrated strong dust-retaining capability.The relationship between leaf morphological structure and the dust-retaining capacity investigation indicated that the leaves which had high dust retaining capability were those with more prominent main leaf veins,more intensive and more closely arrayed lateral veins.It was suggested that native fruit trees with high dust retaining ability should be used for the affforestion in suburb area.%城郊经济防护林是城市绿地系统的重要组成部分,不仅能够提供各类水果,而且为城市及其居民持续获得自然生态服务提供保障.本研究对新疆南部典型绿洲城市——阿克苏市郊柯柯牙人工经济防护林10种果树叶面滞尘量及其差异进行对比与排序.结果表明:10种果树的叶面滞尘量可分为3类,第1类滞尘量高(>3.00 mg·cm 2),包括葡萄、香梨、红枣和核桃,其滞尘量分别为5.37、4.55、3.88、3.03 mg· cm-2;第2类的滞尘量中等(1

  8. Effects of different host plants on the development and reproduction of the peach fruit borer, Carposina sasakii Matsumura (Lepidoptera:Carposinidae)%不同寄主植物对桃小食心虫生长发育和繁殖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李定旭; 雷喜红; 李政; 高灵旺; 沈佐锐

    2012-01-01

    为探索寄主植物对桃小食心虫Carposina sasakii生长发育和繁殖的影响,在室内温度23±1℃,相对湿度80%±7%,光周期15L∶9D条件下,测定了桃小食心虫在杏Armeniaca vulgaris、李Prunus salicina、桃Amygdalus persica、枣Ziziphus jujuba、苹果Malus pumila和梨Pyrus sorotina上各发育阶段的历期、存活率和/或产卵量,并组建了桃小食心虫在各寄主植物上的生命表.结果表明:桃小食心虫的生长发育和繁殖在不同寄主植物间存在显著差异.幼虫的发育历期以李为最短(12.48 d),梨为最长(19.15 d);整个幼虫期的存活率以李为最高(50.54%),梨为最低(17.91%);单雌平均产卵量以枣(214.50粒/雌)和桃(197.94粒/雌)最高.生命表分析结果表明,净生殖率R0以枣(117.49)为最大,平均世代周期T则以梨(41.31 d)和苹果(41.51 d)最长,内禀增长率Tm以李(0.1294)为最高,其次为枣(0.1201)和杏(0.1128).这些结果有助于深入了解该虫在不同寄主植物上的种群动态.%The peach fruit borer, Carposina sasakii, is an important pest of deciduous fruit trees in northern China. In order to explore the influence of host plants such as apricot (Armeruaca vidgaris) , plum (Prunus salicina) , peach (Amygdalus persica) , jujube ( Ziziphus jujuba) , apple (Malus pumila) , and pear (Pyrus sorotina) on the development and reproduction of this pest, experiments designed to examine the developmental duration and reproduction of the pest feeding on various host plants were carried out under laboratory conditions of 23 ±1℃, RH 80%±7% and a photoperiod of 15L:9D. The results showed that the peach fruit borer exhibited significant differences in the developmental duration and reproduction among various host plants. Larval duration was the longest on pear (19. 15 d) and the shortest on plum ( 12. 48 d) , while the preimaginal survival rate was the lowest on pear ( 17. 91% ) and the highest on plum (50. 54%). Adult females derived from

  9. 桂西北岩溶地区11种常见桑科植物生理特性比较%A comparison of physiological characteristics of eleven common Moraceae species in karst areas of Northwest Guangxi, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃勇荣; 潘振兴; 黄江滨; 农艳春; 梁文忠

