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Sample records for uk bathing water

  1. Water Evaporation in Swimming Baths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgård, Carl-Erik

    This paper is publishing measuring results from models and full-scale baths of the evaporation in swimming baths, both public baths and retraining baths. Moreover, the heat balance of the basin water is measured. In addition the full-scale measurements have given many experiences which are repres......This paper is publishing measuring results from models and full-scale baths of the evaporation in swimming baths, both public baths and retraining baths. Moreover, the heat balance of the basin water is measured. In addition the full-scale measurements have given many experiences which...... are represented in instructions for carrying out and running swimming baths. If you follow the instructions you can achieve less investments, less heat consumption and a better comfort to the bathers....

  2. Large capacity water and air bath calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, S.J.; Kasperski, P.W.; Renz, D.P.; Wetzel, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    EG and G Mound Applied Technologies has developed an 11 in. x 17 in. sample size water bath and an 11 in. x 17 in. sample size air bath calorimeter which both function under servo control mode of operation. The water bath calorimeter has four air bath preconditioners to increase sample throughput and the air bath calorimeter has two air bath preconditioners. The large capacity calorimeters and preconditioners were unique to Mound design which brought about unique design challenges. Both large capacity systems calculate the optimum set temperature for each preconditioner which is available to the operator. Each system is controlled by a personal computer under DOS which allows the operator to download data to commercial software packages when the calorimeter is idle. Qualification testing yielded a one standard deviation of 0.6% for 0.2W to 3.0W Pu-238 heat standard range in the water bath calorimeter and a one standard deviation of 0.3% for the 6.0W to 20.0W Pu-238 heat standard range in the air bath calorimeter

  3. Assessment of cyanobacteria impact on bathing water quality in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Skotak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Quality of bathing water is of key importance for bathers’ health, mainly due to the fact, that each year millions of people use bathing sites as places for recreation and sport activities. Most of the bathing sites are of adequate quality of water, but still there are cases of health risk because bathing water is polluted. One of the main health risk factor in bathing water are cyanobacteria and their blooms. Cyanobacteria are microorganisms of morphological features of bacteria and algae. They live in colonies, which in large quantities show up as streaks, dense foam on the water surface. The aim of this paper was to assess the impact of cyanobacteria blooms on health regarding bathing water quality in Poland. Materials and methods: Assessment covered all bathing sites in Poland supervised by Polish National Sanitary Inspection (PIS in the period from 2007 to 2009. The base was data collected during bathing water monitoring conducted by PIS and their formal decisions of bathing bans introduced in response to revealed bathing water pollution. Results and discussion: The results of assessment indicate, that about one-fourth of all bathing bans in Poland was due to cyanobacteria blooms. Conclusions: Every fifth bathing sites located on artificial lake or water reservoir and every tenth on the sea bathing sites were polluted. Average period of bathing ban due to cyanobacteria blooms in Poland varies. Relatively the shortest bathing bans were observed on the sea bathing sites (no longer than one week on average. Much longer were bathing bans on lakes and artificial lakes (one month on average.

  4. Debate on Uncertainty in Estimating Bathing Water Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    1992-01-01

    Estimating the bathing water quality along the shore near a planned sewage discharge requires data on the source strength of bacteria, the die-off of bacteria and the actual dilution of the sewage. Together these 3 factors give the actual concentration of bacteria on the interesting spots...

  5. Numerical Models of Sewage Dispersion and Statistica Bathing Water Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ole; Larsen, Torben

    1991-01-01

    As bathing water standards usually are founded in statistical methods, the numerical models used in outfall design should reflect this. A statistical approach, where stochastic variations in source strength and bacterial disappearance is incorporated into a numerical dilution model is presented. ...

  6. The potential of lipopolysaccharide as a real-time biomarker of bacterial contamination in marine bathing water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, Anas A; Jackson, Simon K; Bradley, Graham

    2014-03-01

    The use of total lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a rapid biomarker for bacterial pollution was investigated at a bathing and surfing beach during the UK bathing season. The levels of faecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli), the Gram-positive enterococci, and organisms commonly associated with faecal material, such as total coliforms and Bacteroides, were culturally monitored over four months to include a period of heavy rainfall and concomitant pollution. Endotoxin measurement was performed using a kinetic Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay and found to correlate well with all indicators. Levels of LPS in excess of 50 Endotoxin Units (EU) mL(-1) were found to correlate with water that was unsuitable for bathing under the current European regulations. Increases in total LPS, mainly from Gram-negative indicator bacteria, are thus a potential real-time, qualitative method for testing bacterial quality of bathing waters.

  7. ''Water bath'' effect during the electrical underwater wire explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oreshkin, V. I.; Chaikovsky, S. A.; Ratakhin, N. A.; Grinenko, A.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2007-01-01

    The results of a simulation of underwater electrical wire explosion at a current density >10 9 A/cm 2 , total discharge current of ∼3 MA, and rise time of the current of ∼100 ns are presented. The electrical wire explosion was simulated using a one-dimensional radiation-magnetohydrodynamic model. It is shown that the radiation of the exploded wire produces a thin conducting plasma shell in the water in the vicinity of the exploding wire surface. It was found that this plasma shell catches up to 30% of the discharge current. Nevertheless, it was shown that the pressure and temperature of the wire material remain unchanged as compared with the idealized case of the electrical wire explosion in vacuum. This result is explained by a 'water bath' effect

  8. Transport of thermal water from well to thermal baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montegrossi, Giordano; Vaselli, Orlando; Tassi, Franco; Nocentini, Matteo; Liccioli, Caterina; Nisi, Barbara

    2013-04-01

    The main problem in building a thermal bath is having a hot spring or a thermal well located in an appropriate position for customer access; since Roman age, thermal baths were distributed in the whole empire and often road and cities were built all around afterwards. Nowadays, the perspectives are changed and occasionally the thermal resource is required to be transported with a pipeline system from the main source to the spa. Nevertheless, the geothermal fluid may show problems of corrosion and scaling during transport. In the Ambra valley, central Italy, a geothermal well has recently been drilled and it discharges a Ca(Mg)-SO4, CO2-rich water at the temperature of 41 °C, that could be used for supplying a new spa in the surrounding areas of the well itself. The main problem is that the producing well is located in a forest tree ca. 4 km far away from the nearest structure suitable to host the thermal bath. In this study, we illustrate the pipeline design from the producing well to the spa, constraining the physical and geochemical parameters to reduce scaling and corrosion phenomena. The starting point is the thermal well that has a flow rate ranging from 22 up to 25 L/sec. The thermal fluid is heavily precipitating calcite (50-100 ton/month) due to the calcite-CO2 equilibrium in the reservoir, where a partial pressure of 11 bar of CO2 is present. One of the most vexing problems in investigating scaling processed during the fluid transport in the pipeline is that there is not a proper software package for multiphase fluid flow in pipes characterized by such a complex chemistry. As a consequence, we used a modified TOUGHREACT with Pitzer database, arranged to use Darcy-Weisbach equation, and applying "fictitious" material properties in order to give the proper y- z- velocity profile in comparison to the analytical solution for laminar fluid flow in pipes. This investigation gave as a result the lowest CO2 partial pressure to be kept in the pipeline (nearly 2

  9. Reducing fluxes of faecal indicator compliance parameters to bathing waters from diffuse agricultural sources: The Brighouse Bay study, Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, D.; Aitken, M.; Crowther, J.; Dickson, I.; Edwards, A.C.; Francis, C.; Hopkins, M.; Jeffrey, W.; Kay, C.; McDonald, A.T.; McDonald, D.; Stapleton, C.M.; Watkins, J.; Wilkinson, J.; Wyer, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    The European Water Framework Directive requires the integrated management of point and diffuse pollution to achieve 'good' water quality in 'protected areas'. These include bathing waters, which are regulated using faecal indicator organisms as compliance parameters. Thus, for the first time, European regulators are faced with the control of faecal indicator fluxes from agricultural sources where these impact on bathing water compliance locations. Concurrently, reforms to the European Union (EU) Common Agricultural Policy offer scope for supporting on-farm measures producing environmental benefits through the new 'single farm payments' and the concept of 'cross-compliance'. This paper reports the first UK study involving remedial measures, principally stream bank fencing, designed to reduce faecal indicator fluxes at the catchment scale. Considerable reduction in faecal indicator flux was observed, but this was insufficient to ensure bathing water compliance with either Directive 76/160/EEC standards or new health-evidence-based criteria proposed by WHO and the European Commission. - Diffuse microbiological pollution from farming activities can be reduced by protected riparian zones

  10. Distinct difference of flaA genotypes of Legionella pneumophila between isolates from bath water and cooling tower water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemura-Maekawa, Junko; Kura, Fumiaki; Chang, Bin; Suzuki-Hashimoto, Atsuko; Ichinose, Masayuki; Endo, Takuro; Watanabe, Haruo

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the genetic difference of Legionella pneumophila in human-made environments, we collected isolates of L. pneumophila from bath water (n = 167) and cooling tower water (n = 128) primarily in the Kanto region in 2001 and 2005. The environmental isolates were serogrouped and sequenced for a target region of flaA. A total of 14 types of flaA genotypes were found: 10 from cooling tower water and nine from bath water. The flaA genotypes of isolates from cooling tower water were quite different from those of bath water.

  11. Processing of combined domestic bath and laundry waste waters for reuse as commode flushing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypes, W. D.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental investigation of processes and system configurations for reclaiming combined bath and laundry waste waters for reuse as commode flush water was conducted. A 90-min recycle flow was effective in removing particulates and in improving other physical characteristics to the extent that the filtered water was subjectively acceptable for reuse. The addition of a charcoal filter resulted in noticeable improvements in color, turbidity, and suds elimination. Heating and chlorination of the waste waters were investigated for reducing total organism counts and eliminating coliform organisms. A temperature of 335.9 K (145 F) for 30 min and chlorine concentrations of 20 mg/l in the collection tank followed by 10 mg/l in the storage tank were determined to be adequate for this purpose. Water volume relationships and energy-use rates for the waste water reuse systems are also discussed.

  12. Quantitative percutaneous CO2 measurement following CO2 mineral water baths by means of the isotope ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mass, I.; Huebner, G.; Birkenfeld, H.; Zelaitis, L.; Ploetner, G.

    1983-01-01

    A method for the quantitative determination of the carbon dioxide penetration through the human skin during a medical carbon dioxide mineral water bath is described. The natural isotope variation of carbon in the carbon dioxide of bath water, blood, and exspiratory gas are used for the calculation of the penetrated carbon dioxide amount. The method permits to optimize the effectiveness of medical carbon dioxide baths. (author)

  13. Microbiological investigations on the water of a thermal bath at Budapest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuróczki, Sára; Kéki, Zsuzsa; Káli, Szandra; Lippai, Anett; Márialigeti, Károly; Tóth, Erika

    2016-06-01

    Thermal baths are unique aquatic environments combining a wide variety of natural and anthropogenic ecological factors, which also appear in their microbiological state. There is limited information on the microbiology of thermal baths in their complexity, tracking community shifts from the thermal wells to the pools. In the present study, the natural microbial community of well and pool waters in Gellért bath was studied in detail by cultivation-based techniques. To isolate bacteria, 10% R2A and minimal synthetic media (with "bath water") with agar-agar and gellan gum were used after prolonged incubation time; moreover, polyurethane blocks covered with media were also applied. Strains were identified by sequencing their 16S rRNA gene after grouping them by amplified rDNA restriction analysis. From each sample, the dominance of Alphaproteobacteria was characteristic though their diversity differed among samples. Members of Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Beta- and Gamma-proteobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus, and Bacteroidetes were also identified. Representatives of Deinococcus-Thermus phylum appeared only in the pool water. The largest groups in the pool water belonged to the Tistrella and Chelatococcus genera. The most dominant member in the well water was a new taxon, its similarity to Hartmannibacter diazotrophicus as closest relative was 93.93%.

  14. A Water Grid for the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathard, A.; Fowler, H. J.; Kilsby, C. G.

    2009-12-01

    Anthropogenically aggravated climate change associated with intensive expansion of the global economy has increased the demand for water whilst simultaneously altering natural variability in its distribution, straining water resources unsustainably and inequitably in many parts of the world, increasing drought risk, and encouraging decision-makers to reconsider the security of water supply. Indeed, in the absence of additional resource development, contemporary planning forecasts imply increased water stress across much of the United Kingdom. Until recently the regulatory authorities of the UK promoted increased efficiency of water delivery and consumption combined with a portfolio of financial instruments as a means of reducing water stress, maintaining present levels of consumer service without significant further exploitation of the environment. However, despite an increasingly sophisticated understanding of climate change and its effects, significant uncertainty remains in the quantification of its impacts on the water sector, and questions persist as to the effectiveness of such demand management measures compared to that of more traditional infrastructure improvements. Faced with possible futures provided for by detrimentally over-stressed resources, what opportunities remain for future strategic development in the UK? Is there a single national strategy that is both politically and socially acceptable? Do the benefits of national water infrastructure projects outweigh their costs? This ongoing study aims to evolve robust national adaptation strategies by quantifying the projected impacts of climate change across mainland UK using multi-model and perturbed-physics ensembles of projected future climate, encapsulating uncertainties in a scenario-driven integrated water resources model incorporating socio-economic elements.

  15. Water bath and air bath calorimeter qualification for measuring 3013 containers of plutonium oxide at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WELSH, T.L.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present qualification data generated from water and air-bath calorimeters measuring radioactive decay heat from plutonium oxide in DOE STD-3013-2000 (3013) containers at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Published data concerning air and water bath calorimeters and especially 3013-qualified calorimeters is minimal at best. This paper will address the data from the measurement/qualification test plan, the heat standards used, and the calorimeter precision and accuracy results. The 3013 package is physically larger than earlier plutonium oxide storage containers, thereby necessitating a larger measurement chamber. To accommodate the measurements of the 3013 containers at PFP, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) supplied a water bath dual-chambered unit and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) provided two air-bath calorimeters. Both types of Calorimeters were installed in the analytical laboratory at PFP. The larger 3013 containers presented a new set of potential measurement problems: longer counting times, heat conductivity through a much larger container mass and wall thickness, and larger amounts of copper shot to assist sample thermal conductivity. These potential problems were addressed and included in the measurement/qualification test plan

  16. Hot Water Bathing Impairs Training Adaptation in Elite Teen Archers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ta-Cheng; Liao, Yi-Hung; Tsai, Yung-Shen; Ferguson-Stegall, Lisa; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Chen, Chung-Yu

    2018-04-30

    Despite heat imposes considerable physiological stress to human body, hot water immersion remains as a popular relaxation modality for athletes. Here we examined the lingering effect of hot tub relaxation after training on performance-associated measures and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) in junior archers. Ten national level archers, aged 16.6 ± 0.3 years (M = 8, F = 2), participated in a randomized counter-balanced crossover study after baseline measurements. In particular, half participants were assigned to the hot water immersion (HOT) group, whereas another halves were assigned to the untreated control (CON) group. Crossover trial was conducted following a 2-week washout period. During the HOT trial, participants immersed in hot water for 30 min at 40°C, 1 h after training, twice a week (every 3 days) for 2 weeks. Participants during CON trial sat at the same environment without hot water after training. Performance-associated measures and salivary DHEA-S were determined 3 days after the last HOT session. We found that the HOT intervention significantly decreased shooting performance (CON: -4%; HOT: -22%, P HOT: -16%, P HOT: -60%, P < 0.05) of archers, compared with untreated CON trial. No group differences were found in motor unit recruitment (root mean square electromyography, RMS EMG) of arm muscles during aiming, autonomic nervous activity (sympathetic and vagal powers of heart rate variability, HRV), and plasma cortisol levels after treatments. Our data suggest that physiological adaptation against heat exposure takes away the sources needed for normal training adaptation specific to shooting performance in archers.

  17. Safety of tomatillos and products containing tomatillos canned by the water-bath canning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, L H; Remmenga, M D; Bock, M A

    1998-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to evaluate the safety of tomatillos and products containing tomatillos canned by the water-bath processing method. In the first study, plain tomatillos were processed for 25, 37.5, 50 and 62.5 min. In the second study, five tomatillo/onion combinations were prepared while five tomatillo/green chile combinations were prepared in the third study. pH evaluations were conducted to determine safety in all studies using pH 4.2 as the cut-off value. No differences in the pH of plain tomatillos were detected due to processing time. All jars of plain tomatillos had pH values below 4.1. All combinations of tomatillos/onions and tomatillos/green chile containing more than 50% tomatillo had pH values below the 4.2 cut-off value. Results of the three studies indicate (1) acidification of plain tomatillos is probably unnecessary for canning by the water-bath processing method and (2) combinations of acidic tomatillos and low-acid onions or green chile must contain more than 50% tomatillos to have a pH low enough for safe water-bath processing.

  18. Fundamental Study of Bed Bath Technique : Subjective and Objective Evaluations of Epidermal Effects of Bed Bathing Using Bar Soap and Water-Dissolved Liquid Soap

    OpenAIRE

    月田, 佳寿美; 竹田, 千佐子; 長谷川, 智子; 白川, かおる

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To clarify epidermal effects of bed bathing using bar soap and water-dissolved liquid soap (liquid soap). Method: The subjects were 33 healthy female college students. Subjects' arms were cleaned by two methods, using bar soap and liquid soap. The following objective data were collected from the subjects: skin sebum, moisturization, pH, and feelings of skin conditions (rashes, redness, itchiness, and irritation). Results : 1. Cleansing effects of both methods on oily dirt seemed no d...

