WorldWideScience

Sample records for ulmus pumila ulmaceae

  1. Fenología de la floración de Ulmus pumila L. (Ulmaceae en la ciudad de Bahía Blanca (Argentina

    Lucia Saveanu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La fenología es el estudio de los fenómenos periódicos que ocurren en los seres vivos y sus relaciones con condiciones ambientales como luz, temperatura, humedad, etc. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron describir las fases fenológicas durante la fl oración deUlmus pumilaL. para la ciudad de Bahía Blanca y relacionar la floración con datos meteorológicos de temperaturas mínimas y máximas. Durante dos periodos de floración (julio a septiembre, de 2007 y de 2008 se realizaron observaciones fenológicas semanales de ejemplares deU. pumilapresentes en el arbolado urbano de la ciudad. La fl oración se observó en los meses de julio y agosto, registrándose la máxima floración el 23 y el 7 de agosto de 2007 y 2008, respectivamente. Durante la floración del año 2007 la cantidad de flores registradas y la duración de la fase de floración fueron superiores a lo ocurrido en 2008. Estos resultados ayudan a conocer la dinámica de floración de U. pumila en la ciudad de Bahía Blanca, y a largo plazo contribuirá a la interpretación de los cambios climáticos de la región y a una mejor prevención de las alergias.

  2. Programmed cell death of Ulmus pumila L. seeds during aging

    Yulan ZHANG; Ming ZHANG; Fang LI; Xiaofeng WANG

    2008-01-01

    The programmed cell death (PCD) character-istics of Ulmus pumila L. seeds were investigated. The seeds were treated at a high temperature of 37℃ and 100% relative humidity for six days. DAPI (4'6-diami-dino-2-phenylindole) staining revealed that the aging treatment induced condensation and margination of chro-matin, as well as the formation of apoptotic bodies. DNA electrophoresis results of U. pumila seeds on an agarose gel showed a characteristic "ladder" pattern. Levels of electrolyte leakage of seed cells showed that membranes retained their integral form during almost the entire aging time. There was an immediate increase in the production rate of superoxide anion (O2-) and in the amount of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which remained at a μmol level. All of these common characteristics indicate that seed aging can be classified as PCD.

  3. Ulmaceae

    The family Ulmaceae is treated for The Jepson Manual of the higher plants of California, a detailed floristic manual for the state published by the University of California. One genus and four species are recognized; full morphological descriptions, dichotomous keys, and brief summaries of geograph...

  4. Intervascular pit membranes with a torus in the wood of Ulmus (Ulmaceae) and related genera

    Jansen, S.; Choat, B.; Vinckier, S.; Lens, F.; Schols, P.; Smets, E.

    2004-01-01

    • The distribution of intervascular pit membranes with a torus was investigated in juvenile wood samples of 19 species of Ulmus and seven related genera. • A staining solution of safranin and alcian blue (35 : 65) was recommended to distinguish torus-bearing pit membranes using light microscopy. • I

  5. 家榆和金叶榆光合·蒸腾及荧光参数对水分胁迫的响应%Research on the Response of the Photosynthesis,Transpiration and Fluorescence Index of Ulmus pumila L.and Ulmus pumila cv.jinye to Water Stress

    曹书敏; 杨晴; 杨俊明; 李搬顺; 黄印冉; 张均营

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The difference in the drought tolerance between Ulmus pumiln L. And Ulmus pumila cv.jinye was analyzed. [ Method] The potted experiment in the drought tolerance of the seedlings of 2 year-old Ulmus pumila L. And Ulmus pumila cv.jinye that were planted in soil with 4 gradient levels of moisture and the photosynthesis,transpiration and fluorescence parameter of the seedlings were measured with GFS -3000 portable photosynthesis measurement system. [ Results ] With the intensification of water stress, the photosvnthetic rate, transpiration rate, water -using efficiency, stomatal conductance of Ulmus pumila L. And Ulmus pumila cv.jinye showed a downward trend and the higher the degree of water stress was,the smaller the declining degree of Ulmus pumila cv.jinye photosynthetic rate was than that of Ulmus pumila L. Under the condition of severe water stress,the transpiration rate and non-photochemical quenching of Ulmus pumila cv.jinye was significantly lower than these of Ulmus pumila L. And the stomatal conductance,chlorophyll fluorescence parameter and non-photochemical quenching of Ulmus pumila cv.jinye were significantly higher these of Ulmus pumila L. [Conclusion] In dry conditions, the ability of Ulmus pumila cv.jinye in drought resistance, self-regulation and adaptable to environment was stronger than these of Ulmus pumila L. And Ulmus pumila cv.jinye was with even greater potential in severe drought environment.%[目的]探讨家榆和金叶榆抗旱能力的差异.[方法]设置4个土壤水分梯度,用2年生家榆和金叶榆幼苗进行盆栽控水试验,利用GFS-3000便携式光合作用荧光测量系统测定试验苗的光合、蒸腾和荧光参数.[结果]随水分胁迫程度的加剧,家榆和金叶榆光合速率、蒸腾速率、水分利用效率、气孔导度均呈下降趋势;水分胁迫程度越高,金叶榆光合速率比家榆下降的幅度越小;在重度水分胁迫条件下,金叶榆的蒸腾速率、非光化学猝灭

  6. Genetic variation and heritability estimates of Ulmus minor and Ulmus pumila hybrids for budburst, growth and tolerance to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi

    Solla A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Seedlings obtained by crossing Ulmus minor and U. minor × U. pumila clones were assessed for flowering, bark beetle damage, vegetative budburst, height growth and resistance to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. Ramets and open pollinated seedlings obtained from the parent trees were assessed for the same traits. Most progenies had similar traits to their parents, but some presented heterosis in annual growth or resistance to O. novo-ulmi. Leaf wilting was significantly lower in progenies with U. minor × U. pumila rather than U. minor as female parent (21.5 and 30.6%, respectively; P<0.05. Resistance to O. novo-ulmi increased significantly as a function of increased amounts of U. pumila germplasm from the female parent, suggesting that resistance to Dutch elm disease is primarily transmitted from the mother. Budburst occurred earlier in seedlings with low rather than high growth rates (P=0.0007 and percentage of wilting was negatively related to early budburst (P<0.0001. Other phenotypic relations included percentage of flowering trees and annual height growth (rp=0.44; P=0.0042, percentage of flowering trees and vegetative budburst (rp=-0.53; P=0.0004 and percentage of beetle-affected trees and annual height growth (rp=0.60; P<0.0001. Heritability estimates obtained from the regression and variance components methods ranged from 0.06 ± 0.04 to 0.64 ± 0.18, 0.10 ± 0.05 to 0.69 ± 0.17, and 0.13 ± 0.32 to 0.71 ± 0.22 for budburst, growth and tolerance to O. novo-ulmi, respectively. Broad- and narrow-sense heritability values were higher when estimated 60 days post inoculation (dpi than 15, 30 or 120 dpi. Heritability estimates and genetic gains reported indicate a high degree of additive genetic control and show the effectiveness of selection for Dutch elm disease resistance and rapid tree growth.

  7. Morphological Characteristics and Water-Use Efficiency of Siberian Elm Trees (Ulmus pumila L. within Arid Regions of Northeast Asia

    Go Eun Park

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L. is one of the most commonly found tree species in arid areas of northeast Asia. To understand the morphological and physiological characteristics of Siberian elms in arid regions, we analyzed leaves from seven study sites (five arid or semi-arid and two mesic in China, Mongolia and the Republic of Korea, which covered a wide range of average annual precipitation (232 mm·year−1 to 1304 mm·year−1 under various aridity indexes (AI and four different microenvironments: sand dune, steppe, riverside and forest. The traits of Siberian elms varied widely along different annual precipitation (P and AI gradients. Tree height (H, leaf size (LS and stomatal area per unit leaf area (AS/AL decreased with increasing AI, whereas leaf mass per unit leaf area (LMA and water-use efficiency (WUE increased significantly. In addition, trees at the five arid sites showed significant differences in LS, LMA and AS/AL but not in H and WUE. Thus, our study indicated that indigenous Siberian elm trees in arid areas have substantially altered their morphological and physiological characteristics to avoid heat stress and increase water conservation in comparison to mesic areas. However, their changes differed depending on the surrounding microenvironment even in arid areas. Trees in sand dunes had a smaller LS, higher LMA, thicker leaf cuticle layer and higher stomatal density and AS than those in steppes and near a riverside.

  8. 金叶榆硬枝扦插试验初探%Preliminary Tests on Hardwood Cuttings of Ulmus pumila cv. jinye

    杨艳丽; 孙福林; 黄晓霞

    2011-01-01

    在大通植物园进行金叶榆扦插试验,结果表明沙壤土扦插和地膜覆盖可提高扦插苗的高、地径生长量,明显提高扦插成活率。%Ulmus pumila cv. jinye cutting test wewe conducted in botanical garden of Datong, the results showed in sandy loam soil cutting and mulching can increase height and diameter growth, improved significant- ly survival rate of cuttings.

  9. The first complete chloroplast genome sequences of Ulmus species by de novo sequencing: Genome comparative and taxonomic position analysis

    Zhang, Shuang; Yu, Xiao-Yue; Ren, Ya-Chao; Yang, Min-Sheng; Wang, Jin-Mao

    2017-01-01

    Elm (Ulmus) has a long history of use as a high-quality heavy hardwood famous for its resistance to drought, cold, and salt. It grows in temperate, warm temperate, and subtropical regions. This is the first report of Ulmaceae chloroplast genomes by de novo sequencing. The Ulmus chloroplast genomes exhibited a typical quadripartite structure with two single-copy regions (long single copy [LSC] and short single copy [SSC] sections) separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRs). The lengths of the chloroplast genomes from five Ulmus ranged from 158,953 to 159,453 bp, with the largest observed in Ulmus davidiana and the smallest in Ulmus laciniata. The genomes contained 137–145 protein-coding genes, of which Ulmus davidiana var. japonica and U. davidiana had the most and U. pumila had the fewest. The five Ulmus species exhibited different evolutionary routes, as some genes had been lost. In total, 18 genes contained introns, 13 of which (trnL-TAA+, trnL-TAA−, rpoC1-, rpl2-, ndhA-, ycf1, rps12-, rps12+, trnA-TGC+, trnA-TGC-, trnV-TAC-, trnI-GAT+, and trnI-GAT) were shared among all five species. The intron of ycf1 was the longest (5,675bp) while that of trnF-AAA was the smallest (53bp). All Ulmus species except U. davidiana exhibited the same degree of amplification in the IR region. To determine the phylogenetic positions of the Ulmus species, we performed phylogenetic analyses using common protein-coding genes in chloroplast sequences of 42 other species published in NCBI. The cluster results showed the closest plants to Ulmaceae were Moraceae and Cannabaceae, followed by Rosaceae. Ulmaceae and Moraceae both belonged to Urticales, and the chloroplast genome clustering results were consistent with their traditional taxonomy. The results strongly supported the position of Ulmaceae as a member of the order Urticales. In addition, we found a potential error in the traditional taxonomies of U. davidiana and U. davidiana var. japonica, which should be confirmed with a

  10. 浑善达克沙地榆树干液流动态研究%Sap Flow Dynamics of Ulmus pumila var.sabulosa in Hunshandake Sandland

    王晶苑; 蒋高明; 刘美珍

    2011-01-01

    Sap flux density of Ulmus pumila var. Sabulosa in typical elms sparse forest in Hunshandake Sandland of Inner Mongolia was studied by using Cranier technology. Nine dominant trees with different Diameters at Breast Height (DBH) which belong to three classes of DBH, that is, 15-25cm (small DBH), 25-35cm (medium DBH) and >35cm (large DBH), respectively in natural forest were selected and measured in terms of sap flux density. At the same time, various environmental factors including air temperature, relative humidity, photosynthetically active radiation, and wind speed were monitored in the whole growing season. The sap flow characteristics of forest stand are: sap flow density peak value of large DBH is larger than that of medium DBH tree and then small DBH tree. Sap flow density of large DBH trees change gently because age of stand. Average monthly sap flow density is less with the shift of growing season; the sap flow density enters into the state of weakly fluctuation in the end of growing season (October). The maximum value of average monthly sap flow density for varied tree species appears from June to August, the differences among dominant, medium and small trees are large. The main influence environmental factors are VPD, PAR, Ta. At different months, the dominant environmental factors have changed, but the two main factors are PAR and VPD.%应用Granier热扩散技术对内蒙古浑善达克沙地榆(Ulmus pumila var.sabulosa)疏林林分进行树干液流通量研究.选择该区占林分80%以上林木的3种胸径级(小径级,15-25cm;中等径级,25-35cm;大径级,>35cm)榆树,使用Granier探针进行每隔15min的树干液流测定,同步测定各林分环境因子.林分中不同胸径级榆树树干液流通量特征表现为:树干液流密度峰值大径级树>中等径级树>小径级树,且差异明显;大径级树由于林龄较大,液流密度曲线变化平缓,没有明显的峰值,呈弧形曲线;液流密度随季节推移在生

  11. Seed Burial Depth and Soil Water Content Affect Seedling Emergence and Growth of Ulmus pumila var. sabulosa in the Horqin Sandy Land

    Jiao Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of seed burial depth and soil water content on seedling emergence and growth of Ulmus pumila var. sabulosa (sandy elm, an important native tree species distributed over the European-Asian steppe. Experimental sand burial depths in the soil were 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 cm, and soil water contents were 4%, 8%, 12% and 16% of field capacity. All two-way ANOVA (five sand burial depths and four soil water contents results showed that seed burial depths, soil water content and their interactions significantly affected all the studied plant variables. Most of the times, seedling emergence conditions were greater at the lower sand burial depths (less than 1.0 cm than at the higher (more than 1.0 cm seed burial depths, and at the lower water content (less than 12% than at the higher soil water content. However, high seed burial depths (more than 1.5 cm or low soil water content (less than 12% reduced seedling growth or change in the root/shoot biomass ratios. In conclusion, the most suitable range of sand burial was from 0.5 to 1.0 cm soil depth and soil water content was about 12%, respectively, for the processes of seedling emergence and growth. These findings indicate that seeds of the sandy elm should be kept at rather shallow soil depths, and water should be added up to 12% of soil capacity when conducting elm planting and management. Our findings could help to create a more appropriate sandy elm cultivation and understand sparse elm woodland recruitment failures in arid and semi-arid regions.

  12. Experimental sand burial affects seedling survivorship, morphological traits, and biomass allocation of Ulmus pumila var. sabulosa in the Horqin Sandy Land, China

    Tang, Jiao; Busso, Carlos Alberto; Jiang, Deming; Musa, Ala; Wu, Dafu; Wang, Yongcui; Miao, Chunping

    2016-07-01

    As a native tree species, Ulmus pumila var. sabulosa (sandy elm) is widely distributed in the Horqin Sandy Land, China. However, seedlings of this species have to withstand various depths of sand burial after emergence because of increasing soil degradation, which is mainly caused by overgrazing, climate change, and wind erosion. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the changes in its survivorship, morphological traits, and biomass allocation when seedlings were buried at different burial depths: unburied controls and seedlings buried vertically up to 33, 67, 100, or 133 % of their initial mean seedling height. The results showed that partial sand burial treatments (i.e., less than 67 % burial) did not reduce seedling survivorship, which still reached 100 %. However, seedling mortality increased when sand burial was equal to or greater than 100 %. In comparison with the control treatment, seedling height and stem diameter increased at least by 6 and 14 % with partial burial, respectively. In the meantime, seedling taproot length, total biomass, and relative mass growth rates were at least enhanced by 10, 15.6, and 27.6 %, respectively, with the partial sand burial treatment. Furthermore, sand burial decreased total leaf area and changed biomass allocation in seedlings, partitioning more biomass to aboveground organs (e.g., leaves) and less to belowground parts (roots). Complete sand burial after seedling emergence inhibited its re-emergence and growth, even leading to death. Our findings indicated that seedlings of sandy elm showed some resistance to partial sand burial and were adapted to sandy environments from an evolutionary perspective. The negative effect of excessive sand burial after seedling emergence might help in understanding failures in recruitments of sparse elm in the study region.

  13. Photosynthetic Characteristics of Ulmus Pumila Senescing Leaves in Autumn%榆树秋季衰老叶光合特性研究

    宫江平; 高波; 努尔塔依·铁利汗; 武胜利; 韩炜; 窦晓静

    2015-01-01

    全球气候变化使得新疆植物的生长季变长,对其生理生态产生影响。文章采用 Li-6400XT便携式光合测定系统,测定乌鲁木齐市晚秋榆树的光合作用参数,总结其秋季衰老叶光合特性,揭示榆树的生理特征对气候变化的响应。研究结果表明,其净光合速率日变化呈双峰曲线,15:00出现“午休”现象,净光合速率最高峰出现在13:00,为14μmol· m-2· s-1,次峰出现在17:00,为6umol· m-2· s-1。榆树净光合速率(Pn)与气孔导度(Gs)、蒸腾速率(Tr)、水分利用率(WUE)、大气温度(Ta)以及空气相对湿度( RH)之间呈正相关,而与胞间二氧化碳浓度( Ci)呈负相关。秋季延长下,榆树仍具有较高的光合作用,属于“气孔主导型”和“气温主导型”,这有利于西北干旱区的绿洲生态建设和城市绿化植被管理。%In recent years, a warming trend has been occurring in Xinjiang, it makes the growing season of vegetation longer which has an effect on plant physiological ecology.This article measured the senescing leaves pho-tosynthetic parameters of Ulmus pumila by Li-6400XT, a portable photosynthesis system.It summarized the photo-synthetic characteristics and revealed the response to climate change.This study indicated the diurnal variation be-tween net photosynthetic rate ( Pn) , stomatal conductance ( Gs) transpiration rate( Tr) , the internal CO2 concen-tration( Ci) and efficiency of water application( WUE) .Then it told the curve of diurnal variation of net photosyn-thetic rate (Pn) was dual-peaked with obvious midday depression of the photosynthetic efficiency.The highest Net photosynthetic rate ( Pn) peak appeared at 13:00 and the second peak appeared at 17:00, the value is 14μmolm-2 · s-1 and 6μmol· m-2 · s-1 respectively.There was significant positive correlation between Pn, Gs, Tr, WUE, Ta and RH, while a negative relation between the net

  14. Soft Cutting Propagation Technology of Ulmus pumila ‘Zhonghuajinye’%中华金叶榆嫩枝扦插繁殖技术1)

    徐笑玥; 佟兆庆; 闫文涛; 陆秀君; 李常猛

    2016-01-01

    以中华金叶榆( Ulmus pumila‘Jinye’)为试材,剪取当年生枝条中上部做插穗,每个插穗保留2片叶子,用ABT 1000 mg· L-1溶液处理插穗10 s,分别扦插在河沙、珍珠岩、蛭石、草炭、V(珍珠岩)∶V(蛭石)=1∶1、V (珍珠岩)∶V(蛭石)=3∶1、V(珍珠岩)∶V(草炭)=1∶1、V(珍珠岩)∶V(草炭)=3∶1,8种基质上,探究不同扦插基质对插穗生根的影响;采用3因素3水平正交试验设计,即选用ABT、IBA、NAA 3种生根促进剂,每种生根促进剂设计500、1000、1500 mg· L-13个质量浓度梯度,处理时间为10、30、60 s,扦插在V(珍珠岩)∶V(蛭石)=1∶1的基质中,筛选金叶榆嫩枝扦插最佳生根促进剂及处理时间。结果表明:蛭石为最佳基质,插穗生根率为89.17%,平均根数为10条,平均根长为12.92 cm,最长根长为38.5 cm。正交试验结果表明:用质量浓度为500 mg· L-1的IBA生根促进剂处理30 s得到的生根效果较好,生根率为82.22%,平均根长为21.12 cm,平均根数为17条。通过spss软件中的多重比较法分析推测得出,采用1500 mg· L-1 IBA生根促进剂处理插穗基部30 s,得到的金叶榆插穗生根率将会更高。%With Ulm us pumila‘Zhonghuajinye ’ , and one-year branches of the upper part as stem cuttings , each stem cutting retained two leaves .In order to test the influence of different substrates on cutting , stem cuttings were treated with ABT of 1 000 mg· L-1 solution for 10 s and inserted into eight soil substrates including river sand , perlite, vermiculite, peat, per-lite∶vermiculite=1∶1, perlite ∶vermiculite=3∶1, perlite ∶peat=1∶1, and perlite ∶peat=3∶1 ( V/V) , respective-ly.With the purpose of screening the best reagent concentration and the best treatment time for U.pumila‘Zhonghuajinye’ cutting, the experiment was conducted using three

  15. 科尔沁沙地1826年以来榆树树轮宽度年表的建立及降水重建%ESTABLISHMENT OF RING WIDTH CHRONOLOGY AND RAINFALL RECONSTRUCTION OF Ulmus pumila L.IN HORQIN SANDY LAND SINCE 1826

    马龙; 刘廷玺; 冀鸿兰; 罗艳云; 段利民; 杨颖

    2011-01-01

    利用10个采样点230个树木年轮样本,通过树轮分析程序,建立了科尔沁沙地区域1826~2008年共计183年长度的榆树树轮宽度年表.通过分析发现,水热条件与科尔沁沙地榆树生长关系密切.以标准年表及年表t+1年和t+2年序列重建了区域1826~2006年年降水.从过去181年来看,年降水重建序列具有2年、12年、18年和30年等变化准周期,分别经历了5个偏湿和5个偏干阶段,干旱和偏干年份分别占总年份的0.55%和16.02%,1950~2006年间偏干年数占1900~2006年间偏干总年数的78.57%,偏干阶段年数不断增加.降水出现了4次突变,1839年和1920年前后均发生了由少到多的突变,1861年和1958年前后均发生了由多到少的突变,这其中尤以1958年前后突变最为显著.总体上,科尔沁沙地近181年中,1826~1957年近130年间降水变化较为平缓,而后近50年,降水量趋于减少,气候趋于干旱.%The current study was done on Ulmus pumila L. in Horqin sandy land (42°36' ~ 45°20'N, 117°45' ~124°06'E). Samples were collected according to the principles of ecological environment, perception and restoration. Two hundred and thirty U. pumila L. tree ring samples were collected using the tree growth cones from 10 sites ( KLDD , MLML, KLSS , HQHST, ZZMLQ, KLWD. XAHY , ZQBGTL, KLMX. and BLYYC ) in 2009. The pretreatment and dating were carried out according to the analytical procedure for tree rings. The widths of U. pumila L. tree rings were measured and the cross-dating was performed through the COFECHA procedure. The U. pumila L. growth trend was fitted to a negative exponential function or spline calculated using the ARSTAN procedure ( the time step was assumed as 50 years) . The growth trend of U. pumila L. rings was removed , and all samples were used to establish a regional and comprehensive width chronology. The standard.residual,and self-regression chronologies of 183 years ( 1826 to 2008) were obtained. The

  16. 地下水位下降对浑善达克沙地榆树光合及抗逆性的影响%Effects of groundwater decline on photosynthetic characteristics and stress tolerance of Ulmus pumila in Hunshandake Sandy Land, China

    苏华; 李永庚; 苏本营; 孙建新

    2012-01-01

    Aims Ulmus pumila, a widespread tree in the semiarid ecosystems of northern China, forms sparse woodlands in Hunshandake Sandy Land. However, the population of U. Pumila has been declining in recent years because of a lowered water table, mainly caused by increased human water consumption. Our objective was to clarify the relationships between tree ecophysiological activity and the water table in order to provide information for protection of the species.Methods Saplings of U. Pumila were planted in pots with simulated water tables at 1, 2, 3 and 4 m depth (U1, U2, U3 and U4, respectively). The impacts of water tables on the photosynthetic characteristics and stress tole-rence of U. Pumila were determined by analyzing photosynthetic light and CO2 curves, pigments, predawn water potential, soluble sugar and proline.Important findings Both the utilization efficiency of strong and weak light by U. Pumila and the maximum photosynthetic rate decreased with lowered water table. Compared to Ul, the light saturation point, apparent quantum yield and dark respiration rate of U2, U3 and U4 were significantly decreased successively (p < 0.05). The maximum net photosynthetic rate of U4 ((8.98 ± 0.08) μmolm-2s-1) was reduced by 16.9% compared to Ul ((10.81 ± 0.28) μmol·m-2·s-1). Light energy conversion efficiency of U. Pumila also declined with lowered water table. Compared to Ul, the photorespiratory rate, maximum RuBP saturated rate of carboxylation, maximum rate of electron transport and rate of triose-phosphate utilization decreased (p < 0.05) and CO2 compensation point increased in the order of U2 < U3 < U4 (p < 0.05). The soluble sugar and proline contents significantly increased (p < 0.05) with lowered water table, I.e. Ul < U2 < U3 < U4, indicating that the lowered water table induced thegreater stress. Therefore, groundwater decline resulted in drought stress and down-graded photosynthetic ability. This implies that the decrease in U. Pumila population might be

  17. Studies on Diurnal Variations of Photosynthetic Characteristics and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Parameters of Different Clones of Ulmus pumila cv. ‘Zhonghua jinye’%中华金叶榆不同无性系光合特性和叶绿素荧光参数日变化研究

    段龙飞; 尚爱芹; 杨敏生; 王进茂; 左力辉; 强泽宇

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the differences in character and photosynthetic among the different clones, and then develop excellent clone, the 3 years grafted seedlings of different clones selected and developed from the generation of Golden Ulmus pumila were used as materials and female parent Ulmus pumila cv. ‘Zhonghua jinye’ as control. The morphologyical characteristics and the diurnal variations of photosynthetic and fluorescence paramaters were studied. The results showed that there were significant differences on morphologyical characteristics among different clones and control. The diurnal variation of net photosynthetic rate ( Pn ) , transpiration rate ( Tr ) , stomata conductance ( Gs ) and internal cellular CO2 concentration ( Ci ) were different. The mean net photosynthetic rate of one day from big to small was clone C ( 12. 35μmol/m2·s ) > control ( 11. 99μmol/m2·s )> clone B ( 11. 98μmol/m2·s )> clone A (10�80 μmol/m2·s),which explained that the clone C developed quickly and clone A slowly on theory. There were differences on diurnal variation of Fo , Fm and Fv/Fm among different clones and control. The values of both Fm and Fv/Fm drop first and then rose again, indicating that photosynthetic activity was only temporarily inhibited while the photosynthetic organs were not damaged. The ability of tolerant to photoinhibition of the different clones was different. Clone A was strongest inhibited and clone C was inhibited most lightly.%为了研究中华金叶榆不同无性系间的性状及光合特性的差异,选育优良无性系,以从中华金叶榆子一代中选择并培育的三个性状不同无性系( A、B和C)的嫁接苗为试材,以中华金叶榆母本嫁接苗为对照,对其形态特征、光合特性和叶绿素荧光参数日变化进行了研究。结果表明:各无性系和对照间的形态特征存在明显不同;净光合速率(Pn)、蒸腾速率(Tr)、气孔导度(Gs)、胞间二氧化碳(Ci)

  18. Ulmaceae for Flora of Missouri

    The family Ulmaceae is treated for the Flora of Missouri, a detailed floristic manual for the state published by the Missouri (State) Department of Conservation. Three genera and 11 species are recognized; full morphological descriptions, dichotomous keys, and brief summaries of geographical and ec...

  19. Ulmaceae

    Soepadmo, E.

    1974-01-01

    Monoecious or dioecious (?), evergreen, deciduous or semideciduous shrubs or trees, (in Mal.) unarmed and often buttressed. Growth habit (in Mal.) flush-wise, except for Trema and Parasponia. Indumentum of simple, bulbous-based unicellular hairs and/or multicellular glandular hairs. Stipules caducou

  20. Fire Occurrence Environments in Pinus pumila Forests

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, many serious forest fires occurred in precious Pinus pumila forests in Daxing'anling Mountains of Heilongjiang Province and Inner Mongolia. But up to now, there is still a lack of proper understanding of fire occurrence environments in P. pumila forests. In present paper, we investigated and studied the fire occurrence environments. The results showed that fires in P. pumila forests had their own special fire environments. Abundant fuel, drought weather, dry thunder and high altitude terrai...

  1. Ulmus davidiana var. japonica Nakai upregulates eosinophils and suppresses Th1 and Th17 cells in the small intestine.

    Han-Sung Lee

    Full Text Available The bark of Ulmus davidiana var. japonica Nakai (Ulmaceae has been used in traditional Korean medicine for chronic inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. Here we investigated the frequency and cytokine profile of the major immune cells in the small intestinal lamina propria (SI LP, spleen, and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs of mice treated orally with Ulmus davidiana var. japonica Nakai bark water extract (UDE to address the immunomodulatory role of this herb in intestinal homeostasis. B6 mice were given 5g/kg UDE once daily for 14 days. They were then sacrificed, and cells were isolated from the spleen, MLNs, and SI LP. The proportion of B versus T lymphocytes, CD4(+ versus CD8(+ T lymphocytes, Th1 and Th17 cells, and Foxp3(+ regulatory T cells in the spleen, MLNs, and SI LP were analyzed. The frequency of antigen-presenting cells (APCs, including dendritic cells, macrophages, and eosinophils in the SI LP and the expression of costimulatory molecules on APCs were also evaluated. The numbers and frequencies of Th1 and Th17 cells in the SI LP were significantly reduced in the UDE-treated mice compared with PBS controls. In addition, the proportion of IL-4-producing eosinophils in the SI LP was significantly elevated in the UDE-treated mice compared with controls. Taken together, these data indicate that UDE up-regulates the number and frequency of SI LP eosinophils, which can down-regulate the Th1 and Th17 responses via IL-4 secretion and contribute to intestinal homeostasis.

  2. Resistance to Dutch elm disease reduces presence of xylem endophytic fungi in Elms (Ulmus spp..

    Juan A Martín

    Full Text Available Efforts to introduce pathogen resistance into landscape tree species by breeding may have unintended consequences for fungal diversity. To address this issue, we compared the frequency and diversity of endophytic fungi and defensive phenolic metabolites in elm (Ulmus spp. trees with genotypes known to differ in resistance to Dutch elm disease. Our results indicate that resistant U. minor and U. pumila genotypes exhibit a lower frequency and diversity of fungal endophytes in the xylem than susceptible U. minor genotypes. However, resistant and susceptible genotypes showed a similar frequency and diversity of endophytes in the leaves and bark. The resistant and susceptible genotypes could be discriminated on the basis of the phenolic profile of the xylem, but not on basis of phenolics in the leaves or bark. As the Dutch elm disease pathogen develops within xylem tissues, the defensive chemistry of resistant elm genotypes thus appears to be one of the factors that may limit colonization by both the pathogen and endophytes. We discuss a potential trade-off between the benefits of breeding resistance into tree species, versus concomitant losses of fungal endophytes and the ecosystem services they provide.

  3. Safety and efficacy of Labisia pumila containing products

    Muhammad Syafiq Saleh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Labisia pumila is a traditional medicinal plant which has wide therapeutic application including induction of labor and treatment of dysentery, dysmenorrhea and gonorrhea. We aimed for systematic review of the efficacy andsafety of L. pumila extract or its other commercial products availabe in Malaysian market. The marketed 500 mg capsule is composed of 40 mg L. pumila, 10 mg C. caudatum extract and 450 mg excipient. The commercial products did not follow the registration guidelines of Malaysian National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau (NPCB and advertisement guidelines of Malaysian Advertisement Board. Randomized, placebo controlled clinical trials reported the safe consumpotion of L. pumila water extract on postmanoposal women. Information on the efficacy and safety of commercial products are not sufficiently available. Many unregistered products (mostly capsule form are flooded in Malaysian market without having scientific information. Consumption of those products may seriously impair the health of the people.

  4. Ex situ conservation of genetic resources of field elm (Ulmus minor Mill and European white elm (Ulmus laevis Pall

    Aleksić Jelena

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Principles of the conservation of genetic resources of elms (Ulmus spp do not differ fundamentally from the general principles accepted for the conservation of genetic resources of other common Noble Hardwoods. Efficient conservation can best be achieved through appropriate combination of in situ and ex situ methods, which have distinct advantages. Besides that, ex situ conservation is employed when emergency measures are needed for rare endangered populations and when populations are too small to be managed in situ (e.g. risks of genetic drift and inbreeding. The aim of our research is ex situ conservation of genetic resources of field elm {Ulmus minor Mill and European white elm (Ulmus laevis Pall through establishment of field genebanks. Sampling was conducted in one population of field elm and one population of white elm. Plant material (buds from 8 trees of field elm and 10 trees of white elm was used for in vitro production of clones. Obtained clones will be used for establishment of field genebanks on the experimental estate of the Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment.

  5. Structure of Kalanchoë pumila Bak. leaves (Crassulaceae DC.

    Mykhaylo Chernetskyy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure of Kalanchoё pumila Bak. was studied with the use of stereoscopic, light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the chlorenchymatic tissue was divided into subepidermal small-celled mesophyll and large-celled (water transporting, CAM type mesophyll, placed in the central part of the leaf. The mesophyll structure and its cell ultrastructure indicate C3 photosynthesis in this taxon, whereas CAM photosynthesis, being an adaptive syndrome, is induced by external factors. Three groups of xeromorphic traits were observed in the structure of K. pumila leaves, related to: 1 storing water in the ground and epidermal tissues, 2 decreased transpiration (the closing of stomata during heat, 3 avoiding excess insolation of the mesophyll and overheating of the leaf (striated cuticula, anthocyan pigments, tannin storage. The last two groups of xeromorphic traits also include thickening of the outer walls of cuticular cells, a thick-layered cuticula, and the presence of epicuticular wax and calcium carbonate deposits. Microchannels which enhance transpiration efficiency in developing K. pumila leaves were found in the vicinity of anticlinal walls in the outer walls of epidermal cells. Calcium deposits produced on the leaf surfaces protect them in extreme conditions. Adaptive traits in the structure of K. pumila leaves are conservative and they confirm the relations between this taxon and the conditions in their native land.

  6. Ontogeny of the pericarp of Serjania communis Camb. and Urvillea ulmacea Kunth (Sapindaceae with emphasis on the dispersion apparatus

    Bruna Mary Matuguma Tanaka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The pericarp development of Serjania communis Camb. and Urvillea ulmacea Kunth was described to expand the structural knowledge of Sapindaceae fruit. Ovaries and fruits were analyzed with usual techniques in plant anatomy. Ovary is structurally similar and the occurrence of glandular and non-glandular trichomes varies between species. In S. communis, the samaroid schizocarp has proximal wings and distal cavities; in U. ulmacea, the fruit presents septicidal and septifragal passive dehiscence and each seed chamber presents a dorsal wing. The unistratified exocarp has long pluricellular, uniseriate and sparse trichomes in U. ulmacea. The mesocarp is spongy, parenchymatous and in S. communis it presents three distinguished regions. Dorsal, lateral and ventral vascular bundles are more developed in S. communis and fiber caps on the phloem in the lateral bundles have an important role on the mericarp separation. The endocarp derives from the adaxial meristem and its oblique and tangentially elongated cells become lignified. The wings originate from a more active meristem – at the ovarian edges – and by intense divisions of ovarian mesophyll in this region. Fruit of U. ulmacea can represent a transition state between the samaroid schizocarp formed by Serjania and the septifragal capsule produced by Cardiospermum.

  7. Morfoanatomia da plântula de Celtis iguanaea (Jacq. Sarg. (Ulmaceae = Morphology and anatomy of Celtis iguanaea (Jacq. Sarg. (Ulmaceae seedling

    Rosemari Pilati

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Celtis iguanaea é uma espécie pioneira, típica de mata ciliar. O presente estudo visa a investigação da morfoanatomia da plântula dessa espécie, pertencente à Ulmaceae. As sementes, coletadas na planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná, foram germinadas emcâmara de germinação com temperatura constante de 30ºC e mantidas sob luz fluorescente contínua. O desenvolvimento das plântulas ocorreu em casa de vegetação. A análise anatômica foi feita em plântulas fixadas em FAA 50. Esse material foi secionado transversalmente e as seções obtidas foram coradas em safranina e azul de astra. Verificou-seque a plântula é fanerocotiledonar, epigéia, e apresenta raiz ramificada, hipocótilo desenvolvido, cotilédones obovados e persistentes, epicótilo verde e piloso e eofilo oblongo ou lanceolado. A raiz é tetrarca ou diarca. O hipocótilo possui crescimento secundário com periderme de origem profunda. O epicótilo também apresenta crescimento secundário com periderme de origem subepidérmica. Os cotilédones e o eofilo são folhas dorsiventrais comcistólitos.Celtis iguanaea it is a typical arboreal species of ciliar forest, belonging to the family Ulmaceae. This work intends to investigate the morphology and anatomy of seedling species. The seeds used were collected from several trees, in fragments of the Semideciduous Seasonal Alluvial and Submontane Forest located on Upper Paraná Riverfloodplain. The seeds were germinated at constant temperatures (30ºC, using germination chambers and kept under continuous fluorescent light. Seedling development occurred in a greenhouse. Anatomical analysis was made in seedlings fixed in FAA 50. The botanical material was sectioned by microtome and stained with safranin and astra blue. The seedling is phanerocotylar and epigeal, presents ramified root, developed hypocotyl, obovate and persistent cotyledons, green and hairy epicotyl and the first leaf in a shape oblong or lanceolate. Root is

  8. Fire Burning Characteristics, Attacking Techniques and Safety Precautions in Pinus pumila Scrubs

    2010-01-01

    In China, Pinus pumila is mainly distributed in Daxing’anling, while those growing in the eastern Daxing’anling are primarily covered under the jurisdiction of Huzhong Forest Bureau. P. pumila is an evergreen shrub, 3-6 m high, and always grows vigorously. Its trunks creep along the ground, usually 10 m long or more. It is easily flammable because of the large amounts of resins and volatile oils in its body. Attacking forest fires is a dangerous work, especially in P. pumila scrubs. The fires in P. pumila s...

  9. Glacial Refugium of Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel in Northeastern Siberia

    Shilo, N A; Lozhkin, A V; Anderson, P M; Brown, T A; Pakhomov, A Y; Solomatkina, T B

    2007-02-10

    One of the most glowing representatives of the Kolyma flora [1], ''Pinus pumila'' (Pall.) Regel (Japanese stone pine), is a typical shrub in larch forests of the northern Okhotsk region, basins of the Kolyma and Indigirka rivers, and high-shrub tundra of the Chukchi Peninsula. It also forms a pine belt in mountains above the forest boundary, which gives way to the grass-underbrush mountain tundra and bald mountains. In the southern Chukchi Peninsula, ''Pinus pumila'' along with ''Duschekia fruticosa'' (Rupr.) Pouzar and ''Betula middendorffii'' Trautv. et C. A. Mey form trailing forests transitional between tundra and taiga [2]. Pinus pumila pollen, usually predominating in subfossil spore-and-pollen spectra of northeastern Siberia, is found as single grains or a subordinate component (up 2-3%, rarely 10%) in spectra of lacustrine deposits formed during the last glacial stage (isotope stage 2) in the Preboreal and Boreal times of the Holocene. Sometimes, its content increases to 15-22% in spectra of lacustrine deposits synchronous to the last glacial stage near the northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk [3], evidently indicating the proximity of Japanese stone pine thickets.

  10. The effects of grazing on the spatial pattern of elm (Ulmus pumila L.) in the sparse woodland steppe of Horqin Sandy Land in northeastern China

    Zhang, M.; Wu, J.; Tang, Y.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effects of grazing on the formation of the spatial pattern of elm growth in a sparse woodland steppe. We used a point pattern method to analyze the elm trees within different diameter at breast height (DBH) classes in both grazed and fenced plots, which were established in Horqin Sandy Land of northeastern China. The results showed that, in the grazed plot, the distances where transformation between random and clustered patterns occurred in class 1 (10 cm ≤ DBH ≤ 15 cm) and class 2 (15 cm DBH ≤ 20 cm) were 2.27 and 2.37 m, respectively. Meanwhile, in the fenced plot, the distances between random and aggregated patterns that occurred in classes 1, 2 and 3 (DBH > 20 cm) were 3.13, 3.13 and 7.85 m, respectively. In the fenced plot, at distances larger than 67.72 m there was a negative association between classes 1 and 2, which was also the case between classes 2 and 3 and between classes 1 and 3 for distances greater than 104.09 and 128.54 m, respectively. Meanwhile, negative associations occurred only at distances larger than 29.38 m in the grazed plot. These findings suggest that grazing reduced the competition intensity between elm trees; and therefore, grazing management could be an effective strategy used to regulate the elm population in the degraded sandy land of northern China.

  11. Protoplast-to-plant regeneration of American elm (Ulmus americana).

    Jones, A M P; Shukla, M R; Biswas, G C G; Saxena, P K

    2015-05-01

    This study describes a protocol for regeneration of plants from cell suspension-derived protoplasts of American elm (Ulmus americana). Efficient protoplast isolation was achieved from a two-phase culture system through the incorporation of 100 μM 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid, with a yield of approximately 2 × 10(6) protoplasts/ml packed cell volume. Isolated protoplasts failed to survive in liquid or alginate bead culture systems but initiated and continued to divide when embedded in low melting point agarose beads. Protoplast-derived callus proliferated and differentiated into shoot buds in response to 10 or 20 μM thidiazuron. Differentiated buds elongated and continued to proliferate on elm shoot medium supplemented with 3.0 μM GA3. The protoplast-derived shoots rooted and acclimatized to greenhouse conditions and continued to grow. This system provides the first protoplast-to-plant regeneration system for American elm and provides a framework for the development of protoplast fusion or genome editing technologies.

  12. Chloroplast phylogeography of a temperate tree Pteroceltis tatarinowii (Ulmaceae) in China

    Xiao-Hong LI; Jian-Wen SHAO; Chang LU; Xiao-Ping ZHANG; Ying-Xiong QIU

    2012-01-01

    Pteroceltis tatarinowii Maxim.(Ulmaceae),one of the most widespread temperate canopy trees in mainland China,is the sole representative of the genus Pteroceltis.To illuminate the biogeographic and demographic history of this temperate tree species,we carried out a survey of chloroplast DNA sequence variation (trnS-trnG and psbA-trnH) within and among 28 populations (284 individuals in total) representing most of the distributional range of the species.Based on a total of 13 haplotypes identified,P.tatarinowii was found to harbor surprisingly high levels ofhaplotype and nucleotide diversity (hT =0.71; πT =2.83 × 10-3),possibly associated with its long evolutionary history and wide-scale geographical distribution.Significant chloroplast DNA population subdivision was detected (GST =0.898; NST =0.938),suggesting low levels of recurrent gene flow through seeds among populations and significant phylogeographical structure (NST > GST,P < 0.05).The ancestral haplotypes show clear-cut geographical distribution,and most regions possess a unique set of haplotypes,suggesting multiple potential refugia of the species occurring in montane areas of South China.The haplotype mismatch distributions analysis indicates that populations from North China underwent a spatial northward expansion,which might reflect one of the repeated Pleistocene south-to-north shifts of temperate deciduous forest in North China following cold periods.

  13. [FTIR spectra of endangered plants Ulmus elongata and its correlation to soil nitrogen].

    Zhang, Zhi-xiang; Liu, Peng; Kang, Hua-jing; Liao, Cheng-chuan; Pan, Cheng-chun; Li, Cheng-hui

    2008-06-01

    Ulmus elongata, an endemic species in China, is one of the grade II national key conservation rare and endangered plants. The spectra of root, stem, skin and leaf of Ulmus elongata sampled from eight different sites were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry with OMNI-sampler directly, fast and accurately. A positioning technology of OMNIC E.S.P. 5.1 intelligent software and ATR correction was used. The background was scanned before the determination of every example. The peak value and absorbance were ascertained using a method of baseline correction in infrared spectra, and then the relativity between absorption peaks of the spectra and the soil nitrogen was analyzed. Results from the comparison of the spectra showed some differences in their FTIR spectra among root, stem, skin and leaf of Ulmus elongata from the same plant. The coefficients of correlation between chemical composition of this four different organs of Ulmus elongata and soil nitrogen were positive in different degrees. There was the significantly positive correlation between chemical composition of stem and total nitrogen (p 0.05). It was showed that the change in soil total nitrogen has some influence on chemical composition of different organs of Ulmus elongata, but the degree of available nitrogen was very smaller. The linear correlation between soil total nitrogen and organs chemical composition of Ulmus elongate, not only provided the theoretic basis for plant nutriology and nutrient ecology of Ulmus elongate, but also proved that the plants and soil were inseparable. The results also showed that FTIR can be used widely for analysis of the correlation between chemical composition of endangered plants and soil physical and chemical properties in the future, and indicated that the new method has practicability and reliability to a certain degree.

  14. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic potentials of marine sponge Sigmadocia pumila

    Devaraj Isaac Dhinakaran

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the pharmacological properties of Sigmadocia pumila (S. pumila, a marine sponge, through in-vivo analysis. Methods: The anti-inflammatory activity was determined by the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema method. The analgesic activity was analyzed by tail immersion method. Antipyretic activity was done by using Brewer’s yeast induced hyperpyrexia method. Results: The anti-inflammatory activity using methanol extracts in S. pumila at the concentrations of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, (p.o. on rats showed significant decrease in the paw thickness at the 5th h of administration. It was denoted that the S. pumila exerted more analgesic activity. As for the antipyretic activity during the 2nd and 3rd h, the 3rd and 4th group of rats showed the reduction in temperature in S. pumila at 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg dosages. Conclusions: The present study concludes that the marine sponge S. pumila acts as a vital role in exhibiting pharmaceutical activities. It could be used to produce novel drugs.

  15. Paleoclimatic implications of glacial and postglacial refugia for Pinus pumila in western Beringia

    Anderson, Patricia M.; Lozhkin, Anatoly V.; Solomatkina, Tatiana B.; Brown, Thomas A.

    2010-03-01

    Palynological results from Julietta Lake currently provide the most direct evidence to support the existence of a glacial refugium for Pinus pumila in mountains of southwestern Beringia. Both percentages and accumulation rates indicate the evergreen shrub survived until at least ˜ 19,000 14C yr BP in the Upper Kolyma region. Percentage data suggest numbers dwindled into the late glaciation, whereas pollen accumulation rates point towards a more rapid demise shortly after ˜ 19,000 14C yr BP. Pinus pumila did not re-establish in any great numbers until ˜ 8100 14C yr BP, despite the local presence ˜ 9800 14C yr BP of Larixdahurica, which shares similar summer temperature requirements. The postglacial thermal maximum (in Beringia ˜ 11,000-9000 14C yr BP) provided Pinus pumila shrubs with equally harsh albeit different conditions for survival than those present during the LGM. Regional records indicate that in this time of maximum warmth Pinus pumila likely sheltered in a second, lower-elevation refugium. Paleoclimatic models and modern ecology suggest that shifts in the nature of seasonal transitions and not only seasonal extremes have played important roles in the history of Pinus pumila over the last ˜ 21,000 14C yr BP.

  16. Paleoclimatic implications of glacial and postglacial refugia for Pinus pumila in western Beringia

    Anderson, P M; Lozhkin, A V; Solomatkina, T B; Brown, T A

    2010-02-05

    Palynological results from Julietta Lake currently provide the most direct evidence to support the existence of a glacial refugium for Pinus pumila in mountains of southwestern Beringia. Both percentages and accumulation rates indicate the evergreen shrub survived until at least {approx}19,000 14C yr B.P. in the Upper Kolyma region. Percentage data suggest numbers dwindled into the late glaciation, whereas pollen accumulation rates point towards a more rapid demise shortly after {approx}19,000 14C yr B.P. Pinus pumila did not re-establish in any great numbers until {approx}8100 14C yr B.P., despite the local presence {approx}9800 14C yr B.P. of Larix dahurica, which shares similar summer temperature requirements. The postglacial thermal maximum (in Beringia {approx}11,000-9000 14C yr B.P.) provided Pinus pumila shrubs with equally harsh albeit different conditions for survival than those present during the LGM. Regional records indicate that in this time of maximum warmth Pinus pumila likely sheltered in a second, lower-elevation refugium. Paleoclimatic models and modern ecology suggest that shifts in the nature of seasonal transitions and not only seasonal extremes have played important roles in the history of Pinus pumila over the last {approx}21,000 14C yr B.P.

  17. Pharmacognostical and Priliminary Phytochemical Studies on the Leaf Extract of Ficus Pumila Linn.

    Jasreet Kaur

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ficus pumila Linn. (Family: Moraceae, commonly known as climbing fig. It is widely used as an ethno medicine in china and India. It is prescribed for a wide variety of ailments like diarrhea, hemorrhoids, treating gastrointestinal, piles, uterine problems and other infections. However, detailed scientific information is not available to identify the plant material and to ascertain its quality and purity. In present communication, morphology anatomical and physico-chemical characters along with phytochemical screening and fluorescence analysis of powdered crude drug were carried out for systemic identification and authentication of leaves. This study provides referential information for identification and characterization of Ficus pumila leaf and its extracts.

  18. Volatile chemical composition and bioactivities from Colombian Kyllinga pumila Michx (Cyperaceae essential oil

    Beatriz Eugenia Jaramillo-Colorado

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil from the fresh leaves of Kyllinga pumila (Michx was obtained by hydrodistillation and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Twenty-eight volatile compounds were identified, major constituents of the oil were Methyl E,E-10,11-epoxyfarnesoate (43.8%, β-elemene (12.5%, Z-caryophyllene (11.3%, germacrene D (7.1% and E-caryophyllene (5.6%. Repellent and fumigant activities of the oil against Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae, were done using the area preference method. Additionally, we studied their antioxidant and phytotoxic effects. Essential oils exhibited a dose-dependent repellent activity, with values 90% at the applied concentration (0.01%, for both two and four hour’s exposure. Essential oil from K. pumila showed 92% mortality at 500 µL L-1 air against T. castaneum on 24 hours of exposure. The value LC50 was 153.4 µL L-1.  With moderate selective phytotoxic effects on L. perenne root growth (±70% inhibition. Kyllinga pumila shows high antioxidant potential (91.5%, an effect that is comparable with ascorbic acid (92.9% used as a standard. The results indicated that K. pumila essential oil could be a promising alternative to new natural antioxidants, repellents, and biocides.

  19. Malus pumila 'Spy 227' and Apple stem pitting virus: graft incompatibility and epinasty.

    Brakta, Ajay; Handa, Anil; Thakur, P D; Tomar, Manica; Kumar, Pardeep

    2015-06-01

    Apple stem pitting foveavirus (ASPV) is one of the most important and widespread virus infecting apples in the world. Of late, the virus has been found to be invariably associated with most of the apple plantations of Shimla district of Himachal Pradesh based on DAS-ELISA results. Bioassay of viruses in vegetatively propagated crops including apple is considered to be an essential component in indexing programmes for the production of virus free propagating material. Woody indicator Malus pumila 'Spy 227' was used for the detection of ASPV through double grafting method. Graft incompatibility and epinasty symptoms were observed on Malus pumila Spy 227 indicator plants. Further, molecular identification of the virus isolate was done by cloning and sequencing of the test isolate. Partial sequence analysis of the coat protein gene showed 89 % nucleotide identity in BLASTN analysis with ASPV isolate from China (Accession No. JF895517). This is the first record of ASPV producing Graft incompatibility on Spy 227 indicator plants.

  20. Labisia pumila regulates bone-related genes expressions in postmenopausal osteoporosis model

    Fathilah, Siti Noor; Mohamed, Norazlina; Muhammad, Norliza; Mohamed, Isa Naina; Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun

    2013-01-01

    Background Labisia Pumila var. alata (LPva) has shown potential as an alternative to estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) in prevention of estrogen-deficient osteoporosis. In earlier studies using postmenopausal model, LPva was able to reverse the ovariectomy-induced changes in biochemical markers, bone calcium, bone histomorphometric parameters and biomechanical strength. The mechanism behind these protective effects is unclear but LPva may have regulated factors that regulate bone remodeling....

  1. FIRST REPORT OF 'CANDIDATUS PHYTOPLASMA ULMI' IN ULMUS LAEVIS IN GERMANY.

    Eisold, A M; Kube, M; Holz, S; Büttner, C

    2015-01-01

    The wall-less bacteria of the provisory taxon 'Candidatus Phytoplasma' are obligate parasites and associated to diseases in many important crops and trees worldwide. 'Ca. Phytoplasma ulmi', assigned to 16SrV-A subgroup, is a quarantine pest and described to be associated to elm phloem necrosis, leaf yellowing, stunting, witches broom and decline in various elm species. Elm yellows phytoplasmas (EY) have been reported in several European countries but not in Ulmus laevis in Germany so far. Leaf samples from European white elms (Ulmus leavis PALL.) with and without chlorotic symptoms were investigated for EYs infection in Berlin and Brandenburg, Germany, through performing diagnostic nested PCR targeting partial rRNA operon of phytoplasmas. Specific PCR-products were obtained from 30 out of 59 samples. Partial 16S-rDNA sequences were assigned to 'Ca. P. ulmi' through sequence analysis, while sequence variation was observed. This is the first report of U. laevis infected with 'Ca. P. ulmi' in Germany.

  2. Intoxicação por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae em caprinos no Estado de Santa Catarina Poisoning by Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae in goats in the State of Santa Catarina

    Aldo Gava

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e cinco caprinos, criados em piquetes, morreram nos cinco dias subsequentes ao fornecimento de folhas de Trema micrantha (fam.Ulmaceae, uma árvore com nome comum de grandiúva. Quatro caprinos foram necropsiados e amostras de vísceras foram coletadas para exame histológico. As principais alterações clínicas foram: apatia, anorexia, cabeça apoiada contra obstáculos, decúbito e morte. Achados macroscópicos incluíram sufusões no epicárdio e endocárdio; fígado levemente amarelado e com padrão lobular evidente e, em um caso, acompanhado de hemorragias multifocais. Na histologia observou-se necrose hepática, que variava de centrolobular a massiva, compatível com hepatopatia tóxica. No SNC havia satelitose, tumefação neuronal, edema periaxonal, perivascular. O diagnóstico de intoxicação por Trema micrantha foi baseado no quadro clínico e lesional de hepatite tóxica associado ao uso da planta para alimentação de caprinos.Twenty five goats, maintained in paddocks, had died in five subsequent days after have been offered leaves, mixed in the ration, of Trema micrantha, a tree commonly called grandiúva. Four animals were necropsied and samples were collected for histopathology. Clinical signs included apathy, anorexia, head pressing against obstacles, decubitus and death. Macroscopic findings included suffusions in the epi- and endocardium, a yellowish liver with pronounced lobular pattern, in one goat, the liver presented additionally multiple visible hemorrhages. Histological examination revealed centrilobular to massive hepatic necrosis consistent with acute liver toxicosis. In the brain, satelitosis, neuronal swelling, and perineuronal and perivascular edema was found. The diagnosis of poisoning by Trema micrantha was based in the clinical picture characteristic of toxic hepatitis associated in the feeding of the plant to the goats.

  3. Sonication inhibited browning but decreased polyphenols contents and antioxidant activity of fresh apple (malus pumila mill, cv. Red Fuji) juice.

    Sun, Yujing; Zhong, Liezhou; Cao, Lianfei; Lin, Wenwen; Ye, Xingqian

    2015-12-01

    Enzyme browning is the main challenge in the preparation of fresh apple juice. The influence of sonication on browning, as well as polyphenols and antioxidant activity of fresh apple juice was investigated. It was found that ultrasound can inhibit the browning of fresh apple (Malus pumila Mill, cv. Red Fuji) juice, but decreased the contents of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and chlorogenic acid and reduced the antioxidant activity. On the whole, ultrasound technology cannot be used to the antibrowning of fresh apple (Malus pumila Mill, cv. Red Fuji) juice.

  4. Volatile chemical composition and bioactivities from Colombian Kyllinga pumila Michx (Cyperaceae) essential oil

    Beatriz Eugenia Jaramillo-Colorado; Eduardo Luis Martínez-Cáceres; Edisson Duarte-Restrepo

    2016-01-01

    The essential oil from the fresh leaves of Kyllinga pumila (Michx) was obtained by hydrodistillation and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Twenty-eight volatile compounds were identified, major constituents of the oil were Methyl E,E-10,11-epoxyfarnesoate (43.8%), β-elemene (12.5%), Z-caryophyllene (11.3%), germacrene D (7.1%) and E-caryophyllene (5.6%). Repellent and fumigant activities of the oil against Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), we...

  5. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Methanol Extract of Ficus pumila L. in Mice

    Chi-Ren Liao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated possible analgesic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the methanol extract of Ficus pumila (FPMeOH. Analgesic effects were evaluated in two models including acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin-induced paw licking. The results showed FPMeOH decreased writhing response in the acetic acid assay and licking time in the formalin test. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by λ-carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema and histopathological analyses. FPMeOH significantly decreased the volume of paw edema induced by λ-carrageenan. Histopathologically, FPMeOH abated the level of tissue destruction and swelling of the edema paws. This study indicated anti-inflammatory mechanism of FPMeOH may be due to declined levels of NO and MDA in the edema paw through increasing the activities of SOD, GPx, and GRd in the liver. Additionally, FPMeOH also decreased the level of inflammatory mediators such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and COX-2. HPLC fingerprint was established and the contents of three active ingredients, rutin, luteolin, and apigenin, were quantitatively determined. This study provided evidence for the classical treatment of Ficus pumila in inflammatory diseases.

  6. 典型榆树疏林碳氮储量及其分配特征%Stock and allocation of carbon and nitrogen in typical Ulmus pumila dominated savanna in Inner Mongolia, China

    赵云杰; 田赟; 王晓

    2014-01-01

    榆树疏林是科尔沁沙地和浑善达克沙地植被演替的顶级群落.以退耕还林后天然恢复的科尔沁沙地榆树疏林和无破坏的浑善达克沙地榆树疏林为研究对象,运用样方调查法、生物量估算法及相关的数理统计方法,比较分析2种典型榆树疏林碳氮储量及其分配特征.结果表明:1)除土壤无机碳储量外,浑善达克沙地榆树疏林各组分的碳氮储量均显著高于科尔沁沙地榆树疏林,其中总的碳氮储量分别为科尔沁沙地榆树疏林的1.97和1.82倍;2)2种榆树疏林碳氮分配特征相似,最大贡献者均为土壤,其所占比例相应地均超过了55%和80%,而最小贡献者则均为枯落物;3)与浑善达克沙地榆树疏林相比,退耕还林后的科尔沁沙地榆树疏林可能具有更大的碳汇潜力和固氮功能.

  7. Analysis of volatiles induced by oviposition of elm leaf beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola on Ulmus minor.

    Wegener, R; Schulz, S; Meiners, T; Hadwich, K; Hilker, M

    2001-03-01

    Egg deposition of the elm leaf beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola causes the emission of volatiles from its food plant, Ulmus minor. These volatiles are exploited by the egg parasitoid, Oomyzus gallerucae, to locate its host. In contrast to other tritrophic systems, the release of volatiles is not induced by feeding but by egg deposition. Previous investigations showed that the release is systemic and can be triggered by jasmonic acid. Comparison of headspace analysis revealed similarities in the blend of volatiles emitted following egg deposition and feeding. The mixture consists of more than 40 compounds; most of the substances are terpenoids. Leaves next to those carrying eggs emit fewer compounds. When treated with jasmonic acid, leaves emit a blend that consists almost exclusively of terpenoids. Dichloromethane extracts of leaves treated with jasmonic acid were also investigated. After separation of extracts of jasmonate induced elm leaves on silica, we obtained a fraction of terpenoid hydrocarbons that was attractive to the parasitoids. This indicates that jasmonic acid stimulates the production of terpenoid hydrocarbons that convey information of egg deposition to the parasitoid.

  8. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of leaf, stem and root from different varieties of Labisa pumila Benth.

    Karimi, Ehsan; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Ahmad, Sahida

    2011-05-27

    A local herb, Kacip Fatimah, is famous amongst Malay women for its uses in parturition; however, its phytochemical contents have not been fully documented. Therefore, a study was performed to evaluate the phenolics, flavonoids, and total saponin contents, and antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaf, stem and root of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Total saponins were found to be higher in the leaves of all three varieties, compared to the roots and stems. Leaves of var. pumila exhibited significantly higher total saponin content than var. alata and lanceolata, with values of 56.4, 43.6 and 42.3 mg diosgenin equivalent/g dry weight, respectively. HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids in all three varieties revealed the presence of gallic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, and myricetin in all plant parts. Higher levels of flavonoids (rutin, quercitin, kaempferol) were observed in var. pumila compared with alata and lanceolata, whereas higher accumulation of phenolics (gallic acid, pyrogallol) was recorded in var. alata, followed by pumila and lanceolata. Antibacterial activities of leaf, stem and root extracts of all varieties determined against both Gram positive (Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis B145, Bacillus cereus B43, Staphylococcus aureus S1431) and Gram negative (Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia K36, Escherichia coli E256, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PI96) pathogens showed that crude methanolic extracts are active against these bacteria at low concentrations, albeit with lower antibacterial activity compared to kanamycin used as the control. Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of all plant parts against Fusarium sp., Candida sp. and Mucor using the agar diffusion disc exhibited moderate to appreciable antifungal activities compared to streptomycin used as positive control.

  9. Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Leaf, Stem and Root from Different Varieties of Labisa pumila Benth

    Ehsan Karimi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A local herb, Kacip Fatimah, is famous amongst Malay women for its uses in parturition; however, its phytochemical contents have not been fully documented. Therefore, a study was performed to evaluate the phenolics, flavonoids, and total saponin contents, and antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaf, stem and root of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Total saponins were found to be higher in the leaves of all three varieties, compared to the roots and stems. Leaves of var. pumila exhibited significantly higher total saponin content than var. alata and lanceolata, with values of 56.4, 43.6 and 42.3 mg diosgenin equivalent/g dry weight, respectively. HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids in all three varieties revealed the presence of gallic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, and myricetin in all plant parts. Higher levels of flavonoids (rutin, quercitin, kaempferol were observed in var. pumila compared with alata and lanceolata, whereas higher accumulation of phenolics (gallic acid, pyrogallol was recorded in var. alata, followed by pumila and lanceolata. Antibacterial activities of leaf, stem and root extracts of all varieties determined against both Gram positive (Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis B145, Bacillus cereus B43, Staphylococcus aureus S1431 and Gram negative (Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia K36, Escherichia coli E256, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PI96 pathogens showed that crude methanolic extracts are active against these bacteria at low concentrations, albeit with lower antibacterial activity compared to kanamycin used as the control. Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of all plant parts against Fusarium sp., Candida sp. and Mucor using the agar diffusion disc exhibited moderate to appreciable antifungal activities compared to streptomycin used as positive control.

  10. Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Leaf, Stem and Root from Different Varieties of Labisa pumila Benth

    Ehsan Karimi; Jaafar, Hawa Z.E.; Sahida Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    A local herb, Kacip Fatimah, is famous amongst Malay women for its uses in parturition; however, its phytochemical contents have not been fully documented. Therefore, a study was performed to evaluate the phenolics, flavonoids, and total saponin contents, and antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaf, stem and root of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Total saponins were found to be higher in the leaves of all three varieties, compared to the roots and stems. Leaves of var. p...

  11. Effects of nitrogen fertilization on synthesis of primary and secondary metabolites in three varieties of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume).

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah; Rahman, Zaharah Abdul

    2011-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to examine the impact of 15-week variable levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha) on the characteristics of total flavonoids (TF), total phenolics (TP), total non structurable carbohydrate (TNC), net assimilation rate, leaf chlorophyll content, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N), phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL) and protein content, and their relationships, in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume (alata, pumila and lanceolata). The treatment effects were solely contributed by nitrogen application; there was neither varietal nor interaction effect observed. As nitrogen levels increased from 0 to 270 kg N/ha, the production of TNC was found to decrease steadily. Production of TF and TP reached their peaks under 0 followed by 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha treatment. However, net assimilation rate was enhanced as nitrogen fertilization increased from 0 to 270 kg N/ha. The increase in production of TP and TF under low nitrogen levels (0 and 90 kg N/ha) was found to be correlated with enhanced PAL activity. The enhancement in PAL activity was followed by reduction in production of soluble protein under low nitrogen fertilization indicating more availability of amino acid phenyl alanine (phe) under low nitrogen content that stimulate the production of carbon based secondary metabolites (CBSM). The latter was manifested by high C/N ratio in L. pumila plants.

  12. Impact of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Application on the Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth

    Ehsan Karimi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P2O5:10% K2O and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P2O5, 15% K2O] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb.

  13. Impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers application on the phytochemical and antioxidant activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth).

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

    2013-09-05

    A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah) in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P₂O₅:10% K₂O) and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P₂O₅, 15% K₂O)] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb.

  14. Root iron uptake efficiency of Ulmus laevis and U. minor and their distribution in soils of the Iberian Peninsula.

    Venturas, Martin; Fernández, Victoria; Nadal, Paloma; Guzmán, Paula; Lucena, Juan J; Gil, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The calcifuge and calcicole character of wild plants has been related to nutrient availability shortages, including iron (Fe)-deficiency. Surprisingly, just a few studies examined the relation between root Fe uptake and plant distribution in different soil types. We assessed the root Fe acquisition efficiency of two Ulmus species with calcareous (Ulmus minor) and siliceous (U. laevis) soil distribution patterns in the Iberian Peninsula. Seedlings of both elm species were grown hydroponically with different Fe concentrations during 6 weeks. Plant physiological responses to Fe-limiting conditions were evaluated as were the ferric reductase activity and proton (H(+)) extrusion capacity of the roots. Iron deprived elm seedlings of both species were stunted and suffered severe Fe-chlorosis symptoms. After Fe re-supply leaf chlorophyll concentrations rose according to species-dependent patterns. While U. minor leaves and seedlings re-greened evenly, U. laevis did so along the nerves of new growing leaves. U. minor had a higher root ferric reductase activity and H(+)-extrusion capability than U. laevis and maintained a better nutrient balance when grown under Fe-limiting conditions. The two elm species were found to have different Fe acquisition efficiencies which may be related to their natural distribution in calcareous and siliceous soils of the Iberian Peninsula.

  15. Root iron uptake efficiency of Ulmus laevis and U. minor and their distribution in soils of the Iberian Peninsula

    Martin eVenturas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The calcifuge and calcicole character of wild plants has been related to nutrient availability shortages, including iron (Fe-deficiency. Surprisingly, just a few studies examined the relation between root Fe uptake and plant distribution in different soil types. We assessed the root Fe acquisition efficiency of two Ulmus species with calcareous (U. minor and siliceous (U. laevis soil distribution patterns in the Iberian Peninsula. Seedlings of both elm species were grown hydroponically with different Fe concentrations during six weeks. Plant physiological responses to Fe-limiting conditions were evaluated as were the ferric reductase activity and proton (H+ extrusion capacity of the roots. Iron deprived elm seedlings of both species were stunted and suffered severe Fe-chlorosis symptoms. After Fe re-supply leaf chlorophyll concentrations rose according to species-dependent patterns. While U. minor leaves and seedlings re-greened evenly, U. laevis did so along the nerves of new growing leaves. Ulmus minor had a higher root ferric reductase activity and H+-extrusion capability than U. laevis and maintained a better nutrient balance when grown under Fe-limiting conditions. The two elm species were found to have different iron acquisition efficiencies which may be related to their natural distribution in calcareous and siliceous soils of the Iberian Peninsula.

  16. Population genetic structure and mating system in the hybrid zone between Pinus sibirica Du Tour and P. pumila (Pall. Regel at the Eastern Baikal Lake shore

    E.A. Petrova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic structure of sympatric Pinus sibirica Du Tour and P. pumila (Pall. Regel populations and putative interspecific hybrids between them was analyzed in the Baikal Lake region (Barguzin Biosphere Natural Reserve, Davsha River basin by means of 31 allozyme loci controlling 18 enzyme systems. Several alleles at loci Adh-1, Fest-2, Lap-3, Pgi-1, Sod-3 and Skdh-1 were diagnostic for P. sibirica, while alleles typical for P. pumila were detected at loci Gdh, Got-3, Lap-3, Mdh-2, Mdh-4, Pepca, Pgi-1, Pgd-2, Pgd-3, Pgm-1 and Pgm-2. All hybrids were heterozygous for the diagnostic Skdh-2 locus. Classification into hybrids and parental species using PCA analysis of multilocus allozyme genotypes had good correspondence with diagnoses made by morphological and anatomical analyses. Approximately 27% of embryos in P. pumila seeds had P. sibirica paternal contribution, and 8% of haplotypes in effective pollen pool combined alleles typical for P. pumila and P. sibirica, and therefore were classified as pollinated by the hybrids. About 83% of embryos in seeds from the hybrids most likely originated from fertilization by P. sibirica pollen, 14% from P. pumila and 3% from hybrid trees. This result favours the view that hybrids make both male and female contributions to the reproductive output of the population and confirm the presence of backcrosses and F2 hybrids.

  17. Protective effect of Labisia pumila on stress-induced behavioral, biochemical, and immunological alterations.

    Kour, Kiranjeet; Sharma, Neelam; Chandan, Bal Krishan; Koul, Surrinder; Sangwan, Payare Lal; Bani, Sarang

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the antistress potential of LABISIA PUMILA aqueous extract (LPPM/A003) using a battery of tests widely employed in different stressful situations. Pretreatment of experimental animals with LPPM/A003 caused an increase in the swimming endurance and hypoxia time and also showed the recovery of physical stress-induced depletion of neuromuscular coordination and scopolamine induced memory deficit. LPPM/A003 at graded doses reversed the chronic restraint stress (RST), induced depletion of CD4 (+) and CD8 (+) T lymphocytes, NK cell population, and corresponding cytokines expression besides downregulating the stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone, a major stress hormone. In addition, LPPM/A003 reversed the chronic stress-induced increase in adrenal gland weight, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and hepatic lipid peroxidation (LP) levels and augmented the RST induced decrease in hepatic glutathione (GSH), thymus and spleen weight. Thus, we conclude that LPPM/A003 has the ability to reverse the alterations produced by various stressful stimuli and therefore restores homeostasis.

  18. Elm tree (Ulmus parvifolia) bark bioprocessed with Mycelia of Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) mushrooms in liquid Culture: Composition and mechanism of protection against allergic asthma in mice

    The present study investigated the antiasthma effect of a bioprocessed Ulmus parvifolia bark extract (BPUBE) from Lentinus edodes liquid mycelia culture against allergic asthma biomarkers in U266B1 leukemia cells and OVA-sensitized/challenged mice. BPUBE suppressed total IgE release from U266B1 cel...

  19. Phenolics and Flavonoids Compounds, Phenylanine Ammonia Lyase and Antioxidant Activity Responses to Elevated CO2 in Labisia pumila (Myrisinaceae

    Hawa Z.E. Jaafar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A split plot 3 × 3 experiment was designed to examine the impact of three concentrations of CO2 (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol·mol−1 on the phenolic and flavonoid compound profiles, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL and antioxidant activity in three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. (var. alata, pumila and lanceolata after 15 weeks of exposure. HPLC analysis revealed a strong influence of increased CO2 concentration on the modification of phenolic and flavonoid profiles, whose intensity depended on the interaction between CO2 levels and L. pumila varieties. Gallic acid and quercetin were the most abundant phenolics and flavonoids commonly present in all the varieties. With elevated CO2 (1,200 µmol·mol−1 exposure, gallic acid increased tremendously, especially in var. alata and pumila (101–111%, whilst a large quercetin increase was noted in var. lanceolata (260%, followed closely by alata (201%. Kaempferol, although detected under ambient CO2 conditions, was undetected in all varieties after exposure. Instead, caffeic acid was enhanced tremendously in var. alata (338~1,100% and pumila (298~433%. Meanwhile, pyragallol and rutin were only seen in var. alata (810 µg·g−1 DW and pumila (25 µg·g−1 DW, respectively, under ambient conditions; but the former compound went undetected in all varieties while rutin continued to increase by 262% after CO2 enrichment. Interestingly, naringenin that was present in all varieties under ambient conditions went undetected under enrichment, except for var. pumila where it was enhanced by 1,100%. PAL activity, DPPH and FRAP also increased with increasing CO2 levels implying the possible improvement of health-promoting quality of Malaysian L. pumila

  20. Population genetic structure and mating system in the hybrid zone between Pinus sibirica Du Tour and P. pumila (Pall.) Regel at the Eastern Baikal Lake shore

    E. A. Petrova; S. N. Goroshkevich; Y.S. Belokon; D.V. Politov

    2013-01-01

    Genetic structure of sympatric Pinus sibirica Du Tour and P. pumila (Pall.) Regel populations and putative interspecific hybrids between them was analyzed in the Baikal Lake region (Barguzin Biosphere Natural Reserve, Davsha River basin) by means of 31 allozyme loci controlling 18 enzyme systems. Several alleles at loci Adh-1, Fest-2, Lap-3, Pgi-1, Sod-3 and Skdh-1 were diagnostic for P. sibirica, while alleles typical for P. pumila were detected at loci Gdh, Got-3, Lap-3, Mdh-2, Mdh-4, Pepca...