    2012-01-01

    In order to select excellent plant species suitable for economic development and vegetation restoration in karst areas, the leaves of 11 common Moraceae plants growing in karst areas of Northwest Guangxi were collected, with their 14 physiological indices such as soluble sugar and proline contents determined. There existed obvious differences in the physiological characteristics among the plants. Ficus hispida had the highest chlorophyll content but F. Microcarpa had the lowest one. The soluble sugar content was the highest for Morus alba but the lowest for F. Vi-rens. M. Alba contained the highest proline content but F. Esquiroliona had the lowest one. There were also obvious differences in other physiological indices, e. G. , antioxidant enzyme activities, water-soluble protein, and membrane permeability, among the plant species. All of these indicated that Moraceae plants had complicated adaptation mechanisms and survival strategies to fit the karst environment. It was suggested that in the process of vegetation restoration in karst areas, a reasonable configuration of different species should be considered based on the soil physical and chemical background and the plant biological characteristics. The preferred plant species suitable for rocky hill vegetation rehabilitation would be Broussonetia papyrifer, F. Virens, F. Microcarpa, Cudrania tricuspidata and F. Pumila, the species suitable for wild fruit resources development would be F. Esquiroliona and F. Variegata var. Chlorocarpa, and those suitable for scale management of cash crops would be F. Carica and M. Alba.%为筛选适合岩溶地区经济开发和植被恢复的优良物种,采集了桂西北岩溶地区11种常见桑科植物的叶片,测定其可溶性总糖、脯氨酸含量等14个生理指标.研究发现:不同桑科植物的生理特性有明显差异,叶绿素含量最高的是榕树,最低的是小叶榕;可溶性糖含量最高的是桑树,最低的是大叶榕;脯氨酸含量最高

  10. 无花果与薜荔果、天仙果的鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁瑶; 胡浩彬

    2001-01-01

    @@ 无花果为桑科植物无花果Ficus carica L. 的干燥未成熟隐花果.始载于,具有清热润肺,开胃生津,理肠止泻的功效.但在商品药材中,经常混有同种植物薜荔F.pumila L.和天仙果F.beech eyana Hook.et Am.的幼隐花果.而在商品薜荔果中,也常混有无花果和天仙果. 三种植物的果实相似,但功效不同,应注意鉴别. 1 无花果又名挣桃,呈倒圆锥形或类球形,长1.5~3 c m,直径1.5~2.5 cm.表面黄棕色、灰绿色或棕褐色,有略呈波状弯曲的纵棱线,上部宽, 顶端稍平截,中央有一半圆球形突起,内充塞着若干层苞片;基部渐狭延长为果柄,柄端有 3片残存苞片(有的商品果柄已去除或部分残留),质坚韧,剖开后断面黄白色或浅黄棕色 ,壁厚2~3 mm,内壁着生众多细小的瘦果,有时上部尚有枯萎的雄花.瘦果卵形,长1~2 mm,淡黄色至淡黄棕色,外为白色宿存花被所包围.气微,味甜略酸.(见图1-A) 2 薜荔果又名木馒头,鬼馒头、鬼球、木莲蓬、木莲果.呈梨形或倒卵形,长3.5~5 cm,直径2.5~4 cm,表面黄棕色至黑褐色.顶端截形,边缘稍凹后中央向上圆突,突起正中有1小孔,孔内充塞膜质小苞片,孔外四周通常有细密的褐色或黄棕色绒毛;下端渐狭细或柄状,常连有短的果柄.果柄基部有苞片3,商品中大多脱落 ,体轻,质坚硬,切开后内壁黄棕色至红棕色,其内全部充满疏松似海绵;内表面近孔口密生众多苞片及枯萎的花,细小朱红色且有光泽的圆球状果实,气微,味苦涩.(见图1-B )