  19. Microbial hitchhikers on marine plastic debris: Human exposure risks at bathing waters and beach environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keswani, Anisha; Oliver, David M; Gutierrez, Tony; Quilliam, Richard S

    2016-07-01

    Marine plastic debris is well characterized in terms of its ability to negatively impact terrestrial and marine environments, endanger coastal wildlife, and interfere with navigation, tourism and commercial fisheries. However, the impacts of potentially harmful microorganisms and pathogens colonising plastic litter are not well understood. The hard surface of plastics provides an ideal environment for opportunistic microbial colonisers to form biofilms and might offer a protective niche capable of supporting a diversity of different microorganisms, known as the "Plastisphere". This biotope could act as an important vector for the persistence and spread of pathogens, faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) and harmful algal bloom species (HABs) across beach and bathing environments. This review will focus on the existent knowledge and research gaps, and identify the possible consequences of plastic-associated microbes on human health, the spread of infectious diseases and bathing water quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of chemometric methods for assessment and modelling of microbiological quality data concerning coastal bathing water in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agelos Papaioannou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Worldwide, the aim of managing water is to safeguard human health whilst maintaining sustainable aquatic and associated terrestrial, ecosystems. Because human enteric viruses are the most likely pathogens responsible for waterborne diseases from recreational water use, but detection methods are complex and costly for routine monitoring, it is of great interest to determine the quality of coastal bathing water with a minimum cost and maximum safety. Design and methods. This study handles the assessment and modelling of the microbiological quality data of 2149 seawater bathing areas in Greece over 10-year period (1997-2006 by chemometric methods. Results. Cluster analysis results indicated that the studied bathing beaches are classified in accordance with the seasonality in three groups. Factor analysis was applied to investigate possible determining factors in the groups resulted from the cluster analysis, and also two new parameters were created in each group; VF1 includes E. coli, faecal coliforms and total coliforms and VF2 includes faecal streptococci/enterococci. By applying the cluster analysis in each seasonal group, three new groups of coasts were generated, group A (ultraclean, group B (clean and group C (contaminated. Conclusions. The above analysis is confirmed by the application of discriminant analysis, and proves that chemometric methods are useful tools for assessment and modeling microbiological quality data of coastal bathing water on a large scale, and thus could attribute to effective and economical monitoring of the quality of coastal bathing water in a country with a big number of bathing coasts, like Greece.

  1. Human recreational exposure to antibiotic resistant bacteria in coastal bathing waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Anne F C; Zhang, Lihong; Balfour, Andrew J; Garside, Ruth; Gaze, William H

    2015-09-01

    Infections caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) are associated with poor health outcomes and are recognised globally as a serious health problem. Much research has been conducted on the transmission of ARB to humans. Yet the role the natural environment plays in the spread of ARB and antibiotic resistance genes is not well understood. Antibiotic resistant bacteria have been detected in natural aquatic environments, and ingestion of seawater during water sports is one route by which many people could be directly exposed. The aim was to estimate the prevalence of resistance to one clinically important class of antibiotics (third-generation cephalosporins (3GCs)) amongst Escherichia coli in coastal surface waters in England and Wales. Prevalence data was used to quantify ingestion of 3GC-resistant E. coli (3GCREC) by people participating in water sports in designated coastal bathing waters. A further aim was to use this value to derive a population-level estimate of exposure to these bacteria during recreational use of coastal waters in 2012. The prevalence of 3GC-resistance amongst E. coli isolated from coastal surface waters was estimated using culture-based methods. This was combined with the density of E. coli reported in designated coastal bathing waters along with estimations of the volumes of water ingested during various water sports reported in the literature to calculate the mean number of 3GCREC ingested during different water sports. 0.12% of E. coli isolated from surface waters were resistant to 3GCs. This value was used to estimate that in England and Wales over 6.3 million water sport sessions occurred in 2012 that resulted in the ingestion of at least one 3GCREC. Despite the low prevalence of resistance to 3GCs amongst E. coli in surface waters, there is an identifiable human exposure risk for water users, which varies with the type of water sport undertaken. The relative importance of this exposure is likely to be greater in areas where a

  2. Assessing the water quality response to an alternative sewage disposal strategy at bathing sites on the east coast of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedri, Zeinab; O'Sullivan, John J; Deering, Louise A; Demeter, Katalin; Masterson, Bartholomew; Meijer, Wim G; O'Hare, Gregory

    2015-02-15

    A three-dimensional model is used to assess the bathing water quality of Bray and Killiney bathing sites in Ireland following changes to the sewage management system. The model, firstly calibrated to hydrodynamic and water quality data from the period prior to the upgrade of the Wastewater Treatment Works (WwTW), was then used to simulate Escherichia coli (E. coli) distributions for discharge scenarios of the periods prior to and following the upgrade of the WwTW under dry and wet weather conditions. E. coli distributions under dry weather conditions demonstrate that the upgrade in the WwTW has remarkably improved the bathing water quality to a Blue Flag status. The new discharge strategy is expected to drastically reduce the rainfall-related incidents in which environmental limits of the Bathing Water Directive are breached. However, exceedances to these limits may still occur under wet weather conditions at Bray bathing site due to storm overflows that may still be discharged through two sea outfalls offshore of Bray bathing site. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of mineral radon water applied in the form of full baths on blood pressure in patients with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amila Kapetanović

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to patients’ safety, increased blood pressure often restricts wider use of mineral water for therapeutic purposes in rehabilitation practice. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of radon mineral water applied in the form of full baths on blood pressure in people with hypertension.Methods: A total of 27 patients, average age 58.10 years with hypertension were included in the study. Balneotherapy was applied in the form of full baths with mineral radon water of neutral temperature. Values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured before and after twenty minutes therapy on the first and fifth day of treatment.Results: On the first day of treatment there was no significant change in blood pressure after the application of full baths with mineral radon water of neutral temperature (systolic pressure t = 0.697, not significant; diastolic pressure t = 0.505, not significant. On the fi fth day of treatment there was no significant changes in blood pressure after the application of medical baths with mineral radon water of neutral temperature (systolic pressure t = 1.372, not significant; diastolic pressure t = 1.372, not significant.Conclusion: The significant increase of blood pressure in patients with mild and moderate hypertension is not expected when Fojnica water (radioactive mineral water is being used in the form of full baths of neutral temperature, which allows a broader application of this balneo procedure in rehabilitation practice.

  4. Elevated Bathing-Associated Disease Risks Despite Certified Water Quality: A Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Hadjichristodoulou

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriological water quality criteria have been recommended to ensure bathers’ health. However, this risk-assessment approach is based mainly on routine measurements of fecal pollution indicator bacteria in seawater, and may not be adequate to protect bathers effectively. The aim of this study was to assess the risks of symptoms related to infectious diseases among bathers after exposure to seawater which was of excellent quality according to EU guidelines. This study is a cohort study recruiting bathers and non-bathers. Water samples were collected for estimating bacterial indicators. Univariable and multivariable analysis was performed to compare the risks of developing symptoms/diseases between bathers and non-bathers. A total of 3805 bathers and 572 non-bathers were included in the study. Water analysis results demonstrated excellent quality of bathing water. Significantly increased risks of symptoms related to gastrointestinal infections (OR = 3.60, 95% CI 1.28–10.13, respiratory infections (OR = 1.92, 95% CI 1.00–3.67, eye infections (OR = 2.43, 95% CI 1.27–4.63 and ear infections (OR = 17.21, 95% CI 2.42–122.34 were observed among bathers compared with non-bathers. Increased rates of medical consultation and medication use were also observed among bathers. There was evidence that bathers experienced increased morbidity compared with non-bathers though the bathing waters met bacteriological water quality criteria. These results suggest that risk assessments of recreational seawaters should not only focus on bacteriological water quality criteria.

  5. Spatially Explicit Analysis of Water Footprints in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Barrett

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Water Footprint, as an indicator of water consumption has become increasingly popular for analyzing environmental issues associated with the use of water resources in the global supply chain of consumer goods. This is particularly relevant for countries like the UK, which increasingly rely on products produced elsewhere in the world and thus impose pressures on foreign water resources. Existing studies calculating water footprints are mostly based on process analysis, and results are mainly available at the national level. The current paper assesses the domestic and foreign water requirements for UK final consumption by applying an environmentally extended multi-regional input-output model in combination with geo-demographic consumer segmentation data. This approach allows us to calculate water footprints (both direct and indirect for different products as well as different geographies within the UK. We distinguished between production and consumption footprints where the former is the total water consumed from the UK domestic water resources by the production activities in the UK and the latter is the total water consumed from both domestic and global water resources to satisfy the UK domestic final consumption. The results show that the production water footprint is 439 m3/cap/year, 85% of which is for the final consumption in the UK itself. The average consumption water footprint of the UK is more than three times bigger than the UK production water footprint in 2006. About half of the UK consumption water footprints were associated with imports from Non-OECD countries (many of which are water-scarce, while around 19% were from EU-OECD countries, and only 3% from Non-EU-OECD countries. We find that the water footprint differs considerably across sub-national geographies in the UK, and the differences are as big as 273 m3/cap/year for the internal water footprint and 802 m3/cap/year for the external water footprint. Our results suggest

  6. Wet-weather urban discharges: implications from adopting the revised European Directive concerning the quality of bathing water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, L M; Matos, J S

    2005-01-01

    Wet weather urban discharges are responsible for bathing water contamination. The proposal for a revised EU Directive concerning the quality of bathing water imposes significantly more stringent requirements for the management of bathing water quality, with particularly important repercussions on beaches subjected to short-term pollution incidents. The paper reviews the aspects from EU legislation most directly related to the problem of wet-weather discharges, placing special emphasis on the recent revision process of the Directive on bathing water quality, and evaluates the benefits of some potential solutions based on continuous modelling of a combined sewer system. Increasing the sewer system storage capacity or the STP hydraulic capacity may substantially reduce the untreated discharge volumes, but spill frequency reductions under 2 to 3 spill days per bathing season will hardly be achieved. Results show the severe strains that local rainfall patterns would place on compliance with the Commission's proposal for a revised Directive and highlight the importance of the changes introduced in the amended proposal recently approved by the Council, making it less prescriptive if adequate measures are adopted to prevent bathers' exposure to short-term pollution incidents.

  7. A rapid detection method using flow cytometry to monitor the risk of Legionella in bath water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguri, Toshitsugu; Oda, Yasunori; Sugiyama, Kanji; Nishikawa, Toru; Endo, Takuro; Izumiyama, Shinji; Yamazaki, Masayuki; Kura, Fumiaki

    2011-07-01

    Legionella species are the causative agents of human legionellosis, and bathing facilities have been identified as the sources of infection in several outbreaks in Japan. Researchers in Japan have recently reported evidence of significant associations between bacterial counts and the occurrence of Legionella in bathing facilities and in a hot tub model. A convenient and quantitative bacterial enumeration method is therefore required as an indicator of Legionella contamination or disinfection to replace existing methods such as time-consuming Legionella culture and expensive Legionella-DNA amplification. In this study, we developed a rapid detection method (RDM) to monitor the risk of Legionella using an automated microbial analyzing device based on flow cytometry techniques to measure the total number of bacteria in water samples within two minutes, by detecting typical patterns of scattered light and fluorescence. We first compared the results of our RDM with plate counting results for five filtered hot spring water samples spiked with three species of bacteria, including Legionella. Inactivation of these samples by chlorine was also assessed by the RDM, a live/dead bacterial fluorescence assay and plate counting. Using the RDM, the lower limit of quantitative bacterial counts in the spiked samples was determined as 3.0×10(3)(3.48log)counts mL(-1). We then used a laboratory model of a hot tub and found that the RDM could monitor the growth curve of naturally occurring heterotrophic bacteria with 1 and 2 days' delayed growth of amoeba and Legionella, respectively, and could also determine the killing curve of these bacteria by chlorination. Finally, samples with ≥3.48 or bacterial counts mL(-1) were tested using the RDM from 149 different hot tubs, and were found to be significantly associated with the positive or negative detection of Legionella with 95% sensitivity and 84% specificity. These findings indicated that the RDM can be used for Legionella control at

  8. Warm Water Bath Stimulates Phase-Shifts of the Peripheral Circadian Clocks in PER2::LUCIFERASE Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriki, Daisuke; Haraguchi, Atsushi; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2014-01-01

    Circadian clocks in the peripheral tissues of mice are known to be entrained by pulse stimuli such as restricted feeding, novel wheel running, and several other agents. However, there are no reports on high temperature pulse-mediated entrainment on the phase-shift of peripheral clocks in vivo. Here we show that temperature treatment of mice for two days at 41°C, instead of 37°C, for 1–2 h during the inactive period, using a temperature controlled water bath stimulated phase-advance of peripheral clocks in the kidney, liver, and submandibular gland of PER2::LUCIFERASE mice. On the other hand, treatment for 2 days at 35°C ambient room temperature for 2 h did not cause a phase-advance. Maintenance of mice at 41°C in a water bath, sustained the core body temperature at 40–41°C. However, the use of 37°C water bath or the 35°C ambient room temperature elevated the core body temperature to 38.5°C, suggesting that at least a core body temperature of 40–41°C is necessary to cause phase-advance under light-dark cycle conditions. The temperature pulse stimulation at 41°C, instead of 37°C water bath for 2 h led to the elevated expression of Per1 and Hsp70 in the peripheral tissue of mice. In summary, the present study demonstrates that transient high temperature pulse using water bath during daytime causes phase-advance in mouse peripheral clocks in vivo. The present results suggest that hot water bath may affect the phase of peripheral clocks. PMID:24933288

  9. A Water Model Study on Mixing Behavior of the Two-Layered Bath in Bottom Blown Copper Smelting Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shui, Lang; Cui, Zhixiang; Ma, Xiaodong; Jiang, Xu; Chen, Mao; Xiang, Yong; Zhao, Baojun

    2018-05-01

    The bottom-blown copper smelting furnace is a novel copper smelter developed in recent years. Many advantages of this furnace have been found, related to bath mixing behavior under its specific gas injection scheme. This study aims to use an oil-water double-phased laboratory-scale model to investigate the impact of industry-adjustable variables on bath mixing time, including lower layer thickness, gas flow rate, upper layer thickness and upper layer viscosity. Based on experimental results, an overall empirical relationship of mixing time in terms of these variables has been correlated, which provides the methodology for industry to optimize mass transfer in the furnace.

  10. Effects of water temperature on photosensitization in bath-PUVA therapy with 8-methoxypsoralen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruss, C.; Kobyletzki, G. von; Reuther, T.; Husebo, L.; Altmeyer, P. [Ruhr-Univ. of Bochum, Bochum (Germany); Behrens, S.; Kerscher, M. [Univ. of Ulm, Dept. of Dermatology, Ulm (Germany)

    1998-10-01

    The pharmacokinetic aspects of bath-PUVA are not completely clarified. Therefore, we determined the phototoxic response of human skin following psoralen baths at temperatures ranging from 32 deg. C to 42 deg. C (71.6-107.6 deg. F) and UVA doses ranging from 0.5 to 5.5 J/cm{sup 2}. The highest therapeutical photosensitization (i.e. lowest minimal phototoxic dose) was assessed at temperatures of 37 deg. C (98.6 deg. F) and above. Photosensitization was significantly decreased at lower temperatures. These data indicate that a bath temperature of 37 deg. C (98.6 deg. F) should be used to gain optimal therapeutic efficiency in a clinical setting. Furthermore, in order to minimize the risk of adverse phototoxic effects in bath-PUVA, it is important to use a constant temperature during the psoralen bath. (au) 13 refs.

  11. Effects of water temperature on photosensitization in bath-PUVA therapy with 8-methoxypsoralen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruss, C.; Kobyletzki, G. von; Reuther, T.; Husebo, L.; Altmeyer, P.; Behrens, S.; Kerscher, M.

    1998-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic aspects of bath-PUVA are not completely clarified. Therefore, we determined the phototoxic response of human skin following psoralen baths at temperatures ranging from 32 deg. C to 42 deg. C (71.6-107.6 deg. F) and UVA doses ranging from 0.5 to 5.5 J/cm 2 . The highest therapeutical photosensitization (i.e. lowest minimal phototoxic dose) was assessed at temperatures of 37 deg. C (98.6 deg. F) and above. Photosensitization was significantly decreased at lower temperatures. These data indicate that a bath temperature of 37 deg. C (98.6 deg. F) should be used to gain optimal therapeutic efficiency in a clinical setting. Furthermore, in order to minimize the risk of adverse phototoxic effects in bath-PUVA, it is important to use a constant temperature during the psoralen bath. (au)

  12. Operational monitoring and forecasting of bathing water quality through exploiting satellite Earth observation and models: The AlgaRisk demonstration service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutler, J. D.; Warren, M. A.; Miller, P. I.; Barciela, R.; Mahdon, R.; Land, P. E.; Edwards, K.; Wither, A.; Jonas, P.; Murdoch, N.; Roast, S. D.; Clements, O.; Kurekin, A.