  1. Light intensity influences variations in the structural and physiological traits in the leaves of Iris pumila L.

    Vuleta Ana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambient light significantly influences the structural and physiological characteristics of Iris pumila leaves. A random sample of Iris clones native to an exposed site at the Deliblato Sands, Serbia was partially covered with a neutral screen that transmitted 35% of daylight, so that each clone experienced reduced and full sunlight at the same time. The sun-exposed leaves were significantly thicker, had greater stomatal density, exhibited higher lipid peroxidation, increased activities of SOD, APX, CAT enzymes and higher contents of non-enzymatic antioxidants (anthocyanins and phenols and water deficit relative to shade-leaves. The activities of GR, GPX, and GST enzymes was unaffected by the irradiance level.

  2. Photosynthesis and respiration in the needles of Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila and their putative hybrids

    A.P. Zotikova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A putative interspecific hybridization in Pinaceae family was investigated. Very rarely the physiological methods were involved in hybridization processes that occurs in the hybrid zones. It is well known that in most gymnosperms, the plastid genome is inherited from the paternal component while the mitochondrion is inherited from the maternal one. Therefore functioning pattern of organelles in the hybrid plant can suggest parent, from which they were inherited. The aim of this study was to indirectly establish the inheritance energy-transducing organelles (mitochondria, chloroplast according to their functioning. Current year needles from Siberian Stone Pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour and Japanese Stone Pine (Pinus pumila (Pall. Regel as parent species and their putative hybrids were collected from Baikal Region. The photosynthesis rate was determined by using the spectrophotometer. The study of emission CO2 under dark respiration of needle was conducted with laser optical-acoustic gasanalyzer. The quantity was measured at 1, 2 and 3 hour after experiment start. The rate of the photoreduction ferricyanide potassium was characterized by the primary photochemical processes activity at the level of photosystem II. Comparison of pure species was shown that Japanese Stone Pine had higher functional activity of chloroplast as compared with SiberianStone Pine in spite of the fact that they are growing in similar environment conditions. Two of three analyzed hybrids had decreasedactivity of their chloroplasts. Unfortunately, in this case we can't conclude if the chloroplasts were inherited from Siberian Stone Pine orfrom Japanese Stone Pine. Chloroplast activity of the third hybrid was approximately similar to that of Japanese Stone Pine suggesting thatits chloroplasts were inherited from this parent. Consequently, the Siberian Stone Pine and the Japanese Stone Pine were maternal and paternal, respectively parents of

  3. Distribution of nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes in three pollinator fig wasps associated with Ficus pumila

    Chen, Yan; Liu, Min; Compton, Stephen G.; Chen, Xiao-Yong

    2014-05-01

    Nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes (NUMTs) are nuclear sequences transferred from mitochondrial genomes. Although widespread, their distribution patterns among populations or closely related species are rarely documented. We amplified and sequenced the mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cytb) gene to check for NUMTs in three fig wasp species that pollinate Ficus pumila (Wiebesia sp. 1, 2 and 3) in Southeastern China using direct and cloned sequencing. Unambiguous sequences (332) of 487 bp in length belonging to 33 haplotypes were found by direct sequencing. Their distribution was highly concordant with those of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI). Obvious signs of co-amplification of NUMTs were indicated by their uneven distribution. NUMTs were observed in all individuals of 12 populations of Wiebesia sp. 3, and 13 individuals of three northern populations of Wiebesia sp. 1. Sequencing clones of potential co-amplification products confirmed that they were NUMTs. These NUMTs either clustered as NUMT clades basal to mtDNA Cytb clades (basal NUMTs), or together with Cytb haplotypes. Basal NUMTs had either stop codons or frame-shifting mutations resulting from deletion of a 106 bp fragment. In addition, no third codon or synonymous substitutions were detected within each NUMT clade. The phylogenetic tree indicated that basal NUMTs had been inserted into nuclei before divergence of the three species. No significant pairwise differences were detected in their ratios of third codon substitutions, suggesting that these NUMTs originated from one transfer event, with duplication in the nuclear genome resulting in the coexistence of the 381 bp copy. No significant substitution differences were detected between Cytb haplotypes and NUMTs that clustered with Cytb haplotypes. However, these NUMTs coexisted with Cytb haplotypes in multiple populations, suggesting that these NUMT haplotypes were recently inserted into the nuclear genome. Both basal and recently inserted NUMTs were rare

  4. Anti-Allergic Effect of Ulmus davidiana Cortex on Contact Dermatitis Induced by Dinitrofluoro- Benzene in Mice

    Lyu Jeonghyeon

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The root bark of Ulmus davidiana var. Japonica (Ulmi Radicis cortex, URC is a medicinal herb used for promoting diuresis and treating dampness. In Korea, URC has long been used as an efficacious therapy for inflammation, burns, frostbite and skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis. Methods: In the present study, we used 1-fluoro-2,4- dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB-induced contact dermatitis (CD mouse model to investigate the antiallergic and the anti-inflammatory effects of URC on skin lesion, histopathological changes and specific antibody production. Results: URC treatment, 10 mg/mL, effectively inhibited skin lesions induced by repeated paintings with DNFB. In the histopathological observation, topical application of URC inhibited spongiosis. In addition, URC lowered the production levels of total immunoglobulin and IgG2a in serum. Conclusion: These data indicate that URC has an anti-inflammatory effect that produces an improvement of skin lesions in CD mice.

  5. Morfoanatomia da plântula de Celtis iguanaea (Jacq. Sarg. (Ulmaceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i1.1051 Morphology and anatomy of Celtis iguanaea (Jacq. Sarg. (Ulmaceae seedling - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i1.1051

    Rosemari Pilati

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Celtis iguanaea é uma espécie pioneira, típica de mata ciliar. O presente estudo visa a investigação da morfoanatomia da plântula dessa espécie, pertencente à Ulmaceae. As sementes, coletadas na planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná, foram germinadas em câmara de germinação com temperatura constante de 30ºC e mantidas sob luz fluorescente contínua. O desenvolvimento das plântulas ocorreu em casa de vegetação. A análise anatômica foi feita em plântulas fixadas em FAA 50. Esse material foi secionado transversalmente e as seções obtidas foram coradas em safranina e azul de astra. Verificou-se que a plântula é fanerocotiledonar, epigéia, e apresenta raiz ramificada, hipocótilo desenvolvido, cotilédones obovados e persistentes, epicótilo verde e piloso e eofilo oblongo ou lanceolado. A raiz é tetrarca ou diarca. O hipocótilo possui crescimento secundário com periderme de origem profunda. O epicótilo também apresenta crescimento secundário com periderme de origem subepidérmica. Os cotilédones e o eofilo são folhas dorsiventrais com cistólitosCeltis iguanaea it is a typical arboreal species of ciliar forest, belonging to the family Ulmaceae. This work intends to investigate the morphology and anatomy of seedling species. The seeds used were collected from several trees, in fragments of the Semideciduous Seasonal Alluvial and Submontane Forest located on Upper Paraná River floodplain. The seeds were germinated at constant temperatures (30ºC, using germination chambers and kept under continuous fluorescent light. Seedling development occurred in a greenhouse. Anatomical analysis was made in seedlings fixed in FAA 50. The botanical material was sectioned by microtome and stained with safranin and astra blue. The seedling is phanerocotylar and epigeal, presents ramified root, developed hypocotyl, obovate and persistent cotyledons, green and hairy epicotyl and the first leaf in a shape oblong or lanceolate. Root

  6. HPLC and GC-MS Determination of Bioactive Compounds in Microwave Obtained Extracts of Three Varieties of Labisia pumila Benth.

    Hawa Z.E. Jaafar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Microwave extraction of phytochemicals from medicinal plant materials has generated tremendous research interest and shown great potential. This research highlights the importance of microwave extraction in the analysis of flavonoids, isoflavonoid and phenolics and the antioxidant properties of extracts from three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb, Labisia pumila Benth. High and fast extraction performance ability, equal or higher extraction efficiencies than other methods, and the need for small samples and reagent volumes are some of the attractive features of this new promising microwave assisted extraction (MAE technique. The aims of the present research were to determine the foliar phenolics and flavonoids contents of extracts of three varieties of L. pumila obtained by a microwave extraction method while flavonoid, isoflavonoid and phenolic compounds were analyzed using RP-HPLC. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities were measured by the DPPH and FRAP methods and finally, the chemical composition of the crude methanolic extracts of the leaves of all three varieties were analyzed by GS-MS.

  7. Structure and diversity of ground mesofauna inUlmus and Populus consortia in the industrial areas of mining and smelting complex of krivyi rig basin

    V. V. Kachinskaya

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure and biological diversity of ground mesofauna on a consortium level of organisation of ecosystems are considered. Indicators of structural organisation and biodiversity of ground mesofauna were analised in Ulmus and Populus consortia in the conditions of industrial territories of mining and smelting complex of Krivyi Rig Basin. It is established that taxonomical structure of ground mesofauna is characterised by insignificant number and quantity of taxonomical groups. Prevalence of hortobionts and herpetobionts in morpho-ecological structure of the community testifies to their attachment to consortium’s determinants and influence of steppe climate on its structure. Dominance of phytophages and polyphages in trophic structure is caused by a combination of consortium determinants specificity and «a zone source» of the fauna formations. The structural organisation of ground mesofauna in consortia of Ulmus and Populus in the conditions of industrial sites is characterised by simplified taxonomical structure with low biodiversity at all levels.

  8. First report of Geosmithia langdonii and Geosmithia spp. isolated from a decaying elm (Ulmus minor in Geneva, Switzerland

    Hänzi Martine

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The mortality of a young elm Ulmus minor in 2014 in Geneva prompted a search for the microorganisms potentially involved. Symptoms included foliar chlorosis and wilting followed by defoliation of branches. Wood symptoms included a brown streaking of sap wood and brown stains in trunk and branches. The comparison of the resulting ITS rDNA sequences to the NCBI Nucleotide database allowed to identify 10 different organisms. The genus Geosmithia represented 48% of the isolates belonging to three species: Geosmithia langdonii (7 isolates and 2 unknown morphologically and genetically different Geosmithia sp. 1 and sp. 2 (4 isolates. Geosmithia species are very little known ascomycetes, which have been recently shown to be opportunistic pathogens on broadleaved trees and conifers, living as saprobes in galleries of many bark beetle species. In the case described here, Geosmithia langdonii, and the unknown Geosmithia species were found in symptomatic wood while bark beetle galleries were found in close regions of the symptomatic wood. Geosmithia langdonii was the major fungus retrieved from the symptomatic wood and could have contributed, along with other identified fungal species, to a pathogenic complex producing symptoms similar to the ones of the Dutch Elm Disease and led to the dieback of this elm tree. Geosmithia langdonii and 2 yet unknown Geosmithia species (sp. 1 and sp. 2, different from any other reported Geosmithia species are reported from an elm tree in Switzerland for the first time.

  9. [Estimating nonstructural carbon content of tree crown considering its spatial variability: A case study on Juglans mandshurica and Ulmus japonica].

    Cheng, Fang-yan; Wang, Chuan-kuan

    2015-08-01

    Using Juglans mandshurica and Ulmus japonica as test materials, we examined the variability in nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) concentrations in the branches with different basal diameters with a branch analysis method and explored potential errors in estimating the crown-scale NSC content introduced from various sampling protocols. The results showed that organs significantly influenced the crown NSC concentrations for both species. The mean concentrations of the sum of soluble sugars and starch (TNC) of the leaves, new twigs, old branches, and dead branches were 17.6%, 12.6%, 5.7% and 2.9%, respectively. Most of the NSC concentrations in leaves and new twigs varied insignificantly with basal diameter, age, length and height of the branch. However, the NSC concentration in old branches increased significantly with decreasing the basal diameter, age and length of the branch, and with increasing the relative height of the branch. Among the branch traits, basal diameter was the best predictor for the NSC concentration of the old branch (the R2 between 0.87 and 0.95). The mean TNC contents of leaves, new branches, and old branches for the two species accounted for 28%, 2% and 70% of the crown TNC content, respectively. Considering the effect of the spatial variability in the estimation of NSC content, we recommend the sampling protocol that applies the NSC concentration of new twigs and old branches with a diameter of 3 cm to up-scale the crown NSC content as a simple and practical method.

  10. Comparative field performance of some agricultural crops under a ca-nopy of Populus deltoides and Ulmus wallichiana

    Tariq Hussian Masoodi; Nasir Ahmad Masoodi; Sajad Ahmad Gangoo; Shah Murtaza Mushtaq; Hillal Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The performance of maize, beans and sunflower was evalu-ated under a canopy of Populus deltoides and Ulmus wallichiana at Fac-ulty of Agriculture, Wadura. The germination, growth and yield of the three test crops were suppressed under both tree species. The reduction, however, decreased when the cultivation of test crops was continued for three years. The inhibition potential generally is in the order of P. del-toides U. wallichiana for beans. Available soil N, P and K increased under the canopy of the selected tree species. The soils under U. wallichiana were more fertile than those under P. deltoides. Chromatographic investigation of extracts showed that the soils under P. deltoides and U. wallichiana differed in their composition of phenolic acids and phenolic glycocides. Except for caffic acid, all other allelochemicals disappeared and were no longer recovered in soil samples obtained after the second or third year of cultivation. Tree-crop compatibility can be explored in greater detail for improved management of traditional agro-ecosystems in Kashmir to increase the overall productivity of the land.

  11. Comparative effects of plant growth regulators on leaf and stem explants of Labisia pumila var.alata

    Anna Pick Kiong LING; Kinn Poay TAN; Sobri HUSSEIN

    2013-01-01

    Objective:Labisia pumi/a var.a/ata,commonly known as ‘Kacip Fatimah’ or ‘Selusuh Fatimah’ in Southeast Asia,is traditionally used by members of the Malay community because of its post-partum medicinal properties.Its various pharmaceutical applications cause an excessive harvesting and lead to serious shortage in natural habitat.Thus,this in vitro propagation study investigated the effects of different plant growth regulators (PGRs) on in vitro leaf and stem explants of L.pumila.Methods:The capabilities of callus,shoot,and root formation were evaluated by culturing both explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with various PGRs at the concentrations of 0,1,3,5,and 7 mg/L.Results:Medium supplemented with 3 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) showed the optimal callogenesis from both leaf and stem explants with (72.34± 19.55)% and (70.40± 14.14)% efficacy,respectively.IBA was also found to be the most efficient PGR for root induction.A total of (50.00±7.07)% and (77.78±16.47)% of root formation were obtained from the in vitro stem and leaf explants after being cultured for (26.5±5.0) and (30.0±8.5) d in the medium supplemented with 1 and 3 mg/L of IBA,respectively.Shoot formation was only observed in stem explant,with the maximum percentage of formation ((100.00±0.00)%) that was obtained in 1 mg/L zeatin after (11.0±2.8) d of culture.Conclusions:Callus,roots,and shoots can be induced from in vitro leaf and stem explants of L.pumila through the manipulation of types and concentrations of PGRs.

  12. Ecological and morphological studies in the hybrid zone between Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila

    S.N. Goroshkevich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Baikal Region, there is no phenological isolation between Siberian stone pine (P. sibirica Du Tour and Siberian dwarf stone pine (P. pumila (Pall. Regel since the timing of their 'flowering' coincides. Morphologically intermediate individuals, supposedly natural hybrids,occur not very often. In the west half of Stanovoye upland area four regions were investigated: Barguzinskiy, Baikalskiy, Verchneangarskiy and the Severo-Myiskiy mountain ridges. Interspecific natural hybridization was found to take place in several overlapping regions of the species' ranges; however there are some differences in frequency of natural hybrid occurrence between regions as well as within each region. Great numbers of natural hybrids are found only in a specific habitat which occurs rarely and occupies a relatively small area. At the north-east coast of Lake Baikal the lakeside zone is occupied by Siberian stone pine forests with moderate participation of Siberian dwarf stone pine in the undergrowth. The natural hybrid are widespread everywhere. The ratio of fructiferous Siberian stone pine, Siberian dwarf stone pine and natural hybrid was found to be approximately 300:10:1. About 90% of the examined natural hybrids took an intermediate position between the two parental species by most features (structure of needles, shoots, and crown, i.e. representing putatively the first generation hybrids. Therefore, in contrast to the parental species they are subjected to the destructive effect of snowbreak (broken off or dislocated from part of the root system. Like the Siberian dwarf stone pine the natural hybrid has specific root sources forming from latent buds. Therefore, the hybrids are not subjected to ageing, as well as have no internal limitation of age and size. Siberian dwarf stone pine, Siberian stone pine and their natural hybrid grow together in the Upper Angara delta in the bog regions. In the most productive sites the ratio of fructiferous Siberian dwarf

  13. Morfologia do pólen anemófilo e alergisante no Brasil: Casuarinaceae, Salicaceae, Moraceae, Ulmaceae e Urticaceae (I Morphology of the anemophilous and allergenic pollen grains in Brazil

    Ortrud Monika Barth

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi iniciado um catálogo da morfologia policlínica das epécies anemófilas e das causadoras de alergias, ocorrentes no Brasil. Nesta primeira parte foram examinados os grãos de pólen das Angiospermas consideradas menos evoluídas, correspondendo às seguintes Famílias: Casuarinaceae, Salicaceae, Moraceae, Ulmaceae e Urticaceae. O catálogo seguirá a ordem filogenética dos vegetais superiores.A catalogue of pollen morphology from the anemophilous species in Brazil, specially the allergenic ones, is beginning with this paper. In this first article the pollen grain morphology of the less developed angiosperm families, like Casuarinaceae, Salicaceae, Moraceae and Urticaceae has been examined. The catalogue will follow the phyllogenetic lines of the plant families.

  14. Preliminary Studies on chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of endangered plant Ulmus elongata seedlings%濒危植物长序榆(Ulmus elongata)幼苗叶绿素荧光特性的初步研究

    高建国; 徐根娣; 刘鹏; 岑维亚

    2011-01-01

    用Li-6400XT便携式光合作用仪对濒危植物长序榆幼苗的各叶绿素荧光参数的日变化和快速光响应曲线进行了测定.结果发现,光系统Ⅱ(PSⅡ)的实际光化学效率(ΦPS Ⅱ)、电子传递速率(ETR)在整个白天阶段较稳定,下午18:00显著下降.光化学淬灭(qP)先增大后减小.非光化学淬灭(NPQ)呈现出与光化学淬灭(qP)相反的变化趋势,中午最低,说明长序榆幼苗光能利用率较高.快速光曲线表明实际光化学效率(ΦPSⅡ)和光化学淬灭(qP)随着光合有效辐射(PAR)的增大而减小,电子传递速率(ETR)和非光化学淬灭(NPQ)随着光合有效辐射(PAR)的增大而增大.使用幂函数能够很好的拟合实际光化学效率(ΦPSⅡ)和电子传递速率(ETR)随光强的变化,而对数函数能较好的拟合实际光化学淬灭(qP)和非光化学淬灭(NPQ)随光强的变化.%Diurnal variations of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and rapid light curves of endangered plant Ulmus elongata seedlings were determined by using Li -6400XT portable photosynthesis system. The results showed that the actual photochemical efficiency(ΦPSII)> electron transport rate(ETR)of photosystem H(PSII)were stable throughout the daytime, and decreased significantly at 18:00 pm. Photochemical quenching (qP)increased firstly at morning and then decreased after midday, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ)showed the opposite changes, the minimum at noon, indicating that the light use efficiency of Ulmus elongata seedlings were high. The rapid light curves showed that actual photochemical efficiency(ΦPSII) and photochemical quenching (qP)decreased while the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR)increased, electron transport rate (ETR)and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ)increased while the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR)increased. The power function could fit well the actual photochemical efficiency (ΦPSII)and electron transport rate (ETR)with the light intensity changes, while

  15. Enhancement of Leaf Gas Exchange and Primary Metabolites under Carbon Dioxide Enrichment Up-Regulates the Production of Secondary Metabolites in Labisia pumila Seedlings

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A split plot 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of primary metabolites (soluble sugar and starch, secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF and leaf gas exchange of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under three levels of CO2 enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol−1 for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by CO2 enrichment levels; no varietal differences were observed. As CO2 levels increased from 400 to 1,200 µmol mol−1, the production of carbohydrates also increased steadily, especially for starch more than soluble sugar (sucrose. TF and TP content, simultaneously, reached their peaks under 1,200 µmol exposure, followed by 800 and 400 µmol mol−1. Net photosynthesis (A and quantum efficiency of photosystem II (fv/fm were also enhanced as CO2 increased from 400 to 1,200 µmol mol−1. Leaf gas exchange characteristics displayed a significant positive relationship with the production of secondary metabolites and carbohydrate contents. The increase in production of TP and TFs were manifested by high C/N ratio and low protein content in L. pumila seedlings, and accompanied by reduction in cholorophyll content that exhibited very significant negative relationships with total soluble sugar, starch and total non structural carbohydrate.

  16. Removal and recovery of heavy metals from aqueous solution using Ulmus carpinifolia and Fraxinus excelsior tree leaves.

    Sangi, Mohammad Reza; Shahmoradi, Ali; Zolgharnein, Javad; Azimi, Gholam Hassan; Ghorbandoost, Morteza

    2008-07-15

    Ulmus carpinifolia and Fraxinus excelsior tree leaves, which are in great supply in Iran, were evaluated for removal of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solution. Maximum biosorption capacities for U. carpinifolia and F. excelsior were measured as 201.1, 172.0 mg/g for Pb(II), 80.0, 67.2 mg/g for Cd(II) and 69.5, 33.1 mg/g for Cu(II), respectively. For both sorbents the most effective pH range was found to be 2-5 for Pb(II), 3-5 for Cd(II) and 4-5 for Cu(II). Metal ion biosorption increased as the ratio of metal solution to the biomass quantity decreased. Conversely, biosorption/g biosorbent decreased as the quantity of biomass increased. The biosorption of metal ions increased as the initial metal concentration increased. Biosorption capacities of metal ions were in the following order: Pb(II)>Cd(II)>Cu(II). The equilibrium data for Pb(II) and Cu(II) best fit the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. Kinetic studies showed that the biosorption rates could be described by a second-order expression. Both the sorbents could be regenerated using 0.2 M HCl during repeated biosorption-desorption cycles with no loss in the efficiency of the Cu(II) removal observed. Biosorption of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II) was investigated in the presence of Na, K, Mg and Ca ions. The results from these studies show a novel way of using U. carpinifolia and F. excelsior tree leaves to remove Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II) from metal-polluted waters.

  17. Elm Tree (Ulmus parvifolia) Bark Bioprocessed with Mycelia of Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) Mushrooms in Liquid Culture: Composition and Mechanism of Protection against Allergic Asthma in Mice.

    Kim, Sung Phil; Lee, Sang Jong; Nam, Seok Hyun; Friedman, Mendel

    2016-02-01

    Mushrooms can break down complex plant materials into smaller, more digestible and bioactive compounds. The present study investigated the antiasthma effect of an Ulmus parvifolia bark extract bioprocessed in Lentinus edodes liquid mycelium culture (BPUBE) against allergic asthma in chicken egg ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized/challenged mice. BPUBE suppressed total IgE release from U266B1 cells in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity. Inhibitory activity of BPUBE against OVA-specific IgE secretion in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was observed in OVA-sensitized/challenged asthmatic mice. BPUBE also inhibited OVA-specific IgG and IgG1 secretion into serum from the allergic mice, suggesting the restoration of a Th2-biased immune reaction to a Th1/Th2-balanced status, as indicated by the Th1/Th2 as well as regulatory T cell (Treg) cytokine profile changes caused by BPUBE in serum or BALF. Inflammatory cell counts in BALF and lung histology showed that leukocytosis and eosinophilia induced by OVA-sensitization/challenge were inhibited by the oral administration of BPUBE. Amelioration of eosinophil infiltration near the trachea was associated with reduced eotaxin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) levels. Changes in proinflammatory mediator levels in BALF suggest that BPUBE decreased OVA-sensitization-induced elevation of leukotriene C4 (LTC4) and prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). The finding that asthma-associated biomarker levels of OVA-sensitized/challenged mice were much more inhibited with BPUBE treatment than NPUBE (not-bioprocessed Ulmus parvifolia extract) treatment suggested the production of new bioactive compounds by the mushroom mycelia that may be involved in enhancing the observed antiasthmatic properties. The possible relation of the composition determined by proximate analysis and GC/MS to observed bioactivity is discussed. The results suggest that the elm tree (Ulmus parvifolia) bark bioprocessed with mycelia of shiitake (Lentinus edodes

  18. Massive sequencing of Ulmus minor's transcriptome provides new molecular tools for a genus under the constant threat of Dutch elm disease

    Pedro ePerdiguero

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Elms, especially Ulmus minor and Ulmus americana, are carrying out a hard battle against Dutch elm disease (DED. This vascular wilt disease, caused by Ophiostoma ulmi and O. novo-ulmi, appeared in the twentieth century and killed millions of elms across North America and Europe. Elm breeding and conservation programmes have identified a reduced number of DED tolerant genotypes. In this study, three U. minor genotypes with contrasted levels of tolerance to DED were exposed to several biotic and abiotic stresses in order to (i obtain a de novo assembled transcriptome of U. minor using 454 pyrosequencing, (ii perform a functional annotation of the assembled transcriptome, (iii identify genes potentially involved in the molecular response to environmental stress, and (iv develop gene-based markers to support breeding programmes. A total of 58,429 putative unigenes were identified after assembly and filtering of the transcriptome. 32,152 of these unigenes showed homology with proteins identified in the genome from the most common plant model species. Well-known family proteins and transcription factors involved in abiotic, biotic or both stresses were identified after functional annotation. A total of 30,693 polymorphisms were identified in 7,125 isotigs, a large number of them corresponding to SNPs (27,359. In a subset randomly selected for validation, 87 % of the SNPs were confirmed. The material generated may be valuable for future Ulmus gene expression, population genomics and association genetics studies, especially taking into account the scarce molecular information available for this genus and the great impact that DED has on elm populations.

  19. Estudio de la ecología de Ulmus laevis Pallas en la Península Ibérica

    Venturas, Martin David

    2014-01-01

    Esta tesis doctoral pretende profundizar en el conocimiento de la ecología de Ulmus laevis Pallas, especie autóctona en peligro de extinción en la Península Ibérica, con el fin de proponer medidas adecuadas para su conservación. Se ha estudiado la distribución natural de la especie atendiendo a aspectos edáficos. Los resultados muestran que U. laevis presenta menor capacidad de acidificación de la rizosfera, menor actividad de la reductasa férrica y menor homeostasis que U. minor Mill. cuando...

  20. Inhibition of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis increases cell wall digestibility, protoplast isolation, and facilitates sustained cell division in American elm (Ulmus americana

    Jones A Maxwell P

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protoplast technologies offer unique opportunities for fundamental research and to develop novel germplasm through somatic hybridization, organelle transfer, protoclonal variation, and direct insertion of DNA. Applying protoplast technologies to develop Dutch elm disease resistant American elms (Ulmus americana L. was proposed over 30 years ago, but has not been achieved. A primary factor restricting protoplast technology to American elm is the resistance of the cell walls to enzymatic degradation and a long lag phase prior to cell wall re-synthesis and cell division. Results This study suggests that resistance to enzymatic degradation in American elm was due to water soluble phenylpropanoids. Incubating tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. leaf tissue, an easily digestible species, in aqueous elm extract inhibits cell wall digestion in a dose dependent manner. This can be mimicked by p-coumaric or ferulic acid, phenylpropanoids known to re-enforce cell walls. Culturing American elm tissue in the presence of 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP; 10-150 μM, an inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, reduced flavonoid content, decreased tissue browning, and increased isolation rates significantly from 11.8% (±3.27 in controls to 65.3% (±4.60. Protoplasts isolated from callus grown in 100 μM AIP developed cell walls by day 2, had a division rate of 28.5% (±3.59 by day 6, and proliferated into callus by day 14. Heterokaryons were successfully produced using electrofusion and fused protoplasts remained viable when embedded in agarose. Conclusions This study describes a novel approach of modifying phenylpropanoid biosynthesis to facilitate efficient protoplast isolation which has historically been problematic for American elm. This isolation system has facilitated recovery of viable protoplasts capable of rapid cell wall re-synthesis and sustained cell division to form callus. Further, isolated protoplasts survived

  1. An approach for extraction of kernel oil from Pinus pumila using homogenate-circulating ultrasound in combination with an aqueous enzymatic process and evaluation of its antioxidant activity.

    Chen, Fengli; Zhang, Qiang; Gu, Huiyan; Yang, Lei

    2016-11-04

    In this study, a novel approach involving homogenate-circulating ultrasound in combination with aqueous enzymatic extraction (H-CUAEE) was developed for extraction of kernel oil from Pinus pumila. Following comparison of enzyme types and concentrations, an enzyme mixture consisting of cellulase, pectinase and hemicellulase (1:1:1, w/w/w) at a concentration of 2.5% was selected and applied for effective oil extraction and release. Several variables potentially influencing extraction yields, namely, homogenization time, incubation temperature, incubation time, mark-space ratio of ultrasound irradiation, ultrasound irradiation power, liquid-solid ratio, pH and stirring rate, were optimized by Plackett-Burman design. Among the eight variables, incubation temperature, incubation time and liquid-solid ratio were statistically significant and were further optimized by Box-Behnken design to predict optimum extraction conditions and ascertain operability ranges for maximum extraction yield. Under optimum operating conditions, extraction yields of P. pumila kernel oil were 31.89±1.12% with a Δ5-unsaturated polymethylene interrupted fatty acid content of 20.07% and an unsaturated fatty acid content of 93.47%. Our study results indicate that the proposed H-CUAEE process has enormous potential for efficient and environmentally friendly extraction of edible oils.

  2. 科尔沁沙地蒙古黄榆种群结构与空间分布格局%Population Structure and Spatial Pattern of Ulmus macrocarpa var.mongolica in Horqin Sandy Land,China

    张雷; 王晓江; 胡尔查; 高桂英; 庞鑫; 于有忠; 张振华

    2011-01-01

    Based on an investigation into the Ulmus macrocarpa var. mongolica sparse forest in the Horqin Sandy Land, its population characteristics and spatial distribution were analyzed from aspects of static life table, mortality curve, age structure diagram and point pattern analysis diagram. The results showed: (1) The woody layer of the Ulmus macrocarpa sparse forest develops incompletely with single species, and the shrub layer appears sparsely, too. (2) The age structure of the Ulmus macrocarpa population is seriously defective with few saplings and even no saplings under 10 ages, and there is insufficient natural regeneration for the population. This community is in a serious degradation state. (3) The static life table indicates that the mortality of the Ulmus macrocarpa population is the highest during 40 to 50 years old and the lowest during the sapling stage. The survival curve of the Ulmus macrocarpa population tends to be the Deevey-Ⅰ type. (4) The spatial pattern of the population obeys a random distribution.%对科尔沁沙地分布的蒙古黄榆(Ulmus macrocarpa var.mongolica)疏林进行了调查研究,分析了其群落特征、种群结构和卒间分布规律;编制了种群的静态生命表;绘制了年龄结构图、存活曲线和点格局分析图.结果表明:①蒙古黄榆疏林木本层的发育并不完善,种类单一,偶尔出现灌木层;②蒙古黄榆种群的年龄结构极不合理,呈明显的衰退型.并且幼树较少,更不存在0~10 a的幼树.天然更新严重不足,群落正处于严重的退化状态;③蒙古黄榆的种群静态生命表表明,死亡率最高出现在40~50年龄段,幼年个体的死亡率最低,它的存活曲线趋向于Deevey Ⅰ型;④蒙古黄榆种群空间分布格局呈随机分布.

  3. Time and Dose-Dependent Effects of Labisia pumila on Bone Oxidative Status of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Rat Model

    Nadia Mohd Effendy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Postmenopausal osteoporosis can be associated with oxidative stress and deterioration of antioxidant enzymes. It is mainly treated with estrogen replacement therapy (ERT. Although effective, ERT may cause adverse effects such as breast cancer and pulmonary embolism. Labisia pumila var. alata (LP, a herb used traditionally for women’s health was found to protect against estrogen-deficient osteoporosis. An extensive study was conducted in a postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model using several LP doses and duration of treatments to determine if anti-oxidative mechanisms were involved in its bone protective effects. Ninety-six female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups; baseline group (BL, sham-operated (Sham, ovariectomised control (OVXC, ovariectomised (OVX and given 64.5 μg/kg of Premarin (ERT, ovariectomised and given 20 mg/kg of LP (LP20 and ovariectomised and given 100 mg/kg of LP (LP100. The groups were further subdivided to receive their respective treatments via daily oral gavages for three, six or nine weeks of treatment periods. Following euthanization, the femora were dissected out for bone oxidative measurements which include superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and malondialdehyde (MDA levels. Results: The SOD levels of the sham-operated and all the treatment groups were significantly higher than the OVX groups at all treatment periods. The GPx level of ERT and LP100 groups at the 9th week of treatment were significantly higher than the baseline and OVX groups. MDA level of the OVX group was significantly higher than all the other groups at weeks 6 and 9. The LP20 and LP100 groups at the 9th week of treatment had significantly lower MDA levels than the ERT group. There were no significant differences between LP20 and LP100 for all parameters. Thus, LP supplementations at both doses, which showed the best results at 9 weeks, may reduce oxidative stress which in turn may prevent bone loss via its

  4. The Height Growth of Ulmus elongata Seedlings and Its Correlations with Climatic Factors%长序榆苗木的高生长及与气象因子的关联分析

    赖文胜

    2001-01-01

    The investigated results show that there exists obviously a “slow-fast-slow” growth rhythm in height growth process of Ulmus elongata. Then this growth process are simulated and divided into three stages by Logistic equation. There is a positive correlation between rate of height gr owth and rate of leaf increment. Using relation analysis method, it has been re vealed that the temperature is the essential environmental factor affecting the seedling growth.%研究表明:长序榆苗高生长呈现明显的节律,Logistic 方程能较好地模拟苗高的生长过程,采用Logistic方程可划分出苗木的生长时期、苗高生长 速率与叶面积增长速率之间的相关性达极显著水平.关联分析表明,气温是影响苗木高生长 的主要气象因子.

  5. 薛荔籽果胶对去势雌性大鼠矿物质吸收的影响%Effect of Pectin from Ficus pumila L. Seeds on Mineral Absorption in Ovariectomized Rats

    张磊; 冯媛嫒; 刘雄; 陈宗道

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨薛荔籽果胶对去势雌性大鼠矿物质吸收的影响。方法:将30只SD成年雌鼠随机分为5组。4组大鼠做双侧卵巢切除手术,一周后分为空白组和薛荔籽果胶高、中、低剂量组;用伪切除同龄大鼠作对照(Sham组)。喂养4周后解剖,测定盲肠内容物pH值、短链脂肪酸、骨钙、骨磷含量及矿物质元素的表观吸收等指标。结果:去势雌性大鼠对钙、镁、磷、锌和铁元素的表观吸收率及骨钙和骨磷含量显著低于正常大鼠(P〈0.05)。薛荔籽果胶能显著增加去势雌性大鼠短链脂肪酸含量和盲肠面积(P〈0.05),降低盲肠pH值,并且在一定程度上抑制钙、镁、磷、锌和铁元素的表观吸收率。结论:薛荔籽果胶能降低去势雌性大鼠矿物质的表观吸收率。%Objective: To investigate the effect of pectin from Ficus pumila L. seeds on mineral absorption in ovariectomized rats. Methods: Thirty SD female rats were divided into five groups. The mice in four of them were double ovariectomized and one week later assigned as model control group and high, medium and low dose groups ofFicuspumila L. pectin. The mice in the fifth group were sham-ovariectomized as sham control. All rats were sacrificed after 4 weeks of feeding to assay pH values and short-chain fatty acids in cecum contents, calcium and phosphorus in bone, and apparent absorption rate of minerals. Results: Compared to the sham control group, the apparent absorption rates of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc and iron, calcium and phosphorus in bone significantly decreased in OVX rats (P〈0.05). Pectin from Ficus pumila L. seeds drastically increased the concentration of short-chain fatty acids in cecum content and the area of cecum, decreased the pH of cecum contents, and inhibited the absorption of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc and iron in ovariectomized rats. Conclusions: Ficus pumila L. seed

  6. New records of eriophyoid mites from Iran (Acari: Trombidiformes: Eriophyoidea) and a description of a new Brevulacus Manson species.

    Soika, Grażyna; Gol, Ali; Honarmand, Arash; Wozińska, Anna; Sadeghi, Hussein

    2017-01-09

    Four species of eriophyoid mites are recorded from Iran, of which three represent new records and the other is a new species. These species are: Brevulacus salicinus n. sp. (Diptilomiopidae), found on Salix sp. (Salicaceae); Aceria wallichianae Keifer, 1975 from Ulmus minor (Ulmaceae); Aceria granulata Carmona, 1972 from Verbascum spp. (Scrophulariaceae) and Tegnacus unicornutus Pye, 2012 from Carpinus betulus (Betulaceae). Each of these species are illustrated and provided with data regarding their distribution and host plants.

  7. 科尔沁沙地黄榆种子散布的空间差异及规律%Spatial difference and regularity of seed dispersal of Ulmus macrocarpa in Horqin Sandy Land, China

    杨允菲; 白云鹏; 李建东

    2012-01-01

    黄榆(Ulmus macrocarpa)是典型的风播植物,在科尔沁沙地可以形成单一优势种林地.通过对其林下随机取样和林缘与孤立树不同方向从树基部向外的有序取样调查,分析了英榆林下和林缘外不同距离的种子沉降特征、林缘和孤立树种子散布方向的差异性与规律性.结果表明,黄榆平均种子密度以林下最大,林缘3m处已显著减小,林缘外随着距离增加黄榆平均种子密度呈指数减少态势,且越远越不均匀.林缘和孤立树不同方向在26m内,单位面积连续分布的种子累积数量均以顺风向频率大的东北方向最多,以逆风向频率大的西南或西方向最少.林缘和孤立树共10个方向的垂直断面从树基部向外的单位面积种子数量频度均符合Weibull分布和对数-正态分布密度函数(x2(a)<0.900),具有相同的种子散布格局.在科尔沁沙地自然条件下,黄榆在各方向具有相同的“远距离”种子散布机制.%Aims Ulmus macrocarpa is a typical anemochorous plant. It can form mono-dominant woodland in Keerqin Sandy Land, China. Our objectives were to investigate seed-fall characteristics of U. macrocarpa in the under-story and away from both the woodland edges and isolated trees at different distances in different compass directions, and to illustrate the underlying mechanisms of seed dispersal in U. macrocarpa. Methods In mid June 2011, we investigated seed dispersal after seeds fall in a nature reserve of U. macrocarpa woodland in Tongyu County in western Jilin Province. The woodland is about 50 km2 in area which has nearly primitive landscape appearance. The seed density of U. macrocarpa was randomly sampled in the understory and orderly sampled at 1 m intervals from the tree bases away from the woodland edges and isolated trees along vertical sections of different directions. The quadrat was 50 cm × 50 cm in area. Differences in the seed density among the understory and parallel sections of

  8. Relationship between Indole-3-Acetic Acid Levels in Apple (Malus pumila Mill) Rootstocks Cultured in Vitro and Adventitious Root Formation in the Presence of Indole-3-Butyric Acid 1

    Alvarez, Rafael; Nissen, Scott J.; Sutter, Ellen G.

    1989-01-01

    In vitro rooting response and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels were examined in two genetically related dwarfing apple (Malus pumila Mill) rootstocks. M.26 and M.9 were cultured in vitro using Linsmaier-Skoog medium supplemented with benzyladenine (BA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), and 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid (PG). Rooting response was tested in Lepoivre medium supplemented with IBA and PG. IBA concentrations of 12.0 and 4.0 micromolar induced the maximum rooting percentages for M.9 and M.26, respectively. At these concentrations rooting response was 100% for M.26 and 80% for M.9. Free and conjugated IAA levels were determined in M.26 and M.9 shoots prior to root inducing treatment by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and validated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using 13[C6]IAA as internal standard. Basal sections of M.26 shoots contained 2.8 times more free IAA than similar tissue in M.9 (477.1 ± 6.5 versus 166.6 ± 6.7 nanograms per gram fresh weight), while free IAA levels in apical sections of M.26 and M.9 shoots were comparable (298.0 ± 4.4 versus 263.7 ± 9.3 nanograms per gram fresh weight). Conjugated IAA levels were significantly higher in M.9 than in M.26 indicating that a greater proportion of total IAA was present as a conjugate in M.9. These data suggest that differences between M.26 and M.9 rooting responses may be related to differences in free IAA levels in the shoot base. PMID:16666562

  9. Intoxicação experimental por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae em bovinos Experimental poisoning by Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae in cattle

    Sandra Davi Traverso

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Folhas de Trema micrantha foram fornecidas a 13 bovinos. Dez deles receberam folhas verdes em dose única, dois receberam folhas verdes em doses fracionadas e um recebeu dose única de planta dessecada. Oito dos bovinos apresentaram sinais clínicos e seis morreram. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram a partir de 16 horas após a ingestão da planta. Os animais apresentavam apatia, anorexia, sialorréia, fraqueza progressiva, coma e morte. Sinais neurológicos, tais como pressionar a cabeça contra obstáculos e movimentos laterais da cabeça, foram observados em quatro animais. As mortes ocorreram entre 67 e 153 horas após o término da ingestão da planta. O achado de necropsia mais significativo foi observado no fígado que era friável com padrão lobular acentuado e com áreas de hemorragia, exceto um bovino, que apresentou o fígado difusamente vermelho escuro. Hemorragias petequiais nas serosas e edema da vesícula biliar foram alterações adicionais observadas com freqüência. Rins pálidos com pontos avermelhados na cortical foram observados em um bovino. O exame histológico revelou, em 5 animais, necrose de coagulação massiva associada à hemorragia centrolobular acentuada. Um animal apresentou necrose centrolobular. Dois animais apresentaram alterações nos rins, caracterizadas por necrose tubular renal. Altrações histológicas no sistema nervoso central, que consistiam de edema perineuronal e perivascular com basofilia e retração de neurônios, principalmente no córtex frontal, foram observadas em cinco bovinos. T. micrantha causou sinais clínicos com 50g/kg e morte a partir de 54g/kg de peso. As doses fracionadas e a planta dessecada não causaram sinais de intoxicação.Leaves of Trema micrantha were orally given to 13 cattle. Ten animals received green leaves in a single dose, two animals received green leaves in fractionated doses, and one received the dried leaves in a single dose. Eight animals showed clinical signs and six of them died. Clinical signs were observed 16 hours after administration and included apathy, anorexia, drooling, progressive weakness, coma and death. Neurological signs as pressing the head against obstacles and head shaking were observed in four animals . Death occurred between 67 and 153 hours after the end of plant ingestion. The main gross lesions were observed in the liver, and included friable consistency, pronounced lobular pattern and areas of haemorrhages. The liver of one bovine was homogeneously dark reddened. Petechial hemorrhages in serosal membranes and edema in the gall bladder were frequently seen. Pale kidneys with red spots in the cortex were observed in one animal. Microscopically, the most striking lesion in the liver was massive coagulative necrosis, associated with centrolobular haemorrhages, observed in four animals. In the liver of one bovine centrolobular necrosis was observed . Tubular renal necrosis was noted in two animals. Additional microscopic lesions were found in the central nervous system of five bovines, especially in the frontal cortex, and included perineuronal and perivascular edema with basophilia and retraction of the neurons. T T. micrantha caused clinical signs with 50g/kg and death with doses of 54g/kg or higher. The fractionated administration of the green leaves as well as the dried leaves did not cause poisoning.

  10. Intoxicação experimental por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) em bovinos Experimental poisoning by Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) in cattle

    Sandra Davi Traverso; André Mendes Ribeiro Corrêa; Milene Schmitz; Edson Moleta Colodel; David Driemeier

    2004-01-01

    Folhas de Trema micrantha foram fornecidas a 13 bovinos. Dez deles receberam folhas verdes em dose única, dois receberam folhas verdes em doses fracionadas e um recebeu dose única de planta dessecada. Oito dos bovinos apresentaram sinais clínicos e seis morreram. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram a partir de 16 horas após a ingestão da planta. Os animais apresentavam apatia, anorexia, sialorréia, fraqueza progressiva, coma e morte. Sinais neurológicos, tais como pressionar a cabeça contra obstácul...

  11. Determination of Phenolic Acids and Flavan-3-ols in Dry Cider of Both Fuji and Rails Apples (Malus pumila Mill. )%苹果酒中酚酸、黄烷-3-醇的检测

    姜志奇; 王秀芹; 战吉宬; 黄卫东

    2012-01-01

    The fresh of Ralls apples (Malus pumila Mill. ) , Fuji and apple cider were selected as the test mate- rials. The contents of phenolic compounds in apple juice and cider were determined by HPLC. The result indicated that there were 4 phenolic acids ( Chlorogenic acid, Caffeic acid, Protocatechuic acid and p-coumaric acid) and 2 fla- van-3-ols ( (-)-epicatechin and ( + )-catechin) in apples and ciders. Contents of phenolic compounds in different varieties of apple juice and apple cider are significantly different. The total contents of phenolic compounds in Rails apples and cider from Ralls apples were higher than that from the other two. The most important phenolic compounds were Chlorogenic acid and (-)-epicatechin. The flavan-3-ols with highest content was (-)-Epicatechin. The result in- dicated that the contents of all the phenolic compounds increased obviously during the fermentation, and phenolic compounds in ciders were more than that in apples. Contents showed an increasing trend of S-type. The increasing trend was first flat and then faster and then fiat.%以小国光(Rails)和富士(Fuji)及其所酿制的新鲜苹果酒为试验材料,采用反相高效液相色谱法测定分析苹果原汁、发酵中酒样和苹果成品酒中11种酚酸、5种黄烷-3-醇的含量。结果表明:苹果和苹果酒中存在4种酚酸(原儿茶酸、绿原酸、咖啡酸、对-香豆酸)、2种黄烷-3-醇(儿茶素和表儿茶素);不同品种的苹果原汁和苹果成品酒中酚类物质的含量都存在显著差异。其中,小国光苹果和小国光苹果酒中的酚类物质总含量较高;对于每个品种,绿原酸都是最主要的酚酸类物质,含量最高的黄烷-3-醇类物质都是表儿茶素。随着发酵过程的进行,苹果酒中酚类物质的含量有不同程度的增加。其增加趋势为s型曲线,即先平缓再较快再平缓。

  12. Effects of forest fire on soil ;nutrients of Ass Pinus pumila-Larix gmelinii forest in Great Xing ’ an Mountains%林火对大兴安岭偃松-兴安落叶松林土壤养分的影响

    谷会岩; 金屿淞; 张芸慧; 陈祥伟

    2016-01-01

    大兴安岭是我国林火高发区,林火对森林土壤的化学性质有着直接或间接的影响。为探明林火与土壤pH值和土壤养分的关系,本文以我国大兴安岭呼中林业局偃松-兴安落叶松林火烧迹地为研究对象,采用双因素方差分析法研究了不同火烧时间、不同火烧强度对土壤pH值和土壤养分的影响。结果表明:火烧时间相同,土壤pH值随火烧强度的增强而增大。火烧强度相同,火烧后时间越长,土壤pH值越小,但火烧迹地的土壤pH值大于未火烧的对照组;在相同火烧强度条件下,不同火烧时间(1996、2010年和未火烧)偃松-兴安落叶松林迹地的土壤养分含量不同,但未达到显著水平(P>0.05);火烧时间相同,不同火烧强度条件下偃松-兴安落叶松林的土壤有机质和全氮含量存在差异(P0.05)。火烧后5年(2010年火干扰)、19年(1996年火干扰)后,偃松-兴安落叶松林并未恢复至火烧前生长水平。本研究旨在找到不同火烧时间和火烧强度下土壤pH值和土壤养分的变化规律,为火烧后大兴安岭偃松-兴安落叶松林生态系统的快速有效恢复提供理论依据。%Great Xing’an Mountains are a fire-prone area in China. Forest fire has a direct or indirect influence on chemical properties of forest soil. We explored the impacts of different burning time and fire intensity conditions on pH value and soil nutrients in the burned area of Ass. Pinus pumila-Larix gmelinii forest in Huzhong Forestry Bureau of Great Xing’ an Mountains using two-factor variance analysis method. The results showed that under the same burning time condition, pH value of soil increased with fire intensity increasing. With the time increasing after fire, pH value decreased at the same burning intensity, but pH value in the burned area was higher than that in the unburned area. Under the same fire intensity condition, soil nutrient contents of Ass

  13. Effects of calcium on activities and gene expressions of superoxide dismutase and catalase in apple (Malus pumila Mill.) fruits%钙对苹果果实超氧化物歧化酶、过氧化氢酶活性及其基因表达的影响

    梁国庆; 孙静文; 周卫; 王秀斌

    2011-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), O2- and H2O2 in apple ( Malus pumila Mill. ) fruits were investigated under the hydroponic condition with 0,1,10 mmol/L CaCl2 and 5 mmol/L EGTA, and expression patterns of SOD and CAT1 gene were analyzed by real-time PCR. Addition of 10 mmol/L CaCl2 to the culture solution with 12 h and 24 h exposure significantly improved the activities of SOD and CAT, respectively, and simultaneously decreased O2 and H2O2 accumulation. Addition of 5 mmol/L EGTA, as a specific chelator of Ca, induced O2- and H2O2 accumulation correlated with decreases in SOD and CAT activities. The abundance of SOD gene was up-regulated by calcium addition after 12 h exposure in accordance with change of SOD activity, indicating that SOD activity was modified by SOD gene expression. However, expression of CAT1 gene was not in accordance with change of CAT activity. It seemed that CAT activity was modified by CAT1 gene expression particularly at the level of posttranslational modification. It was concluded that calcium addition might protect apple fruit tissues against oxidative stress by up-regulating gene expressions and activities of SOD and CAT, then precisely controlling O2- and H2O2 accumulation.%采用果实薄片培养试验研究不同钙浓度(0、1和10 mmo1/L CaCl2,5 mmol/L EGTA)和处理时间(6、12、24和48 h)下苹果果实活性氧代谢特征;运用荧光定量PGR方法分析编码苹果超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)基因在分子水平的表达.高钙处理12 h后,SOD酶的活性显著增加,O2-产生速率显著下降;高钙处理24h后,CAT酶的活性显著增加,H2O2含量显著下降;缺钙处理下SOD酶和CAT酶的活性受到抑制,O2-形成速率和H2O2含量显著增加.基因表达实验显示,高钙处理12 h后,SOD基因的表达量增加,与SOD酶活性变化一致,说明SOD酶的活性取决于SOD基因的表达量;高钙处理12 h后,CAT1基因的表达量增加,而CAT酶的活性是在加钙处理24

  14. Intoxicação experimental por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae em caprinos

    Traverso Sandra Davi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Sete caprinos receberam, por sonda esofágica, uma suspensão aquosa de folhas verdes de Trema micrantha moídas e um outro recebeu folhas verdes da planta à vontade. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram-se 2 dias após a ingestão e ocorreram em seis caprinos, cinco dos quais morreram em até 4 dias. Os animais doentes permaneciam longos períodos em estação, com cabeça baixa, olhar fixo, apáticos e inapetentes. Tenesmo, incoordenação e movimentos rítmicos laterais da cabeça também foram observados. T. micrantha mostrou-se tóxica a partir de 30g/kg de peso corporal. A alteração macroscópica mais significativa foi observada no fígado, que se apresentou friável, amarelado e com acentuado padrão lobular. Ao corte, havia áreas vermelhas, deprimidas e entremeadas por áreas mais claras. Em um animal, a coloração do fígado era vermelha, homogênea, mais clara que o normal e sem evidenciação do padrão lobular. Petéquias foram constatadas entre a escápula e o esterno, no epicárdio, no mediastino e nas serosas dos órgãos da cavidade abdominal. A principal alteração histológica foi necrose coagulativa centro-lobular que, em alguns casos, atingia todo o lóbulo, associada à congestão, hemorragia e alterações degenerativas nos hepatócitos circunjacentes. No sistema nervoso, havia tumefação de neurônios, mais proeminente no córtex frontal, associado a edema perineuronal e perivascular.

  15. Intoxicação experimental por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) em caprinos

    Traverso Sandra Davi; Corrêa André Mendes Ribeiro; Pescador Caroline Argenta; Colodel Edson Moleta; Cruz Cláudio Estêvão Farias da; Driemeier David

    2002-01-01

    Sete caprinos receberam, por sonda esofágica, uma suspensão aquosa de folhas verdes de Trema micrantha moídas e um outro recebeu folhas verdes da planta à vontade. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram-se 2 dias após a ingestão e ocorreram em seis caprinos, cinco dos quais morreram em até 4 dias. Os animais doentes permaneciam longos períodos em estação, com cabeça baixa, olhar fixo, apáticos e inapetentes. Tenesmo, incoordenação e movimentos rítmicos laterais da cabeça também foram observados. T. mic...

  16. A mini review on chemistry and biology of Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb. Planch (Ulmaceae)

    Dinesh Kumar; Karunesh Kumar; Jyoti Gupta; Navita Bishnoi; Sunil Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb. (Indian Elm) is a very useful and popular traditional medicinal plant in India. During the last three decades, apart from the chemistry of plant compounds, considerable progress regarding the biological activity and medicinal applications of Indian Elm has been achieved. Ethno-medically, the leaves and stem bark of this plant have been used by tribes as antiviral, antioxidant, antimicrobial, abortifacient preparations and in the management of cancer. Recent studies on plant show that it has potential to fight against tumor and obesity as well. Phytochemical investigation shows the presence of chemical constituents such as terpenoids, alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, steroids, sterols, saponins, tannins, proteins and flavanoids. The isolated principles such as β-amyrin, β-sitosterol, holoptelin-A, holoptelin-B, hederagenin, hexacosanol, β-D-glucose, friedelin, epifriedelin, 2-amino naphthoquinone, 1,4-naphthalenedione, are considered as responsible for various activities. This review highlights the traditional uses, reported biological/pharmacological activities, isolated compounds and therapeutic applications of Holoptelea integrifolia which might be helpful for scientists and researchers to find out new chemical entities responsible for its claimed traditional uses.

  17. Seasonal quality profile and production of foliage from trees grown on degraded cropland in arid Uzbekistan, Central Asia.

    Lamers, J P A; Khamzina, A

    2010-10-01

    Feed shortages hamper livestock rearing and thus impede the development of rural livelihoods in Central Asia. The production and in vitro quality of foliage from Ulmus pumila, Elaeagnus angustifolia and Populus euphratica on degraded cropland were examined to determine the potential of these species to supplement diary cattle diets. Leaf dry matter (DM) production of the species, respectively, averaged 6, 8 and 17 t DM/ha, 4 years after planting. Over seasons and years, crude protein concentrations (g/kg DM) ranged within 151-257 for E. angustifolia, 70-241 for U. pumila and 92-187 for P. euphratica. The metabolizable energy concentrations (MJ/kg DM) were the highest in U. pumila and ranged within 9-10, followed by 7-10 of E. angustifolia and 7-9 of P. euphratica. The organic matter digestibility (%) ranged within 58-70, 54-66, and 51-66, respectively, for these species. These indicators combined denoted a medium-to-good feed quality of E. angustifolia and U. pumila leaves as a cheap protein supplement to roughages. The foliage of P. euphratica was the least suitable. The seasonal profile of in vitro indicators revealed the highest feed quality in spring but early fall seems most appropriate for forage collection given the peak leaf production and an adequate quality.

  18. Analysis on Carbon Sequestration Capacity and Energy Transfer Efficiency of Six Arbor Tree Species%6种乔木树种固碳能力和能量转化效率分析

    郑朝晖; 马春霞; 马江林; 李基勇; 刘灿; 李宏

    2011-01-01

    对新疆克拉玛依地区的6种乔木树种树干和树皮的热值与含碳率进行测定和分析,结果表明:白榆树干的热值含量最高,为19.272 kJ/g;沙枣树干的含碳率最高,为49.66%;胡杨和俄罗斯杨、新疆杨和银×新杨这2组树种树干的热值没有显著性差异,其余树种树干的热值间均存在显著性差异;白榆树皮的含碳率与其余树种间均存在极显著性差异.按照生物量、固碳量、热值等数据综上分析得出,在克拉玛依地区优先选择高效固碳与能源乔木树种的顺序为:白榆、银×新杨、新疆杨、沙枣、胡杨、俄罗斯杨.%The caloric value and carbon content rate of the trunk wood and bark of six arbor tree species grown in Kelamayi area, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region were determined. The six tree species were Ulmus pumila, Elaeagnus angustifolia, Populus euphratica, Populus russkii, Populus bolleana, and Populus alba X Populus bolleana. The results showed that the caloric value of Ulmus pumila s trunk wood was 19.272 Kj/g, which was the greatest of the six tree species. The carbon content rate of Elaeagnus angustifolia was the highest by 49.66%. There were no significant differences in caloric value of the trunk wood between Populus euphratica and Populus russkii, neither between Populus bolleana and Populus alba x Populus bolleana. Whereas there were significant differences in the caloric value of trunk wood among any other pairs of the species. There were significant differences in carbon content rate of the bark between Ulmus pumila with the rest five tree species. According to the comprehensive analyses of the biomass per hectare, the capacity of carbon sequestration and caloric value, the six arbor tree species were ranked in the order as Ulmus pumila, Populus alba X Populus bolleana, Populus bolleana, Elaeagnus angustifolia, Populus euphratica and Populus russkii regarding the capacity of carbon sequestration and bio-energy producing

  19. Ancient and Famous Trees in Dandong:Investigation,Management and Protection%丹东市主要古树名木及管理现状和保护建议

    张艳红

    2008-01-01

    初步调查得知,丹东市现有古树名木20多种,其中达到辽宁省比较古老的树种的有6种:最古的银杏(Ginkgo biloba)、五针松(Pinus parviflora)、赤松(Pinus densiflora)、腺柳(Salix chaenomeloides)、水杉(Metasequoia glyptostroboides)、圆柏(Sabina chinensis)、榆树(Ulmus pumila).同时指出了丹东市古树名木管理的不足以及整改的有关措施.

  20. Semiochemical-mediated flight strategies of two invasive elm bark beetles: a potential factor in competitive displacement.

    Lee, Jana C; Hamud, Shakeeb M; Negrón, José F; Witcosky, Jeffrey J; Seybold, Steven J

    2010-04-01

    A seven-state survey showed that the recently detected invasive Asian banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov, was abundant in areas of Colorado and Wyoming, whereas the long-established European elm bark beetle, S. multistriatus (Marsham), was not as abundant. In one of a series of studies to evaluate whether S. schevyrewi is competitively displacing S. multistriatus in their North American zone of sympatry, we characterized long-range flight responses infested or uninfested to small cut logs of American, Chinese, and Siberian elm, Ulmus americana, U. parvifolia, and U. pumila. Trials were conducted in Colorado and Wyoming to test the flight response of S. schevyrewi; in California to test the response of S. multistriatus; and in Nevada to test the responses of both species simultaneously. Studies with S. schevyrewi showed that males and females aggregated toward Ulmus spp. host volatiles but provided no evidence of a putative aggregation pheromone during the 0- to 48- or 48- to 96-h period of infestation. In contrast, S. multistriatus was attracted to U. pumila over unbaited controls, more to U. pumila infested with conspecific females than without, and more during the 48- to 96- versus 0- to 48-h period of infestation. This confirmed that male and female S. multistriatus aggregated toward host volatiles and that females produced an aggregation pheromone. In a cross-attraction study, S. schevyrewi displayed neither flight preference nor interruption to U. pumila infested with conspecifics, heterospecifics, or a mix of both species. Response of S. multistriatus was too low to draw conclusions. Although S. multistriatus aggregates moderately to host volatiles and strongly to female-derived pheromones emitted after a few days, S. multistriatus may have a relative disadvantage by selecting elm hosts more slowly than S. schevyrewi, which aggregates very strongly to host volatiles. The differential long-range host location strategy may be one factor in a

  1. Seasonal variation of bacterial endophytes in urban trees

    Shu Yi eShen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial endophytes, non-pathogenic bacteria residing within plants, contribute to the growth and development of plants and their ability to adapt to adverse conditions. In order to fully exploit the capabilities of these bacteria, it is necessary to understand the extent to which endophytic communities vary between species and over time. The endophytes of Acer negundo, Ulmus pumila and Ulmus parvifolia were sampled over three seasons and analyzed using culture dependent and independent methods (culture on two media, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, and tagged pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal amplicons. The majority of culturable endophytes isolated were Actinobacteria, and all the samples harbored Bacillus, Curtobacterium, Frigoribacterium, Methylobacterium, Paenibacilllus and Sphingomonas species. Regardless of culture medium used, only the culturable communities obtained in the winter for A. negundo could be distinguished from those of Ulmus spp.. In contrast, the nonculturable communities were dominated by Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, particularly Erwinia, Ralstonia and Sanguibacter spp.. The presence and abundance of various bacterial classes and phyla changed with the changing seasons. Multivariate analysis on the culture independent data revealed significant community differences between the endophytic communities of A. negundo and Ulmus spp., but overall season was the main determinant of endophytic community structure. This study suggests investigations of the studies ofendophytic populations of urban trees should expect to find significant seasonal and species-specific community differences and sampling should proceed accordingly.

  2. Diversidad de Anamorfos de Ascomycota en bosques nativos de Celtis tala (Ulmaceae en la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina Diversity of anamorphic fungi in Celtis tala (Ulmaceae native forest from Buenos Aires province, Argentina

    Natalia Allegrucci

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se analizó la diversidad de microhongos que constituyen la comunidad fúngica saprótrofa (anamorfos de Ascomycota presente en hojarasca y suelo en bosques nativos de Celtis tala (tala en el partido de Magdalena, provincia de Buenos Aires. Se realizaron muestreos estacionales durante dos años (2004-2005 y se aislaron e identificaron los hongos presentes. Se calculó la frecuencia relativa porcentual de cada taxón; estos datos fueron utilizados para evaluar la diversidad fúngica mediante el cálculo del Indice de Diversidad de Shanon y Weaver ( H '. Para discriminar las comunidades fúngicas se utilizó el coeficiente de similitud de Sorensen ( S '. Se identificaron 104 taxones de anamorfos de Ascomycota, de los cuales 54 fueron aislados de hojarasca y 58 de suelo, registrándose 8 especies en común para ambos tipos de muestra. De las especies compartidas, las que presentaron frecuencias más altas para hojarasca fueron las menos representadas en suelo y viceversa. El resultado del cálculo del coeficiente de similitud de Sorensen fue de 0.14, indicando que la comunidad de hongos saprótrofos que crece en la hojarasca de tala está integrada por diferentes especies a las que caracterizan la micobiota del suelo de la misma área. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en el índice de diversidad.In this paper we analyze the diversity of species that compose the saprotrophic (anamorphic Ascomycota fungi community in the leaf litter and soil in Celtis tala forest in Magdalena , located in the province of Buenos Aires . Seasonal samples were taken during two years (2004-2005, and fungi were isolated and identified. The relative frequencies of fungi were calculated. To compare the similarity of the fungi composition between different habitats, Sorensen's index of similarity (S´ was applied. The frequencies of occurrence of these fungi were recorded and Shannon Weaver index (H´ was applied to evaluate fungal diversity. A total of 104 taxa of anamorphic fungi were identified from which 54 were isolated from leaf litter, 58 from soil, and 8 species common for both types of substrate. From the taxa identified, those that had higher frequencies for leaf litter were the less represented in soil and vice versa. Sorensen´s index of similarity resulted 0.14, which means that the saprotrophic fungi community that grows in leaf litter of Celtis tala is composed by different species than those that characterized the mycobiota from the soil of the same area. Nevertheless, no significant differences were found in the index of diversity.

  3. THE SELECTION ASSESSMENT OF HIBRIDES OF THE FAMILY ULMACEAE MIRB. FOR DECORATIVE GARDENING OF THE LOWER VOLGA REGION

    I. Podkovyrov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issues of selection of the elm for decorative gardening. On the basis of complex analysis of the estimation of economically valuable selection of samples. Shown the advantage of individual selection. Investigated the variability of morphological characteristics of the form of the crown, of leaves and fruits. Allocated promising group of plants that allows you to continue breeding work. Summarizes the results of the hybridization of species of elm.

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: apple [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available apple Malus pumila Malus_pumila_L.png Malus_pumila_NL.png Malus_pumila_S.png Malus_...pumila_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Malus+pumila&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Malu...s+pumila&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Malus+pumila&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Malus+pumila&t=NS ...

  5. The Spatial Pattern and Interactions of Woody Plants on the Temperate Savanna of Inner Mongolia, China: The Effects of Alternating Seasonal Grazing-Mowing Regimes.

    Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Kebin; Zhou, Jinxing; Ahmad, Bilal

    2015-01-01

    Ulmus pumila tree-dominated temperate savanna, which is distributed widely throughout the forest-steppe ecotone on the Mongolian Plateau, is a relatively stable woody-herbaceous complex ecosystem in northern China. Relatively more attention has been paid to the degradation of typical steppe areas, whereas less focus has been placed on the succession of this typical temperate savanna under the present management regime. In this study, we established 3 sample plots 100 m×100 m in size along a gradient of fixed distances from one herder's stationary site and then surveyed all the woody plants in these plots. A spatial point pattern analysis was employed to clarify the spatial distribution and interaction of these woody plants. The results indicated that old U. pumila trees (DBH ≥ 20 cm) showed a random distribution and that medium U. pumila trees (5 cm ≤ DBH trees (DBH DBH) formed aggregations in all 3 plots. These findings can be explained by an alternate seasonal grazing-mowing regime (exclosure in summer, mowing in autumn and grazing in winter and spring); the shrubs in all 3 plots exist along a grazing gradient that harbors xerophytic and mesophytic shrubs. Of these shrubs, xerophytic shrubs show significant aggregation at a smaller scale (0-5.5 m), whereas mesophytic shrubs show significant aggregation at a larger scale (0-25 m), which may be the result of the dual effects of grazing pressure and climate change. Medium trees and seedlings significantly facilitate the distributions of xerophytic shrubs and compete significantly with mesophytic shrubs due to differences in water use strategies. We conclude that the implementation of an alternative grazing-mowing regime results in xerophytic shrub encroachment or existence, breaking the chain of normal succession in a U. pumila tree community in this typical temperate savanna ecosystem. This might eventually result in the degradation of the original tree-dominated savanna to a xerophytic shrub-dominated savanna.

  6. Melatonin enhances the recovery of cryopreserved shoot tips of American elm (Ulmus Americana L.)

    Climate change and the global migrations of people and goods have exposed trees to new diseases and abiotic challenges that threaten the survival of species. In vitro germplasm storage via cryopreservation is an effective tool to ensure conservation of tree species, but plant cells and tissues are e...

  7. Melatonin enhances the recovery of cryopreserved shoot tips of American elm (Ulmus americana L.).

    Uchendu, Esther E; Shukla, Mukund R; Reed, Barbara M; Saxena, Praveen K

    2013-11-01

    Climate change and global migrations of people and goods have exposed trees to new diseases and abiotic challenges that threaten the survival of species. In vitro germplasm storage via cryopreservation is an effective tool to ensure conservation of tree species, but plant cells and tissues are exposed to multiple stresses during the cryopreservation process. The current study was designed to evaluate the potential of melatonin to improve survival through the process of cryopreservation. Shoot tips of in vitro-grown plantlets and dormant winter buds of American elm were successfully cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen (LN) at -196°C under controlled environmental conditions following melatonin treatment and cold acclimation with either vitrification or encapsulation–vitrification protocols. Explants had optimal regrowth following cryopreservation when treated with the plant vitrification solution#2 (PVS2) for 10 min. Supplementation of both preculture and regrowth media with melatonin significantly enhanced regrowth of frozen shoots compared with the untreated control (P < 0.05). Approximately 80–100% of shoot explants grew under optimized conditions using melatonin-enriched media. Shoot tips of dormant winter buds consistently produced nearly 100% regrowth with both techniques. The main steps of the optimized protocol are14-day cold-acclimated cultures exposed to preculture medium with 0.1–0.5 lM melatonin for 24 hr, application of PVS2 for 10 min, rapid cooling in LN, rapid rewarming, removal of cryoprotectants, and recovery on a medium supplemented with 0.1–0.5 lM melatonin. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of the antioxidant melatonin for long-term storage of naturally resistant elm germplasm.

  8. 矿山矸石台地植被恢复栽培模式研究%Research on Cultivation Pattern of Vegetation Recovery at Waste Heap Platform of Coal Mine

    孙翠玲; 苏铁成; 郭玉文

    2005-01-01

    In order to study 5 cultivation models such as arbor-shrub, arbor-shrub-herb and their disposition for vegetation recovery, 10 arbor species, 7 shrub species and 5 herb species suitalde for locat sites were choiced at waste heap platform of Fushun Coal Mine. The experiment adopted the randomized block design, three replicates, with 0.067hm2 at each thinned plot. The experiment results of 2-year vegetation recovery showed that the survival rate of woody plants was significantly different among species and there existed significant differences in ground diameter and height increments. The results of the initial stage of the experiment showed that the disposition of A and C were the optimal cultivation models, and Robinia pesudoacacia, Hippophae rhamnoides, Amorpha fruticosa, Caragana chamlagu,Ulmus pumila were the best tree species for arbor-shrub-herb disposition.

  9. 帽儿山主要树种燃烧性分析与排序%Sequence of Combustibility of Principal Tree Species in Maoershan Mountain Area,Heilongjiang Province

    李艳芹; 胡海清

    2010-01-01

    应用主成分分析和专家打分法对19种乔木的理化性质数据及生物学、生态学特征数据进行了统计,分析树种的燃烧性质,研究结果表明:燃烧性最强的树种是樟子松(Pinus sylvestris vat.mongolica)、红松(Pinus koraiensis)、红皮云杉(Picea koraiensis)、落叶松(Larix gmellini Rupr);燃烧性最差的树种是水曲柳(Fraxinus mandshurica)、黄波罗(Phellodendron amurense)、胡桃楸(Juglans mandshurica)、家榆(Ulmus pumila L.).燃烧性差、抗火及耐火性好的树种,可以考虑作防火树种.

  10. Cross Breeding of Populus and Its Hybrids for Cold Resistance

    2005-01-01

    Populus tomentosa was crossed with P. tremuloidis, P. grandidentata, P. alba × P. grandidentata and P. alba × Ulmus pumila in order to maintain its rapid growth and high wood quality and improve its resistance to cold. Two methods were used to increase the germination rate from 1.5% to 41.1% and the remaining rate from 1.7% to 44.2%. Forty crossing combinations were conducted and 2 744 hybrid seedlings were obtained. MX4 × P. grandidentata (G-1-58), MX3 × P. tremuloidis (T-44-60), MX2 × P. tremuloidis (l-13-87-37) and MX2 × (P. alba × P. grandidentata) were regarded as superior combinations after analysis and selection. Thirty seedlings of these combinations and 11 triploid seedlings identified by counting their chromosomes were selected as super plants.