  11. Phytoplankton Assemblages in the East China Sea in Summer 2009%2009年夏季东海浮游植物群集

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭术津; 田伟; 戴民汉; 刘志亮; 孙军

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive survey was carried out in the area (25°00'~32°00'N,120°30'~127°30'E)of the East China Sea from 18th to 29th of August 2009 and the phytoplankton assemblages collected in the surveyed area were analyzed by means of Utermohl method. Totally 198 taxa, which belong to 68 genera of 5 phyla, have been identified. The phytoplankton community is mainly composed of Bacillariophyta and Dinophyta, with a few species of Cyanophyta, Chrysophyta and Chlorophyta being present. The dominant species are Thalassionema nitzschioid.es , Pseudo-nitzschia pungens , Thalassionema frauenfeLdii, Skele-tonema spp. , Scrippsiella trochoidea , Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima , Gymnodinium simplex , Prorocen-trum minimum , Paralia sulcata , Detonula pumila. Most of the phytoplankton ecotypes are neritic cosmopolitan species and some warm and oceanic species are also present in the surveyed area as a result of the influence of Taiwan Warm Current and Kuroshio Current. The cell abundance of phytoplankton ranges from 0. 296 × 103 cells ? L-1 to 2 135.200×103 cells· L-1, with an average being 58. 031×103 cells ? L-1, of which Bacillariophyta ranks the first and ranges from 0. 296 X 103 cells ? L-1 to 2 112. 000 × 103 cells ? L-1 with an average of 52. 833×103 cells ? L-1, followed by Dinophyta, ranging from 0. 296 × 103 cells ? L-1 to 527. 644X103 cells ? L-1 with an average of 11. 271 ×103 cells ? L-1. Horizontally, the cell abundance is mainly dominated by Bacillariophyta and its high values occur in the Changjiang estuary and the sea northeast of Taiwan Island, and Dinophyta is only concentrated in the area northeast of Changjiang estuary. Vertically, the cell abundance of phytoplankton is concentrated in the surface water and decreases gradually downwards. In the transectional direction, the cell abundance tends to be higher in the inshore area than in the offshore area, except for the stations in the offshore area of Section D and F, where the value of cell

  12. Estimation of Provincial Spatial Distribution Information of Forest Tree Species ( Group) Composition Using Multi-Sources Data%基于多源数据的省级树种(组)成数空间分布信息估测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹宇佳; 陈尔学; 李世明

    2016-01-01

    the forest plot data of 9 counties collected by the forest resources inventory in second level and the forest plot data collected by the NFI as reference.[Result]7 tree species ( group) composition numbers including Quercus mongolica,Betula platyphylla,Tilia amurensis, Ulmus davidiana,Populus,Juglans mandshurica and Larix olgensis were extracted and the corresponding distribution maps were produced. The results showed a good consistency with the fixed plots in field. Taking county as statistic unit,the following quantitative technical targets have been achieved: the coefficient of determination ( R2 ) was 0. 83,and the RMSE was 0. 34. Specifically,the accuracy has been further validated by dividing the whole coverage of Jilin Province into grids of 20 km × 20 km,30 km × 30 km,40 km × 40 km and 50 km × 50 km,taking the forest plot data collected by the NFI as reference and the grid as statistic unit. Better results could be achieved at the scale of 40 km × 40 km and 50 km × 50 km. The RMSE of Ulmus davidiana composition number was 0. 35 and the RMSE of Quercus mongolica composition number was 0. 65. The optimal k-value could be determined for the phenomenon that the RMSE firstly reduced and then tended steady with the rising k-value. In addition,the estimation accuracy of the two-layer stratification estimation method was higher than that of the direct estimation method. The results showed that: the average RMSE of estimating tree species ( group) composition using two-layer stratification estimation method was 0. 1 less than that using direct estimation method.[Conclusion]The proposed method for estimating the provincial spatial distribution information of forest tree species (group) composition using multi-sources data has proved to be an effective method to estimate forest parameters. Based on this method,the distribution map of forest tree species ( group) composition numbers was successfully produced with high accuracy. The results indicated that the value