    2015-04-01

    Coastal zones and shelf-seas are important for tourism, commercial fishing and aquaculture. As a result the importance of good water quality within these regions to support life is recognised worldwide and a number of international directives for monitoring them now exist. This paper describes the AlgaRisk water quality monitoring demonstration service that was developed and operated for the UK Environment Agency in response to the microbiological monitoring needs within the revised European Union Bathing Waters Directive. The AlgaRisk approach used satellite Earth observation to provide a near-real time monitoring of microbiological water quality and a series of nested operational models (atmospheric and hydrodynamic-ecosystem) provided a forecast capability. For the period of the demonstration service (2008-2013) all monitoring and forecast datasets were processed in near-real time on a daily basis and disseminated through a dedicated web portal, with extracted data automatically emailed to agency staff. Near-real time data processing was achieved using a series of supercomputers and an Open Grid approach. The novel web portal and java-based viewer enabled users to visualise and interrogate current and historical data. The system description, the algorithms employed and example results focussing on a case study of an incidence of the harmful algal bloom Karenia mikimotoi are presented. Recommendations and the potential exploitation of web services for future water quality monitoring services are discussed.

  13. Modeling the transport of organic chemicals between polyethylene passive samplers and water in finite and infinite bath conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcaciuc, A Patricia; Apell, Jennifer N; Gschwend, Philip M

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the transfer of chemicals between passive samplers and water is essential for their use as monitoring devices of organic contaminants in surface waters. By applying Fick's second law to diffusion through the polymer and an aqueous boundary layer, the authors derived a mathematical model for the uptake of chemicals into a passive sampler from water, in finite and infinite bath conditions. The finite bath model performed well when applied to laboratory observations of sorption into polyethylene (PE) sheets for various chemicals (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane [DDT]) and at varying turbulence levels. The authors used the infinite bath model to infer fractional equilibration of PCB and DDT analytes in field-deployed PE, and the results were nearly identical to those obtained using the sampling rate model. However, further comparison of the model and the sampling rate model revealed that the exchange of chemicals was inconsistent with the sampling rate model for partially or fully membrane-controlled transfer, which would be expected in turbulent conditions or when targeting compounds with small polymer diffusivities and small partition coefficients (e.g., phenols, some pesticides, and others). The model can be applied to other polymers besides PE as well as other chemicals and in any transfer regime (membrane, mixed, or water boundary layer-controlled). Lastly, the authors illustrate practical applications of this model such as improving passive sampler design and understanding the kinetics of passive dosing experiments. © 2015 SETAC.

  14. Herbal bathing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooster, van 't Charlotte I.E.A.; Haabo, Vinije; Ruysschaert, Sofie; Vossen, Tessa; Andel, van Tinde R.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Herbal baths play an important role in the traditional health care of Maroons living in the interior of Suriname. However, little is known on the differences in plant ingredients used among and within the Maroon groups. We compared plant use in herbal baths documented for Saramaccan and

  15. Modelling of dripwater hydrology and hydrogeochemistry in a weakly karstified aquifer (Bath, UK): Implications for climate change studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Ian J.; Tuckwell, George W.; Baker, Andy; Tooth, Anna F.

    2006-04-01

    A better knowledge of dripwater hydrology in karst systems is needed to understand the palaeoclimate implications of temporal variations in Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca of calcareous cave deposits. Quantitative modelling of drip hydrology and hydrochemistry was undertaken at a disused limestone mine (Brown's Folly Mine) in SW England overlain by 15 m of poorly karstified Jurassic limestones, with sub-vertical fracturing enhanced by proximity to an escarpment. Discharge was monitored at 15 sites intermittently from the beginning of 1996, and every 10-20 days from later 1996 to early 1998. Samples for hydrochemical parameters (pH, alkalinity, cations, anions, fluorescence) were taken corresponding to a sub-set of these data and supplemented by bedrock and soil sampling, limited continuously logged discharge, and soil water observations. Three sites, covering the range of discharge (approximately 1 μL s -1 to 1 ml s -1 maximum discharge) and hydrochemical behaviours, were studied in more detail. A quantitative flow model was constructed, based on two parallel unit hydrographs: responsive and relatively unresponsive to discharge events, respectively. The linear response and conservative mixing assumptions of the model were tested with hydrogeochemical data. Dripwaters at many of sites are characterized by evidence of prior calcite precipitation in the flowpath above the mine, which in the higher discharging sites diminishes at high flow. Also at low flow rates, dripwaters may access seepage reservoirs enriched in Mg and/or Sr, dependent on the site. The discharge at all three sites can be approximated by the flow model, but in each case, hydrochemical data show violations of the model assumptions. All sites show evidence of non-conservative mixing, and there are temporal discontinuities in behaviour, which may be stimulated by airlocks generated at low flow. Enhanced Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca often do relate to low-flow conditions, but the relationships between climate and hydrogeochemical

  16. Water bath hyperthermia is a simple therapy for psoriasis and also stimulates skin tanning in response to sunlight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boreham, D.R.; Gasmann, H.C.; Mitchel, R.E.J

    1994-07-01

    An eight week trial, involving superficial hyperthermia delivered biweekly via simple water bath immersion, was tested for its ability to clear mild to moderate psoriatic lesions. Seven patients were treated and three cases rapidly improved. In the remaining patients, the treatment frequency was increased to alternate days; two cases improved significantly, one patient showed a partial response, and the fourth had no visible change (this was the only patient taking concurrent drug therapy - etretinate). In addition to resolving psoriatic lesions, water bath hyperthermia also reduced edema (swelling) and relieved pruritus (itching) in all patients, both during the treatment period and for up to several months after lesions had returned. Lesion reappearance occurred within one to three months after the last heat treatment. We retreated one patient and produced a second complete remission. These results indicate that simple repetitive water bath hyperthermia alone is effective in the treatment of psoriatic lesions in heatable locations. An unexpected side effect was enhanced melanin content (tanning) in all areas where hyperthermia treated skin was exposed to sunlight. (author)

  17. Water baths for farmed mink: intra-individual consistency and inter-individual variation in swimming behaviour, and effects on stereotyped behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. MONONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Swimming behaviour and effects of water baths on stereotyped behaviour in farmed mink (Mustela vison were studied in three experiments. The singly-housed mink had access from their home cages to extra cages with 20.5 litre water baths. Two short-term experiments aimed to investigate how quickly adult and juvenile mink start using and how consistently they use water baths over 10 days, and whether the extent of the use correlates between dams and their females kits. A four-month experiment was designed to compare the development of stereotyped behaviour in juvenile mink housed with and without swimming opportunity. The behavioural analyses were based on several 24-hour video recordings carried out in all three experiments. There were obvious inter-individual differences and intra-individual consistency in swimming frequency and time. Farmed mink’s motivation to swim can be assessed in short-term experiments, and measurement of water losses from the swimming baths and use of instantaneous sampling with 10 min sampling intervals provide quite reliable measures of the amount of swimming. The bath use of the juveniles correlated with that of their dams, indicating that an individual mink’s eagerness to swim may have a genetic component. The lower amount of stereotyped behaviour in mink housed with water baths indicates that long-term access to baths may alleviate frustration in singly-housed juvenile farmed mink.;

  18. The chemical/physical and microbiological characteristics of typical bath and laundry waste waters. [waste water reclamation during manned space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypes, W. D.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Chemical/physical and microbiological characteristics are studied of typical bath and laundry waters collected during a 12 day test in which the untreated waste waters were reused for toilet flush. Most significant changes were found for ammonia, color, methylene blue active substances, phosphates, sodium, sulfates, total organic carbon, total solids, and turbidity in comparison with tap water baseline. The mean total number of microorganisms detected in the waste waters ranged from 1 million to 10 to the 7th power cells/m1 and the mean number of possible coliforms ranged from 10 to the 5th power to 1 million. An accumulation of particulates and an objectible odor were detected in the tankage used during the 12 day reuse of the untreated waste waters. The combined bath and laundry waste waters from a family of four provided 91 percent of the toilet flush water for the same family.

  19. Pressurised water reactor in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Since the Three Mile Island accident there has been much debate about the safety considerations of Pressurised Water Reactors. Their development will continue throughout the world but it will be based upon the lessons learned from that unfortunate accident. In the United Kingdom there is a public enquiry discussing all aspects of the reactor. The papers given in this book provide an informed addition to the literature. The design, safety and licensing and construction of a pressurised water reactor system are discussed in detail. Considerations stemming from the Three Mile Island accident are presented

  20. Water quality assessment of an unusual ritual well in Bangladesh and impact of mass bathing on this quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabed, H; Suely, A; Faruq, G; Sahu, J N

    2014-02-15

    A sacred ritual well with continuously discharging of methane gas through its water body was studied for physicochemical and microbiological quality in three seasons and during ritual mass bathing. Most of the physicochemical parameters showed significant seasonal variations (Pbiochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (r=-0.58, Pindicators were studied and found that all of them increased unusually during mass bathing comparing with their respective seasonal values. Total coliforms (TC) were found positively correlated with fecal coliforms (FC) (r=0.971), FC with Escherichia coli (EC) (r=0.952), EC with intestinal enterococci (IE) (r=0.921), fecal streptococci (FS) with IE (r=0.953) and Staphylococcus aureus (SA) with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) (r=0.946), which were significant at P<0.001. Some regression models showed significant linear relationship at P<0.001 with r(2) value of 0.943 for FC vs. TC, 0.907 for EC vs. FC, 0.869 for FS vs. FC, 0.848 for IE vs. EC and 0.909 for IE vs. FS. The overall results found in this study revealed that well water is suitable for bathing purpose but the religious activity considerably worsen its quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Recovery of real dye bath wastewater using integrated membrane process: considering water recovery, membrane fouling and reuse potential of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcik-Canbolat, Cigdem; Sengezer, Cisel; Sakar, Hacer; Karagunduz, Ahmet; Keskinler, Bulent

    2017-11-01

    It has been recognized by the whole world that textile industry which produce large amounts of wastewater with strong color and toxic organic compounds is a major problematical industry requiring effective treatment solutions. In this study, reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were tested on biologically treated real dye bath wastewater with and without pretreatment by nanofiltration (NF) membrane to recovery. Also membrane fouling and reuse potential of membranes were investigated by multiple filtrations. Obtained results showed that only NF is not suitable to produce enough quality to reuse the wastewater in a textile industry as process water while RO provide successfully enough permeate quality. The results recommend that integrated NF/RO membrane process is able to reduce membrane fouling and allow long-term operation for real dye bath wastewater.

  2. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy at a water/gas interface: A study of bath gas-dependent molecular species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, M.; Padmanabhan, A.; Godfrey, G.J.; Rehse, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    Single-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy has been performed on the surface of a bulk water sample in an air, argon, and nitrogen gas environment to investigate emissions from hydrogen-containing molecules. A microplasma was formed at the gas/liquid interface by focusing a Nd:YAG laser beam operating at 1064 nm onto the surface of an ultra-pure water sample. A broadband Echelle spectrometer with a time-gated intensified charge-coupled device was used to analyze the plasma at various delay times (1.0-40.0 μs) and for incident laser pulse energies ranging from 20-200 mJ. In this configuration, the dominant atomic spectral features at short delay times are the hydrogen H-alpha and H-beta emission lines at 656 and 486 nm, respectively, as well as emissions from atomic oxygen liberated from the water and air and nitrogen emission lines from the air bath gas. For delay times exceeding approximately 8 μs the emission from molecular species (particularly OH and NH) created after the ablation process dominates the spectrum. Molecular emissions are found to be much less sensitive to variations in pulse energy and exhibit a temporal decay an order of magnitude slower than the atomic emission. The dependence of both atomic hydrogen and OH emission on the bath gas above the surface of the water was studied by performing the experiment at standard pressure in an atmospheric purge box. Electron densities calculated from the Stark broadening of the H-beta and H-gamma lines and plasma excitation temperatures calculated from the ratio of H-beta to H-gamma emission were measured for ablation in the three bath gases

  3. UK methods for studying fuel management in water moderated reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayers, F.J.

    1970-10-01

    Current UK methods for studying fuel management and for predicting the reactor physics performance for both light and heavy water moderated power reactors are reviewed. Brief descriptions are given of the less costly computer codes used for initial assessment studies, and also the more elaborate programs associated with detailed evaluation are discussed. Some of the considerations influencing the accuracy of predictions are included with examples of various types of experimental confirmation. (author)

  4. Bath Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deaths and been blamed for a handful of suicides and murders. Two of the chemicals in bath salts (mephedrone and MDPV) are Schedule I class drugs. That means they have a high potential for abuse and no accepted medical use . People who are ...

  5. Diel cycles of hydrogen peroxide in marine bathing waters in Southern California, USA: In situ surf zone measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Catherine D.; De Bruyn, Warren J.; Hirsch, Charlotte M.; Aiona, Paige

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is photochemically produced in natural waters. It has been implicated in the oxidative-induced mortality of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), a microbial water quality measure. To assess levels and cycling of peroxide in beach waters monitored for FIB, diel studies were carried out in surf zone waters in July 2009 at Crystal Cove State Beach, Southern California, USA. Maximum concentrations of 160-200 nM were obtained within 1 h of solar noon. Levels dropped at night to 20-40 nM, consistent with photochemical production from sunlight. Day-time production and night-time dark loss rates averaged 16 ± 3 nM h -1 and 12 ± 4 nM h -1 respectively. Apparent quantum yields averaged 0.07 ± 0.02. Production was largely dominated by sunlight, with some dependence on chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) levels in waters with high absorption coefficients. Peroxide levels measured here are sufficient to cause oxidative-stress-induced mortality of bacteria, affect FIB diel cycling and impact microbial water quality in marine bathing waters.

  6. Effects of electrical water bath stunning current frequencies on the spontaneous electroencephalogram and somatosensory evoked potentials in hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, A B M; O'Callaghan, M

    2004-04-01

    1. The effectiveness of water bath electrical stunning of chickens with a constant root mean square (rms) current of 100 mA per bird delivered for 3 s using 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1500 Hz sine wave alternating current (AC) was investigated in layer hens. The quantitative changes occurring in the electroencephalogram (EEG) and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were used to determine the effectiveness of stunning. The changes occurring in the EEG were evaluated using Fast Fourier Transformations (FFT) and the SEPs were averaged to determine whether they were present or abolished. 2. The results of FFT indicated that stunning of chickens with a constant rms current of 100 mA per bird using 100 or 200 Hz induced epileptiform activity in all the hens, immediately followed by a reduction in the total (2 to 30 Hz) and relative (13 to 30 Hz) power contents in the EEG frequency bands indicative of unconsciousness and insensibility. The SEPs were abolished in the majority of hens stunned with 100 Hz and all the hens stunned with 200 Hz. 3. By contrast, stunning using 400, 800 or 1500 Hz failed to induce epileptiform activity in all the birds, the total and relative power contents in the EEG frequency bands showed a substantial increase, rather than reduction, and the SEPs were also retained in the majority of chickens. It is therefore suggested that stunning using these frequencies failed to stun them satisfactorily. In these birds, occurrence of a painful arousal, rather than unconsciousness, could not be ruled out. 4. It is therefore suggested that water bath electrical stunning of chickens with a minimum rms current of 100 mA per bird delivered using 100 or 200 Hz would be adequate to ensure bird welfare under commercial conditions, provided both the carotid arteries in the neck are severed at slaughter. On humanitarian and bird welfare grounds, a rms current of greater than 100 mA per bird should be applied whilst using frequencies of 400 Hz or more of sine wave AC

  7. Ultrasonic-assisted synthesis of aqueous CdTe/CdS QDs in salt water bath heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yinglian [College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, Shandong Province (China); College of Food Science and Engineering, Qingdao Agricultural University of China, Qingdao 266109, Shandong Province (China); Li, Chunsheng; Xu, Ying [College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, Shandong Province (China); Wang, Dongfeng, E-mail: wangdf@ouc.edu.cn [College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, Shandong Province (China)

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: • Ultrasonic promotes formation of crystal nucleus and QDs were synthesized in 0.5 h. • The new heating method provides a PLQY of up to 97.13%. • The synthesis mechanism of the core shell structure of the CdTe/CdS QDs was inferred. • The preparation method was efficient, simple and clean. - Abstract: A novel simple method for fast and efficient synthesis of aqueous CdTe/CdS quantum dots (QDs) with core–shell structure was developed by using salt water bath heating with the ultrasonic-assisted technique in this paper. The formation of crystal nucleus was promoted by ultrasonic and CdTe/CdS QDs with blue fluorescence were synthesized only in 0.5 h. The heat source was bath heating in salt water solution at 60% NaCl and the heating temperature could reach 105 °C. The heating method solved the biggest drawback of low photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of ordinal bath heating in water. The preparation was cheap, simple and had less pollution to the environment. The properties of the CdTe/CdS QDs were thoroughly investigated by ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis), photoluminescence (PL), transmission electron microscope (TEM), laser size analysis, fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Different CdTe/CdS QDs with core shell structure were efficiently synthesized and the maximum PLQY could reach 97.13% when refluxing at 105 °C for 2 h. These QDs exhibited uniform dispersity, high fluorescence intensity, good optical property and long life of fluorescent. The synthesis mechanism of the core shell structure of the QDs was inferred that the Cd{sup 2+} might coordinate with sulfur (S) as well as thiol propionate (–SCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COO{sup −1}) to constitute two relatively thick compound layers on the QDs surface as passive shells.