  11. Emissions of volatile organic compounds from heated needles and twigs of Pinus pumila

    ZHAO Feng-jun; SHU Li-fu; WANG Qiu-hua; WANG Ming-yu; TIAN Xiao-rui

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to explore the mechanism that emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from heated needles and twigs (200℃, within 15 min) of Pinus purnila affect fire behaviours using the technology of Thermal Desorption - Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). The results indicated that the main components of VOC from heated needles and twigs are terpenoids. Most of these terpenoids are monoterpenes. Terpenoids account for 72.93% for the needles and 92.40% for the twigs of the total VOC, and their emis sion ratios are 61.200 μg·g-1 and 217.060 μtg·g-1 respectively. Heated twigs can emit more terpenoids than heated needles because twigs had more volatile oils than needles. In actual fires, these large amounts of terpenoid emissions, especially the monoterpene emissions, have strong effects on fire behaviors that are not only in the initial stage but also in the fast propagation stage of fires. These flammable gases are capable of causing violent combustion and creating crown fires. In addition, if these gases accumulate in an uneven geographical area, there will be a possible for eruptive fires and/or fires fiashover to occur.

  12. Comparison of Heat Resistance of Eight Kinds Of Roof Greening Woody Plant%8种屋顶绿化木本植物的耐热性比较

    徐静平; 徐振华; 杜克久

    2011-01-01

    Screening woody plants to adapt to the roof special circumstances has important practical significance for riching the kinds of the greening plants and making it play the functions of roof greening and beautification.The high tempreture is the limited factor for plant growing.In order to expore the heat resistance of roof greening plants and study the adaptability of the plant to high temperature environments, Ulmus pumila L, Salix matsudana Koidz, Broussonetia papyrifera, Periploca sepium Bung., Populus simonii Carr., Lonicera maackii (Rupr.) Maxim.planted on the roof and Ulmus pumila cv.jinye, Sorbaria kirilowii (Reqel) Maxim.suitable for roof greening were as the test materials in the experiment.The relative conductivity of leaves of above plants were tested at different heat treatment conditions, and with Forstst 2.1 the heat resistance of the eight kinds of woody plants were studied.The results showed that: the temperature and cell injury rate of leaves treated with different high temperature were 'S' shaped curve.The semi-lethal temperature of different plants from high to low was Periploca sepium Bung., Periploca sepium Bung., Populus simonii Carr., Salix matsudana Koidz., Ulmus pumila L., Sorbaria kirilowii (Reqel) Maxim., Broussonetia papyrifera, Ulmus pumila cv.jinye, and which were 65.30℃, 63.80℃, 57.85℃, 56.84℃, 55.87℃, 49.94℃, 44.81℃, 43.98℃ respectively.The heat resistance of Periploca sepium Bung.and Lonicera maackii (Rupr.) Maxim.was best, that of Salix matsudana Koidz., Ulmus pumila L., Populus simonii Carr.was better, and that of Sorbaria kirilowii (Reqel) Maxim., Broussonetia papyrifera and Ulmus pumila cv.jinye were worst.%筛选适应屋顶特殊环境的木本植物,对于丰富屋顶绿化植物种类、发挥屋顶绿化的生态和美化功能具有重要的现实意义.高温胁迫是植物正常生长发育的限制因子,为了探索屋顶绿化木本植物的耐热性,研究其在屋顶高温环境下的适应能力,笔

  13. Ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada.

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard

    2007-09-30

    This paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. The majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. Two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. The following plants were used as anthelmintics: Artemisia cina O. Berg and C.F. Schmidt, Artemisia vulgaris L., Artemisia annua, Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (all Asteraceae), Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae), Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Juglans nigra L. (Juglandaceae), Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) and Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)). Stomach problems were treated with: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae), Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski (Poaceae), Frangula purshiana (DC.) Cooper (Rhamnaceae), Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae), Melissa officinalis L. and M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae), Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae), Plantago major L. and Plantago ovata Forssk. (Plantaginaceae) Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). There is insufficient information available to assess the anthelmintic efficacies of C. officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Eugenia caryophyllata and O. europaea; the other plants have mid- to high-level validity for their ethnoveterinary uses.

  14. A Contribution to the Problem of Tree Necrosis in Cities: Soil Properties in the Habitat of Ulmus glabra Huds. and Ulmus minor Mill. Greenery Elements of the City of Kielce

    Świercz Anna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical properties of soils have a significant impact on the growth and development of vegetation. In urban areas, because of increased human activity, changes occur in both grain-size composition as well as physical and chemical properties of soils. These soils are frequently saline and contaminated with heavy metals, which limit the development of vegetation and cause its necrosis. Elm is a commonly growing tree with low habitat requirements, whose population has been considerably reduced because of progressing Dutch elm disease. This study attempts to assess the relationship of dependency between physicochemical parameters of soils and health status of elms from the area of the City of Kielce. Two elms were selected for the study, that is, one alive tree being a natural monument and one necrotic tree. The soil analysis concerned physicochemical parameters such as size composition, reaction, salinity measured by means of proper electrolyte conductivity (PEC, acidity, organic carbon content, carbonates, nitrogen, and selected elements including heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Mn. The study indicates differentiation amongst the physicochemical parameters of the analysed soils. A characteristic feature of the soils being the habitat of the necrotic elm is that they have considerably higher salinity than those being the habitat of the alive elm. Increased levels of sodium and chlorides could negatively affect water transportation in vegetation what might have resulted, amongst others, in necrosis of the tree.

  15. The Spatial Pattern and Interactions of Woody Plants on the Temperate Savanna of Inner Mongolia, China: The Effects of Alternating Seasonal Grazing-Mowing Regimes.

    Xiao Wang

    Full Text Available Ulmus pumila tree-dominated temperate savanna, which is distributed widely throughout the forest-steppe ecotone on the Mongolian Plateau, is a relatively stable woody-herbaceous complex ecosystem in northern China. Relatively more attention has been paid to the degradation of typical steppe areas, whereas less focus has been placed on the succession of this typical temperate savanna under the present management regime. In this study, we established 3 sample plots 100 m×100 m in size along a gradient of fixed distances from one herder's stationary site and then surveyed all the woody plants in these plots. A spatial point pattern analysis was employed to clarify the spatial distribution and interaction of these woody plants. The results indicated that old U. pumila trees (DBH ≥ 20 cm showed a random distribution and that medium U. pumila trees (5 cm ≤ DBH < 20 cm showed an aggregated distribution at a smaller scale and a random distribution at a larger scale; few or no juvenile trees (DBH < 5 cm were present, and seedlings (without DBH formed aggregations in all 3 plots. These findings can be explained by an alternate seasonal grazing-mowing regime (exclosure in summer, mowing in autumn and grazing in winter and spring; the shrubs in all 3 plots exist along a grazing gradient that harbors xerophytic and mesophytic shrubs. Of these shrubs, xerophytic shrubs show significant aggregation at a smaller scale (0-5.5 m, whereas mesophytic shrubs show significant aggregation at a larger scale (0-25 m, which may be the result of the dual effects of grazing pressure and climate change. Medium trees and seedlings significantly facilitate the distributions of xerophytic shrubs and compete significantly with mesophytic shrubs due to differences in water use strategies. We conclude that the implementation of an alternative grazing-mowing regime results in xerophytic shrub encroachment or existence, breaking the chain of normal succession in a U. pumila

  16. Relationship between tensile properties and microstructures of three different broadleaf tree roots in North China%华北护坡阔叶树种根系抗拉性能与其微观结构的关系

    蒋坤云; 陈丽华; 盖小刚; 杨苑君

    2013-01-01

    Forest vegetation is known to increase slope stability by reinforcing soil shear resistance, and root tensile properties are important factors to consider when choosing suitable species for reinforcing soil on an unstable slope. The macroscopic properties are determined by the microscopic structure; as a result, the microscopic structure of roots needs to be further observed to help us understand the relationship between the soil’s mechanical properties and the microstructure of roots. We chose three common broadleaf species (Betula platyphylla, Quercus mongolica, Ulmus pumila) in North China and carried out several experiments, including single-root tensile tests, root anatomical-structure tests, and wood-fiber segregation experiments. To analyze data from those experiments, we used multiple regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA) in order to determine the relationship between root tensile properties and selected anatomical structure. Results showed that in all species a significant power relationship existed between tensile properties and root diameter (R2>0.8). The root tensile force increased with increasing root diameter, but root tensile strength increased with decreasing root diameter. According to the results of root tensile tests, we found that Ulmus pumila was the most resistant to failure, followed by Betula platyphylla and Quercus mongolica. Through the observation of microscopic sections, the root anatomical features of three kinds of broadleaf species were the same as those of their trunk, and wood fiber was the main anatomical feature in the root. According to the multiple regression models, the area percentage of wood fiber in the root cross-section (short for the area percentage of wood fiber), the area percentage of phloem in root cross section (short for the area percentage of phloem), and fiber dimensions affected single roots’tensile properties. The percentage of wood fiber area was the most important impact factor on root tensile force

  17. Cenozoic terrestrial palynological assemblages in the glacial erratics from the Grove Mountains, east Antarctica

    Aimin Fang; Xiaohan Liu; Weiming Wang; Feixin Huang; Lianjun Yu

    2009-01-01

    Fossiliferous glacial erratics have been found in moraines of the Grove Mountains, east Antarctica since 1998 by Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition (CHNARE) teams. These erratics were derived from a suite of glaciogene strata hidden beneath the Ant-arctic Ice Sheet in the Lambert glacier drainage system, and thus provide a record of Cenozoic paleoenvironmental conditions and fossil biotas that are so far unknown from outcrops and drill cores in this region. By microfossil analysis, sparse Neogene spores and pollen grains are revealed, including: Toroisporis (Lygodiaceae), Granulatisporites (Pteridaceae?), Osmunda (Osmundaceae), Polypodiaceae, Magnastriatites (Parkeriaceae), Deltoidospora, Araucariaceae, Taxodiaceae, Podocarpus (Podocarpaceae), Dacrydium (Podocarpaceae), Pinus (Pinaceae), Keteleeria (Pinaceae), Picea (Pinaceae), Tsuga (Pinaceae), Chenopodiaceae, Artemisia (Asteraceae), Asteraceae, Grami-neae, Fraxinoipollenites (Oleaceae), Oleoidearumpollenites (Oleaceae), Oleaceae, Operculumpollis, Nothofagidites (Nothofagus), Rhus, Quercus (Fagaceae), Juglans (Juglandaceae), Pterocarya (Juglandaceae), Liquidambar (Hamamelidaceae), Ulmus (Ulmaceae), Ulmoidep-ites (Ulmaceae), Tilia, Proteacidites (Proteaceae) and Tricolpopollenites; but without any marine diatoms. Most of the spores and pollen grains in the erratics are considered to originate from local sources except for some older exotic components that might be recycled from the basement sedimentary rocks by the ice sheet, so they are in situ sporo-palynological assemblages. Furthermore, since the source areas of the glaciogenic sedimentary rocks are assumed to be local or in the up glacier areas, the palynological assemblages in these erratics represent an inland terrestrial flora during a warmer period of the ice-sheet evolutionary history. The ages of these erratics are also dis-cussed based on the occurrence of some diagnostic pollens such as the Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae and Nothofagus, which

  18. Palynological and palaeobotanical investigations in the Miocene of the Yatağan basin, Turkey: High-resolution taxonomy and biostratigraphy

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Güner, Tuncay H.; Denk, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    , Sapindaceae (Acer), Ulmaceae (Cedrelospermum, Ulmus, Zelkova), and Zingiberales (Spirematospermum). In addition, more than two thousand plant macrofossils were collected in the course of repeated field trips, including remains of Pinaceae, Berberidiaceae (Mahonia), Betulaceae (Alnus, Carpinus), Buxaceae (Buxus), Fagaceae (Fagus, Quercus), Lauraceae, Malvaceae (Tilia), Myricaceae (Myrica), Rosaceae, Salicaceae (Populus, Salix), Sapindaceae (Acer), Smilacaceae (Smilax), Typhaceae (Typha), Ulmaceae (Zelkova). A combined analysis integrating these rich and diverse plant macro- and microfossil records will lead to a better understanding and refined reconstruction of the vegetation in the Yatağan basin during the middle to late Miocene.

  19. Taxonomic and nomenclatural notes on Laccaria B. & Br. Laccaria amethystea, L. fraterna, L. laccata, L. pumila, and their synonyms

    Mueller, Gregory M.; Vellinga, Else C.

    1986-01-01

    Laccaria amethystea, not L. amethystina nor L. calospora, is shown to be the correct name for the amethyst colored Laccaria. A neotype for L. amethystea is proposed and a complete list of its synonyms is given. Data which support placing L. ohiensis and L. tetraspora in synonymy with L. laccata are

  20. Forecasting Fruit Diameter of ‘Fuji’Apples (Malus pumila Mill )at Harvest During Early Growing Season

    SONG Guo-qing; YU Ke-shun; LI Shao-hua; LIU Guo-jie; MENG Zhao-qing; ZHU Jun

    2002-01-01

    The fruit growth evolution on 35 tagged‘Fuji'apple trees was studied in three successive growing seasons from 1994 to 1996 to explore a new method for forecasting the fruit diameter at harvest during early growing season. Daily fruit growth rate (DFGR) (based on fruit diameter, fruit dry weight, fruit fresh weight, or fruit volume) during the early growing season, 30 - 50 d after full bloom (DAFB), or during midgrowing season (60 - 120 DAFB), displayed a strong positive linear correlation with the fruit diameter at harvest, and the correlation between the fruit diameter at harvest and DFGR during early and mid-growing season was much better than that between the fruit diameter at harvest and either fruit diameter at a given time or the relative growth rate during early or mid-growing season. The fruit diameters obtained in the field were compared with the mean fruit diameters estimated based on different criteria, such as DFGRs (based on fruit diameter, fruit dry weight, fruit fresh weight, or fruit volume) during early and mid-growing season, and fruit diameter at 120 DAFB. Results showed that daily growth rate of fruit diameter during 30 - 50 DAFB was the best criterion for forecasting fruit diameter at harvest. There was no significant difference in mean fruit diameter between the value measured in the field at harvest and that estimated based on the daily growth rate of fruit diameter during 30 - 50 DAFB (equations for forecasting: y = 153. 571 x + 73. 492) either for the individual trees or for different vigor groups of trees. Daily growth rate of fruit diameter during 30 - 50 DAFB can be used as the basis for forecasting fruit diameter at harvest.

  1. 75 FR 30313 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Castanea pumila

    2010-06-01

    ... bark and grows under the bark, eventually killing the cambium all the way around the infected area... the performance of genotypes may be magnified in importance as Castanea clones have aged over the...

  2. Calcium Forms,Subcelluar Distribution and Ultrastructure of Pulp Cells as Influenced by Calcium Deficiency in Apple (Malus pumila) Fruits

    CHEN Jian-hui; ZHOU Wei

    2004-01-01

    Calcium in Red Fuji and Starkrimson apples during storage were fractionated by sequent extracting. Localization and distribution of calcium and influence of calcium nutrition on cell ultrastructure were observed by transmission electron microscopy combined with in situ precipitation of calcium with an improved method of potassium pyroantimonate technique. Results indicated that spraying calcium solution on surface of young fruits increased contents of calcium in all forms. During storage, contents of soluble calcium and pectic calcium declined and thosein calcium phosphate, calcium oxalate and calcium silicate increased. Calcium contents of Red Fuji in all forms were higher than those of Starkrimson, indicating that calcium accumulating capability of Red Fuji fruits preceded that of Starkrimson. Under transmission electron microscopy, calcium antimonite precipitates (CaAP) was mainly distributed in cell wall, tonoplast, nuclear membrane and nucleoplasm,much more CaAP deposited in vacuole. Calcium deficiency during storage leads to decrease of CaAP in locations mentioned above, disappearance of compartmentation, and entrance of CaAP to cytoplasm. Transformation from soluble calcium and pectic calcium to calcium phosphate,oxalate and damages of biomembranes structuraly and functionally resulted from calcium deficiency during storage were the crucial causation of physiological disorder.

  3. Study on Characteristics of Calcium Uptake by Young Fruit of Apple (Malus pumila) and Its Regulation by Hormone

    2000-01-01

    Field trial, pot experiment with 45Ca tracer, plant analysis were used to investigate the characteristics of calcium uptake by young fruit of apple and its regulation by IAA, GA and NAA. The results indicated that calcium should be applied directly on the surface of young fruits because calcium applied on leaves could be hardly transfered to fruits. The proper Ca applying period was the first month of young fruits formation, and the proper concentration of CaCl2 applied was 0. 5%. Applying Ca directly on the surface of young fruits could increase the weight and quality of fruits. The process of transfering Ca2+ from fruit surface into pulp tissue could be accelerated by IAA, GA or NAA, which also led to an increment on 2% HOAc extractable Ca. Meanwhile, the Ca existed in the stalk and leaves could be strongly transported into fruits by applying IAA on the fruit surface, resulting in too much accumulation of Ca in fruit and bad quality of fruit, while no such sighs were observed with GA or NAA.

  4. Nitrogen fixation by Elaeagnus angustifolia in the reclamation of degraded croplands of Central Asia.

    Khamzina, Asia; Lamers, John P A; Vlek, Paul L G

    2009-06-01

    Extensive degradation of irrigated croplands, due to increasing soil salinity and depletion of soil nutrient stocks, is a major problem in Central Asia (CA), one of the largest irrigated areas in the world. To assess the potential for improving the productive capacity of degraded lands by afforestation, we examined N(2) fixation of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. in mixed plantations with non-fixing Populus euphratica Oliv. and Ulmus pumila L. Fixation of N(2) was quantified by the (15)N natural abundance technique based on both foliar and whole-plant sampling during five consecutive growing seasons. Despite elevated root-zone soil salinity (6-10 dS m(-1)) and deficiency in plant-available P (4-15 mg kg(-1)), N(2) fixation (%Ndfa) increased from an initial value of 20% to almost 100% over 5 years. Within each growing season, %Ndfa steadily increased and peaked in the fall. Annual N(2) fixation, determined using foliar delta(15)N, initially averaged 0.02 Mg ha(-1), peaked at 0.5 Mg ha(-1) during the next 2 years and thereafter stabilized at 0.3 Mg ha(-1). Estimates based on whole-plant delta(15)N were angustifolia plots than in P. euphratica and U. pumila plots. Increases in the concentrations of organic C (19%), total N (21%) and plant-available P (74%) in the soil were significant irrespective of tree species. This improvement in soil fertility is further evidence that afforestation with mixed-species plantations can be a sustainable land use option for the degraded irrigated croplands in CA.

  5. Integración de impactos ecológicos causados por plantas exóticas invasoras: propuesta metodológica

    P. Castro-Díez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanto en España como en Europa existen demasiadas plantas exóticas invasoras para poder afrontar la gestión de todas ellas, por lo que es necesario priorizar las más nocivas. Sin embargo, ello requiere disponer de medidas cuantitativas, sistemáticas y comparables de su impacto. La información disponible es desigual en cuanto a los criterios y variables para medir impactos y por tanto difícil de integrar. Proponemos el siguiente método para integrar medidas de impactos procedentes de distintos estudios: 1 Búsqueda de casos de estudio, 2 cálculo de tamaños del efecto; 3 clasificación de los casos por nivel de organización, 4 integración de los tamaños del efecto para cada especie y nivel de impacto con técnicas de meta-análisis, y 5 estima de un índice de fiabilidad (basado en el número de casos y otro de consistencia (basado en la heterogeneidad entre casos. Aplicamos este método para estimar los impactos en España de tres árboles invasores (Ailanthus altissima, Robinia pseudoacacia y Ulmus pumila. Encontramos 50 casos para A. altissima, 39 para R. pseudoacacia y 15 para U. pumila. Los impactos en el nivel de ecosistema (fertilidad fueron los más estudiados, mientras que los de comunidad e individuo están menos documentados. Robinia pseudoacacia tiende a incrementar la fertilidad, mientras que A. altissima no altera esta propiedad. La metodología propuesta tiene la ventaja de permitir estimar el impacto con datos de estudios diversos, pero su aplicación está limitada por la disponibilidad de casos de estudio.

  6. Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    María L. Bakker

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se coleccionaron hojas maduras de ejemplares adultos de Populus alba, Populus deltoides, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila y Fraxinus americana del Campus Universitario, Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina (37° 19’S, 59° 08’O en febrero de 2004. La cera cuticular fue extraída, purificada, y el contenido y proporción relativa de n-alcanos de número impar de carbonos (C23C35 fue cuantificado mediante cromatografía gas-líquido capilar. La concentración total de n-alcanos (mg/kg MS fue P. alba (6935 > Robinia (1571 > P. deltoides (1379 > Ulmus (880 > Fraxinus (467. Los n-alcanos más abundantes en todas las especies fueron C27 y C29 que constituyeron entre 10 y 51% y entre 35 y 76% del total respectivamente, excepto en Fraxinus donde los más abundantes fueron C29 y C31 que constituyeron el 31 y 49% del total respectivamente. P. alba y P. deltoides difirieron no solo en la concentración total de n-alcanos sino también en la proporción relativa de C27 y C29, siendo C29 el n-alcano más abundante en la segunda especie (76% igual que en Robinia (75%. La presencia de nalcanos de número par de carbonos no fue detectable o resultó muy baja en general en todas las especies, con excepción de C26, C28 y C30, este último se destacó particularmente en Fraxinus.

  7. Scientific Opinion on the pest categorisation of Elm phloem necrosis mycoplasm

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of Elm phloem necrosis mycoplasma, now renamed Candidatus Phytoplasma ulmi (CPu, for the European Union (EU territory. CPu is a well-defined phytoplasma species of the genus Candidatus Phytoplasma, for which molecular detection assays are available. CPu is transmitted by grafting and vegetative propagation material as well as by insect vectors. CPu is reported from North America and is present in at least four EU Member States: the Czech Republic, France, Germany and Italy. CPu distribution in Europe is suspected to be underestimated, with high uncertainty since no systematic surveys are carried out. CPu has a host range restricted to Ulmaceae species, and especially to the genus Ulmus, with some variations in susceptibility to the disease. It is listed in Annex IAI of Directive 2000/29/EC. CPu is not expected to be affected by EU ecoclimatic conditions wherever its hosts are present and has the potential to establish largely within the EU territory. Two insect vectors, Macropsis glandacea and Philaenus spumarius, are widely distributed in Europe. The uncertainty about other potential vector species, in which the phytoplasma has been detected, is considered as high. There is a lack of data to fully assess the potential consequences of the disease, with regards to the susceptibility of European elm species and virulence of European CPu strains. Data are not sufficient to reach a conclusion on pest categorisation of CPu and a full risk assessment can be conducted but is unlikely to bring any additional value unless the key additional data gaps on distribution, insect vectors, elm species susceptibility and potential consequences of the pest are filled.

  8. Geographical Distribution, Ecological Position, and Formation Causes of Temperate Zone Sparse Forest in China%中国温带疏林的地理分布、生态地位及成因

    于顺利

    2011-01-01

    中国分布的疏林类型众多,除了在热带分布的疏林(或稀树干草原)外,还有温带阔叶疏林和温带山地针叶疏林两种生态系统,具体包括榆树( Ulmus pumila)疏林、天山云杉(Picea schrekiana)疏林、侧柏(Platycladus orientalis)疏林、杜松(Juniperusngida)疏林、樟子松(Pinus sylvestnis var.mongolica)疏林、西藏落叶松(Larix tibetica)疏林、亚东冷杉(Abies densa)疏林、巨柏(Cupressus gigantea)疏林、大果圆柏(Sabina tibetica)疏林、滇藏方枝柏(Sabina wallichiana)疏林、方枝柏(Sabina saltuaria)疏林、大果红杉(Larix potaninii var.macrocarpa)疏林、西藏柏木(Cupressus torulosa)疏林、密枝圆柏(Sabina convallium)疏林、长叶松(Pinus roxburghii)疏林、云南松(Pinus yunnanensis)疏林、川西云杉(Picea likiangensis var.balfouriana)疏林、黄榆(Ulmusmacrocarpa)疏林、臭椿(Ailanthus altissima)疏林等生态系统类型,疏林生态系统(或疏林植被)应该是介于森林和草原(或灌丛)之间的一种过渡的植被类型,是一种地带性植被类型.疏林的分布是系列生态因子综合作用的结果,但其决定因子是水分.在中国大陆,沿纬度梯度从低到高的地带性植被应为雨林、季雨林、常绿阔叶林、落叶阔叶林、疏林、灌丛或草原,从东到西沿经度梯度依次为(阔叶和针叶)森林、(阔叶和针叶)疏林、草原、荒漠.在高原地区,沿海拔梯度的分布从低到高主要是森林、疏林、灌丛、草原或草甸.与森林、灌丛和草原相比,疏林的分布面积相对较小.中国疏林的分布区域大体位于农牧交错带地区,即从森林到草原过渡的地区.对疏林成因的理解,有利于区域生态恢复措施的选择.%China possesses various types of sparse forests. Except sparse forests in tropic regions of China, other two types of sparse forests are classified, namely, temperate zone spare forests and temperate zone mountain spare forests. In

  9. Relationships between xylem embolism and eco-physiological indices in eight woody plants in sltu(Ⅱ):The relationship with photosynthetic eco-physiological indices

    AN Feng; CAI Jing; JIANG Zaimin; ZHANG Yuanying; ZHAO Pingjuan; ZHANG Shuoxin

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between xylem embolism and eco-physiology indices (I.e.photosynthetic available radiation,temperature,relative humidity,photosynthetic rate,transpiration rate,stomatal conductance and water use efficiency) in eight tree species was investigated in situ.The species studied,Robinia pseudoacacia L.,Acer truncatum Bge.,Hippophae rhamnoides L.,Ulmus pumila L.,Pinus tabulaeformis Carr., Pinus bungeana Zucc.ex Endl.,Ligustrum lucidum Ait.,and Salix matsudana Koidz.f.pendula Schneid,grow well on the Xilin campus of Northwest A&F University.Results indicated that photosynthetic available radiation,air temperature and relative humidity can affect xylem embolism by daily adjustment of stomatal conductance,transpiration rate and water relations of a tree.Embolism was a common case in the daily growth of the plants,and there was some correlation between xylem embolism and photosynthetic rate,transpiration rate,stornatal conductance,and water use efficiency.Embolism may thus be an adaptive mechanism by some tree species to water stress.

  10. 北京地区主要行道树树种适应性评价及病虫害防治%Adaptability Assessment and Pest Control for Major Avenue Tree Species in Beijing

    张国静; 杨伟强

    2012-01-01

    通过2009和2010年对行道树生长情况的调查,初步总结北京地区现有十余个行道树树种的生长、生态习性、主要病虫害发生规律及防治方法;考虑极端天气的耐受能力以及应用前景,特别推荐适应性强的传统树种"杨、柳、榆、槐、椿"以及栾树、白蜡作行道树,建议减少悬铃木、银杏等适应性差的树种的使用。%Through the investigation of avenue tree growth in 2009 - 2010, the growth, ecological properties, and oc- currence rules of main pests and their control methods were preliminarily summarized. In view of the tolerance capaci- ty against extreme weather and the application prospect, the conventional species including Populus, Salix matsu- dana, Ulmus pumila, Sophora japonica, Ailanthus altissima, as well as additionally Koelreuteria paniculata and Fraxinus velutina, were strongly recommend as avenue trees in Beijing. It was suggested that the use of species like Platanus and Ginkgo biloba with poor adaptability should be reduced

  11. Study on soil nutrition and enzyme activity under different afforestation models in coal waste pile%矸石山不同造林模式对土壤养分及酶活性影响的研究

    刘阳; 刘畅; 邢兆凯; 贾树海; 赵旭炜; 李明; 程利

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, five afforestation models i.e. Robinia pseucdoacacia L., Rhus typhina Nutt, Ulmus pumila L., Hippophae rhamnoides L. and natural restoration land (take as control) were studied respectively. According to soil genesis, soil samples were collected and values of organic matter, available phosphorus, available kalium, pH and enzyme activities of catalase, invertase and urease in each soil sample were investigated. Contrasting with the control, the amount of soil nutrition in the soil horizon of Ah were increased in four afforestation models. The model of Ulmus pumila showed the best improvement effects of organic matter and available phosphorus, and increased 194.8%and 442.9%, respectively. The model of Robinia pseudoacacia and the model of Rhus typhina showed the highest improvement effects of available kalium and alkali hydrolysable respectively and increased 262.0%and 509.2% respectively. Contrasting with the control, the activities of catalase, invertase and urease were all increased in the four vegetation restoration models. The highest activities of catalase and urease in Ah appeared in Rhus typhina moddle, and increased 134.5%and 880.9%respectively. The highest activity of urease appeared in Ulmus pumila moddle and increased 119.1%. Vertically, organic matter, alkali hydrolysable, catalase and urease decrease with the depth of the soil and reached the lowest at C level. The lowest amount of available kalium, available phosphorus and activity of invertase appeared at the Level of AC. There was no particular pattern of pH variation along the vertical shift.%本文以抚顺矸石山立地条件下树龄为10年的刺槐Robinia pseudoacacia L.、火炬Rhus typhina Nutt、白榆Ulmus pumila L.、沙棘Hippophae rhamnoides L.林以及植被自然恢复裸地(CK)5种植被恢复模式为研究对象,按土壤发生学层次进行采样,对土壤有机质、碱解氮、有效磷、速效钾、pH、过氧化氢酶、蔗糖酶和脲酶等指

  12. Impacts of mixed litter decomposition from Robinia pseudoacacia and other tree species on C loss and nutrient release in the Loess Plateau of China

    Xiaoxi Zhang; Zengwen Liu; Bochao Zhu; Yuanhao Bing; Nhu Trung Luc; Liangzhen Du; Zhenhua Zhu

    2016-01-01

    The productivity of Robinia pseudoacacia (R.p.) pure forest usually declines at the late growth stage, and reforming it into mixed forests could be a promising way to resolve this problem. When choosing a suitable tree species that can be mixed with R.p., the interspecific relationship is an important issue. Therefore, we gathered the autumn litter fall from R.p. and 10 other species from the Loess Plateau of China were mixed in dual species litterbags (R.p. ? each other species) and buried them in soil for a 345 days lab decay incubation. We measured the litter mass loss and nutrient contents to determine whether the nutrient release was affected by mixed species litter decomposition. The impacts of mixed litter decomposition on macro-elements release were more obvious than on micro-elements. The litters with similar substrate quality might show variable impacts on nutrients release in mixed decomposition. The C loss and release of nutrient was improved by descending order when R.p. litter was mixed with Hippophae rhamnoides, Ulmus pumila, Populus simonii, Larix principis-rupprechtii and Quercus liaotun-gensis (Q.l.). But, except for Q.l., only the other species were recommended as suitable mix-plants for R.p. since promoting a high turnover of the nutrient in the litter compartment and a rapid availability for tree.

  13. Bionomics of the tingid, Eteoneus anuglatus, and its control%泡桐网蝽的发生规律及防治

    王穿才; 刘万成

    2007-01-01

    泡桐网蝽Eteoneus anuglatus Darke et Maa在湖南宁远、冷水滩等县区1年发生5~6代,以成虫在树枝缝隙及枯草从、土缝等处群集越冬.8~9月高温干燥时发生严重.人工饲养及田间观察,该虫仅在毛泡桐(Paulownia tomentosa(Thunb)Steud)、泡桐(Paulownia fortunei(Seem)Hems)及榆树(Ulmus pumila L.)上取食为害,以3~7年树龄泡桐受害最重.在成虫和若虫高峰期用40%氧化乐果,50%敌敌畏乳油1 200~1 500倍或2.5%溴氰菊脂乳油2 500倍稀释液喷洒叶面,可控制该虫为害.

  14. Elevated CO₂ does not offset greater water stress predicted under climate change for native and exotic riparian plants.

    Perry, Laura G; Shafroth, Patrick B; Blumenthal, Dana M; Morgan, Jack A; LeCain, Daniel R

    2013-01-01

    In semiarid western North American riparian ecosystems, increased drought and lower streamflows under climate change may reduce plant growth and recruitment, and favor drought-tolerant exotic species over mesic native species. We tested whether elevated atmospheric CO₂ might ameliorate these effects by improving plant water-use efficiency. We examined the effects of CO₂ and water availability on seedlings of two native (Populus deltoides spp. monilifera, Salix exigua) and three exotic (Elaeagnus angustifolia, Tamarix spp., Ulmus pumila) western North American riparian species in a CO₂-controlled glasshouse, using 1-m-deep pots with different water-table decline rates. Low water availability reduced seedling biomass by 70-97%, and hindered the native species more than the exotics. Elevated CO₂ increased biomass by 15%, with similar effects on natives and exotics. Elevated CO₂ increased intrinsic water-use efficiency (Δ¹³C(leaf) ), but did not increase biomass more in drier treatments than wetter treatments. The moderate positive effects of elevated CO₂ on riparian seedlings are unlikely to counteract the large negative effects of increased aridity projected under climate change. Our results suggest that increased aridity will reduce riparian seedling growth despite elevated CO₂, and will reduce growth more for native Salix and Populus than for drought-tolerant exotic species.

  15. Elevated CO2 does not offset greater water stress predicted under climate change for native and exotic riparian plants

    Perry, Laura G.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Blumenthal, Dana M.; Morgan, Jack A.; LeCain, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    * In semiarid western North American riparian ecosystems, increased drought and lower streamflows under climate change may reduce plant growth and recruitment, and favor drought-tolerant exotic species over mesic native species. We tested whether elevated atmospheric CO2 might ameliorate these effects by improving plant water-use efficiency. * We examined the effects of CO2 and water availability on seedlings of two native (Populus deltoides spp. monilifera, Salix exigua) and three exotic (Elaeagnus angustifolia, Tamarix spp., Ulmus pumila) western North American riparian species in a CO2-controlled glasshouse, using 1-m-deep pots with different water-table decline rates. * Low water availability reduced seedling biomass by 70–97%, and hindered the native species more than the exotics. Elevated CO2 increased biomass by 15%, with similar effects on natives and exotics. Elevated CO2 increased intrinsic water-use efficiency (Δ13Cleaf), but did not increase biomass more in drier treatments than wetter treatments. * The moderate positive effects of elevated CO2 on riparian seedlings are unlikely to counteract the large negative effects of increased aridity projected under climate change. Our results suggest that increased aridity will reduce riparian seedling growth despite elevated CO2, and will reduce growth more for native Salix and Populus than for drought-tolerant exotic species.

  16. 45S rDNA在多种植物中期染色体上的定位%Physical Mapping of 45S rDNA on Metaphase Chromosomes in Several Plant Species

    刘博; 陈成彬; 李秀兰; 陈瑞阳; 宋文芹

    2006-01-01

    应用荧光原位杂交技术首次确定了日本小檗(Berberis thunbergii DC)、车前(Plantago major L.)、野芹菜(Sanicula lamelligera Hance)、荔枝(Litchi chinensis Sonn.)、槭树(Acer buergerianum Miq.)、天目琼花(Viburnum sargentii Koehne.)、丹参(Salvia miltorrhiza Bunge.)、榆树(Ulmus pumila L.)中45S rDNA在中期染色体上的位置.根据rDNA的位点数和位置的变化,分为四种类型:①在日本小檗、车前和野芹菜中,荧光信号正好位于随体染色体的次缢痕或端部;②荔枝和槭树,分别有1对和3对染色体具随体,但荧光原位杂交却检测到3对和5对染色体上具有杂交信号;③天目琼花,具有4对随体染色体,但仅在其中一对随体上显示了杂交信号;④在丹参和榆树中,有的杂交信号位于着丝粒部位或长臂的末端,杂交信号的数目成奇数.黄瓜(Cucumis sativus L.)的染色体45S rDNA信号正好位于6条染色体的着丝粒部位,这与Dal-Hoe和Hoshi等人的结果是一致的.上述结果表明:45S rDNA可以作为染色体的一个识别指标,对识别染色体的个体性具有一定的参考价值.另外还对45S rDNA位点分布的多态性进行了讨论.%The genomic distribution of ribosomal RNA genes has been determined for the first time by fluo rescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in Berberis thunbergii DC. , Plantago major L. , Sanicula lamelligera Hance, Litchi chinensis Sonn. , Acer buergerianum Miq. , Viburnum sargentii Koehne. , Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. , and Ulmus pumila L.. These species could be divided into four groups based on the difference on the number and sites of their rDNA loci: the fluorescence signals lay in the secondary constrictions or the terminal regions of SAT-chromosomes in B. thunbergii, P. major, and S. lamelligera; 3 and 5 pairs of signals were de tected in L. chinensis and A. buergerianum, respectively which had 1 and 3 pairs of satellites respectively ; there were 4 pairs of SAT-chromosomes in V

  17. Evaluación de la actividad tóxica y antifúngica del extracto etéreo de la corteza de Celtis trinervia Lam (Ulmaceae

    Torrenegra R. D.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available

    A la fracción evaluada biológicarnente se encontró actividad toxica sobre Artemia salina mostrando una CL50 de 430 ppm y antifúngicas contra Fusarium oxysporum ssp dianthi en donde mostro CL50 de 0.25 mg/mL. La fracción evaluada del extracto etéreo de la corteza del rallo de Celtis trinervia Lam. Se identificaron sustancias de tipo terpénicas como santaleno, además se identificaron ácidos grasos saturados e insaturados de interés biológico, como el linoleico y oleico. Los compuestos aislados se identificaron can métodos físicos. químicos y espectroscópicos.

  18. Dendrocola Mycoflorn of Boles on Pinus pumila%偃松干栖真菌种类组成的研究

    刘秀帋; 刘雪峰

    2008-01-01

    以生长于黑龙江大兴安岭9~10年生健康的偃松林为对象,研究了其林木干栖真菌种类的组成状况.经取样分离培养,从偃松的树干上分离培养出干栖真菌29属(种).偃松的冬季干栖真菌的优势种为Trichoderma、Penicillium、Penicillium cyclopium,而春季干栖真菌的优势种为Trichoderma、Penicillium、Gliocladium.偃松春季和冬季干栖真菌种类真菌种类的变化不大,其优势菌种亦没有太大变化.从偃松树干基部的木质部分离培养出的冬季干栖真菌种类较春季干栖真菌略少,而皮部则相反,相差悬殊.偃松中部、梢部的冬季干栖真菌种类比春季的干栖真菌种类丰富.

  19. 我国东北4种常见阔叶乔木物候对气候变化的响应%Response of 4 Common Broad-Leaved Arbors Phenology to Climate Change in the Northeast China

    裴顺祥; 郭泉水; 辛学兵; 刘玮; 洪明

    2011-01-01

    物候现象是指示气候及自然环境变化的重要指标(Pe(n)uelas et al.,2001;Moresette et al.,2009).自然物候记录可以提供全球环境变化最直接和最有效的证据.已有研究结果表明,受全球气候变化影响,1952-2000年地中海地区(Pe(n)uelas et al.,2001)、1851-1994年匈牙利(Walkovszky,1998)、1936-1998年美国Wisconsin地区(Bradley et al.,1999)和1970-1999年美国华盛顿地区(Abu-Asab et al.,2001)的许多植物花期提前了1个星期左右;中国北纬33°左右地区植物的早春物候每10年提前1.1 ~4.3天,晚春物候提前1.4~5.4天(Zheng et al.,2006).%In order to reveal the response of four broad - leaved arbors to climate change, we studied relationships between interannual variations of air temperature and various phenophases (I.e., seasonal biological events) of broad-leaved arbors species ( Betula platyphylla, Juglans mandshurica, Ulmus pumila and Morus alba ) in the Harbin, based on meteorological data from 1951 -2008 and phenological data from 1963 -2008. Results showed that the air temperature in Harbin had an increasing trend from 1951 to 2008, especially after 1978. The increase of the annual minimum temperature was greater than that of the annual maximum temperature and annual mean temperature. Annual precipitation slightly increased, but not significantly. In the period of 1963 -2008, bud burst, beginning of leaf expansion and first flowering of the 4 species all shifted to 5. 7 d, 10. 2 d and 7. 9 d earlier, respectively, and end of leaf - falling was delayed for 7. 5 d. The pattern of phenological change was consistent with that of air temperature change. The phenophases earlier or later was mainly subjected to air temperature, especially the mean temperature of the same month and previous month when phenophase began. The phenophase had little correlation with the precipitation. When the mean temperature in March rose up by 1 ℃ , Betula platyphylla, Juglans mandshurica, Ulmus pumila

  20. Natural Regeneration Pattern of Urban Forests in Harbin%哈尔滨城市森林自然演替格局研究

    梅琳琳; 冯树丹; 达良俊; 宋坤; 王冰; 关兵兵

    2012-01-01

    In order to strengthen the urban protects of the variety of vegetation biodiversity and reasonable utilization, to perfect the system of ecology theory about the urban vegetation, the author did a lot of research about Haerbin urban forest natural succession pattern. The author decided to adopt the vegetation sociology research combine with every wood investigation research, researching 11 kinds of urban forest natural regeneration pattern in Harbin. The results showed that the difference kinds and quantities of composition about the woody plants under the forest different types of urban forest in maintaining woody plant diversity were quite different. Based on frequency distribution of DBH, population structure of each tree species fell into 3 types: unimodal type, L type and sporadic type. In the case, 4 representative species belonged to unimodal type: Populus berolinensis, Pinus tabulaeformis var. mukdensis, Larix gmelini, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolic; 4 L-types were: Populus davidiana, Phellodendron amurense, Fraxinus mandshurica, and Ulmus pumila; 3 sporadic types were: Juglans mandshurica, Betula platyphylla, and Picea koraiensis. It was suggested that the habitat, the seed resources and the seed dispersal pattern were the key limitation of urban forests.%为了加强城市植被生物多样性的保护与合理利用,完善城市植被生态学研究的理论体系,对哈尔滨城市森林自然演替格局进行研究.采用植被社会学调查与每木调查相结合的方法,对哈尔滨11种城市森林类型进行天然更新格局研究.结果表明,林下木本植物的种类和数量组成有所差异,不同城市森林类型在维持木本植物多样性方面存在较大差异.根据胸径级频率分布的形状,将各树种的种群结构归纳为3种类型:种群结构单峰型的为中东杨(Populus berolinensis)、黑皮油松(Pinus tabulaeformis var.mukdensis)、兴安落叶松(Larix gmelini)、樟子松(Pinus sylvestris var

  1. Selection of Indigenous Plants in Roads in Northwestern Loess Plateau Area%西北黄土高原地区路域乡土植物资源筛选研究

    张铁军; 王春玲

    2012-01-01

    [ Object] Hie aim was to study on resource utilization of indigenous plants in roads in order to solve resource shortage of indigenous plant in bioengineering. [ Method ] Based on northwestern loess plateau area, we conducted research on selection of indigenous plants and survey on the species which could live in adverse condition, mainly by surveying, with frequent tests as a supplement, to make a comprehensive observation and evaluation on plant combinations which are to be extensively applied. [ Result] The research indicated that in central dividing strips, four arbors, including Platycladus orientnlis (Linn. ) Franco, Sabina chinensis, Sabinachinensis ( Linn. ) Ant. , and Ulmus pumila L. , and nine frutices, including Lycium chinense, Tamarix austromongolica, Rosa xanthina lindl. , Forsythia suspense, Atriplex canescens, Amygdalus triloba, Hippophae rhamnoides Linn. , Amorpha fruticosa L. , and Syzygium aromaticum could be planted. In addition, Gleditsia sinensis Lam, Robinia pseudoacacia L, Elaeagnus angustifolia L. , Rhus typhina, Salix babylonica, Salixmatsudana and Fraxinus chinensU, tall and strong, are suitable to be planted as border trees, presenting a good vision. Frutices, limited by height, are usually with more branches, which will provide a good landscape if grown with tall plants. Prunus dacidiana and Ulmus pumila L. , prone to be damaged by insects, should be planted with other species to stop the infestation in space. [ Conclusion ] The research laid foundation for selection of indigenous plants in roads, providing references for resource shortage of indigenous plant for bioengineering.%[目的]通过对路用乡土植物区资源利用研究,解决生物工程所需的乡土植物资源不足问题.[方法]以西北黄土高原区为研究范围,以调查研究为主、试验研究为辅开展了乡土植物资源筛选的研究工作,调查了该区域能在恶劣条件下生长的植物种类及其在路域的适应状况,对有望大规

  2. The afforestation experiment in karst mountains of Qiannan by Bioblock method%Bioblock 技术在黔南喀斯特山区的造林试验

    刘少轩; 蔡卫东; 王玉奇; 徐润; 韦蓉静

    2016-01-01

    选用乡土树种柏木1年生苗,分别以 Bioblock 技术(以再循环瓦楞纸容器有盖品字排列、有盖单一排列、无盖单一排列)以及传统挖穴造林方式等4种不同造林方式在喀斯特山区进行造林试验;同时,选择乡土树种柏木、椤木石楠、苦楝、栾树、榆树、刺槐及大叶女贞等7个树种的1年生苗,以 Bioblock 技术(以再循环瓦楞纸容器有盖单一排列方式)在喀斯特山区进行造林试验。结果表明:不同造林方式及不同树种的造林成活率差异均显著。不同造林方式中造林成活率最高的是品字排列方式造林,成活率高达94.96%;最低的是传统挖穴方式造林,成活率只有20.20%。不同的树种,造林成活率最高的是柏木,达62.63%;其次是榆树,造林成活率为60.61%;最低的是苦楝和栾树,造林成活率均只有18.18%。%Used one-year-old tree species of Cupressus funebris Endl.as test meteral,which taking four different foresta-tions in karst mountain area of afforestation experiment by Bioblock method (treat in recycled corrugated container word alignment,with cover single permutation,and without cover single permutation)and traditional way of afforestation.At the same time,choosed one-year-old seven tree species of Cupressus funebris Endl.、Photinia davidsoniae Rehd.et Wils.、Melia azedarach Linn.、 Koelreuteria paniculata、 Ulmus pumila L.、 Black Locust、 Ligustrum compactum (Wall.ex G.Don) Hook.f.Tho.by Bioblck method (treat in recycled corrugated container with cover single permuta-tion)afforestation experiments were conducted in karst mountain areas.The result showed that there were a significant difference in Bioblck method ways with different tree species afforestation on survival rates.The best afforestation method is using paper containers which arranged in triangle and the survival rates is 94.95%,the bad afforestation method is tra-ditional way

  3. Soil characterization and differential patterns of heavy metal accumulation in woody plants grown in coal gangue wastelands in Shaanxi, China.

    Yakun, Shi; Xingmin, Mu; Kairong, Li; Hongbo, Shao

    2016-07-01

    Soil contamination by heavy metals in coal mine wastelands is a significant environmental issue in most developing countries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate contamination characteristics in the coal mine wastelands of Sanlidong coal mine, Tongchuan, China. To achieve this goal, we conducted field sampling work, followed by further analysis of the properties of soil contamination and accumulation characteristics in woody plants. At this site, the pH value ranged from 4.41 to 7.88, and the nutrient content of the soil rose gradually with the time after deposition due to the weathering effect improving the soil quality. Meanwhile, the levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn gradually decreased with the passage time. Generally, heavy metal contamination was found to be more serious in the discharge refuse area, with Cd contamination at moderate or heavy levels; Ni, Zn, and Cu contamination at light levels; and with no Cr contamination. The geoaccumulation index (I geo) was highest for Cd (2.38-3.14), followed by Ni, Zn, Cu, and Cr. Heavy metals accumulated on the lower slopes and spread to the surrounding areas via hydrodynamic effects and wind. According to transfer and enrichment coefficient analyses, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila, and Hippophae rhamnoides with considerable biomass could be used as pollution-resistant tree species for vegetation restoration. This study provided a theoretical basis for the restoration of the ecological environment in the mining area. This report described a link between heavy metal contamination of soils and growth dynamics of woody plants in China.

  4. Development of population structure and spatial distribution patterns of a restored forest during 17-year succession (1993-2010) in Pingshuo opencast mine spoil, China.

    Zhao, Zhongqiu; Wang, Lianhua; Bai, Zhongke; Pan, Ziguan; Wang, Yun

    2015-07-01

    Afforestation of native tree species is often recommended for ecological restoration in mining areas, but the understanding of the ecological processes of restored vegetation is quite limited. In order to provide insight of the ecological processes of restored vegetation, in this study, we investigate the development of the population structure and spatial distribution patterns of restored Robinia pseudoacacia (ROPS) and Pinus tabuliformis (PITA) mixed forests during the 17 years of the mine spoil period of the Pingshuo opencast mine, Shanxi Province, China. After a 17-year succession, apart from the two planted species, Ulmus pumila (ULPU), as an invasive species, settled in the plot along with a large number of small diameter at breast height (DBH) size. In total, there are 10,062 living individual plants, much more than that at the plantation (5105), and ROPS had become the dominant species with a section area with a breast height of 9.40 m(2) hm(-2) and a mean DBH of 6.72 cm, much higher than both PITA and ULPU. The DBH size classes of all the total species showed inverted J-shaped distributions, which may have been a result of the large number of small regenerated ULPU trees. The DBH size classes of both ROPS and PITA showed peak-type structures with individuals mainly gathering in the moderate DBH size class, indicating a relatively healthy DBH size class structure. Meanwhile, invasive ULPU were distributed in a clear L shape, concentrating on the small DBH size class, indicating a relatively low survival rate for adult trees. Both ROPS and PITA species survival in the plantation showed uniform and aggregated distribution at small scales and random with scales increasing. ULPU showed a strong aggregation at small scales as well as random with scales increasing. Both the population structure and spatial distribution indicated that ROPS dominates and will continue to dominate the community in the future succession, which should be continuously monitored.

  5. 8种落叶乔木抗旱性相关叶片的解剖结构%Drought Resistance of Eight Deciduous Trees and Anatomical Structure of Leaves

    翟晓巧; 任媛媛; 刘艳萍; 王念; 王文君

    2013-01-01

    为了探索适合进行屋顶绿化的落叶乔木,对其抗旱性进行早期评价。选取屋顶绿化试验区中的8种常见的庭院观赏落叶乔木为试验材料,观察并统计其10项叶片解剖结构指标,利用模糊数学法中的隶属函数法,对这8种落叶乔木进行了抗旱性综合评价。结果显示:其抗旱性由强到弱的顺序为:构树、黄连木、白榆、刺槐、枣树、臭椿、火炬树、白蜡。利用灰色系统理论,对10项叶片解剖结构指标与抗旱性的关联度进行了分析,探讨其在植物抗旱过程中所起到的作用。%We chose eight kinds of common deciduous trees in roof greening test region to explore the adapted plants in roof greening and evaluate their drought resistance .We observed and statistically analyzed ten anatomical structure indexes of leaves for comprehensive evaluation on drought resistance by applying subordinate function.The drought resistance capabil-ity order from strong to the weak is Broussonetia Papyrifera, Pistacia Chinensis Bunge, Ulmus pumila, Robnia pseudoaca-cia, Ziziphus jujube, Ailanthus altissima ( Mill.) Swingle and Rhus typhina.The correlation of drought resistance and ana-tomical structure indexes was analyzed with grey correlative analysis.

  6. Análisis de la invasión del hábitat ribereño por tres árboles exóticos en España

    Isabel Cabra-Rivas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio diagnostica y valora la invasión de las especies exóticas Ailanthus altissima (Mill. Swingle, Robinia pseudoacacia L. y Ulmus pumila L. en hábitats ribereños españoles. Se recorrieron las riberas de los ríos Henares, Oria y el tramo medio del río Ebro en busca de rodales de estas tres especies, con la intención de determinar el grado de invasión de cada zona y especie, así como las características de los rodales y de los hábitats que ocupan cada una de ellas. Se anotó el origen (plantado/espontáneo, tamaño, densidad y características del hábitat (bióticas, abióticas e influencia humana de todos ellos. El grado de invasión fue mayor en la ribera del Henares, donde existe una mayor influencia antrópica y densidad de fuentes de propágulos. Cada especie presentó un mayor grado de invasión en una zona diferente. Los rodales espontáneos de las riberas del Henares y del Ebro son pequeños comparados con los del Oria. Las tres especies coexisten en hábitats con alta disponibilidad de luz, baja competencia y fuerte influencia antrópica, pero también pueden ocupar zonas de mayor cobertura arbórea. Las diferentes condiciones del hábitat en que se plantaron las especies y el hábitat donde se naturalizan podrían explicarse en gran medida por los mecanismos de dispersión utilizados por cada una.

  7. 稀树草原生物多样性

    黄大明; 吴佳; 方官品; Steven de Bie

    2016-01-01

    Savanna ecosystem is one of the most important ecosystems in the world. Large, tropical savannas grow in Central America, Brazil, Africa, southeastern Asia and Australia. Temperate savannas are found in the United States, Canada, Mexico and Cuba. Temperate Ulmus pumila sparse forest grassland ecosystem in Inner Mongolia Plateau is a special savanna ecosystem in China,and even in the world.Its study is of significance in deeply understanding the formalization, evolution and vegetation distribution patterns in the savanna ecosystem, and favoring its protection and sustainable use.%稀树草原生态系统是世界上最重要的自然生态系统之一。目前,自然状况保持良好的稀树草原主要分布于非洲、其次是南美巴西草原和澳大利亚北部草原,亚洲分布非常少,印度有一些,中国分布更少,主要在海南西南、滇南河谷、内蒙。内蒙古高原分布的温带榆树稀树草原生态系统在中国乃至世界上都是一种特殊的稀树草原生态系统。研究稀树草原生态系统对于认识其形成、演化、植被分布、保护与可持续利用都有一定意义。

  8. [Soil humus differentiation and correlation with other soil biochemical properties in pure forests in semi-arid low-hilly area of Inner Mongolia, China].

    Zhang, Xiao-Xi; Liu, Zeng-Wen; Bing, Yuan-Hao; Zhu, Bo-Chao; Huang, Liang-Jia

    2014-10-01

    Whether the content and composition of soil humus in pure forest change due to its simple component of litter and specificity of single-species dominant community is a key problem for forest sustainable management. In this study, soils from 6 kind of pure forests in semi-arid low-hilly area of Inner Mongolia were collected and their humus and other biochemical properties were measured to investigate the differentiation of soil humus and the impact factors. The results showed that the soil of Picea asperata and Betula platyphylla pure forests had the highest contents of humus and better condensation degrees and stabilities, followed by that of Populus simonii, Larix principis-rupprechtii and Ulmus pumila pure forests, while the soil of Pinus tabuliformis pure forest had the lowest content of humus, condensation degree and stability. There were significant positive correlations between soil microorganism biomass, activity of phosphatase and the content and stability of soil humus. In contrast, the soil peroxidate, dehydrogenase activity and soil humus content showed significant negative correlations with each other. Furthermore, the enhancement of dehydrogenase activity might decrease the stability of humus. There were significant positive correlations between available N and the content and stability of soil humus, but total Cu, Zn and Fe had negative correlations with them, and total Cu and Fe might reduce the stability of humus as well. The particularity of pure forest environment and litter properties might be the key inducement to soil humus differentiation, thus reforming the pure forest through mixing with other tree species or planting understory vegetation would be the fundamental way to improve the soil humus composition and stability.

  9. Reinvestigation of the Miocene palynoflora from the Daotaiqiao Formation of north-eastern China using SEM

    Akyurt, Elvan; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Zetter, Reinhard; Leng, Qin; Bouchal, Johannes Martin

    2016-04-01

    Here we report the first results of an ongoing study on the Miocene palynoflora from the Daotaiqiao Formation of north-eastern China. Using the single grain technique, we examined individual pollen and spores using both light and scanning electron microscopy. A previous study by Grímsson et al. (2012) on Onagraceae pollen grains from this locality, using the same technique identified five different species. Such a variety of Onagraceae from a single palynoflora is unknown elsewhere. The ongoing study suggests a remarkably rich pollen and spore flora with at least 15 different types of spores, one Ginkgo and one Ephedra type pollen, 11 conifer pollen types and approximately 145 angiosperm pollen types. Spores are very rare in the samples (≤1%). Conifer pollen grains are regularly observed but are not a dominant component (ca. 16 %). The samples yield a high quantity and diversity of angiosperm pollen (ca. 80%). The conifers include representatives of Cupressaceae (2 spp.), Pinaceae (Larix, Picea, Pinus, Tsuga) and Sciadopityaceae. The angiosperm pollen cover at least 40 families. Prominent elements are pollen of the Betulaceae (Alnus, Betula, Carpinus, Corylus), Cercidiphyllaceae (Cercidiphyllum), Ericaceae (8 spp.), Eucommiaceae (Eucommia), Fagaceae (Fagus, Quercus spp., Castaneoideae), Juglandaceae (Carya, Cyclocarya, Juglans, Pterocarya), Rosaceae (11 spp.), Sapindaceae (Acer, Aesculus) and Ulmaceae (Hemiptelia, Ulmus, Zelkova). The high angiosperm pollen diversity indicates a varying landscape with a relatively high variety of niches including riparian, dry and mesic forests. Most of the potential modern analogues of the fossil taxa are currently thriving under humid temperate (Cfa- and Cwa)-climates, pointing to paleoclimate conditions not unlike those found today in the lowlands and adjacent mountain regions of the (south-) eastern United States, the humid-meridional region of western Eurasia, and central and southern China, and Honshu (Japan). References

  10. 苹果过氧化氢酶的纯化及性质研究%Purification and properties of catalase from apple (Malus pumila cv. FuJi)

    邓向军; 余筱洁

    2006-01-01

    新鲜苹果经匀浆、抽提、硫酸铵盐析、DEAE-Cellulose柱层析,获得纯化苹果过氧化氢酶(CAT)液.纯化CAT酶液蛋白含量26.8mg/mL,活力843Units/mL,比活力31.5Units/mg.经过温度和pH考察,酶的最适温度为50℃、最适pH值为5.0.金属离子影响为:Cu2+和Mn2+对该酶有不同程度的激活作用,Na+对该酶有一定程度的抑制作用.以过氧化氢为底物,Lineweaver-Burk双倒数作图法求得此酶的Km和Vmax分别为2.27mmol/L和2.5μmol/min.

  11. Effects of Pruning on Fruit Production of Canopy Closured Malus pumila Mill.cv.Fuji Orchard%修剪调节对郁闭苹果园果品生产的影响

    王宏伟; 张连忠

    2009-01-01

    [目的]通过改造郁闭老果园,探讨提高果品质量的途径.[方法]对郁闭红富士苹果果园连续进行了2年的重疏剪和中疏剪处理,测定了果树枝量、透光率、果实着色、硬度以及叶片叶绿素含量、比叶重.[结果]果园第2、3年的总枝量可保持基本不变,枝类组成趋向合理;通风透光条件得到改善,树冠下透光率达25%左右;功能叶中叶绿素含量提高,比叶重增加;重疏剪处理的果树优质果比例可达80%.[结论]通过疏剪方式,可改造郁闭老果园,提高果品生产能力和品质.%[Objective]The research aimed to improve fruit quality of old coverage Fuji apple orchard.[Method] Heavy prune and moderate prune were used in high-density Fuji apple tree. And total shoot biomass,transmittance,toughness of fruit,color of fruit and chlorophyll of leaves were determined in the following two years.[Result] Total shoot biomass was steady and the shoot type of trees was reasonable. Ventilation condition was improved and mean transmittance of tree was enhanced with 25%. The content of chlorophyll was improved and special leaf weight was increased too. The proportion of high quality fruit from heavy pruned trees was higher with 80% than controlled tree.[Conclusion] The technology of pruning not only changed the coverage orchard,but also improved fruit quality and ability of production.

  12. Proteomic analysis of B-aminobutyric acid priming and aba-induction of drought resistance in crabapple (Malus pumila): effect on general metabolism, the phenylpropanoid pathway and cell wall enzymes

    In a variety of annual crops and model plants, the xenobiotic compound, DL-beta-aminobutyric acid (BABA), has been shown to enhance disease resistance and increase salt, drought, and thermotolerance. BABA does not activate stress genes directly but rather sensitizes plants to respond more quickly a...

  13. Effect of Vaccinium vitis-idaea-Pinus pumila Elfin Forest on Pine-nut Yield%经营对越桔-偃松矮曲林松籽产量的影响

    马文海; 朱万昌

    2007-01-01

    通过对越枯-偃松矮曲林经营试验和进行松籽产量调查,进行了经营对其松籽产量影响的分析.结果表明:疏伐经营可有效促进偃松的开花结实,提高松籽的产量和质量;保留木的覆盖度与单位面积的松籽产量关系密切;疏伐经营促进结实的主要影响因子是光照,其次是地面温度等因子;越桔-偃松矮曲林经营最佳的保留木覆盖度为60%.

  14. 侧柏与其他树种枯落叶混合分解对养分释放的影响%IMPACTS OF DECOMPOSITION OF MIXTURE OF LEAF LITTERS FROM PLATYCLADUS ORIENTALIS AND OTHER TREES ON NUTRIENT RELEASE

    张晓曦; 刘增文; 祝振华; 杜良贞

    2013-01-01

    constant temperature and humidity for 345 days on end.The litters were analyzed for quality and nutrient contents before and after the incubation.Results show that 1) among the nutrients released during decompostion of the leaf litters,K was the most active and easy to get released,while P was generally dull and difficult to get released,and C and N was moderate and often synchronous in releasing,and the recycle period of these nutrients was 1 ~ 2 a; 2) leaf litter of Ulmus pumila in the mixture acted positively,while that of Amorpha fruticosa,Betula platyphylla and Quercus liaotungensis negatively on C release ; leaf litter of Populus simonii did positively,while that of B.platyphylla,Q.liaotungensis and A.fruticosa negatively on N release; litters of P.simonii and U.pumila did positively,while litters from all the other trees negatively on P release; and litter of U.pumila did positively,while that of A.fruticosa did negatively on K release;3) the Principal Component Analysis of comprehensive effects of decomposition of various mixtures of leaf litters on releasing of C,N,P and K revealed that leaf letter of U.Pumila and P.simonii in the mixture was the most significant in promoting nutrient release,and litters from Caragana microphylla and Q.liaotungensis followed,Litter from A.fruticosa,followed by litter from B.platyphylla,H.rhamnoides and R.Pseudoacacia,showed obvious inhibitive effects on nutrient release.

  15. 西北黄土高原区路域乡土植物资源筛选研究%Selection of Indigenous Plants in Roads in Northwestern Loess Plateau Area

    张铁军; 王春玲

    2012-01-01

    , Atriplex canescens, Amygdalus triloba, Hippophae rharnnoides Linn., Arnorpha fruticosa L., and Syzygium aromaticum could be planted. In addition, Gleditsia sinensis Lain, Robinia pseudoacacia L, Elaeagnus angustifolia L., Rhus typhina, Salix babylonica, Salixmatsudana and Fraxinus chinensis, tall and strong, are suitable to be planted as border trees, presenting a good vision. Frutices, limited by height, are usually with more branches, which will provide a good landscape if grown with tall plants. Prunus dacidiana and Ulmus pumila L., prone to be damaged by insects, should be planted with other species to stop the infestation in space. [Conclusion] The research laid foundation for selection of indigenous plants in roads, providing references for resource shortage of indigenous plant for bioengineedng.

  16. 吉林市松花江沿江绿地木本植物群落树种组成与α多样性%Species Composition and Alpha Diversity of Woody Plant Community in Green Space along Songhua River in Jilin City

    马赛; 孙晓刚; 丁言

    2015-01-01

    采用样方法,对吉林市松花江沿江绿地木本植物群落进行了调查研究。结果表明:共调查木本植物998棵,隶属于20科、34属、56种。裸子植物门中松科物种最多,被子植物门中蔷薇科物种最多。在绿化带群落乔木、灌木中东北杏、玫瑰分别具有最大的重要值,在游园群落乔木、灌木中家榆、接骨木分别具有最大的重要值,在亲水群落乔木、灌木中旱柳、茶条槭分别具有最大的重要值。 Menhinick、Margalef、Shannon-Wiener和Simpson指数均表现为绿化带群落>亲水群落>游园群落,而修正的Hill指数和Pielou指数表现为亲水群落>绿化带群落>游园群落。%The author investigated the species composition and alpha diversity of woody plant community in green space along the Songhua River in Jilin city through using quadrat method .The results indicated that a total of 998 woody plants were investiga-ted, and they belonged to 56 species, 34 genera and 20 families.In gymnosperm, Pinaceae had the most species .In angiosperm, Rosaceae had the most species .Armeniaca mandshurica and Rosa rugosa had the highest importance value in green belt community;Ulmus pumila and Sambucus williamsii had the highest importance value in garden community;Salix matsudana and Acer ginnalahad the highest importance value in waterfront community .The Menhinick index , Margalef index , Shannon-Wiener index and Simpson index of various woody plant communities all showed the following sequence :green belt community>waterfront community>garden community, while the modified Hill index and the Pielou index revealed the following order:waterfront community>green belt com-munity>garden community .

  17. 生物腐植酸对露天矿排土场黑麦草生长的影响%Effects of Biological Humic Acid on Growth of Lolium Multi f lorum in Open-pit Mine Dump

    张志玲; 王东丽; 尹志刚; 刘毅; 雷虹; 姜东奇; 苑子琦

    2016-01-01

    Objective] The effect of biological humic acid on soil improvement in open‐pit mine dump was studied ,in order to provide scientific references for the improvement of soil quality .[Methods] Biological humic acid with different contents (0—400 kg/hm2 ) were added in five different kinds of soil which were derived from five land use types(Robinia pseudoacacia forest ,Ulmus pumila forest ,V itex negundo forest , farming land and unutilized land) .Pot experiments were conducted by planting Lolium multif lorum species . The effects of biological humic acid on soil improvement were investigated .[Results] The maximum emer‐gence rate for the soil from R .pseudoacacia ,U .pumila ,V .negundo ,farming and unutilized land occurred when the amounts of biological humic acid were 200 ,200 ,300 ,300 and 200 kg/hm2 ,respectively .The max‐imum amount of biological humic acid required by Lolium multi f lorum seedling for five different kinds of soil were 200 ,200 ,200 ,300 and 300 kg/hm2 .The maximum root length occurred when the amounts of biologi‐cal humic acid were 300 ,100 ,300 ,300 and 300 kg/hm2 ,respectively ,and the maximum biomass occurred when the amount were 200 ,100 ,200 ,300 and 300 kg/hm2 ,respectively .As the biological humic acid increases ,all the seedling emergence ,seedling height ,root length and seedling biomass showed a downward trend before an increase .[Conclusion] There was a dose effect of the biological humic acid on the plant regeneration and growth in different soil of open‐pit mine dump .The change curves of the relations for the plant regeneration and grow th and the biological humic acid appeared as a “single‐peak”shape ,w hich indicate that a balanced amount of biological humic acid could improve the vegetation recovery in open‐pit mine dump .%[目的]研究生物腐植酸对露天矿排土场土壤改良效果的影响,为进一步提高露天矿排土场的土壤质量提供科学参考。[方法]通过盆栽试验,研究

  18. 浑善达克沙地稀树疏林草地植被生物量及净初级生产力%Vegetation Biomass and Net Primary Production of Sparse Forest Grassland in Hunshandake Sandland

    李刚; 李永庚; 刘美珍; 蒋高明

    2011-01-01

    森林和草原等陆地生态系统在全球碳循环中扮演非常重要的角色,而发育在半干旱地区沙地上的疏林草地植被在这方面的作用还不清楚.本文对内蒙古浑善达克沙地榆树( Ulmus pumila L.)疏林草地的生物量、生产力(NPP)以及降水利用效率(RUE)区分不同生境,即固定沙地、半固定沙地、流动沙地、丘间低地、柳灌丛和低湿地进行了研究;分析和比较了植被碳库及NPP的分配情况.结果表明,疏林草地的平均生物量(21.30Mg·hm-2)与NPP( 11.06Mg·hm-2·a-1)分别比典型草原地带的平均值高90%和59%,RUE近于后者的2倍,沙地水平上的地下与地上生物量之比为2.9,说明大量的植被碳贮藏于地下,沙地中乔木对生物量和NPP的贡献不大,分别为10%和1.3%,但对于维持疏林草地的完整性具有重要功能.浑善达克沙地的疏林草地生态系统与地带性的典型温带草原不同,应属于一类温带萨王那生态系统类型,合理的管理和恢复措施将有助于其在畜牧业和碳固持方面生态系统服务功能的实现.%Terrestrial ecosystems are playing important roles in the global carbon cycling. However, the information is still limited with regard to the semiarid sandland, comparing with the thorough studies on forest and grassland. The biomass carbon storage, Net Primary Production (NPP), and Rain Use Efficiency (RUE) of Hunshandake Sandland, a semiarid sandy region in Inner Mongolia covered with vegetation of Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L) sparse forest grassland, were estimated. Six main habitats, I.e. Fixed dunes, semi-fixed dunes, shifting dunes, lowland, willow scrub, and wetland, were compared with each other to analyze the patterns of carbon storage and NPP distribution. The average biomass (21.30Mg·hm-2) and NPP (11.06Mg·hm-2·a-1) of the sparse forest grassland are 90% and 59% higher than the mean level for the surrounding temperate grassland, respectively. Governed by

  19. Report for Flood Control and Allied Purposes, Whitewater River Basin, California.

    1978-06-01

    Epl. in Munz ( Lamiaceae ) Muilla clevelandii (S. Wats.) Hoover (Amaryllidaceae) Penstemon californicus (M. & J.) Keck (Scrophulariaceae) A&tragalus...Munz ( Lamiaceae ) 17 Proposed additions to rare and endangered or very are Celtis reticulata Tort. (Ulmaceae) Machaeranthera cognata (Hall) Cronq. & Keck...Compositae) Salvia grga Bdg. ( Lamiaceae ) Those rare and endangered plant species which would be affected by study proposals will be identified

  20. Immediate skin and mucosal symptoms from pot plants and vegetables in gardeners and greenhouse workers

    Paulsen, E; Skov, Per Stahl; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1998-01-01

    cacti, Stephanotis floribunda, Euphorbia pulcherrima and Gerbera reactions. Other new species implicated in immediate-type reactions included Ficus pumila, Gardenia jasminoides, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Campanula, Columnea, Epipremnum aureum, Pelargonium and Primula vulgaris. Because of the high...

  1. 75 FR 27690 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Ambrosia...

    2010-05-18

    ... germination? What are the key factors determining why the species occupies the particular areas it occupies... portions (rhizomes) of A. pumila plants (see step number 4 in the Methods section of the proposed...