  13. The radioecology study of the biosphere territory of Issik-Kul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    covered ground (0,20 sm) the contents of uranium about from 1,1 up to 2,6x10-6 g/g, and with depth it is increased a few - to 3,0x10-6 g/g. there is more concentration of uranium in the average zone of Uranium deposits, where has the contents of uranium in the upper horizon of a soil equally 4,2x10-6 g/g, and in the bottom of horizon, on depth of 40-60 sm consist - 35,0x10-6 g/g or in 8,3 times above. According to some authors quantity of uranium in waters of the rivers Tone, Ae-Suu in hollow of Issyk-Kul makes 5,6x10-6 g/l, and in river Jergalan about (depend on seasonally and places of selection) from 2,8x10-6 to 1x10-5 g/l i.e. the main waters of wells and the rivers a hollow of Issyk-Kul contain in 10, and in some cases it is in 100 times more uranium, than water from black earth and not from black earth zones. On the surface of uranium tail deposits founded 10 sorts of plants of desert type: Ulmus pinnato-ramosa, Elaeagnus songorica, Caragana Turfanica, Peganum harmala, Akantholimon alatavicum, Natraria sibirica, Clematis songorica... The contents of uranium in the listed plants was small and changed about 0.02-0.31x10-6 g/g at coefficient of enrich is - from 1,0 to 15,5 and coefficient of discrimination is - from 17,8 to 240,0. Growing of plants in the environment with the high concentration of uranium not only is accompanied by change of theirs bioproductivity but also causes of morphological variability. The infringement of pigmentation of a flower at various sorts of plants is most often shown in area of Issyk Kul. The Astragalus borodinii is has morphological variability of splitting of a sheet plate. The Peganum garmala and Potentilla argentea - instead of usual 5 petals have 6-7 and their bifurcation. But other plants are intensive growing and developing (Caragana, Scutellaria, Peganum, and Peganum harmala). By the results of the research work the common level of external radiation in researched territory and level of uranium are about limits of the norm

  14. بررسی مقاومت به چسبندگی رنگ‌های شفاف رایج در صنایع مبلمان بر روی گونه‌های چوبی راش، ملج، توسکا و نوئل

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    محمد غفرانی

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available در این تحقیق، مقاومت به چسبندگی (آزمون خراش- نوارچسب Cross-Cut رنگ‌های شفاف سیلر- کیلر و سیلر- نیم پلی‌استر، و با توجه به درصدرطوبت، در گونه­های چوبی­راش (Fagus orientalis، ملج (Ulmus smontana، توسکا (Alnus glutinosa و نوئل (Picea  glauca مورد مطالعه قرارگرفت. تخته‌هایی به ابعاد 12×110×550 میلی­متر از قسمت برون چوب و از تخته مماسی تهیه شدند و به مدت یک ماه با رعایت اصول روش­های چوب خشک کنی در هوای آزاد قرار گرفتند. سپس برای متعادل‌سازی رطوبت، به طور مجزا برای رسیدن به رطوبت 8، 12 و 15% در سه اتاق کلیما قرار داده شدند. تمامی سطوح نمونه­ها با استفاده از پیستوله رنگ­کاری شدند و آزمون­های­ مقاومت به خراش بر روی آن­ها انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین مقدار مقاومت به خراش، با درصد از دست دادن چسبندگی 4/10%، مربوط به رنگ سیلر- نیم پلی‌استر استفاده شده بر روی گونه­ی چوبی ملج با رطوبت 8% و کمترین مقدار مقاومت به خراش با درصد از دست دادن چسبندگی 6/53%، مربوط به رنگ سیلر- کیلر استفاده شده بر روی گونه­ی چوبی نوئل با رطوبت 15% بوده‌است.

  15. Silvicultural and classificatory analysis of forests of Dnipropetrovsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Sytnik

    2013-11-01

    ,189.8 ha. The other hard-leaved types of tree are species of Quercus L. – 20,288.2 ha, Robinia L. – 17,639.9 ha, Fraxinus L. – 3,200.1 ha, Acer L. – 864.2 ha, Ulmus L. – 860.3 ha and Gleditsia L. – 172.9 ha. Soft-leaved species in the forests of Dnipropetrovsk region are represented by the following genera Betula, Populus, Alnus, Tilia, Salix. The predominant among the identified age groups of Dnipropetrovsk region are the middle-aged and mature stands which occupy 40.2% (26,392.5 ha and 39.7% (26,076.1 ha of the forest area respectively. The age structure of forests in Dnipropetrovsk region is very irregular, which indicates a great potential for further increase in the volume of reafforestation. It is established that the largest area of the forest stands of environmental, scientific, historical and cultural significance is occupied by middle-aged (3,568.4 ha and over mature (2,782.0 ha stands with a total stock of 657.7 and 517.4 m3 per ha respectively. Stands of young-growth occupy the smallest area – 706.7 ha. Similarly in stands of recreational and health forests the largest area is occupied by middle-aged stands – 13,368.1 ha with a total stock of 2,550.8 m3 per ha. Middle aged trees occupy the largest area of protective forests – 9,456.0 ha (38.4%, of which the stands’ stock is 1,782.0 m3 per ha.