  8. In situ evaluation of water and energy consumptions at the end use level: The influence of flow reducers and temperature in baths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, C; Briga-Sá, A; Bentes, I; Faria, D; Pereira, S

    2017-05-15

    Nowadays, water and energy consumption is intensifying every year in most of the countries. This perpetual increase will not be supportable in the long run, making urgently to manage these resources on a sustainable way. Domestic consumptions of water and electric energy usually are related and it's important to study that relation, identifying opportunities for use efficient improvement. In fact, without an understanding of water-energy relations, there are water efficiency measures that may lead to unintentional costs in the energy efficiency field. In order to take full advantage of combined effect between water and energy water management methodologies, it is necessary to collect data to ensure that the efforts are directed through the most effective paths. This paper presents a study based in the characterization, measurement and analysis of water and electricity consumption in a single family house (2months period) in order to find an interdependent relationship between consumptions at the end user level. The study was carried out on about 200 baths, divided in four different scenarios where the influence of two variables was tested: the flow reducer valve and the bath temperature. Data showed that the presence of flow reducer valve decreased electric energy consumption and water consumption, but increased the bath duration. Setting a lower temperature in water-heater, decreased electric consumption, water consumption and bath duration. Analysing the influence of the flow reducer valve and 60°C temperature simultaneously, it was concluded that it had a significant influence on electric energy consumption and on the baths duration but had no influence on water consumption. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Apparent distribution coefficients of transuranium elements in UK coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kershaw, P.J.; Pentreath, R.J.; Harvey, B.R.; Lovett, M.B.; Boggis, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    The authorized inputs of low-level radioactive waste into the Irish Sea from the British Nuclear Fuels plc reprocessing plant at Sellafield may be used to advantage to study the distribution and behaviour of artificial radionuclides in the marine environment. Apparent distribution coefficients (Ksub(d)) for the transuranium elements Np, Pu, Am and Cm have been determined by the analysis of environmental samples collected from UK coastal waters. The sampling methodology for obtaining suspended sediment-seawater Ksub(d)s by filtration is described and critically evaluated. Artefacts may be introduced in the sample collection stage. Ksub(d) values have also been determined for seabed sediment-interstitial waters and the precautions taken to preserve in-situ chemical conditions are described. Variations in Ksub(d) values are discussed in relation to distance from Sellafield, suspended load, redox conditions and oxidation state changes. (author)

  10. A Molecular MST Approach to Investigate Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Bioaerosols, Bathing Water, Seaweed Wrack, and Sand at Recreational Beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoren, K. M.; Sinigalliano, C. D.

    2016-02-01

    Despite numerous cases of beach bacteria affecting millions of people worldwide, the persistence of the bacteria populations in coastal areas is still not well understood. The purpose of this study was to test the levels of persistence of Fecal Indicating Bacteria (FIB) of enterococci, Escherichia coli, and Human-source Bacteroidales, within the intertidal "swash zone" and the deeper waist zone in which people commonly bathe and play. In addition, the study sought to determine if these bacterial contaminants may also be found in aerosols at the beach. Measuring solar insolation in relation to bacterial persistence in seaweed wrack was used to determine if sunlight plays a role in modifying concentrations of FIB at the beach. Light intensity measured by a solar photometer and air quality measured by aerosol plate counts and qPCR Microbial Source Tracking (MST) was compared to varying locations where the beach samples were collected. Results from water samples demonstrate that bacteria measured using plate counts and qPCR were indeed higher within the swash zone than in the waist zone. This is in contrast with the way that the EPA currently measures and determines the public safety of beach waters. They commonly measure the waist zone, but disregard the swash zone. Results from beach bio-aerosol samples showed a wide variety of fungi and bacteria in the beach air, and qPCR MST analysis of these bio-aerosols showed the presence of FIBs such as enterococci on several of the aerosol collection plates. This emphasizes the need to collect samples from the entire beach instead of just measuring at an isolated area, and that exposure to microbial contaminants may include bathing water, beach sand, seaweed wrack, and bio-aerosols. Thus, the data reveals a potential way to identify harmful levels of bacteria and dangerous levels of poor air quality at recreational beaches. These results expound the need for broader assessment of potential beach contamination, not only the

  11. Effects of a 20 year rain event: a quantitative microbial risk assessment of a case of contaminated bathing water in Copenhagen, Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, S T; Erichsen, A C; Mark, O; Albrechtsen, H-J

    2013-12-01

    Quantitative microbial risk assessments (QMRAs) often lack data on water quality leading to great uncertainty in the QMRA because of the many assumptions. The quantity of waste water contamination was estimated and included in a QMRA on an extreme rain event leading to combined sewer overflow (CSO) to bathing water where an ironman competition later took place. Two dynamic models, (1) a drainage model and (2) a 3D hydrodynamic model, estimated the dilution of waste water from source to recipient. The drainage model estimated that 2.6% of waste water was left in the system before CSO and the hydrodynamic model estimated that 4.8% of the recipient bathing water came from the CSO, so on average there was 0.13% of waste water in the bathing water during the ironman competition. The total estimated incidence rate from a conservative estimate of the pathogenic load of five reference pathogens was 42%, comparable to 55% in an epidemiological study of the case. The combination of applying dynamic models and exposure data led to an improved QMRA that included an estimate of the dilution factor. This approach has not been described previously.

  12. The UK solar water heating industry: a period of development and growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blower, John

    2001-01-01

    This 2001 edition of the guide to UK renewable energy companies examines the solar water heating sector in the UK and presents an illustration of the layout of a typical solar water heating system. The rising demand for solar water heating and growth in sales especially in the export market are noted. Developments within the UK solar water heating manufacturing industry are considered, and details are given of design and development in innovative policy infrastructure, and the SHINE 21 project supported by the EU's ADAPT programme and the UK Department of Trade and Industry involving collaboration between the solar water heating and plumbing industries. Developments in the new build sectors including in-roof solar collector products and the increasing number of solar water heating systems installed in UK houses are discussed along with the promising future for the market

  13. Production of furfural from agricultural wastes by using pressurized water in a bath reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, D.K.; Sahgal, P.N.

    1982-01-01

    Agricultural wastes such as rice husks and sawdust can be used for the manufacture of chemicals including furfural and acetic acid. In the present work the conventional use of superheated steam has been replaced by the use of superheated water in the acidic hydrolysis of rice husks and sawdust. Comparable yields of furfural have been obtained by using superheated water in place of superheated steam in the same temperature and pressure range. This is an attempt to economize the heat requirement and reduce the cost of production of furfural. (Refs. 19).

  14. Bubble bath soap poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002762.htm Bubble bath soap poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bubble bath soap poisoning occurs when someone swallows bubble bath soap. ...

  15. Acute effects of a single warm-water bath on serum adiponectin and leptin levels in healthy men: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimodozono, Megumi; Matsumoto, Shuji; Ninomiya, Koji; Miyata, Ryuji; Ogata, Atsuko; Etoh, Seiji; Watanabe, Satoshi; Kawahira, Kazumi

    2012-09-01

    To preliminarily assess the acute effects of a single warm -water bath (WWB) on serum adipokine activity, we measured serum adiponectin, leptin and other metabolic profiles before, immediately after and 30 minutes after WWB in seven healthy male volunteers (mean age, 39.7 ± 6.0 years; mean body mass index, 21.6 ± 1.8 kg/m2). The subjects were immersed in tap water at 41°C for 10 minutes. Two weeks later, the same subjects underwent a single WWB with a bath additive that included inorganic salts and carbon dioxide (WWB with ISCO2) by the same protocol as for the first WWB. Leptin levels significantly increased immediately after WWB with tap water and ISCO2 (both P hemoglobin and hematocrit significantly increased immediately after WWB with tap water or ISCO2 (all P < 0.05), but they all returned to the baseline levels 30 minutes after bathing under both conditions. The sublingual temperature rose significantly after 10 minutes of WWB with tap water (0.96 ± 0.16°C relative to baseline, P < 0.01) and after the same duration of WWB with ISCO2 (1.24 ± 0.34°C relative to baseline, P < 0.01). These findings suggest that a single WWB at 41°C for 10 minutes may modulate leptin and adiponectin profiles in healthy men.

  16. Molecular tools for bathing water assessment in Europe: Balancing social science research with a rapidly developing environmental science evidence-base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, David M; Hanley, Nick D; van Niekerk, Melanie; Kay, David; Heathwaite, A Louise; Rabinovici, Sharyl J M; Kinzelman, Julie L; Fleming, Lora E; Porter, Jonathan; Shaikh, Sabina; Fish, Rob; Chilton, Sue; Hewitt, Julie; Connolly, Elaine; Cummins, Andy; Glenk, Klaus; McPhail, Calum; McRory, Eric; McVittie, Alistair; Giles, Amanna; Roberts, Suzanne; Simpson, Katherine; Tinch, Dugald; Thairs, Ted; Avery, Lisa M; Vinten, Andy J A; Watts, Bill D; Quilliam, Richard S

    2016-02-01

    The use of molecular tools, principally qPCR, versus traditional culture-based methods for quantifying microbial parameters (e.g., Fecal Indicator Organisms) in bathing waters generates considerable ongoing debate at the science-policy interface. Advances in science have allowed the development and application of molecular biological methods for rapid (~2 h) quantification of microbial pollution in bathing and recreational waters. In contrast, culture-based methods can take between 18 and 96 h for sample processing. Thus, molecular tools offer an opportunity to provide a more meaningful statement of microbial risk to water-users by providing near-real-time information enabling potentially more informed decision-making with regard to water-based activities. However, complementary studies concerning the potential costs and benefits of adopting rapid methods as a regulatory tool are in short supply. We report on findings from an international Working Group that examined the breadth of social impacts, challenges, and research opportunities associated with the application of molecular tools to bathing water regulations.

  17. Iodine speciation in coastal and inland bathing waters and seaweeds extracts using a sequential injection standard addition flow-batch method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Bordalo, Adriano A; Rangel, António O S S

    2015-02-01

    The present work describes the development of a sequential injection standard addition method for iodine speciation in bathing waters and seaweeds extracts without prior sample treatment. Iodine speciation was obtained by assessing the iodide and iodate content, the two inorganic forms of iodine in waters. For the determination of iodide, an iodide ion selective electrode (ISE) was used. The indirect determination of iodate was based on the spectrophotometric determination of nitrite (Griess reaction). For the iodate measurement, a mixing chamber was employed (flow batch approach) to explore the inherent efficient mixing, essential for the indirect determination of iodate. The application of the standard addition method enabled detection limits of 0.14 µM for iodide and 0.02 µM for iodate, together with the direct introduction of the target water samples, coastal and inland bathing waters. The results obtained were in agreement with those obtained by ICP-MS and a colorimetric reference procedure. Recovery tests also confirmed the accuracy of the developed method which was effectively applied to bathing waters and seaweed extracts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. 200 kilowatt from the sewage system. Waste water energy heats up a swimming bath of Bochum; 200 Kilowatt aus der Kanalisation. Abwasserwaerme heizt Bochumer Schwimmbad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genath, Bernd

    2011-05-15

    A section of the underground sewerage system in Bochum had to be renewed. In cooperation with the City of Bochum and the Emschergenossenschaft, the public utility Bochum used the opportunity in order to install one of the largest waste water-heat recovery systems for the local Nordwest bath, an indoor swimming pool. At the end of the last year the builders and operators presented the technology.

  19. Evaluation of the quality of coastal bathing waters in Spain through fecal bacteria Escherichia coli and Enterococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragonés, L; López, I; Palazón, A; López-Úbeda, R; García, C

    2016-10-01

    Sun. and beach tourism is very important to the economy of Spain, so the control of the quality of the environment on the beaches is essential. Therefore, the analysis and control of the quality of bathing water is necessary, which is defined by the European Directive 2006/7/EC as excellent, good or sufficient depending on the presence of microbiological contamination or other organisms or waste presenting a risk to bathers' health. For that, 1392 beaches of the Iberian Peninsula and its islands were analysed, taking into account: fecal bacteria (Escherichia coli and Enterococcus), physical characteristics of sediment, level of urbanization, climatic and anthropogenic factors, and maritime climate. Thus, it was observed that urban sand beaches located in seas with fewer hours of sunshine and important tide have higher concentrations of E. coli and Enterococcus. There is also an indirect relationship between these microorganisms with salinity (R(2) 0.746 for E. coli and 0.606 for Enterococcus), temperature (R(2) 0.743 for E. coli and 0.604 for Enterococcus) and hours of sunshine (R(2) 0.781 for E. coli and 0.706 for Enterococcus), while this relationship is direct with rainfall (R(2) 0.640 for E. coli and 0.607 for Enterococcus) or wave height (R(2) 0.769 for E. coli and 0.601 for Enterococcus). From all this, it follows that the Directive 2006/7/EC should define more specific criteria as to the place and time of sampling, and take into account the different environment variables that influence the survival of bacteria, so that the results may reflect reality, and avoid staff responsible for sampling freely choose the place and time of sampling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigation of Legionella Contamination in Bath Water Samples by Culture, Amoebic Co-Culture, and Real-Time Quantitative PCR Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edagawa, Akiko; Kimura, Akio; Kawabuchi-Kurata, Takako; Adachi, Shinichi; Furuhata, Katsunori; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2015-10-19

    We investigated Legionella contamination in bath water samples, collected from 68 bathing facilities in Japan, by culture, culture with amoebic co-culture, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), and real-time qPCR with amoebic co-culture. Using the conventional culture method, Legionella pneumophila was detected in 11 samples (11/68, 16.2%). Contrary to our expectation, the culture method with the amoebic co-culture technique did not increase the detection rate of Legionella (4/68, 5.9%). In contrast, a combination of the amoebic co-culture technique followed by qPCR successfully increased the detection rate (57/68, 83.8%) compared with real-time qPCR alone (46/68, 67.6%). Using real-time qPCR after culture with amoebic co-culture, more than 10-fold higher bacterial numbers were observed in 30 samples (30/68, 44.1%) compared with the same samples without co-culture. On the other hand, higher bacterial numbers were not observed after propagation by amoebae in 32 samples (32/68, 47.1%). Legionella was not detected in the remaining six samples (6/68, 8.8%), irrespective of the method. These results suggest that application of the amoebic co-culture technique prior to real-time qPCR may be useful for the sensitive detection of Legionella from bath water samples. Furthermore, a combination of amoebic co-culture and real-time qPCR might be useful to detect viable and virulent Legionella because their ability to invade and multiply within free-living amoebae is considered to correlate with their pathogenicity for humans. This is the first report evaluating the efficacy of the amoebic co-culture technique for detecting Legionella in bath water samples.

  1. Investigation of Legionella Contamination in Bath Water Samples by Culture, Amoebic Co-Culture, and Real-Time Quantitative PCR Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Edagawa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated Legionella contamination in bath water samples, collected from 68 bathing facilities in Japan, by culture, culture with amoebic co-culture, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR, and real-time qPCR with amoebic co-culture. Using the conventional culture method, Legionella pneumophila was detected in 11 samples (11/68, 16.2%. Contrary to our expectation, the culture method with the amoebic co-culture technique did not increase the detection rate of Legionella (4/68, 5.9%. In contrast, a combination of the amoebic co-culture technique followed by qPCR successfully increased the detection rate (57/68, 83.8% compared with real-time qPCR alone (46/68, 67.6%. Using real-time qPCR after culture with amoebic co-culture, more than 10-fold higher bacterial numbers were observed in 30 samples (30/68, 44.1% compared with the same samples without co-culture. On the other hand, higher bacterial numbers were not observed after propagation by amoebae in 32 samples (32/68, 47.1%. Legionella was not detected in the remaining six samples (6/68, 8.8%, irrespective of the method. These results suggest that application of the amoebic co-culture technique prior to real-time qPCR may be useful for the sensitive detection of Legionella from bath water samples. Furthermore, a combination of amoebic co-culture and real-time qPCR might be useful to detect viable and virulent Legionella because their ability to invade and multiply within free-living amoebae is considered to correlate with their pathogenicity for humans. This is the first report evaluating the efficacy of the amoebic co-culture technique for detecting Legionella in bath water samples.

  2. A comparison of head-out mist bathing, with or without facial fanning, with head-out half-body low-water level bathing in humans—a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Satoshi; Kawahara, Yuko; Nishimura, Naoki; Nishimura, Rumiko; Miwa, Chihiro; Kataoka, Yumiko; Kobayashi, Chihiro; Suzuki, Takahiro; Shigaraki, Masayuki; Maeda, Yoichi; Takada, Hiroki; Watanabe, Yoriko

    2014-07-01

    To reduce the risks of Japanese-style bathing, half-body bathing (HBLB) has been recommended in Japan, but discomfort due to the cold environment in winter prevents its widespread adoption. The development of the mist sauna, which causes a gradual core temperature rise with sufficient thermal comfort, has reduced the demerits of HBLB. We examined head-out 42 °C mist bathing with 38 °C HBLB up to the navel to see if it could improve thermal comfort without detracting from the merits of HBLB, with and without the effects of facial fanning (FF). The subjects were seven healthy males aged 22-25 years. The following bathing styles were provided: (1) HBLB—head-out half-body low bathing of 38 °C up to the navel (20 min); (2) HOMB—head-out mist bathing of 42 °C and HBLB of 38 °C (20 min); and (3) HOMBFF—HOMB with FF (20 min). HOMB raised the core temperature gradually. HOMBFF suppressed the core temperature rise in a similar fashion to HOMB. Increases in blood pressure and heart rate usually observed in Japanese traditional-style bathing were less marked in HOMBs with no significant difference with and without FF. The greatest body weight loss was observed after Japanese traditional-style bathing, with only one-third of this amount lost after mist bathing, and one-sixth after HBLB. HOMB increased thermal sensation, and FF also enhanced post-bathing invigoration. We conclude that HOMB reduces the risks of Japanese traditional style bathing by mitigating marked changes in the core temperature and hemodynamics, and FF provides thermal comfort and invigoration.