  2. Integral regressive analysis on the responses of first flowering date of eight woody species to climate change in Baoding, China%保定市8种乔灌木开花始期对气候变化响应的积分回归分析

    2015-01-01

    Based on the observed weather data and phonological information during the period 1986—2011 at Baoding city, we studied the responses of first flowering date of eight woody species to climate change with integral regressive method, and established integral regressive forecasting model of first flowering date. Results showed that: the first flowering dates of the eight species were jointly affected by three climate factors:air temperature, precipitation and sunlight, and the degree of their effect was ranked as air temperature > precipitation > sunlight. The patterns of the effect and driving force of first flowering date by each climate factor changed with time. The effect of climate factors on the first flowering date for each species could be both positive and negative several months before first flowering. Air temperature had negative effects on the first flowering date of six out of the eight species ( except for Ulmus pumila and Ziziphus jujuba) a few days before first flowering. The multi-variable model established with integral regression had a high precision of predicting first flowering date of plants. The simulation showed that, in mid-March, when the temperature changes by 1℃, the precipitation changes by 1 mm and the sunshine duration changes by 1 h, the first flowing date of the eight woody species would change by about 0.1-1.6 d.%基于1986—2011年保定市气象和物候观测资料,运用积分回归法研究常见的8种乔灌木开花始期对气候变化的响应,并建立开花始期积分回归预测模型。结果显示:保定市8种乔灌木的开花始期受气温、降水量和日照等3种气候要素的共同影响,但各气候要素影响作用的大小不同,总体表现为气温>降水>日照。不同气候要素对各树种开花始期的影响方式、“驱动冶力度与时俱变。在开花始期前几个月,各气候要素对物候影响的正负效应同时出现;除榆树和栆外,其他6个树种开花始期前几

  3. Characteristics of garden trees in resistance to the early winter snow in Hefei%合肥市园林树种抗初冬雪压特性的研究

    黄媛媛; 黄成林

    2011-01-01

    通过对合肥市2009年初冬雪灾后园林树种受损情况的调查,分析得出:(1)受雪压的树种中香樟、杨树、雪松、乌桕、悬铃木平均每株断枝、干数在30枝以上,抗雪压能力很差;朴树、广玉兰、羽毛枫、无患子等平均每株断枝、干数在20-30枝,抗雪压能力差;紫叶李,女贞、国槐、圆柏等平均每株断枝,干数在10~20枝,抗雪压能力中等;白榆、柳树、栾树、蜀桧、池杉、黄连木等平均每株断枝、干数在10枝以下,抗雪压能力较强;(2)常用的15种园林树木中,香樟、悬铃木、雪松、合欢、女贞、紫叶李等在胸径30 cm以下的断枝、干数量较多,平均每种断枝、干数为2 469枝,抗雪压能力较弱:在胸径30 cm以上的15种树种断枝、干数量较少,平均每种断枝、干数为117枝,抗雪压能力较强.通过以上研究,发现合肥市园林树种抗雪压能力的差异,为城市园林树种规划提供理论依据,也为在灾害天气来临时提前做好园林树种的保护措施提供参考.%Through the investigation of the damaged garden trees in Hefei city after snow disaster in early winter of 2009, we could make conclusion as follows. (1) The abilities of anti-snow pressure, with average num ber in broken branches and trunks, are obviously different, Cinnamomum camphora, Populus canadensis cv.Ⅰ,Cedrus deodara, Sapium sebiferum and Platanus acerifolia, with average number above 30, is poor; for Celtis tetrandra, Magnolia grandiflora, Acer palmatum cv. Dissecum, Sapindus mulorossi ect, with average number be tween 20 and 30, shows relatively poor; for Prunus ceraifera cv. Ateopurpurea, Ligustrum lucidum, Sophora ja ponica, Sabina chinensis ect, with average number between 10 and 20, gets medium; for Ulmus pumila, Salix babylonica, Koelreuteria paniculata, Sabina komarovii, Taxodiu mascendens, Pistacia chinensis, with average number below 10, becomes strong; (2) Among 15 common garden tree species

  4. 从沙物质粒度分析结果研讨沙生植物的固沙作用%Research on sand-fixation role of desert plants based on analysis of sandy soil sizes

    王文彪; 肖巍

    2011-01-01

    在库布齐沙漠西部地区固定半固定沙丘柽柳、梭梭、白刺、油蒿、花棒等沙生植物生长区,通过对表面干沙和深层湿沙的沙粒粒径进行对比分析,获得以下数据:表面干沙和深层湿沙极粗沙、粗沙、中沙、细沙、极细沙、粉沙的含量分别为0.14%、0.10%、0.24%、72.90%、24.12%、1.85%;0.04%、0.05%、0.27%、79.20%、19.30%、0.55%。从总体上看,表面干沙的沙粒细沙、极细沙百分含量高于深层湿沙,说明取样时取样点处于堆积状态,细沙、极细沙、粉沙(0.25~0.05mm)的含量高达98.87%。由于沙生植物的固定、尘土的堆积和成土作用,固定半固定风沙土的粉粒和粘粒含量逐渐增加。随着有机质和粘粒的增加,土壤结构改善,微因聚体增加,容量减小,孔隙度提高。试验证明沙生植物灌丛下的沙粒粒径比流动沙丘沙粒粒径细,充分体现了植物改良沙质土壤的作用。%An transverse comparison on sandy soil particle sizes of the surface dry sand and in-depth wet sand in western regions of Kubuqi desert where Haloxlon ammodendron Bge,Nitraria tangutorum Bobr,Artemisia ordosica Krash,Ulmus pumila and some desert plants grow had been done.The results were as follows: The contents of extreme coarse sand,coarse sand,fine sand,extreme fine sand,fine-grained sand on surface dry sand and in-depth wet sand were 0.14%,0.10%,0.24%,72.90%,24.12%,1.85%,0.04%,0.05%,0.27%,79.20%,19.30%,0.55% respectively.In General,the percentage of fine sand,extreme fine sand on the surface dry sand was higher than that in wet sand,which showed that samples were under the stack condition,The contents of fine sand,extreme fine sand and fine-grained sand were up to 98.87%.Because the desert plants could fix and stack sand,the contents of particles and clay particles of the sand were gradually increasing.As the amount of organic matter and clay particle increased,the structure of soil had been improved

  5. 平朔露天煤矿植被恢复区物种天然更新格局及其驱动因素%Temporal-spatial Dynamics of Natural Regeneration of Species in Ecological Reclamation of ATB Opencast Coal Mine

    张青; 毕润成; 吴兆飞; 宋厚娟; 白中科; 郭东罡

    2016-01-01

    以安太堡露天煤矿植被恢复区0�8ha “刺槐+榆树+油松混交模式”长期固定监测样地为研究平台,基于2010年和2015年两次幼苗幼树的调查数据,对植被恢复过程中主要更新物种的数量特征和空间分布格局的变化进行了分析。研究表明:2010-2015年间,样地内幼苗个体数由8587株减少为3673株,幼树个体数由307株减少为172株;从群落水平来看,幼苗在各生境类型下个体数量的分布略有差异。2010年的幼苗在样地四个角和中部呈聚集分布。幼苗个体数量的分布表现为高坡>高谷>山谷>低坡。而2015年呈高坡>山谷>高谷>低坡的趋势。幼树在不同生境类型下的个体数相差不多。无论在群落水平还是物种水平,幼苗幼树高度和生物因子共同影响幼苗幼树的存活。本研究为揭示不同植物配置模式种群的天然更新和物种共存及维持机制提供基础资料,同时为优化复垦土地植被恢复模式和促进矿区土地可持续利用提供理论依据。%A 0�8-ha permanent plot at the eco-reclamation area in Antaibao Opencast Coal mine of China Coal Pingshuo Coal Company Limited was established after reforestation of a mixed plantation of “locust ( Robinia pseudoacacia )+elm ( Ulmus pumila)+Chinese pine ( Pinus tabuliformis)”. Applying the R programming language and based on the two census data in 2010 and 2015, an analysis was made on characteristics of qualities and changes in spatial distribution pattern of the regeneration of main tree species, the law of natural regeneration and drivers of the seedlings and saplings of the plot in 2010-2015. It provides a scientific basis for the biodiversity conservation and artificial vegetation continuing operations in this area. Also, it provides basic information for natural regeneration and species coexistence mechanisms of different plant configuration modes.

  6. Ground-level ozone distribution pattern in summer of Beijing and its foliar injury effect upon plants%北京夏季地表臭氧污染分布特征及其对植物的伤害效应

    张红星; 孙旭; 姚余辉; 万五星; 肖扬; 孙滨峰; William J.Manning; 韩春萌; 郜世奇

    2014-01-01

    臭氧是重要的空气氧化剂,适当浓度的臭氧可以消菌杀毒,但过高浓度的臭氧可能对生物健康构成威胁.随着城市汽车保有量的迅速上升,臭氧的前体物氮氧化物和VOCs排放增多,臭氧浓度随之不断升高,地表臭氧污染日趋严重.地表臭氧的分布特征以及其对植物的胁迫伤害效应引起了人们的重视.是通过监测北京夏季地表臭氧污染分布规律,鉴定是否有植物受到臭氧伤害,以及受伤害植物的种类及地理分布特征,为城市与区域臭氧风险评估提供依据.从2012年7月4日到8月30日,采用被动采样分析的方法,在北京东北、西北、西南、东南郊区以及城区设置了10个研究样点,监测平均臭氧浓度的变化.同时,运用“森林健康专家咨询系统”鉴定植物受臭氧伤害的特征.结果表明:(1)监测期间,北京西部和北部山区的臭氧浓度高于平原地区;在平原地区,公园中的臭氧浓度高于道旁绿化带;山区的臭氧浓度平均为105.39 μg/m3,公园中为68.49μg/m3,道旁绿化带为56.54 μg/m3;(2)在北京的公园和山区发现了18种植物符合“森林健康专家咨询系统”所述臭氧伤害特征,有五叶地锦(Parthenocissus quinquefolia)、核桃(Juglans regia)、臭椿(Ailanthus altissima)、喇叭花(Pharbitis purpurea)、桑树(Morus alba)、榆树(Ulmus pumila)、国槐(Sophora japonica)金叶槐(Sophora japonica f.flavi-rameus)、木槿(Hibiscus syriacus)、重瓣棣棠花(Kerria japonica)、山香(Hyptis suaveolens)、决明(Cassia tora)、毛白杨(Populus tomentosa、黄花柳(Salix caprea)、大花地榆(Sanguisorba sitchensis)、火炬树(Rhus typhina)、大豆(Glycine max)、向日葵(Helianthus annuus);没有在道旁绿化带的植物叶片发现臭氧伤害症状;(3)臭椿(Ailanthus altissima)幼树臭氧伤害症状明显,易于辨认,且臭椿出现频率最高,是分布广泛的乡土树种,适合作为臭氧污染指示植物.

  7. Final Environmental Assessment for the Beddown and Flight Operations of Unmanned Aircraft Systems at Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota

    2008-08-01

    from wind, cold and snow. Shelterbelt species include American elm (Ulmus americana), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), Russian olive ( Elaeagnus ... angustifolia ) and cottonwood (Populus deltoides). Other woody species present on GFAFB include Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana), Norway

  8. Final Environmental Assessment of Military Housing Privatization Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana

    2006-01-01

    loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), pecan ( Carya illinoensis ), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), water oak (Quercus nigra), red oak (Quercus sp...blackjack oak (Q. marilandica), mockernut hickory ( Carya tomentosa), pignut hickory (C. glabra), blackgum (Nyssa sylvatica), winged elm (Ulmus alata

  9. Operation and Maintenance Pools 24, 25, and 26 Mississippi and Illinois Rivers.

    1975-09-01

    Acer saccharinum), pecan ( Carya illinoensis ), deciduous holly (ilex decidua), sugarberry (Celtis leavigata), ash (Fraxinus -p.), American elm (Ulmus...ivy (Rhus radicans) 13.5 American elm (Ulmus americana) 11.0 Ash (Fraxinus spp.) 10.5 Pecan ( Carya illinoensis ) 9.5 Sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) 7.3...Acer saccharinum) 60 69 Pin oak (Ouercus palustris) 31 36 Willow (Salix spp.) 12 27 Pecan ( Carya illinoensis ) 11 17 Cottonwood (Populus deltoides) 7

  10. 黄土高原油松与其他树种枯落叶混合分解对土壤性质的影响%EFFECTS OF DECOMPOSITION OF LEAF LITTERS FROM PINUS TABULAEFORMIS AND OTHER TREES ON SOIL PROPERTIES IN THE LOESS PLATEAU

    李茜; 刘增文; 米彩红; 杜良贞

    2012-01-01

    An indoor experiment was carried out of having leaf litters from Pinus tabulaeformis and from other 10 species of trees decomposed, separately or mixedly to explore effects of the decomposition on soil properties and any synergic or offsetting actions between the two in mixture. It was found that decomposition of the leaf litters separately significantly increased the activities of soil enzymes, like urease, dehydrogenase and phosphatase, and contents of organic matter and available N, but varied sharply in the effect on available P and CEC in the soil. The decomposition of leaf litter from P. tabulaeformis mixed with that from Platycladus orientalis, Populus simonii, Robinia pseudoacacia, or Ulmus pumila, separately showed obvious synergic effects on total soil microbe. In decomposition, its mixture with that from Hippophae rham-noides affected activity of the soil enzyme of phosphatase, synergically, but its mixture with the leaf letter from P. orientalis , Betula platyphylla or U. pumila, separately, did reversely. Its mixture with leaf litters from most of the trees, separately, showed a synergic effect on soil available K content, but, reversely on soil available P content. Its mixture with that from P. simonii,H. rhamnoides or Amorpha fruticosa, separately, displayed a synergic effect on soil organic matter content. In terms of soil properties as a whole in their effects, its mixture with leaf litter from H. rhamnoides, R. pseudoacacia, P. simonii or A. fruticosa, separately, all acted synergically, whereas its mixture with that from P. orientalis, Quercus liao-tungensis,B. platyphylla,Larix principis-rupprechtii, or Caragana microphylla,separately,did reversely.%通过油松及其他10个树种枯落叶单独和混合分解试验,探讨了油松与其他树种枯落叶混合分解对土壤性质的影响及在对土壤性质影响中是否存在相互促进或抑制作用.结果表明:11种枯落叶单独分解均明显提高了土壤脲酶、脱氢酶、

  11. Effects of mixed decomposition of Populus simonii and other tree species leaf litters on soil properties in Loess Plateau%黄土高原小叶杨与其他树种枯落叶混合分解对土壤性质的影响

    李茜; 刘增文; 杜良贞

    2012-01-01

    pseudoacacia, or Ulmus pumila showed interactive promotion effects on the abundance of soil microbes, and that of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and P. orientalis or C. microphylla showed interactive promotion effects on the soil organic matter, available P, and available K contents and soil CEC but interactive inhibition effects on the activities of most of the soil enzymes tested. The decomposition of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and Larix principis-rupprechtii showed interactive promotion effects on the activities of most of the soil enzymes and soil nutrient contents, while that of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and P. sylvestris var. mongolica showed interactive inhibition effects. Overall, the decomposition of the mixed leaf litters of P. simo- nii and U. pumila, P. tabulaeformis, L. principis-rupprechtii, or R. pseudoacacia could improve soil quality, but the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and P. orientalis, C. microphylla, P. sylvestris var. mongolica, Hippophae rhamnoides, or A. fruticosa showed an interactive inhibition effect during their decomposition.

  12. A Systems Evaluation of the Environmental Impact of the Aubrey Reservoir Project on Elm Fork of the Trinity River in North Texas.

    1972-06-01

    viridis 5 3 1 Morus rubra 13 1 Ulmus americana 2 2 Maclura pomifera 2 Cercis canadensis 6 Acer negundo 1 1 Carya illinoensis 1 Ulmus alata 9 Ulmus rubra... Carya illinoensis 4.6 0 0.0 0.1 Ulmus alata 0.4 0.4 13.6 0 0.0 0.4 Ulmus rubra 0.3 0.4 4.6 0 0.0 0.1 q .4 228 Y I Table 17. The species of trees found...viridis 0.3 1.0 13.6 7.2 0.8 1.1 Cercis canadensis 0.1 0.3 9.1 4.4 0.5 0.4 Ulmus rubra 0.1 0.3 4.6 3.2 0.4 0.4 Carya illinoensis 0.2 4.6 7.5 0.9 0.2 229

  13. Environmental Impact Statement. Disposal and Reuse of Williams Air Force Base, Arizona.

    1994-06-01

    0.33 25.0 0.56 Community Alternative 4-66 Williems AFB Disposal and Reuse FEIS T"I 4.2-3. Totld Pruigoo Ufity Donald In ROI" Pulp 2 of 2 (Parcon...the Arizona Department of Transportation. Belanovskii, A., and V. A. Omel’yanenko, 1982. Acoustic Stress in Commercial Poultry Production, Soviet...8. Palms (Palma. sp.), fant Washingtonia 9. Olive trees (Olea europaea) 10. Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus sp.) 11. Elm (Ulmaceae sp.) 12. Mexican blue

  14. PALEOBOTANY

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110378 Han Xue Abstract:(School of Life Science,Anhui University,Hefei 230039,China);Zhi Yingbiao Study on Pollen Morphology and Its Geohistoric Significance of Two Endangered Elms Peculiar to Mt.Langya,Anhui Province,China(Acta Micropalaeontologica Sinica,ISSN1000-0674,CN32-1189/Q,27(1),2010,p.77-84,2 illus.,2 tables,36 refs.)Key words:Ulmaceae,pollen,Anhui Prov

  15. The typification of Zamia erosa and the priority of that name over Z. amblyphyllidia

    Three distinctive cycads are found on Puerto Rico, which have been treated as three species: Z. amblyphyllidia, found on the north coast, and Z. portoricensis and Z. pumila, both found in the south. We investigated the population genetics of these species with ten DNA markers across seven populatio...

  16. Phylogeography and conservation genetics of the Caribbean Zamia clade: an integrated systematic approach with SSRs and single copy nuclear genes

    The Zamia pumila L. complex (Cycadales: Zamiaceae) is a monophyletic, diploid (2n = 16) and distinctive assemblage of cycad populations restricted to the West Indies and southeastern U. S. that has been treated as comprising one to nine species. Our research project seeks to simultaneously investi...

  17. Garrison Project - Lake Sakakawea Oil and Gas Management Plan, North Dakota

    2012-11-01

    sedge Carex haydenii Cloud sedge Cheilanthes feei Fee’s lipfern Chenopodium subglabrum Smooth...drummondii Drummond’s milkvetch Astragalus vexilliflexus Bent-flower milkvetch Carex athrostachya Jointed-spike...Mentzelia pumila Dwarf mentzelia Monotropa uniflora Indian-pipe Myosurus aristatus Sedge mousetail Pellaea

  18. On a collection of bats (Chiroptera) from Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    van Cakenberghe, V.; de Vree, F.; Leirs, Herwig

    1999-01-01

    The collection of vertebrates made in Kikwit in the aftermath of the 1995 Ebola haemorrhagic fever epidemic included 538 bat specimens, representing 18 species. This collection contains large numbers of a very common species, Chaerephon pumila, but also of Chaerephon ansorgei, which was not yet...

  19. Post-emergence weed control through abrasion with an approved organic fertilizer

    Corn gluten meal (CGM) is an approved organic fertilizer and preemergence herbicide that can be manufactured in the form of grit. This grit was tested for its ability to abrade seedlings of the summer annual weedy grass, Setaria pumila, when plants were in the 1- to 5-leaf stages of growth. It was p...

  20. 76 FR 69693 - Tolerance Crop Grouping Program III

    2011-11-09

    ... pumila; Filbert (hazelnut), Corylus spp.; Hickory nut, Carya spp.; Macadamia nut (bush nut), Macadamia spp.; Pecan, Carya illinoensis; Walnut, black and English (Persian), Juglans spp. EPA proposes to... (Makino) Rehder, J. ailantifolia Carri re) Hickory nut (Carya cathayensis Sarg., C. glabra (Mill.)...

  1. Three new species of the armored catfish genus Loricaria (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from river channels of the Amazon basin

    Matthew R. Thomas

    Full Text Available Three new species of Loricaria are described from large white- and black-water river channels of the Amazon basin of Brazil, the upper rio Negro drainage of southern Venezuela, and clear waters of the lower rio Tocantins. Loricaria spinulifera and L. pumila differ from other species of Loricaria by having unique patterns of abdominal plate development and hypertrophied odontodes forming conspicuous crests on dorsal surfaces of the head and predorsal plates. Both are small species of Loricaria, reaching sexual maturity at less than 120 mm SL, and exhibiting sexually dimorphic characters consistent with members of the L. cataphracta complex. Loricaria spinulifera differs from L. pumila in having a unique arrangement of buccal papillae and large thorn-like odontodes on the dorsum of the head. Loricaria pumila is the smallest known Loricaria, reaching sexual maturity at less than 80 mm SL. Loricaria lundbergi differs from other Loricaria by having a unique abdominal plate pattern, broad head, and small basicaudal plate. Loricaria lundbergi is sympatric with L. spinulifera in the lower rio Negro drainage, but is also known from the rio Baria system of the Casiquiare drainage. Loricaria pumila occurs in the lower rio Amazonas and lower rio Tocantins. All three new species exhibit varying degrees of reduction in eye size and pigmentation seen in other fishes inhabiting deep river channels of South America.

  2. Embryo rescue from interspecific crosses in apple rootstocks Resgate de embriões a partir de cruzamentos interespecíficos em porta-enxerto de macieira

    Adriana Cibele de Mesquita Dantas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objetive of this work was to rescue immature embryos of apple rootstocks Malus prunifolia (Marubakaido and Malus pumila (M9 after 40-60 days of pollination and to put them into MS culture media supplemented with agar (6 g L-1 and casein hydrolysate (500 mg L-1. Embryos originated from interspecific crosses and open pollination showed differences in the in vitro responses, depending on the female parent, the developmental stage of the embryo, and the culture medium composition. Embryos of the M. pumila rootstock, rescued within 40 days after pollination and put in culture medium supplemented with indolacetic acid (IAA, gibberellic acid (GA3, kinetin and maltose, resulted in a normal development of plantlets. However, embryos originating from hand-pollination, cultivated in medium supplemented with 14 µM IAA, 5 µM kinetin and 1.5 µM Ga3 (MS1, mainly those of M. prunifolia x M. pumila, showed a high percentage of rusted embryos (96.2%. Embryos from open pollination of M. prunifolia and M. pumila formed calluses. It was possible to identify the influence of the female parent by the enhanced development of M. pumila shoots derived from open or hand-pollination. The crossing of responsive species and the use of the technique of embryo culture provided a rapid and uniform germination and, consequently, the development of fully normal seedlings.O objetivo deste trabalho foi resgatar embriões imaturos de porta-enxertos de macieira Malus prunifolia (Marubakaido e Malus pumila (M9 depois de 40 e 60 dias de polinização e colocá-los em meio de cultura MS suplementado com ágar (6 g L-1 e hidrolisado de caseína (500 mg L-1. Embriões originados do cruzamento interespecífico dirigido e de polinização aberta mostraram diferenças significativas in vitro, tendo sido observadas diferenças quanto ao progenitor feminino, quanto à fase de desenvolvimento do embrião e à composição do meio de cultura. Embriões do porta-enxerto M. pumila

  3. Comparison of photosynthesis and water use efficiency between three plant functional types in Hunshandak sandland%浑善达克沙地不同植物功能型光合作用和水分利用特征的比较

    牛书丽; 蒋高明; 高雷鸣; 李永庚; 姜闯道; 刘美珍; 崔红霞; 丁莉; 彭羽

    2005-01-01

    为了比较不同植物功能型在沙地生境下光合作用和水分利用效率的差异,测定了浑善达克沙地3种功能型的代表种的气体交换特征来比较它们的光合碳固定能力和水分利用状况.3个代表种的气体交换日变化结果表明乔木的光合速率和水分利用效率比草本和灌木的低,而蒸腾速率和气孔导度较高,经过中午的光合午休后,乔木的光合速率在下午没有恢复,而草本和灌木都有不同程度的恢复.在所测定的所有代表物种中,研究地全部的乔木(3种)和灌木(6种)以及典型的草本(25种),气孔导度与光合速率和蒸腾速率都成显著的正相关关系;另外,在同样的叶片水势情况下,乔木植物的气孔导度最低,在同样的蒸腾速率情况下,乔木植物的光合速率最低.这些结果表明乔木在CO2同化和H2O蒸腾平衡上具有低的水分利用效率.从这个角度考虑,我们认为在对沙地进行恢复时,一些草本和灌木种比乔木更合适.%Stomata controls carbon-water balance in plants by acting as transport for diffusive CO2 uptake and water vapor loss.Plants with lower photosynthesis and higher transpiration rate may function with less stomatal control and inefficient water usage. To test the hypothesis that tree is improper for the purpose of degraded land restoration in arid or semi-arid environment, we investigated gas exchanges of three plant functional types (PFTs) (3 tree species, 6 shrub species and 25 herb species) in Hunshandak Sandland, China, to compare their carbon assimilation ability and water use efficiency. Our research aimed to look into how those plants with different PFTs design carbon and water cycling in semi-arid areas in order to select the ecologically and economically suitable species for the seek of controlling of sandland degradation.We investigated the typical species of each PFT, I.e. Ulmus pumila (tree), Salix gordejevii (shrub) and Leymus chinensis(herb) to compare

  4. 刺槐与其他树种枯落叶混合分解对微量元素释放的影响%Influences of mixed leaf litter decomposition of Robinia pseudoacacia with other trees on microelements release

    杜良贞; 刘增文; 祝振华; 李茜

    2012-01-01

    whole Loess Plateau, through collecting leaf litter of R. pseudoacacia and other 10 trees at the end of autumn,cutting the leaf to some fragments (a=l cm) or 1 cm needles,and gathering humus soil (0-20 cm) of no forested land as medium,the incubation of mixed leaf litter decomposition had been carried out for 345 d with the method of nylon mesh bag buried with soil in the same condition of tem- perature and moisture. Then,the microelements (Cu,Zn,Ni,Cd) contents before and after leaf litter de-composition were determinated with the Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy(AAS)method. [Result] The re- lease rates of Cu,Zn,Ni and Cd during unique leaf litter decomposition of Populus simonii ,Hippophae rh- amnoides ,Platycladus orientalis and Quercus liaotungensis are all the fastest and the turnover period is 1 year or a little more. Mixing litter decomposition of R. pseudoacacia with P. simonii,Ulmus pumila, H. rh- amnoides separately would produce promoted actions on release of the microelements, whereas mixed litter decomposition of R. pseudoacacia with Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica, P. orientalis, Betula platyphylla and Caragana microphylla separately would produce inhibitory actions on release of the 4 microelements. Mixed litter decomposition of R. pseudoacacia with Pinus tabulaeformis and Larix principis-rupprechtii separately would promote release of Cu, but inhibit releases of Zn, Ni and Cd. Mixed litter decomposition of R. pseudoacacia with Q. liaotungensis would promote releases of Zn and Cd,but inhibit releases of Cu and Ni. [Conclusion] Mixed forestation of R. pseudoacacia with other trees which promote release of microele- ments after mixed litter decomposition would be helpful for the microelement cycling and utilization in for- estland.

  5. Nieuwe autochtone herkomsten van fladderiep en boskers op de Rassenlijst Bomen

    Buiteveld, J.; Vries, de S.M.G.

    2010-01-01

    De aanbevelende Rassenlijst Bomen bevat twee nieuwe herkomsten van fladderiep (Ulmus laevis) en een nieuwe herkomst van boskers (Prunus avium). De Raad voor plantenrassen en het Bosschap maakten dit bekend. Het gaat in alle drie de gevallen om genenbankmateriaal dat is opgenomen in de categorie 'naa

  6. Reproduction and dispersal in an ant-associated root aphid community

    Ivens, A.B.F.; Kronauer, Daniel Jan Christoph; Pen, I.;

    2012-01-01

    viscosity is high and winged aphids rare, consistent with infrequent horizontal transmission between ant host colonies. The absence of the primary host shrub (Pistacia) may explain the absence of sex in three of the studied species, but elm trees (Ulmus) that are primary hosts of the fourth species (T...

  7. Contrasting secondary growth and water use efficiency patterns in native and exotic trees co-occurring in inner Spain riparian forests

    González Muñoz, N.; Linares, J.C.; Castro-Diez, P.; Sass-Klaassen, U.G.W.

    2015-01-01

    Aim of study: The invasive trees Ailanthus altissima and Robinia pseudoacacia are widely spreading in inner Spain riparian forests, where they co-occur with the natives Fraxinus angustifolia and Ulmus minor. In a climate change context, we aimed to identify some of the species traits that are leadin

  8. 附录一圩墩遗址孢粉分析

    韩辉友

    2001-01-01

    @@ 木本植物主要是栎(Quercus)、青冈栎(Cyclopalanopsis)、松(Pinus)、栗(Castane)、栲(Castanopsis),另有少量胡桃(Jugluns)、枫香(Liquidambar)、榆(Ulmus)、黄连木(Pistacia)、枫杨(Pterocarya)、水青冈(Fagus)、云实(Caesarpinia)等.

  9. Environmental and Cultural Impact. Proposed Tennessee Colony Reservoir, Trinity River, Texas. Volume IV. Appendix F.

    1972-01-01

    Some other species in this area are hackberry (Celtis laevigata), water oak (Quercus nigra), pecan ( Carya illinoensis ), and American elm (Ulmus...Some upland hickory species ( Carya ) will also be encountered. These areas should be maintained as such in order to prevent erosion of the future

  10. Growdon Gate/Road Relocation and Property Acquisition Environmental Assessment. Volume 1

    2012-11-01

    black walnut (Juglans nigra), pecan ( Carya illinoensis ), blackberry (Rubus sp.), greenbriar (Smilax sp.), poison ivy (Rhus radicans), giant...Riparian Cedar elm (Ulmus crassifolia), black willow (Salix nigra), hackberry (Celtis laevigata), chinaberry (Melia azedarach), pecan ( Carya ... illinoensis ), Canada wildrye (Elymus candensis), poison ivy (Rhus radicans), greenbrier (Smilax spp.), and giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) Urban

  11. Terrestrial Biological Inventory Hartwell Drainage and Levee District Greene County, Illinois.

    1982-01-01

    Carya illinoensis ...Sambucus canadensis ə Ilex decidua ᝺ Cornus drummondii ə Quercus alba ə Overstory 40% Celtis occidentalis ញ Acer saccharinum 10 Carya illinoensis ...seedling) ə Carex sp. ə Saururus cernuus ə Understory 40% Ulmus americana 25 Quercus palustrus ə Carya illinoensis ə Acer saccharinum 10 flex

  12. Cultural Resources Inventory of the Montz Freshwater Diversion Project Corridor, St. Charles Parish, Louisiana. Volume 1.

    1986-06-23

    Ulmus) , and pecan ( Carya illinoensis ) may occur at higher elevations, Predominant understory vegetation includes poison ivy, grape and trumpet...suggests that the trees surrounding the cemetery were not planted; all of the species identified, including pecan trees ( Carya illinoensis ), occur

  13. Is bark pH more important than tree species in determining the composition of nitrophytic or acidophytic lichen floras?

    Spier, L.; Dobben, van H.F.; Dort, van K.W.

    2010-01-01

    To study the pH preference of epiphytic lichens, the bark pH of Fraxinus, Tilia, Quercus and Ulmus trees in an urban environment was measured using a flat surface electrode. The total number of trees was 253. A survey was made of the lichens in a 40 x 40 cm quadrat surrounding the pH measurement poi

  14. 7 CFR 301.51-2 - Regulated articles.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulated articles. 301.51-2 Section 301.51-2... Regulated articles. The following are regulated articles: (a) Firewood (all hardwood species), and green... (sycamore), Populus (poplar), Salix (willow), Sorbus (mountain ash), and Ulmus (elm). (b) Any other...

  15. A new species of Neosilba (Diptera, Lonchaeidae from Brazil Uma nova espécie de Neosilba (Diptera, Lonchaeidae do Brasil

    Pedro C. Strikis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Neosilba McAlpine, 1962, N. pradoi sp. nov., is described and illustrated. This new species was found in the south of Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, in the southeast (State of São Paulo and center west (State of Mato Grosso do Sul. It has been reared from fruits of guava (Psidium guajava, Myrtaceae, "araçá" (Psidium cattleyanum, Myrtaceae, "guabiroba" (Campomanesia xanthocarpa, Myrtaceae, Surinam cherry (Malpighia emarginata, Malpighiaceae, cherry (Prunus avium, Rosaceae, orange (Citrus sinensis, Rutaceae, "ingá" (Inga laurina, Fabaceae, "esporão-de-galo" (Celtis iguanae, Ulmaceae and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis, Passifloraceae.Uma nova espécie de Neosilba McAlpine, 1962, N. pradoi sp. nov., é descrita e ilustrada. Esta nova espécie foi encontrada no sul do Brasil (Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina, no sudeste (Estado de São Paulo e na região centro-oeste (Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul. Foi obtida de frutos de goiaba (Psidium guajava, Myrtaceae, araçá (Psidium cattleyanum, Myrtaceae, guabiroba (Campomanesia xanthocarpa, Myrtaceae, acerola (Malpighia emarginata, Malpighiaceae, cereja (Prunus avium, Rosaceae, laranja (Citrus sinensis, Rutaceae, ingá (Inga laurina, Fabaceae, esporão-de-galo (Celtis iguanae, Ulmaceae e maracujá (Passiflora edulis, Passifloraceae.

  16. Genome relationship among nine species of Millettieae (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae) based on random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD).

    Acharya, Laxmikanta; Mukherjee, Arup Kumar; Panda, Pratap Chandra

    2004-01-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker was used to establish intergeneric classification and phylogeny of the tribe Millettieae sensu Geesink (1984) (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae) and to assess genetic relationship between 9 constituent species belonging to 5 traditionally recognized genera under the tribe. DNA from pooled leaf samples was isolated and RAPD analysis performed using 25 decamer primers. The genetic similarities were derived from the dendrogram constructed by the pooled RAPD data using a similarity index, which supported clear grouping of species under their respective genera, inter- and intra-generic classification and phylogeny and also merger of Pongamia with Millettia. Elevation of Tephrosia purpurea var. pumila to the rank of a species (T. pumila) based on morphological characteristics is also supported through this study of molecular markers.

  17. Three new species of the armored catfish genus Loricaria (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from river channels of the Amazon basin

    Matthew R. Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Loricaria are described from large white- and black-water river channels of the Amazon basin of Brazil, the upper rio Negro drainage of southern Venezuela, and clear waters of the lower rio Tocantins. Loricaria spinulifera and L. pumila differ from other species of Loricaria by having unique patterns of abdominal plate development and hypertrophied odontodes forming conspicuous crests on dorsal surfaces of the head and predorsal plates. Both are small species of Loricaria, reaching sexual maturity at less than 120 mm SL, and exhibiting sexually dimorphic characters consistent with members of the L. cataphracta complex. Loricaria spinulifera differs from L. pumila in having a unique arrangement of buccal papillae and large thorn-like odontodes on the dorsum of the head. Loricaria pumila is the smallest known Loricaria, reaching sexual maturity at less than 80 mm SL. Loricaria lundbergi differs from other Loricaria by having a unique abdominal plate pattern, broad head, and small basicaudal plate. Loricaria lundbergi is sympatric with L. spinulifera in the lower rio Negro drainage, but is also known from the rio Baria system of the Casiquiare drainage. Loricaria pumila occurs in the lower rio Amazonas and lower rio Tocantins. All three new species exhibit varying degrees of reduction in eye size and pigmentation seen in other fishes inhabiting deep river channels of South America.Três novas espécies de Loricaria são descritas provenientes dos canais de grandes rios de águas brancas e pretas da bacia Amazônica brasileira, da bacia do alto rio Negro no sul da Venezuela e das águas claras do baixo rio Tocantins. Loricaria lundbergi é simpátrica com L. spinulifera no baixo rio Negro, mas também é conhecida para o sistema do rio Baria, drenagem do Cassiquiare. Loricaria pumila ocorre no baixo rio Amazonas e baixo rio Tocantins. Loricaria spinulifera e L. pumila diferem de outras Loricaria por apresentarem odont

  18. Loss of autumn colors under domestication: A byproduct of selection for fruit flavor?

    Archetti, Marco

    2009-01-01

    According to the coevolution hypothesis the red autumn leaves of certain tree species are a warning signal towards insects that lay their eggs on the trees. A recent study has shown that red leaves are common in wild varieties of apple (Malus pumila) but not in cultivated varieties. This suggests that autumn colors have been lost during domestication due to relaxed selection against insects. The few varieties with red leaves have small fruits, similar to their wild ancestors, which shows that...

  19. Ecology of rare water plant communities in lakes of north-eastern Poland

    Ewa Jabłońska

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Habitat studies were conducted on three rare plant communities dominated by Nuphar pumila, Nymphaea candida and Hydrilla verticillata in lakes of north-eastern Poland. The comparison of habitat properties of these three types of phytocoenoses with those of Nuphar lutea common in the area under study was also performed. It was demonstrated that the plant communities studied were ecologically distinct. The habitats of the phytocoenoses of N. pumila differed most significantly from those of the other phytocoenoses. They often inhabited softer waters poor in Mg2+, dissolved SiO2, but rich in total Fe, PO43−, NO3−, and were associated with acidic substrates containing lower levels of Ca2+ and Na+, but greater amounts of total Fe and NO3−. The differences in the habitats of H. verticillata and N. candida phytocoenoses were most pronounced in the case of four properties of water: Na+, K+, Cl−, and Mg+. Their values were lower in waters of the H. verticillata phytocoenoses. The habitats of all the three types of rare phytocoenoses differed considerably from those of N. lutea. The most significant differences were found between the N. lutea and N. pumila phytocoenoses and the smallest differences were between the patches of N. lutea and N. candida. The properties of water were more important in differentiating the habitats of the phytocoenoses studied than the substrate properties. Due to alkalization and increase in water hardness in the lakes studied the stands of N. pumila are among the most threatened. The patches of N. candida and H. verticillata, which occur in waters with a wider range of hardness and tolerating a slight increase in trophy, can still continue to persist in the lakes for a long time.

  20. Effect of SO/sub 2/ on stomatal aperture and sulfur uptake of woody angiosperm seedlings

    Noland, T.L.; Kozlowski, T.T.

    1979-01-01

    Effects of SO/sub 2/ pollution on stomatal aperture and sulfur uptake varied with SO/sub 2/ dosage and plant species. Fumigation of Ulmus americana L. seedlings with 1 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 8 h inhibited stomatal closure and fumigation with 2 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 12 h induced stomatal closure. Sulfur uptake of fumigated Ulmus americana seedlings depended on stomatal aperture and was much higher in the light than in the dark. Fumigation of water-stressed Ginkgo biloba L. seedlings with 2 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 6.5 h tended to prevent stomatal closure. However, the effects of SO/sub 2/ on stomatal aperture were modulated and often overridden by environmental stresses such as low light intensity and drought.

  1. Biological Survey, Buffalo River and Outer Harbor of Buffalo, New York. Volume II. Data Report.

    1982-06-01

    Spring Flora Sincies Area I Area 2 Area 3 (Flowerina) I o HERBACEOUS PLANTS Taraxacum officinale Weber. 5 5 x (dandel ion) Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb & 2...Rowlee Sand-bar willow Salix ap. Willow Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. Green ash Ulmus americana L. American elm Rhus typhina L. Staghorn sumac Taraxacum ... officinale Weber. Dandelion Trifolium pratense L. Red clover Barbarea vulgaris R. Sr. Winter cress 110 Table 14 (continued). Genus and Species comison

  2. Final Environmental Assessment of Military Service Station Privatization at Five AETC Installations

    2013-10-01

    agricultural and silvicultural practices. Slash (Pinus elliottii) and sand (P. clausa) pine plantations have replaced much of the native longleaf pine (P...on Tyndall AFB include Mesic/Wet Slash Flatwoods, Natural Longleaf Pine , Estuarine Tidal Salt Marsh, Coastal Upland, Freshwater Wetlands (Wet Prairie...cedar elm (Ulmus crassifolia), and Afghan pine (Pinus eldarica). Predominant varieties of turf grasses observed within the developed areas of Laughlin

  3. Extending glacial refugia for a European tree: genetic markers show that Iberian populations of white elm are native relicts and not introductions

    Fuentes-Utrilla, P.; Venturas, M; Hollingsworth, P.M.; Squirrell, J; Collada, C.; Stone, G. N.; Gil, L.

    2013-01-01

    Conservation policies usually focus on in situ protection of native populations, a priority that requires accurate assessment of population status. Distinction between native and introduced status can be particularly difficult (and at the same time, is most important) for species whose natural habitat has become both rare and highly fragmented. Here, we address the status of the white elm (Ulmus laevis Pallas), a European riparian tree species whose populations have been fragme...

  4. SYNTAXONOMY OF HY GROPHILOUS WOODS OF THE ALNO-QUERCION ROBORIS

    S. BRULLO

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A syntaxonomical revision of the hygrophilous woods occurring in marshy places of the flood-plains from SE Europe is given. This vegetation is included in the Alno-Quercion roboris, alliance of the Populetalia albae, which comprises numerous associations characterized by the dominance of hard-wood trees, such as Quercus robur, Fraxinus oxycarpa, Ulmus minor, Alnus glutinosa, etc. For each association the synonyms, nomenclature type, diagnostic species, ecology, structure and chorology are given.

  5. The Natural and Cultural Environmental Resources of the Aquilla Creek Watershed, Hill County, Texas.

    1972-11-01

    Slippery Elm (Ulmus rubra) 3.12% Pecan ( Carya illinoinensis) 2.61% Red Mulberry (Morus rubra) 2.30% Post Oak (Quercus stellata) 1.99% Mesquite...Field Chess Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm. Buffalo Grass Bumelia lanuginosa (Michx.) Pers. var. oblongifolia (Nutt.) Clark Ironwood Carya ...cuspidata Engeim. Dodder Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Bermuda Grass Daucus pusillus Michx. Rattlesnake-weed Desmanthus illinoensis (Michx.) Ma cM. Shame

  6. Sterling C. Robertson Dam and Limestone Lake on the Navasota River, Texas (Leon, Limestone and Robertson Counties).

    1976-04-01

    flatsedge (Cyperus s p.) , and Spanish mulberry (Callicarpa americana). Common bottomland forest species included pecan ( Carya illinoensis ), post...ona-wiibT Bull Briar Smilax glauca Cat Greenbriar Salix nigra Black Willow Carya illinoensis Pecan Carya texana Black Hickory Q-erustlefata Post Oak... illinoensis ), post oak (Quercus stellata). hackberry (Ce/is sp.), elm (Ulmus sp.), and holly. Species common in the prairie site included Croton sp., prairie

  7. Lower Mississippi River Environmental Program. Report 11. Forest Vegetation of the Leveed Floodplain of the Lower Mississippi River

    1988-02-01

    styraciflua, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Carya illinoensis and Quercus CC .-. sp. may occur but are rare and were not sampled in this study. 88. The subtype... illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch Carya laciniosa (Michaux f.) Loudon Juglans nigra L. BETULACEAE Carpinus caroliniana Walter Ostrya virginiana (Miller) K. Koch...between Baton Rouge and Memphis include Quercus nuttallii and Ulmus crassifolia. Acer saccharinum, Carya cordiformis, Carya laciniosa, and Juglans nigra

  8. Archaeological Investigations at the San Gabriel Reservoir Districts, Central Texas. Volume 2.

    1982-06-01

    area include pecan (CaUa illinoensis ), hackberry (Celtis reticulata), walnut (Juglans ar, willow (Salix spp.), and elm (Ulmus alta). The most common...remains recovered from Feature 6 include acorn fragments and possibly some pecan nutshell ( Carya sp.). However, the identification of pecan is tentative...was used to roast acorns (Quercus sp.), walnuts (Juglans sp.), and pecans ( Carya sp.). Since these nuts are available at app-,1ximately the same time

  9. An elm EST database for identifying leaf beetle egg-induced defense genes

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Plants can defend themselves against herbivorous insects prior to the onset of larval feeding by responding to the eggs laid on their leaves. In the European field elm (Ulmus minor), egg laying by the elm leaf beetle ( Xanthogaleruca luteola) activates the emission of volatiles that attract specialised egg parasitoids, which in turn kill the eggs. Little is known about the transcriptional changes that insect eggs trigger in plants and how such indirect defense mechanisms a...

  10. Antifeeding and Insecticide Properties of Aqueous and Ethanolic Fruit Extracts from Melia azedarach L.on the Elm Leaf Beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller Propiedades Antialimentaria e Insecticida de Extractos Acuosos y Etanólicos del Fruto de Melia azedarach L. en el Escarabajo de la Hoja del Olmo Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller

    2011-01-01

    Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a defoliator of Ulmus species currently present in several regions of central Chile, causes severe damage to trees, mainly in park areas, street tree-lines and gardens. The antifeeding and insecticidal activities of extracts from immature fruit of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) were determined on adults of X. luteola in laboratory bioassays. Several concentrations of the extracts obtained with water and ethanol were used and their eff...

  11. The Middle Eocene flora of Csordakút (N Hungary)

    Erdei, Boglárka; Rákosi, László

    2009-02-01

    The Middle Eocene fossil plant assemblage from Csordakút (N Hungary) comprises plant remains preserved exclusively as impressions. Algae are represented by abundant remains of Characeae, including both vegetative fragments and gyrogonites. Remains of angiosperms comprise Lauraceae (Daphnogene sp.), Fagaceae (cf. Eotrigonobalanus furcinervis), Ulmaceae (Cedrelospermum div. sp.), Myricaceae (Myrica sp., Comptonia div. sp.), Leguminosae (leaves and fruit), Rhamnaceae (?Zizyphus zizyphoides), Elaeocarpaceae (Sloanea nimrodi, Sloanea sp. fruit), Smilacaceae (Smilax div. sp.). The absence of gymnosperms is indicative of a floristic similarity to the coeval floras of Tatabánya (N Hungary) and Girbou in Romania. Sloanea nimrodi (Ettingshausen) Kvaček & Hably, a new element for the Hungarian fossil record indicates a floristic relation to the Late Eocene flora of Kučlin (Bohemia).

  12. A review of traditional plants used in the treatment of epilepsy amongst the Hausa/Fulani tribes of northern Nigeria.

    Muazu, J; Kaita, A H

    2008-06-18

    Five prescriptions used in the treatment of epilepsy amongst the Hausa/Fulani tribe of Northern Nigeria were collected from traditional healers. The five prescriptions containing eight plants were reviewed as in literature to ascertain scientific basis of their use in treatment of epilepsy. Securidaca longipedunculata (family Polygalaceace) was reported to have such property; Mitragyna inermis (family Rubiaceae) has alkaloids structurally similar to clinically useful anticonvulsant. Celtis integrefolia (family Ulmaceae) was reported to contain gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) that its deficiency may lead to convulsions. The remaining plants were basically helpful in alleviation of associated symptoms of epilepsy except Centaurea praecox (family Asteraceae) which was reported to have neurotoxic substances that may worsen the disease.

  13. Presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in South Florida native plants.

    Fisher, Jack B; Jayachandran, K

    2005-11-01

    The roots of 27 species of South Florida plants in 15 families (including one cycad, six palms, one Smilax, and 19 dicotyledons) native to pine rockland and tropical hardwood hammock communities were examined for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). These plants grow in the biologically diverse but endangered Greater Everglades habitat. Roots from field-grown and potted plants were cleared and stained. All 27 species had AMF and include 14 species having an endangered or threatened status. The Paris-type colonization occurred in two species in the families Annonaceae and Smilacaceae. The Arum-type occurred in 22 species in the families Anacardiaceae, Arecaceae (Palmae), Boraginaceae, Cactaceae (questionable), Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Lauraceae, Melastomataceae, Polygalaceae, Rubiaceae, Simaroubaceae, Ulmaceae, and Zamiaceae. Three species in the families Fabaceae, Lauraceae, and Simaroubaceae had a mix of Paris- and Arum-types. The results have implications for the restoration of these endangered plant communities in the Everglades.

  14. Competitive exclusion among fig wasps achieved via entrainment of host plant flowering phenology.

    Min Liu

    Full Text Available Molecular techniques are revealing increasing numbers of morphologically similar but co-existing cryptic species, challenging the niche theory. To understand the co-existence mechanism, we studied phenologies of morphologically similar species of fig wasps that pollinate the creeping fig (F. pumila in eastern China. We compared phenologies of fig wasp emergence and host flowering at sites where one or both pollinators were present. At the site where both pollinators were present, we used sticky traps to capture the emerged fig wasps and identified species identity using mitochondrial DNA COI gene. We also genotyped F. pumila individuals of the three sites using polymorphic microsatellites to detect whether the host populations were differentiated. Male F. pumila produced two major crops annually, with figs receptive in spring and summer. A small partial third crop of receptive figs occurred in the autumn, but few of the second crop figs matured at that time. Hence, few pollinators were available to enter third crop figs and they mostly aborted, resulting in two generations of pollinating wasps each year, plus a partial third generation. Receptive figs were produced on male plants in spring and summer, timed to coincide with the release of short-lived adult pollinators from the same individual plants. Most plants were pollinated by a single species. Plants pollinated by Wiebesia sp. 1 released wasps earlier than those pollinated by Wiebesia sp. 3, with little overlap. Plants occupied by different pollinators were not spatially separated, nor genetically distinct. Our findings show that these differences created mismatches with the flight periods of the other Wiebesia species, largely 'reserving' individual plants for the resident pollinator species. This pre-emptive competitive displacement may prevent long term co-existence of the two pollinators.

  15. The Effect on the Selectivity of Tetranychus viennensis forDifferent Host Plants by Vilatiles From Plant%山楂叶螨对不同寄主植物的选择性与挥发性物质的关系

    孙绪艮; 乔鲁芹

    2004-01-01

    山楂叶螨(Tetranychus viennenis)仁果类和核果类果树的主要害螨之一。该螨在我国分布广泛,其寄主主要有:苹果(Malus pumila)、梨(Pyrus bretschneideri)、桃(Amygdalus persica)、杏(Armeniaca vulgaris)、山楂(Crataegus pinnatifida)、海棠(Malus spectabilis)、樱桃(Cerasus pseudocerasus)、沙果(Malus asiatica)、榆叶梅

  16. Primary Investigation and Utilized Strategy of Beneficial Ladybugs in Garden Plants of Xiamen City%厦门园林植物有益瓢虫调查研究

    蔡晖; 孙国坤; 刘文芳; 林志伟; 谢毅璇

    2007-01-01

    据调查,厦门市园林植物共有瓢虫33种,隶属于22属.其优势种群为七星瓢虫(Coccinella septempunctata)、小红瓢虫(Rodolia pumila)、大红瓢虫(R. rufopilosa)、稻红瓢虫(Micraspis discolor)、异色瓢虫(Harmonia axyridis)、二星瓢虫(Adalia bipunctata).文中提出保护与利用有益瓢虫的措施.

  17. II-Q restriction endonucleases--new class of type II enzymes.

    Degtyarev, S K; Rechkunova, N I; Kolyhalov, A A; Dedkov, V S; Zhilkin, P A

    1990-10-11

    Unique restriction endonucleases Bpu 10l and Bsil have been isolated from Bacillus pumilas and Bacillus sphaericus, respectively. The recognition sequences and cleavage points of these enzymes have been determinated as 5'-CC1TNAGC-3'/3'-GGANT1CG-5' for Bpu 10l and 5'-C1TCGTG-3'/3'-GAGCA1C-5' for Bsil. Restriction endonucleases Bpu 10l and Bsil represent a new class of enzymes which recognize non-palindromic nucleotide sequences and hydrolize DNA within the recognition sequence. Bpu 10l and Bsil recognition sequences may be regarded as quasipalindromic and the enzymes may be designated as type II-Q restriction endonucleases.

  18. Quaternary forest and climate history of Hokkaido, Japan, from marine sediments

    Igarashi, Yaeko

    Pollen data from Quaternary marine sediments deposited in central Hokkaido, northern Japan provide insight into northeast Asian vegetation and climatic changes over the last few million years. During the Early Pleistocene, coniferous forest, dominated by Picea and Cryptomeria japonica, and taiga composed of Larix and Picea developed under cool/wet and cold/dry climates, respectively. Strong climatic contrasts are inferred from Late Pleistocene interglacial and glacial pollen assemblages which precede the last glacial cycle. In the former, cool temperate broad-leaf forest, mainly composed of Fagus, reflects a warmer and wetter climate than now. In the latter, taiga similar to that now found in northern Sakhalin apparently flourished in Hokkaido. The composition of pollen assemblages correlated with Oxygen Isotope Stage 5, changed from cool temperate forest of Quercus, Ulmus and Juglans (Substage 5e), to Picea-Larix taiga (Substage 5d), cool temperate forest of Quercus and Ulmus (Substage 5c) and Picea-Abies forest (Substage 5b). Compared with present conditions, climate during Stage 5 in northern Japan apparently fluctuated from warmer/wetter to colder/drier. Taiga composed of Picea, Pinus and Larix indicating colder/dry conditions during Stage 4, was replaced by Picea-Abies forest and Picea-Larix taiga in Stage 3, suggesting relatively cool and cold/dry environments. Taiga and mixed forest with taiga and cool temperate components characterize Stage 2. Holocene forests with Juglans-Betula and Quercus-Juglans were succeeded by Picea and Abies during the early Holocene warm interval ˜7000 BP. Subsequently, Quercus-Ulmus and Abies-Alnus assemblages reflect climatic deterioration. 'Pan-mixed' forest has been developed in Hokkaido since 2000 BP.

  19. PALYNOLOGICAL ASSEMBLAGES FROM THE BOREHOLE ZKA4 AT DAQIAO TOWN, JIANGDU CITY, JIANGSU PROVINCE AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL MEANINGS%江苏省江都市大桥镇ZKA4钻孔第四纪孢粉组合及其环境变化研究

    张宗言; 于俊杰; 蒋仁; 韩芳; 柯学; 徐亚东; 何卫红

    2014-01-01

    本文依据江苏省江都市大桥镇第四系钻孔(ZKA4)中孢粉的分布,自下至上划分了11个孢粉组合:1.Betula-Ulmus-Artemisia,2.Ulmus-Chenopodiaceae-Quercus,3.ArtemisiaGramineae-Quercus,4.Liquidambar-Polypodiaceae-Ulmus,5.Pinus-Quercus-Betula-Juglans,6.Quercus-Juglans-Artemisia,7.Quercus-Polygonum-Juglans-Carya,8.Betula-Gramineae-Artemisia,9.Quercus-Polypodiaceae,10.Podocarpus-Triorites-Polypodiaceae,11.Pinus-Podocarpus-Juglans-Pterocarya.依据孢粉组合,识别出更新世以来七个气候冷暖变化阶段.孢粉组合1为常绿落叶针阔叶混交林,气候以冷干为主,向上气候回暖;孢粉组合2为高寒灌丛—落叶针阔叶混交林,以冷干为主;孢粉组合3为草本—落叶针阔叶混交林,较前一阶段气候变暖,偏暖干;孢粉组合4-5以落叶阔叶为主,整体上以变暖为主;孢粉组合6-7为落叶针阔叶混交林,整体气候为暖湿,早期略干;孢粉组合8-9为以针叶为主的针阔叶混交林,气候温凉偏湿;孢粉组合10-11为常绿落叶阔叶混交林,气候以湿暖为主.

  20. Carbon allocation, sequestration and carbon dioxide mitigation under plantation forests of north western Himalaya, India

    Bandana Devi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The organic carbon and soils of the world comprise bulk of the terrestrial carbon and serve as amajorsink and source of atmospheric carbon. Increasing atmospheric concentrations of green house gases may be mitigated by increasing carbon sequestration in vegetation and soil. The study attempted to estimate biomass production and carbon sequestration potential of different plantation ecosystems in north western Himalaya, India. Biomass, carbon density of biomass, soil, detritus, carbon sequestration and CO2 mitigation potential were studied underdifferent plantation forest ecosystems comprising of eight different tree species viz. Quercus leucotrichophora, Pinus roxburghii, Acacia catechu, Acacia mollissima, Albizia procera, Alnus nitida, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Ulmus villosa. Above (185.57 ą 48.99 tha-1 and below ground (42.47 ą 10.38 tha-1 biomass was maximum in Ulmus villosa. The vegetation carbon density was maxium in Albizia procera (118.37 ą 1.49 tha-1 and minimum (36.50 ą 9.87 tha-1 in Acacia catechu. Soil carbon density was maximum (219.86ą 10.34 tha-1 in Alnus nitida, and minimum (170.83ą 20.60 tha-1in Pinus roxburghii. Detritus was higher in Pinus roxburghii (6.79 ą 2.0 tha-1. Carbon sequestration (7.91ą 3.4 tha-1 and CO2 mitigation potential (29.09 ą 12.78 tha-1 was maximum in Ulmus villosa. Pearson correlation matrix revealed significant positive relationship of ecosystem carbon with plantation biomass, soil carbon and CO2 mitigation potential. With the emerging threat of climate change, such assessment of forest and soil carbon inventory would allow to devise best land management and policy decisions forsustainable management of fragile hilly ecosystem. 

  1. PHENOECOLOGY STUDIES ON SOME ANEMOPHILE LIGNEOUS MAGNOLIATAE FROM TIMIŞOARA

    A. Faur

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence show that weather changes in the recent years manifested through warming-up conditions in the spring months in many European regions. Our researches focussed on the blooming phenophasic comparison in eight species of anemophile ligneous Magnoliatae (Acer, Alnus, Corylus, Fraxinus, Juglans, Morus, Tilia, Ulmus between years 1950-1959 and 2000-2002. Studies show that data of season start in ligneous Magnoliatae pollen progressively became more early in the last 50 years as a response to climate changes.

  2. Variability of morphometric characteristics of the leaves of European white elm from the area of Great War Island

    Devetaković Jovana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The European White Elm (Ulmus effusa Willd. is indicated as a rare and endangered species in the growing stock of the Republic of Serbia. In the area of Great War Island, its natural populations were reduced to 56 registered trees, which occur in three spatially isolated subpopulations. On the basis of the research conducted on the level of variability of adaptible morphometric characteristics of leaves from 14 selected test trees of European White Elm, it can be concluded that the degree of interpopulation variability is satisfactory, which is a good basis for the conservation of the available gene pool.

  3. 4 种新烟碱类内吸性杀虫剂对光肩星天牛毒力研究

    王凤乐

    2007-01-01

    @@ 光肩星天牛(Anoplophora glabripennis)不仅严重为害中国西北地区杨树等树木,而且它也威胁美国城市树木、森林及木材等相关工业.该虫为害的主要树种有槭树(Acer spp.)、桦树(Betula spp.)、杨树(Populus spp.)、榆树(Ulmus spp.)、柳树(Salix spp.)等,在中国还发现沙枣(Elaeagnus angustifolia)也是成虫的适宜寄主.

  4. Comparative study of three Marantodes pumilum varieties by microscopy, spectroscopy and chromatography

    Nor-Ashila Aladdin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Marantodes pumilum (Blume Kuntze (synonym: Labisia pumila (Blume Fern.-Vill, Primulaceae, is well known for its traditional use as a post-partum medication among women in Malaysia. Three varieties of M. pumilum, var. alata Scheff., var. pumila and var. lanceolata (Scheff. Mez. are commonly used. Nowadays, M. pumilum powder or extracts are commercially available as herbal supplements and beverages. Authentication of the variety is an important component of product quality control. Thus, the present work was aimed to compare the three varieties using microscopic, spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques. Microscopic anatomical examination and powder microscopy were performed on fresh and dried plant materials, respectively. Fingerprint profiles of the varieties were obtained using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer, high performance thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The microscopic examination showed presence of anisocytic stomata, scale and capitate glandular trichome in all varieties. The type of stomata and trichomes, outline structure of stem and leaf margin, petiole and midrib, organization of vascular system, areolar venation, pattern of anticlinal walls, the distribution of secretory canals and cell inclusion as well as the measurement of selected structures could be used to distinguish and identify each variety of M. pumilum. In addition, spectroscopic and chromatographic fingerprint analyses of the three varieties exhibited distinguishable profiles based on the intensity of certain peaks or bands. The findings from this study will provide systematic identification for these varieties.

  5. Juvenile phase of seedling development in six Eurasian 5-needle Pine species: pattern and character of interspecific differences

    A. G. Popov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A species-specific trait system is formed as a result of two main factors: phylogenetic (origin, relationships and adaptive (environment within a modern natural habitat. Traits themselves also may be ranged by theirphylogenetic stability and adaptive value. Species are usually characterized by definitive traits. Meanwhile, ontogenetic traits may alsobe useful for understanding both species' phylogenesis and adaptation to climatic conditions. The purpose of the present study is toinvestigate the juvenile shoot structure in some Eurasian Pinus species from the section strobus. In the southern part of the WesternSiberian Plain forest zone, seedling growth and development were studied on six Eurasian species: stone pines (Pinus sibirica, P. cembra,P. pumila, P. koraiensis and white pines (P. parviflora, P. armandii. Shoot growth duration increases with an increase in vegetation season duration and the number of effective temperatures in the species' natural habitat: growth began slightly later, but it finished significantlylater. As far as shoot growth duration is concerned, the studied species were divided into 4 groups: (1 subarctic-subalpine P. pumila - 45-50 days, (2 boreal-mountain P. sibirica and P. cembra - 50-55 days, (3 nemoral from the monsoon forests P. koraiensis and P. parviflora - 60-65 days, (4 subtropical P. armandii - 75-80 days. The differences instructure and development of the juvenile shoots were not related to the climate in the natural habitat of species. On the basis of the juvenile morphogenesis duration and the presence of the mature organ type (5-needle short shoots on the juvenile shoot, three pairs ofspecies were distinguished: P. sibirica and P. cembra (1 year, do not have short shoots; P. koraiensis and P. armandii (1 year, shortshoots are present; P. parviflora and P. pumila (2 years, short shoots are present. It is shown that there is a close relationship between the species within

  6. A paleoecological reconstruction of the Late Glacial and Holocene based on multidisciplinary studies at Steregoiu site (Gutai Mts., Romania

    Angelica Feurdean

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available High resolution analyses of pollen, mineral magnetic properties, loss of ignition, lithostratigraphy and AMS 14C measurements of lake sediments and peat deposits accumulated in the former crater lake of Steregoiu (Gutâiului Mts., NW Romania, gave new and important information about vegetation and climate changes from the period GS-2 to the present. During the Lateglacial, three cold events were recorded: before 14,700 cal. years BP (GS-2, 14,050–13,800 cal. years BP (GI-1d, 12,900-11,500 cal. years BP (GS-1, and a warm climatic event between 13,800-12,950 cal. years BP (GI-1c to GL-1a. The Late Glacial/Holocene transition around 11,500 cal. years BP, was determined by an expansion of Betula, Alnus and Picea, followed by a rapid and strong expansion of Ulmus. At 10,700 cal. years BP, dense and highly diverse forests with Ulmus, Quercus, Tilia, Fraxinus and a few Acer and Corylus individuals dominated the area. Corylus and Picea were the dominant species in the forests from 10,150 to 8,500 cal. years BP. The first occurrence of single Fagus pollen grains was around 8,000 cal years BP. Only at 4,700 cal year BP Fagus and Carpinus became widespread and established trees in the local woodlands.

  7. Quantitative relationships between vegetation and several pollen taxa in surface soil from North China

    2000-01-01

    According to the vegetation investigation and pollen analysis of surface samples sampled along a precipitation gradient of the Northeast China Transect (NECT), several pollen taxa, including Pinus, Betula, Quercus, Tilia, Acer, Ulmus, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, Gramineae and Cyperaceae, were chosen to make the regression and correlation analyses. The results indicated that there exists a close relationship between vegetation and pollen taxa in surface samples. The regression parameters for ten taxa in the forests in the eastern part of NECT were different from those in the steppes in the western part. Pinus, Betula, Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae, which have large slope and y-intercept terms, were over-representative taxa. Acer, Gramineae and Cyperaceae, which have small slope and y-intercept terms, were under-representative taxa. Quercus, Tilia and Ulmus whose slope terms have negative correlation with y-intercept terms were equi-representative taxa. The pollen taxa with large slope or large y-intercept terms have small variability coefficients, implying that the slope and y-intercept terms for these pollen taxa are of high accuracy in the estimation of plant abundance from pollen frequencies.

  8. Trema orientalis Linn. Blume: A potential for prospecting for drugs for various uses.

    Adinortey, Michael Buenor; Galyuon, Isaac K; Asamoah, Nicholas Oteng

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used by traditional practitioners to treat several ailments. Ethnomedicinal studies on Trema orientalis Linn. Blume (Ulmaceae) have shown that it is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, respiratory diseases, oliguria, and malaria. This article is aimed at providing comprehensive information on the medicinal uses, biology, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological data available on T. orientalis. This has been done to explore its therapeutic potential for future research opportunities. This review was compiled with information obtained from databases such as Medline, Elsevier, Springer, Science Direct, Pubmed, Google Scholar, and a library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Compounds present in the plant include tannins, saponins, flavanoids, triterpenes, phytosterols, and several constituents of xanthones. Some pharmacological research done on the plant has focused on, hypoglycemic activity, analgesic, anti-inflammatory activities, anti-plasmodial activity, diuretic activity, laxativity effect, anti-convulsant activity, anti-helmintic activity, anti-sickling effect, anti-oxidant, and anti-bacterial activity. This compilation strongly supports the view that T. orientalis has beneficial therapeutic properties, and indicates its potential as an effective herbal remedy for several diseases. The promising results from several research works could be further substantiated by clinical trials.

  9. Trema orientalis Linn. Blume: A potential for prospecting for drugs for various uses

    Michael Buenor Adinortey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are used by traditional practitioners to treat several ailments. Ethnomedicinal studies on Trema orientalis Linn. Blume (Ulmaceae have shown that it is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, respiratory diseases, oliguria, and malaria. This article is aimed at providing comprehensive information on the medicinal uses, biology, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological data available on T. orientalis. This has been done to explore its therapeutic potential for future research opportunities. This review was compiled with information obtained from databases such as Medline, Elsevier, Springer, Science Direct, Pubmed, Google Scholar, and a library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Compounds present in the plant include tannins, saponins, flavanoids, triterpenes, phytosterols, and several constituents of xanthones. Some pharmacological research done on the plant has focused on, hypoglycemic activity, analgesic, anti-inflammatory activities, anti-plasmodial activity, diuretic activity, laxativity effect, anti-convulsant activity, anti-helmintic activity, anti-sickling effect, anti-oxidant, and anti-bacterial activity. This compilation strongly supports the view that T. orientalis has beneficial therapeutic properties, and indicates its potential as an effective herbal remedy for several diseases. The promising results from several research works could be further substantiated by clinical trials.

  10. Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb. Planch: A Review of Its Ethnobotany, Pharmacology, and Phytochemistry

    Showkat Ahmad Ganie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Holoptelea integrifolia (Ulmaceae is a versatile medicinal plant used in various indigenous systems of medicine for curing routine healthcare maladies. It is traditionally used in the treatment and prevention of several ailments like leprosy, inflammation, rickets, leucoderma, scabies, rheumatism, ringworm, eczema, malaria, intestinal cancer, and chronic wounds. In vitro and in vivo pharmacological investigations on crude extracts and isolated compounds showed antibacterial, antifungal, analgesic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, antidiabetic, antidiarrhoeal, adaptogenic, anticancer, wound healing, hepatoprotective, larvicidal, antiemetic, CNS depressant, and hypolipidemic activities. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of terpenoids, sterols, saponins, tannins, proteins, carbohydrates, alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, glycosides, and quinines. Numerous compounds including Holoptelin-A, Holoptelin-B, friedlin, epifriedlin, β-amyrin, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, 1, 4-napthalenedione, betulin, betulinic acid, hexacosanol, and octacosanol have been identified and isolated from the plant species. The results of several studies indicated that H. integrifolia may be used as an effective therapeutic remedy in the prevention and treatment of various ailments. However, further studies on chemical constituents and their mechanisms in exhibiting certain biological activities are needed. In addition, study on the toxicity of the crude extracts and the compounds isolated from this plant should be assessed to ensure their eligibility to be used as source of modern medicines.

  11. STRUCTURE OF CONSORTIUM DESTRUCTIVE COMPONENTS IN THE INDUSTRIAL AREA OF KRIVYI RIG BASIN

    Kachinskaya V.V.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Тhe structural organization and a biological variety of ground mesofauna on consortium level of the organization of ecosystems are considered. The analysis of indicators of the structural organization and a biodiversity of ground mesofauna in consortium Ulmus and Populus in the conditions of territories of industrial mining – metallurgical complex of Krivyi Rig Basin is carried out. It is established that taxonomical structure of ground mesofauna is characterized by insignificant number and quantity of taxonomical groups. Prevalence in morfo-ecological structure of hortobiontes and herpetobiontes testifies about faunae considerable attachment to consortium determinants and influences of a steppe climate on its structure. Prevalence of phytophages and polyphages in trophic structure is caused by combination of determinants specificity of consortium and zone source of fauna formations. The structural organization of ground mesofauna in consortium Ulmus and Populus in the conditions of industrial sites is characterized simplified taxonomical structure with a low biodiversity at all levels. It was suggested that structural and functional organization of destructive components of the block consortium of Ulmus and Populus in the conditions of industrial sites are simplified and determined by biogeochemical patterns of pedogenic and leaf litter layer of consortium and type of anthropogenic impact. Management and sustainable use of consortium under technogenic pressure should be based on the effects of extreme and critical components in the evolution of consortium. These critical points are the type of leading man-made factors and pedogenic and leaf litter biogeochemical conditions of consortium determinants, which results in inhibition of development and simplification of the structural and functional organization of destructive components of the block. The elaboration of measures to restore and maintain that structural and functional organization

  12. STRUCTURE OF CONSORTIUM DESTRUCTIVE COMPONENTS IN THE INDUSTRIAL AREA OF KRIVYI RIG BASIN

    V. V. Kachinskaya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Тhe structural organization and a biological variety of ground mesofauna on consortium level of the organization of ecosystems are considered. The analysis of indicators of the structural organization and a biodiversity of ground mesofauna in consortium Ulmus and Populus in the conditions of territories of industrial mining – metallurgical complex of Krivyi Rig Basin is carried out. It is established that taxonomical structure of ground mesofauna is characterized by insignificant number and quantity of taxonomical groups. Prevalence in morfo-ecological structure of hortobiontes and herpetobiontes testifies about faunae considerable attachment to consortium determinants and influences of a steppe climate on its structure. Prevalence of phytophages and polyphages in trophic structure is caused by combination of determinants specificity of consortium and zone source of fauna formations. The structural organization of ground mesofauna in consortium Ulmus and Populus in the conditions of industrial sites is characterized simplified taxonomical structure with a low biodiversity at all levels. It was suggested that structural and functional organization of destructive components of the block consortium of Ulmus and Populus in the conditions of industrial sites are simplified and determined by biogeochemical patterns of pedogenic and leaf litter layer of consortium and type of anthropogenic impact. Management and sustainable use of consortium under technogenic pressure should be based on the effects of extreme and critical components in the evolution of consortium. These critical points are the type of leading man-made factors and pedogenic and leaf litter biogeochemical conditions of consortium determinants, which results in inhibition of development and simplification of the structural and functional organization of destructive components of the block. The elaboration of measures to restore and maintain that structural and functional organization

  13. Contribución al estudio paleobotánico mediante análisis de polen

    Víaz-Fierros Viqueira, F.