  16. VEGETATION,PALEOCLIMITE AND VEGETATION USE DURING LONGSHAN ERA:CASE STUDIES OF ANTHRACOLOGY OF WADIAN SITE IN HENAN PROVINCE%龙山时代的植被、古气候及植物利用——以河南瓦店遗址的木炭分析为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王树芝; 方燕明; 赵志军

    2012-01-01

    Wadian Site is located in the eastern and north-western platform of Wadian Country, Huolong Township, Yuzhou City(34°11'N,113°25'E). Yinghe River is to the north of the site,flowing from northwest to east. The date of Wadian Longshan culture is 2255 ~ 1755BC. According to archaeological investigation and a large scale of drilling, it is found that the remained area is more than one million square meters with building stead, ring ditches and ritual remains. Artifacts such as polished black pottery,white pottery,jade and large oracle bones were found. The location of Yangdi or Juntai where Yu and Qi lived was in Yuzhou according to the literature.Charcoals were collected from pits, houses, ditches and cultural layer during the excavation of Wadian Site both in 2007 and 2008. One thousand and thirty charcoals were identified and one thousand and nine charcoals belonged to 26 genera,including Quercus sp. (3 genus) ,Zizyphus sp., Zelkova sp., Ulmus sp., Malus sp., Armeniaca sp., Fraxinus sp., Diospyros sp., Acer sp., Castanea sp., Cudrania sp., Rhus sp., Populus sp., Cyclobalanopsis sp., Platycladus orientalis, Bambusoideae and 8 tree species and 23 charcoals were skulls of spine date and cupules.According to the statistic results,the oak was dominant,the percentage was 79.5%; the second was bamboo, accounting for 3. 4% ; the third was glauca, accounting for 3. 1% ; the fourth was the date, accounting for 2. 6% ; the fifth is unknown species, accounting for 2. 2% ; the sixth was beech, accounting for 1. 3% ; the seventh was unknown genus, accounting for 1. 1 % ; and the rest was a small proportion of other species, of which only one kind of conifer was Chinese arborvitae, accounting for 0.2%. Oak deciduous forest, evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest, bamboo, other trees and fruit trees were distributed around the Wadian Site.Oak charcoals scattered in the cultural layer were dominant, the percentage was 68. 2%; the second was glauca, accounting for 6. 9

  17. 1986-2010年巴楚木本植物物候变化特征及其对气候变化的响应分析%Woody Plants Phonological Variation Characteristics and Its Responses to Climate Change During 1986-2010 in Bachu County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿布都克日木·阿巴司; 于艳; 阿不都西库尔·阿不都克力木