  3. A comparison of head-out mist bathing, with or without facial fanning, with head-out half-body low-water level bathing in humans--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Satoshi; Kawahara, Yuko; Nishimura, Naoki; Nishimura, Rumiko; Miwa, Chihiro; Kataoka, Yumiko; Kobayashi, Chihiro; Suzuki, Takahiro; Shigaraki, Masayuki; Maeda, Yoichi; Takada, Hiroki; Watanabe, Yoriko

    2014-07-01

    To reduce the risks of Japanese-style bathing, half-body bathing (HBLB) has been recommended in Japan, but discomfort due to the cold environment in winter prevents its widespread adoption. The development of the mist sauna, which causes a gradual core temperature rise with sufficient thermal comfort, has reduced the demerits of HBLB. We examined head-out 42 °C mist bathing with 38 °C HBLB up to the navel to see if it could improve thermal comfort without detracting from the merits of HBLB, with and without the effects of facial fanning (FF). The subjects were seven healthy males aged 22-25 years. The following bathing styles were provided: (1) HBLB-head-out half-body low bathing of 38 °C up to the navel (20 min); (2) HOMB-head-out mist bathing of 42 °C and HBLB of 38 °C (20 min); and (3) HOMBFF-HOMB with FF (20 min). HOMB raised the core temperature gradually. HOMBFF suppressed the core temperature rise in a similar fashion to HOMB. Increases in blood pressure and heart rate usually observed in Japanese traditional-style bathing were less marked in HOMBs with no significant difference with and without FF. The greatest body weight loss was observed after Japanese traditional-style bathing, with only one-third of this amount lost after mist bathing, and one-sixth after HBLB. HOMB increased thermal sensation, and FF also enhanced post-bathing invigoration. We conclude that HOMB reduces the risks of Japanese traditional style bathing by mitigating marked changes in the core temperature and hemodynamics, and FF provides thermal comfort and invigoration.

  4. The environmental management of oil tanker routes in UK waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, J. [University of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom). Dept. of Maritime Studies and International Transport

    1999-09-01

    The recent Haven, Aegean Sea and Sea Empress incidents have highlighted the need for protective measures against the risks posed by the shipping industry to the UK coast. This is particularly the case in the vicinity of environmentally sensitive areas. The principal objectives of this paper are to investigate the state of environmental management of tanker traffic in the UK by putting the geography of shipping into its environmental context. Regional traffic levels, accident rates, oil spills, and their potential consequences upon the environment have been summarised via a risk assessment which also considers coastal sensitivity. An assessment of measures available at international level then sets the scene for a review of marine traffic management schemes in operation around the UK. The state of management and its approaches are also discussed and a number of recommendations put forward during marine conferences in the last twelve months are considered.

  5. The environmental management of oil tanker routes in UK waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, J.

    1999-01-01

    The recent Haven, Aegean Sea and Sea Empress incidents have highlighted the need for protective measures against the risks posed by the shipping industry to the UK coast. This is particularly the case in the vicinity of environmentally sensitive areas. The principal objectives of this paper are to investigate the state of environmental management of tanker traffic in the UK by putting the geography of shipping into its environmental context. Regional traffic levels, accident rates, oil spills, and their potential consequences upon the environment have been summarised via a risk assessment which also considers coastal sensitivity. An assessment of measures available at international level then sets the scene for a review of marine traffic management schemes in operation around the UK. The state of management and its approaches are also discussed and a number of recommendations put forward during marine conferences in the last twelve months are considered

  6. Water quality monitoring in a bathing area of Civitavecchia (Latium, Italy) using Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) as a tracer of faecal contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madonia, Alice; Bonamano, Simone; Caruso, Gabriella; Stefani', Chiara; Consalvi, Natalizia; Piermattei, Viviana; Zappalà, Giuseppe; Marcelli, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Coastal urban bathing areas are often affected by events of faecal contamination, caused by the discharge of untreated wastewaters during the bathing season that can increase the risk for public health. Monitoring the quality of recreational waters is still closely linked to time-consuming seawater sampling and laboratory analysis, not allowing promptly management interventions. To face this issue, the European environmental policies strongly promote the development of coastal observing systems, above all in the Southern European Seas (SES). Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) has been increasingly used as a tracer of bacterial loads, since wastewaters are characterized by a large amount of organic compounds. The aim of this work was to study the relation between CDOM and Escherichia coli abundance, giving relevance to bacterial physiological state detected using both the standard culture method and the innovative fluorescent antibody technique. Attention has been paid also on the expression of extracellular enzymatic activity by the total microbial community to explore the role of bacteria in the decomposition processes of dissolved organic matter. Data were collected during summer 2015 and 2016 in a bathing area of Civitavecchia at increasing distances from the discharge point. The results confirm the usefulness of CDOM measurements as a proxy of faecal pollution in bathing areas. In this perspective, the low-cost stand-alone systems equipped with CDOM fluorescence sensors developed by the Laboratory of Experimental Oceanology and Marine Ecology (Tuscia University) (Marcelli et al., 2014) could allow the continous monitoring of water quality, increasing the capabilities of the Civitavecchia Coastal Environmental Monitoring System (C-CEMS) in the analysis of pollution events. Thanks to the integration of in situ fixed stations, high-resolution satellites imagery and numerical models, C-CEMS provides a management tool to support the stakeholders for timely

  7. Assessment of Land and Water Resource Implications of the UK 2050 Carbon Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konadu, D. D.; Sobral Mourao, Z.; Skelton, S.; Lupton, R.

    2015-12-01

    The UK Carbon Plan presents four low-carbon energy system pathways that achieves 80% GHG emission targets by 2050, stipulated in the UK Climate Change Act (2008). However, some of the energy technologies prescribed under these pathways are land and water intensive; but would the increase demand for land and water under these pathways lead to increased competition and stress on agricultural land, and water resources in the UK? To answer the above question, this study uses an integrated modelling approach, ForeseerTM, which characterises the interdependencies and evaluates the land and water requirement for the pathways, based on scenarios of power plant location, and the energy crop yield projections. The outcome is compared with sustainable limits of resource appropriation to assess potential stresses and competition for water and land by other sectors of the economy. The results show the Carbon Plan pathways have low overall impacts on UK water resources, but agricultural land use and food production could be significantly impacted. The impact on agricultural land use is shown to be mainly driven by projections for transport decarbonisation via indigenously sourced biofuels. On the other hand, the impact on water resources is mainly associated with increased inland thermal electricity generation capacity, which would compete with other industrial and public water demands. The results highlight the need for a critical appraisal of UK's long term low-carbon energy system planning, in particular bioenergy sourcing strategy, and the siting of thermal power generation in order to avert potential resource stress and competition.

  8. Blue Water Footprint Management in a UK Poultry Supply Chain under Environmental Regulatory Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Naoum Tsolakis; Jagjit Singh Srai; Eirini Aivazidou

    2018-01-01

    Chicken is the most consumed meat in the UK, accounting for 40% of meat consumption, while national production sufficiency reaches about 80%. As a farmed animal product, chicken meat is responsible for significant freshwater appropriation volumes during its production cycle. In this context, this research aims at exploring freshwater dynamics in the UK processed poultry industry. Specifically, we develop a System Dynamics model to capture the blue water footprint, as a key sustainability perf...

  9. Biologic impact on the coastal belt of the province of Venice (Italy, Northern Adriatic Sea): preliminary analysis for the characterization of the bathing water profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostoich, Marco; Aimo, Emilia; Fassina, Daniel; Barbaro, Jvan; Vazzoler, Marina; Soccorso, Corrado; Rossi, Chiara

    2011-02-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study of the water profile with reference to microbiological parameters, required by Directive 2006/07/EC (European Community 2006) concerning the management of bathing water quality, in the coastal belt of the Province of Venice (Italy, Northern Adriatic Sea). A historical database has been implemented with monitoring data for the period 2000-2006 (data on rivers, bathing and marine coastal waters and on the characterization of Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) discharges) from the institutional activity of Veneto Regional Environmental Prevention and Protection Agency (ARPAV). An integrated areal analysis for the microbiological investigation of homogeneous stretches along the coast of the Province of Venice was performed for a preliminary characterization of the bathing water profile considering water quality status and existing pressure sources. ARPAV is the institutional body responsible for environmental monitoring and control activities. Data were produced from monitoring and controls made available by the Regional Environmental Informative System and extracted and elaborated for the period of interest (2000-2006). Sampling and analysis of microbiological parameters were executed following the official Italian methods in accordance with international procedures (APHA et al. 1998). For the purpose of this study, the coast was divided into eight stretches, which were considered to be homogeneous according to their physical and geographical characteristics. An ANOVA statistical assessment has been performed on stretches I, V and VIII. From the integrated areal analysis of microbiological parameters in the homogeneous stretches along the coast of all the investigated matrices, high mean levels of faecal contamination were found in some cases. The most critical situation amongst the stretches evaluated is to be found in stretch VIII-Ca' Roman, Sottomarina and Isola Verde shores (Southern part of the Province). These results can

  10. Effects of climate change on water abstraction restrictions for irrigation during droughts - The UK case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey Vicario, D.; Holman, I.

    2016-12-01

    The use of water for irrigation and on-farm reservoir filling is globally important for agricultural production. In humid climates, like the UK, supplemental irrigation can be critical to buffer the effects of rainfall variability and to achieve high quality crops. Given regulatory efforts to secure sufficient environmental river flows and meet rising water demands due to population growth and climate change, increasing water scarcity is likely to compound the drought challenges faced by irrigated agriculture in this region. Currently, water abstraction from surface waters for agricultural irrigation can be restricted by the Environment Agency during droughts under Section 57 of the Water Resources Act (1991), based on abnormally low river flow levels and rainfall forecast, causing significant economic impacts on irrigated agricultural production. The aim of this study is to assess the impact that climate change may have on agricultural abstraction in the UK within the context of the abstraction restriction triggers currently in place. These triggers have been applied to the `Future Flows hydrology' database to assess the likelihood of increasing restrictions on agricultural abstraction in the future by comparing the probability of voluntary and compulsory restrictions in the baseline (1961-1990) and future period (2071-2098) for 282 catchments throughout the whole of the UK. The results of this study show a general increase in the probability of future agricultural irrigation abstraction restrictions in the UK in the summer, particularly in the South West, although there is significant variability between the 11 ensemble members. The results also indicate that UK winters are likely to become wetter in the future, although in some catchments the probability of abstraction restriction in the reservoir refilling winter months (November-February) could increase slightly. An increasing frequency of drought events due to climate change is therefore likely to lead to

  11. Blue Water Footprint Management in a UK Poultry Supply Chain under Environmental Regulatory Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoum Tsolakis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Chicken is the most consumed meat in the UK, accounting for 40% of meat consumption, while national production sufficiency reaches about 80%. As a farmed animal product, chicken meat is responsible for significant freshwater appropriation volumes during its production cycle. In this context, this research aims at exploring freshwater dynamics in the UK processed poultry industry. Specifically, we develop a System Dynamics model to capture the blue water footprint, as a key sustainability performance indicator of a poultry supply chain, in the case that relevant environmental and regulatory constraints are applied. The model contributes towards investigating the impact of two potential policy-making scenarios, namely, the “water penalty” and the “water tax”, on the nexus between profitability and water usage across the poultry supply chain. Responding to the regulatory constraints, the food processor either reconfigures the supply chain through rethinking desired inventory levels or implements a water management intervention. The results indicate that investing in water-friendly production technologies could offer a greater advantage to sustainable supply chains in terms of blue water efficiency and profitability, compared to employing inventory management strategies. Overall, our analysis highlights that effective policy-making and technology-driven interventions could provide potential towards ensuring economic growth and environmental sustainability of the UK poultry sector.

  12. Isotope studies of UK tufa deposits and associated source waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorpe, P.M.

    1981-12-01

    Tufa is a secondary deposit of calcium carbonate precipitated from springs and streams. Previous attempts to date tufa deposits directly with 14 C have had limited success. The major problem is to quantify the amount of carbon incorporated in tufa, derived from the dissolution of carbonate bedrock, essentially free of 14 C. The isotopic composition of tufa-depositing streamwaters is similar to that of water recharging aquifers. The 14 C levels of recent tufa layers, at three sites, were similar to those of the source waters. 14 C dates from tufa at these sites suggested a Postglacial origin when corrected for bedrock carbon dilution of 16 to 24%. This dilution was overestimated by consideration of carbon mass balance using characteristic stable carbon isotope compositions (delta 13 C) for the biogenic and bedrock components. This method of correction is often applied to 14 C dates from groundwaters. The carbon isotope composition of spring waters supplying the tufa-depositing streams was realistically explained by a two stage process of carbonate dissolution under open and then closed conditions with respect to gaseous carbon dioxide. Seasonal variations in the 14 C and delta 13 C composition of stream and spring waters, downstream increases in 14 C and delta 13 C and seasonal variations in the oxygen and hydrogen isotopic composition of rainfall are explained. (author)

  13. Biological responses to the chemical recovery of acidified fresh waters in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteith, D.T. [Environmental Change Research Centre, University College London, 26 Bedford Way, London, WC1H 0AP (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: d.monteith@geog.ucl.ac.uk; Hildrew, A.G. [School of Biological Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Flower, R.J. [Environmental Change Research Centre, University College London, 26 Bedford Way, London, WC1H 0AP (United Kingdom); Raven, P.J. [Environment Agency, Rio House, Waterside Drive, Aztec West, Almondsbury, Bristol, BS32 4UD (United Kingdom); Beaumont, W.R.B. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Dorset, Winfrith Technology Centre, Winfrith, Newburgh, Dorchester, Dorset DT2 8ZD (United Kingdom); Collen, P. [Fisheries Research Services, Freshwater Laboratory, Faskally, Pitlochry, Perthshire, PH16 5LB (United Kingdom); Kreiser, A.M. [Environmental Change Research Centre, University College London, 26 Bedford Way, London, WC1H 0AP (United Kingdom); Shilland, E.M. [Environmental Change Research Centre, University College London, 26 Bedford Way, London, WC1H 0AP (United Kingdom); Winterbottom, J.H. [School of Biological Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2005-09-15

    We report biological changes at several UK Acid Waters Monitoring Network lakes and streams that are spatially consistent with the recovery of water chemistry induced by reductions in acid deposition. These include trends toward more acid-sensitive epilithic diatom and macroinvertebrate assemblages, an increasing proportional abundance of macroinvertebrate predators, an increasing occurrence of acid-sensitive aquatic macrophyte species, and the recent appearance of juvenile (<1 year old) brown trout in some of the more acidic flowing waters. Changes are often shown to be directly linked to annual variations in acidity. Although indicative of biological improvement in response to improving water chemistry, 'recovery' in most cases is modest and very gradual. While specific ecological recovery endpoints are uncertain, it is likely that physical and biotic interactions are influencing the rate of recovery of certain groups of organisms at particular sites. - Recently observed changes in the species composition of UK lakes and streams are consistent with chemical recovery from acidification.

  14. Biological responses to the chemical recovery of acidified fresh waters in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteith, D.T.; Hildrew, A.G.; Flower, R.J.; Raven, P.J.; Beaumont, W.R.B.; Collen, P.; Kreiser, A.M.; Shilland, E.M.; Winterbottom, J.H.

    2005-01-01

    We report biological changes at several UK Acid Waters Monitoring Network lakes and streams that are spatially consistent with the recovery of water chemistry induced by reductions in acid deposition. These include trends toward more acid-sensitive epilithic diatom and macroinvertebrate assemblages, an increasing proportional abundance of macroinvertebrate predators, an increasing occurrence of acid-sensitive aquatic macrophyte species, and the recent appearance of juvenile (<1 year old) brown trout in some of the more acidic flowing waters. Changes are often shown to be directly linked to annual variations in acidity. Although indicative of biological improvement in response to improving water chemistry, 'recovery' in most cases is modest and very gradual. While specific ecological recovery endpoints are uncertain, it is likely that physical and biotic interactions are influencing the rate of recovery of certain groups of organisms at particular sites. - Recently observed changes in the species composition of UK lakes and streams are consistent with chemical recovery from acidification

  15. Measurements of Operational Wind Turbine Noise in UK Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheesman, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    The effects of wind farm operational noise have not been addressed to the same extent as their construction methods such as piling and drilling of the foundations despite their long operational lifetimes compared with weeks of construction. The results of five postconstruction underwater sound-monitoring surveys on wind farms located throughout the waters of the British Isles are discussed. These wind farms consist of differing turbine power outputs, from 3 to 3.6 MW, and differing numbers of turbines. This work presents an overview of the results obtained and discusses both the levels and frequency components of the sound in several metrics.