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available The palynological of two sedimentary organic sequences placed over the present sea level, one located in the southern atlantic coast and the other in the cantabric coast of Galicia (Spain, shows an important tree-like cover (Pinus sylvestris L. & Alnus Miller in the preceding phase to the pre-Boreal period, more intense on the N. It brings into the pre-Boreal period, and it reappears with Quercus L. and Alnus Miller into the Atlantic period. Likewise, there are differences concerning vegetacional data windscreen the depot of the N and of the S: there is more tree-Iike outstanding presence of the Ulmus L. the marked manifestation of Corylus L. and ample and prolonged performance of the Ericaceae they are outstanding characteristics of the N depot. In the Atiantic period in the coast as log as the Asteraceae Cichorioideae increase in the southern Atlantic coast. We propose that the erosion of the soil have different risk intensity. Generally that is pussy in the Preboreal and major during the Holoceno, it is due at stage of forest degradation.El análisis de dos series sedimentarias orgánicas, situadas sobre el nivel actual del mar, localizadas una en la costa atlántico-meridional y otra en la cantábrica de Galicia (España, ha puesto de manifiesto la existencia de una importante cobertura arbórea (Pinus sylvestris L., Alnus Millar en una etapa anterior al pre-Boreal y resurgimiento con Quercus L. y Ulmus L. en el Atlantico. Se establecen asimismo diferencias en cuanto a los datos de vegetación obtenidos para los depósitos del N y del S: más intensa cobertura arbórea en el N. presencia singular de Ulmus L. abundante manifestación de Corylus L. y una amplia y prolongada representación de Ericáceas son características destacables para el sedimento del N. Las compuestas cichorioideas alcanzan un importante incremento en la costa cantábrica durante el periodo Atlántico, mientras que en la atlántico-meridional lo alcanzan las arteroideas

  14. Characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers in Pinus armandii (Pinaceae), an endemic conifer species to China1

    Dong, Wan-Lin; Wang, Ruo-Nan; Yan, Xiao-Hao; Niu, Chuan; Gong, Lin-Lin; Li, Zhong-Hu

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Pinus armandii (Pinaceae) is an important conifer tree species in central and southwestern China, and it plays a key role in the local forest ecosystems. To investigate its population genetics and design effective conservation strategies, we characterized 18 polymorphic microsatellite markers for this species. Methods and Results: Eighteen novel polymorphic and 16 monomorphic microsatellite loci of P. armandii were isolated using Illumina MiSeq technology. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to five. The expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.061 to 0.609 with an average of 0.384, and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.063 to 0.947 with an average of 0.436. Seventeen loci could be successfully transferred to five related Pinus species (P. koraiensis, P. griffithii, P. sibirica, P. pumila, and P. bungeana). Conclusions: These novel microsatellites could potentially be used to investigate the population genetics of P. armandii and related species.

  15. Effect of Timing on Callus Formation and Rooting Ability in IBA-Treated Hardwood Stem Cuttings of Persian Walnut, Hazelnut and Apple

    Mehdi TAJBAKHSH

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Promotion of callus formation and rooting in hardwood stem cuttings of Persian walnut (Juglans regia L., hazelnut (C. maxima and apple Malus pumila were evaluated by taking cuttings every two weeks from December 2001 through November 2002. Cuttings were treated with 4-indol-3-butyric acid (IBA at 3000 ppm for 6 s, placed in a greenhouse under intermittent mist, and evaluated after 8 weeks. There were three replications of each species and sampling date. The results showed that the rooting of cuttings was zero in late spring, summer, and early autumn, whereas there was a significant increase in percentage rooting, with rapid and complete callus formation in late autumn, winter, and early spring. For example, in December, callus formation and rooting percentages were: Persian walnut (80 and 6%, hazelnut (49 and 36%, and Apple (43 and 31.5%, respectively.

  16. Effects of certain atmospheric pollutants (SO2, NO2 and CO) on the soluble amino acids, molecular weight and antigenicity of some airborne pollen grains.

    Ruffin, J; Liu, M Y; Sessoms, R; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, U C

    1986-01-01

    The pure pollen grains of Red Oak (Quercus rubra), Meadow Fescue (Festuca elatior) and Chinese Elm (Ulmas pumila) were exposed to carbon monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). After exposure, the soluble free amino acids were determined from the extracts using two-dimensional thin layer chromatography, and the molecular weight of the extracts were determined by SDS-gel electrophoresis (PAGE). The results indicated that after contamination, both the amino acids and molecular weight profiles were changed. In addition, the double immunodiffusion method was used against rabbit-antisera to determine the antigenicity of contaminated and non-contaminated pollen grain extracts. The results also showed that there were antigenic changes after contamination.

  17. Analysis of bioactive Amaryllidaceae alkaloid profiles in Lycoris species by GC-MS.

    Guo, Ying; Pigni, Natalia B; Zheng, Yuhong; de Andrade, Jean Paulo; Torras-Claveria, Laura; Borges, Warley de Souza; Viladomat, Frances; Codina, Carles; Bastida, Jaume

    2014-08-01

    The genus Lycoris, a group of Amaryllidaceae plants distributed in temperate regions of Eastern Asia, is already known for containing representative alkaloids typical of this botanical family with a wide range of biological activities (for example, lycorine and galanthamine). In the present work, the alkaloid profiles of nine species, L. albiflora, L. aurea, L. chinensis, L. haywardii, L. incarnata, L. longituba, L. radiata, L. sprengeri, and L. squamigera, and one variety (L. radiata var. pumila) have been evaluated by GC-MS. Structures belonging to the lycorine-, homolycorine-, haemanthamine-, narciclasine-, tazettine-, montanine- and galanthamine-series were identified and quantified, with galanthamine- and lycorine-type alkaloids predominating and usually showing a high relative abundance in comparison with other alkaloids of the extracts. Interestingly, L. longituba revealed itself to be a potential commercial source of bioactive alkaloids. In general terms, our results are consistent with the alkaloid profiles reported in the literature for previously studied species.

  18. Home range and activity of African goshawks Accipiter tachiro in relation to their predation on bats

    I.L. Rautenbach

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Winter radio-tracking of three African goshawks Accipiter tachiro showed that they each occupied well-wooded home ranges of at least 28 hectares. They perched and roosted mainly within densely foliaged trees and an adult female changed perches on average 4,7 times per hour. No crepuscular predation of bats was recorded, in contrast to regular summer predation on colonies of little free-tailed bats, Tadarida pumila, but winter emergence rates of these bats at dusk had dropped to < 5 of the previous summer. We predict that many accipiters will be regular predators of bats and that skewed sex ratios and high fecundity may be two means by which bats counter this predation.

  19. Application of Climber in Parks of Guangzhou%攀援植物在广州公园的应用

    赖巧晖; 翁殊斐; 胡竞恺

    2012-01-01

    该研究对广州市市区15个公园攀援植物的应用情况进行调查.结果表明:在垂直绿化中应用的攀援植物有42种,应用最多的是簕杜鹃(Bougainvillea spectabilis)和异叶爬墙虎(Parthenocissus dalzielii),占有绝对的优势;其次为使君子(Quisqualis indica)、炮仗花(Pyrostegia venusta)、紫藤(Wisteria sinensis)、薜荔(Ficus pumila)和绿萝(Epipremnum aureum)5种;而大部分的攀援植物应用频率较低;绿化形式有5种,主要为棚架式.

  20. Comparative Analysis of Growth, Genome Size, Chromosome Numbers and Phylogeny of Arabidopsis thaliana and Three Cooccurring Species of the Brassicaceae from Uzbekistan

    Matthias H. Hoffmann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to literature data Arabidopsis thaliana was rarely observed in Middle Asia during a collection trip in 2001. Instead, three other Brassicaceae species were frequently found at places where A. thaliana was expected. To reveal reasons for this frequency pattern, we studied chromosome numbers, genome sizes, phylogenetic relationships, developmental rates, and reproductive success of A. thaliana, Olimarabidopsis pumila, Arabis montbretiana, and Arabis auriculata from Uzbekistan in two temperature treatments. There are little but partially significant differences between phenotypes. All studied species have very small genomes. The 1Cx-values of different genotypes within the sampled species are correlated with altitude. Developmental rates are also correlated with 1Cx-values. In our growth experiments, Arabidopsis had high seed sterility at higher temperature, which might be one reason for the rarity of A. thaliana in Middle Asia.

  1. 多肉植物宝典古朴自然的普米拉

    兑宝峰

    2010-01-01

    普米拉(Agave pumila)也称浦米拉、姬龙舌,为龙舌兰科、龙舌兰属多肉植物.植株无茎,肉质叶呈莲座状排列.幼株株幅10~15厘米,甚至更小.叶片肥厚、三角形、顶端尖,叶色灰绿或蓝绿色,叶背有暗色细线条,叶缘具细锯齿,这种形态能保持8~12年之久.以后-旦有了足够的生长空间,植株就会长成成年株,其叶变长,达30厘米左右,呈剑形,莲座状植株则会增大至60~70厘米.

  2. Actividad fitotóxica de un extracto N-Hexano obtenido de la corteza de Drimys Winteri sobre cuatro especies de malezas Phytotoxic activity of N-Hexane extract obtained from Drimys Winteri bark on four weeds

    N. Zapata

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar el efecto fitotóxico de un extracto obtenido con n-hexano de la corteza de Drimys winteri sobre la germinación y el crecimiento de Convolvulus arvensis, Setaria pumila, Daucus carota y Cichorium intybus. El efecto fitotóxico del extracto sobre la germinación de las malezas se determinó mediante bioensayos en placas de Petri y la aplicación del extracto en el medio de germinación en concentraciones de 100 a 1.000 mg L-1. En bioensayos en macetas, se determinó el efecto fitotóxico del extracto sobre la emergencia y crecimiento de las plántulas de malezas, en los cuales se aplicó el extracto mezclado con el sustrato de cultivo en concentraciones de 500 a 4.000 mg kg-1. También se determinó el efecto fitotóxico del extracto asperjado sobre plantas de malezas en concentraciones de 800 a 6.400 mg L-1. En los ensayos de germinación, el extracto retrasó la germinación y redujo el crecimiento de tallo y radícula de todas las malezas, el porcentaje de germinación disminuyó en todas las malezas, excepto en C. arvensis. La aplicación del extracto al sustrato de cultivo disminuyó y retrasó la emergencia de todas las malezas. Las plantas tratadas con extracto presentaron menor altura y hubo disminución de la biomasa acumulada. De igual modo, la aplicación del extracto al follaje de las malezas redujo la altura y la biomasa acumulada y llegó a causar la muerte de C. intybus, S. pumila y D. carota.The objective of this research was to determine the phytotoxic effect of the n-hexane extract obtained from the bark of Drimys winteri on germination and growth of Convolvulus arvensis, Setaria pumila, Daucus carota and Cichorium intybus. The phytotoxic effects of the extract on the germination of weeds were determined by bioassays in Petri dishes, adding the extract on the germination medium at concentrations of 100 to 1,000 mg L-1. The phytotoxic effects of the extract on the emergence and

  3. Role of Medicinal Plants and Natural Products on Osteoporotic Fracture Healing

    Mohd Azri Abd Jalil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Popularly known as “the silent disease” since early symptoms are usually absent, osteoporosis causes progressive bone loss, which renders the bones susceptible to fractures. Bone fracture healing is a complex process consisting of four overlapping phases—hematoma formation, inflammation, repair, and remodeling. The traditional use of natural products in bone fractures means that phytochemicals can be developed as potential therapy for reducing fracture healing period. Located closely near the equator, Malaysia has one of the world’s largest rainforests, which are homes to exotic herbs and medicinal plants. Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali, Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah, and Piper sarmentosum (Kaduk are some examples of the popular ethnic herbs, which have been used in the Malay traditional medicine. This paper focuses on the use of natural products for treating fracture as a result of osteoporosis and expediting its healing.

  4. Frost Hardiness and Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy of Shoots in Several Pear and Apple Varieties during Hardening%抗寒锻炼期间几种梨、苹果枝条的抗寒性和电阻抗图谱比较

    杨雪; 张殿生; 张钢

    2014-01-01

    以采自秦皇岛昌黎果树研究所的3个梨树品种黄冠(Pyrus sp.‘Huangguan’)、雪花(Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm.f.)Nakai)、红香酥(Pyrus spp.‘Hongxiangsu’)和2个苹果树品种金冠(Malus pumila millapple ‘Golden Delicious’)、宫崎短枝富士(Malus pumila millapple ‘Gongqi Fuji,)的当年生枝条为材料,用电导(EL)法测定抗寒锻炼期间不同品种梨和苹果枝的抗寒性;研究不经冷冻处理枝的电阻抗图谱(EIS)参数,并与EL法求出的抗寒性进行分析对比.结果表明,抗寒锻炼期间,不同品种的梨和苹果枝的抗寒性存在显著差异,不同梨品种抗寒性强弱排序为红香酥>黄冠>雪花,不同苹果品种抗寒性强弱排序为金冠>宫崎短枝富士;EIS图谱随抗寒锻炼的进程呈现不同的变化趋势;未经冷冻处理枝的EIS参数与抗寒性具有一定的相关性,胞外电阻率(re)、胞内电阻率(ri)分别是估测梨枝条和苹果枝条抗寒性的适宜参数.

  5. Research progress in virus elimination techniques for apple trees%苹果脱毒技术研究进展

    胡国君; 董雅凤; 张尊平; 范旭东; 任芳; 朱红娟

    2014-01-01

    Apple(Malus pumila Mill.)is affected by many viral diseases. The major measure for controlling apple virus diseases is eliminating virus from mother trees,constructing parent plants for reproducing scion and stock materials and planting virus-free seedlings. Four kinds of viruses and one kind of viroid commonly occurred in ap-ple trees. This review summarized the measures applied for apple virus elimination,e.g. shoot tip culture,ther-motherapy,chemotherapy,shoot-tip micrografting and cold therapy,and analyzed the application efficiency and different approaches for different virus types. It will help the future research in the field of virus elimination from apple trees.%苹果(Malus pumila Mill.)普遍感染病毒。目前,培育无病毒原种母本树,建立用于繁殖接穗和营养系砧木的母本园,栽植无病毒苗木,是防治病毒病的根本措施。本文针对常见的4种苹果病毒及1种类病毒,综述了茎尖培养、热处理、化学处理、微茎尖嫁接以及低温处理脱除苹果病毒方法的研究进展,分析了不同方法的应用效果,及所适合脱除的病毒种类,以期为我国苹果病毒脱除技术研究提供参考信息。

  6. 苹果果胶研究进展%Research progress of apple pectin

    孙立军; 郭玉蓉; 田兰兰

    2012-01-01

    苹果(Malus pumila Mill.)是我国北方广泛种植的经济作物。近年来,很多学者从苹果渣中提取分离得到苹果果胶。现代医学和生物学研究表明,苹果果胶具有抗氧化、降血脂、抗菌及抗癌的功效。本文介绍了苹果果胶的结构、组分分级与特性研究,着重阐述了目前国内外对于苹果果胶的提取、分离的最新进展及其生物活性,讨论了目前研究中存在的问题,并对其发展前景进行了展望。%Apple(Malus pumila Mill.) tree is a common kind of plant in the northern part of our country.In recent years,apple pectin has been isolated from apple pomace by many researchers.Researchers in medicine and biology have proved that apple pectin has many biology activities such as oxidation resistance,hypolipemic,antibiosis and anticancer.In this review,structure of apple pectin,pectin fraction and properties of different molecular weights were reviewed and the latest methods of extraction,biological activities,problems of studies on apple pectin and its prospects were also elaborated.

  7. METHODS OF BIOMONITORING IN URBAN ENVIRONMENT: ALLERGENIC POLLEN IN WESTERN ROMANIA AND RELATIONSHIPS WITH METEOROLOGICAL VARIABLES

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomonitoring results showed that a total of 23 pollen types were located in the air of the study area. The analysis of the airborne pollen content concerned 20 taxa, whose pollen has allergenic properties and occurs in large quantities in the air of Timisoara: Alnus, Taxaceae/Cupressaceae, Salix, Populus, Ulmus, Fraxinus, Juglans, Quercus, Tilia, Pinaceae, Corylus, Carpinus, Betula, Poaceae, Rumex, Plantago, Urticaceae, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Ambrosia and Artemisia. Analysis of the pollen count in Timisoara was performed on the basis of the data collected in the year 2009. Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Urticaceae and Poaceae reached the highest atmospheric pollen concentrations in Timisoara. Multiple regression analysis was found to be a very valuable tool for identifying the weather variables most closely associated with atmospheric pollen seasons.

  8. Long-term forest dynamics at Gribskov, eastern Denmark with early-Holocene evidence for thermophilous broadleaved tree species

    Overballe-Petersen, Mette V; Nielsen, Anne Birgitte; Hannon, Gina E.

    2012-01-01

    We report on a full-Holocene pollen, charcoal and macrofossil record from a small forest hollow in Gribskov, eastern Denmark. The Fagus sylvatica pollen record suggests the establishment of a small Fagus population at Gribskov in the early Holocene together with early establishment of other...... thermophilous broadleaved trees, including Quercus sp., Tilia sp. and Ulmus sp. The macrofossils contribute to the vegetation reconstruction with evidence for local presence of species with low pollen productivity or easily degraded pollen types such as Populus. The charcoal record shows frequent burning during...... two periods of the early Holocene and from c. 3000 cal. BP to present. The early-Holocene part of the record indicates a highly disturbed forest ecosystem with frequent fires and abundant macrofossils of particularly Betula sp. and Populus sp. The sediment stratigraphy and age–depth relationships give...

  9. Parasitoid complex of Zygaena filipendulae L. (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae

    Žikić V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Caterpillars of Zygaena filipendulae Linnaeus were sampled during May and June in the Sićevo Gorge in southern Serbia. All parasitized larvae were found on grey elm trees (Ulmus canescens. During the short period before metamorphosis of Z. filipendulae, we found the whole specter of parasitoid wasps: Cotesia zygaenarum Marshall (Braconidae, Gelis agilis (Fabricius and Mesochorus velox Holmgren (Ichneumonidae, Elasmus platyedrae Ferrière and Pediobius sp. (Eulophidae, Eupelmus vesicularis (Retzius (Eupelmidae and Brachymeria tibialis (Walker (Chalcididae. Beside hymenopteran parasitoids, we found parasitoid flies from the family Tachinidae, Phryxe nemea (Meigen (Diptera. All 46 observed Z. filipendulae larvae found on grey elm trees were parasitized, but three pupae were found directly on Lotus corniculatus. Two species are newly reported as parasitoids of Z. filipendulae: E. platyedrae and Eupelmus vesicularis and three species (G. agilis, M. velox and E. platyedrae are new to the fauna of Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43001

  10. Fossil plants from Romanian deposits of Bacles, Dolj District, Romania

    Nicolae T̡icleanu

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available From the Middle Romanian lacustrine deposits of the Oltenia province, the authors describe the youngest fossil flora known until now in Oltenia. The inventory of the fossil flora includes the following taxa: Taxodium dubium, ?Platanus platanifolia, Ulmus laevis, Quercus roburoides, Q. cf. muehlenbergii, Carya serraefolia, Acer cf. tricuspidatum and Salix sp. In the Bâcleş fossil flora, Glyptostrobus europaeus, which is a thermophilous and shows a high frequency in all Oltenia area till the XV-th coal seam, is absent. Consequently, having in view the high frequency of Taxodium dubium, which indicate temperate climate conditions, the other consider that the fossil flora from Bâcleş is much more younger and marks an important cooling. From palaeofloristic point of view, the study of Bâcleş fossil flora is indicative for river meadow forest and, probably, flat plain forest environments.

  11. Effect of gamma-ray irradiated natural herbal extracts on NF-kB activation in HMC-1 cells

    Kim, Yong Soo; Lim, Youn Mook; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Choi, Bo Ram; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Recently, studies have documented various health benefits of some natural herbal extracts (NHE) such as Houttuynia cordata (H), Centella asiatica (C), Plantago asiatica (P), Morus alba L. (M), and Ulmus davidiana (U). The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the radiation effect on NF-kB activation of the NHE in the human mast cell line (HMC-1). The HMC-1 cells were stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187. Both non-and irradiated NHE also significantly inhibited the PMA plus A23187-induced nuclear factor NF-kB activation and also suppressed the expression of activation of NF-kB. These results indicated that the NHE exerted a regulatory effect on inflammatory reactions mediated by mast cells.

  12. Study on cytokine modulation in mast cell-induced allergic reactions by using gamma-irradiated natural herbal extracts

    Gwon, Hui Jeong; Lim, Youn Mook; Kim, Yong Soo; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kim Hae Kyoung [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    We previously described that some natural herbal extracts such as Houttuynia cordata (H), Centella asiatica (C), Plantago asiatica (P), Morus alba L. (M), and Ulmus davidiana (U), differentially suppress an atopic dermatitis like skin lesions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pro-inflammatory cytokine modulation of the water extract of the H, C, P, M, U, and those mixtures (M) and their mechanism in a phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) plus calcium inopore A23187 treated human mast cell line (HMC-1). The H, C, P, M, U, and M inhibited the inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-{alpha}, IL-6 and IL-8 stimulated by PMA plus A23187 from HMC-1 cells. In addition, the M did not significantly affect the cell viability and had no toxicity on the HMC-1 cells. Based on these results, M can be used for the treatment of an allergic inflammation response.

  13. 灰斑古毒蛾寄生性天敌昆虫的调查%Investigation on the Parasitoids of Orgyia ericae

    李海燕; 宗世祥; 盛茂领; 苏梅

    2009-01-01

    灰斑古毒蛾(Orgyia ericae),又名沙枣毒蛾,隶属鳞翅目(Lepidiptera),毒蛾科(Lymantriidae)。分布于我国黑龙江、吉林、辽宁、内蒙古、陕西、甘肃、宁夏、青海、山东等地,国外分布于前苏联、欧洲。危害柳树(Salix spp.)、杨树(Populus spp.)、山毛榉(Fagus spp.)、松树(Pinus spp.)、榆树(Ulmus spp.)

  14. Aspects de l'histoire de la végétation tardiglaciaire et Holocène dans la région des Subcarpates de la Courbure (Subcarpates de Buzau

    Ioan Tant̡ău

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A Late Glacial - Holocene sequence from the Bisoca peat bog (Buzăului Subcarpathians was studied from palynological point of view. The vegetation history, supported by 12 14C dates is described since the end of the Late Glacial. At the onset of the Holocene Ulmus became established by around 9,700 B.P.; Quercus, Fraxinus, Tilia, Corylus became established almost simultaneously by around 9,500 B.P. The local establishment of Carpinus is about 6,200 B.P. Its maximum occurred since 5,000 B.P. Fagus pollen is regularly recorded since 7,000 B.P. Its absolute dominance took place at about 2,000 B.P.

  15. Species composition and model of the riparian stand structure in the Nature Reserve “Krajkowo”

    Marek Szczerba

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to describe the riparian stand composition and to compare its diameter at breast height (d.b.h. structure with the theoretical d.b.h. structure of selection stand. The riparian stand of the Nature Reserve “Krajkowo” has the traits of an uneven-aged, multi-layer, mixed forest with many dead or dying old trees. There were 14 tree species in the experimental plots. Quercus robur and Ulmus laevis dominated in the stands. The trees’ distribution in d.b.h. classes was similar to the theoretical d.b.h. structure of selection stand. The differences between the actual and theoretical number of trees in d.b.h. classes were caused by natural effects of site and biotic factors on the composition and structure of the riparian forest.

  16. Is bark pH more important than tree species in determining the composition of nitrophytic or acidophytic lichen floras?

    Spier, L. [Alterra, Landscape Center, POB 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Dobben, H. van, E-mail: han.vandobben@wur.n [Alterra, Landscape Center, POB 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Dort, K. van [Alterra, Landscape Center, POB 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2010-12-15

    To study the pH preference of epiphytic lichens, the bark pH of Fraxinus, Tilia, Quercus and Ulmus trees in an urban environment was measured using a flat surface electrode. The total number of trees was 253. A survey was made of the lichens in a 40 x 40 cm quadrat surrounding the pH measurement point. Our data analysis using multivariate and univariate statistical techniques indicates that the tree species is the most important factor influencing lichen colonisation, and that bark pH alone is of less importance. We hypothesize that the changed pollution climate, with strong decreases in both sulphur dioxide and ammonia concentrations over the past two decades and a concomitant general increase in bark pH, has made epiphytes less sensitive to pH. - Tree species, rather than bark pH determines the occurrence of acidophytes and nitrophytes on trees.

  17. Karyotypes, B-chromosomes and meiotic abnormalities in 13 populations of Alebra albostriella and A. wahlbergi (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Cicadellidae from Greece

    Valentina Kuznetsova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work 13 populations of the leafhopper species Alebra albostriella (Fallén, 1826 (6 populations and A. wahlbergi (Boheman, 1845 (7 populations (Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae from Greece were studied cytogenetically. We examined chromosomal complements and meiosis in 41 males of A. albostriella sampled from Castanea sativa, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus cerris and in 21 males of A. wahlbergi sampled from C. sativa, Acer opalus and Ulmus sp. The species were shown to share 2n = 22 + X(0 and male meiosis of the chiasmate preductional type typical for Auchenorrhyncha. In all populations of A. albostriella and in all but two populations of A. wahlbergi B chromosomes and/or different meiotic abnormalities including the end-to-end non-homologous chromosomal associations, translocation chains, univalents, anaphasic laggards besides aberrant sperms were encountered. This study represents the first chromosomal record for the genus Alebra and one of the few population-cytogenetic studies in the Auchenorrhyncha.

  18. Karyotypes, B-chromosomes and meiotic abnormalities in 13 populations of Alebra albostriella and A. wahlbergi (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Cicadellidae) from Greece.

    Kuznetsova, Valentina G; Golub, Natalia V; Aguin-Pombo, Dora

    2013-11-26

    In this work 13 populations of the leafhopper species Alebra albostriella (Fallén, 1826) (6 populations) and A. wahlbergi (Boheman, 1845) (7 populations) (Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae) from Greece were studied cytogenetically. We examined chromosomal complements and meiosis in 41 males of A. albostriella sampled from Castanea sativa, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus cerris and in 21 males of A. wahlbergi sampled from C. sativa, Acer opalus and Ulmus sp. The species were shown to share 2n = 22 + X(0) and male meiosis of the chiasmate preductional type typical for Auchenorrhyncha. In all populations of A. albostriella and in all but two populations of A. wahlbergi B chromosomes and/or different meiotic abnormalities including the end-to-end non-homologous chromosomal associations, translocation chains, univalents, anaphasic laggards besides aberrant sperms were encountered. This study represents the first chromosomal record for the genus Alebra and one of the few population-cytogenetic studies in the Auchenorrhyncha.

  19. Changes in composition, structure and aboveground biomass over seventy-six years (1930-2006) in the Black Rock Forest, Hudson Highlands, southeastern New York State.

    Schuster, W S F; Griffin, K L; Roth, H; Turnbull, M H; Whitehead, D; Tissue, D T

    2008-04-01

    We sought to quantify changes in tree species composition, forest structure and aboveground forest biomass (AGB) over 76 years (1930-2006) in the deciduous Black Rock Forest in southeastern New York, USA. We used data from periodic forest inventories, published floras and a set of eight long-term plots, along with species-specific allometric equations to estimate AGB and carbon content. Between the early 1930s and 2000, three species were extirpated from the forest (American elm (Ulmus americana L.), paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) and black spruce (Picea mariana (nigra) (Mill.) BSP)) and seven species invaded the forest (non-natives tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle) and white poplar (Populus alba L.) and native, generally southerly distributed, southern catalpa (Catalpa bignonioides Walt.), cockspur hawthorn (Crataegus crus-galli L.), red mulberry (Morus rubra L.), eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.) and slippery elm (Ulmus rubra Muhl.)). Forest canopy was dominated by red oak and chestnut oak, but the understory tree community changed substantially from mixed oak-maple to red maple-black birch. Density decreased from an average of 1500 to 735 trees ha(-1), whereas basal area doubled from less than 15 m(2) ha(-1) to almost 30 m(2) ha(-1) by 2000. Forest-wide mean AGB from inventory data increased from about 71 Mg ha(-1) in 1930 to about 145 Mg ha(-1) in 1985, and mean AGB on the long-term plots increased from 75 Mg ha(-1) in 1936 to 218 Mg ha(-1) in 1998. Over 76 years, red oak (Quercus rubra L.) canopy trees stored carbon at about twice the rate of similar-sized canopy trees of other species. However, there has been a significant loss of live tree biomass as a result of canopy tree mortality since 1999. Important constraints on long-term biomass increment have included insect outbreaks and droughts.

  20. Younger Dryas To Mid-Holocene Environmental History Of The Lowlands Of NW Transylvania, Romania

    Feurdean, A.; Mosbrugger, V.; Onac, B. P.; Polyak, V.; Veres, D.

    2007-12-01

    Pollen, micro-charcoal and total carbon analyses on sediments from the Turbuta profile located in the Transylvanian Basin (NW Romania) reveal information on previously unknown Younger Dryas to mid-Holocene environmental changes. The chronostratigraphy relies on AMS 14C measurements on organic matter and U/Th TIMS datings of snail shells. Results indicate the presence of Pinus and Betula open woodlands with small populations of Picea, Ulmus, Alnus and Salix before 12,000 cal yr BP, correlates well with the environmental developments expected for Younger Dryas stadial. A fairly abrupt replacement of Pinus and Betula by Ulmus dominated woodlands at ca. 11,900 cal. yr BP, likely represents competition effects of vegetation driven by climate warming at the onset of the Holocene. By 11,000 cal yr BP, the woodlands were increasingly diverse and dense with the expansion of Quercus, Fraxinus and Tilia, the establishment of Corylus, and the decline of upland herbaceous and shrubs taxa. The marked expansion of Quercus accompanied by Tilia between 10,500 and 8,000 cal yr BP could be the result of low effective moisture associated with both low elevation of the site and with regional change towards a drier climate. At 10,000 cal. yr BP Corylus spread across the region, and by 8,000 cal yr BP it replaced Quercus as a dominant forest constituent, with only little representation of Picea abies. Carpinus became established around 5,500 cal yr BP, but it was only a minor constituent in local woodlands until ca. 5,000 cal yr BP. Results from this study also indicate that the woodlands in the lowlands of Turbuta were never closed.

  1. Investigation and Classification of Wild Ornamental Trees and Their Development Proposals in Culai Mountain%徂徕山野生观赏树木调查分类及开发建议

    张兴广; 张佑国; 韩光荣; 张贵昌

    2012-01-01

    调查发现徂徕山有野生观赏树木39科66属92种,分别占该山区木本植物的62.9%、44.3%和35.9%;主要分布有蔷薇科(12种)、豆科(9种)、卫矛科(6种)、榆科(5种)、杨柳科(4种);观赏树木分为六大类,花木类最多占22.8%,叶木类20.6%,蔓木类20.6%,荫木类17.4%,果木类10.9%,林木类7.6%.文章同时提出了保护和开发利用的具体建议.%As investigated, there are totally 39 families, 66 genera and 92 species of wild ornamental trees in Culai Mountain, respectively accounting for 62.9% , 44.3% and 35.9% of total woody plants in this area. The dominant families are Rosaceae (12) , Leguminosae (9) , Celastraceae (6) , Ulmaceae (5) , and Salicaceae (4). The ornamental trees are divided into six categories, including 22. 8% of flowering trees, 20.6% of foliage trees, 20.6% of climbing trees, 17.4% of shade trees, 10.9% of trees with ornamental fruits, and7.6% amenity forest trees. Finally some proposals are put forward to protect and develop these wild ornamental plants resources.

  2. THE BIOTECHNOLOGY OF EMBRYOGENIC CELL LINES OBTAINING AND PLANTLETS OF CONIFEROUS SPECIES IN SIBERIA IN CULTURE IN VITRO

    Tretiakova I.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Experiments of culturing the immature isolated embryos and megagamethophytes of Siberian coniferous species were carried out on different modified media: ½ LV medium for Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila, MSG and AI media (patent № 2431651 for Larix sibirica and Larix gmelinii, DCR medium for Picea ajanensis. For induction of embryogenic callus every species needs the optimized medium supplemented with L-glutamine, casein hydrolysate, ascorbic acid and hormones with different concentrations and their different proportions. The active proliferation of embryonal masses is observed on the same medium with reduced concentration of cytokinins. The proliferation of embryonal masses was significantly improved when they were subcultured after dispersing in liquid medium. The somatic embryos from embryonal masses are matured on basal medium with ABA (60-120 mM and PEG. In spite of species specificity the embryogenesis of morphogenic structures had the same scheme: elongation and asymmetric division of somatic cells, formation of initial cells and embryonal tubes, development of globular, torpedo and bipolar somatic embryos, embryos maturation and germination. However, not all donor-plants of coniferous species can form the embryogenic cell lines and somatic embryos. The active development of embryonal masses and formation of somatic embryos are observed from zygotic embryo of hybrid seeds of P. sibirica and L. sibirica. The obtained embryogenic lines were characterized by different proliferative activity. During 10 months cultivation the value of embryonal masses in different lines was 140-570 g. The number of somatic embryos varies from 210 to 410 per 100 mg of callus fresh weight. Decreasing proliferation activity did not observed during 24-45 months cultivation. However, development of somatic embryos in long cultivated lines decreased. Maturation of somatic embryos and development of plantlets were established in L. sibirica and P. pumila 50

  3. Spatial Pattern for Fraxinus mandshurica Population in Second Growth Forest of Maoershan Mountains%帽儿山地区天然次生林中水曲柳种群格局分析

    吴文娟; 王庆成; 许丽娟

    2013-01-01

    采用点格局分析法研究帽儿山地区天然次生林中水曲柳( Fraxinus mandshurica)不同龄级的种群空间分布格局及水曲柳与五角槭( Acer mono)、春榆( Ulmus propinqua)和白桦(Betula platyphylla )种群的空间关联性。结果表明:水曲柳龄级I林木个体在1~50 m尺度上呈现聚集分布;龄级II与龄级III的聚集程度较龄级I缓和;水曲柳龄级III与龄级I、龄级II林木个体在所有尺度上都表现为显著负相关或有负相关趋势。林分内主要树种种群有不同的空间格局分布,其中水曲柳在小尺度(10~22 m)上表现聚集分布,在大尺度则呈随机分布;五角槭、春榆和白桦在各个尺度下均呈聚集分布。种间关联性分析表明:水曲柳与五角槭、白桦和春榆在空间关联上都呈现正相关或有正相关趋势。水曲柳种群与群落内其它优势树种形成的斑块在群落中镶嵌分布,具有较高的群落稳定性;但水曲柳幼树在大树聚集的斑块不易存活,影响了水曲柳种群发展。%We analyzed spatial pattern distributions for different age classes of Fraxinus mandshurica and spatial associations be-tween Fraxinus mandshurica and other dominant species ( Acer mono, Ulmus propinqua and Betula platyphylla) for second growth forest in Maoershan Mountains .Individuals in age class I of Fraxinus mandshurica show clumped distribution at scales from 1 m to 50 m.Individuals of age class II and age class III show weaker clumped distribution than those of age class I.Age class III shows negative correlation with age class I at most scales, and it also exhibits negative association with age class II.Fraxinus mandshurica population shows clumped distribution at small-scale (10-22 m) and random dis-tribution at large-scale (23-50 m).The spatial pattern distributions of Acer mono, Ulmus propinqua and Betula platyphylla show clumped distribution.With the association analysis, they have

  4. Recent pollen spectra and zonal vegetation in the western USSR

    Peterson, G. M.

    The relationship of modern pollen spectra to present-day vegetation is critical to the reconstruction of vegetation and climate from fossil pollen spectra. This study uses isopoll maps to illustrate the pollen-vegetation relationships in the Soviet Union west of 100°E and presents descriptive statistics for 544 modern samples of arboreal pollen and for 370 samples of herb pollen obtained from the Soviet palynological literature. Data are assembled from this large geographic region and presented in a standardized form on a scale which can be used to relate quantitative pollen data to zonal vegetation and climatic variables and to make comparisons with other regions. In order to show the relationship between pollen types and major ecotones in forested and non-forested areas, the pollen data are presented as percentages of a sum including both arboreal and non-arboreal pollen. Major pollen types which attain values of 10% or more in at least one vegetation zone include Betula (birch), Cyperaceae (sedges), Picea (spruce), Pinus (total pine), Pinus sibirica, Ericaceae (heath family), Gramineae (grasses), Artemisia (sage), and Chenopodiaceae (i.e., saltbush, Russian thistle, pigweed family). Samples from the tundra and forest-tundra have high values of Ericaceae (heath family), birch, alder, and sedge pollen. In the boreal forest, pine, spruce, and birch pollen predominate. In the mixed and deciduous forests, Tilia (linden), Quercus (oak), Ulmus (elm), and Corylus (hazel) pollen attain maximum values. In the forest-steppe and steppe zones, arboreal pollen decreases in importance and is replaced by non-arboreal pollen types. Pollen of Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae predominates in the semi-desert zones. In spite of variation in the pollen spectra arising from the use of different sediment types (soil, peat, and river sediments), and human disturbance of vegetation, the pollen spectra are clearly related to zonal vegetation. Pollen spectra from the western USSR show

  5. Antifeeding and Insecticide Properties of Aqueous and Ethanolic Fruit Extracts from Melia azedarach L.on the Elm Leaf Beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller Propiedades Antialimentaria e Insecticida de Extractos Acuosos y Etanólicos del Fruto de Melia azedarach L. en el Escarabajo de la Hoja del Olmo Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller

    Italo Chiffelle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, a defoliator of Ulmus species currently present in several regions of central Chile, causes severe damage to trees, mainly in park areas, street tree-lines and gardens. The antifeeding and insecticidal activities of extracts from immature fruit of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae were determined on adults of X. luteola in laboratory bioassays. Several concentrations of the extracts obtained with water and ethanol were used and their effectiveness and LC50 were determined. The antifeeding action of the water extracts caused 100% deterrence over concentrations of 3.6% w/v. Both extracts were effective insecticides against adults, causing 86% mortality (2.4% w/v, with a better performance of the ethanol extracts, with a LC50 of 0.9% w/v on the 3rd day after exposure, and 6.6% w/v on the 5th day with the water extract.Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, un defoliador de especies de Ulmus presente en varias regiones de Chile central, causa daño severo en árboles principalmente en áreas de parques, árboles de calles, y jardines. Se determinó el efecto antialimentario e insecticida de extractos de frutos inmaduros de Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae sobre adultos de X. luteola en bioensayos de laboratorio. Se usaron varias concentraciones con agua y etanol de los extractos y se determinó su efectividad y su CL50. La acción antialimentaria de los extractos de agua causó un 100% de deterrencia sobre concentraciones de 3,6% p/v. Ambos extractos fueron efectivos como insecticidas contra los adultos, causando un 86% de mortalidad (2,4% p/v, con un mejor comportamiento de los extractos con etanol con una CL50 de 0,9% p/v al tercer día después de la exposición, y 6,6% p/v al quinto día con los extractos acuosos.

  6. Plants traditionally used for industrial and artisanal purposes in the Arribes del Duero (Spain

    González, José Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present ethnobotanical study, performed between 2005 and 2009 at the Natural Park of the Arribes del Duero (Salamanca-Zamora, Spain, documents the traditional use for technological purposes of 68 vascular plants belonging to 33 families. We interviewed 80 people of different ages native to the zone (mean 72. For each plant species we provide the vernacular terms, the parts used, and the uses made of them (furniture, the elaboration of household utensils, plant fibres, etc.. The species most frequently cited were Quercus ilex L. subsp. ballota (Desf. Samp., Q. pyrenaica Willd., Ulmus minor Mill. and Olea europaea L. The results of this study confirm the persistence of a rich traditional knowledge in Spanish rural communities; a type of knowledge that affords abundant data for improving and adapting modern production activities to a sustainable model of development, above all as regards the rational consumption of raw materials.El presente estudio etnobotánico, llevado a cabo entre 2005 y 2009 en el Parque Natural de Arribes del Duero (Salamanca-Zamora, España, documenta el uso tradicional con fines tecnológicos de 68 plantas vasculares, pertenecientes a 33 familias. Se entrevistaron a 80 personas nativas de la zona y de diferentes edades (media de 72 años. Para cada especie de planta se proporcionan sus nombres vernáculos, las partes utilizadas y los usos a que son destinadas (fabricación de muebles, elaboración de utensilios domésticos, fibras vegetales, etc.. Las especies más frecuentemente citadas fueron Quercus ilex L. subsp. ballota (Desf. Samp., Q. pyrenaica Willd., Ulmus minor Mill. y Olea europaea L. El presente estudio confirma la permanencia de un rico conocimiento tradicional en las comunidades rurales españolas, conocimiento que proporciona abundantes datos para mejorar y adecuar las actividades modernas de producción al modelo de desarrollo sostenible, sobre todo en relación al consumo racional de materias primas.

  7. Feeding habitats of blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur)during winter and spring in Helan Mountains,China

    LIU Zhensheng; WANG Xiaoming; LI Zhigang; CUI Duoying; LI Xinqing

    2007-01-01

    The feeding habitat selection of blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur)was studied by direct observation method in the Helan Mountains,China during winter (from November to December)and spring (from April to June)from 2003 to 2004.We established 25 line transects to collect information on feeding habitats used by blue sheep.Blue sheep in the study area preferred mountain savanna forests,a habitat dominated by Ulmus glaucescens,with medium tree density (<4 individuals/400 m2),moderate tree height (4-6 m),higher shrub density (>5 individuals/100 m2),higher shrub (>1.3 m),higher food abundance (>50 g),moderate distance to human disturbance (<500 m),and mild distance to bare rock (<2 m).Such habitats characterized by 12 ecological factors were preferred as feeding areas by blue sheep during winter.Similar to habitat selection by the species during winter,blue sheep also showed a preference for mountain savanna with tree dominated by Ulmus glaucescens and medium tree density (<4 individuals/400 m2)during spring.Nevertheless,blue sheep preferred medium tree height (<6 m),moderate tree density (5-10 individuals/100 m2),medium shrub height (1.3-1.7 m),higher food abundance (>100 g),moderate altitude (<2 000 m),moderate distance to water resource (<500 m),and medium hiding cover (50%-75%)during spring.Selection of the feeding habitats by sheep showed a significant difference in vegetation type,landform feature,dominant tree,tree height,shrub density,distance to the nearest shrub,food abundance,slope direction,slope degree,distance to water resource,and hiding cover between winter and spring.Results of principal components analysis indicated that the first principal component accounted for 24.493%of the total variance among feeding habitat variance during winter,with higher loadings for vegetation type,dominant tree,tree height,distance to the nearest tree,shrub density,shrub height,altitude,distance to water resource,and distance to human disturbance.In spring

  8. Quantitative relationship between pollen and vegetation in northern China

    2007-01-01

    205 surface pollen samples from different communities in Northern China were analyzed to understand the quantitative relationship between pollen and its original vegetation. Pollen analysis and vegetation investigation show that the pollen assemblages differ a lot in different vegetation regions. Arboreal pollen account for more than 30% in temperate broad-deciduous forests region. In temperate steppe regions, herb pollen percentages are more than 90%, where Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae are domi- nant pollen types with Artemisia percentages more than 30%. In temperate desert, Chenopodiaceae pollen percentages are more than Artemisia, where ferns are rare. Cyperaceae pollen percentages are more than 20% in sub-alpine or cold meadows. The relations between pollen percentages and vegeta- tion cover indicate that most arboreal pollen shows a close relationship with parent plant covers, most shrubby pollen types have more or less correlations, but most herbs do not show clear correlations. For arboreal pollen types, Picea pollen shows the closest correlation with spruce trees coverage, then is Quercus and Carpinus. Betula, Larix and Juglans have also high correlation coefficients with their plants coverage, but Betula pollen is of overrepresented pollen type and more than 40% in birch forest, while Larix and Juglans pollen is underrepresented and pollen percentages are more than 10% in Larix or Juglans pure forests. Pinus is of overrepresented pollen type, and pollen percentages have some relations with plants cover. Pine forest might present when Pinus pollen percentages are more than 30%. The relations between Ulmus and Populus pollen percentages and vegetation cover are not close, where they are mixed with other arbors, they cannot be recorded easily, but if their pollen percentages are more than 1%, Ulmus or Populus trees should exist. For shrubby pollen types, the correlation be- tween Vitex pollen percentages and vegetation cover is the highest, then is Corylus

  9. Reconstruction of full glacial environments and summer air temperatures from Lago della Costa, a refugial site in northeastern Italy.

    Samartin, S. V.; Heiri, O.; Boltshauser-Kaltenrieder, P.; Tinner, W.

    2014-12-01

    Vegetation and climate during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) were considerably different than during the current interglacial (Holocene). In Europe large areas north of 40°N were entirely covered by continental ice-sheets and widespread permafrost, with temperatures around 10-20°C lower than at present, whereas further south aridity and temperatures 7-10°C cooler than today occurred. Cool climatic conditions and growing ice-sheets during the LGM radically reduced forest extent and diversity in Europe to a restricted number of so-called "refugia", mostly located in the southern part of the continent. The Euganian Hills in northeastern Italy are supposed to be one of the northernmost refugia of thermophilous mixed oak forest species (e.g. deciduous Quercus, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer, Carpinus, Castanea) as well of some temperate mesophilous species (e.g. Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba) in Europe. In this study we present the first European chironomid-based quantitative temperature reconstruction for the LGM and address the question whether climate conditions were warm enough to permit the local survival of Quercetum mixtum species between ca. 31'000-17'000 cal yr BP. Chironomids preserved in a lake sediment core from Lago della Costa (7m a.s.l.), a lake on the border of the Euganean Hills in northeastern Italy, allowed quantitative reconstruction of Full and Late Glacial July air temperatures using a combined Swiss-Norwegian temperature inference model based on chironomid assemblages from 274 lakes. Our results suggest that July air temperatures never fell below 10°C which are considered necessary for forest growth. In general, mild climatic conditions prevailed between ca. 31'000-17'000 cal yr BP with temperatures ranging from ca. 11°C to 15.7°C. The expansion of thermophilous trees such as Quercus, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer, Carpinus, Castanea (Quercetum mixtum) between ca. 30'000-23'000 cal yr BP can most likely be explained by climate

  10. Similarity and diversity of the Desmodesmus spp. microalgae isolated from associations with White Sea invertebrates.

    Gorelova, Olga A; Baulina, Olga I; Solovchenko, Alexei E; Chekanov, Konstantin A; Chivkunova, Olga B; Fedorenko, Tatiana A; Lobakova, Elena S

    2015-03-01

    Similarity and diversity of the phenotype and nucleotide sequences of certain genome loci among the single-celled microalgae isolated from White Sea benthic invertebrates were studied to extend the knowledge of oxygenic photoautotrophs forming microbial communities associated with animals. We compared four Desmodesmus isolates (1Hp86E-2, 1Pm66B, 3Dp86E-1, 2Cl66E) from the sponge Halichondria panicea, trochophore larvae of the polychaete Phyllodoce maculata, and the hydroids Dynamena pumila and Coryne lovenii, respectively. The microalgae appeared to be very similar featuring the phenotypic and genetic traits characteristics of unicellular representatives of the genus Desmodesmus. At the same time, isolates from different animal species displayed certain differences in (i) the epistructure morphology; (ii) type and number of the inclusions such as interthylakoid starch grains and cytoplasmic oil bodies and (iii) fatty acid composition; in Desmodesmus sp. 1Hp86E-2, these differences were most pronounced. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2 and rbcL sequences showed that all isolates studied differ from known classified representatives of Desmodesmus combining a deletion in the conservative 5.8S rRNA gene and long AC-microsatellite repeats in the ITS1 whereas 1Hp86E-2 represented a distinct branch within this group.

  11. Effect of Volatiles from Plants on the Selectivity of Tetranychus viennensis for Different Host Plants

    Sun Xugen; Qiao Luqin

    2006-01-01

    Olfactory responses of Tetranychus viennensis to different plant odors were studied with a"Y"olfactometer and petri dishes,and volatiles from leaves of different plants were absorbed with solid phase microextraction and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy.The study showed that olfaction took place in the response when the Hawthorn Spider Mite looked for host plants,indicating that T.viennensis were attracted by odors from host plants.Different host plants have different attractions to T.viennensis;some attract strongly,while others do so to a lesser extent.The nonhost plants tested have neither attraction nor repulsion to the mite.The volatiles from leaves of different host plants such as Malus pumila,P.bretschneideri,Amygdalus persica,Armeniaca vulgaris,Malus spectabilis,Crataegus pinnatifida,and Prunus yedoensis consist of trans-3-hexen-l-ol,acetate,trans-3-hexenyl ester butanolic acid,α-farensene,etc.,which do not exist in the nonhost plants such as Euonymus japonicus.

  12. Conserved genetic regions across angiosperms as tools to develop single-copy nuclear markers in gymnosperms: an example using cycads.

    Salas-Leiva, Dayana E; Meerow, Alan W; Francisco-Ortega, Javier; Calonje, Michael; Griffith, M Patrick; Stevenson, Dennis W; Nakamura, Kyoko

    2014-07-01

    Several individuals of the Caribbean Zamia clade and other cycad genera were used to identify single-copy nuclear genes for phylogeographic and phylogenetic studies in Cycadales. Two strategies were employed to select target loci: (i) a tblastX search of Arabidopsis conserved ortholog sequence (COS) set and (ii) a tblastX search of Arabidopsis-Populus-Vitis-Oryza Shared Single-Copy genes (APVO SSC) against the EST Zamia databases in GenBank. From the first strategy, 30 loci were selected, and from the second, 16 loci. In both cases, the matching GenBank accessions of Zamia were used as a query for retrieving highly similar sequences from Cycas, Picea, Pinus species or Ginkgo biloba. After retrieving and aligning all the sequences in each locus, intron predictions were completed to assist in primer design. PCR was carried out in three rounds to detect paralogous loci. A total of 29 loci were successfully amplified as a single band of which 20 were likely single-copy loci. These loci showed different diversity and divergence levels. A preliminary screening allowed us to select 8 promising loci (40S, ATG2, BG, GroES, GTP, LiSH, PEX4 and TR) for the Zamia pumila complex and 4 loci (COS26, GroES, GTP and HTS) for all other cycad genera.

  13. 木本植物缺铁性黄化病研究进展%Research progress of yellow leaf disease of woody plant

    徐万泰; 郭伟红; 秦飞; 马占元; 周素侠

    2011-01-01

    The iron-deficiency yellow of woody plant in our country have covered Ginkgo biloba,Malus pumila,Pyrus bretschneideri,Prunus persica,Vitis vinifera.,Prunus armeniaca,Prunus salicina,Citrus reticulata,Actinidia chinensis,Cinnamomum camphora),Magnolia denudate,Gardenia jasminoides,Areca catechu,Populus tomentosa,Ziziphus jujube,Morus alba and so on.The research on yellow leaf disease of woody plant is mainly concentrated on the performance symptoms,the pathogenesis,controlling techniques and so on.This article reviewed the main achievements of researches on iron-deficiency yellow of woody plant,and the forecast the research prospect.%我国木本植物缺铁性黄化病的研究主要集中于银杏、苹果、梨、桃、葡萄、杏、李、桔、猕猴桃、香樟、白玉兰、栀子、槟榔、毛白杨、枣树、桑树等,研究内容包括表现症状、发病机理、防治技术等。该文综述了木本植物缺铁性黄化病研究的主要成果,并对研究前景进行了展望。

  14. Concerning the preliminary results of space experiment with the seeds of rare plants (on the boad of BION-M No.1)

    Gorelov, Yury; Kurganskaya, Lubov; Ilyin, Vyacheslav; Ruzaeva, Irina; Rozno, Svetlana; Kavelenova, Ludmila

    species of Samara region (Сlematis integrifolia L.; Aster alpinus L.; Dianthus andrzejowskianus Kulcz.; Linum perenne L.; Polemonium caeruleum L.; Primula macrocalyx Bunge; Iris pumila L.; Lilium martagon L.; Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill., 8 from 9 are the plants of Samara Region Reed book) were packed into 3 marked plastic test tubes (Ø12/75, 4 ml). After the landing of “Bion-M” the seeds were sown on the experimental plot in the Botanical garden of Samara State University (25 July 2013). The sow time was near to the time of seeds ripening when they can fall on the ground in natural ecosystems. The abundant rains in the beginning of August 2013 made the beneficial conditions for sprouting and the first seedlings we found 10-15 days after sowing. The ground germination parameters varied from 3 to 78% for 6 different species (Сlematis integrifolia L. 3%; Dianthus andrzejowskianus Kulcz. 8%; Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill 15%; .Linum perenne L. 67%; Polemonium caeruleum L. 75%; Iris pumila L. 78%), whereas 3 species did not sprout for that time (Lilium martagon L.; Aster alpinus L.; Primula macrocalyx Bunge). The most native flora species normally have no synchronic seed germination and many seeds each year are added in soil seed bank. Many ripe seeds are in dormancy that must be removed passing by autumn-winter period. That is a possible reason of seedlings absence in 3 of our species. We can mention the increase of ground germination parameters (comparing with their common germination levels) for Linum perenne L. and Iris pumila L. as a positive (stimulating) effect of space flight factors complex. These seeds normally never demonstrate germination on the level of 70-80%. Also we found the increase of plants diversity on their initial stage of development. Some more developed and big specimens appeared among the seedlings, what more clearly demonstrated Linum perenne L. and Iris pumila L.. Maybe such heterogeneity is connected with different seed mass and size what

  15. Archaeobotanical reconstructions of field habitats and crops: the grange in Pomorzany near Kutno, 18th/19th c.

    Koszałka Joanna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research of plant macrofossils from the grain deposit deriving from the 18th/19th centuries. The analysed material included 24760 diaspores representing 73 taxa. The majority were cultivated cereal crop species, and there was also abundance of accompanying segetal weed species. About 95% of the gathered crop material was Secale cereale. Another important crop was Hordeum vulgare and there were also some remains of Avena sativa, Triticum aestivum, Fagopyrum esculentum. Cannabis sativa and Linum usitatissimum were found as well. Weeds competing with these crops were, among others, the following species: Agrostemma githago, Raphanus raphanistrum, Apera spica-venti, Bromus secalinus, Centaurea cyanus, Spergula arvensis, Thlaspi arvense, Viola arvensis/tricolor, Fallopia convolvulus, Polygonum persicaria, Mentha arvensis, Anthemis arvensis, Papaver rhoeas, Rumex acetosella, Scleranthus annuus, Aphanes arvensis, Setaria pumila, Setaria viridis/verticilata. Extremely large presence of wild plant diaspores in the material allowed conducting economic and environmental interpretations. Reconstruction methods applied, used primarily in the case of macroremains from granaries, were fully applicable to the analysed plant residues. Weed species composition in the analysed material showed that they were mostly typical for the main winter crop. Some amount of species typical for other habitats were also found and they probably came from the near-by rye field. The presence of perennial diaspores indicated that the field was probably set aside

  16. Influence of Soil Compaction and Drought on the Growth,Photosynthesis and Carbohydrates in Fugi/M.9EMLA Apple Plants

    YAO Yun-cong; John G Streeter; David C Ferree

    2003-01-01

    Greenhouse-grown 1-year-old potted M.9EMLA apple trees (Malus pumila Borkh) were subjected to the soil compaction and, after growing under compacted or non-compacted conditions for 6 weeks, were subjected to drought stress by withholding water for an additional six-week period. Soil compaction and drought stress significantly reduced plant height, number of leaves, and leaf area. Although drought significantly inhibited photosynthesis and transpiration, compaction only depressed transpiration. Furthermore, the effects of drought on plant growth, photosynthesis and transpiration were much greater than the effects of compaction. The rate of water loss from compacted plants was lower than the rate from non-compacted controls and this may explain the insignificant impact of compaction on photosynthesis. Sorbitol, glucose, and fructose concentrations increased over time during the drought stress period whereas sucrose concentration declined. In well-watered controls, sucrose concentration was much higher in leaves of compacted plants than in the leaves on non-compacted controls. For most of the sampling dates the leaf sorbitol concentration was lower in leaves on plants growing in compacted soil than in the leaves of those of the non-compacted controls. Although interactions between the effects of compaction and drought were highly significant for plant growth variables during the onset of drought, interactive effects on photosynthesis, transpiration, relative water content and carbohydrate variables were inconsistent. Compaction and drought both have major effects on apple plants and the interactions between these two stresses are complex.

  17. 贵州植物的新记录种%New Record Species of Plants in Guizhou Province

    杨成华; 安明态; 戴晓勇; 罗扬

    2010-01-01

    通过对贵州境内采集的植物标本鉴定和相关文献检索,报道了贵州的10个新记录种,其中1个新记录种为新记录属.它们是勿忘草Myosotis silvatica Ehrh.ex Hoffm.、短小蛇根草Ophiorrhiza pumila Champ.ex Benth.、细叶亚婆潮Hedyotis auricularia L.var.mina W.C.Ko、多刺山黄皮Fagerlindia depauperata(Drake)Tirveng、短梗乌饭Vaccinium brevipedicellatum C.Y.Wu ex Fang et Z.H.Pan、林生越橘Vaccinium sciaphilum C.Y.Wu、变叶树参Dendropanax proteus(Champ.)Benth.、滇赤杨叶Alniphyllum eberhardtii Guill、滇黄堇Corydalis yunnanensis Franch.、矮小山麦冬Liriope minor(Maxim.)Makino,新记录属为勿忘草属.

  18. Effects of double encapsulation and coating on synthetic seed conversion in M.26 apple rootstock.

    Micheli, M; Pellegrino, S; Piccioni, E; Standardi, A

    2002-01-01

    Encapsulated vitro-derived apical buds of M.26 apple rootstock (Malus pumila Mill) can be employed for the formation of the synthetic seed. Satisfactory levels of conversion (plantlets from synthetic seed) can be achieved if there are adequate (i) rooting induction treatment, (ii) protocol of encapsulation, and (iii) nutritive and environmental conditions. For capsule manufacturing, sodium alginate is largely used; however, this is excessively permeable with loss of the nutritive substances (artificial endosperm) and/or dehydration risks during conservation and transport causing detrimental effects on the synthetic seed conversion and on the plantlet's growth. In order to overcome these problems, two experiments were carried out comparing simple encapsulation in alginate with double encapsulation, and with encapsulation-coating procedures. The presence of a second layer of alginate (double encapsulation) and of a thin external coating layer over the alginate (encapsulation-coating) did not show any detrimental effects on viability, sprouting and regrowth of the encapsulated microcuttings. Satisfactory conversion (70%) was reached with the encapsulation-coating procedure, whereas the double and simple encapsulation converted less than 40% of the synthetic seed. The effect of the addition to the capsule of an anti-microbial substance (Plant Preservative Mixture - PPM) was examined: it did not compromise the conversion of the encapsulated microcuttings sown in ex-vitro non-aseptic conditions.

  19. The Induction of Root Formation by Urea, IBA and Sheep Dung in Young Apple Tree

    YANG Hong-qiang; JIE Yu-ling; HUANG Tian-dong; SHU Huai-rui

    2002-01-01

    The effect of plant growth substance and fertilizer on root formation was studied in a newly planted apple tree (Malus pumila Mill / Malus hupenensis Rhed). The results indicated that urea and IBA (indole butyric acid) and sheep dung all increased the total number and activity of new roots and changed the ratio of absorbing root to extensive roots obviously. Urea increased the number of extensive root and decreased the ratio of the root to shoot mostly. IBA lengthened the extensive root and increased the ratio of root to shoot obviously. Sheep dung increased the nu mber of absorbing root and increased the ratio of absorbing root to ex-tensive root, divided new root into many branches, increased the fresh weight of the root and thickened the extensive root. The fresh weight of root increased and the ratio of root to shoot declined after urea was added to sheep dung. Both the ratio of absorbing root to extensive root and root fresh weight was increased after IBA was added to sheep dung, then the ratio of root to shoot had no change obviously.

  20. Bioassay and Identification of Root Exudates of Three Fruit Tree Species

    Jiang-Hong Zhang; Zhi-Quan Mao; Li-Qin Wang; Huai-Rui Shu

    2007-01-01

    A laboratory bioassay was designed to determine the allelopathic potential of root exudates of three fruit tree species on apple germination. The results showed that root exudates of apple (Malus pumila L.) and peach (Prunus persica L.), each at concentrations of 0.02 and 0.2 mg/L, inhibited germination and radicle growth of apple seeds by 56.7%, 60.7%, 51.5%, and 59.3%, respectively. The corresponding shoot growth inhibition rate was 49.5%, 46.7%, 36.4%, and 44%, respectively. Root exudates of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) had no significant effect on apple seeds.Qualitative determination of root exudates of apple, peach, and jujube tree was developed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The root exudates of apple seedlings mainly contain organic acids, glycol, esters, and benzenphenol derivatives. Peach root exudates contained phenolic acids and benzenphenol derivatives in addition to two unidentified compounds. The root exudates of jujube did not contain any phenolic acids.

  1. The effect of different agrotechnical levels on weed infestation in crops of naked and husked varieties of oat (Avena sativa L.

    Sylwia Andruszczak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in the period 2007- 2009 in the Experimental Farm in Bezek near the city of Chełm. The aim of the investigation was to compare weed infestation of the husked (Krezus and naked (Cacko oat cultivars cultivated under conditions of different weed control treatments. The following weed control levels were compared: A - control object; B - harrowing twice; C - application of the herbicide Mustang 306 SE; D - herbicide Mustang 306 SE + foliar fertilizer Insol 3; E - herbicide Mustang 306 SE + two foliar fertilizers: Insol 3 and FoliCare 18:18:18. The husked oat cv. Krezus was more competitive against weeds. Number of dicotyledonous weeds and of monocotyledonous weeds, total weeds, and air-dry weight of above-ground parts of weeds in the crop of this cultivar were all significantly lower compared to the naked cv. Cacko. From the group of dicotyledonous species, Chenopodium album, Galinsoga parviflora, Matricaria maritima ssp. inodora, Polygonum aviculare, and Stellaria media were the dominant species in the crops of the oat varieties under investigation, whereas among the monocotyledonous species Echinochloa crus-galli, Setaria pumila, Apera spica-venti, and Elymus repens occurred in greatest numbers. The application of the herbicide Mustang 306 SE decreased the number of dicotyledonous weeds and air-dry weight of weeds, compared to the treatment in which mechanical weed control had been used.

  2. Weed infestation in canopy of spring barley in condition of different tillage systems and fertilization and plant protection levels

    Piotr Kraska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine the influence of conventional tillage (fall ploughing at 25 cm and minimum tillage systems (chisel ploughing at 30 cm and two differentiated fertilization and plant protection levels on number, species composition and air dry weed mass in spring barley cv. Rataj. This spring barley was cultivated in crop rotation potato - spring barley - winter rye. The analysis of field infestation was made prior to spring barley harvest with quantitative- weighting method. There was estimated number of weeds, weed species composition and air dry weight of weeds in two randomly chosen areas of each plot of 0.5 m2. The density of weeds and weed air dry weight was statistically analysed by means of variance analysis, and the mean values were estimated with Tukey's confidence intervals (p=0.05. Intensive level of fertilization and chemical crop protection decreased number of monocotyledonous weeds and total weeds in canopy of spring barley. Conventional system of soil cultivation decreased in a canopy of spring barley the following species of weeds: Geranium pusillum, Galinsoga parviflora, Stellaria media, Apera spica-venti, Poa annua and Echinochloa crusgalli. Conventional tillage increases number of Chamomilla suaveolens and Fallopia convolvulus in a canopy of spring barley. Intensive fertilization and plant protection levels decreased weed infestation first of all through Echinochloa crusgalli, Apera spica-venti, Fallopia convolvulus, Galinsoga parviflora, Geranium pusillum, Chenopodium album and Setaria pumila.

  3. Variation in weed infestation of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris depending on the intensity of chemical protection of plantations

    Krzysztof Domaradzki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A floristic study was conducted over the period 2010–2012, using the Braun-Blanquet method, under which vegetation relevés were made in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris plantations in Lower Silesia. Fields with similar habitat conditions, which differed in the intensity of herbicide application to control weed infestation, were selected for observation. A total of 144 relevés were made and based on them a list was prepared of species found in fields in which different levels of chemical protection were used. A cover index and a constancy class were determined for each species found in the phytocoenoses studied. On the basis of these observations, the study found floristic  variation in the investigated agrophytocenoses as af- fected by the level of intensity of weed control chemicals used. In  herbicide-untreated plots, a total of 25 weed species were found and their aggregate cover index was 8705. Chenopodium album L., Polygonum persicaria L. and Setaria pumila (POIR. ROEM. & SCHULT by far dominated among them. Herbicide use caused an impoverishment in the floristic list. 20 taxa were observed in the plots treated with the lowest herbicide rates, while with increasing rates the number of species dropped to 18. The sum of the cover indices also decreased with increasing rates, successively reaching the values of 5907, 5212 and 4356.

  4. Squamate diversity in different croplands of district Chakwal, Punjab, Pakistan

    Sara Balouch

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We studied squamate diversity in 5 different croplands (wheat, sorghum, millet, maize and groundnut of district Chakwal, North Punjab, Pakistan, in February and September, 2013, using area-constrained searches for squamates and line intercept method for vegetation. We recorded 11 squamate species (6 lizards; 5 snakes. Based on diversity index value (H the highest squamate diversity was recorded from maize (1.91, followed by wheat (1.54, groundnut (1.51, sorghum (1.34 and millet (1.21. We recorded Calotes versicolor versicolor, Ophisops jerdonii and Eutropis dissimilis as most frequently sighted species in all croplands. The multivariate generalized model revealed that sightings of species differed significantly (F(5,40 = 2.89, P < 0.05; Wilk’s Λ = 0.30, Partial η2 = 0.94 among cropland types and their boundary vegetation. The cluster analysis of boundary vegetation produced two main clusters: (1 groundnut and wheat, and (2 sorghum, millet and maize. We concluded that herbs (Parthenium hysterophorus Chenopodium album, shrubs (Calotropis procera, Ziziphus jujube, Gymnosporia royleana, and grasses (Cynodon dactylon, Setaria pumila along the cropland boundary provided abode for lacertids (O. jerdonii and skinks (E. dissimilis, while tress (Acacia nilotica, Prosopis juliflora, Ziziphus mauritiana for agamids (Calotes versicolor. We suggest the inclusion of maintaining cropland boundary vegetation particularly grasses and shrubs in agricultural practices to ensure the conservation of squamate and their habitat.

  5. Rootstock effects on gene expression patterns in apple tree scions.

    Jensen, Philip J; Rytter, Jo; Detwiler, Elizabeth A; Travis, James W; McNellis, Timothy W

    2003-11-01

    Like many fruit trees, apple trees (Malus pumila) do not reproduce true-to-type from seed. Desirable cultivars are clonally propagated by grafting onto rootstocks that can alter the characteristics of the scion. For example, the M.7 EMLA rootstock is semi-dwarfing and reduces the susceptibility of the scion to Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight disease. In contrast, the M.9 T337 rootstock is dwarfing and does not alter fire blight susceptibility of the scion. This study represents a comprehensive comparison of gene expression patterns in scions of the 'Gala' apple cultivar grafted to either M.7 EMLA or M.9 T337. Expression was determined by cDNA-AFLP coupled with silver staining of the gels. Scions grafted to the M.9 T337 rootstock showed higher expression of a number of photosynthesis-related, transcription/translation-related, and cell division-related genes, while scions grafted to the M.7 EMLA rootstock showed increased stress-related gene expression. The observed differences in gene expression showed a remarkable correlation with physiological differences between the two graft combinations. The roles that the differentially expressed genes might play in tree stature, stress tolerance, photosynthetic activity, fire blight resistance, and other differences conferred by the two rootstocks are discussed.

  6. Evidence from the domestication of apple for the maintenance of autumn colours by coevolution.

    Archetti, Marco

    2009-07-22

    The adaptive value of autumn colours is still a puzzle for evolutionary biology. It has been suggested that autumn colours are a warning signal to insects that use the trees as a host. I show that aphids (Dysaphis plantaginea) avoid apple trees (Malus pumila) with red leaves in autumn and that their fitness in spring is lower on these trees, which suggests that red leaves are an honest signal of the quality of the tree as a host. Autumn colours are common in wild populations but not among cultivated apple varieties, which are no longer under natural selection against insects. I show that autumn colours remain only in the varieties that are very susceptible to the effects of a common insect-borne disease, fire blight, and therefore are more in need of avoiding insects. Moreover, varieties with red leaves have smaller fruits, which shows that they have been under less effective artificial selection. This suggests a possible trade off between fruit size, leaf colour and resistance to parasites. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that autumn colours are a warning signal to insects, but not with other hypotheses.

  7. Die Makrofauna und ihre Verteilung im Nordost-Felswatt von Helgoland

    Janke, Klaus

    1986-03-01

    The macrofauna and its distribution in the sheltered, rocky intertidal zone of Helgoland (North Sea) was studied at 9 vertically and/or morphologically different stations from March to September in 1984. Seasonal variations in the communities were described based on each species' “conspicuousness”. A total of 172 species was found. The macrofauna shows a zoned pattern, but also the different substrata, for example, affect its distribution. The number of species increases from the upper intertidal to the upper sublittoral zone from 23 to 133 species. The upper intertidal is characterized by Littorina saxatilis, Chaetogrammarus marinus and Hyale nilssonii. Typical and abundant species of the middle and lower intertidal are Flustrellidra hispida, Littorina mariae/obtusata, Littorina littorea, Mytilus edulis and Spirorbis spirorbis. The upper sublittoral zone is characterized by Gibbula cineraria and increasing species numbers of Bryozoa, Nemertini and Opisthobranchia. Only few species (e.g. Dynamena pumila, Laomedea flexuosa, Polydora ciliata, Fabricia sabella, Jaera albifrons, Carcinus maenas) occur in the entire intertidal zone. In comparison to other very sheltered shores in Great Britain, which are also dominated by Fucaceae, the macrofauna in the Helgoland intertidal zone lacks several littoral species, such as Patella spp., Monodonta lineata, Gibbula umbilicalis, Littorina neritoides, Chthamalus spp., whereas Littorina littorea and Gibbula cineraria are highly abundant.

  8. In vitro antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts obtained from Ficus spp. leaves against the fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila

    Tkachenko Halyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to determine in vitro antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts obtained from the leaves of various Ficus species against Aeromonas hydrophila isolated locally from infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum with the aim of providing scientific rationale for the use of the plant in the treatment of bacterial infections induced by Aeromonas spp. in fish. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done on Muller-Hinton agar with the disc diffusion method. In the present study, most ethanolic extracts proved effective against the A. hydrophila tested, with 10-12 mm inhibition zones observed. A. hydrophila demonstrated the highest susceptibility to F. pumila. Among various species of Ficus with moderate activity against A. hydrophila, the highest antibacterial activities were noted for F. benghalensis, F. benjamina, F. deltoidea, F. hispida, and F. lyrata. Thus, Ficus can be used as a natural antiseptic and antimicrobial agent in veterinary practice. Further investigations need to be conducted to isolate and identify the bioactive compounds that can then be subjected to detailed pharmacological studies and the development of clinical applications. The alarming rate of increasing resistance in bacterial pathogens in aquaculture environments means that medicinal plants with antibacterial properties are very important as natural resources of new active compounds.

  9. [The plant origins of herbal medicines and their quality evaluation].

    Nishibe, Sansei

    2002-06-01

    The caulis (stem and leaf) of Trachelospermum jasminoides (Lindl.) Lem. (Apocynaceae) is listed as the plant origin of Luoshiteng in the Chinese Pharmacopeia. However, preparations from the caulis of Ficus pumila L. (Moraceae) or Psychotria serpens L. (Rubiaceae) are distributed on the Chinese market. The fruit of Forsythia suspensa Vahl (Oleaceae) is listed as the plant origin of Forsythia Fruit in the Chinese Pharmacopeia, although the fruits of two Forsythia species, F. suspensa and F. viridissima Lindley, are listed as the plant origins in the Japanese Pharmacopeia, and fruits of three Forsythia species, F. viridissima, F. koreana Nakai, and F. suspensa, are listed in the Korean Pharmacopeia. The whole plant of Plantago asiatica L. (Plantaginaceae) is listed as the plant origin of Plantago Herb in the Japanese Phamacopeia, but the whole plants of two Plantago species, P. asiatica and P. depressa Wild, are listed as the plant origins in the Chinese Pharmacopeia. The leaves of two Plantago species, P. lanceolata L. and P. major L., are distributed as Plantain on the European market. Each of these herbal medicines is reviewed based on the differences in plant origins and their quality evaluation from the viewpoints of the morphological properties, chemical components, and biological activities, respectively.