    2015-01-01

    利用巴楚国家基本气候站1986—2010年的气象观测数据和地面物候观测资料,采用气候倾向率和气候趋势系数方法,分析气温、降水、日照时数的变化特征;木本植物选用新疆杨(Populus bolleanalanche),垂柳(Salix babylonica),杏树(Prunus armeniaca),苹果树(Malus pumila),沙枣树(Fdeagnys Qxycarpasehlecht),对植物物候期与气候变化的相互关系进行研究。研究表明:近25 a来巴楚气候增暖现象较明显,春、秋季变暖的趋势大于冬、夏季;春、夏降水量呈减少趋势,冬、秋两季降水量均呈增多趋势;年日照时数除春季日照时数表现为增加趋势外,其他季节均表现为不同程度的减少趋势。其中,以冬季减幅最显著。近25 a来巴楚木本植物芽开放期、展叶始期、开花始期表现提前趋势,叶变色始期和落叶始期表现推迟的趋势;影响植物物候期的主要气候因子为气温和日照时数,随气温升高,日照时数增多,植物生长季延长。木本植物春季物候期与春季气温和春季日照时数呈负相关,且相关性显著,而与冬季气温和冬季日照时数几乎没有显著相关性。木本植物物候与秋季温度呈正相关,秋季气温升高,物候期推迟。%We have collected climatic data and monitoring data about plant phenology from 1986 to 2010 for Bachu county to analyze changing characteristic of temperature, precipitation and sunshine durations, and discuss the effect on phenology of Populus bolleanalanche, Salix babylonica, Prunus armeniaca, Fdeagnys Qxycarpasehlecht, Malus pumila, Pyrus bretschneideri, by calculating climate trend coefficient and climate tendency ratio. the research indicated that the temperature increased obviously, the warming rate was 0.18~0.95 ℃/10 a, The warming trend in spring and autumn was more obvious than that in winter and summer. The annual precipitation showed a

  18. A NEW SPECIES OF SPINED LOACH (OSTEICHTHYES, COBITIDAE)FROM THE PEARL RIVER, GUANGXI OF CHINA%中国广西壮族自治区珠江流域鳅属一新种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈咏霞; 陈毅峰; 何德奎

    2013-01-01

    记述采自中国广西壮族自治区邕江和郁江鳅属Cobitis 1新种,南方鳅Cobitis australis sp.nov..通过扩增其线粒体细胞色素b基因,与已知鳅属和益秀朝鲜鳅属Iksookimia 物种进行遗传距离比较,并构建系统发育树,结合形态分析,确认其为1新种.南方鳅与本属其它种类的区别主要为:噶氏斑纹分界不明显(Gambetta's pigmentation pattern),斑纹具两性异形.雄性背部斑纹不规则,约17 ~ 20个,背鳍后斑纹融合为马鞍形;雌性背部斑纹约13个,背鳍前斑纹在体侧延伸为三角形.体侧中线11 ~13个不规则的“V”形或倒三角形斑纹,雄性头后4~5个小斑纹,雌性1~2个小斑纹.背部和体侧中线之间为形状和大小不规则的斑纹,雄性多于20个,该处斑纹与背部和体侧中线斑纹有融合;雌性少于20个,无融合.背鳍和尾鳍各具有4~5列点状条纹;雄性胸鳍第1根分枝鳍条基部的骨质突起(lamina circularis)指状,第1根分支鳍条延长,胸鳍似旗状;体鳞较大,延长,卵圆形,鳞焦略大,基位;颏叶不发达,末端钝圆;须短,其长等于或略小于眼径.新种体色斑纹与益秀朝鲜鳅属种类相似,新种与益秀朝鲜鳅Iksookimia koreensis(Kim,1975)和斑纹益秀朝鲜鳅Iksookimia pumila(Kim et Lee,1987)的主要区别是,前者背鳍和尾鳍各具4~5条斑纹,背部斑纹和体侧中线斑纹不相连,体侧中线11 ~13个宽而短的倒三角形斑纹;益秀朝鲜鳅背鳍和尾鳍各具有3~4列条纹,体侧中线下13~ 14个窄而长的倒三角形斑纹;斑纹益秀朝鲜鳅背鳍和尾鳍各具有2~3列条纹,背部斑纹和体侧中线斑纹相连,两列斑纹之间斑块少于10个,体侧中线9 ~10个宽而长的条状或倒三角形斑纹.新种与盈德益秀朝鲜鳅Iksookimia yongdokensis Kim et Park,1997、休氏益秀朝鲜鳅Iksookimia hugowolfeldi Nalbant,1993和长身益秀朝鲜鳅Iksookimia longicorpus(Kim,Choi and Nalbant,1976)的主要区别是,前

  19. 九种蔷薇科植物叶片的傅里叶红外光谱与亲缘关系分析%Analysis of Leave FTIR of Nine Kinds of Plants from Rosaceae with Genetic Relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱璐; 李晓勇; 刘鹏; 范树国; 谢美华; 刘仁明; 周林宗; 王静