  16. Contribution of Water from Food and Fluids to Total Water Intake: Analysis of a French and UK Population Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelinckx, Isabelle; Tavoularis, Gabriel; König, Jürgen; Morin, Clémentine; Gharbi, Hakam; Gandy, Joan

    2016-10-14

    Little has been published on the contribution of food moisture (FM) to total water intake (TWI); therefore, the European Food Safety Authority assumed FM to contribute 20%-30% to TWI. The aim of the present analysis was to estimate and compare TWI, the percentage of water from FM and from fluids in population samples of France and UK. Data from 2 national nutrition surveys (Enquête Comportements et Consommations Alimentaires en France (CCAF) 2013 and the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) 2008/2009-2011/2012) were analyzed for TWI and the contribution of water from FM and fluids. Children and adults TWI were significantly lower in France than in the UK. The contribution of water from foods was lower in the UK than in France (27% vs. 36%). As TWI increased, the proportion of water from fluids increased, suggesting that low drinkers did not compensate by increasing intake of water-rich foods. In addition, 80%-90% of the variance in TWI was explained by differences in water intake from fluids. More data on the contribution of FM to TWI is needed to develop more robust dietary recommendations on TWI and guidance on fluid intake for the general public.

  17. Online modelling of water distribution systems: a UK case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Machell

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic simulation models of water distribution networks are routinely used for operational investigations and network design purposes. However, their full potential is often never realised because, in the majority of cases, they have been calibrated with data collected manually from the field during a single historic time period and, as such, reflect the network operational conditions that were prevalent at that time, and they are then applied as part of a reactive, desktop investigation. In order to use a hydraulic model to assist proactive distribution network management its element asset information must be up to date and it should be able to access current network information to drive simulations. Historically this advance has been restricted by the high cost of collecting and transferring the necessary field measurements. However, recent innovation and cost reductions associated with data transfer is resulting in collection of data from increasing numbers of sensors in water supply systems, and automatic transfer of the data to point of use. This means engineers potentially have access to a constant stream of current network data that enables a new era of "on-line" modelling that can be used to continually assess standards of service compliance for pressure and reduce the impact of network events, such as mains bursts, on customers. A case study is presented here that shows how an online modelling system can give timely warning of changes from normal network operation, providing capacity to minimise customer impact.

  18. Evaluation of passive recovery, cold water immersion, and contrast baths for recovery, as measured by game performances markers, between two simulated games of rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Trevor; Cameron, Melainie; Climstein, Mike

    2012-06-11

    ABSTRACT: In team sports, during the competitive season, peak performance in each game is of utmost importance to coaching staff and players. To enhance recovery from training and games a number of recovery modalities have been adopted across professional sporting teams. To date there is little evidence in the sport science literature identifying the benefit of modalities in promoting recovery between sporting competition games. This research evaluated hydrotherapy as a recovery strategy following a simulated game of rugby union and a week of recovery and training, with dependent variables between two simulated games of rugby union evaluated. Twenty-four male players were randomly divided into three groups: one group (n=8) received cold water immersion therapy (2 X 5min at 10oC, whilst one group (n=8) received contrast bath therapy (5 cycles of 10oC/38oC) and the control group (n=8) underwent passive recovery (15mins, thermo neutral environment). The two forms of hydrotherapy were administered following a simulated rugby union game (8 circuits x 11 stations) and after three training sessions. Dependent variables where generated from five physical stations replicating movement characteristics of rugby union and one skilled based station, as well as sessional RPE values between two simulated games of rugby union. No significant differences were identified between groups across simulated games, across dependent variables. Effect size analysis via Cohen's d and ηp2 did identify medium trends between groups. Overall trends indicated that both treatment groups had performance results in the second simulated game above those of the control group of between 2% and 6% across the physical work stations replicating movement characteristics of rugby union. In conclusion, trends in this study may indicate that ice baths and contrasts baths may be more advantageous to athlete's recovery from team sport than passive rest between successive games of rugby union We are pleased to

  19. The control of potential health risks related to drinking water in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, T A

    1981-04-01

    In the United Kingdom, potable water put into supply is required to be 'wholesome'. The term 'wholesome' is interpreted as clear, palatable and safe to drink. About 99% of potable supplies are provided by Regional Water Authorities and Water Companies (for England and Wales), Regional Councils and Island Councils (for Scotland) and the Department of the Environment (NI) (for Northern Ireland). These water authorities draw their raw water from upland surface waters, lowland surface waters (including lakes and rivers) and underground waters. Although each source provides approximately one-third of supply, the proportion varies considerably in different parts of the UK. Consequently the control of potential health risks related to drinking water also varies according to the source of supply. The paper describes briefly the treatment practice for the various sources, including disinfection practice. More specifically the paper describes current UK practice or developments in the control or investigation of plumbosolvency, fluoridation, nitrate, trihalomethanes, other organic micropollutants, sodium, asbestos and tar linings in pipes. The possibilities for the surveillance of the 1% of private supplies are also discussed.

  20. Environmental health research in the UK and European Union : research priorities in water and air pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ince, M; Wheatley, A [Loughborough Univ. of Technology (United Kingdom). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1997-12-31

    The contents are involvement of the European community, integration of research and development programmes ; surface water quality and pollution incidents; surface water pollution in the UK ; eutrophication ; drinking water quality ; causes and current treatment for removal of pollutants ; future causes of water pollution ; and , water and wastewater research.

  1. Environmental health research in the UK and European Union : research priorities in water and air pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ince, M.; Wheatley, A.

    1996-01-01

    The contents are involvement of the European community, integration of research and development programmes ; surface water quality and pollution incidents; surface water pollution in the UK ; eutrophication ; drinking water quality ; causes and current treatment for removal of pollutants ; future causes of water pollution ; and , water and wastewater research

  2. What Are Bath Salts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bath salts can produce: feelings of joy increased social interaction increased sex drive paranoia nervousness hallucinations (see or ... Institutes of Health; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Cite this article APA Style MLA Style ...

  3. Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts")

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  4. Bioprospecting the thermal waters of the Roman baths: isolation of oleaginous species and analysis of the FAME profile for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The extensive diversity of microalgae provides an opportunity to undertake bioprospecting for species possessing features suited to commercial scale cultivation. The outdoor cultivation of microalgae is subject to extreme temperature fluctuations; temperature tolerant microalgae would help mitigate this problem. The waters of the Roman Baths, which have a temperature range between 39°C and 46°C, were sampled for microalgae. A total of 3 green algae, 1 diatom and 4 cyanobacterial species were successfully isolated into ‘unialgal’ culture. Four isolates were filamentous, which could prove advantageous for low energy dewatering of cultures using filtration. Lipid content, profiles and growth rates of the isolates were examined at temperatures of 20, 30, 40°C, with and without nitrogen starvation and compared against the oil producing green algal species, Chlorella emersonii. Some isolates synthesized high levels of lipids, however, all were most productive at temperatures lower than those of the Roman Baths. The eukaryotic algae accumulated a range of saturated and polyunsaturated FAMEs and all isolates generally showed higher lipid accumulation under nitrogen deficient conditions (Klebsormidium sp. increasing from 1.9% to 16.0% and Hantzschia sp. from 31.9 to 40.5%). The cyanobacteria typically accumulated a narrower range of FAMEs that were mostly saturated, but were capable of accumulating a larger quantity of lipid as a proportion of dry weight (M. laminosus, 37.8% fully saturated FAMEs). The maximum productivity of all the isolates was not determined in the current work and will require further effort to optimise key variables such as light intensity and media composition. PMID:23369619

  5. Nothing a hot bath won't cure: infection rates of amphibian chytrid fungus correlate negatively with water temperature under natural field settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Matthew J; Schlaepfer, Martin A

    2011-01-01

    Dramatic declines and extinctions of amphibian populations throughout the world have been associated with chytridiomycosis, an infectious disease caused by the pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Previous studies indicated that Bd prevalence correlates with cooler temperatures in the field, and laboratory experiments have demonstrated that Bd ceases growth at temperatures above 28°C. Here we investigate how small-scale variations in water temperature correlate with Bd prevalence in the wild. We sampled 221 amphibians, including 201 lowland leopard frogs (Rana [Lithobates] yavapaiensis), from 12 sites in Arizona, USA, and tested them for Bd. Amphibians were encountered in microhabitats that exhibited a wide range of water temperatures (10-50°C), including several geothermal water sources. There was a strong inverse correlation between the water temperature in which lowland leopard frogs were captured and Bd prevalence, even after taking into account the influence of year, season, and host size. In locations where Bd was known to be present, the prevalence of Bd infections dropped from 75-100% in water 30°C. A strong inverse correlation between Bd infection status and water temperature was also observed within sites. Our findings suggest that microhabitats where water temperatures exceed 30°C provide lowland leopard frogs with significant protection from Bd, which could have important implications for disease dynamics, as well as management applications.There must be quite a few things a hot bath won't cure, but I don't know many of them--Sylvia Plath, "The Bell Jar" (1963).

  6. Nothing a hot bath won't cure: infection rates of amphibian chytrid fungus correlate negatively with water temperature under natural field settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Forrest

    Full Text Available Dramatic declines and extinctions of amphibian populations throughout the world have been associated with chytridiomycosis, an infectious disease caused by the pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd. Previous studies indicated that Bd prevalence correlates with cooler temperatures in the field, and laboratory experiments have demonstrated that Bd ceases growth at temperatures above 28°C. Here we investigate how small-scale variations in water temperature correlate with Bd prevalence in the wild. We sampled 221 amphibians, including 201 lowland leopard frogs (Rana [Lithobates] yavapaiensis, from 12 sites in Arizona, USA, and tested them for Bd. Amphibians were encountered in microhabitats that exhibited a wide range of water temperatures (10-50°C, including several geothermal water sources. There was a strong inverse correlation between the water temperature in which lowland leopard frogs were captured and Bd prevalence, even after taking into account the influence of year, season, and host size. In locations where Bd was known to be present, the prevalence of Bd infections dropped from 75-100% in water 30°C. A strong inverse correlation between Bd infection status and water temperature was also observed within sites. Our findings suggest that microhabitats where water temperatures exceed 30°C provide lowland leopard frogs with significant protection from Bd, which could have important implications for disease dynamics, as well as management applications.There must be quite a few things a hot bath won't cure, but I don't know many of them--Sylvia Plath, "The Bell Jar" (1963.

  7. Catchment scale water resource constraints on UK policies for low-carbon energy system transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konadu, D. D.; Fenner, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    Long-term low-carbon energy transition policy of the UK presents national scale propositions of different low-carbon energy system options that lead to meeting GHG emissions reduction target of 80% on 1990 levels by 2050. Whilst national-scale assessments suggests that water availability may not be a significant constrain on future thermal power generation systems in this pursuit, these analysis fail to capture the appropriate spatial scale where water resource decisions are made, i.e. at the catchment scale. Water is a local resource, which also has significant spatio-temporal regional and national variability, thus any policy-relevant water-energy nexus analysis must be reflective of these characteristics. This presents a critical challenge for policy relevant water-energy nexus analysis. This study seeks to overcome the above challenge by using a linear spatial-downscaling model to allocate nationally projected water-intensive energy system infrastructure/technologies to the catchment level, and estimating the water requirements for the deployment of these technologies. The model is applied to the UK Committee on Climate Change Carbon Budgets to 2030 as a case study. The paper concludes that whilst national-scale analyses show minimal long-term water related impacts, catchment level appraisal of water resource requirements reveal significant constraints in some locations. The approach and results presented in this study thus, highlights the importance of bringing together scientific understanding, data and analysis tools to provide better insights for water-energy nexus decisions at the appropriate spatial scale. This is particularly important for water stressed regions where the water-energy nexus must be analysed at appropriate spatial resolution to capture the full water resource impact of national energy policy.

  8. Bathing in carbon dioxide-enriched water alters protein expression in keratinocytes of skin tissue in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälsch, Julia; Pott, Leona L.; Takeda, Atsushi; Kumamoto, Hideo; Möllmann, Dorothe; Canbay, Ali; Sitek, Barbara; Baba, Hideo A.

    2017-04-01

    Beneficial effects of balneotherapy using naturally occurring carbonated water (CO2 enriched) have been known since the Middle Ages. Although this therapy is clinically applied for peripheral artery disease and skin disorder, the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated.

  9. Kinetic analysis of cooking losses from beef and other animal muscles heated in a water bath--effect of sample dimensions and prior freezing and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oillic, Samuel; Lemoine, Eric; Gros, Jean-Bernard; Kondjoyan, Alain

    2011-07-01

    Cooking loss kinetics were measured on cubes and parallelepipeds of beef Semimembranosus muscle ranging from 1 cm × 1 cm × 1 cm to 7 cm × 7 cm × 28 cm in size. The samples were water bath-heated at three different temperatures, i.e. 50°C, 70°C and 90°C, and for five different times. Temperatures were simulated to help interpret the results. Pre-freezing the sample, difference in ageing time, and in muscle fiber orientation had little influence on cooking losses. At longer treatment times, the effects of sample size disappeared and cooking losses depended only on the temperature. A selection of the tests was repeated on four other beef muscles and on veal, horse and lamb Semimembranosus muscle. Kinetics followed similar curves in all cases but resulted in different final water contents. The shape of the kinetics curves suggests first-order kinetics. Copyright © 2011 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nitrate leaching as a confounding factor in chemical recovery from acidification in UK upland waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, C.J.; Evans, C.D.; Helliwell, R.C.; Monteith, D.T.

    2005-01-01

    Over the period 1988-2002, data from 18 of the 22 lakes and streams in the UK Acid Waters Monitoring Network (AWMN) show clear trends of declining excess sulphate concentrations in response to reductions in sulphur deposition, but fewer trends in increasing pH or alkalinity. There has been no significant decline in the deposition of total nitrogen over the same period, and no sites show a trend in nitrate concentration. Peak nitrate concentrations have already surpassed excess sulphate on occasion in half of the AWMN sites. Furthermore, current understanding of terrestrial N saturation processes suggests that nitrate leaching from soils may increase, even under a constant N deposition load. Best-case projections indicate that nitrate will overtake sulphate as the major excess acid anion in many sites within 10 years, while worst-case predictions with steady-state models suggest that in the longer-term, nitrate could become the dominant excess acid anion in most of the UK. - With declining excess sulphate, nitrate will become the dominant agent of continued anthropogenic acidification in many UK upland waters within a decade

  11. Weathering of a carbon nanotube/epoxy nanocomposite under UV light and in water bath: impact on abraded particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagenhauf, Lukas; Kianfar, Bahareh; Buerki-Thurnherr, Tina; Kuo, Yu-Ying; Wichser, Adrian; Nüesch, Frank; Wick, Peter; Wang, Jing

    2015-11-01

    Weathering processes can influence the surface properties of composites with incorporated nanoparticles. These changes may affect the release behavior of nanoparticles when an abrasion process is applied. Therefore, the influence of two different weathering processes, immersion in water and exposure to UV light, on the properties of abraded particles from a carbon nanotube (CNT)/epoxy nanocomposite was investigated. The investigation included the measurement of the weathering impact on the surface chemistry of the exposed samples, the particle size of abraded particles, the quantity of exposed CNTs in the respirable part of the abraded particles, and the toxicity of abraded particles, measured by in vitro toxicity tests using the THP-1 monocyte-derived macrophages. The results showed that weathering by immersion in water had no influence on the properties of abraded particles. The exposure to UV light caused a degradation of the epoxy on the surface, followed by delamination of an approx. 2.5 μm thick layer. An increased quantity of exposed CNTs in abraded particles was not found; on the contrary, longer UV exposure times decreased the released fraction of CNTs from 0.6% to 0.4%. The toxicity tests revealed that abraded particles from the nanocomposites did not induce additional acute cytotoxic effects compared to particles from the neat epoxy.Weathering processes can influence the surface properties of composites with incorporated nanoparticles. These changes may affect the release behavior of nanoparticles when an abrasion process is applied. Therefore, the influence of two different weathering processes, immersion in water and exposure to UV light, on the properties of abraded particles from a carbon nanotube (CNT)/epoxy nanocomposite was investigated. The investigation included the measurement of the weathering impact on the surface chemistry of the exposed samples, the particle size of abraded particles, the quantity of exposed CNTs in the respirable part of

  12. Urinary arsenic profiles reveal exposures to inorganic arsenic from private drinking water supplies in Cornwall, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, D. R. S.; Watts, M. J.; Hamilton, E. M.; Ander, E. L.; Close, R. M.; Exley, K. S.; Crabbe, H.; Leonardi, G. S.; Fletcher, T.; Polya, D. A.

    2016-05-01

    Private water supplies (PWS) in Cornwall, South West England exceeded the current WHO guidance value and UK prescribed concentration or value (PCV) for arsenic of 10 μg/L in 5% of properties surveyed (n = 497). In this follow-up study, the first of its kind in the UK, volunteers (n = 207) from 127 households who used their PWS for drinking, provided urine and drinking water samples for total As determination by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and urinary As speciation by high performance liquid chromatography ICP-MS (HPLC-ICP-MS). Arsenic concentrations exceeding 10 μg/L were found in the PWS of 10% of the volunteers. Unadjusted total urinary As concentrations were poorly correlated (Spearman’s ρ = 0.36 (P < 0.001)) with PWS As largely due to the use of spot urine samples and the dominance of arsenobetaine (AB) from seafood sources. However, the osmolality adjusted sum, U-AsIMM, of urinary inorganic As species, arsenite (AsIII) and arsenate (AsV), and their metabolites, methylarsonate (MA) and dimethylarsinate (DMA), was found to strongly correlate (Spearman’s ρ: 0.62 (P < 0.001)) with PWS As, indicating private water supplies as the dominant source of inorganic As exposure in the study population of PWS users.