  10. Intercropping competition between apple trees and crops in agroforestry systems on the Loess Plateau of China.

    Gao, Lubo; Xu, Huasen; Bi, Huaxing; Xi, Weimin; Bao, Biao; Wang, Xiaoyan; Bi, Chao; Chang, Yifang

    2013-01-01

    Agroforestry has been widely practiced in the Loess Plateau region of China because of its prominent effects in reducing soil and water losses, improving land-use efficiency and increasing economic returns. However, the agroforestry practices may lead to competition between crops and trees for underground soil moisture and nutrients, and the trees on the canopy layer may also lead to shortage of light for crops. In order to minimize interspecific competition and maximize the benefits of tree-based intercropping systems, we studied photosynthesis, growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by measuring photosynthetically active radiation, net photosynthetic rate, soil moisture and soil nutrients in a plantation of apple (Malus pumila M.) at a spacing of 4 m × 5 m on the Loess Plateau of China. The results showed that for both intercropping systems in the study region, soil moisture was the primary factor affecting the crop yields followed by light. Deficiency of the soil nutrients also had a significant impact on crop yields. Compared with soybean, peanut was more suitable for intercropping with apple trees to obtain economic benefits in the region. We concluded that apple-soybean and apple-peanut intercropping systems can be practical and beneficial in the region. However, the distance between crops and tree rows should be adjusted to minimize interspecies competition. Agronomic measures such as regular canopy pruning, root barriers, additional irrigation and fertilization also should be applied in the intercropping systems.

  11. Inhibition of chemiluminescence and chemotactic activity of phagocytes in vitro by the extracts of selected medicinal plants.

    Jantan, Ibrahim; Harun, Nurul Hikmah; Septama, Abdi Wira; Murad, Shahnaz; Mesaik, M A

    2011-04-01

    The methanol extracts of 20 selected medicinal plants were investigated for their effects on the respiratory burst of human whole blood, isolated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and isolated mice macrophages using a luminol/lucigenin-based chemiluminescence assay. We also tested the effect of the extracts on chemotactic migration of PMNs using the Boyden chamber technique. The extracts of Curcuma domestica L., Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn and C. xanthorrhiza Roxb. were the samples producing the strongest oxidative burst of PMNs with luminol-based chemiluminescence, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 μg/ml. For macrophage cells, the extracts which showed strong suppressive activity for luminol-based chemiluminescence were C. xanthorrhiza and Garcinia mangostana L. Among the extracts studied, C. mangga Valton & Vazsjip, Piper nigrum L. and Labisia pumila var. alata showed strong inhibitory activity on lucigenin-amplified oxidative burst of PMNs, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.9 to 1.5 μg/ml. The extracts of Zingiber officinale Rosc., Alpinia galangal (L.) Willd and Averrhoa bilimbi Linn showed strong inhibition on the chemotaxic migration of cells, with IC(50) values comparable to that of ibuprofen (1.5 μg/ml). The results suggest that some of these plants were able to modulate the innate immune response of phagocytes at different steps, emphasizing their potential as a source of new immunomodulatory agents.

  12. Plant species visited by the Horned Sungem Heliactin bilophus (Aves, Trochilidae at Chapada dos Veadeiros, during the rainy season

    Gabriel Baruffaldi Ghiringhello

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The feeding habits of the Horned Sungem remain little known. This study aimed to identify the plant species most often visited by H. bilophus with feeding purposes (consumption of nectar during the rainy season at Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park, Goiás. Observations were made during two rainy seasons (January 2006 and February 2008. The methodology consisted of walking through trails within two areas of campo sujo and two areas of campo rupestre. The record of an individual consuming the nectar of a flowering plant was considered to constitute a visit. A total of 296 visits were observed, comprising eight species of shrubs and herbs. The most often visited plant species were Bauhinia tenella (Caesalpinoideae and Vochysia pumila (Vochysiaceae in campo sujo, and Lychnophora ericoides (Asteraceae in campo rupestre. These three species were commonly found at the study sites. In both physiognomies, Heliactin bilophus consumed the nectar of few plant species. The most frequently visited species bore high numbers of flowers.

  13. Boreal Forests of Kamchatka: Structure and Composition

    Markus P. Eichhorn

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Central Kamchatka abounds in virgin old-growth boreal forest, formed primarily by Larix cajanderi and Betula platyphylla in varying proportions. A series of eight 0.25–0.30 ha plots captured the range of forests present in this region and their structure is described. Overall trends in both uplands and lowlands are for higher sites to be dominated by L. cajanderi with an increasing component of B. platyphylla with decreasing altitude. The tree line on wet sites is commonly formed by mono-dominant B. ermanii forests. Basal area ranged from 7.8–38.1 m2/ha and average tree height from 8.3–24.7 m, both being greater in lowland forests. Size distributions varied considerably among plots, though they were consistently more even for L. cajanderi than B. platyphylla. Upland sites also contained a dense subcanopy of Pinus pumila averaging 38% of ground area. Soil characteristics differed among plots, with upland soils being of lower pH and containing more carbon. Comparisons are drawn with boreal forests elsewhere and the main current threats assessed. These forests provide a potential baseline to contrast with more disturbed regions elsewhere in the world and therefore may be used as a target for restoration efforts or to assess the effects of climate change independent of human impacts.

  14. Magnetic properties of highroad-side pine tree leaves in Beijing and their environmental significance

    ZHANG Chunxia; HUANG Baochun; LI Zhenyu; LIU He

    2006-01-01

    This is a report on magnetic properties of highroad-side tree (Pinus pumila Regel) leaves collected along an expressway linking Beijing City and the Capital International Airport and further focus on their environmental contributions. A series of rock magnetic experiments show that the primary magnetic mineral of leaf samples was identified to be magnetite, in the pseudo-single domain (PSD) grain size range 0.2-5.0μm. On the other hand, magnetite concentration and grain size in leaves are ascertained to decrease with increasing of sampling distance to highroad asphalt surface, suggesting that high magnetic response to traffic pollution is localized within a distance of some two meters away from highroad asphalt surface. Although magnetic susceptibility is ordinarily regarded as a simple, rapid and low-cost method for monitoring traffic pollution,saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM)can be treated as a valid proxy for monitoring air particulate matter (PM) when samples are magnetically weak. It is believed that a synthetic rock magnetic study is an effective method for determining concentration and grain size of ferromagnets in the atmospheric PM, and then it should be a rapid and feasible technique for monitoring atmospheric pollution.

  15. Cutin-derived CuO reaction products from purified cuticles and tree leaves

    Goñi, Miguel A.; Hedges, John I.

    1990-11-01

    Long chain (C 16-C 18) hydroxy fatty acids are obtained among the nonlignin-derived reaction products from the CuO oxidation of a variety of geochemical samples. In order to investigate the origin of these acids, the CuO reaction products of isolated cuticles and whole leaves were investigated. The reaction products from the CuO oxidation of purified apple ( Malus pumila) cuticle include 16-hydroxy-hexadecanoic acid, 10,16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid, 9,10,18-trihydroxyoctadec-12-enoic acid, and 9,10,18-trihydroxyoctadecanoic acid as major components. The distribution of these cutin-derived CuO reaction products is similar to the monomer compositions deduced from traditional methods of cutin analysis. Oxidation of whole English Holly ( Ilex aquifolium) leaves yields cutin-derived acidic reaction products (in addition to lignin-derived phenols) similar to those obtained from oxidation of the corresponding isolated cuticles, indicating that CuO oxidation of bulk plant tissue is a viable procedure of cutin analysis in geochemical applications.

  16. Polyketide folding in higher plants: biosynthesis of the phenylanthraquinone knipholone.

    Bringmann, Gerhard; Noll, Torsten F; Gulder, Tanja; Dreyer, Michael; Grüne, Matthias; Moskau, Detlef

    2007-04-27

    The biosynthesis of knipholone, as an axially chiral phenylanthraquinone, in higher plants was examined by feeding experiments with [13C2]-labeled precursors. [13C2]-Acetate and advanced synthetic intermediates were fed to sterile cultures of Kniphofia pumila (Asphodelaceae), with subsequent NMR analysis on the isolated natural product involving 2D INADEQUATE and SELINQUATE experiments. Due to its uneven number of carbon atoms, and because of its uncertain decarboxylation site, the "northern" part of the molecule (i.e., the chrysophanol portion) might originate from four different cyclization modes. According to the labeling pattern of the product isolated after incorporation, this anthraquinone part of knipholone is formed by the so-called F folding mode (originally established for fungi). The acetophenone part of the molecule, which does not undergo a decarboxylation reaction, originates from four acetate units. The surprising lack of randomization of the intact [13C2] units in this "southern" part reveals the absence of a free symmetric intermediate as initially anticipated. This is in agreement with the intact incorporation of the "authentic" southern molecular portion, 4,6-dihydroxy-2-methoxyacetophenone, while the corresponding symmetrical candidate trihydroxyacetophenone was clearly not incorporated, showing that the O-methylation of the freshly cyclized tetraketide is the step that prevents symmetrization of the acetophenone.

  17. Programmed cell death features in apple suspension cells under low oxygen culture

    徐昌杰; 陈昆松; FERGUSONIanB

    2004-01-01

    Suspension-cultured apple fruit cells (Malus pumila Mill. cv. Braeburn) were exposed to a low oxygen atmosphere to test whether programmed cell death (PCD) has a role in cell dysfunction and death under hypoxic conditions. Protoplasts were prepared at various times after low oxygen conditions were established, and viability tested by triple staining with fluorescein diacetate (FDA), propidium iodide (PI) and Hoechst33342 (HO342). DNA breakdown and phosphatidylserine exposure on the plasma membrane were observed using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), and annexin V binding. About 30% of protoplasts from cells after 48 h under low oxygen showed an increased accumulation of HO342, indicating increased membrane permeability. Positive TUNEL and annexin V results were also only obtained with protoplasts from cells under low oxygen. The results suggest that apple celi death under low oxygen is at least partially PCD mediated, and may explain tissue breakdown under controlled atmosphere (low oxygen) conditions in apple fruit.

  18. Programmed cell death features in apple suspension cells under low oxygen culture.

    Xu, Chang-jie; Chen, Kun-song; Ferguson, Ian B

    2004-02-01

    Suspension-cultured apple fruit cells (Malus pumila Mill. cv. Braeburn) were exposed to a low oxygen atmosphere to test whether programmed cell death (PCD) has a role in cell dysfunction and death under hypoxic conditions. Protoplasts were prepared at various times after low oxygen conditions were established, and viability tested by triple staining with fluorescein diacetate (FDA), propidium iodide (PI) and Hoechst33342 (HO342). DNA breakdown and phosphatidylserine exposure on the plasma membrane were observed using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), and annexin V binding. About 30% of protoplasts from cells after 48 h under low oxygen showed an increased accumulation of HO342, indicating increased membrane permeability. Positive TUNEL and annexin V results were also only obtained with protoplasts from cells under low oxygen. The results suggest that apple cell death under low oxygen is at least partially PCD mediated, and may explain tissue breakdown under controlled atmosphere (low oxygen) conditions in apple fruit.

  19. Programmed cell death features in apple suspension cells under low oxygen culture

    XU Chang-jie(徐昌杰); CHEN Kun-song(陈昆松); FERGUSON Ian B.

    2004-01-01

    Suspension-cultured apple fruit cells (Malus pumila Mill. cv. Braeburn) were exposed to a low oxygen atmosphere to test whether programmed cell death (PCD) has a role in cell dysfunction and death under hypoxic conditions. Protoplasts were prepared at various times after low oxygen conditions were established, and viability tested by triple staining with fluorescein diacetate (FDA), propidium iodide (PI) and Hoechst33342 (HO342). DNA breakdown and phosphatidylserine exposure on the plasma membrane were observed using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), and annexin V binding. About 30% of protoplasts from cells after 48 h under low oxygen showed an increased accumulation of HO342, indicating increased membrane permeability. Positive TUNEL and annexin V results were also only obtained with protoplasts from cells under low oxygen. The results suggest that apple cell death under low oxygen is at least partially PCD mediated, and may explain tissue breakdown under controlled atmosphere (low oxygen) conditions in apple fruit.

  20. New records of vascular plants in Zhejiang Province%浙江维管植物分布新记录

    张芬耀; 谢文远; 陈锋; 刘宝权; 陈征海

    2016-01-01

    报道了浙江维管植物分布新记录10种,分别为:睫毛蕨科Pleurosoriopsidaceae的睫毛蕨 Pleurosoriopsis makinoi (Maxim .ex Makino) Fomin;榆科Ulmaceae的山黄麻 Trema tomentosa (Roxb .) Hara;樟科Lauraceae的华南木姜子 Litsea greenmaniana Allen和黄枝润楠 Machilus versicolora S .K .Lee & F .N .Wei;景天科Crassu‐laceae的东至景天 Sedum dongzhiense D .Q .Wang & Y .L .Shi和高岭景天 Sedum tricarpum Makino ;紫金牛科Myrsinaceae的少年红 Ardisia alyxiaefolia Tsiang ex C .Chen;禾本科 Poaceae的广州鼠尾粟 Sporobolus hancei Rendle、远东芨芨草 Achnatherum extremiorientale (Hara) Keng ex P .C .Kuo和南荻 Miscanthus lutarioriparius L .Liu ex Renvoize & S .L .Chen .其中,睫毛蕨科为浙江新记录科.凭证标本保存于浙江农林大学植物标本室(ZJFC ).%Ten species are reported for the first time in Zhejiang Province ,i .e .Pleurosoriopsis makinoi (Maxim .ex Makino) Fomin of Pleurosoriopsidaceae ,Trema tomentosa (Roxb .) Hara of Ulmaceae ,Litsea greenmaniana Allen and Machilus versicolora S .K .Lee & F .N .Wei of Lauraceae ,Sedum dongzhiense D .Q .Wang & Y .L .Shi and Sedum tricarpum Makino of Crassulaceae ,Ardisia alyxiaefolia Tsiang ex C . Chen of Myrsinaceae , Sporobolus hancei Rendle ,Achnatherum extremiorientale (Hara) Keng ex P .C .Kuo and Miscanthus lutarioripa‐rius L .Liu ex Renvoize & S .L .Chen of Poaceae .Pleurosoriopsidaceae is a newly recorded family in Zhejiang Province .The voucher specimens were preserved in the herbarium of Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University (ZJFC ) .

  1. Inhibition of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L.: a novel approach to reduce oxidative browning in plant tissue culture.

    Jones, Andrew Maxwell Phineas; Saxena, Praveen Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative browning is a common and often severe problem in plant tissue culture systems caused by the accumulation and oxidation of phenolic compounds. The current study was conducted to investigate a novel preventative approach to address this problem by inhibiting the activity of the phenylalanine ammonia lyase enzyme (PAL), thereby reducing the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds. This was accomplished by incorporating 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP), a competitive PAL inhibitor, into culture media of Artemisia annua as a model system. Addition of AIP into culture media resulted in significant reductions in visual tissue browning, a reduction in total phenol content, as well as absorbance and autoflourescence of tissue extracts. Reduced tissue browning was accompanied with a significant increase in growth on cytokinin based medium. Microscopic observations demonstrated that phenolic compounds accumulated in discrete cells and that these cells were more prevalent in brown tissue. These cells were highly plasmolyzed and often ruptured during examination, demonstrating a mechanism in which phenolics are released into media in this system. These data indicate that inhibiting phenylpropanoid biosynthesis with AIP is an effective approach to reduce tissue browning in A. annua. Additional experiments with Ulmus americana and Acer saccharum indicate this approach is effective in many species and it could have a wide application in systems where oxidative browning restricts the development of biotechnologies.

  2. Woody invasions of urban trails and the changing face of urban forests in the great plains, USA

    Nemec, K.T.; Allen, C.R.; Alai, A.; Clements, G.; Kessler, A.C.; Kinsell, T.; Major, A.; Stephen, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Corridors such as roads and trails can facilitate invasions by non-native plant species. The open, disturbed habitat associated with corridors provides favorable growing conditions for many non-native plant species. Bike trails are a corridor system common to many urban areas that have not been studied for their potential role in plant invasions. We sampled five linear segments of urban forest along bike trails in Lincoln, Nebraska to assess the invasion of woody non-native species relative to corridors and to assess the composition of these urban forests. The most abundant plant species were generally native species, but five non-native species were also present: white mulberry (Morus alba), common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica), tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima), honeysuckle (Lonicera spp.) and elm (Ulmus spp.). The distribution of two of the woody species sampled, common buckthorn and honeysuckle, significantly decreased with increasing distance from a source patch of vegetation (P = 0.031 and 0.030). These linear habitats are being invaded by non-native tree and shrub species, which may change the structure of these urban forest corridors. If non-native woody plant species become abundant in the future, they may homogenize the plant community and reduce native biodiversity in these areas. ?? 2011 American Midland Naturalist.

  3. THE COPĂCEL HILL FOREST, BETWEEN BĂLA AND ERCEA, A FUTURE RESERVE OF MUREŞ COUNTY

    OROIAN SILVIA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The forest lies in the region known as the “Transylvanian Plain”, on the Copăcel hill, between Băla and Ercea. The specific landscape of this region is characterized by medium altitude hills, with wide and soft slopes. In this forest, the presence of the Delphinium simonkaianum Pawł. var. psilocarpum (Simk. Pawł species, a threatened endemic taxon, was reported in 1953. In 2011, this globally threatened taxon was identified, after 58 years, on the upper side of the Copăcel slope, in a mixed oak and hornbeam forest. These oak and hornbeam mixtures are the result of impacts exerted on oak forests. The identified association, Melampyro bihariensis-Carpinetum (Borza 1941 Soó 1964 em. Coldea 1975, has three distinct layers: the arborescent layer dominated by Carpinus betulus and Quercus petraea, along with Quercus robur, Prunus avium, Acer campestre, Ulmus glabra, etc., with good canopy cover (0.8-0.9; the shrub layer, represented by species such as: Crataegus monogyna, Corylus avellana, Cornus mas, Ligustrum vulgare, Rosa canina, Sambucus nigra, Staphylea pinnata, etc., is relatively poor in individuals, which are present particularly in forest clearings or at the edge of the forest. Grass synusia is well developed, sometimes forming an almost continuous cover (Asarum europaeum, Convallaria majalis, Dactylis glomerata ssp. aschersoniana, Galium odoratum, Melampyrum bihariense, Stellaria holostea, Aconitum anthora, Aconitum moldavicum, Lilium martagon, Arum orientale.

  4. Wood Species for the Biedermeier Furniture - A Microscopic Characterisation for Scientific Conservation

    L. Gurau

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Wood species identification is an important, compulsory step in the scientific conservation of the historic furniture as a significant part of the cultural heritage. It is known that a visual examination of an investigated sample does not always bring enough information about the original species and that a microscopic approach is more reliable. Species identification can be performed if the microscopic images are interpreted for common, but also for specific features and characteristics, by means of identification keys and in comparison with reference images. This paper provides the microscopic characterization with identification keys for six hardwood species, some of the most common in Biedermeier furniture (elm - Ulmus glabra Huds., cherry - Prunus avium L., walnut - Juglans regia L.,pear - Pyrus communis L., aspen - Populus tremula L., African mahogany - Khaya ivorensis A. Chev.. The characterization can be used for wood identification purposes by laboratories working in the field of cultural heritage wood conservation. This work is part of a recent research project that aims to develop and implement a scientific investigation for furniture conservation.

  5. Effects of timber harvest on structural diversity and species composition in hardwood forests

    FARZAM TAVANKAR

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tavankar F, Bonyad AE. 2015. Effects of timber harvest on structural diversity and species composition in hardwood forests. Biodiversitas 16: 1-9. Forest management leads to changes in structure and species composition of stands. In this research vertical and horizontal structure and species composition were compared in two harvested and protected stands in the Caspian forest of Iran. The results indicated the tree and seedling density, total basal area and stand volume was significantly (P < 0.01 higher in the protected stand. The Fagus orientalis L. had the most density and basal area in the both stands. Species importance value (SIV of Fagus orientalis in the protected stand (92.5 was higher than in the harvested stand (88.5. While, the SIV of shade-intolerant tree species such as Acer insigne, Acer cappadocicum and Alnus subcordata was higher in the harvested stand. The density of trees and seedling of rare tree species, such as Ulmus glabra, Tilia begonifolia, Zelkova caprinifolia and Fraxinus coriarifolia, was also higher in the protected stand. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index in the protected stand (0.84 was significantly higher (P < 0.01 than in the harvested stand (0.72. The highest diversity value in the harvested stand was observed in DBH of 10-40 cm class, while DBH of 40-70 cm had the highest diversity value in the protected stand.

  6. Quercetin-6-C-β-D-glucopyranoside, natural analog of quercetin exhibits anti-prostate cancer activity by inhibiting Akt-mTOR pathway via aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    Hamidullah; Kumar, Rajeev; Saini, Karan Singh; Kumar, Amit; Kumar, Sudhir; Ramakrishna, E; Maurya, Rakesh; Konwar, Rituraj; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya

    2015-12-01

    Pre-clinical studies suggest mitigating effect of dietary flavonoid quercetin against cancer and other diseases. However, quercetin suffers from poor metabolic stability, which appears to offset its pharmacological efficacy. Recently, we isolated quercetin-6-C-β-D-glucopyranoside (QCG) from Ulmus wallichiana planchon that has greater stability profile over quercetin. In the present study, the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of QCG on prostate cancer cells were assessed. QCG inhibited prostate cancer cell proliferation by arresting cells at G0/G1 phase of cell cycle and induces apoptosis as evident from cytochrome c release, cleavage of caspase 3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Mechanistic studies revealed that QCG inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and Akt/mTOR cell survival pathways. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) was a critical mediator of QCG action as knockdown of AhR attenuated QCG-induced cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and inhibition of Akt/mTOR pathway in prostate cancer cells. Taken together, our results suggest that QCG exhibits anti-cancer activity against prostate cancer cells via AhR-mediated down regulation of Akt/mTOR pathway in PC-3 cells.

  7. Putative forest glacial refugia in the Western and Eastern Carpathians

    Józef Mitka

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An examination of thermophilous species pollen deposits found in the Plenivistulian river alluvial terraces in the Polish Western Carpathians was conducted. Of the 16 palaeobotanical sites evaluated, most often noted were Alnus and Betula t. alba; Abies, Carpinus and Corylus occurred less frequently, and Quercus, Tilia and Ulmus were rare. Fagus and Fraxinus pollen were absent. Abies and Carpinus were relatively overrepresented, because their frequency of occurrence was similar to Corylus avellana, i.e. one of the most cold-resistant species. Based on a literature survey of phylogeographic studies and data regarding the forest species Aconitum moldavicum, A. variegatum, Bromus benekenii, Carpinus betulus, Lathyrus vernus, Lonicera nigra, and the moderately thermophilous Rosa pendulina, 47 cryptic refugial areas of temperate plant species are postulated. The combined analysis indicates that they could have survived the last glaciation in the W & E Carpathian microrefugia close to 650 m a.s.l., and in Podolia (north of the Eastern Carpathians along a contour of 300 m a.s.l.

  8. Delineation of biogeomorphic land units across a tropical natural and humanized terrain in Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, México

    García-Aguirre, María Concepción; Álvarez, Román; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Ortiz, Mario A.; Eng, Manuel Mah

    2010-09-01

    This paper analyzes landscape in a rainforest region integrating geomorphologic and ecosystem analysis methods. Major landscape elements (geology, geomorphology, soils, vegetation and land use) were mapped as biogeomorphic land units using remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS). Associations between these variables were analyzed by map fusion and the results were expressed on a land unit map (scale ca. 1:100,000). Volcanic structures are dominant in the study area. Lava flows cover most of the region, mainly as basalt; several pyroclastic cones are widely distributed over the area but are dominant in the southeast region. A hypsometric map derived from a digital elevation model (DEM), and intersected with a land cover/use map showed an altitudinal gradient of vegetation. Rainforest grows at lower altitudes (0 to 700 m) and Virola, Juglans and Chionantus are distributed from 700 to 900 m. These species are located on slopes of basalt and andesites intercalated with tephra, recent isolated stratovolcano structures and an erosive flood plain. At higher altitudes (900 to 1100 m) the forest identified as Chionantus‒ Ulmus‒ Randia is associated with cinder cones. A Quercus‒ Ulmus forest (900 to 1400 m) covers the slopes of the highest volcano (San Martin) and surrounding areas, while evergreen (elfin) forest is at the top of this mountain (1660 m).

  9. Regeneration in bottomland forest canopy gaps six years after variable retention harvests to enhance wildlife habitat

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Somershoe, Scott G.; Guldin, James M.

    2013-01-01

    To promote desired forest conditions that enhance wildlife habitat in bottomland forests, managers prescribed and implemented variable-retention harvest, a.k.a. wildlife forestry, in four stands on Tensas River National Wildlife Refuge, LA. These treatments created canopy openings (gaps) within which managers sought to regenerate shade-intolerant trees. Six years after prescribed harvests, we assessed regeneration in 41 canopy gaps and 4 large (>0.5-ha) patch cut openings that resulted from treatments and in 21 natural canopy gaps on 2 unharvested control stands. Mean gap area of anthropogenic gaps (582 m²) was greater than that of natural gaps (262 m²). Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) and red oaks (Quercus nigra, Q. nuttallii, and Q. phellos) were common in anthropogenic gaps, whereas elms (Ulmus spp.) and sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) were numerous in natural gaps. We recommend harvest prescriptions include gaps with diameter >25 m, because the proportion of shade-intolerant regeneration increased with gap area up to 500 m². The proportion of shade-intolerant definitive gap fillers (individuals likely to occupy the canopy) increased with gap area: 35 percent in natural gaps, 54 percent in anthropogenic gaps, and 84 percent in patch cuts. Sweetgum, green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), and red oaks were common definitive gap fillers.

  10. Influence of wind direction on pollen concentration in the atmosphere

    Silva Palacios, I.; Tormo Molina, R.; Muñoz Rodríguez, A. F.

    The daily pollen concentration in the atmosphere of Badajoz (SW Spain) was analysed over a 6-year period (1993-1998) using a volumetric aerobiological trap. The results for the main pollination period are compared with the number of hours of wind each day in the four quadrants: 1 (NE), 2 (SE), 3 (SW) and 4 (NW). The pollen source distribution allowed 16 pollen types to be analysed as a function of their distribution in the four quadrants with respect to the location of the trap. Four of them correspond to species growing in an irrigated farmland environment (Amaranthaceae-Chenopodiaceae, Plantago, Scirpus, and Typha), five to riparian and woodland species (Salix, Fraxinus, Alnus, Populus, and Eucalyptus), four to urban ornamentals (Ulmus, Arecaceae, Cupressaceae, and Casuarina), and three which include the most frequent pollen grains of widely distributed species (Poaceae, Quercus, and Olea). The results show that the distribution of the sources and the wind direction play a very major role in determining the pollen concentration in the atmosphere when these sources are located in certain quadrants, and that the widely distributed pollen sources show no relationship with wind direction. In some years the values of the correlations were not maintained, which leads one to presume that, in order to draw significant conclusions and establish clear patterns of the influence of wind direction, a continuous and more prolonged study will be required.

  11. Vegetation history reconstructed from anthracology and pollen analysis at the rescue excavation of the MO Motorway, Hungary

    Náfrádi, Katalin; Bodor, Elvira; Törőcsik, Tünde; Sümegi, Pál

    2011-12-01

    The significance of geoarchaeological investigations is indisputable in reconstructing the former environment and in studying the relationship between humans and their surroundings. Several disciplines have developed during the last few decades to give insight into earlier time periods and their climatic conditions (e.g. palynology, malacology, archaeobotany, phytology and animal osteology). Charcoal and pollen analytical studies from the rescue excavation of the MO motorway provide information about the vegetation changes of the past. These methods are used to reconstruct the environment of the former settlements and to detect the human impact and natural climatic changes. The sites examined span the periods of the Late-Copper Age, Late-Bronze Age, Middle-Iron Age, Late-Iron Age, Sarmatian period, Late Sarmatian period, Migration period, Late-Migration period and Middle Ages. The vegetation before the Copper Age is based only on pollen analytical data. Anthracological results show the overall dominance of Quercus and a great number of Ulmus, Fraxinus, Acer, Fagus, Alnus and Populus/Salix tree fossils, as well as the residues of fruit trees present in the charred wood assemblage.

  12. Palynological records of environmental changes in the middle part of Inner Mongolia, China

    SHI Peijun; SONG Changqing

    2003-01-01

    A 2.4-m-long core was extracted from Diaojiao Lake (41°18′N, 112°21′E) at the foot of the northern part of Daqingshan Mts. High-resolution pollen analysis results of two sites showed 10 arboreal genera, including Pinus, Betula, Picea, Abies, Carpinus, Quercus, Ulmus and more than 20 non-arboreal genera, mainly of Artemisia, Labiatae, Nitraria, Polygonaceae, Ranunculus, Thalictrum, Umbelliferae, Caryophyllaceae and Cyperaceae dominating the record. Fern spores, aquatic pollen and algae were also observed in some sections of the cores. The sequence was divided stratigraphically into six pollen assemblage zones by a stratigraphically-constrained cluster analysis using an incremental sum of squares method. The vegetation underwent the following stage changes: steppe with sparsetrees, steppe, forest, and steppe. During the middle Holocene, a mixed forest of Pinus, Betula and Quercus occurred on the mountainous areas, and Pinus forestdominated the frontal plains. Six climatic stages were inferred from total pollen flux and pollen percentage from the two sites using a transfer function: humid-cool (10000-7800 aBP), arid-cold (9200-7800 aBP), arid-warm (7800-7100 aBP), humid-warm (7100-4400 aBP), arid-warm (4400-3000 aBP), arid-cold (3000-2100 aBP) phases were identified.

  13. On the species status of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne ulmi Palmisano & Ambrogioni, 2000 (Nematoda, Meloidogynidae

    Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne ulmi is synonymised with Meloidogyne mali based on morphological and morphometric similarities, common hosts, as well as biochemical similarities at both protein and DNA levels. M. mali was first described in Japan on Malus prunifolia Borkh.; and M. ulmi in Italy on Ulmus chenmoui W.C. Cheng. Morphological and morphometric studies of their holo- and paratypes revealed important similarities in the major characters as well as some general variability in a few others. Host test also showed that besides the two species being able to parasitize the type hosts of the other, they share some other common hosts. Our study of the esterase and malate dehydrogenase isozyme phenotypes of some M. ulmi populations gave a perfectly comparable result to that already known for M. mali. Finally, phylogenetic studies of their SSU and LSU rDNA sequence data revealed that the two are not distinguishable at DNA level. All these put together, leave strong evidences to support the fact that M. ulmi is not a valid species, but a junior synonym of M. mali. Brief discussion on the biology and life cycle of M. mali is given. An overview of all known hosts and the possible distribution of M. mali in Europe are also presented.

  14. Winter browse selection by white-tailed deer and implications for bottomland forest restoration in the Upper Mississippi River Valley, USA

    Cogger, Benjamin J.; De Jager, Nathan R.; Thomsen, Meredith; Adams, Carrie Reinhardt

    2014-01-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) forage selectively, modifying upland forest species composition and in some cases shifting ecosystems to alternative stable states. Few studies, however, have investigated plant selection by deer in bottomland forests. Herbaceous invasive species are common in wetlands and their expansion could be promoted if deer avoid them and preferentially feed on native woody species. We surveyed plant species composition and winter deer browsing in 14 floodplain forest restoration sites along the Upper Mississippi River and tributaries. Tree seedling density declined rapidly with increasing cover of invasive Phalaris arundinacea, averaging less than 1 per m2 in all sites in which the grass was present. Deer browsed ∼46% of available tree seedling stems (branches) at mainland restorations, compared to ∼3% at island sites. Across all tree species, the number of browsed stems increased linearly with the number available and responded unimodally to tree height. Maximum browsing rates were observed on trees with high stem abundances (>10 per plant) and of heights between 50 and 150 cm. Deer preferred Ulmus americana and Acer saccharinum, and avoided Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Acer negundo, and Quercus spp. at mainland sites, and did not browse Phalaris arundinacea if present. Depending on plant growth responses to herbivory and the competitive effects of unbrowsed species, our results suggest that selective foraging could promote the expansion of invasive species and/or alter tree species composition in bottomland forest restorations. Islands may, however, serve as refuges from browsing on a regional scale.

  15. Late Holocene Vegetation Change in the Sierra Madre Oriental of Central Mexico

    Conserva, Maria Elena; Byrne, Roger

    2002-09-01

    Past vegetation and climate changes reconstructed from a sediment core from Laguna Atezca, Molango, Mexico, provide new insights into the environmental and cultural histories of the Sierra Madre Oriental during the last 1700 yr. Pollen, microscopic charcoal, sediment chemistry, loss on ignition, and magnetic susceptibility indicate that three phases of human occupation, deforestation, and erosion (ca. A.D. 280-890, ca. A.D. 1030-1420, and ca. A.D. 1680-present) alternate with two phases of abandonment (ca. A.D. 890-1030 and ca. A.D. 1420-1680). Forest composition of the two abandonment phases differed, with cloud forest taxa ( Liquidambar, Ostrya/Carpinus, Ulmus, etc.) dominating the pollen record during the first phase, and Quercus and Pinus pollen characterizing phase two. These differences may reflect a climate change in which the second phase was drier than the first; Alternatively, the increase in Pinus and Quercus may have been caused by a human-induced decline in soil fertility. The Laguna Atezca record also differs from several other Mesoamerican paleoenvironmental records in that it shows no evidence of drought at the end of the Classic Period, ca. A.D. 900.

  16. Establishment Success of Coexisting Native and Exotic Trees Under an Experimental Gradient of Irradiance and Soil Moisture

    González-Muñoz, Noelia; Castro-Díez, Pilar; Fierro-Brunnenmeister, Natalia

    2011-10-01

    The exotic trees Ailanthus altissima, Robinia pseudoacacia, Acer negundo and Elaeagnus angustifolia coexist with the native trees Fraxinus angustifolia and Ulmus minor in river banks of central Spain. Similarly, the exotic trees Acacia dealbata and Eucalyptus globulus co-occur with the natives Quercus pyrenaica and Pinus pinaster in Northwest Spain. We aimed to identify the environmental conditions that favour or hamper the establishment success of these species. In spring 2008, seeds of the studied species were sown under an experimental gradient of light (100, 65, 35, 7% of full sunlight) combined with three levels of soil moisture (mean soil water potential = -0.97, -1.52 and -1.77 MPa.). During the first growing season we monitored seed emergence and seedling survival. We found that the effect of light on the establishment success was stronger than the effect of soil moisture. Both exotic and native species of central Spain showed a good performance under high light, A. negundo being the most shade tolerant . Water shortage diminished E. angustifolia and A. altissima success. Among NW Spain species, A. dealbata and P. pinaster were found to be potential competitors for colonizing high-irradiance scenarios, while Q. pyrenaica and E. globulus were more successful under moderate shade. High soil moisture favoured E. globulus but not A. dealbata establishment. These results contribute to understand some of the factors controlling for spatial segregation between coexisting native and exotic tree species, and can help to take decisions orientated to the control and management of these exotic species.

  17. Quantitative evaluation by attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy of the chemical composition of decayed wood preserved in waterlogged conditions.

    Pizzo, Benedetto; Pecoraro, Elisa; Alves, Ana; Macchioni, Nicola; Rodrigues, José Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the assessment of lignin and holocellulose by means of ATR-FTIR analysis and multivariate PLS regression. The analysis was conducted on 59 samples coming from different excavations where wood had been preserved in waterlogged conditions. A range of results from different wood species (Alnus sp.p., Cupressus sempervirens, Larix decidua, Picea abies, Pinus sp.p., Quercus sp.p., Ulmus sp.p.), states of preservation, waterlogged environments, and burial times are presented. A calibration model was selected after comparing different reference data (samples extracted and not-extracted, and ash-rich and ash-free bases of calculation for the calibration values), and two different post-acquisition spectroscopic manipulations (both in terms of normalisation procedures and of spectral ranges used for the calibration). Results showed that the best models were different depending on which considered component (lignin or holocellulose) was measured and to which data set (softwood or hardwood) the samples belonged. It is shown that the predictive ability of the models is affected by high ash content (too contaminated samples had to be excluded in order to attain good results, because of excessive overlapping of bands related to the inorganic fraction) but not by the preliminary extraction of sample. Furthermore, the stability of best models is also demonstrated and a procedure of external validation carried out on an external set of samples confirmed the general validity of the identified models.

  18. Influence of wind on daily airborne pollen counts in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula)

    tareq Majeed, Husam; Periago, Cristina; Alarcón, Marta; De Linares, Concepción; Belmonte, Jordina

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to analize the influence of wind (speed and direction) on the daily airborne pollen counts recorded in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula) of 21 pollen taxa recorded at 6 aerobiological stations: Barcelona, Bellaterra, Girona, Lleida Manresa, and Tarragona for the period 2004-2014. The taxa studied are Alnus, Betula, Castanea, Cupressaceae, Fagus, Fraxinus, Olea, Pinus, Platanus, total Quercus, Quercus deciduous type, Quercus evergreen type, Ulmus, Corylus, Pistacia, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Plantago, Poaceae, Polygonaceae, and Urticaceae. The mean daily wind direction was divided into 8 sectors: N, NE, E, SE, S, SW, W and NW. For each sector, the correlation between the daily pollen concentrations and wind speed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was computed and compared with the wind rose charts. The results showed that Tarragona was the station with more significant correlations followed by Bellaterra, Lleida and Manresa. On the other hand, Artemisia was the most correlated taxon with mainly negative values, and Fagus was the least. The W wind direction showed the largest number of significant correlations, mostly positive, while the N direction was the least and negatively correlated.

  19. [Tree uprooting of coniferous-broad leaved Korean pine mixed forest in Lesser Khingan Mountains, China].

    Ge, Xiao-wen; Hou, Jie-jian; Wang, Li-hai; Wang, Xing-long; Rong, Bin-bin

    2016-02-01

    The morphological parameters, root wad indexes and site conditions of 127 uprooting trees from 76 plots (20 mx20 m) in Lesser Khingan coniferous-broad leaved Korean pine mixed forest were measured. Then the influencing factors of uprooting differences and the relationship between uprooting trees and disturbed soil were analyzed. Results showed that the number of uprooting trees varied significantly among species. Abies nephrolepis suffered the most serious uprooting damage, then Pinus koraiensis, and Ulmus spp. the least. Deciduous species had a stronger uprooting-resistant capacity than broad-leaved species. With the increase of tree DBH and height, tree' s uprooting resistance declined rapidly first and then was gradually enhanced, and finally reached the minimum at diameter class of 20 cm and height class of 14 m, respectively. The smaller the taper degree and projected area of crown were, the stronger the uprooting resistance was. Uprooting rate was negatively correlated with stand density. Trees lying in wet ground, flat terrain, medium low altitude area and windward slope had a greater risk of uprooting. There were significant positive correlation between the depth, area and volume of disturbed soil and the DBH, height, volume of uprooting trees.

  20. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii from trunk hollows of living trees in Buenos Aires City, Argentina.

    Refojo, N; Perrotta, D; Brudny, M; Abrantes, R; Hevia, A I; Davel, G

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this work was to describe the distribution of the members of the Cryptococcus species complex (Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii) in hollows of trees from seven parks in Buenos Aires City, to determine the serotypes and genotypes of these environmental isolates and to compare them with the ones reported in the 2001 survey. Four hundred and eighty nine samples were collected by swabbing all trees which had hollows or fissures in the seven parks studied. Each tree was sampled once during the study period and one or more isolates were recovered from each swab. Eight isolates of C. neoformans and 18 isolates of C. gattii were recovered from 15 out of 489 tree samples. C. neoformans was isolated from Tipuana tipu, Eucalyptus spp., and Phoenix sp. All isolates were serotype A and belonged to genotype VNI. C. gattii was isolated from Tipuana tipu, Cedrus deodara, Eucalyptus spp., Acacia visca, Cupresus sempervirens and Ulmus campestrus. All isolates were serotype B and genotype VGI, like both C. gattii strains isolated in 2001. On two occasions, both species were isolated from the same tree sample. These results reinforce and extend our previous findings especially about the presence of C. gattii serotype B, genotype VGI, in Argentina.

  1. Recent Changes in the Riparian Forest of a Large Regulated Mediterranean River: Implications for Management

    González, Eduardo; González-Sanchis, María; Cabezas, Álvaro; Comín, Francisco A.; Muller, Etienne

    2010-04-01

    The structure of the floodplain forests of the Middle Ebro River (NE Spain) was examined at patch and landscape scales along a three-step chronosequence defined according to the extent of flow regulation-induced hydrogeomorphic changes, with the ultimate purpose of producing baseline information to guide through management and restoration plans. At patch scale, a total of 6,891 stems within 39 plots were registered for species, diameter and health status. The stem density, size class distribution, canopy dieback and mortality were further compared by means of non-parametric tests. At landscape scale, the temporal evolution of the area occupied by forest stands of different ages in the floodplain along the chronosequence was evaluated using four sets of aerial photographs dated in 1927, 1957, 1981 and 2003. The within-patch structure of pioneer forests (25-30 years old) were characterized by declining and sparse P. nigra- S. alba- Tamarix spp. stands, where late-seral species such as Ulmus minor and Fraxinus angustifolia were frequent, but only as small-size stems. At landscape scale, these type of senescent forests have doubled their surface after river regulation was intensified. Populus alba only appeared in the oldest plots recorded (colonized before 1957), suggesting sexual regeneration failure during the last five decades, but usually as healthy and dense stands. Based on these findings, measures principally aimed at recovering some hydrogeomorphic dynamism are recommended to guarantee the self-sustainability of the floodplain forest ecosystem.

  2. Electrostatic forces in wind-pollination—Part 1: Measurement of the electrostatic charge on pollen

    Bowker, George E.; Crenshaw, Hugh C.

    Under fair weather conditions, a weak electric field exists between negative charge induced on the surface of plants and positive charge in the air. This field is magnified around points (e.g. stigmas) and can reach values up to 3×10 6 V m -1. If wind-dispersed pollen grains are electrically charged, the electrostatic force (which is the product of the pollen's charge and the electric field at the pollen's location) could influence pollen capture. In this article, we report measurements of the electrostatic charge carried by wind-dispersed pollen grains. Pollen charge was measured using an adaptation of the Millikan oil-drop experiment for seven anemophilous plants: Acer rubrum, Cedrus atlantica, Cedrus deodara, Juniperus virginiana, Pinus taeda, Plantago lanceolata and Ulmus alata. All species had charged pollen, some were positive others negative. The distributions (number of pollen grains as a function of charge) were bipolar and roughly centered about zero although some distributions were skewed towards positive charges. Most pollen carried small amounts of charge, 0.8 fC in magnitude, on average. A few carried charges up to 40 fC. For Juniperus, pollen charges were also measured in nature and these results concurred with those found in the laboratory. For nearly all charged pollen grains, the likelihood that electrostatics influence pollen capture is evident.

  3. Analysis of Airborne Pollen Fall in Edirne,Turkey

    Adem BICAKCI; Goksel OLGUN; Mehmet AYBEKE; Perihan ERKAN; Hulusi MALYER

    2004-01-01

    In the atmosphere of Edirne 12 691 pollen grains belonging to 42 taxa were identified by using of Durham sampler in 2000 and 2001. A total of 6 189 pollen grains per cm2 were recorded in 2000 and a total of 6 502 pollen grains per cm2 in 2001. Total pollen grains consisted of 71.81% grains from arboreal plants, 25.88% grains from non-arboreal plants and 2.31% unidentified pollen grains. Pollen from the following taxa were also found to be prevalent in the atmosphere of Edirne: Gramineae, Pinus sp., Quercus sp.,Cupressaceae/Taxaceae, Platanus sp., Salix sp., Morus sp., Populus sp., Carpinus sp., Juglans sp.,Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Fraxinus sp., Fagus sp., Ulmus sp., Ailanthus sp., Alnus sp., Ostrya sp.,Helianthus sp. The season of maximum pollen fall was from April to June, with a prevalence of arboreal pollen in the first month, and of pollen from non-arboreal plants in the last months of the year.

  4. Analysis of Airborne Pollen Fall in Edirne, Turkey

    AdemBICAKCI; GokselOLGUN; MehmetAYBEKE; PerihanERKAN; HulusiMALYER

    2004-01-01

    In the atmosphere of Edirne 12 691 pollen grains belonging to 42 taxa were identified by using of Durham sampler in 2000 and 2001. A total of 6 189 pollen grains per cm2 were recorded in 2000 and a total of 6 502 pollen grains per cm2 in 2001. Total pollen grains consisted of 71.81% grains from arboreal plants, 25.88% grains from non-arboreal plants and 2.31% unidentified pollen grains. Pollen from the following taxa were also found to be prevalent in the atmosphere of Edirne: Gramineae, Pinus sp., Quercus sp., Cupressaceae/Taxaceae, Platanus sp., Salix sp., Morus sp., Populus sp., Carpinus sp., Juglans sp., Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Fraxinus sp., Fagus sp., Ulmus sp., Ailanthus sp., Alnus sp., Ostrya sp., Helianthus sp. The season of maximum pollen fall was from April to June, with a prevalence of arboreal pollen in the first month, and of oollen from non-arboreal olants in the last months of the vear.

  5. A unique Middle Pleistocene beech (Fagus)-rich deciduous broad-leaved forest in the Yangtze Delta Plain, East China: Its climatic and stratigraphic implication

    Shu, Jun-wu; Wang, Wei-ming

    2012-08-01

    Pollen analysis of Middle Pleistocene sediments from the Yangtze Delta Plain provides a paleoecological reconstruction and has implications for stratigraphic correlation in East China. The pollen assemblage is characterized by high values of Fagus (16.8% on average), which is unusual because Fagus is generally present only sporadically in other lowland Quaternary pollen records from the region. In addition to Fagus, the assemblage has a rich diversity of broad-leaved deciduous trees, including Quercus, Ulmus, Carpinus/Ostrya, Juglans, Betula, and Liquidambar, as well as conifers, including Pinus, Picea, Abies, Larix, and Tsuga. Thus, the pollen flora suggests a broad-leaved deciduous forest mixed with abundant conifers, which developed under cooler and more humid conditions than present. The stable pollen sequence throughout the studied section suggests a stable environment. Beech forests also characterize the Middle Pleistocene of Taiwan and Japan, and thus may be a stratigraphic indicator of the Middle Pleistocene in East Asia. The Yangtze Delta Plain may have been an important refugium for the last survival of Fagus in the lowlands.

  6. Elm leaf beetle performance on ozone-fumigated elm. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    Barger, J.H.; Hall, R.W.; Townsend, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    Leaves (1986) from elm hybrids ('Pioneer', 'Homestead', '970') previously fumigated in open-top chambers with ozone or with charcoal-filtered air (CFA) were evaluated for water and nitrogen content or were fed to adult elm leaf beetles (ELB), Xanthogaleruca = (Pyrrhalta) luteola (Muller), to determine host suitability for beetle fecundity and survivorship. ELB females fed ozone-fumigated leaves laid significantly fewer eggs than females fed CFA-fumigated leaves. Leaf nitrogen or water content was unaffected. Hybrid '970' (1988) was fumigated with CFA or with ozone concentrations to determine effects on ELB fecundity, leaf consumption, and survivorship. Significantly fewer eggs were laid at the higher concentration of ozone. Because higher levels of ozone are found in urban areas and because municipalities often replace American elms, Ulmus americana L., with Dutch elm disease-resistant elm hybrids that are susceptible to ELB defoliation, it is important to explore the relationships between ozone sensitivity of elm and susceptibility to ELB herbivory before recommending replacement use of these elms to municipal arborists. The study was conducted to determine whether ozone pollution influences host quality of elm for ELB and how ELB fecundity, leaf consumption rate, and survivorship are affected.

  7. Introduction to Distribution and Ecology of Sterile Conks of Inonotus obliquus.

    Lee, Min-Woong; Hur, Hyeon; Chang, Kwang-Choon; Lee, Tae-Soo; Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Jankovsky, L

    2008-12-01

    Inonotus obliquus is a fungus that causes white heart rot on several broad-leaved species. This fungus forms typical charcoal-black, sterile conks (chaga) or cinder conks on infected stems of the birche (Betula spp). The dark brown pulp of the sterile conk is formed by a pure mycelial mass of fungus. Chaga are a folk remedy in Russia, reflecting the circumboreal distribution of I. obliquus in boreal forest ecosystems on Betula spp. and in meridional mountain forests on beech (Fagus spp.) in Russia, Scandinavia, Central Europe, and Eastern Europe. Distribution at lower latitudes in Western and Southern Europe, Northern America, Asia, Japan, and Korea is rare. Infected trees grow for many years without several symptoms of decline. The infection can penetrate through stem injuries with exterior sterile conks developing later. In the Czech Republic, cinder conk is found on birches inhabiting peat bogs and in mountain areas with a colder and more humid climate, although it is widespread in other broad leaved species over the Czech Republic. The most common hosts are B. pendula, B. pubescens, B. carpatica, and F. sylvatica. Less frequent hosts include Acer campestre, Acer pseudoplatanus, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus cerris, Q. petraea, Q. robur, Q. delachampii, and Ulmus sp.

  8. A Preliminary Survey of AM Fungal Diversity in Eastern Shandong Orchards%山东东部地区果园AM真菌多样性的初步研究

    王洪滨; 郭绍霞; 李敏; 刘润进; 赵洪海

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the species diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal ( AM) fungi in fruit tree plantations, root zone soil samples of pear ( Pyrus bretschneideri ) , grape ( Vitis vinifera ) , cherry ( Cerasus pseudocerasus ) , apple ( Malus pumila ) and Chinese date ( Zizyphus jujuba ) grown in orchards in Weifang, Qingdao, and Yantai of Eastern Shandong were collected in October 2011 to isolate and identify AM fungal species. A total of 29 species belonging to Acaulospora, Glomus, Gigaspora and Scutellospora were identified. Acaulospora and Glomus were the dominant genera, and Acaulospra bireticulata and Glomus reticulatum were the dominant species in all of the orchard investigated. The spore density of AM fungi in the root zone soil of pear, grape, cherry, apple and jujube trees was 137/50g, 109 /50g, 268/50g, 216/50g andl88/50g soil respectively, while the species richness was 12, 14, 12,12 and 11 respectively. Shannon indexes AM fungal species in various orchards showed pear orchard > grape orchard > Cherry orchard > apple orchard > Chinese date orchard. There were significant positive correlation between available P contents and spore density, and a negative correlation between soil pH and Shannon indices of AM fungi under the conditions of within the range of chemical and physical property of the present investigation regions.%作者于2011年10月对山东潍坊、青岛和烟台等地果树种植园土壤中丛枝菌根(AM)真菌物种多样性进行了调查.共分离到AM真菌4属:无梗囊霉属(Acaulospora)、球囊霉属(Glomus)、巨孢囊霉属(Gigaspora)和盾巨孢囊霉属(Scutellospora)共29种.其中,无梗囊霉属和球囊霉属是山东东部地区果园的优势属,双网无梗囊霉(Acaulospora bireticulata)和网状球囊霉(Glomus reticulatum)则是优势种.梨(Pyrus bretschneideri)、葡萄(Vitis vinifera)、樱桃(Cerasus pseudocerasus)、苹果(Malus pumila)和枣(Zizyphus jujuba)根围AM真菌孢子密度分别为137个/50g

  9. Vegetation drives belowground biogeochemical gradients and C accumulation in an ombrotrophic bog

    Knorr, Klaus-Holger; Galka, Mariusz; Borken, Werner

    2016-04-01

    Peat decomposition and C accumulation is determined by hydrology and climate and by concomitant changes in vegetation and changes in the quality of carbon inputs. Especially changes from moss dominated to vascular plant dominated vegetation affect belowground biogeochemistry and decomposition, as Sphagnum mosses provide refractory, nutrient poor litter, while vascular plants produce more labile litter and may have aerenchymatic rooting systems. In-site variability in moisture and vegetation, e.g. hummock-hollow structures, lawns, and medium scale surface topography, could thus cause large differences in decomposition and C accumulation within a site. In order to understand within-site variability and to see how C accumulation, common decomposition indices, and major biogeochemical parameters in the pore waters are affected by site specific conditions and vegetation, we investigated a moisture-vegetation gradient along a 800 m transect in an oceanic, ombrotrophic bog in Southern Patagonia. Along the transect, conditions changed from wet, Sphagnum dominated (S. magellanicum), to intermediate drier and wetter with Sphagnum/shrubs mixtures, sedges and rushes to more wind exposed, dominated by cushion plants (mainly Astelia pumila). We hypothesized that under arenchymatic vascular plants, decomposition is enhanced and C accumulation is decreased. Vegetation development was elucidated by plant macrofossils and carbon accumulation was attributed to the respective vegetation. The transect demonstrated a high variability of depth records within the bog. At the two most contrasting sites, the uppermost 1 meter persistently dominated by either Sphagnum magellanicum or Astelia pumila had accumulated over 2400 or 4200 years, respectively. Accordingly, the peat under cushion plants was much more decomposed, with C/N ratios of 20-50 compared to C/N ratios of 40-80 under Sphagnum patches. Mixed sites in between had C/N ratios of 30-90, depending on plant community, and

  10. Evaluación de la calidad del aceite de once semillas de leguminosas del desierto sonorense

    Ortega-Nieblas, M.

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to generate information that lead to an efficient and diversifícate use of the natural resources that the Sonoran Desert offers, as it is the great variety of Leguminosae or Fabaceae plants, oils from seeds or Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis velutina (mezquite, Cercidium floridium (palo azul, Cercidium praecox (palo de brea, Acacia constricta (vinorama, Acacia cymbyspina (chirahui, Acacia occidentalis (tesota, Acacia mcmurphy (tepehuaje, Desmanthus palmeri (mezquitillo, Caesalpinia caladenia (palo dorado, and Caesalpinia pumila (palo piojo were analyzed. The oils were extracted from each seed with hexane, and their physicochemical characteristics were evaluated. The oil content varied from 9 to 16% in the different seeds. Their indexes of acidity, peroxides and free fatty acid content were low and within the accepted values. Fatty acids separated by gas chromatography predominating indicate the oleic and linoleic. All analyzed crude oils were of good quality, comparable to commercial and oils of wild legume seeds from the same region.

    A fin de generar información que conduzca a un uso eficiente y diversificado de los recursos naturales que ofrece el Desierto Sonorense, como es la gran variedad de plantas de la familia Leguminosae ó Fabaceae, se analizaron los aceites de las semillas: Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis velutina (mezquite, (palo azul, Cercidium praecox (palo de brea, Acacia constricta (vinorama, Acacia cymbyspina (chirahui, Acacia occidentalis (tésota, Acacia mcmurphy (tepeguaje, Desmanthus palmeri (mezquitillo, Caesalpinia caladenia (palo dorado, y Caesalpinia pumila (palo piojo. Los aceites de cada semilla fueron extraídos con hexano, se evaluaron las características fisico-químicas de calidad y la cuantificación de ácidos grasos por cromatografía de gases. El contenido de

  11. Desmodesmus sp. 3Dp86E-1-a novel symbiotic chlorophyte capable of growth on pure CO2.

    Solovchenko, Alexei; Gorelova, Olga; Selyakh, Irina; Semenova, Larisa; Chivkunova, Olga; Baulina, Olga; Lobakova, Elena

    2014-10-01

    A novel chlorophyte Desmodesmus sp. 3Dp86E-1 isolated from a White Sea hydroid Dynamena pumila was cultivated at CO2 levels from atmospheric (the 'low-CO2' conditions) to pure carbon dioxide (the 5, 20, and 100 % CO2 conditions) under high (480 μE/(m(2) s) PAR) light. After 7 days of cultivation, the '100 % CO2' (but not 5 or 20 % CO2) cells possessed ca. four times higher chlorophyll content per dry weight (DW) unit than the low-CO2 culture. The rate of CO2 fixation under 100 % CO2 comprised ca. 1.5 L/day per L culture volume. After a lag period which depended on the CO2 level, biomass accumulation and volumetric fatty acid (FA) content of the Desmodesmus sp. 3Dp86E-1 bubbled with CO2-enriched gas mixtures increased and was comparable to that of the culture continuously bubbled with air. Under the low-to-moderate CO2 conditions, the FA percentage of the algal cells increased (to 40 % DW) whereas under high-CO2 conditions, FA percentage did not exceed 15 % DW. A strong increase in oleate (18:1) proportion of total FA at the expense of linolenate (18:3) was recorded in the '100 % CO2' cells. Electron microscopy and pulse-amplitude-modulated chlorophyll fluorescence investigation revealed no damage to or significant downregulation of the photosynthetic apparatus in '100 % CO2' cells grown at the high-PAR irradiance. Possible mechanisms of high-CO2 tolerance of Desmodesmus sp. 3Dp86E-1 are discussed in view of its symbiotic origin and possible application for CO2 biomitigation.

  12. Cuticular behavior of cadmium studies using isolated plant cuticles

    Chamel, A.R.; Gambonnet, B.; Genova, C.; Jourdain, A.

    The cuticular retention and penetration of /sup 115m/Cd (metastable cadmium-115) were studied using isolated pear (Pyrus communis L. Passe Crassane) leaves, and apple (Malus pumila Mill. Akane) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruit cuticles to obtain a better understanding of the behavior of Cd deposited on the aerial parts of plants. Results show that Cd, as CdCl/sub 2/, may be taken up by isolated cuticles. The mean value calculated from results obtained with different cuticular species was 1.4 ..mu..g/ Cd/cm/sup 2/ with CdCl/sub 2/ (11.8 mg Cd/L, pH approx. = 6). The cuticular retention depended greatly on the plant species when results are expressed on the basis of the dry weight. The study of the washing with water or exchange solutions suggests that the retention corresponds to a fraction sorbed as solute and to another fraction constituted by exchangeable Cd ions. At first it increased rapidly, then progressively tended to a saturation level as the concentration varied from 0.5 mg to 1.1 Cd/L. It was observed with dewaxed cuticles that the cuticular matrix was predominantly implicated in the retention. There appeared an interaction with Zn, suggesting a competition for the same sites of fixation. It was possible to reveal the cuticular penetration of Cd through intact cuticles; it was very slow but was greater with diluted HCl than with pure water as a receiver. These results are consistent with data obtained from experiments on the entire plants, showing that the greatest part of Cd deposited on leaves is recovered at the deposit place.

  13. Relationship between soil environment and occurrence of crown gall disease in Shanghai%上海地区果树根癌病发生与土壤环境的关系

    任利利; 王焱; 马风林; 何兴兵; 宋福强; 田兴军

    2007-01-01

    果树根癌病(致病菌为根癌土壤杆菌Agrobacterium tumefaciens)目前在上海地区大面积发生,严重危害桃(Amygdalus persica L.)、梨(Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.)、苹果(Malus pumila Mill.)等果树的生长.本文采用化学分析及微生物培养等方法,研究了上海地区桃树和梨树根癌病的发生与土壤因子(土壤含水量、pH值、有机质含量),土壤细菌以及与不同果树品种之间的关系.结果表明:土壤含水量、pH值、有机质含量、土壤中微生物的多样性和微生物总体数目与病害的发生没有显著的相关性,但是土壤中存在的个别菌种对病害的发生有显著的影响,初步分析显示Agrobacterium sp.和 Bacillus sp.对根癌病的发生具有抑制作用,而Psuedomonas sp. 对根癌病的发生可能具有一定的促进作用.同时不同果树品种的病害发生率之间有显著性的差异.

  14. Absent or low rate of adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus of bats (Chiroptera.

    Irmgard Amrein

    Full Text Available Bats are the only flying mammals and have well developed navigation abilities for 3D-space. Even bats with comparatively small home ranges cover much larger territories than rodents, and long-distance migration by some species is unique among small mammals. Adult proliferation of neurons, i.e., adult neurogenesis, in the dentate gyrus of rodents is thought to play an important role in spatial memory and learning, as indicated by lesion studies and recordings of neurons active during spatial behavior. Assuming a role of adult neurogenesis in hippocampal function, one might expect high levels of adult neurogenesis in bats, particularly among fruit- and nectar-eating bats in need of excellent spatial working memory. The dentate gyrus of 12 tropical bat species was examined immunohistochemically, using multiple antibodies against proteins specific for proliferating cells (Ki-67, MCM2, and migrating and differentiating neurons (Doublecortin, NeuroD. Our data show a complete lack of hippocampal neurogenesis in nine of the species (Glossophaga soricina, Carollia perspicillata, Phyllostomus discolor, Nycteris macrotis, Nycteris thebaica, Hipposideros cyclops, Neoromicia rendalli, Pipistrellus guineensis, and Scotophilus leucogaster, while it was present at low levels in three species (Chaerephon pumila, Mops condylurus and Hipposideros caffer. Although not all antigens were recognized in all species, proliferation activity in the subventricular zone and rostral migratory stream was found in all species, confirming the appropriateness of our methods for detecting neurogenesis. The small variation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis within our sample of bats showed no indication of a correlation with phylogenetic relationship, foraging strategy, type of hunting habitat or diet. Our data indicate that the widely accepted notion of adult neurogenesis supporting spatial abilities needs to be considered carefully. Given their astonishing longevity, certain bat

  15. Seven new species and one new species record of Sabatieria (Nematoda: Comesomatidae) from the continental slope of New Zealand.

    Leduc, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Sabatieria is the most abundant nematode genus on the upper continental slope of New Zealand but no Sabatieria species have yet been recorded/described from the region's deep-sea habitats. The present study describes seven new and one known species of this genus from the continental margin of New Zealand. S. bitumen Botelho et al. 2007 was originally described from the South Atlantic Ocean, and is recorded from the first time in the Pacific Ocean. Sabatieria challengerensis sp. n. is characterised by a combination of short cephalic setae, large fovea amphidialis with 3 turns, short arcuate spicules without distal hook, and short tail with cylindrical proximal portion and blunt, rounded distal portion. Sabatieria parapraedatrix sp. n. is characterised by having a slender body, cuticle with striations resulting from fusion of every second lateral row of dots,fovea amphidialis with 2.0-2.5 turns, spicules with distal hook, and short conico-cylindrical tail. Sabatieria bubulba sp. n. is characterised by the presence of a large muscular pharyngeal bulb, secretory-excretory system with large ventral gland at level of intestine and with cuticularised pore opening. Sabatieria exculta sp. n. is characterised by having a slender body, cuticle with faint annulations resulting from fusion of every second or third lateral row of dots, short cephalic setae, a large ventral gland, and long, narrow gubernacular apophyses. Sabatieria balbutiens sp. n. is characterised by having a dorsally-directed mouth opening and assymetrical mouth cavity and spicules with small distal hook. Sabatieria pumila sp. n. is characterised by the combination of short body length, short cephalic setae, spicules with distal hook and short distal lamella, and 8-9 precloacal supplements. Sabatieria bathycopia sp. n. is characterised by having a stout body, short cephalic setae, curved gubernaculum, and spicules with swollen, lightly cuticularised distal tip.

  16. Mires and mire types of Peninsula Mitre, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    A. Grootjans

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, a field visit by members of the International Mire Conservation Group (IMCG to the Atlantic coast of Peninsula Mitre (the easternmost part of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, Argentina gathered information on mire diversity in this remote wild area with largely pristine mires. Our expedition showed that Peninsula Mitre hosts a wide variety of habitats across two exciting ecological gradients: (i a regional west–east gradient from Sphagnum magellanicum dominated mires in the west to Astelia pumila dominated mires in the east; and (ii a gradient from extremely acid to extremely carbonate rich mire types induced by local bedrock. The large variety of hydromorphological mire types comprises raised bogs, blanket bogs, sloping fens, string fens, flat fens and calcareous spring fens. In the Atlantic coastal area, the abundance of Sphagnum magellanicum in the ombrogenic systems decreases conspicuously from west to east with the species being almost absent in the east. However, the fossil record shows thick layers of Sphagnum peat close beneath mire surfaces everywhere, indicating that substantial hydrological and ecological changes have taken place in the recent past. We observed large scale erosion in the mires along the Atlantic coast. Locally, well-developed fen systems are present, including calcareous spring fens with active travertine (tufa deposition. The regional vegetation can be regarded as a parallel to that of boreal oceanic regions in the northern hemisphere. The mires and peatlands of the peninsula are of global significance. They are impressive, peculiar, extensive and largely pristine mires in a globally very rare climatic and biogeographical context embedded in a landscape with significant natural dynamics. The damaging impact of free-roaming cattle on the mires and upland vegetation is, however, conspicuous and needs urgent attention. Peninsula Mitre deserves the highest possible protection, e.g. as a provincial protected

  17. The effects of management and environmental variation on population stage structure in three river-corridor violets

    Eckstein, R. Lutz; Danihelka, Jiří; Hölzel, Norbert; Otte, Annette

    2004-03-01

    Population stage structure of plants, i.e., the density and frequency of individuals in different stages of the life cycle, is a crucial aspect of population viability that depends on a variety of factors. In this paper, we evaluated the effects of (i) management and year, (ii) location (population) and time (year) and (iii) of local habitat quality and population factors on population stage structure of three morphologically similar, closely related violets from floodplains, Viola elatior, V. pumila and V. stagnina. We hypothesised that owing to similar life cycles there should be no significant differences in population stage structure among species. We analysed population stage structure in managed vs. abandoned populations to test whether a proposed effect of management acts through the creation of regeneration niches. We further tried to identify which habitat factors are responsible for possible management effects. We established permanent plots (0.25 m 2) in 27 populations of the species in two different regions (Rhine floodplains, Germany; Dyje River floodplains, Czech Republic) and recorded frequency and density of seedlings, small and large vegetative plants and small and large flowering plants during 2 years. There were significant differences among species, indicating that the species have different life histories. Furthermore, there was a significant effect of management on population stage structure in two of the species. Management significantly increased the proportion of seedlings, over and above possible differences between regions. In our data set, the effects of spatial variation among populations were generally larger than the effects of temporal variation. The only factor that affected the density of life-cycle stages was the cover of bryophytes, while the cover of higher plants, litter or soil (local habitat quality), or isolation and population size (population factors) had no effects.

  18. Inhibition of human cytochrome p450 2c8-catalyzed amodiaquine n-desethylation: Effect of five traditionally and commonly used herbs

    Yasotha Devi Muthiah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Southeast Asia and many parts of the world, herbal products are increasingly used in parallel with modern medicine. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effects of herbs commonly used in Southeast Asia on activity of cytochrome P450 2C8 (CYP2C8, an important human hepatic enzyme in drug metabolism. Materials and Methods: The selected herbs, such as Eurycoma longifolia Jack (ELJ, Labisia pumila (LP, Echinacea purpurea (EP, Andrographis paniculata (AP, and Ginkgo biloba (GB, were subjected to inhibition studies using an in vitro CYP2C8 activity marker, amodiaquine N-desethylase assay. Inhibition parameters, inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50, and Kivalues were determined to study the potency and mode of inhibition. Results: All herbs inhibited CYP2C8 with the following order of potency: LP > ELJ > GB > AP > EP. LP and ELJ inhibited potently at Ki's of 2 and 4 times the Kiof quercetin, the positive control. The inhibition by LP was uncompetitive in nature as compared to competitive or mixed type inhibition observed with other herbs. GB exhibited moderate inhibitory effect at a Ki6 times larger than quercetin Ki. AP and EP, on the other hand, showed only weak inhibition. Conclusion: The herbs we chose represented the more commonly used herbs in Southeast Asia where collision of tradition and modernization in healthcare, if not properly managed, may lead to therapeutic misadventures. We conclude that concurrent consumption of some herbs, in particular, LP and ELJ, may have relevance in drug-herb interactions via CYP2C8 inhibition in vivo.

  19. Integrated assessment of climate change impact on surface runoff contamination by pesticides.

    Gagnon, Patrick; Sheedy, Claudia; Rousseau, Alain N; Bourgeois, Gaétan; Chouinard, Gérald

    2016-07-01

    Pesticide transport by surface runoff depends on climate, agricultural practices, topography, soil characteristics, crop type, and pest phenology. To accurately assess the impact of climate change, these factors must be accounted for in a single framework by integrating their interaction and uncertainty. This article presents the development and application of a framework to assess the impact of climate change on pesticide transport by surface runoff in southern Québec (Canada) for the 1981-2040 period. The crop enemies investigated were: weeds for corn (Zea mays); and for apple orchard (Malus pumila), 3 insect pests (codling moth [Cydia pomonella], plum curculio [Conotrachelus nenuphar], and apple maggot [Rhagoletis pomonella]), 2 diseases (apple scab [Venturia inaequalis], and fire blight [Erwinia amylovora]). A total of 23 climate simulations, 19 sites, and 11 active ingredients were considered. The relationship between climate and phenology was accounted for by bioclimatic models of the Computer Centre for Agricultural Pest Forecasting (CIPRA) software. Exported loads of pesticides were evaluated at the edge-of-field scale using the Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM), simulating both hydrology and chemical transport. A stochastic model was developed to account for PRZM parameter uncertainty. Results of this study indicate that for the 2011-2040 period, application dates would be advanced from 3 to 7 days on average with respect to the 1981-2010 period. However, the impact of climate change on maximum daily rainfall during the application window is not statistically significant, mainly due to the high variability of extreme rainfall events. Hence, for the studied sites and crop enemies considered, climate change impact on pesticide transported in surface runoff is not statistically significant throughout the 2011-2040 period. Integr Environ Assess Managem 2016;12:559-571. © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada 2015; Published 2015 SETAC.

  20. First record of Rhizoscyphus ericae in Southern Hemisphere's Ericaceae.

    Bruzone, M Clara; Fehrer, Judith; Fontenla, Sonia B; Vohník, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Ericoid mycorrhiza is arguably the least investigated mycorrhizal type, particularly when related to the number of potential hosts and the ecosystems they inhabit. Little is known about the global distribution of ericoid mycorrhizal (ErM) fungi, and this holds true even for the prominent ErM mycobiont Rhizoscyphus ericae. Earlier studies suggested R. ericae might be low in abundance or absent in the roots of Southern Hemisphere's Ericaceae, and our previous investigations in two Argentine Patagonian forests supported this view. Here, we revisited the formerly investigated area, albeit at a higher altitude, and screened fungi inhabiting hair roots of Gaultheria caespitosa and Gaultheria pumila at a treeless alpine site using the same methods as previously. We obtained 234 isolates, most of them belonging to Ascomycota. In contrast to previous findings, however, among 37 detected operational taxonomic units (OTUs), OTU 1 (=R. ericae s. str.) comprised the highest number of isolates (87, ∼37 %). Most of the OTUs and isolates belonged to the Helotiales, and 82.5 % of isolates belonged to OTUs shared between both Gaultheria species. At the alpine site, ericoid mycorrhizal fungi dominated, followed by dark septate endophytes and aquatic hyphomycetes probably acting as root endophytes. Our results suggest that the distribution of R. ericae is influenced, among others, by factors related to altitude such as soil type and presence/absence and type of the neighboring vegetation. Our study is the first report on R. ericae colonizing Ericaceae roots in the Southern Hemisphere and extends the known range of this prominent ErM species to NW Patagonia.

  1. Consumption of herbal products: a study of urban community survey

    Nurul’Afifah Sulaiman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Formulation of herbs into dosage forms promotes their marketing and usage. However, if these herbal products are being taken in an unhealthy trend, they may pose risks to consumers. Aims The present study aimed to investigate herbal product consumption trends (n=550 among adults in the main cities of Malaysia. Methods A questionnaire-based, six-week cross-sectional study was conducted. Respondents were randomly selected in Shah Alam, Klang, Subang, and Kuala Lumpur. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis and Chi-square test was applied where appropriate. Results Out of the 550 survey instruments distributed, 453(82.4 per cent responded. The prevalence rate of herbal products use among the adult population in the past 12 months was 71.5 per cent. Regarding the consumption profile; the consumers were mostly female (73.4 per cent, age 25–44 (72.8, and educated at tertiary level (74.8 per cent. The majority of respondents perceived that herbal products helped reduce severity of illness and improve health related quality of life, while (16.4 per cent consumed the herbal products for the treatment of menstrual problem, 71.7 per cent without the recommendation of health care professionals and 85.0 per cent of them purchased through over-the-counter retail sales. The herbal products most commonly consume were Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah (32.4 per cent, Camellia sinensis (Green Tea (32.1 per cent, Panax ginseng (Ginseng (23.8 per cent, and Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali (22.5 per cent. Conclusion This study highlights an unhealthy trend in self-prescription of herbal product consumption without healthcare professionals’ recommendation. Hence, there is an urgent need for healthcare professionals to monitor herbal product consumption.