    2014-01-01

    Leaves of nine kinds of plants from three subfamily of Rosaceae were used as materials .Genetic relationship was ana-lyzed and species were identified through studying FTIR of nine kinds of plants .Leaves mainly contain large amounts of carbohy-drates ,proteins ,lipids ,nucleic acids and other substances .The peaks of carbohydrates are mainly between 1 440 and 775 cm -1 . The vibration peaks of the cellulose and lignin are between 1 440 and 1 337 cm -1 .The peaks between 1 000 and 775 cm -1 are stretching vibration of ribose .The vibration peaks of protein are between 1 620 and 1 235 cm-1 .The peak at 1 620 cm -1 is sen-sitive to CO stretching vibration of protein amide Ⅰ .The peak at 1 523 cm -1 is assigned to N -H and C-N stretching vi-bration of protein amide Ⅱ .Peaks of lipids mainly appeared between 2 930 and 1 380 cm-1 .The peak at 2 922 cm -1 is CH2 stretching vibration of fat .The peak at 1 732 cm-1 is CO stretching vibration of fatty acids .The mark peak of the nucleic acid appears in the region between 1 250 and 1 000 cm -1 .The peak at 1 068 cm -1 is due to the symmetric stretching vibration of PO2 - group of the phosphodiester-deoxyribose backbone ,and the peak at 1 246 cm -1 is associated to the asymmetric stretch vi-bration of PO2 - group .The results showed that the cluster model is established by smoothing ,standardizing ,the second deriva-tive ,principal component analysis and Hierarchical cluster analysis .It is accordant with the traditional classification .The result of cluster shows that Prunus armeniaca L .and Prunus seudocerasus Lindl .were clustered into one (Prunoideae) . Potentilla fulgens Wall.Rosachinensis Jacdand Fragaria ananassa Duchesnevar.were clustered into the second(Rosoideae).Pyracan-tha fortuneana Li ,Malus pumila Mill .Eriobotrya bengalensis Hook .f .and Malus hallianna Koehne were clustered into the third (Pomoideae) .The correct rate of cluster at subfamily is 100% .The correct rate of cluster at genus is 55.56% .The

  20. Potential distribution of an invasive pest, Eriosoma lanigerum in China%外来入侵种——苹果绵蚜在中国的适生区预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴亚; 蒋春廷; 许国庆

    2011-01-01

    The woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann), is an important pest in China. This pest is spreading rapidly and has caused serious economic losses in some apple producing areas. In order to monitor and manage this pest effectively it is necessary to investigate its potential geographical distribution worldwide. We used two ecological niche models, the Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Production (GARP) and the Maximum Entropy (MAXENT) model, along with the geographical distribution of the host plant, the apple tree (Malus pumila), to predict the potential geographical distribution of E. lanigerum. The potential distributions estimated by both models are generally consistent but GARP predicted a larger potential distribution than MAXENT. The results also indicate that the most suitable areas for woolly apple aphid colonization in China arc mainly restricted to Northeast China ( southern Liaoning), North China (southeast of Hebei, Beijing, Tianjin and southern Shanxi), East China (most of Shandong),Central China (northern Henan) and Northwest China (middle Shanxi ). Some parts of southern Hebei, Shandong,Henan and eastern Gansu Provinces are predicted to be moderately suitable for this pest. In addition, some parts of 20Provinces were predicted to have low suitability or be unsuitable (e. g. Heilongjiang, Jilin and Xinjiang). A Jackknife test implemented within MAXENT showed that the average maximum January temperature is the most important environmental variable affecting the distribution of E. lanigerum. The results suggest several reasonable regulations and management strategies that should be adopted to prevent the spread of this high-risk apple pest to currently unaffected apple producing areas.%苹果绵蚜Eriosoma lanlgerum(Hausmann)是我国重要的检疫性害虫,主要为害苹果、海棠等苹果属(Malus Mill.)植物.目前,该种害虫已在我国一些苹果主产区迅速扩散,并给我国的苹果产业造成了较为严重的经济损失.