  13. The UK water crisis: What actions the government and private sector need to take.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Emmeline

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses why resilience is increasingly important for companies to measure and address, thinking about relevant issues such as climate change and extreme weather. It gives insight on how companies measure their resilience and that it is more than a business continuity issue; indeed, it is a board issue. The paper looks at the role of regulation for companies with national critical infrastructure in putting in resilience guidelines and discusses the benefits of regulation in resilience, presenting a case study of the UK Water Services Regulation Authority resilience guidelines.

  14. Modelling potential production of macroalgae farms in UK and Dutch coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van der Molen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in macroalgae farming in European waters for a range of applications, including food, chemical extraction for biofuel production. This study uses a 3-D numerical model of hydrodynamics and biogeochemistry to investigate potential production and environmental effects of macroalgae farming in UK and Dutch coastal waters. The model included four experimental farms in different coastal settings in Strangford Lough (Northern Ireland, in Sound of Kerrera and Lynn of Lorne (north-west Scotland and in the Rhine plume (the Netherlands, as well as a hypothetical large-scale farm off the UK north Norfolk coast. The model could not detect significant changes in biogeochemistry and plankton dynamics at any of the farm sites averaged over the farming season. The results showed a range of macroalgae growth behaviours in response to simulated environmental conditions. These were then compared with in situ observations where available, showing good correspondence for some farms and less good correspondence for others. At the most basic level, macroalgae production depended on prevailing nutrient concentrations and light conditions, with higher levels of both resulting in higher macroalgae production. It is shown that under non-elevated and interannually varying winter nutrient conditions, farming success was modulated by the timings of the onset of increasing nutrient concentrations in autumn and nutrient drawdown in spring. Macroalgae carbohydrate content also depended on nutrient concentrations, with higher nutrient concentrations leading to lower carbohydrate content at harvest. This will reduce the energy density of the crop and thus affect its suitability for conversion into biofuel. For the hypothetical large-scale macroalgae farm off the UK north Norfolk coast, the model suggested high, stable farm yields of macroalgae from year to year with substantial carbohydrate content and limited environmental effects.

  15. Modelling potential production of macroalgae farms in UK and Dutch coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Johan; Ruardij, Piet; Mooney, Karen; Kerrison, Philip; O'Connor, Nessa E.; Gorman, Emma; Timmermans, Klaas; Wright, Serena; Kelly, Maeve; Hughes, Adam D.; Capuzzo, Elisa

    2018-02-01

    There is increasing interest in macroalgae farming in European waters for a range of applications, including food, chemical extraction for biofuel production. This study uses a 3-D numerical model of hydrodynamics and biogeochemistry to investigate potential production and environmental effects of macroalgae farming in UK and Dutch coastal waters. The model included four experimental farms in different coastal settings in Strangford Lough (Northern Ireland), in Sound of Kerrera and Lynn of Lorne (north-west Scotland) and in the Rhine plume (the Netherlands), as well as a hypothetical large-scale farm off the UK north Norfolk coast. The model could not detect significant changes in biogeochemistry and plankton dynamics at any of the farm sites averaged over the farming season. The results showed a range of macroalgae growth behaviours in response to simulated environmental conditions. These were then compared with in situ observations where available, showing good correspondence for some farms and less good correspondence for others. At the most basic level, macroalgae production depended on prevailing nutrient concentrations and light conditions, with higher levels of both resulting in higher macroalgae production. It is shown that under non-elevated and interannually varying winter nutrient conditions, farming success was modulated by the timings of the onset of increasing nutrient concentrations in autumn and nutrient drawdown in spring. Macroalgae carbohydrate content also depended on nutrient concentrations, with higher nutrient concentrations leading to lower carbohydrate content at harvest. This will reduce the energy density of the crop and thus affect its suitability for conversion into biofuel. For the hypothetical large-scale macroalgae farm off the UK north Norfolk coast, the model suggested high, stable farm yields of macroalgae from year to year with substantial carbohydrate content and limited environmental effects.

  16. New perspectives on the passive treatment of ferruginous circumneutral mine waters in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapsford, D J

    2013-11-01

    This paper examines major physico-chemical processes during the passive treatment of ferruginous circumneutral drainage from abandoned coal mines in the UK. Data collected over several years of studies on mine water treatment systems shed new light on the relative importance of hydraulics, settling velocity, Fe(II) oxidation rates and cascade aeration, which, in turn, informs the design of future systems. This paper demonstrates that (1) the complex settling behaviour of Fe(III) precipitates may be described by a first-order volumetric process and that settling rate is different for different mine waters; (2) the hydraulic efficiency (ratio of time to peak tracer concentration to nominal residence time) of the settling ponds studied was widely variable at low flow rates in comparison to constructed wetlands; (3) aeration cascades contribute dissolved oxygen and lead to a rise in pH due to CO2 degassing, which are very important in reducing the required time for iron oxidation and removal; (4) for at least 10 of the 30 sites examined, modelling of the rates of Fe(II) oxidation and particulate settling reveals that removal of iron is primarily dependent on settling rate; and (5) that substantial increases in pH can be brought about by forced aeration of mine water over several hours. Findings of this study apply to the majority of coal mine water treatment sites in the UK and may have broader application to other ferruginous waters with circumneutral pH or after treatment to increase pH.

  17. Thermophilic campylobacters in surface waters around Lancaster, UK: negative correlation with Campylobacter infections in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K; Betaieb, M; Telford, D R

    1990-11-01

    The incidence of campylobacter enteritis in Lancaster City Health Authority is three times the UK average for similar sizes of population and has marked seasonal peaks in May and June. Environmental monitoring of surface waters around Lancaster showed that thermophilic campylobacters were absent from drinking water from the fells and from the clean upper reaches of the River Conder but were present in the main rivers entering Morecambe Bay, the lower reaches of the River Conder, the Lancaster canal, and seawater from the Lune estuary and Morecambe Bay. All the surface waters tested showed the same seasonality, namely, higher numbers in the winter months and low numbers or none in May, June and July. The absence of thermophilic campylobacters in the summer months may be due to high sunshine levels because experiments on the effects of light showed that campylobacters in sewage effluent and seawater were eliminated within 60 and 30 min of daylight respectively but survived for 24 h in darkness. As the concentrations of campylobacters in surface waters were at their lowest precisely at the time of peak infections in the community it is unlikely that surface waters form Lancaster's reservoir of campylobacter infection for the community.

  18. Thermal and cardiorespiratory newborn adaptations during hot tub bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gentil Gomes da Fonseca Filho

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate thermal and cardiorespiratory adaptation during hot tub bath and shower in healthy newborns in the first hours of life. Study design: This is a randomized blind controlled trial, registered in ReBEC (No. RBR-4z26f3 with 184 newborns divided into hot tub group (n=84 and shower (n=100. Newborns from intervention group were immersed in a hot tub with warm water up to the neck, without exposure to air flow, and control group received traditional shower. Heart rate, respiratory rate and temperature were measured before and immediately after bath by an investigator blinded to the type of bath. Results: Groups were similar in gender, gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score at 5th minute and hours of life, p => 0.05. To analyze thermal and cardiorespiratory adjustments, difference between post-bath variables and pre-bath was calculated. In this analysis, it was found statistically significant difference between two types of bath regarding heart rate, respiratory rate and temperature. Hot tub bath decreases heart and respiratory rates and increases temperature, whereas shower provides the opposite effect (0.0001. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that hot tub baths and shower, in healthy newborns, promote thermal and cardiorespiratory adaptations, reflecting thermal, cardiac and respiratory positive reactions after hot tub bath.

  19. Effects of bathing on skin exposed to Cobalt-60 teletherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohannan, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of this study was to determine the effects of bathing or not bathing on the degree of skin reaction occurring in patients receiving Cobalt-60 radiation therapy to the chest, back, or head and neck. A quasi experimental study was done using a 2 x 7 repeated measures design. Sixty-seven subjects receiving Cobalt-60 radiation therapy at the Moncrief Radiation Center in Fort Worth, Texas, were randomly assigned to an experimental group who did not bathe during therapy and a control group who did bathe with water during therapy. Observations were made after each 1000 rads of therapy and two weeks after the final treatment. Erythema and pigmentation measurements were taken using the Photovolt 670 and rates were assigned using the Baker-Leith Rating Scale. Findings from the study suggest that bathing the portal of entry with water during the treatment period does not influence the degree of skin response that occurs from Cobalt-60 teletherapy

  20. Effect of sonochemical synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles and coagulation bath temperature on morphology, thermal stability and pure water flux of asymmetric cellulose acetate membranes prepared via phase inversion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedini Reza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, asymmetric pure CA and CA/ TiO2 composite membranes were prepared via phase inversion by dispersing TiO2 nanopaticles in the CA casting solutions induced by immersion precipitation in water coagulation bath. TiO2 nanoparticles, which were synthesized by the sonochemical method, were added into the casting solution with different concentrations. Effects of TiO2 nanoparticles concentration (0 wt. %, 5wt.%, 10wt.%, 15wt.%, 20wt.% and 25wt.% and coagulation bath temperature (CBT= 25°C, 50°C and 75°C on morphology, thermal stability and pure water flux (PWF of the prepared membranes were studied and discussed. Increasing TiO2 concentration in the casting solution film along with higher CBT resulted in increasing the membrane thickness, water content (WC, membrane porosity and pure water flux (PWF, also these changes facilitate macrovoids formation. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA shows that thermal stability of the composite membranes were improved by the addition of TiO2 nanopaticles. Also TGA results indicated that increasing CBT in each TiO2 concentration leads to the decreasing of decomposition temperature (Td of hybrid membranes.

  1. Analysis of acoustic data from UK sodium/water reaction test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowley, R.; Mcknight, J.A.; Airey, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes acoustic measurements made during a number of sodium/water reaction experiments in the UK. The tests have included water and steam injections through both realistic (fatigue crack) defects and machined orifices and have covered a range of experimental conditions including those appropriate to the inlet and outlet regions of the EFR steam generators. Injection rates were typically in the range 0.1 to 30 g/s. Where possible, gas injections were also included in the test programme for comparison, since it is anticipated that a practical SGU acoustic leak detection system would include a facility for gas injections to allow system calibration, and to confirm transmission properties within the SGU. The test sections were instrumented with accelerometers on waveguides and in some cases included an under-sodium microphone situated about 300mm above the reaction zone. Tape recordings were made during the tests and used for detailed analysis off-line, although an audible output from one of the acoustic channels was used to monitor the progress of the injections and provide information for the rig operators. A comparison of the signal amplitudes measured during the experiments with typical reactor background noise was made and an estimate of the detection sensitivity of an acoustic monitoring system was deduced. 3 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  2. Developing a sustainable energy strategy for a water utility. Part I: A review of the UK legislative framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakkour, P D; Gaterell, M R; Griffin, P; Gochin, R J; Lester, J N

    2002-10-01

    Increasing political effort to improve water quality across the UK and Europe has led to water and sewerage companies investing heavily in high-tech wastewater treatment plants capable of producing high quality effluents. Consequently, amounts of bought-in electricity used for wastewater treatment has and will continue to increase significantly over coming years, while greater provision of enhanced sewage treatment also produces greater volumes of sewage sludge requiring treatment and disposal. Over the same period, tougher controls on the quality of biosolids applied to agricultural land have also been introduced, while there has been an international attempt to reduce the use of fossil-fuel derived power sources because of concerns over global warming. The latter has brought about the introduction of financial instruments, such as the Climate Change Levy, to curb energy use, promote energy efficiency and encourage the development of renewable energy technologies. These factors are set to drive-up the costs of providing adequate sewage treatment services, while at the same time, a tough regulatory line taken to control profits on regional monopolies held by the UK water companies will significantly reduce their revenues over the period 2000-05. The result is that, financially, UK water and sewerage companies face their most challenging period since privatisation in 1989. This paper briefly outlines the current regulations relating to water quality and energy use that will affect water company operations over coming years.

  3. Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Relieved by Compulsive Bathing

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Yoon Hee; Windish, Donna M.

    2009-01-01

    Cannabinoid hyperemesis is a clinical syndrome characterized by repeated vomiting and associated learned compulsive hot water bathing behavior due to long-term marijuana use. Research has indentified type 1 cannabinoid receptors in the intestinal nerve plexus that have an inhibitory effect on gastrointestinal motility. This inhibitory effect may lead to hyperemesis in marijuana users. The thermoregulatory role of endocannabinoids may be responsible for the patient's need to take hot showers. ...

  4. Bath of my home (50 yeras report No.1); Wagaya no ofuro (50 nenshi No.1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-10

    Looking back at the history of bath after the war, the fuel, water heating method, hot water method, bathtub, shape of bathroom, bathing tools and bathing method have undergone surprising changes, from the period just after the war for which the number of households having their baths was small and public baths were at the height of their prosperity, to the present period for which households are generally equipped with a shower and bathtub. This paper describes the history of bath after the war in Japan, including the bathing methods and goods which came to stay in each period, placing the focus on the bathing acts and equipment. For 10 years since 1945, the housing shortage had been serious, and public baths had prospered. For this period, the bath heating fuel was mainly coal and firewood, and soap was still valuable. Since 1955, the housing situation had changed better, and the time had entered the age of bath-at-home. Since this period, aluminum bath furnaces had been mass-produced. Neutral shampoo appeared on the market and were sold like hot cakes.

  5. Decoherence by engineered quantum baths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossini, Davide [NEST-CNR-INFM and Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Calarco, Tommaso [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and BEC-CNR-INFM, I-38050 Povo (Italy); Giovannetti, Vittorio [NEST-CNR-INFM and Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Montangero, Simone [NEST-CNR-INFM and Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Fazio, Rosario [NEST-CNR-INFM and Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2007-07-13

    Optical lattices can be used to simulate quantum baths and hence they can be of fundamental help to study, in a controlled way, the emergence of decoherence in quantum systems. Here we show how to implement a pure dephasing model for a two-level system coupled to an interacting spin bath. In this scheme it is possible to implement a large variety of spin environments embracing Ising, XY and Heisenberg universality classes. After having introduced the model, we calculate exactly the decoherence for the Ising and the XY spin bath model. We find universal features depending on the critical behaviour of the spin bath, both in the short- and long-time limits. The rich scenario that emerges can be tested experimentally and can be of importance for the understanding of the coherence loss in open quantum systems.

  6. Appropriate technology for solar energy system aiming water heating for human bath in houses of rural areas; Tecnologia apropriada para sistema de energia solar visando aquecimento de agua para o banho humano em moradias do meio rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rispoli, Italo Alberto Gatica [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo], e-mail: gatica@dglnet.com.br; Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], e-mail: cam@fec.unicamp.br

    2004-07-01

    The Brazilian land receives a great amount of solar radiation all over the year, therefore, because both the culture and practical aspects, Brazilians use in a non-moderate way the electricity to boil the water for human bath in the rural homes, in the lower income residences even at part of the medium class homes. That happens due to the very low price of an electrical shower, about US$ 6,5. In fact, that way of heating water is largely used because, besides the very low electrical shower price, it is not necessary to install a complete hot water both hydraulic and electrical building systems, but just both single hydraulic pipes and electrical devices. On the other hands, at rural regions where the electricity does not achieve the rural people uses firewood in order to get hot water for human bath. At the rural places the use of electrical showers has meaning an increase in the electrical transformers powers, heavier electrical transmission rural lines, with greater prices and, at the urban zones, the use of electrical showers in the lower social classes has contributed to a more expressive electrical load at the nacional electrical system load peck, between 5:30 to 8:30 a.m. The public administration, mostly, does not take into account both social, economic and environmental costs in order to think about the electricity offer. The solar heating systems, generally used in Brazil, conserves the same reservoirs used in France at 1880. Therefore, this paper presents some technical subsidies applied to rural homes, even to lower income people's homes aiming to stimulate the Brazilian public authorities to make a public police to facilitate both the industrialization and dissemination of solar heating systems, appropriate to the rural area, with lower costs, compounded by good technology equipment, with guarantee of lasting and quality. (author)

  7. Plasma levels of 8-methoxypsoralen following PUVA-bath photochemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobyletzki, G. von; Hoffmann, K.; Kerscher, M.; Altmeyer, P. [Ruhr-Univ., Dept. of Dermatology, Bochum (Germany)

    1998-08-01

    Administration of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) in a dilute bath water solution is an effective therapeutic alternative to oral PUVA therapy, avoiding systemic side effects, offering better bioavailability of the psoralen and requiring much smaller amounts of UVA for induction of therapeutic effects. To obtain exact data about the percutaneous absorption of 8-MOP during a psoralen bath, the plasma levels of the drug were determined in 26 patients with different skin diseases by a reverse high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Fifteen patients receiving oral PUVA therapy (0.8 mg 8-MOP/kg body weight) served as a positive control group. Bath solutions were prepared by diluting 15 ml of 0.5% stock solution of 8-MOP in 150 l of bath water (0.5 mg/l, 37 deg. C). Blood samples were drawn from patients 5, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after the bath. In the oral PUVA group, blood samples were obtained 1 1/2 h after administration of the drug. In 23 og 26 patients, 8-MOP levels were undetectable in every blood sample. After 30 min, two patients showed detectable levels of 8-MOP (5 ng/ml, 7 ng/ml), while 60 min after the PUVA bath 8-MOP was detectable in only one volunteer (5 ng/ml). In patients receiving oral 8-MOP therapy, serum levels varied between 45 and 360 ng/ml 1 1/2 h after drug administration. Our data confirm extremely low 8-MOP levels resulting from 8-MOP bath water treatments and provide confirmation of the absence of systemic side effects in patients who are undergoing PUVA-bath therapy. (au) 15 refs.