  2. Identification of the Er1 resistence gene and RNase S-alleles in Malus prunifolia var. ringo rootstock

    Sarah Zanon Agapito-Tenfen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Woolly apple aphid (WAA; Eriosoma lanigerum Hausm. is a major insect pest that has significant economic impact on apple growers worldwide. Modern breeding technologies rely on several molecular tools to help breeders select genetic determinants for traits of interest. Consequently, there is a need for specific markers linked to the genes of interest. Apple scions and rootstocks have an additional barrier to the introduction of pest resistance genes due to the presence of self-incompatibility S-RNase alleles. The genetic characterization and early identification of these alleles can amplify the contribution of a breeding program to the selection of resistant genitors that are as compatible as possible. In this study, we identified the Er1 gene involved in the resistance to WAA in Malus prunifolia var. ringo, also known as ‘Maruba Kaido’ rootstock, and we analyzed the inheritance pattern of the WAA resistance Er1 gene in a segregant population derived from Malus pumila ‘M.9’ and ‘Maruba Kaido’ rootstocks. The self-incompatibility of S-RNase alleles S6S26 of ‘Maruba Kaido’ were also identified along with their inheritance pattern. We also confirmed the identification of the S1S3 alleles in the ‘M.9’ rootstock. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to characterize WAA resistance and RNase S-alleles in ‘Maruba Kaido’. Furthermore, we discuss the potential use of the genetic markers for these genes and their potential impact on apple breeding programs.

  3. Application of Vinegar with Phragmites in Forestry Breeding%生物质醋液在2种林木播种育苗上的应用

    田英; 彭励; 王姮; 赵健; 刘晓刚

    2011-01-01

    利用以芦苇为原料生产的生物质醋液,经过在西部沙樱、腺齿蔷薇2种林木播种育苗上的应用,确定醋液对其生长作用效果.结果表明:醋液对西部沙樱、腺齿蔷薇2种林木播种幼苗生长具有促进作用,以400、800倍液在种子出苗后4~6叶一心期开始灌根使用,每隔5天一次,共灌施6次,灌根处理为每穴20 ~ 30 mL,可显著促进供试幼苗高生长和根系的萌发和生长.%The vinegar which had been made by Phragmites was used for two kinds of forestry breeding (Cerasus pumila L. Var. Besseyi(L. H. Bailey) Gleason and Rosa albertii Regel). The author got the effects of the Phragmites vinegar that had facilitation to the seedling growth, it could facilitate the elongation of tree stem and bourgeon and germination of root. The best consistence was the formulation Phragmites vinegar dilution of 400, 800 double, the used times was after the seedling emerge 4-6 leaf one hearts stage, the author filled the Phragmites vinegar to the seedlings, every other 5 days, the total was 6 times, the filling cubic measure was 20-30 mL.

  4. Photosynthesis of young apple trees in response to low sink demand under different air temperatures.

    Fan, Pei G; Li, Lian S; Duan, Wei; Li, Wei D; Li, Shao H

    2010-03-01

    Gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetic end products and related enzymes in source leaves in response to low sink demand after girdling to remove the root sink were assessed in young apple trees (Malus pumila) grown in two greenhouses with different air temperatures for 5 days. Compared with the non-girdled control in the low-temperature greenhouse (diurnal maximum air temperature demand resulted in lower net photosynthetic rate (P(n)), stomatal conductance (g(s)) and transpiration rate (E) but higher leaf temperature on Day 5, while in the high-temperature greenhouse (diurnal maximum air temperature >36 degrees C), P(n), g(s) and E declined from Day 3 onwards. Moreover, gas exchange responded more to low sink demand in the high-temperature greenhouse than in the low-temperature greenhouse. Decreased P(n) at low sink demand was accompanied by lower intercellular CO(2) concentrations in the low-temperature greenhouse. However, decreased maximal photochemical efficiency, potential activity, efficiency of excitation capture, actual efficiency and photochemical quenching, with increased minimal fluorescence and non-photochemical quenching of photosystem II (PSII), were observed in low sink demand leaves only in the high-temperature greenhouse. In addition, low sink demand increased leaf starch and soluble carbohydrate content in both greenhouses but did not result in lower activity of enzymes involved in metabolism. Thus, decreased P(n) under low sink demand was independent of a direct effect of end-product feedback but rather depended on a high temperature threshold. The lower P(n) was likely due to stomatal limitation in the low-temperature greenhouse, but mainly due to non-stomatal limitation in the high-temperature greenhouse.

  5. Physical and chemical characterizations of biochars derived from different agricultural residues

    K. Jindo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Biochar has received large attention as a strategy to tackle against carbon emission. Not only carbon fixation has been carried out but also other merits for agricultural application due to unique physical and chemical character such as absorption of contaminated compounds in soil, trapping ammonia and methane emission from compost, and enhancement of fertilizer quality. In our study, different local waste feed stocks (rice husk, rice straw, wood chips of apple tree (Malus Pumila and oak tree (Quercus serrata, in Aomori, Japan, were utilized for creating biochar with different temperature (400–800 °C. Concerning to the biochar production, the pyrolysis of lower temperature had more biochar yield than higher temperature pyrolysis process. On the contrary, surface areas and adsorption characters have been increased as increasing temperature. The proportions of carbon content in the biochars also increased together with increased temperatures. Infrared-Fourier spectra (FT-IR and 13C-NMR were used to understand carbon chemical compositions in our biochars, and it was observed that the numbers of the shoulders representing aromatic groups, considered as stable carbon structure appeared as the temperature came closer to 600 °C, as well as in FT-IR. In rice materials, the peak assigned to SiO2, was observed in all biochars (400–800 °C in FT-IR. We suppose that the pyrolysis at 600 °C creates the most recalcitrant character for carbon sequestration, meanwhile the pyrolysis at 400 °C produces the superior properties as a fertilizer by retaining volatile and easily labile compounds which promotes soil microbial activities.

  6. Water Consumption Traits of Several City Greening Seedlings%主要城市绿化树种苗木耗水特性研究

    王得祥; 康博文; 刘建军; 韩黎明; 崔波

    2004-01-01

    利用Licor-6400便携式光合作用测定系统,对18种盆栽城市绿化苗木的蒸腾耗水特性进行了测定.结果表明,针叶树种耗水速率低于阔叶树种.针叶树种中日最大耗水速率以油松(Pinus tabulaeformis)最大(35.83g/h),侧柏(Platycladus orientalis)最小(17.15g/h);阔叶树种中,火炬树(Ehus typhina)、刺槐(Robina pseudoacacia)、元宝枫(Acer mono)、紫穗槐(Amorpha fruticcosa)耗水速率的最大值分别达50.18、43.67、46.267 g/h和43.73g/h.同样,阔叶树种日均蒸腾耗水量明显高于针叶树,针叶树种由大到小依次为油松、美国黄松(P.pon-如rosa)、刺柏(Juniperus formosana)、臭柏(Sabina procumbens)、日本赤松(P.densiflora)、奥地利黑松(P.nigra var.austriaca)和侧柏;阔叶树种依次为火炬树、元宝枫、紫穗槐、榆树(Ulu-mus pumila)、刺槐、山杏(Armeniaca sibirica)等.

  7. Anti-lipase and antioxidant properties of 30 medicinal plants used in Oaxaca, México.

    Villa-Ruano, Nemesio; Zurita-Vásquez, Guilibaldo G; Pacheco-Hernández, Yesenia; Betancourt-Jiménez, Martha G; Cruz-Durán, Ramiro; Duque-Bautista, Horacio

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of in vitro anti-lipase and antioxidant assays using crude ethanolic extracts from 30 plants grown in Oaxaca, México. Anti-lipase tests were performed by using porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) [EC 3.1.1.3] from Affymetrix/USB. The extracts of Solanum erianthum, Salvia microphylla, Brungmansia suaveolens and Cuphea aequipetala showed up to 60% PPL inhibition. The effect of these extracts on the kinetic parameters of PPL (Km= 0.36 mM, and Vmax=0.085 mM min -1) revealed that the alcoholic preparations of S. erianthum and C. aequipetala engendered a non-competitive inhibition (Vmax=0.055 mM min -1; Vmax= 0.053 mM min -1), whereas those of S. microphylla and B. suaveolens produced a mixed inhibition (Km= 0.567 mM, Vmax=0.051 mM min _1; Km=0.643 mM, Vmax= 0.042 mM min ¹). In addition to these findings, seven extracts from different plants were able to inhibit PPL in the range of 30-50%. Antioxidant tests against 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) confirmed that Arctostaphylos pungens, Gnaphalium roseum, Crotalaria pumila, Cuphea aequipetala, Rhus chondroloma, and Satureja laevigata possess relevant antioxidant activity (IC(5)0=50-80 μg mL¹). The general composition of the most effective ethanolic extracts was obtained in order to confirm their known chemistry reported by previous works. Comprehensive chemical analysis of the ethanolic extracts and their poisoning effects suggests that S. microphylla, C. aequipetala and A. pungens could be considered as the best sources with both desired properties.

  8. 阿克苏市5种常见绿化树种滞尘规律%Patterns of dust retention by five common tree species for urban greening in Aksu City, Northwest China

    阿丽亚·拜都热拉; 玉米提·哈力克; 塔依尔江·艾山; 艾克热木·吾布力; 喀哈尔·扎依木; 金华

    2014-01-01

    绿化树种在截留沙尘、降低大气颗粒污染物浓度、改善城市生态环境等方面发挥着不可替代的作用。该文选取新疆南部典型绿洲城市--阿克苏市不同功能区的绿化树种,用多重比较法对比分析了二球悬铃木(Platanus × acerifolia)、新疆杨(Populus alba var. pyramidalis)、圆冠榆(Ulmus densa)、天山梣(Fraxinus sogdiana)和垂柳(Salix babylonica)5个树种叶片平均滞尘量随时间变化及不同高度叶片的滞尘能力,探讨了阿克苏市主要绿化树种的滞尘规律,得出以下结论:不同绿化树种单位叶面积滞尘量差异显著,差距在1.15-2.17倍之间,绿化树种滞尘量随着时间延长而增加;同一树种在城市不同功能区的滞尘能力不同:工业区>交通枢纽区>居民区>清洁区;不同高度的叶片,其滞尘量在工业区和交通枢纽区差异显著:高度1m的叶片滞尘量>高度2m的叶片滞尘量>高度4m的叶片滞尘量。%Aims Air pollution poses a long-term threat to human health and life quality of urban residents. In particular, dust pollution in oasis cities of arid regions has been associated with reduced life expectancy. Trees (especially their leaves) in cities can absorb airborne particulate matter and reduce the impacts of air pollution on people and urban environment. This study examined dust retention capacity of the leaves of Platanus × acerifolia, Populus alba var. pyramidalis, Ulmus densa, Fraxinus sogdiana, and Salix babylonica in different functional areas in Aksu City, Northwest China. Our objectives were to determine that how much dust can be removed on unit leaf area basis by each of the tree species and that how the patterns of dust removal may vary with time, among different sites, and the height where leaves are positioned. Methods Dust samples were washed off the leaf surfaces and weighed by electronic scales with an accuracy of 1μg (PTX-FA-210, Polestar, Hartford, USA). Individual

  9. Mercury pollution onto soil and plants in the non-ferrous metallurgy and chemical industrial areas of Huludao city%葫芦岛市有色冶金-化工区土壤与植物汞污染

    郑冬梅; 王起超; 郑娜; 张少庆

    2007-01-01

    通过对有色冶金-化工区土壤汞、植物汞空间特征的分析,确定不同源对土壤、植物的影响.土壤表层汞含量以锌冶炼厂和氯碱厂及其附近为中心,向外围辐散降低,呈双中心分布,其含量为0.055~14.575 mg·kg-1,平均值为1.435 mg·kg-1;植物叶汞含量为柳树(Salix)>榆树(Ulmus)>槐树(Sophora)>丁香(Cytisus)>杨树(Populus)>松树(Pinus)>柏树(Cyparissus),其汞含量为0.029~2.700 mg·kg-1,平均为0.182 mg·kg-1.植物汞的空间分布特征是以锌冶炼厂及其附近为中心,表明大气沉降作用对植物汞的含量有显著的影响,锌冶炼厂是植物汞含量的主要来源,有色冶金-化工区是我国汞污染最重的地区之一,其生态风险应引起重视.

  10. ASSESMENT OF MAINTENANCE OF TREE STAND IN NATURE RESERVE "SKARPA WIŚLICKA" IN SILESIAN FOOTHILLS

    Damian Chmura

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The forest “Skarpa Wiślicka” is nature reserve that protects remnants of former primevail forest in the territory of Wiślica. It also is included in NATURA 2000 area (Cieszyńskie Źródła Tufowe code PLH240001. The aim of the present study was to valorization of treestand of this protected object. Amongst 19 observed tree species, 11 were studied in detail (232 randomly selected individuals. Dendrometry measurements, health tree were assessed. The attention was paid to presence of coarse woody debris as well. For the purpose of the latter decomposition stage was characterized. The studies demonstrated that as many as 69 individuals scored size for nature monuments (circumference and diameter at breast height. The elm Ulmus glabra prevailed (25 individuals have higher value than 220 cm of circumference and the least abundant is ash Fraxinus excelsior (2 higher than 250 cm. More than 50% of trees were characterized by damages i.e. losses of bark, dried or broken branches. Amount of coarse woody debris is not enough. Amongst logs I degree of decomposition dominated (27 logs, whereas weighted mean is 2.93 in 8-degree scale. To sum up it can be concluded that the number of trees that deserve the protection of the rank of a natural monument is very high. It reflects favorable conditions of development of forest communities in the territory of “Skarpa Wiślicka”. While relatively small amount of dead wood and low mean degree of decomposition indicates the impact of forest management i.e. frequent removal of dead wood.

  11. Using Sex Pheromone and a Multi-Scale Approach to Predict the Distribution of a Rare Saproxylic Beetle

    Musa, Najihah; Andersson, Klas; Burman, Joseph; Andersson, Fredrik; Hedenström, Erik; Jansson, Nicklas; Paltto, Heidi; Westerberg, Lars; Winde, Inis; Larsson, Mattias C.; Bergman, Karl-Olof; Milberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    The European red click beetle, Elater ferrugineus L., is associated with wood mould in old hollow deciduous trees. As a result of severe habitat fragmentation caused by human disturbance, it is threatened throughout its distribution range. A new pheromone-based survey method, which is very efficient in detecting the species, was used in the present study to relate the occurrence of E. ferrugineus to the density of deciduous trees. The latter data were from a recently completed regional survey in SE Sweden recording >120,000 deciduous trees. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus increased with increasing amount of large hollow and large non-hollow trees in the surrounding landscape. Quercus robur (oak) was found to be the most important substrate for E. ferrugineus, whereas two groups of tree species (Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Ulmus glabra, vs. Acer platanoides, Aesculus hippocastanum, Fraxinus excelsior, Tilia cordata) were less important but may be a complement to oak in sustaining populations of the beetle. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus was explained by the density of oaks at two different spatial scales, within the circle radii 327 m and 4658 m. In conclusion, priority should be given to oaks in conservation management of E. ferrugineus, and then to the deciduous trees in the genera listed above. Conservation planning at large spatial and temporal scales appears to be essential for long-term persistence of E. ferrugineus. We also show that occurrence models based on strategic sampling might result in pessimistic predictions. This study demonstrates how pheromone-based monitoring make insects excellent tools for sustained feedback to models for landscape conservation management. PMID:23840415

  12. Establishment success of coexisting native and exotic trees under an experimental gradient of irradiance and soil moisture.

    González-Muñoz, Noelia; Castro-Díez, Pilar; Fierro-Brunnenmeister, Natalia

    2011-10-01

    The exotic trees Ailanthus altissima, Robinia pseudoacacia, Acer negundo and Elaeagnus angustifolia coexist with the native trees Fraxinus angustifolia and Ulmus minor in river banks of central Spain. Similarly, the exotic trees Acacia dealbata and Eucalyptus globulus co-occur with the natives Quercus pyrenaica and Pinus pinaster in Northwest Spain. We aimed to identify the environmental conditions that favour or hamper the establishment success of these species. In spring 2008, seeds of the studied species were sown under an experimental gradient of light (100, 65, 35, 7% of full sunlight) combined with three levels of soil moisture (mean soil water potential = -0.97, -1.52 and -1.77 MPa.). During the first growing season we monitored seed emergence and seedling survival. We found that the effect of light on the establishment success was stronger than the effect of soil moisture. Both exotic and native species of central Spain showed a good performance under high light, A. negundo being the most shade tolerant. Water shortage diminished E. angustifolia and A. altissima success. Among NW Spain species, A. dealbata and P. pinaster were found to be potential competitors for colonizing high-irradiance scenarios, while Q. pyrenaica and E. globulus were more successful under moderate shade. High soil moisture favoured E. globulus but not A. dealbata establishment. These results contribute to understand some of the factors controlling for spatial segregation between coexisting native and exotic tree species, and can help to take decisions orientated to the control and management of these exotic species.

  13. Diversity, Distribution and Prioritization of Fodder Species for Conservation in Kullu District, Northwestern Himalaya, India

    2007-01-01

    In the Indian Himalayan Region predominantly rural in character, livestock is one of the main sources of livelihood and integral part of the economy. Livestock mostly rely on fodder from wild.The diversity, distribution, utilization pattern, nativity,endemism, rarity, seasonality of availability, nutritive values, perceived economic values and pressure use index of livestock have not been studied. The present study attempts to enumerate 150 species of fodder representing trees (51 spp.), shrubs (54 spp.) and herbs (45 spp.). Poaceae (19 spp.) and Fabaceae (13 spp.) amongst families and Salix (6 spp.), Ficus,Clematis, and Desmodium (5 spp., each) amongst genera are rich in species. Maximum species were found in the 1801 ~ 2600 m zone, and the remaining two zones showed relatively low diversity. Out of the 150 species, 109 are used in summer, 5 winter and 36 throughout year. During rainy season, mostly grasses are used as fodder. Only 83 species are native to the Himalayan region, one species, Strobilanthus atropuroureus is endemic and 35 species are near endemic. The nutritive values of the fodder species were reviewed, and economic values and status of the species were also assessed. The pressure use index of the species was calculated on the basis of cumulative values of the utilization pattern,altitudinal distribution, availability, status, nativity and endemism. Amongst the species, Grewia oppositifoilia, Morus serrata, Indigofera heterantha,Quercus leucotrichphora, Ulmus villosa, U.wallichiana and Aesculus indica showed highest PUI indicating high preference and pressure. Season wise prioritization of the species for different altitudinal ones has been done. Appropriate strategy and action plan have been suggested for the conservation and management of fodder species.

  14. Late Mesolithic and early Neolithic forest disturbance: a high resolution palaeoecological test of human impact hypotheses

    Innes, James B.; Blackford, Jeffrey J.; Rowley-Conwy, Peter A.

    2013-10-01

    The transition in north-west Europe from the hunter-gatherer societies of the Late Mesolithic to the pioneer farming societies of the early Neolithic is not well understood, either culturally or palaeoecologically. In Britain the final transition was rapid but it is unclear whether novel Neolithic attributes were introduced by immigrants who supplanted the native hunter-gatherers, or whether the latest Mesolithic foragers gradually adopted elements of the Neolithic economic package. In this study, relatively coarse- (10 mm interval) and fine-resolution (2 mm), multi-proxy palaeoecological data including pollen, charcoal and NPPs including fungi, have been used to investigate two phases of vegetation disturbance of (a) distinctly Late Mesolithic and (b) early Neolithic age, at an upland site in northern England in a region with both a Neolithic and a Late Mesolithic archaeological presence. We identify and define the palaeoecological characteristics of these two disturbance phases, about a millennium apart, in order to investigate whether differing land-use techniques can be identified and categorised as of either foraging or early farming cultures. The Late Mesolithic phase is defined by the repetitive application of fire to the woodland to encourage a mosaic of productive vegetation regeneration patches, consistent with the promotion of Corylus and to aid hunting. In this phase, weed species including Plantago lanceolata, Rumex and Chenopodiaceae are frequent, taxa which are normally associated with the first farmers. The early Neolithic phase, including an Ulmus decline, has characteristics consistent with 'forest farming', possibly mainly for domestic livestock, with an inferred succession of tree girdling, fire-prepared cultivation, and coppice-woodland management. Such fine-resolution, potentially diagnostic land-use signatures may in future be used to recognise the cultural complexion of otherwise enigmatic woodland disturbance phases during the centuries of

  15. Phytophthora species recovered from the Connecticut River Valley in Massachusetts, USA.

    Brazee, Nicholas J; Wick, Robert L; Hulvey, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    Little is currently known about the assemblage of Phytophthora species in northeastern North America, representing a gap in our understanding of species incidence. Therefore, Phytophthora species were surveyed at 20 sites in Massachusetts, with 16 occurring in the Connecticut River Valley. Many of the sampled waterways were adjacent to active agricultural lands, yet were buffered by mature floodplain forests composed of Acer, Platanus, Populus and Ulmus. Isolates were recovered with three types of baits (rhododendron leaves, pear, green pepper) in 2013 and water filtration in 2014. Overall, 457 isolates of Phytophthora were recovered and based on morphological characters and rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS), β-tubulin (β-tub) and cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (cox1) sequences, 18 taxa were identified, including three new species: P. taxon intercalaris, P. taxon caryae and P. taxon pocumtuck. In addition, 49 isolates representing five species of Phytopythium also were identified. Water filtration captured a greater number of taxa (18) compared to leaf and fruit baits (12). Of the three bait types rhododendron leaves yielded the greatest number of isolates and taxa, followed by pear and green pepper, respectively. Despite the proximity to agricultural lands, none of the Phytophthora species baited are considered serious pathogens of vegetable crops in the region. However, many of the recovered species are known woody plant pathogens, including four species in the P. citricola s.l. complex that were identified: P. plurivora, P. citricola III, P. pini and a putative novel species, referred to here as P. taxon caryae. An additional novel species, P. taxon pocumtuck, is a close relative of P. borealis based on cox1 sequences. The results illustrate a high level of Phytophthora species richness in the Connecticut River Valley and that major rivers can serve as a source of inoculum for pathogenic Phytophthora species in the northeast.

  16. Using Sex Pheromone and a Multi-Scale Approach to Predict the Distribution of a Rare Saproxylic Beetle.

    Najihah Musa

    Full Text Available The European red click beetle, Elater ferrugineus L., is associated with wood mould in old hollow deciduous trees. As a result of severe habitat fragmentation caused by human disturbance, it is threatened throughout its distribution range. A new pheromone-based survey method, which is very efficient in detecting the species, was used in the present study to relate the occurrence of E. ferrugineus to the density of deciduous trees. The latter data were from a recently completed regional survey in SE Sweden recording >120,000 deciduous trees. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus increased with increasing amount of large hollow and large non-hollow trees in the surrounding landscape. Quercus robur (oak was found to be the most important substrate for E. ferrugineus, whereas two groups of tree species (Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Ulmus glabra, vs. Acer platanoides, Aesculus hippocastanum, Fraxinus excelsior, Tilia cordata were less important but may be a complement to oak in sustaining populations of the beetle. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus was explained by the density of oaks at two different spatial scales, within the circle radii 327 m and 4658 m. In conclusion, priority should be given to oaks in conservation management of E. ferrugineus, and then to the deciduous trees in the genera listed above. Conservation planning at large spatial and temporal scales appears to be essential for long-term persistence of E. ferrugineus. We also show that occurrence models based on strategic sampling might result in pessimistic predictions. This study demonstrates how pheromone-based monitoring make insects excellent tools for sustained feedback to models for landscape conservation management.

  17. Empty seeds are not always bad: simultaneous effect of seed emptiness and masting on animal seed predation.

    Ramón Perea

    Full Text Available Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis. In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P. Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed.

  18. Foliage chemistry and the distribution of Lepidoptera larvae on broad-leaved trees in southern Ontario.

    Ricklefs, Robert E

    2008-08-01

    This study addresses the influence of foliage chemistry on the distribution of Lepidoptera larvae across species of trees. I used ordination and analysis of principal coordinates to describe the partitioning of the larvae of 24 species of Lepidoptera over 23 species of host trees taking into account 13 chemical properties of the foliage. Canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP) revealed two significant axes linking the two datasets. The first constrained axis (r(2)=0.83) was associated with increasing amounts of soluble carbohydrates and decreasing amounts of hemicellulose, polyphenols, and potassium per cm(2) leaf area. The second constrained axis (r(2)=0.68) was associated with increasing amounts of soluble carbohydrates and decreasing magnesium. Variation in nitrogen and phosphorus, which are major factors in larval nutrition, were not associated with turnover of Lepidoptera species between species of host tree. Of the total variance in the positions of tree species on the first four constrained CAP axes, 44% was correlated with positions determined by foliage chemistry, 32% on the first two constrained axes. Within the space described by the first two canonical axes, congeneric species of tree clustered together, with the exception that Acer negundo was removed from other species of Acer, which grouped in a tight cluster with species in the order Fagales, as well as with Tilia and Ulmus. Alnus and Prunus also grouped together. No species of tree with a negative score on constrained axis 2 exhibited high Lepidoptera species richness, but the average number of individuals per collection tended to be high. These tree species also contain triterpenes in their leaves and harbored disproportionately more tent- and web-making species of Lepidoptera. These analyses show that patterns of distribution across host tree species within an assemblage of Lepidoptera species can be understood, at least in part, in terms of the qualities of the resources upon which

  19. Pollen record from red clay sequence in the central Loess Plateau between 8.10 and 2.60 Ma

    MA Yuzhen; WU Fuli; FANG Xiaomin; LI Jijun; AN Zhisheng; WANG Wei

    2005-01-01

    The Late Miocene and Pliocene are the key periods for understanding the origin and development of the present Asian monsoon circulations and ecologic environments. Here we present a pollen record from Chaona Red Clay section located in the central Loess Plateau in attempt to establish the histories of vegetation and associated climate changes between 8.10 and 2.60 Ma. Our results show that Gramineae-dominated woodland-grasslands developed in this region with Cedrus- and Pinus-characterized montane coniferous forests distributing in higher elevations from 8.10 to 6.73 Ma, probably suggesting a semi-humid climate in a warm-temperate zone. A subsequent expansion of Ulmus- dominated deciduous forests and a synchronous increase of Gramineae-dominated grassland reflect a warmer and more humid climate between 6.73 and 5.67 Ma. The vegetation changed to an Artemisia- and Gramineae-characterized steppe in lower elevations and to a coniferous forest in higher elevations from 5.67 to 3.71 Ma, implying probably a warm and semiarid climate in lowland and hill, and a colder and moister climate in mountain. During this period, a considerable warmer and more humid climate occurred between 4.61 and 4.07 Ma as indicated by pollen assemblages. The period between 3.71 and 2.58 Ma was characterized by the disappearance of Cedrus and Tsuga and also by an abrupt expansion of Cupressaceae, reflecting a drastic enhancement of monsoon-related climatic seasonality.

  20. Vegetation response to climate forcing during the last glacial maximum and deglaciation in the East Carpathians: attenuated response to maximum cooling and increased biomass burning

    Eniko M. MAGYARI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Carpathian Mountains were one of the main mountain reserves of the boreal and cool temperate flora during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM in East-Central Europe. Previous studies demonstrated late glacial vegetation dynamics in this area; however, our knowledge on the LGM vegetation composition is limited due to the scarcity of suitable sedimentary archives. Here we present a new record of vegetation, fire and lacustrine sedimentation from the youngest volcanic crater of the Carpathians (Lake St Anne, Lacul Sfânta Ana, Szent-Anna-tó to examine environmental change in this region during the LGM and the subsequent deglaciation. Our record indicates the persistence of boreal forest steppe vegetation (Pinus sylvestris, Pinus mugo, Pinus cembra, Betula, Salix, Populus, Picea abies in the foreland and low mountain zone of the East Carpathians and Juniperus shrubland at higher elevation. We demonstrate attenuated response of the regional vegetation to maximum global cooling. Between ~22,870 and 19,150 cal yr BP we find increased regional biomass burning that is antagonistic with the global trend. Increased regional fire activity suggests extreme continentality likely with relatively warm and dry summers. We also demonstratexerophytic steppe expansion directly after the LGM, from ~19,150 cal yr BP, and regional increase in boreal woodland cover with Pinus and Betula from 16,300 cal yr BP. Plant macrofossils indicate local (950 m a.s.l. establishment of Betula nana and B. pubescens at 15,150 cal yr BP, Pinus sylvestris at 14,700 cal yr BP and Larix decidua at 12,870 cal yr BP. Pollen data furthermore hints at the regional presence of some temperate deciduous trees during the LGM (Fagus sylvatica, Carpinus betulus, Corylus avellana, Fraxinus excelsior, Ulmus. We also present pollen based quantitative climate reconstruction from this site and discuss its connection with other climate reconstructions and climate modeling results. 

  1. Holocene vegetation and fire history of the mountains of northern Sicily (Italy)

    Tinner, Willy; Vescovi, Elisa; Van Leeuwen, Jacqueline; Colombaroli, Daniele; Henne, Paul; Kaltenrieder, Petra; Morales-Molino, Cesar; Beffa, Giorgia; Gnaegi, Bettina; Van der Knaap, Pim W O; La Mantia, Tommaso; Pasta, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge about vegetation and fire history of the mountains of Northern Sicily is scanty. We analysed five sites to fill this gap and used terrestrial plant macrofossils to establish robust radiocarbon chronologies. Palynological records from Gorgo Tondo, Gorgo Lungo, Marcato Cixé, Urgo Pietra Giordano and Gorgo Pollicino show that under natural or near natural conditions, deciduous forests (Quercus pubescens, Q. cerris, Fraxinus ornus, Ulmus), that included a substantial portion of evergreen broadleaved species (Q. suber, Q. ilex, Hedera helix), prevailed in the upper meso-mediterranean belt. Mesophilous deciduous and evergreen broadleaved trees (Fagus sylvatica, Ilex aquifolium) dominated in the natural or quasi-natural forests of the oro-mediterranean belt. Forests were repeatedly opened for agricultural purposes. Fire activity was closely associated with farming, providing evidence that burning was a primary land use tool since Neolithic times. Land use and fire activity intensified during the Early Neolithic at 5000 bc, at the onset of the Bronze Age at 2500 bc and at the onset of the Iron Age at 800 bc. Our data and previous studies suggest that the large majority of open land communities in Sicily, from the coastal lowlands to the mountain areas below the thorny-cushion Astragalus belt (ca. 1,800 m a.s.l.), would rapidly develop into forests if land use ceased. Mesophilous Fagus-Ilex forests developed under warm mid Holocene conditions and were resilient to the combined impacts of humans and climate. The past ecology suggests a resilience of these summer-drought adapted communities to climate warming of about 2 °C. Hence, they may be particularly suited to provide heat and drought-adaptedFagus sylvatica ecotypes for maintaining drought-sensitive Central European beech forests under global warming conditions.

  2. Empty seeds are not always bad: simultaneous effect of seed emptiness and masting on animal seed predation.

    Perea, Ramón; Venturas, Martin; Gil, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal) and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered) to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis). In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P). Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds) was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds) did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators) consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed.

  3. Climatic and anthropogenic forcing of prehistorical vegetation succession and fire dynamics in the Lago di Como area (N-Italy, Insubria)

    Martinelli, Elisa; Michetti, Alessandro Maria; Colombaroli, Daniele; Mazzola, Eleonora; Motella De Carlo, Sila; Livio, Franz; Gilli, Adrian; Ferrario, Maria Francesca; Höbig, Nicole; Brunamonte, Fabio; Castelletti, Lanfredo; Tinner, Willy

    2017-04-01

    Combined pollen, charcoal and modeling evidence from the Insubria Region suggests that fire was a major driver of late Holocene vegetation change. However, the extent and timing of fire response dynamics are not clear yet. We use lacustrine sediments from Lago di Como (N-Italy, S-Alps) to assess if the reconstructed vegetation and fire dynamics were relevant at large scales and if they coincided in time with those observed at smaller sites. The lake, due to its size (142 km2) and economic potential, was very attractive for early land use and human presence in this area is well documented since ca. 10,000 yrs ago (Mesolithic). We used pollen, plant macrofossils and charcoal to reconstruct the vegetation composition and fire activity. During the Younger Dryas and the Early Holocene until ca. 8000 cal BP natural dynamics prevailed. Subsequently, land use and slash-and-burn activities increased at the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition and became widespread around ca. 6500 cal BP. Microscopic charcoal and numerical analyses demonstrate that anthropogenic fires had a determinant influence on long-term vegetation dynamics at regional scales in Insubria. Microscopic charcoal and pollen and spores indicative of land use show that human pressure intensified after ca. 5300 cal yr BP and even more since ca. 4300 cal yr BP. Our results suggest that important species which disappeared or were strongly reduced by land use and fire (e.g. Abies alba, Tilia, Ulmus) will potentially reestablish in the Lago di Como area and elsewhere in Insubria, if land abandonment initiated in the 1950s will continue.

  4. Seeing the forest through the trees: Considering roost-site selection at multiple spatial scales

    Jachowski, David S.; Rota, Christopher T.; Dobony, Christopher A.; Ford, W. Mark; Edwards, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of bat species is one of the most daunting wildlife conservation challenges in North America, requiring detailed knowledge about their ecology to guide conservation efforts. Outside of the hibernating season, bats in temperate forest environments spend their diurnal time in day-roosts. In addition to simple shelter, summer roost availability is as critical as maternity sites and maintaining social group contact. To date, a major focus of bat conservation has concentrated on conserving individual roost sites, with comparatively less focus on the role that broader habitat conditions contribute towards roost-site selection. We evaluated roost-site selection by a northern population of federally-endangered Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) at Fort Drum Military Installation in New York, USA at three different spatial scales: landscape, forest stand, and individual tree level. During 2007–2011, we radiotracked 33 Indiana bats (10 males, 23 females) and located 348 roosting events in 116 unique roost trees. At the landscape scale, bat roost-site selection was positively associated with northern mixed forest, increased slope, and greater distance from human development. At the stand scale, we observed subtle differences in roost site selection based on sex and season, but roost selection was generally positively associated with larger stands with a higher basal area, larger tree diameter, and a greater sugar maple (Acer saccharum) component. We observed no distinct trends of roosts being near high-quality foraging areas of water and forest edges. At the tree scale, roosts were typically in American elm (Ulmus americana) or sugar maple of large diameter (>30 cm) of moderate decay with loose bark. Collectively, our results highlight the importance of considering day roost needs simultaneously across multiple spatial scales. Size and decay class of individual roosts are key ecological attributes for the Indiana bat, however, larger-scale stand structural

  5. Impact of tree species on soil carbon stocks and soil acidity in southern Sweden

    Oostra, Swantje [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp (Sweden). Dept. of Landscape Planning; Majdi, Hooshang [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Sciences; Olsson, Mats [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Soils

    2006-10-15

    The impact of tree species on soil carbon stocks and acidity in southern Sweden was studied in a non-replicated plantation with monocultures of 67-year-old ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.), beech (Fagus silvatica L.), elm (Ulmus glabra Huds.), hornbeam (Carpinusbetulus L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) and oak (Quercus robur L.). The site was characterized by a cambisol on glacial till. Volume-determined soil samples were taken from the O-horizon and mineral soil layers to 20 cm. Soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), pH (H2O), cation-exchange capacity and base saturation at pH 7 and exchangeable calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium ions were analysed in the soil fraction < 2 mm. Root biomass <5 mm in diameter) and its proportion in the forest floor and mineral soil varied between tree species. There was a vertical gradient under all species, with the highest concentrations of SOC, TN and base cations in the O-horizon and the lowest in the 10-20 cm layer. The tree species differed with respect to SOC, TN and soil acidity in the O-horizon and mineral soil. For SOC and TN, the range in the O-horizon was spruce> hornbeam > oak > beech > ash > elm. The pH in the O-horizon ranged in the order elm > ash > hornbeam > beech > oak > spruce. In the mineral soil, SOC and TN ranged in the order elm > oak > ash = hornbeam > spruce > beech, i.e. partly reversed, and pH ranged in the same order as for the O-horizon. It is suggested that spruce is the best option for fertile sites in southern Sweden if the aim is a high carbon sequestration rate, whereas elm, ash and hornbeam are the best solutions if the aim is a low soil acidification rate.

  6. Tree and stand transpiration in a Midwestern bur oak savanna after elm encroachment and restoration thinning

    Asbjornsen, H.; Tomer, M.D.; Gomez-Cardenas, M.; Brudvig, L.A.; Greenan, C.M.; Schilling, K.

    2007-01-01

    Oak savannas, once common in the Midwest, are now isolated remnants within agricultural landscapes. Savanna remnants are frequently encroached by invasive trees to become woodlands. Thinning and prescribed burning can restore savanna structure, but the ecohydrological effects of managing these remnants are poorly understood. In this study, we measured sap flow (Js) to quantify transpiration in an Iowa bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa) savanna woodland encroached by elms (Ulmus americana), and in an adjacent restored savanna after thinning to remove elms, during summer 2004. Savanna oaks had greater mean daily Js (35.9 L dm-2 day-1) than woodland oaks (20.7 L dm-2 day-1) and elms (12.4 L dm-2 day-1). The response of Js to vapor pressure deficit (D) was unexpectedly weak, although oaks in both stands showed negative correlation between daily Js and D for D > 0.4 kPa. An earlier daily peak in Js in the elm trees showed a possible advantage for water uptake. As anticipated, the woodland's stand transpiration was greater (1.23 mm day-1) than the savanna's (0.35 mm day-1), yet the savanna achieved 30% of the woodland's transpiration with only 11% of its sapwood area. The difference in transpiration influenced water table depths, which were 2 m in the savanna and 6.5 m in the woodland. Regionally, row-crop agriculture has increased groundwater recharge and raised water tables, providing surplus water that perhaps facilitated elm encroachment. This has implications for restoration of savanna remnants. If achieving a savanna ecohydrology is an aim of restoration, then restoration strategies may require buffers, or targeting of large or hydrologically isolated remnants. ?? 2007.

  7. Windthrow and salvage logging in an old-growth hemlock-northern hardwoods forest

    Lang, K.D.; Schulte, L.A.; Guntenspergen, G.R.

    2009-01-01

    Although the initial response to salvage (also known as, post-disturbance or sanitary) logging is known to vary among system components, little is known about longer term forest recovery. We examine forest overstory, understory, soil, and microtopographic response 25 years after a 1977 severe wind disturbance on the Flambeau River State Forest in Wisconsin, USA, a portion of which was salvage logged. Within this former old-growth hemlock-northern hardwoods forest, tree dominance has shifted from Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) to broad-leaf deciduous species (Ulmus americana, Acer saccharum, Tilia americana, Populus tremuloides, and Betula alleghaniensis) in both the salvaged and unsalvaged areas. While the biological legacies of pre-disturbance seedlings, saplings, and mature trees were initially more abundant in the unsalvaged area, regeneration through root suckers and stump sprouts was common in both areas. After 25 years, tree basal area, sapling density, shrub layer density, and seedling cover had converged between unsalvaged and salvaged areas. In contrast, understory herb communities differed between salvaged and unsalvaged forest, with salvaged forest containing significantly higher understory herb richness and cover, and greater dominance of species benefiting from disturbance, especially Solidago species. Soil bulk density, pH, organic carbon content, and organic nitrogen content were also significantly higher in the salvaged area. The structural legacy of tip-up microtopography remains more pronounced in the unsalvaged area, with significantly taller tip-up mounds and deeper pits. Mosses and some forest herbs, including Athyrium filix-femina and Hydrophyllum virginianum, showed strong positive responses to this tip-up microrelief, highlighting the importance of these structural legacies for understory biodiversity. In sum, although the pathways of recovery differed, this forest appeared to be as resilient to the compound disturbances of windthrow

  8. Analysis of cutin and suberin biomarker patterns in alluvial sedi-ments

    Herschbach, Jennifer; Sesterheim, Anna; König, Frauke; Fuchs, Elmar

    2015-04-01

    Cutin and suberin are the primary source of hydrolysable aliphatic lipid polyesters in soil organic matter (SOM). They are known as geochemical biomarkers to estimate the contribution of different plant species and tissues to SOM. Despite their potential as biomarkers, cutin and suberin have received less attention as flood plain sediment biomarkers. The objectives of this study were to investigate the efficiency of cutin and suberin as biomarkers in floodplains. Therefore similarities between the lipid pattern in alluvial sediments and in the actual vegetation were considered. Lipids of plant tissues (roots, twigs, leaves) from different species (reed (e.g. Phalaris arun-diacea), Salix alba, Ulmus laevis and grassland (e.g. Carex spec.)) and of the un-derlying soils and sediments were obtained and investigated at four sites in the nature reserve Knoblauchsaue (Hessen, Germany). The four sampling sites differ not only with respect to their vegetation, but also within their distance to the river Rhine. Cutin and suberin monomers of plants and soils were analysed by alkaline hydrolysis, methylation and acetylation and subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Resulting lipid patterns were specific for the appropriate plant species and tissues. However, the traceability of single selected lipids was decreasing alongside the soil profile, with the exception of monomers in softwood floodplain soils. Selected tissue specific lipid ratios showed a higher traceability due to strong attributions of lipid ratios in soils and roots of U. laevis and Carex spec. and in leaves of U. laevis and S. alba. In contrast, there was no accordance between the suberin specific lipid ratios in soils and roots of S. alba and P. arundiacea. The most robust interpretations were afforded when a set of multiple biomarkers (i.e. a combination of free lipid ratios and ratios of hydrolysable lipids) was used to collectively reconstruct the source vegetation of different sediment layers.

  9. 安徽合肥大蜀山维管植物区系地理成分研究%Geographical Composition of Vascular Plants in Dashu Mountain in Hefei, Anhui Province

    程红梅

    2011-01-01

    Based on the investigation of the vegetation and collection of samples, the flora composition of Dashu Mountain in terms of families, genera, and species were analyzed and the R/T rate were compared with floras in similar latitude sites.A total of 508 plant species, belonging to 315 genera and 120 families were recorded,among which Pteridophyte had 10 families,13 genera and 14 species;gymnosperms had 7 families,19 genera and 47 species;and angiosoerms had 103 families,283 genera and 447 species.The dominants of the forest community was mainly composed of Fagaceae, Pinaceae, Ulmaceae, Aceaceae ,Tiliaceae, and Leguminosae,etc.The analysis of floristic geographical elements indicated that the 226 genera fell into 14 types.Athough the temperate zone component held a certain proportion,tropical species were rich,with temperate affinities elements accounting for 23.81% and the tropic affinities accounting for 18.52% ,which presents an especially transitional nature.The number of species endemic to China was few.The deciduous broad-leaved forest in temperate zone component was still a relatively stable forest cover of the area.According to the comparison analysis in terms of R/T rate,the tropic characteristics of Mt.Dashu flora were higher than those of the Yaoluoping Nature Reserve,Anhui and Mt.Huangcangyu,Anhui,lower than those of Mt.Mufu, Nanjing and Mt.Langya, Chuzhou, and similar to those of Mt.Zijin, Nanjing and Mt.Niushou, Nanjing in terms of genera.%在野外调查和标本采集的基础上,对合肥大蜀山植物区系基本组成和科属地理成分进行了分析,并与邻近山地植物区系进行了R/T比值的比较.统计共有维管束植物120科、315属、508种(含种下等级),其中蕨类植物10科、13属、14种,裸子植物7科、19属、47种,被子植物103科、283属、447种.壳斗科、松科、榆科、槭树科、椴树科和豆科等是该区系的主要表征科,构成了其各森林类型的主要树种组成.种子植物区

  10. Palynostratigraphical correlation of the excavated Miocene lignite seams of the Yataǧan basin (Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey)

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Denk, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    (basswood, mallow family), Myricaceae (bayberry), Oleaceae (olive family), Onagraceae (evening primrose family), Plumbaginaceae (sea-lavender), Polygonaceae (docks, knotweed), Ranunculaceae (buttercup family), Rosaceae (rose family), Salicaceae (willow), Sapindaceae (maple), Sapotaceae, and Ulmaceae (elm, Zelkova). The objectives of this investigation were (1) to evaluate whether the three palynological sections were deposited at the same time, and (2) to show regional vegetation differences within a single sedimentary basin. We found three general pollen zones corresponding to different sedimentary settings and palaeoenvironments. The first pollen zone was linked to lignite formation (swamp forest, fern spores, Alnus, Decodon). The second pollen zone reflects lacustrine conditions (Typhaceae) and surrounding hinterland vegetation dominated by Fagaceae. The third pollen zone is dominated by herbaceous taxa, whereas woody taxa are less diverse and less abundant. In general, the three palynological sections are congruent in reflecting distinct pollen zones. However main vegetation types may be represented by different dominating taxa (e. g. Alnus dominace in Eskihisar and Tı naz localities while absent in Salihpaşalar) and rare taxa may differ between localities. Our results demonstrate that in order to achieve a comprehensive understanding of environmental and vegetation conditions in a sedimentary basin, a single palynological section (locality) may not capture the entirety of environmental conditions and changes.

  11. Formación Anta (Mioceno Temprano/Medio, Subgrupo Metán (Grupo Orán, en el río Piedras, Pcia. de Salta: Datos palinológicos Anta Formation (Miocene, Metán Subgroup (Orán Group, in río Piedras, Salta Province: Palynological data

    M. Quattrocchio

    2003-03-01

    , with higher percentages of Ulmaceae. The presence of Rhoipites sp. A (Rutaceae, cf. Ruta in relative high percentages with Podocarpaceae and Anacardiaceae suggests a higher altitude (montane palaeocommunity. Based on the palynological and sedimentological results the analised profile corresponds to a saline lake. These results indicate the first expansion of the steppe in a relatively dry climate in the NW of Argentina are also corroborated by fungal records.

  12. Resource characteristics and distribution pattern of ancient trees in Shenzhen City%深圳市古树资源特征与分布格局

    黄应锋; 孙冰; 廖绍波; 陈勇; 陈雷; 陆钊华

    2015-01-01

    在收集资料的基础上,采用实地调查和走访相结合的方法,对深圳市古树资源的种类组成、区系分布、结构特征和生长状况进行了分析;并采用网格法对古树资源空间分布状况进行了统计分析。结果表明:深圳市共有古树1482株,隶属于35科63属78种,古树数量多且种类丰富;主要以桑科( Moraceae)、无患子科( Sapindaceae)、桃金娘科( Myrtaceae)、大戟科( Euphorbiaceae)、樟科( Lauraceae)和榆科( Ulmaceae)等优势科和榕树( Ficus microcarpa Linn. f.)、樟树〔Cinnamomum camphora ( Linn.) Presl〕、龙眼( Dimocarpus longan Lour.)、荔枝( Litchi chinensis Sonn.)和朴树( Celtis sinensis Pers.)等乡土树种为主;深圳古树资源的科、属分布类型具有明显的热带性质和由热带向亚热带、温带过渡的特点。从深圳市古树资源的结构上看,树龄主要集中在100~200 a,平均树龄为145.2 a;树高主要集中在8.0~16.0 m,平均树高为12.4 m;胸径主要集中在0.5~1.5 m,平均胸径为1.1 m;冠幅主要集中在10.0~20.0 m,平均冠幅为15.8 m。从空间分布状况看,深圳市古树分布广泛,但不同区域古树的种数和株数差异显著,主要集中在深圳市的中南部和东南部。从生长状况看,生长良好(Ⅰ级)、一般(Ⅱ级)、较差(Ⅲ级)和濒死(Ⅳ级)的古树分别有729、616、100和37株,分别占古树总株数的49.19%、41.57%、6.75%和2.50%。相关性分析结果表明:深圳市古树的树高与胸径、树高与冠幅、胸径与冠幅间均极显著正相关;古树树种丰富度与古树数量和土地性质极显著正相关;古树生长状况与所处环境的近自然程度和树池的有无极显著正相关,与树龄则无显著相关性,表明区域土地利用性质是影响古树空间分布的关键因素。根据调查结果,对深圳市古树资源的保护提出了建议。%Based on collection data, species composition, flora distribution, structure

  13. 皮肤点刺试验阳性界值与sIgE对间歇性变应性鼻炎的诊断价值%Diagnostic value of positive cut-off values in skin prick test and sIgE for intermittent allergic rhinitis

    石晓; 魏利召; 王东; 刘一

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence of different positive cut-off values of skin prick test(SPT) in the evaluation of serum specific IgE(sIgE) in the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis(AR) soldiers in Inner Mongolia,and to evaluate the diagnostic consistency between SPT and serum sIgE.Methods66 soldiers in a station of Inner Mongolia who had positive clinical symptoms and signs of AR were accepted SPT with 23 kinds of inhalant allergens, then 31 intermittent AR soldiers were selected, who had no less than 4 positive SPT and higher level of positve results. According to SPT, aforementioned 31 soldiers underwent detection of Artemisia vulgaris, Artemisia absinthium, Ambrosia trifida, Humulus scandens, Ulmus americana, Salix caprea, Betula verrucosa and taraxaci sIgE that was performed, using UniCAP100 system. The reference standard of AR was established according to the clinical symptoms, signs and positive SPT. The influence of diagnostic value of sIgE was evaluated based on“+”and“++”positive cut-off value of SPT, respectively. The diagnostic indexes includes sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and concordance rate. And the diagnostic consistency between SPT and serum sIgE was also evaluated.Results ①Artemisia pollen was the major allergen among intermittent AR soldiers at this station and its SPT positive rate was more than 60%, followed by Sunflower, Humulus scandens, ragweed, Betula alba, Ulmus americana and Salix caprea in turns, with the SPT positive rate being more than 30%.②Based on“+” positive cut-off value of SPT, the sensitivity of serum sIgE ranged from 0.500(Humulus scandens) to 0.982(Artemisia), the specificity ranged from 0.500(ragweed, Ulmus americana, Betula verrucosa) to 1.000(Artemisia), and the concordance rate ranged from 0.581(Humulus scandens) to 0.984(Artemisia). When adjusting the cut-off value to“++”, the sensitivity of serum sIgE ranged from 0.524(Humulus scandens) to 0.982(Artemisia

  14. Development of a dense SNP-based linkage map of an apple rootstock progeny using the Malus Infinium whole genome genotyping array

    Antanaviciute Laima

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A whole-genome genotyping array has previously been developed for Malus using SNP data from 28 Malus genotypes. This array offers the prospect of high throughput genotyping and linkage map development for any given Malus progeny. To test the applicability of the array for mapping in diverse Malus genotypes, we applied the array to the construction of a SNP-based linkage map of an apple rootstock progeny. Results Of the 7,867 Malus SNP markers on the array, 1,823 (23.2% were heterozygous in one of the two parents of the progeny, 1,007 (12.8% were heterozygous in both parental genotypes, whilst just 2.8% of the 921 Pyrus SNPs were heterozygous. A linkage map spanning 1,282.2 cM was produced comprising 2,272 SNP markers, 306 SSR markers and the S-locus. The length of the M432 linkage map was increased by 52.7 cM with the addition of the SNP markers, whilst marker density increased from 3.8 cM/marker to 0.5 cM/marker. Just three regions in excess of 10 cM remain where no markers were mapped. We compared the positions of the mapped SNP markers on the M432 map with their predicted positions on the ‘Golden Delicious’ genome sequence. A total of 311 markers (13.7% of all mapped markers mapped to positions that conflicted with their predicted positions on the ‘Golden Delicious’ pseudo-chromosomes, indicating the presence of paralogous genomic regions or mis-assignments of genome sequence contigs during the assembly and anchoring of the genome sequence. Conclusions We incorporated data for the 2,272 SNP markers onto the map of the M432 progeny and have presented the most complete and saturated map of the full 17 linkage groups of M. pumila to date. The data were generated rapidly in a high-throughput semi-automated pipeline, permitting significant savings in time and cost over linkage map construction using microsatellites. The application of the array will permit linkage maps to be developed for QTL analyses in a

  15. Holocene environmental change in Kamchatka: A synopsis

    Brooks, S. J.; Diekmann, B.; Jones, V. J.; Hammarlund, D.

    2015-11-01

    pumila, which spread northward during the Holocene in response to increasing winter snow, and caused water chemistry changes on arrival in the catchments of our study lakes and a response in diatom and chironomid assemblages. We also detect short-term responses, especially in diatom assemblages, to water chemistry changes following volcanic ash deposits.

  16. The Holocene environmental history of a small coastal lake on the north-eastern Kamchatka Peninsula

    Solovieva, N.; Klimaschewski, A.; Self, A. E.; Jones, V. J.; Andrén, E.; Andreev, A. A.; Hammarlund., D.; Lepskaya, E. V.; Nazarova, L.

    2015-11-01

    A radiocarbon and tephra-dated sediment core from Lifebuoy Lake, located on the north-east coast of Kamchatka Peninsula, was analysed for pollen, spores, diatoms, chironomids and tephra in order to uncover regional environmental history. The 6500-year environmental history of Lifebuoy Lake correlates with the broad regional patterns of vegetation development and climate dynamics with both diatoms and chironomids showing near-synchronous changes. Between ca. 6300 and 3900 cal yr BP, the lake ecosystem was naturally enriched, with several Stephanodiscus species dominating the diatom plankton. This natural eutrophication state is likely to be due to a combination of the base-rich catchment geology, the fertilisation effect of several fires in the catchment, silica input from tephra layers and, possibly, nitrogen input from seabirds. The substantial tephra deposit at about 3850 cal yr BP might have stopped sedimentary phosphorus from entering the lake water thus decreasing the trophic state of the lake and facilitating the shift in diatom composition to a benthic Fragiliariaceae complex. Both diatoms and chironomids showed simultaneous compositional changes, which are also reflected by statistically significant changes in their rates of change 300-400 years after the arrival of Pinus pumila in the lake catchment. The rapid increase in both total diatom concentration and the percentage abundance of the large heavy species, Aulacoseira subarctica might be a response to the change in timing and intensity of lake spring turn-over due to the changes in the patterns of North Pacific atmospheric circulation, most notably westward shift of the Aleutian Low. The two highest peaks in A. subarctica abundance at Lifebouy Lake occurred during opposite summer temperature inferences: the earlier peak (3500-2900 cal yr BP) coincided with warm summers and the latter peak (300 cal yr BP-present) occurred during the cold summer period. These imply that A. subarctica shows no direct

  17. Pollination by flies, bees, and beetles of Nuphar ozarkana and N. advena (Nymphaeaceae).

    Lippok, B; Gardine, A A; Williamson, P S; Renner, S S

    2000-06-01

    Nuphar comprises 13 species of aquatic perennials distributed in the temperate Northern Hemisphere. The European species N. lutea and N. pumila in Norway, the Netherlands, and Germany are pollinated by bees and flies, including apparent Nuphar specialists. This contrasts with reports of predominant beetle pollination in American N. advena and N. polysepala. We studied pollination in N. ozarkana in Missouri and N. advena in Texas to assess whether (1) there is evidence of pollinator shifts associated with floral-morphological differences between Old World and New World species as hypothesized by Padgett, Les, and Crow (American Journal of Botany 86: 1316-1324. 1999) and (2) whether beetle pollination characterizes American species of Nuphar. Ninety-seven and 67% of flower visits in the two species were by sweat bees, especially Lasioglossum (Evylaeus) nelumbonis. Syrphid fly species visiting both species were Paragus sp., Chalcosyrphus metallicus, and Toxomerus geminatus. The long-horned leaf beetle Donacia piscatrix was common on leaves and stems of N. ozarkana but rarely visited flowers. Fifteen percent of visits to N. advena flowers were by D. piscatrix and D. texana. The beetles' role as pollinators was investigated experimentally by placing floating mesh cages that excluded flies and bees over N. advena buds about to open and adding beetles. Beetles visited 40% of the flowers in cages, and flowers that received visits had 69% seed set, likely due to beetle-mediated geitonogamy of 1st-d flowers. Experimentally outcrossed 1st-d flowers had 62% seed set, and open-pollinated flowers 76%; 2nd-d selfed or outcrossed flowers had low seed sets (9 and 12%, respectively). Flowers are strongly protogynous and do not self spontaneously. Flowers shielded from pollinators set no seeds. A comparison of pollinator spectra in the two Old World and three New World Nuphar species studied so far suggests that the relative contribution of flies, bees, and beetles to pollen transfer

  18. Holocene environmental changes in southern Kamchatka, Far Eastern Russia, inferred from a pollen and testate amoebae peat succession record

    Klimaschewski, A.; Barnekow, L.; Bennett, K. D.; Andreev, A. A.; Andrén, E.; Bobrov, A. A.; Hammarlund, D.

    2015-11-01

    , wet conditions dominate as dry indicating testate amoebae decrease. After 1800 cal yr BP soil conditions become more variable again but this time with dry dominating testate amoebae. In contrast to surrounding regions, there is no evidence of trees such as spruce or larch growing in the surroundings of the site even though those trees are characteristic of many eastern Siberian sites. This difference might be because of the maritime influence of the Okhotsk Sea. Even dwarf pine (Pinus pumila), which is currently widely dispersed in northern Kamchatka, became part of the local vegetation only during the last 700 yr.

  19. Annotated type catalogue of the Chrysididae (Insecta, Hymenoptera deposited in the collection of Maximilian Spinola (1780–1857, Turin

    Paolo Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A critical and annotated catalogue of the ninety-six type specimens of Chrysididae (Hymenoptera, belonging to sixty-seven species, housed in the insect collection of Maximilian Spinola is given. The neotypes of six species are designated: Chrysis bicolor Lepeletier, 1806; C. comparata Lepeletier, 1806; C. dives Dahlbom, 1854; C. pumila Klug, 1845; C. succincta Linnaeus, 1767; Hedychrum bidentulum Lepeletier, 1806. The lectotypes of twenty-four species are designated: Chrysis aequinoctialis Dahlbom, 1854; C. analis Spinola, 1808; C. assimilis Dahlbom, 1854; C. bihamata Spinola, 1838; C. chilensis Spinola, 1851; C. dichroa Dahlbom, 1854; C. distinguenda Dahlbom, 1854; C. episcopalis Spinola, 1838; C. grohmanni Dahlbom, 1854; C. incrassata Spinola, 1838; C. pallidicornis Spinola, 1838; C. pulchella Spinola, 1808; C. ramburi Dahlbom, 1854; C. refulgens Spinola, 1806; C. splendens Dahlbom, 1854; C. succinctula Dahlbom, 1854; C. versicolor Spinola, 1808; Elampus gayi Spinola, 1851; Hedychrum caerulescens Lepeletier, 1806; He. chloroideum Dahlbom, 1854; He. difficile Spinola, 1851; He. virens Dahlbom, 1854; Holopyga janthina Dahlbom, 1854; Ho. luzulina Dahlbom, 1854. Previous lectotype designations of five species are set aside: Chrysis bicolor Lepeletier, 1806 (designated by Morgan 1984; C. calimorpha Mocsáry, 1882 (designated by Móczár 1965; C. elegans Lepeletier, 1806 (designated by Bohart (in Kimsey and Bohart 1991; Hedychrum chloroideum Dahlbom, 1854 (designated by Kimsey 1986; He. rutilans Dahlbom, 1854 (designated by Morgan 1984. Three new synonymies are proposed: Hedychrum intermedium Dahlbom, 1845, syn. n. of Holopyga fervida (Fabricius, 1781; Chrysis sicula Dahlbom, 1854, syn. n. of C. elegans Lepeletier, 1806; Chrysis succinctula Dahlbom, 1854, syn. n. of C. germari Wesmael, 1839. Chrysis distinguenda Spinola, 1838, and C. coronata Spinola, 1808, are considered nomina dubia. Hedychrum alterum Lepeletier, 1806, and He. aulicum Spinola

  20. [Analysis of leave FTIR of nine kinds of plants from Rosaceae with genetic relationship].

    Qiu, Lu; Li, Xiao-Yong; Liu, Peng; Fan, Shu-Guo; Xie, Mei-Hua; Liu, Ren-Ming; Zhou, Lin-Zong; Wang, Jing

    2014-02-01

    Leaves of nine kinds of plants from three subfamily of Rosaceae were used as materials. Genetic relationship was analyzed and species were identified through studying FTIR of nine kinds of plants. Leaves mainly contain large amounts of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and other substances. The peaks of carbohydrates are mainly between 1440 and 775 cm(-1). The vibration peaks of the cellulose and lignin are between 1440 and 1337 cm(-1). The peaks between 1000 and 775 cm(-1) are stretching vibration of ribose. The vibration peaks of protein are between 1620 and 1235 cm(-1). The peak at 1620 cm(-1) is sensitive to C=O stretching vibration of protein amide I. The peak at 1523 cm(-1) is assigned to N-H and C-N stretching vibration of protein amide II. Peaks of lipids mainly appeared between 2930 and 1380 cm(-1). The peak at 2922 cm(-1) is CH2 stretching vibration of fat. The peak at 1732 cm(-1) is C=O stretching vibration of fatty acids. The mark peak of the nucleic acid appears in the region between 1250 and 1000 cm(-1). The peak at 1068 cm(-1) is due to the symmetric stretching vibration of PO(2-) group of the phosphodiester-deoxyribose backbone, and the peak at 1246 cm(-1) is associated to the asymmetric stretch vibration of PO(2-) group. The results showed that the cluster model is established by smoothing, standardizing, the second derivative, principal component analysis and Hierarchical cluster analysis. It is accordant with the traditional classification. The result of cluster shows that Prunus armeniaca L. and Prunus seudocerasus Lindl. were clustered into one (Prunoideae). Potentilla fulgens Wall. Rosa chinensis Jacd and Fragaria ananassa Duchesne var. were clustered into the second (Rosoideae). Pyracantha fortuneana Li, Malus pumila Mill. Eriobotrya bengalensis Hook. f. and Malus hallianna Koehne were clustered into the third (Pomoideae). The correct rate of cluster at subfamily is 100%. The correct rate of cluster at genus is 55.56%. The

  1. Composition and conservation of Orchidaceae on an inselberg in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and floristic relationships with areas of Eastern Brazil.

    Pessanha, Alexandre Soares; Menini Neto, Luiz; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade

    2014-06-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Forest presents high levels of richness and endemism of several taxonomic groups. Within this forest, the Orchidaceae may be highlighted as the richest family of Angiosperms found there, and is highly threatened due to collection and habitat destruction. The inselbergs of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest are mostly unknown regarding their floristic composition, but the available information points to occurrence of endemic species, with adaptations to survive to this dry environment. The objectives of this study were to conduct a floristic survey of the Orchidaceae species on the Maciço do Itaoca, an inselberg located in the Northern region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, make a comparative analysis with other sites in Eastern Brazil, and discuss the geographic distribution, floristic relationships and conservation status of the orchid species present on the inselbergs. The floristic composition of the study area was compared with 24 other locations in Eastern Brazil (of which 13 are inselbergs) and the influence of the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the Orchidaceae flora on the inselbergs. On Maciço do Itaoca we recorded 18 species from 17 genera: Brasiliorchis picta, Brassavola tuberculata, Campylocentrum robustum; C sellowii, Catasetum luridum, Cattleya guttata, Cyclopogon congestus, Cyrtopodium glutiniferum, Leptotes bicolor, Lophiaris pumila, Miltonia moreliana, Oeceoclades maculata, Phymatochilum brasiliense, Prescottia plantaginifolia, Pseudolaelia vellozicola, Sarcoglottis fasciculata, Sophronitis cernua. and Vanilla chamissonis. The highest floristic similarity was with the Pedra da Botelha (0.43), an inselberg located in the North of Espírito Santo. This result is probably due to the similarity in altitude and distance from the coast in both areas despite the geographical distance between them. Apparently, little influence is exerted by the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the flora of

  2. Rock vegetation types of Danxia landform in Zhejiang Province%浙江省丹霞地貌岩生植被类型

    沈年华; 李传磊; 王小德

    2011-01-01

    Rock vegetation of Danxia landform in Zhejiang Province consists of 5 categories, namely, shrub, shrub-grassland, meadow, vine and moss. Shrubs include Spiraea blumei, Exochorda racemosa, Vitex negundo var. Cannabifolia and Lagerstroemia indie a. Shrub-grasslands include Celtis biondii-Conandron ramondioides, Lespedeza bicolor-Neyraudia montana and Lespedeza bicolor-Sedum alfredii. Meadows include Neyraudia montana, Orostachys erubescens-Sedum polytrichoides, Conandron ramondioides, Selaginella moellendorffii, Pyrrosia lingua and Drynaria fortunei. Vines include Trachelospermum jasminoides, Ficus pumila and Parthenocissus tricuspidata. Mosses include Pogonatum inflexion, Campylopus umbellatus, Philonotis turneriana -Campylopus umbellatus and Bryum argenteum-Sematophyllum subhumile.%浙江省丹霞地貌岩生植被由灌丛、灌草丛、草甸、藤本和苔藓等5种类型组成.其中,灌丛有绣球绣线菊Spiraeab lumei灌丛、白鹃梅Exochorda racemosa灌丛、牡荆Vitex negundo vat.cannabifoli灌丛和紫薇Lagerstroemia indica灌丛;灌草丛有紫弹朴Celtis biondii-苦苣苔Conandron ramondioides灌草丛、胡枝子Lespedeza bicolor-山类芦Neyraudia montana灌草丛和小蜡Lespedeza bicolor-东南景天Sedum alfredii灌草丛;草甸有山类芦草甸、晚红瓦松Orostachys erubescens-藓状景天Sedum polytrichoides草甸、苦苣苔草甸、江南卷柏Selaginella moellendorffii草甸、石韦Pyrrosia lingua草甸和槲蕨Drynaria fortunei草甸;藤本类型有络石Trachelospermum jasminoides,薜荔Ficus pumila和爬山虎Parthenocissus tricuspidata;苔藓类型有东亚小金发藓Pogonatum inflexum,节茎曲柄藓Campylopus umbellatus、东亚泽藓Philonotis turneriana-节茎曲柄藓Campylopus umbellatus和真藓Bryum argenteum-矮锦藓Sematophyllum subhumile等.

  3. The period from the Last Interglacial to the Last Glacial Maximum (MIS 5 - 2) in different archives of southern Italy

    Sauer, Daniela; Wagner, Stephen; Al-Sharif, Riyad; Brückner, Helmut; Scarciglia, Fabio; Mastronuzzi, Giuseppe; Stahr, Karl

    2010-05-01

    Sediment cores from S Italy provide excellent archives of Late Pleistocene climate and vegetation changes, particularly from the Lago Grande di Monticchio (Allen et al., 2000; Brauer et al., 2007), the crater lakes of the central West coast of Italy, Valle di Castiglione, Lagaccione, Lago di Vico, Stracciacappa (Follieri et al., 1998) and the marine core GNS84-C106 in the Gulf of Salerno (Di Donato et al., 2008). These records show that woody Mediterranean vegetation covered the region during most of the Last Interglacial (from 129-127 ka BP until 115-116 ka BP). In the last phase of the interglacial (from 115-116 ka BP until about 110 ka BP), the forest composition changed, showing an increase in Abies and Alnus and a decrease in Mediterranean taxa. The interglacial was terminated by the Melisey I Stadial, during which grasses and Betula predominated. Forests spread again during St. Germain I, but they consisted mainly of Fagus, Abies and various deciduous trees. A steppe phase (Melisey II) followed, in which Chenopodiaceae prevailed, before St. Germain II set in, with forests dominated by Abies, Ulmus and Carpinus. From the end of St. Germain II until the Lateglacial, steppe, composed of Artemisia, Gramineae and Chenopodiaceae, predominated, with week expansions of trees (mainly Pinus and Juniperus) during several periods. What information can be obtained from terrestrial geo-archives for the same region and time? Sea level highstands, corresponding to interglacial and interstadial periods, created marine terraces along the coasts of S Italy. We are currently carrying out a geomorphological, sedimentological and pedological study on a flight of 11 uplifted marine terraces in the central Gulf of Taranto, the lowermost of them falling into the time span of interest. The terraces generally comprise a gravel body, deposited in a littoral environment, covered by a layer of fine sediments of varying thickness. The latter were deposited when the terrace was still close

  4. 贺兰山西坡植被群落特征及其与环境因子的关系%Relationship between vegetation community characteristics and its environmental factors in the west slope of Helan Mountain

    郑敬刚; 董东平; 赵登海; 何明珠; 李新荣

    2008-01-01

    通过SPSS聚类分析和CANOCO排序研究了贺兰山西坡植被分布与环境因子的关系,结果表明:在海拔梯度上,贺兰山西坡植被大致可以划分珍珠猪毛菜(Salsola passerina)-红砂(Reaumuria soongorica)群落、短花针茅(Stipa breviflora)-大针茅(Stipa grandis)群落和蒙古扁桃(Prunus mongolica )-灰榆(Ulmus glaucescens)群落3种类型.从典范对应分析(CCA)排序结果来看,不同植被群落与环境因子的关系存在明显的分异.在珍珠猪毛菜-红砂群落,第一排序轴反映了土壤盐碱化梯度,沿着藏锦鸡儿群落-珍珠猪毛菜、猫头刺群落-珍珠猪毛菜、红砂群落序列,土壤盐碱化程度不断增强;第二排序轴则反映了土壤结构梯度,沿着藏锦鸡儿群落-珍珠猪毛菜、红砂群落-珍珠猪毛菜、猫头刺群落序列,土壤质地逐渐粗化;在短花针茅-大针茅群落,第一排序轴反映了土壤水分梯度,第二排序轴反映了海拔梯度上的水热组合梯度;在蒙古扁桃-灰榆群落,第一排序轴反映了土壤pH梯度,沿着灰榆、蒙古扁桃群落-蒙古扁桃、金露梅群落-蒙古扁桃群落序列,土壤pH值逐渐下降;第二排序轴主要反映了土壤结构梯度,沿着蒙古扁桃群落-灰榆、蒙古扁桃群落-蒙古扁桃、金露梅群落序列,土壤中粉粒、粘粒含量逐渐增加,土壤质地呈细化趋势.

  5. Short Rotation Forestry (SRF in a Mediterranean Environment Under Limited Energy Inputs

    Stella Lovelli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is comparing the two year performance (diameter, total height and mortality of twenty tree and shrub species in a semi arid environment. The research also wants to supply recommendation on the agronomic cropping techniques in areas where rainfall is the main limiting factor and water use is strictly limited. Woody biomass is gaining increasing importance for energy production in Italy. During the last five years, roughly 5000 ha of Short Rotation Forestry (SRF have been planted, mostly in northern Italy, especially using poplar clones. However, in Southern Italy, due to the poor rainfall and the lack of knowledge existing on the species to use, few groves have been established. The studied groves were set in December 2005 in a Mediterranean area where the total year rainfall is not higher than 600 mm (mostly in autumn and winter. Twenty species (Salix cinerea, Ulmus carpinifolia, Corylus avellana, Spartium junceum, Acer saccharinum, Morus alba, Saphora japonica, Eleagnus angustifolia, Fraxinus angustifolia (var oxicarpa, Sambucus nigra, Robinia pseudoacacia, Populus nigra, Albizia julibrissis, Populus alba, Salix alba, Ailanthus altissima, Alnus cordata, Ficus carica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Celtis australis were planted in “collection” plots and set in singular plots on single rows (3 m X 0.5 m spacing. Six species (R. pseudoacacia, P. nigra, P. alba, S. nigra, E. camaldulensis, and A. altissima were planted in eighteen random “experimental” split-plots, using single and twin rows (0.5 m spacing between plants. Plots had a rectangular plant spacing (3 m between singular and twin rows, 0.5 m on each row. Plant density was roughly 6670 cuttings ha-1 in “collection” plots with singular rows and 10950 cuttings ha-1 in “experimental” plots using single and twin rows. The expected harvest interval ranges from 2 to 5 years, depending on the first results. In the “collection” plots, the first results showed

  6. Contrasting secondary growth and water-use efficiency patterns in native and exotic trees co-occurring in inner Spain riparian forests

    Noelia González-Muñoz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The invasive trees Ailanthus altissima and Robinia pseudoacacia are widely spreading in inner Spain riparian forests, where they co-occur with the natives Fraxinus angustifolia and Ulmus minor. In a climate change context, we aimed to identify some of the species traits that are leading these species to success (Basal Area Increment (BAI and water-use efficiency (iWUE. We also aimed to describe the main environmental variables controlling studied species BAI. Area of study: Riparian forests of central Spain Material and Methods: We measured tree-ring width and converted it to basal area increment (BAI; intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE was estimated from tree ring carbon isotopes (δ13C. We compared the BAI and iWUE of the last 20 years between origins (native vs exotic and among species. For each species, we evaluated iWUE and BAI relationships. Linear mixed-effect models were performed to identify the main environmental variables (temperature, precipitation, river flow affecting BAI. Main result: Native trees showed higher mean BAI than invaders, mainly due to the rising growth rate of U. minor. Invaders showed higher mean iWUE than natives. We did not find significant correlations between iWUE and BAI in any case. Warm temperatures in autumn positively affected the BAI of the natives, but negatively that of the invaders. Research highlights: The contrasting effect of autumn temperatures on native and invasive species BAI suggests that invaders will be more hampered by the rising temperatures predicted for this century. The higher iWUE found for the invaders did not translate into increased radial growth, suggesting that drought stress may have prevented them of taking advantage of increased atmospheric CO2 for a faster growth. These findings point out that neither climate change nor rising CO2 seem to enhance the success of study invasive species over the natives in riparian forests of central Spain. Furthermore, the low BAI

  7. Evaluating Endangered Plants of Lishan Nature Reserve in Shanxi%山西历山自然保护区濒危植物保护等级评价1)

    郝少英; 张峰

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the rare and endangered plants in Lishan Nature Reserve, Shanxi Province by using the evaluation crite-ria of the plant prior protection ( two-level fuzzy comprehensive evaluation ) .Taxus mairei is at the highest level of endan-gered species.Cercidiphyllum japonicum, Glycine soja, Ostrya japonica, Litsea pungens, Platycodon grandiflorum, Lindera glauca and Sinowilsonia henryi are at the second level.Populusp urdomii, Pteroceltis tatarinowii, Ulmus lamellose, Eupte-lea pleiospermum, Rhodiola rosea, Zanthoxylum planispinum, Toxicodendron vernicifluum, Meliosma cuneifolia var.glabri-uscula, Meliosma vaitchiorum, Actinidia arguta, Kalopanax septemlobus, Dendrobenthamia japonica var.chinensis, Styrax hemsleyana, Styrax odoratissima, Chionanthus retusa, Callicarpa japonica var.angustata and Codonopsis pilosula are at the third level.Finally, we analyzed the causes of endangered plants and proposed the strategies for the conservation.%应用植物优先保护顺序的评价标准,即二级模糊综合评判法,对历山自然保护区濒危植物的保护等级进行了定量评价。结果表明:南方红豆杉濒危程度最高,连香树、野大豆、木姜子、桔梗、山胡椒、铁木和山白树等7种植物次之,四照花、泡花树、暖木、郁香野茉莉、竹叶椒、青檀、老鸹铃、刺楸、领春木、软枣猕猴桃、流苏、窄叶紫珠、冬瓜杨、红景天、漆树、党参、脱皮榆等17种植物濒危程度最低。分析了濒危植物濒危的原因,提出了相应的保护措施。

  8. Evaluating methyl jasmonate for induction of resistance to Fusarium oxysporum, F. circinatum and Ophiostoma novo-ulmi

    Vivas, M.; Martin, J. a.; Gil, L.; Solla, A.

    2012-11-01

    Damping off is probably the most common disease affecting seedlings in forest nurseries. In south-western Europe, the pitch canker and the Dutch elm disease cause relevant economic looses in forests, mostly in adult trees. The ability of the chemical plant elicitor methyl jasmonate (MeJA) to induce resistance in Pinus pinaster against Fusarium oxysporum and F. circinatum, and in Ulmus minor against Ophiostoma novo-ulmi was examined. In a first experiment, an aqueous solution of MeJA 5 mM was applied to P. pinaster seeds by immersion or spray, and different concentrations of MeJA (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 mM) were tested in seedlings before inoculations with F. oxysporum (105 and 107 spores mL{sup -}1). In a second experiment, 6-months-old P. pinaster seedlings were sprayed with 0 and 25 mM of MeJA, and later challenged with mycelium of F. circinatum. Finally, 4-year-old U. minor trees were sprayed with 0, 50 and 100 mM of MeJA and subsequently inoculated with O. novo-ulmi (106 spores mL{sup -}1). MeJA did not protect P. pinaster seeds and seedlings against F. oxysporum, probably because plants were too young for the physiological mechanisms responsible for resistance to be induced. Based on the morphological changes observed in the treated 6-months-old P. pinaster seedlings (reduction of growth and increased resin duct density), there is evidence that MeJA could have activated the mechanisms of resistance. However, 25 mM MeJA did not reduce plant mortality, probably because the spread of the virulent F. circinatum strain within the tree tissues was faster than the formation of effective defense responses. Based on the lack of phenological changes observed in the treated elms, there is no evidence that MeJA would cause induction of resistance. These results suggest that the use of MeJA to prevent F. oxysporum and F. circinatum in P. pinaster seedlings in nurseries and O. novo-ulmi in U. minor trees should be discarded. (Author) 42 refs.

  9. Climate signal detected in sub-fossil and living oak trees data. An analysis of signal frequency components

    Constantin, Nechita; Francisca, Chiriloaei; Maria, Radoane; Ionel, Popa; Nicoae, Radoane

    2016-04-01

    This study is focused on analysis the frequency components of the signal detected in living and sub-fossil tree ring series from different time periods. The investigation is oriented to analyze signal frequency components (low and high) of the two categories of trees. The interpretation technique of tree ring width is the instrument most often used to elaborate past climatic reconstructions. The annual resolution, but also, the high capacity of trees to accumulate climatic information are attributes which confer to palaeo-environmental reconstructions the biggest credibility. The main objective of the study refers to the evaluation of climatic signal characteristics, both present day climate and palaeo-climate (last 7000 years BP). Modern dendrochronological methods were applied on 350 samples of sub-fossil trees and 400 living trees. The subfossil trunks were sampled from different fluvial environments (Siret, Suceava, Moldova). Their age was determined using radiocarbon, varying from under 100 years to almost 7000 years BP. The subfossil tree species investigated were Quercus, Alnus, Ulmus. Considering living trees, these were identified on eastern part of Romania, in different actual physico-geographical conditions. The studied living tree species consisted in Quercus species (robur and petraea). Each site was investigated regarding stress factors of the sampled tree. The working methods were applied to the total wood series, both late and early, to detect intra-annual level climate information. Each series has been tested to separate individual trees with climatic signal of other trees with different signals (noises determined by competition between individuals or site stress, or anthropic impact). Comparing dendrochronological series (sub-fossil and living trees) we want to identify what significant causes determined the difference in the signal frequencies. Especially, the human interventions registered in the last 2 centuries will be evaluated by these

  10. An elm EST database for identifying leaf beetle egg-induced defense genes

    Büchel Kerstin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants can defend themselves against herbivorous insects prior to the onset of larval feeding by responding to the eggs laid on their leaves. In the European field elm (Ulmus minor, egg laying by the elm leaf beetle ( Xanthogaleruca luteola activates the emission of volatiles that attract specialised egg parasitoids, which in turn kill the eggs. Little is known about the transcriptional changes that insect eggs trigger in plants and how such indirect defense mechanisms are orchestrated in the context of other biological processes. Results Here we present the first large scale study of egg-induced changes in the transcriptional profile of a tree. Five cDNA libraries were generated from leaves of (i untreated control elms, and elms treated with (ii egg laying and feeding by elm leaf beetles, (iii feeding, (iv artificial transfer of egg clutches, and (v methyl jasmonate. A total of 361,196 ESTs expressed sequence tags (ESTs were identified which clustered into 52,823 unique transcripts (Unitrans and were stored in a database with a public web interface. Among the analyzed Unitrans, 73% could be annotated by homology to known genes in the UniProt (Plant database, particularly to those from Vitis, Ricinus, Populus and Arabidopsis. Comparative in silico analysis among the different treatments revealed differences in Gene Ontology term abundances. Defense- and stress-related gene transcripts were present in high abundance in leaves after herbivore egg laying, but transcripts involved in photosynthesis showed decreased abundance. Many pathogen-related genes and genes involved in phytohormone signaling were expressed, indicative of jasmonic acid biosynthesis and activation of jasmonic acid responsive genes. Cross-comparisons between different libraries based on expression profiles allowed the identification of genes with a potential relevance in egg-induced defenses, as well as other biological processes, including signal transduction

  11. Late Pleniglacial vegetation in eastern-central Europe: are there modern analogues in Siberia?

    Magyari, Enikő Katalin; Kuneš, Petr; Jakab, Gusztáv; Sümegi, Pál; Pelánková, Barbora; Schäbitz, Frank; Braun, Mihály; Chytrý, Milan

    2014-07-01

    records suggest uninterrupted presence of mesophilous temperate trees (Quercus, Ulmus, Corylus, Fagus and Fraxinus excelsior) in the Eastern Carpathian Mountains throughout the LPG. We demonstrate that the LPG vegetation in this area was characterized by increasing grass cover and high frequency of wildfires. We conclude that pollen spectra over represent trees in the forest-steppe landscape of the LPG, furthermore pollen-based quantitative climate reconstructions for the LPG are challenging in this area due to the scarcity of modern analogues.

  12. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in British Columbia, Canada

    Brauer Gerhard

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of medicinal plants is an option for livestock farmers who are not allowed to use allopathic drugs under certified organic programs or cannot afford to use allopathic drugs for minor health problems of livestock. Methods In 2003 we conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. Medicinal plants are used to treat a range of conditions. A draft manual prepared from the data was then evaluated by participants at a participatory workshop. Results There are 128 plants used for ruminant health and diets, representing several plant families. The following plants are used for abscesses: Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium Echinacea purpurea, Symphytum officinale, Bovista pila, Bovista plumbea, Achillea millefolium and Usnea longissima. Curcuma longa L., Salix scouleriana and Salix lucida are used for caprine arthritis and caprine arthritis encephalitis.Euphrasia officinalis and Matricaria chamomilla are used for eye problems. Wounds and injuries are treated with Bovista spp., Usnea longissima, Calendula officinalis, Arnica sp., Malva sp., Prunella vulgaris, Echinacea purpurea, Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium, Achillea millefolium, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hypericum perforatum, Lavandula officinalis, Symphytum officinale and Curcuma longa. Syzygium aromaticum and Pseudotsuga menziesii are used for coccidiosis. The following plants are used for diarrhea and scours: Plantago major, Calendula officinalis, Urtica dioica, Symphytum officinale, Pinus ponderosa, Potentilla pacifica, Althaea officinalis, Anethum graveolens, Salix alba and Ulmus fulva. Mastitis is treated with Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Salix alba, Teucrium scorodonia and Galium aparine. Anethum graveolens and Rubus sp., are given for increased milk production.Taraxacum officinale, Zea mays, and Symphytum officinale are used for udder edema. Ketosis is treated with Gaultheria shallon, Vaccinium sp., and

  13. Declines in populations of Salix caprea L.during forest regeneration after strong herbivore pressure

    Janusz B. Faliński

    2014-01-01

    (Carpinus betulus, Tilia cordata, Acer platanoides and Ulmus glabra under the canopy of light-seeded trees, and the non-creation of a new generation of pioneer species points to the imminent end of the process of regeneration in the forest communities of Białowieża National Park.

  14. Nighttime stomatal conductance differs with nutrient availability in two temperate floodplain tree species.

    Eller, Franziska; Jensen, Kai; Reisdorff, Christoph

    2016-12-14

    Nighttime water flow varies between plant species and is a phenomenon for which the magnitude, purpose and consequences are widely discussed. A potential benefit of nighttime stomata opening may be increased nutrient availability during the night since transpiration affects the mass flow of soil water towards plant roots. We investigated how nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilization, and short-term drought affected stomatal conductance of Fraxinus excelsior L. and Ulmus laevis Pallas during the day (gs) and night (gn), and how these factors affected growth for a period of 18 weeks. Both species were found to open their stomata during the night, and gn responded to nutrients and water in a different manner than gs Under N-deficiency, F. excelsior had higher gn, especially when P was sufficient, and lower pre-dawn leaf water potential (Ψpd), supporting our assumption that nutrient limitation leads to increases in nighttime water uptake. Under P-deficiency, F. excelsior had higher relative root production and, thus, adjusted its biomass allocation under P shortage, while sufficient N but not P contributed to overall higher biomasses. In contrast, U. laevis had higher gn and lower root:shoot ratio under high nutrient (especially N) availability, whereas both sufficient N and P produced higher biomasses. Compared with well-watered trees, the drought treatment did not affect any growth parameter but it resulted in lower gn, minimum stomatal conductance and Ψpd of F. excelsior For U. laevis, only gs during July was lower when drought-treated. In summary, the responses of gs and gn to nutrients and drought depended on the species and its nutrient uptake strategy, and also the timing of measurement during the growing season. Eutrophication of floodplain forests dominated by F. excelsior and U. laevis may, therefore, considerably change nighttime transpiration rates, leading to ecosystem-level changes in plant-water dynamics. Such changes may have more severe

  15. Quantitative relationship between pollen and vegetation in northern China

    XU QingHai; LI YueCong; YANG XiaoLan; ZHENG ZhenHua

    2007-01-01

    205 surface pollen samples from different communities in Northern China were analyzed to understand the quantitative relationship between pollen and its original vegetation. Pollen analysis and vegetation investigation show that the pollen assemblages differ a lot in different vegetation regions. Arboreal pollen account for more than 30%in temperate broad-deciduous forests region. In temperate steppe regions, herb pollen percentages are more than 90%,where Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae are dominant pollen types with Artemisia percentages more than 30%.In temperate desert, Chenopodiaceae pollen percentages are more than Artemisia, where ferns are rare. Cyperaceae pollen percentages are more than 20% in sub-alpine or cold meadows. The relations between pollen percentages and vegetation cover indicate that most arboreal pollen shows a close relationship with parent plant covers, most shrubby pollen types have more or less correlations, but most herbs do not show clear correlations. For arboreal pollen types, Picea pollen shows the closest correlation with spruce trees coverage, then is Quercus and Carpinus. Betula, Larix and Juglans have also high correlation coefficients with their plants coverage, but Betula pollen is of overrepresented pollen type and more than 40% in birch forest, while Larix and Juglans pollen is underrepresented and pollen percentages are more than 10%in Larix or Juglans pure forests. Pinus is of overrepresented pollen type, and pollen percentages have some relations with plants cover. Pine forest might present when Pinus pollen percentages are more than 30%.The relations between Ulmus and Populus pollen percentages and vegetation cover are not close, where they are mixed with other arbors. They cannot be recorded easily, but if their pollen percentages are more than 1%,Uimus or Populus trees should exist. For shrubby pollen types, the correlation between Vitex pollen percentages and vegetation cover is the highest, then is Corylus, Tamariaceae

  16. Environmental and climatic conditions at a potential Glacial refugial site of tree species near the Southern Alpine glaciers. New insights from multiproxy sedimentary studies at Lago della Costa (Euganean Hills, Northeastern Italy)

    Kaltenrieder, Petra; Belis, Claudio A.; Hofstetter, Simone; Ammann, Brigitta; Ravazzi, Cesare; Tinner, Willy

    2009-12-01

    It has been hypothesized that refugia of thermophilous tree species were located in Northern Italy very close to the Alps, though, this hypothesis has yet to be tested thoroughly. In contrast to Central and Southern Italy with its relative wealth of data, only a few fragmentary records are currently available from Northern Italy for the last Glacial (Würm, Weichselian). Our new study site Lago della Costa lies adjacent to the catchment of the megafans of the Alpine forelands and the braided rivers of the Northeastern Po Plain that have so far inhibited the recovery of continuous Glacial and Late-Glacial records. We analyze pollen, plant macrofossils, charcoal and ostracods to reconstruct the vegetation, fire and lake history for the period 33,000-16,000 cal. BP. We compare our data with Glacial records from Southern Europe to discuss similarities and dissimilarities between these potential refugial areas. A comparison with independent paleoclimatic proxies allows to assess potential linkages between environmental and climatic variability. New macrofossil and pollen data at Lago della Costa unambiguously document the local persistence of boreal tree taxa such as Larix decidua and Betula tree species around the study site during the last Glacial. The regular occurrence of pollen of temperate trees in the organic lake sediments (fine-detritus calcareous gyttja) suggests that temperate taxa such as Corylus avellana, Quercus deciduous, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus excelsior, Carpinus, Abies alba and Fagus sylvatica, most likely survived the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) at favorable sites in the Euganean Hills. The percentage values of temperate trees are comparable with those from Southern Europe (e.g. Monticchio in Southern Italy). We conclude that the Euganean Hills were one of the northernmost refugial areas of temperate taxa in Europe. However, the relative and absolute abundances of pollen of temperate trees are highly variable. Pollen-inferred declines of temperate tree

  17. Experimental study of terrestrial plant litter interaction with aqueous solutions

    Fraysse, F.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Meunier, J.-D.

    2010-01-01

    Quantification of silicon and calcium recycling by plants is hampered by the lack of physico-chemical data on reactivity of plant litter in soil environments. We applied a laboratory experimental approach for determining the silica and calcium release rates from litter of typical temperate and boreal plants: pine ( Pinus laricio), birch ( Betula pubescens), larch ( Larix gmelinii), elm ( Ulmus laevis Pall.), tree fern ( Dicksonia squarrosa), and horsetail (Equisetum arvense) in 0.01 M NaCl solutions, pH of 2-10 and temperature equals to 5, 25 and 40 °C. Open system, mixed-flow reactors equipped with dialysis compartment and batch reactors were used. Comparative measurements were performed on intact larch needles and samples grounded during different time, sterilized or not and with addition or not of sodium azide in order to account for the effect of surface to mass ratio and possible microbiological activity on the litter dissolution rates. Litter degradation results suggest that the silica release rate is independent on dissolved organic carbon release (cell breakdown) which implies the presence of phytoliths in a pure "inorganic" pool not complexed with organic matter. Calcium and DOC are released at the very first stage of litter dissolution while Si concentration increases gradually suggesting the presence of Ca and Si in two different pools. The dry-weight normalized dissolution rate at circum-neutral pH range (approx. 1-10 μmol/g DW/day) is 2 orders of magnitude higher than the rates of Si release from common soil minerals (kaolinite, smectite, illite). Minimal Ca release rates evaluated from batch and mixed-flow reactors are comparable with those of most reactive soil minerals such as calcite and apatite, and several orders of magnitude higher than the dissolution rates of major rock-forming silicates (feldspars, pyroxenes). The activation energy for Si liberation from plant litter is approx. 50 kJ/mol which is comparable with that of surface

  18. Korla Pear Tree Biological Characteristics of the Valsa CanKer Growth Pathogen and Its Pathogenicity%库尔勒香梨树腐烂病菌生物学特性与致病性的初步研究

    唐俊煜; 张王斌; 李亚鹏; 郭众仲; 王瑜; 王延芳; 但红侠; 杨明禄

    2015-01-01

    Objective] This project aims to study Korla Pear Tree Canker fungus morphology,culture characters and pathogenicity to determine the biological characteristics and pathogenicity,and provide valuable information for disease prevention and control strategies.[Method]Disease samples were picked up for section observation; under different environmental conditions ( medium, temperature, pH, carbon source, nitrogen source,light) they were cultured and observed; the bacteria were inoculated on poplar ( Populus bolleana Lauche),narrow leaved oleaster (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.),poplar (Populus euphratica),willow (Salixmat_sudanaKoidz),walnut (J.regia L.),apple (M.pumila Mill.),red dates (Ziziphuszizyphus) of the branches and leaves for observation and calculation of the incidence rate and the rate of lesion expansion.[Result]The conidia devices had multi chambers with a sausage shape; bacteria optimum growth temperature was 20 —30℃,the optimum pH was 7,growing the fast under full light condition.The results showed that: lesion expansion inoculated on walnut leaves was the fastest,most slowly on the willow; they can form spore producing body in apple and poplar branches and spit out the yellow or orange conidia angles.[Conclusion]Morphology identifi_cation of pear stem rot shell was C.carphosperma Fr.Differences existed in growth rate,color surface morpholo_gy,colony shape and pigment secretion under different environmental conditions.The bacteria could make 7 different host susceptible,but there are significant differences in lesion expansion and sporulation ability,etc.%【目的】测定库尔勒香梨树腐烂病菌子实体形态特征﹑培养性状观察和致病性,了解其生物学特性和致病性,为该病防治策略制定提供参考依据。【方法】挑取病样子实体进行切片观察;在不同环境条件下进行培养性状观察;将病菌分别接种于杨树( Populus bolleana Lauche)﹑沙枣( Elaeagnus angustifolia L

  19. 苹果果实细胞质中依赖活体组织的ABA高亲和力特异结合蛋白%In Vivo Tissue-dependent Abscisic Acid Specific-binding Proteins with High Affinity in Cytosol of Developing Apple Fruits

    张大鹏; 陈尚武

    2001-01-01

    The in vivo highly tissue-dependent abscisic acid (ABA) specific-binding sit es localized in cytosol were identified and characterized in the flesh of develo ping apple (Malus pumila L. cv. Starkrimon) fruits. ABA binding activity was scarcely detectable in the microsomes and the cytosolic fraction isolated from the freshly harvested fruits via an in vitro ABA binding incubation of the s ubcellular fractions. If, however, instead that the subcellular fractions were in vitro incubated in 3H-ABA binding medium, the flesh tissue discs we re directly in vivo incubated in 3H-ABA binding medium, a high ABA bin ding activity to the cytosolic fraction isolated from these tissue discs was detect ed. The in vivo ABA binding capacity of the cytosolic fraction was lost if the tissue discs had been pretreated with boiling water, indicating that the ABA bin ding needs a living state of tissue. The in vivo tissue-dependent binding si tes were shown to possess protein nature with both active serine residua and thiol-g roup of cysteine residua in their functional binding center. The ABA binding of the in vivo tissue-dependent ABA binding sites to the cytosolic fraction was shown to be saturable, reversible, and of high affinity. The scatchard plotting g ave evidence of two different classes of ABA binding proteins, one with a higher affinity (Kd=2.9 nmol/L) and the other with lower affinity (Kd=71.4 nmo l/L). Ph aseic acid, 2-trans-4-trans-ABA or cis-trans-(-)-ABA had substantia lly no affinity to the binding proteins, indicating their stereo-specificity to bind physiologically active ABA. The time course, pH- and temperature-dependence of the in vivo tissue-dependent binding proteins were determined. It is hyp othesized that the detected ABA-binding proteins may be putative ABA-receptors t hat mediate ABA signals during fruit development.%将苹果(Malus pumila L. cv. Starkrimon)果肉微粒体和细胞可溶组分在含有 3H-ABA的缓冲介质中分别温育,仅在细胞

  20. EARLY PLEISTOCENE LACUSTRINE SPORE-POLLEN RECORDS AND EVOLUTION OF PALEOCLIMATE IN LINXIA BASIN.GANSU PROVINCE,CHINA%甘肃省临夏盆地更新世早期湖泊沉积孢粉记录的古气候演化

    董铭; 方小敏; 史正涛; 明庆忠; 苏怀

    2011-01-01

    systematically with the sampling interval of 1. 0m besides 0. 5m individually. The result of the identification showed that 91% samples pollen amount attained statistical standard among them. Pollen types belong to 44 families and 57 genera , which includes Arbor trees pollen , such as Pinus , Picea , Cupressceae , Juniperus , Quercus , Betula , Fraxinus,and Shrub and Herb pollen , such as Poaceae ,Amnthemis type ,Aster type,Artemisia , Chenopodiaceae.In the whole section. Arbor trees pollen ( 37. 0% ~ 98. 5% , average of 66. 9% ) absolute dominated , suggesting forest landscape in Linxia Basin during 2.50~ 1. 76Ma. According to variation characteristics of spore-pollen assemblage ,Dongshanding Formation ( Dongshanding Paleo-Iake sediment) into 3 spore-pollen assemblage zones ( consisting of 6 subzones) can be divided, representing 3 vegetational evolution periods or arid-wet-arid climate change sequence during Early Pleistocene.During the first period ( 2. 50 ~ 1. 9lMa, Zone Ⅰ ) , the dominate ecological landscape was the temperate forest mainly consisting of Cupressaceae , Ulmus and Poaceae ,indicating warm-cold and a little dry climate. From 2. 11Ma to 1. 91Ma,climate was drier than early with the characteristics of shrub and herb increasing. In the second period (1. 91 ~1. 80Ma, Zone Ⅱ ) , the ecological landscape was still the temperate forest, which can be inferred from extensive existence of majority species such as Picea , Ulmus and Poacene. It was significant different from Zone Ⅰ that Zone Ⅱ represented the most moist cold climate during Early Pleistocene. Especially, during 1. 89 ~ 1. 87Ma Picea woodland and Dongshanding Paleo-Iake expanded to the maximum extent. In the last period ( 1. 80 ~ 1. 76Ma.Zone Ⅲ ) , the vegetation type was also temperature forest , but was reconstructed with the Picea , Fraxinus , Poaceae as its majority species. The Picea woodland shrunk gradually. However,the climate was more humid than the one of Zone Ⅰ .

  1. 小兴安岭凉水典型阔叶红松林动态监测样地:物种组成与群落结构%Species composition and community structure of a typical mixed broad-leaved-Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) forest plot in Liangshui Nature Reserve, Northeast China

    徐丽娜; 金光泽

    2012-01-01

    The mixed broadleaved-Korean pine {Pinus koraiensis) forest (MBKF) represents the climax vegetation type of the eastern mountainous area of Northeast China. It is divided into three categories according to community structure and species composition, including southern MBKF, typical MBKF, and northern MBKF. To monitor long-term dynamics of the typical MBKF, we established a 9-ha plot following the field protocol of the 50 ha plot in Panama (Barro Colorado Island, BCI) in 2005 in Liangshui National Nature Reserve of Heilongjiang Province. All free-standing plant species with DBH (diameter at breast height) =1 cm were mapped, tagged, and identified to species in the plot. In the 2010 census, we documented 48 woody species with 21,355 individuals, belonging to 34 genera and 20 families. Most of the species belong to the Changbai Mountain plant flora, with a minor subtropical plant species component. The DBH distribution of all individuals showed a reversed "J" type, indicating well regenerated for the community. The DBH distribution for the canopy, sub-canopy, and middle layers and the understory layer showed the reversed "J" and "L" distributions, respectively. The DBH pattern of the nine dominant species can be classified into three categories: approximate normal, reversed "J", and "L" distribution. Spatial pattern analysis showed that the major tree species were aggregated, and aggregation intensity decreased as DBH increased. Further analysis showed that spatial distribution was closely related to topography and varied with DBH classes. For example, the distribution of Pinus koraiensis and Tilia amurensis was significantly affected by topography (P < 0.05); however, the distribution of Abies nephrolepis, Acer ukurunduense, and Ulmus laciniata correlated significantly with topography at diameter classes of I (DBH < 10 cm) and II (10 cm < DBH < 30 cm). The distribution of Betula costata and Acer tegmentosum was also significantly correlated with topography at a

  2. LANDFORM,LOESS DEPOSIT AND PALEOENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES IN THE SOUTH LUOHE RIVER(CENTRAL CHINA) DURING THE HOMININ OCCUPATIONS%中国中部南洛河流域地貌、黄土堆积与更新世古人类生存环境

    鹿化煜; 弋双文; 马萧林; Ming Wei; 张红艳; 孙雪峰; 王社江; Richard Cosgrove; Chen Shen; 张文超; 张小兵; 王先彦

    2012-01-01

    in this catchment,and its features are controlled by landform and local wind. The loess thickness is 2 ~25m in the upper part,to 30 ~90m in the middle and lower parts,with clear loess-paleosol alternations.The loess deposits are dated from the ca. 1100ka to 30ka. We have used the loess chronology to age the stone artifacts buried in their layers. The results show that hominines have occupied this catchment for at least 800ka to 30ka,with several episodes of relative intensive human activity. Preliminary investigations on past environmental changes and hominine responses to them show that; 1) landforms along the South Luohe River were relatively stable during Pleistocene, because the mountains and intermountain basins were formed before the hominines occupied this region. Stone tools are found both in situ and scattered across these landforms surfaces reaching altitudes of 600m. 2)a very preliminary spore-pollen analyses show that tree pollen was 25.3% ~28.2% and grass pollen was 64.5% ~ 71.4% during the glacial periods; it changed to 47.0% ~54.7% and 34. 9% ~40. 3% respectively during the interglacial period,with Pinus and Ulmaceae dominated the forest. The vegetation probably provided a wealth of food resources for early humans who adapted to the paleoclimate changes during these time periods.Our preliminary investigation shows that the South Luohe River is an important region for investigating early human behaviors and changing environments during Pleistocene. More detailed research works are needed to advance our understanding of the interplay between climate, human adaptation and technology during the Middle Paleolithic period of China.%本文结合最近获得的新资料,对南洛河流域的地貌、黄土沉积和更新世环境进行综合分析.结果表明,南洛河上、中游地貌表现为河流峡谷和山间盆地相间分布的特征,盆地中河流阶地发育;下游为平缓的山前平原和低山丘陵.黄土在全流域的山顶、河流阶

  3. Diet composition and foraging ecology of Asian elephants in Shangyong,Xishuangbanna, China%西双版纳尚勇亚洲象的食物组成与取食生态

    陈进; 邓晓保; 张玲; 白智林

    2006-01-01

    .6 % ), Rosaceae (3 spp.,3.6% ), Euphorbiaceae (5 spp., 3.3% ), Ulmaceae (2 spp., 3.0% ) and Mimosaceae (4 spp., 2.9% ). The most important plants in elephants' diet are Ficus spp. ( Moraceae, 9.0 % ), Dendrocalamus spp. ( Gramineae, 4.5 % ), Musa acuminata ( Musaceae, 4.2 % ), Microstegium ciliatum ( Gramineae, 3.5 % ) and Amalocalyx yunnanensis ( Apocynaceae, 3.1% ). Asian elephants consumed a variety of plants in terms of life form, including tree, vine, shrub and herb. Early successional species comprise a higher proportion of diet than late successional plants (42 spp. taking 59% vs. 32 spp. taking 37% ). Browse species contributed a larger proportion of diet compared to grazing species (77 spp. taking 91% vs. 6 spp. taking 9% ). The number of plant taxa (species, genus, family) in elephant's diet each month is negatively correlated with monthly rainfall and mean temperature. The study may help to develop proper strategies for wildlife management especially referring to the human-elephant conflict, which is now a serious issue in the conservation of Asian elephants in this area.

  4. Relationship between the composition and tannin content in winter food for roe deer at Zhanhe forest farm of Lesser Xingan Mountains%小兴安岭沾河林区狍冬季食物组分及其与单宁含量关系的初步分析

    何欢; 张玮琪; 刘蕊; 张明海

    2015-01-01

    We collected 227 fecal samples of roe deer ( Capreolus pygargus ) and 28 plant species in January and February of 2010 and 2011, in Zhanhe forestry farm, Lesser Xingan Mountains of China. Then we analyzed the compositions of winter food for roe deer population using direct field observation ( DFO) and microscopic analysis of feces ( MAF) . Results showed that:1 ) The diversity ( 2. 458 ) and the evenness indices ( 0. 784 ) of food composition by DFO in 2010 were higher than those by MAF with diversity (1. 737) and the evenness index (0. 579). The diversity (2. 230) by MAF in 2011 was higher than that by DFO ( 1. 414 ); however, the evenness index ( 0. 645 ) by MAF was lower than that by DFO (0. 698). The results of food composition from the DFO and MAF revealed that Betulaceae and Salicaceae are the major food sources for ore deer population which accounted for 76%-89% of all. 2 ) We compared the results of food composition from the two methods by regressional analysis, and found that with MAF the compositions of Betulaceae and Ulmaceae in both 2010 and 2011 , Malvaceae and Rosaceae in 2010 were overestimated;however, Salicaceae, Poaceae, Polygonaceae in both two years as well as Rosaceae in 2010 and Malvaceae in 2011 were underestimated. There were significant differences in results between by DFO and MAF; however, DFO and MAF cannot be replaced by each other. 3 ) There was no significant correlation between tannins and the composition of food for roe deer. This might be because feeding behavior of roe deer is not affected by tannins in plants or this study only measured the content of total tannins but not deciding ellagitannins.%2010年1—2月和2011年1—2月,在黑龙江大沾河国家级自然保护区收集了227份狍的粪便样本和28种植物样本。采用野外观察和粪便显微分析2种方法对狍的食性进行研究。结果表明:1)2010年通过野外观察得到的食物组分的多样性(2.458)和均匀度(0.784)均高于粪

  5. Identification of Xiphinema rivesi intercepted from Italy seedlings%进境意大利苗木中里夫丝剑线虫的鉴定

    高菲菲; 顾建锋; 王江岭; 王暄; 李红梅

    2013-01-01

    An Xiphinema population was intercepted from the Italy seedlings of Mediterranean cedar (Cupressus sempervirens) and apple (Malus pumila)imported at Ningbo Port in Spring of 2012.Based on the morphological characters and molecular identification,the Italian population was identified as Xiphinema rivesi Dalmasso,1969,which is one of the members of X.americanum group.The morphological characters of the Italian populationwere mainly as follows:median size body with average length of 1.9 mm; the lip region continuous,sometimes little constricted; the tail bluntly conical,dorsally convex and ventrally straight or slightly convex,c' value was 1.3-1.9;double gonads opposed and ovary reflexed.The phylogeny trees constructed by sequences of ITS and 28S D2/D3 region of ribosomal DNA revealed that the Italian population is closest to X.rivesi X.rivesi can transmit 3 kinds of plant viruses and was listed as the imported plant quarantine pest in China.There was no report about the distribution of X.rivesi in China up-to-date and the paper was the first report for the interception from Chinese ports.%2012年春季从宁波口岸进境的意大利地中海柏木和苹果苗木根际介质中检测到1种剑属线虫,通过形态学特征鉴定结合分子序列特征分析的方法,将其鉴定为里夫丝剑线虫(Xiphinema rivesi Dalmasso,1969),是美洲剑线虫组(X.americanum)成员之一.该意大利群体的主要形态鉴别特征为:虫体中等大小,平均长1.9 mm;唇区连续,有时稍缢缩;尾部钝圆锥形,背面弯曲,腹面直或稍弯曲;c'值为1.3~1.9;双生殖管对生,卵巢回折.结合基于rDNA的ITS区和28S的D2/D3区序列构建的系统发育树揭示其与里夫丝剑线虫的亲缘关系最近.里夫丝剑线虫能传播3种植物病毒,是中国进境植物检疫性线虫,目前国内尚无分布的报道,这是中国口岸首次截获.

  6. Study on Ecosystem Service Function of Urban Forest in Beijing%北京市城市森林生态服务功能研究

    李少宁; 王燕; 商建东; 鲁绍伟; 潘青华; 张玉平

    2011-01-01

    .-Mazz.〉Buxus microphylla〉Euonymus alatus〉Pinus tabulaeformis 〉Biota orientalis〉Populus canadensis Moench,Pyrus pyrifolia〉P.persica〉P.armeniaca〉Malus pumila Mill.cerasum and Cerasus.④The most significant noise abatement capacity in the Third Ring Road,the Fourth Ring Road and the Fifth Ring Road was at 10 meters,150 meters and 50 meters place of the forest belt where the noise reduction rate was 8.39 percent,5.81 percent and 6.91 percent.Regression relation of cube function between noise abatement capability and distance of forest belt in each ring road was significant.

  7. Effects of different host plants on the development and reproduction of the peach fruit borer, Carposina sasakii Matsumura (Lepidoptera:Carposinidae)%不同寄主植物对桃小食心虫生长发育和繁殖的影响

    李定旭; 雷喜红; 李政; 高灵旺; 沈佐锐

    2012-01-01

    为探索寄主植物对桃小食心虫Carposina sasakii生长发育和繁殖的影响,在室内温度23±1℃,相对湿度80%±7%,光周期15L∶9D条件下,测定了桃小食心虫在杏Armeniaca vulgaris、李Prunus salicina、桃Amygdalus persica、枣Ziziphus jujuba、苹果Malus pumila和梨Pyrus sorotina上各发育阶段的历期、存活率和/或产卵量,并组建了桃小食心虫在各寄主植物上的生命表.结果表明:桃小食心虫的生长发育和繁殖在不同寄主植物间存在显著差异.幼虫的发育历期以李为最短(12.48 d),梨为最长(19.15 d);整个幼虫期的存活率以李为最高(50.54%),梨为最低(17.91%);单雌平均产卵量以枣(214.50粒/雌)和桃(197.94粒/雌)最高.生命表分析结果表明,净生殖率R0以枣(117.49)为最大,平均世代周期T则以梨(41.31 d)和苹果(41.51 d)最长,内禀增长率Tm以李(0.1294)为最高,其次为枣(0.1201)和杏(0.1128).这些结果有助于深入了解该虫在不同寄主植物上的种群动态.%The peach fruit borer, Carposina sasakii, is an important pest of deciduous fruit trees in northern China. In order to explore the influence of host plants such as apricot (Armeruaca vidgaris) , plum (Prunus salicina) , peach (Amygdalus persica) , jujube ( Ziziphus jujuba) , apple (Malus pumila) , and pear (Pyrus sorotina) on the development and reproduction of this pest, experiments designed to examine the developmental duration and reproduction of the pest feeding on various host plants were carried out under laboratory conditions of 23 ±1℃, RH 80%±7% and a photoperiod of 15L:9D. The results showed that the peach fruit borer exhibited significant differences in the developmental duration and reproduction among various host plants. Larval duration was the longest on pear (19. 15 d) and the shortest on plum ( 12. 48 d) , while the preimaginal survival rate was the lowest on pear ( 17. 91% ) and the highest on plum (50. 54%). Adult females derived from

  8. 阿克苏市城郊林10种果树叶面形态与滞尘量的关系%Relationship between Morphological Structure and Dust-holding Capacity of Ten Fruit Tree Leaves in Peri-urban Area of Aksu

    迈迪娜·吐尔逊; 玉米提·哈力克; 祖皮艳木·买买提; 阿衣古丽·艾力亚斯

    2016-01-01

    As an important component of urban ecosystem,suburb orchard forests can not only supply many kinds of fruit for urban residents,but also provide sustainable ecological services that were beneficial for the cities and their residents.A comparison study was conducted on the amount of the dust retained by the leaves of trees among 10 fruit species in Kokyar artificial afforestation project in the suburb area of Aksu,a typical oasis city in Sothern Xinjiang.The results showed that the ten fruit tree species could be classified into three categories based on the amount of the dust retained.The first category that had the highest amount of the dust retained included Vitis vini fera > Pyrus sinkiangensis>Ziziphus jujuba >Juglans regia,followed by the second category,including Ficus carica > Punicagranatum>Armeniaca vulgaris,and the third one,including Prunus pseudocerasus > Amnygdalus persica > Malus pumila.In conclusion,trees with big leaf area,coarse surface,short petiole,moderate height and crown demonstrated strong dust-retaining capability.The relationship between leaf morphological structure and the dust-retaining capacity investigation indicated that the leaves which had high dust retaining capability were those with more prominent main leaf veins,more intensive and more closely arrayed lateral veins.It was suggested that native fruit trees with high dust retaining ability should be used for the affforestion in suburb area.%城郊经济防护林是城市绿地系统的重要组成部分,不仅能够提供各类水果,而且为城市及其居民持续获得自然生态服务提供保障.本研究对新疆南部典型绿洲城市——阿克苏市郊柯柯牙人工经济防护林10种果树叶面滞尘量及其差异进行对比与排序.结果表明:10种果树的叶面滞尘量可分为3类,第1类滞尘量高(>3.00 mg·cm 2),包括葡萄、香梨、红枣和核桃,其滞尘量分别为5.37、4.55、3.88、3.03 mg· cm-2;第2类的滞尘量中等(1

  9. Soil and biomass carbon pools in model communities of tropical plants under elevated CO2.

    Arnone, J A; Körner, Ch

    1995-09-01

    plant-derived soil organic matter)-averaged 815 and 910 g m(-2) year(-1) at ambient and elevated CO2, respectively. These NPPs are remarkably similar to those of many natural moist tropical forested ecosystems. At the same time net productivity of soil organic matter reached 7000 g dry matter equivalent per m(2) and year (i.e. 3500 g C m(-2) year(-1)). Very slight yet statistically significant CO2-induced shifts in the abundance of groups of species occurred by the end of the experiment, with one group of species (Elettaria cardamomum, Ficus benjamina, F. pumila, Epipremnum pinnatum) gaining slightly, and another group (Ctenanthe lubbersiana, Heliconia humilis, Cecropia peltata) losing. Our results show that: (1) enormous amounts of C can be deposited in the ground which are normally not accounted for in estimates of NPP and net ecosystem productivity; (2) any enhancement of C sequestration under elevated atmospheric CO2 may be substantially smaller than is believed will occur (yet still very important), especially under growth conditions which permit close to natural NPP; and (3) species dominance in plant communities is likely to change under elevated CO2, but that changes may occur rather slowly.

  10. Biodiversity of understory vegetation in different-aged Manchurian walnut plantations%不同林龄胡桃楸林下植物多样性的差异

    杨立学; 孙跃志

    2013-01-01

    Taking 16-, 23-, and 51 years old Manchurian walnut (Juglans mandshurica) plantations at Maoershan of Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China as test objects, and with the consideration of allelochemicals, this paper studied the differences in the understory vegetation biodiversity among the plantations. With the increasing age of the plantations, the understory shrub richness index (IMa) , diversity index (Isw) , and Pielou evenness index (J) all presented an increasing trend, while the understory herb IMa and Isw were decreasing, and the herb species number decreased from 14 to 10. The most important plant species in the different-aged plantations were Rubus kanayamensis, Erigeron annuus, Taraxacum officinale, and Potentilla centigrana in 16 years old plantation, Ulmus japonica, Syringare ticulata, and Diarrhena manshurica in 23 years old plantation, and Syringare ticulata, Hippochaete hiemale, and Brachybotrys paridiformis in 51 years old plantation. The plant biodiversity of the plantations was less affected by juglone, but the understory shrub biodiversity was more affected by soil available P and K. The understory shrubs and herbs adapted differently to various soil pH ranges. Other soil factors such as bulk density, moisture content, organic matter, and total N had opposite effects on the biodiversity of understory shrubs and herbs.%以黑龙江省帽儿山地区不同林龄胡桃楸(Juglans mandshurica)人工林为对象,在考虑化感物质影响的基础上,研究了不同林龄林分植物多样性的差异.结果表明:随着胡桃楸林龄的增加,林下灌木丰富度指数(IMa)、多样性指数(Isw)及Pielou均匀度指数(J)均呈现递增趋势;林下草本,除均匀度指数外,其他2个指数随着林龄的增长呈递减趋势;随着胡桃楸年龄的增加,草本种类由14种逐渐减少到10种;16年生的胡桃楸林分重要值较大的物种有蔷薇科的山楂叶悬钩子,菊科的一年蓬、蒲公英和

  11. Pollen calendar of the city of Salamanca (Spain). Aeropalynological analysis for 1981-1982 and 1991-1992.

    Hernández Prieto, M; Lorente Toledano, F; Romo Cortina, A; Dávila González, I; Laffond Yges, E; Calvo Bullón, A

    1998-01-01

    We report a study on the contents of airborne pollen in the city of Salamanca (Spain) aimed at establishing a pollen calendar for the city for the yearly periods of maximum concentrations, relating these with quantifiable atmospheric variables over two two-year periods with an interval of 10 years between them: 1981-82 and 1991-92. The pollen was captured with Burkard spore-traps, based on Hirst's volumetric method. Determinations were made daily and were used to make preparations, previously stained with basic fuscin, for study under light microscopy at x 1,000 magnification. 946 preparations were analyzed, corresponding to the same number of days distributed over 150 weeks of the periods studied. The results afforded the identification of 48 different types of pollen grain: Grasses (Poaceae), Olea europea (olive), Quercus rotundifolia (Holm-oak), other Quercus spp. (Q. pyrenaica, Q. suber, Q. faginea, etc.), Cupressaceae (Cupressus sempervivens, C. arizonica, Juniperus communis etc.), Plantago (Plantago lanceolata, Plantago media, etc.), Pinaceae (Pinus communis, Abies alba, etc.), Rumex sp. (osier), Urtica dioica (nettle), Parietaria (Parietaria officinalis, P. judaica), Chenopodio-Amaranthaceae (Chenopodium sp., Amaranthus sp., Salsola kali, etc.), Artemisia vulgaris (Artemisia), other Compositae (Taraxacum officinalis, Hellianthus sp. etc.), Castanea sativa (Chestnut), Ligustrum sp. (privet), Betula sp. (birch), Alnus sp. (common alder), Fraxinus sp (ash), Populus sp. (poplar), Salix sp. (willow), Ulmus sp. (elm), Platanus sp. (plantain, plane), Carex sp. (sweet flag), Erica sp. (common heather), Leguminosae or Fabaceae:--Papillionaceae (Medicago sp.; Cercis sp., Robina sp.)--Cesalpinoideae Acacia sp. (Acacia),--Mimosoideae: Sophora japonica, Umbelliferae (Foeniculum sp., Cirsium sp., etc.), Centaurea sp., Cistus sp. (rock rose), Typha sp (bulrush), Mirtaceae (Myrtus communis), Juglans regia (Walnut), Galium verum, Filipendula sp. (spirea/drop wort), Rosaceae

  12. 白鹭作为无锡太湖地区环境污染指示生物的研究%Egretta garzetta as a bioindicator of environmental pollution in Tai Lake region

    阮禄章; 张迎梅; 赵东芹; 董元华; FasolaMauro

    2003-01-01

    2000年4~6月对分布在无锡太湖地区的4种鹭鸟中的白鹭(Egretta garzetta)行为生态学及其生境污染状况进行了调查研究.调查地白鹭主要栖息树种包括马尾松(Pinus massoniana)、香樟树(Cinnamomum hupehanum)、麻栎树(Quercus acutissema)、榆树(Ulmus prmila)和杨梅树(Myrica rubra).栖息地总面积为7 hm2,白鹭总巢数为4200个,每棵树平均0.38个.白鹭的孵化期为19~21 d,卵重23.9±4.0 g(n=41),平均卵大小(44.5±4.1) mm×(32.6±4.9) mm(n=41), 平均窝卵数5.02(2~8)枚,平均窝雏数3.86(2~7)只,孵化成功率为84.25%.对白鹭雏鸟左右跗的测量分析表明不对称性不显著(P>0.05).白鹭雏鸟食物较小,繁殖期间主要以小型鱼类和虾类为食.污染物分析结果表明,白鹭卵中除Cd外,六氯苯、六六六、环二烯类、 DDTs、DDE、PCBs、Cr、Hg和Pb均检测到.食物链(底泥-食物-白鹭雏鸟)中,有机杀虫剂和重金属都逐级富集.通过与相对无污染的鄱阳湖地区比较,太湖地区和鄱阳湖地区卵样品中的DDTs(包括DDT、DDE和DDD)浓度最高(超过2 μg*g-1),其它污染物浓度均较小.太湖地区白鹭卵中的DDTs、Cd和Cr浓度低于鄱阳湖地区,其它污染物浓度鄱阳湖地区均低于太湖地区.经比较分析,两地样品中有机氯杀虫剂、PCBs和各种重金属浓度都未达到影响白鹭繁殖成功率的阈值.

  13. Reconstruction of full glacial environments and summer temperatures from Lago della Costa, a refugial site in Northern Italy

    Samartin, Stéphanie; Heiri, Oliver; Kaltenrieder, Petra; Kühl, Norbert; Tinner, Willy

    2016-07-01

    Vegetation and climate during the last ice age and the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ∼23,000-19,000 cal BP) were considerably different than during the current interglacial (Holocene). Cold climatic conditions and growing ice-sheets during the last glaciation radically reduced forest extent in Europe to a restricted number of so-called "refugia", mostly located in the southern part of the continent. On the basis of paleobotanical analyses the Euganian Hills (Colli Euganei) in northeastern Italy have previously been proposed as one of the northernmost refugia of temperate trees (e.g. deciduous Quercus, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer, Abies alba, Fagus sylvatica, Carpinus and Castanea) in Europe. In this study we provide the first quantitative, vegetation independent summer air temperature reconstruction for Northern Italy spanning the time ∼31,000-17,000 cal yr BP, which covers the coldest periods of the last glacial, including the LGM and Heinrich stadials 1 to 3. Chironomids preserved in a lake sediment core from Lago della Costa (7m a.s.l.), a small lake at the south-eastern edge of the Euganean Hills, allowed quantitative reconstruction of Full and Late Glacial summer air temperatures using a combined Swiss-Norwegian temperature inference model based on chironomid assemblages from 274 lakes. Chironomid and pollen evidence from Lago della Costa derives from finely stratified autochthonous organic gyttja sediments, which excludes major sediment mixing or reworking. After reconstructing paleo-temperatures, we address the question whether climate conditions were warm enough to permit the local survival of temperate tree species during the LGM and whether local expansions and pollen-inferred contractions of temperate tree taxa coincided with chironomid-inferred climatic changes. Our results suggest that chironomids at Lago della Costa have responded to major climatic fluctuations such as temperature decreases during the LGM and Heinrich stadials. The

  14. Influences of Environment-friendly Soil Conditioner on Chlorophyll and Photosynthetic Rate of Sand Plants%环保型土壤改良剂对沙区植物叶绿素和光合速率的影响

    李志洪; 郭建斌; 张宾宾; 吴凤; 吴玉晴; 唐思凌

    2012-01-01

    To explore the way to improve the physical and chemical properties,fertility status of sandy soil and promote vegetation growth excellently,this study focused on the self-made natural environment-friendly soil conditioner which was processed with natural clay minerals,municipal sewage and sludge by a certain percentage through specific production craft through pot culture method using orthogonal experimental design,and using the Amorpha fruticosa,Ulmus laevis,Populus canadensis Moench 108 and Salix psammophila for object of study,which were main afforestation tree species in North China.By observing leaf chlorophyll content and photosynthetic characteristics of the species,the application effect of environment-friendly soil conditioner was tested.The results showed that in terms of increasing chlorophyll content,the best outcome was the group of Salix psammophila,environment-friendly soil conditioner③,mineral additive amount of 150 g and sludge additive amount of 250 g;with regard to increasing photosynthetic rate,the best outcome was the group of Populus canadensis Moench 108,environment-friendly soil conditioner①,mineral additive amount of 250 g and sludge additive amount of 200 g.Research has an extraordinary important significance on improving physical and chemical properties of sandy soil and making the vegetation coverage better in arid and semi-arid areas of north China.%为探索改善沙区沙化土壤的理化性状和肥力状况、促进植物优良生长。应用特定生产工艺将天然黏土矿物、城市生活污水和污泥按一定比例加工成自制天然环保型土壤改良剂(简称环保型土壤改良剂),并采用正交试验设计盆栽法,以沙区主要造林树种紫穗槐、白榆、欧美杨108和沙柳为研究对象,通过观测植物叶片叶绿素含量和光合作用特性,研究了不同环保型土壤改良剂的应用效果。结果表明:在提高植物叶绿素含量方面,以沙柳、环保型土壤

  15. Pollen indication to source plants in the eastern desert of China

    LI Yuecong; XU Qinghai; ZHAO Yingkui; YANG Xiaolan; XIAO Jule; CHEN Hui; L(U) Xinmiao

    2005-01-01

    , but the higher Xp and the lower Xa values make that these pollen types can also indicate source plants moderately. Allium, Leguminosae, Roseceae, Pedicularis and Compositae have low A scores (less than 0.5), high O and/or U scores, so they cannot indicate source plants clearly. Some other pollen types, such as Pinus, Picea, Betula, Quercus, Ulmus, Ephedra, Elaegnaceae, Ranunculaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Polygonaceae, Saxifragaceae, only appear in pollen assemblages, so their indication cannot be decided. Just like the pollen percentage ratios of Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae (A/C), the ratios of Ephedra and Artemisia (E/A), Nitraria and Ephedra (N/E) can also indicate the aridity of environment. In typical desert communities, A/C ratios are less than 0.5, E/A ratios are more than 0.1, and N/E ratios are less than 1. In steppe desert, A/C ratios are 0.5―2, E/A ratios are less than 0.1, and N/E ratios are more than 1.

  16. 江汉平原石家河谭家岭遗址新石器时代环境考古%Environmental archaeology of the Tanjialing Neolithic Site in the Shijiahe Ancient City, the Jianghan Plain of Central China

    吴立; 朱诚; 李冰; 李枫; 孙伟; 王晓翠; 刘辉; 孟华平; 孙珏

    2016-01-01

    . The date of the whole proifle was determined by the feature of unearthed artifacts in T0620, combined with six 14C dates from cultural layers of the Tanjialing Site and other sites which are in the near. The charcoal sample at the depth of 180 cm in the Tanjialing Site was submitted for AMS 14C dating at the Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University. Results The culture layers of the T0620 profile from the Tanjialing Neolithic Site provide detailed pollen, TOC, TN,δ13Corg and magnetic susceptibility records of the vegetation history, climate change and human activity in the Jianghan Plain. The results showed that, during the early period of Shijiahe Culture (4.6—4.4 ka BP), the pollen concentration was high, especially for a majority of hygrophilous plants, and the vegetation coverage was good, indicating the site and the surrounding area were little suffered from human disturbance. The pollen assemblages showed large concentrations of Quercus E, Pinus, Gramineae, Artemisia, Ulmaceae, Leguminosae and Euphorbiaceae. The area witnessed a short-term expansion of water regime in this period, indicated by the abrupt change of proxies in Pollen Zone Ⅰ-2. TOC, TN, C/N and δ13Corg content indicate the thrive vegetation and C3 plants occupied most parts around the study area, suggesting the warm and humid climate condition. The site can be wetland with lower magnetic susceptibility, and the ancient city plays an important role in the lfood defense and invasion. In the mid-late period of Shijiahe Culture (4.4—4.0 ka BP), a remarkable decline in pollen concentration and plant types, as well as an increase of herbaceous pollen, especially Gramineae, suggest forest destruction and large-scale agriculture activities. The continuous decline of TOC, TN and C/N indicate the cool and drought climate. It is reasonable to conclude that the site has changed into residential

  17. Estimation of Provincial Spatial Distribution Information of Forest Tree Species ( Group) Composition Using Multi-Sources Data%基于多源数据的省级树种(组)成数空间分布信息估测方法

    曹宇佳; 陈尔学; 李世明

    2016-01-01

    the forest plot data of 9 counties collected by the forest resources inventory in second level and the forest plot data collected by the NFI as reference.[Result]7 tree species ( group) composition numbers including Quercus mongolica,Betula platyphylla,Tilia amurensis, Ulmus davidiana,Populus,Juglans mandshurica and Larix olgensis were extracted and the corresponding distribution maps were produced. The results showed a good consistency with the fixed plots in field. Taking county as statistic unit,the following quantitative technical targets have been achieved: the coefficient of determination ( R2 ) was 0. 83,and the RMSE was 0. 34. Specifically,the accuracy has been further validated by dividing the whole coverage of Jilin Province into grids of 20 km × 20 km,30 km × 30 km,40 km × 40 km and 50 km × 50 km,taking the forest plot data collected by the NFI as reference and the grid as statistic unit. Better results could be achieved at the scale of 40 km × 40 km and 50 km × 50 km. The RMSE of Ulmus davidiana composition number was 0. 35 and the RMSE of Quercus mongolica composition number was 0. 65. The optimal k-value could be determined for the phenomenon that the RMSE firstly reduced and then tended steady with the rising k-value. In addition,the estimation accuracy of the two-layer stratification estimation method was higher than that of the direct estimation method. The results showed that: the average RMSE of estimating tree species ( group) composition using two-layer stratification estimation method was 0. 1 less than that using direct estimation method.[Conclusion]The proposed method for estimating the provincial spatial distribution information of forest tree species (group) composition using multi-sources data has proved to be an effective method to estimate forest parameters. Based on this method,the distribution map of forest tree species ( group) composition numbers was successfully produced with high accuracy. The results indicated that the value

  18. 大兴安岭呼中区2010年森林火灾碳排放的计量估算%Estimation of Carbon Emissions from Forest Fires in 2010 in Huzhong of Daxing'anling Mountain

    胡海清; 魏书精; 孙龙

    2012-01-01

    Biomass burning has long been recognized to release a number of important trace gas species and particulate matter to the atmosphere. Forest fire is a main disturbance factor in forest ecosystems, and an important pathway decreasing vegetation and soil carbon storage. Large amount of carbonaceous gases in forest fire can release into atmosphere, giving remarkable impacts on the atmospheric carbon balance and global climate change. Scientific and effective measurements of the carbonaceous gase emission from forest fire are important in understanding the significance of forest fire in the carbon balance and climate change. In this paper, based on Daxing'anling forest fire statistics in 2010 and various forest types of fuel load data, we conducted field surveys and indoor control-burned experiments to determine a variety of measurement parameters, and estimated emissions of the total carbon and the main carbon-containing gas of the Daxing'anling Mountain forest fire in 2010 at the stand level, by applying forest fire emissions model. Results showed that the total carbon emission from the forest fires was about 117 870. 62 t, and carbonaceous gases emissions of CO2, CO, CH4 and non-methane hydrocarbons( NMHC) were 379 606. 01 t, 23 425. 74 t, 1 081. 46 t and 758. 61 t, respectively. Our study indicated that burned area of coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest accounted for 26. 35% , however the carbon emissions accounted for only 13. 79% of total emissions. The burned area of two Pinus pumila forests accounted for 29. 92% , and the carbon emissions accounted for 50. 35% of total emissions. We proposed the corresponding forest fire management strategy. Our studies indicated that the carbon emissions had an important impact on the regional carbon balance.%林火是森林生态系统中特殊而重要的生态因子,亦是导致植被和土壤碳储量动态变化的重要干扰因子.森林火灾的碳排放对气候变化及大气碳循环具有重要影响,科学

  19. Potential distribution of an invasive pest, Eriosoma lanigerum in China%外来入侵种——苹果绵蚜在中国的适生区预测

    王兴亚; 蒋春廷; 许国庆

    2011-01-01

    The woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann), is an important pest in China. This pest is spreading rapidly and has caused serious economic losses in some apple producing areas. In order to monitor and manage this pest effectively it is necessary to investigate its potential geographical distribution worldwide. We used two ecological niche models, the Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Production (GARP) and the Maximum Entropy (MAXENT) model, along with the geographical distribution of the host plant, the apple tree (Malus pumila), to predict the potential geographical distribution of E. lanigerum. The potential distributions estimated by both models are generally consistent but GARP predicted a larger potential distribution than MAXENT. The results also indicate that the most suitable areas for woolly apple aphid colonization in China arc mainly restricted to Northeast China ( southern Liaoning), North China (southeast of Hebei, Beijing, Tianjin and southern Shanxi), East China (most of Shandong),Central China (northern Henan) and Northwest China (middle Shanxi ). Some parts of southern Hebei, Shandong,Henan and eastern Gansu Provinces are predicted to be moderately suitable for this pest. In addition, some parts of 20Provinces were predicted to have low suitability or be unsuitable (e. g. Heilongjiang, Jilin and Xinjiang). A Jackknife test implemented within MAXENT showed that the average maximum January temperature is the most important environmental variable affecting the distribution of E. lanigerum. The results suggest several reasonable regulations and management strategies that should be adopted to prevent the spread of this high-risk apple pest to currently unaffected apple producing areas.%苹果绵蚜Eriosoma lanlgerum(Hausmann)是我国重要的检疫性害虫,主要为害苹果、海棠等苹果属(Malus Mill.)植物.目前,该种害虫已在我国一些苹果主产区迅速扩散,并给我国的苹果产业造成了较为严重的经济损失.

  20. 1986-2010年巴楚木本植物物候变化特征及其对气候变化的响应分析%Woody Plants Phonological Variation Characteristics and Its Responses to Climate Change During 1986-2010 in Bachu County

    阿布都克日木·阿巴司; 于艳; 阿不都西库尔·阿不都克力木

    2015-01-01

    利用巴楚国家基本气候站1986—2010年的气象观测数据和地面物候观测资料,采用气候倾向率和气候趋势系数方法,分析气温、降水、日照时数的变化特征;木本植物选用新疆杨(Populus bolleanalanche),垂柳(Salix babylonica),杏树(Prunus armeniaca),苹果树(Malus pumila),沙枣树(Fdeagnys Qxycarpasehlecht),对植物物候期与气候变化的相互关系进行研究。研究表明:近25 a来巴楚气候增暖现象较明显,春、秋季变暖的趋势大于冬、夏季;春、夏降水量呈减少趋势,冬、秋两季降水量均呈增多趋势;年日照时数除春季日照时数表现为增加趋势外,其他季节均表现为不同程度的减少趋势。其中,以冬季减幅最显著。近25 a来巴楚木本植物芽开放期、展叶始期、开花始期表现提前趋势,叶变色始期和落叶始期表现推迟的趋势;影响植物物候期的主要气候因子为气温和日照时数,随气温升高,日照时数增多,植物生长季延长。木本植物春季物候期与春季气温和春季日照时数呈负相关,且相关性显著,而与冬季气温和冬季日照时数几乎没有显著相关性。木本植物物候与秋季温度呈正相关,秋季气温升高,物候期推迟。%We have collected climatic data and monitoring data about plant phenology from 1986 to 2010 for Bachu county to analyze changing characteristic of temperature, precipitation and sunshine durations, and discuss the effect on phenology of Populus bolleanalanche, Salix babylonica, Prunus armeniaca, Fdeagnys Qxycarpasehlecht, Malus pumila, Pyrus bretschneideri, by calculating climate trend coefficient and climate tendency ratio. the research indicated that the temperature increased obviously, the warming rate was 0.18~0.95 ℃/10 a, The warming trend in spring and autumn was more obvious than that in winter and summer. The annual precipitation showed a

  1. Silvicultural and classificatory analysis of forests of Dnipropetrovsk region

    S. A. Sytnik

    2013-11-01

    ,189.8 ha. The other hard-leaved types of tree are species of Quercus L. – 20,288.2 ha, Robinia L. – 17,639.9 ha, Fraxinus L. – 3,200.1 ha, Acer L. – 864.2 ha, Ulmus L. – 860.3 ha and Gleditsia L. – 172.9 ha. Soft-leaved species in the forests of Dnipropetrovsk region are represented by the following genera Betula, Populus, Alnus, Tilia, Salix. The predominant among the identified age groups of Dnipropetrovsk region are the middle-aged and mature stands which occupy 40.2% (26,392.5 ha and 39.7% (26,076.1 ha of the forest area respectively. The age structure of forests in Dnipropetrovsk region is very irregular, which indicates a great potential for further increase in the volume of reafforestation. It is established that the largest area of the forest stands of environmental, scientific, historical and cultural significance is occupied by middle-aged (3,568.4 ha and over mature (2,782.0 ha stands with a total stock of 657.7 and 517.4 m3 per ha respectively. Stands of young-growth occupy the smallest area – 706.7 ha. Similarly in stands of recreational and health forests the largest area is occupied by middle-aged stands – 13,368.1 ha with a total stock of 2,550.8 m3 per ha. Middle aged trees occupy the largest area of protective forests – 9,456.0 ha (38.4%, of which the stands’ stock is 1,782.0 m3 per ha.

  2. Holocene paleoenvironments of Northeast Iowa

    Baker, R.G.; Bettis, E. Arthur; Schwert, D.R.; Horton, D.G.; Chumbley, C.A.; Gonzalez, Luis A.; Reagan, M.K.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the biotic. sedimentary, geomorphic, and climatic history of the upper part of the Roberts Creek Basin, northeastern Iowa for the late-glacial and Holocene, and compares these records with a C-O isotopic sequence from Coldwater Cave. 60 km northwest of Roberts Creek. The biotic record (pollen, vascular plant and bryophyle macrofossils. and insects) is preserved in floodplain alluvium that underlies three constructional surfaces separated by low scarps. Each surface is underlain by a lithologically and temporally distinct alluvial fill. The highest surface is underlain by the Gunder Member of the Deforest Formation, dating from 11 000 to 4000 yr BP; beneath the intermediate level is the Roberts Creek Member, dating from 4000 to 400 yr BP; and the lowest level is underlain by the Camp Creek Member, deposited during the last 380 yr. Pollen and plant macrofossils in the alluvial fill show that a typical late-glacial spruce forest was replaced by Quercus and Ulmus in the early Holocene. This early-to-middle Holocene forest became dominated by mesic elements such as Acer saccharum, Tilia americana, Ostrya virginiana, and Carpinus caroliniana as late as 5500 yr BP; in contrast, the closest sites to the west and north were at their warmest and driest and were covered by prairie vegetation between 6500 and 5500 yr BP. After 5500 yr BP, the forest in the Roberts Creek area was replaced by prairie, as indicated by a rich assemblage of plant macrofossils, although only Ambrosia and Poaceae became abundant in the pollen record. The return of Quercus ??? 3000 BP (while nonarboreal pollen percentages remained relatively high) indicates that oak savanna prevailed with little change until settlement time. The bryophyte assemblages strongly support the vascular plant record. Rich fen species characteristic of boreal habitats occur only in the late-glacial. They are replaced by a number of deciduous-forest elements when early-to-middle Holocene forests were

  3. 陕西黑河上游主要天然林类型及物种多样性特征研究%Study on the main forest community and species diversity of the natural forest types in upstream Heihe river,Shaanxi

    王宇超; 王得祥; 胡有宁; 柴宗政

    2012-01-01

    diversity of herb layer is bigger than tree layer and shrub layer;the order of the community diversity is Betula platyphylla+ Populus purdomii〉Pinus tabulaeformis+Quercus aliena var.acuteserrata〉Pinus armandi〉Corylus chinensis+Populus cathayana〉P.tabulaeformis+Populus davidiana〉Ulmus bergmanniana〉Alangium chinense〉Q.aliena var.acuteserrata〉P.davidiana〉P.tabulaeformis.There are 237 species,belonging to 65 families,150 genera,in 24 plots.【Conclusion】 Interference,environmental heterogeneity of undergrowth and biological characteristics of species may cause the difference of species diversity between plant communities and layers within each community.However,interference,environmental heterogeneity and biological characteristics are complex scientific problems,and they are integrated performance of many factors affection.

  4. 不同复垦模式及复垦年限对土壤微生物的影响%Effects of different vegetation restoration patterns and reclamation years on microbes in reclaimed soil

    樊文华; 白中科; 李慧峰; 乔俊耀; 许建伟

    2011-01-01

    the least among composition of three communities of soil microbes. Different types of vegetation restoration were different in improving soil microbes. After 7 years of reclamation, total amounts of microbes in reclaimed soil with different vegetation restoration modes was Amorpha fruticosa>Elaeagnus angustifolia >Hippophae rhamnoides. After 13 years of reclamation, the ecological benefit of different mode were Picea meyeri×Pinus tabulaeformis×Larix principis-rupprechii> Robinia pseudoacacia ×Pinus tabulaeformis × Ulmus pumila> Robinia pseudoacacia×Caragana korshinskii>Agropyron cristatumn × Robinia pseudoacacia×Caragana korshinskii by evaluation of soil microbes. The correlation analysis showed that soil bacterium and microorganism total quantity were obviously positive correlation with soil organic matter and alkali-hydrolysable nitrogen.

  5. بررسی مقاومت به چسبندگی رنگ‌های شفاف رایج در صنایع مبلمان بر روی گونه‌های چوبی راش، ملج، توسکا و نوئل

    محمد غفرانی

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available در این تحقیق، مقاومت به چسبندگی (آزمون خراش- نوارچسب Cross-Cut رنگ‌های شفاف سیلر- کیلر و سیلر- نیم پلی‌استر، و با توجه به درصدرطوبت، در گونه­های چوبی­راش (Fagus orientalis، ملج (Ulmus smontana، توسکا (Alnus glutinosa و نوئل (Picea  glauca مورد مطالعه قرارگرفت. تخته‌هایی به ابعاد 12×110×550 میلی­متر از قسمت برون چوب و از تخته مماسی تهیه شدند و به مدت یک ماه با رعایت اصول روش­های چوب خشک کنی در هوای آزاد قرار گرفتند. سپس برای متعادل‌سازی رطوبت، به طور مجزا برای رسیدن به رطوبت 8، 12 و 15% در سه اتاق کلیما قرار داده شدند. تمامی سطوح نمونه­ها با استفاده از پیستوله رنگ­کاری شدند و آزمون­های­ مقاومت به خراش بر روی آن­ها انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین مقدار مقاومت به خراش، با درصد از دست دادن چسبندگی 4/10%، مربوط به رنگ سیلر- نیم پلی‌استر استفاده شده بر روی گونه­ی چوبی ملج با رطوبت 8% و کمترین مقدار مقاومت به خراش با درصد از دست دادن چسبندگی 6/53%، مربوط به رنگ سیلر- کیلر استفاده شده بر روی گونه­ی چوبی نوئل با رطوبت 15% بوده‌است.

  6. VEGETATION,PALEOCLIMITE AND VEGETATION USE DURING LONGSHAN ERA:CASE STUDIES OF ANTHRACOLOGY OF WADIAN SITE IN HENAN PROVINCE%龙山时代的植被、古气候及植物利用——以河南瓦店遗址的木炭分析为例

    王树芝; 方燕明; 赵志军

    2012-01-01

    Wadian Site is located in the eastern and north-western platform of Wadian Country, Huolong Township, Yuzhou City(34°11'N,113°25'E). Yinghe River is to the north of the site,flowing from northwest to east. The date of Wadian Longshan culture is 2255 ~ 1755BC. According to archaeological investigation and a large scale of drilling, it is found that the remained area is more than one million square meters with building stead, ring ditches and ritual remains. Artifacts such as polished black pottery,white pottery,jade and large oracle bones were found. The location of Yangdi or Juntai where Yu and Qi lived was in Yuzhou according to the literature.Charcoals were collected from pits, houses, ditches and cultural layer during the excavation of Wadian Site both in 2007 and 2008. One thousand and thirty charcoals were identified and one thousand and nine charcoals belonged to 26 genera,including Quercus sp. (3 genus) ,Zizyphus sp., Zelkova sp., Ulmus sp., Malus sp., Armeniaca sp., Fraxinus sp., Diospyros sp., Acer sp., Castanea sp., Cudrania sp., Rhus sp., Populus sp., Cyclobalanopsis sp., Platycladus orientalis, Bambusoideae and 8 tree species and 23 charcoals were skulls of spine date and cupules.According to the statistic results,the oak was dominant,the percentage was 79.5%; the second was bamboo, accounting for 3. 4% ; the third was glauca, accounting for 3. 1% ; the fourth was the date, accounting for 2. 6% ; the fifth is unknown species, accounting for 2. 2% ; the sixth was beech, accounting for 1. 3% ; the seventh was unknown genus, accounting for 1. 1 % ; and the rest was a small proportion of other species, of which only one kind of conifer was Chinese arborvitae, accounting for 0.2%. Oak deciduous forest, evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest, bamboo, other trees and fruit trees were distributed around the Wadian Site.Oak charcoals scattered in the cultural layer were dominant, the percentage was 68. 2%; the second was glauca, accounting for 6. 9