  8. Plasma levels of 8-methoxypsoralen following PUVA-bath photochemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobyletzki, G. von; Hoffmann, K.; Kerscher, M.; Altmeyer, P.

    1998-01-01

    Administration of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) in a dilute bath water solution is an effective therapeutic alternative to oral PUVA therapy, avoiding systemic side effects, offering better bioavailability of the psoralen and requiring much smaller amounts of UVA for induction of therapeutic effects. To obtain exact data about the percutaneous absorption of 8-MOP during a psoralen bath, the plasma levels of the drug were determined in 26 patients with different skin diseases by a reverse high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Fifteen patients receiving oral PUVA therapy (0.8 mg 8-MOP/kg body weight) served as a positive control group. Bath solutions were prepared by diluting 15 ml of 0.5% stock solution of 8-MOP in 150 l of bath water (0.5 mg/l, 37 deg. C). Blood samples were drawn from patients 5, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after the bath. In the oral PUVA group, blood samples were obtained 1 1/2 h after administration of the drug. In 23 og 26 patients, 8-MOP levels were undetectable in every blood sample. After 30 min, two patients showed detectable levels of 8-MOP (5 ng/ml, 7 ng/ml), while 60 min after the PUVA bath 8-MOP was detectable in only one volunteer (5 ng/ml). In patients receiving oral 8-MOP therapy, serum levels varied between 45 and 360 ng/ml 1 1/2 h after drug administration. Our data confirm extremely low 8-MOP levels resulting from 8-MOP bath water treatments and provide confirmation of the absence of systemic side effects in patients who are undergoing PUVA-bath therapy. (au)

  9. The UK contribution to the sodium-water reaction R and D programme in support of EFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, R.; McCrindle, K.B.; Wright, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    The sodium-water reaction R and D programme for European Fast Reactor (EFR), is an integrated European project, as described in another paper at this Specialists Meeting. In this paper the UK contribution to this programme is described. The major sodium-water reaction test facility in the UK is the Super Noah Rig at Dounreay. This Rig is currently being modified to allow the following to be achieved during experiments: Provision of water/steam at the correct EFR Steam Generator Unit (SGU) flowrate, temperature and pressure in the 24 target tubes modelling the EFR SGU in the test section. Provision of sodium at the correct EFR SGU velocity, temperature and pressure through the test section modelling the EFR SGU during the experiments. Experiments in this facility to determine the leakrate at which overheating becomes important in various regions of the EFR SGU and to determine the damage caused by overheating will be the major UK contribution in the future. The modifications to the Rig and the future experimental programme are described. Several intermediate leak experiments have been carried out in the Super Noah Rig in the past, and the main results from them are summarized. These experiments have primarily been at PFR conditions but results have been obtained for 2.25 Cr 1Mo, 9 Cr 1 Mo and A800 steels, with and without internal water flow in the target tubes. During these previous experiments, the sodium was static and was at atmospheric pressure. Results from experiments carried out in the Small Water Leak Rig (SWLR) and the Small-Scale Test Facilities at Dounreay on microleak evolution, wastage of tubes and SGU walls, the behaviour of small leaks at the low temperature, bottom-tubeplate conditions and corrosion at sodium pool surfaces are presented. The future programme for these facilities is discussed. Fundamental experiments which have been carried out at Harwell on the behaviour of blocked microleaks are described. 2 refs, 15 figs, 1 tab

  10. The Identification of Xenobiotics in the New UK Context of Drinking Water Safety Planning and Related Environmental Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, C. R.; Keirle, R. S.; Lobley, A.

    2008-01-01

    Recent European environmental legislation (the Water Framework Directive, the Environmental Liability Directive, and the REACH Regulation) should provide better protection of terrestrial water bodies but their focus is on the more conspicuous pollutants, as opposed to the large number of xenobiotic micro-pollutants that are increasingly being detected in the urban water cycle. The development of Drinking Water Safety Plans (DWSPs), as promoted by the World Health Organization, utilises a proactive risk assessment-risk management approach that necessarily should include micro-pollutants, although currently in the UK micro-pollutants have largely been ignored. The generic assessment of the risks posed by micro-pollutants is proposed and will require a consensus on analytical screening methods, sampling points and frequencies, and a method for prioritising concern, and would enable DWSPs to take fuller account of the risks posed

  11. Use of ultrasonic baths for analytical applications: a new approach for optimisation conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascentes Clésia C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimisation conditions for obtaining maximum cavitation intensity in ultrasonic baths are proposed using a simple and fast method. Parameters such as water volume, temperature, detergent concentration, horizontal and vertical positions, number of tubes in the bath, sonication time and bath water substitution were studied. The results obtained for both baths studied (Neytech and Cole-Parmer lead to the following conditions for maximum cavitation intensity: 1 L of water at room temperature, 0.2 % (v/v of detergent, central position on the bottom of the tank. Only one tube at a time should be used inside the bath during the ultrasound application. The cavitation intensity was linear with the sonication time up to 10 minutes and the water substitution during the sonication improved reproducibility. This system using continuous water change makes possible the sonication of 6 consecutive samples, without changes in the water volume.

  12. Root length densities of UK wheat and oilseed rape crops with implications for water capture and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Charlotte A.; Sylvester-Bradley, Roger; Berry, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Root length density (RLD) was measured to 1 m depth for 17 commercial crops of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) and 40 crops of winter oilseed rape [Brassica napus; oilseed rape (OSR)] grown in the UK between 2004 and 2013. Taking the critical RLD (cRLD) for water capture as 1cm cm–3, RLDs appeared inadequate for full water capture on average below a depth of 0.32 m for winter wheat and below 0.45 m for OSR. These depths compare unfavourably (for wheat) with average depths of ‘full capture’ of 0.86 m and 0.48 m, respectively, determined for three wheat crops and one OSR crop studied in the 1970s and 1980s, and treated as references here. A simple model of water uptake and yield indicated that these shortfalls in wheat and OSR rooting compared with the reference data might be associated with shortfalls of up to 3.5 t ha–1 and 1.2 t ha–1, respectively, in grain yields under water-limited conditions, as increasingly occur through climate change. Coupled with decreased summer rainfall, poor rooting of modern arable crops could explain much of the yield stagnation that has been observed on UK farms since the 1990s. Methods of monitoring and improving rooting under commercial conditions are reviewed and discussed. PMID:25750427

  13. Health risk assessment standards of cyanobacteria bloom occurrence in bathing sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Stankiewicz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Threat for human health appears during a massive cyanobacteria bloom in potable water used for human consumption or in basins used for recreational purposes. General health risk assessment standards and preventive measures to be taken by sanitation service were presented in scope of: – evaluation of cyanobacteria bloom occurrence in bathing sites / water bodies, – procedures in case of cyanobacteria bloom, including health risk assessment and decision making process to protect users’ health at bathing sites, – preventive measures, to be taken in case of cyanobacteria bloom occurrence in bathing sites and basins, where bathing sites are located.

  14. "Roman Baths" in Contemporary Spa Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Merc

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The commercialisation of images and symbols from antiquity, so characteristic of Slovenia since its independence, has been reflected over the last decade in spa tourism as well. Since the great crises in the sixties, and especially since the eighties, fifteen Slovene natural health resorts have concentrated on developing wellness and activities programs. This change in orientation has been accompanied by renovations, an expansion of the water surfaces and capacities, and new wellbeing, wellness, spirituality and beauty programs. An analysis of Slovene spas, wellness centres and hotel web pages shows that they frequently offer rooms, usually saunas, which are imitations of the Roman baths. These rooms are usually called "Roman saunas", "Tepidarium", "Caldarium", and "Roman-Irish baths". At Terme Ptuj, Zdravilišče Laško, Šmarješke Toplice, Grand Hotel Palace in Portorož, and Terme Čatež, saunas have been built or renovated in the Roman style. This trend of Roman rooms is a novelty, less than a decade old in Slovenia. The first sauna with a Roman theme, a Roman-Irish bath, was opened in 1997 in the Health and Beauty Centre at Terme Čatež. Modern Roman saunas are very popular, found not only in Slovenia but also in other parts of Europe, especially Germany and Austria. Their popularity has spread from the areas formerly occupied by the Romans to other parts of world, for example the USA and the Republic of South Africa. An analysis of Slovene saunas and wellness centres reveals a well-established trend to recreate certain parts of the Roman baths. This is attempted not only through Roman-style decorations, but also through certain structures particular to the Roman baths, such as the caldarium, tepidarium, and in one case even a laconicum. The approach, however, is highly eclectic, blending Roman, Greek and, above all, modern elements. The purpose of such rooms is to increase the appeal of the spas, while their design is mostly based on

  15. Potential Threats Posed by Tetrodotoxins in UK Waters: Examination of Detection Methodology Used in Their Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Turner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tetrodotoxin is a neurotoxin responsible for many human fatalities, most commonly following the consumption of pufferfish. Whilst the source of the toxin has not been conclusively proven, it is thought to be associated with various species of marine bacteria. Whilst the toxins are well studied in fish and gastropods, in recent years, there have been a number of reports of tetrodotoxin occurring in bivalve shellfish, including those harvested from the UK and other parts of Europe. This paper reviews evidence concerning the prevalence of tetrodotoxins in the UK together with methodologies currently available for testing. Biological, biomolecular and chemical methods are reviewed, including recommendations for further work. With the recent development of quantitative chromatographic methods for these and other hydrophilic toxins, as well as the commercial availability of rapid testing kits, there are a number of options available to ensure consumers are protected against this threat.

  16. Superhydrophobic Cu{sub 2}S@Cu{sub 2}O film on copper surface fabricated by a facile chemical bath deposition method and its application in oil-water separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pi, Pihui, E-mail: phpi@scut.edu.cn; Hou, Kun; Zhou, Cailong; Li, Guidong; Wen, Xiufang; Xu, Shouping; Cheng, Jiang; Wang, Shuangfeng

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • A superhydrophobic film with macro/nano structure was fabricated on copper surface. • The as-prepared film shows outstanding water repellency and long-term storage stability. • The same method was used to fabricate superhydrophobic/superoleophilic copper mesh. • The obtained mesh could realize separation of various oily sewages with separation efficiency above 94%. - Abstract: Cu{sub 2}S and Cu{sub 2}O composite (Cu{sub 2}S@Cu{sub 2}O) film with micro/nano binary structure was created on copper surface using the mixing solution of sodium thiosulphate and copper sulfate by a facile chemical bath deposition method. After modification with low-cost polydimethylsioxane (PDMS), the superhydrophobic Cu{sub 2}S@Cu{sub 2}O film was obtained. The as-prepared film shows outstanding water repellency with a water contact angle larger than 150° and long-term storage stability. The geometric morphology and chemical composition of the film were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), respectively. Moreover, the same method was used to fabricate superhydrophobic/superoleophilic copper mesh, and it could realize separation of various oily sewages with separation efficiency above 94%. This strategy has potential to fabricate the practical superhydrophobic Cu{sub 2}S@Cu{sub 2}O film on copper surface on a large scale due to its simplicity and low cost.

  17. Effects of a 20 year rain event: a quantitative microbial risk assessment of a case of contaminated bathing water in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Signe Tanja; Erichsen, A. C.; Mark, O.

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative microbial risk assessments (QMRAs) often lack data on water quality leading to great uncertainty in the QMRA because of the many assumptions. The quantity of waste water contamination was estimated and included in a QMRA on an extreme rain event leading to combined sewer overflow (CS...

  18. Highway deicing salt dynamic runoff to surface water and subsequent infiltration to groundwater during severe UK winters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivett, Michael O; Cuthbert, Mark O; Gamble, Richard; Connon, Lucy E; Pearson, Andrew; Shepley, Martin G; Davis, John

    2016-09-15

    Dynamic impact to the water environment of deicing salt application at a major highway (motorway) interchange in the UK is quantitatively evaluated for two recent severe UK winters. The contaminant transport pathway studied allowed controls on dynamic highway runoff and storm-sewer discharge to a receiving stream and its subsequent leakage to an underlying sandstone aquifer, including possible contribution to long-term chloride increases in supply wells, to be evaluated. Logged stream electrical-conductivity (EC) to estimate chloride concentrations, stream flow, climate and motorway salt application data were used to assess salt fate. Stream loading was responsive to salt applications and climate variability influencing salt release. Chloride (via EC) was predicted to exceed the stream Environmental Quality Standard (250mg/l) for 33% and 18% of the two winters. Maximum stream concentrations (3500mg/l, 15% sea water salinity) were ascribed to salt-induced melting and drainage of highway snowfall without dilution from, still frozen, catchment water. Salt persistance on the highway under dry-cold conditions was inferred from stream observations of delayed salt removal. Streambed and stream-loss data demonstrated chloride infiltration could occur to the underlying aquifer with mild and severe winter stream leakage estimated to account for 21 to 54% respectively of the 70t of increased chloride (over baseline) annually abstracted by supply wells. Deicing salt infiltration lateral to the highway alongside other urban/natural sources were inferred to contribute the shortfall. Challenges in quantifying chloride mass/fluxes (flow gauge accuracy at high flows, salt loading from other roads, weaker chloride-EC correlation at low concentrations), may be largely overcome by modest investment in enhanced data acquisition or minor approach modification. The increased understanding of deicing salt dynamic loading to the water environment obtained is relevant to improved

  19. Application of the PHREEQC geochemical computer model during the design and operation of UK mine water treatment schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croxford, S.J.; England, A.; Jarvis, A.P. [IMC White Young Green Engineering and Environment, Sutton-in-Ashfield (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    The UK Coal Authority operates more than 20 full-scale mine water treatment schemes. The PHREEQC geochemical model has been used during the design and operation of two of the UK Coal Authority's treatment systems to assess whether it is possible to more accurately predict the fate and behaviour of contaminants through the treatment process. These systems are at Frances Colliery, Fife, Scotland, and at Horden Colliery, County Durham, England. The characteristics of the mine water at these sites, and the treatment systems installed to remediate them, are described. At Frances Colliery the following issues have been investigated using the PHREEQC model: determination of optimum alkali dose rate; and investment of secondary mineralization that causes pipe fouling. At Horden Colliery areas investigated using the PHREEQC model are: prediction of sludge volume production for various alkali reagents; predication of the influence of elevated carbon dioxide partial pressures on alkali requirements; and influence of elevated chloride concentration on sludge characteristics and production. The results of the investigation are presented and discussed. The study suggests that geochemical modelling may be a useful tool in determining both the geochemical processes occurring within a mine water treatment system and ultimately the likely costs involved during the operation of a particular scheme. Plans for future work include further validation of the PHREEQC model predictions by careful sampling and analysis of water chemistry and secondary mineral phases through the treatment systems. In the future it is hoped that the PHREEQC model may become a useful tool in the design phase of mine water treatment systems. 7 refs., 8 tabs.

  20. Exposure to and colonisation by antibiotic-resistant E. coli in UK coastal water users: Environmental surveillance, exposure assessment, and epidemiological study (Beach Bum Survey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Anne F C; Zhang, Lihong; Balfour, Andrew J; Garside, Ruth; Hawkey, Peter M; Murray, Aimee K; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Gaze, William H

    2018-05-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) present a global public health problem. With numbers of community-acquired resistant infections increasing, understanding the mechanisms by which people are exposed to and colonised by ARB can help inform effective strategies to prevent their spread. The role natural environments play in this is poorly understood. This is the first study to combine surveillance of ARB in bathing waters, human exposure estimates and association between exposure and colonisation by ARB in water users. 97 bathing water samples from England and Wales were analysed for the proportion of E. coli harbouring bla CTX-M . These data were used to estimate the likelihood of water users ingesting bla CTX-M -bearing E. coli. Having identified surfers as being at risk of exposure to ARB, a cross-sectional study was conducted. Regular surfers and non-surfers were recruited to assess whether there is an association between surfing and gut colonisation by bla CTX-M- bearing E. coli. 11 of 97 bathing waters sampled were found to contain bla CTX-M -bearing E. coli. While the percentage of bla CTX-M -bearing E. coli in bathing waters was low (0.07%), water users are at risk of ingesting these ARB. It is estimated that over 2.5 million water sports sessions occurred in 2015 resulting in the ingestion of at least one bla CTX-M -bearing E. coli. In the epidemiological survey, 9/143 (6.3%) surfers were colonised by bla CTX-M -bearing E. coli, as compared to 2/130 (1.5%) of non-surfers (risk ratio=4.09, 95% CI 1.02 to 16.4, p=0.046). Surfers are at risk of exposure to and colonisation by clinically important antibiotic-resistant E. coli in coastal waters. Further research must be done on the role natural environments play in the transmission of ARB. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. 21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Paraffin bath. 890.5110 Section 890.5110 Food and... PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath. (a) Identification. A paraffin bath is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of a tub to be filled...

  2. 75 FR 31691 - Safety Standard for Infant Bath Seats: Final Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... would actually make the requirement less restrictive than what is already in the voluntary standard. For... various water levels and possible head positions of occupants vs. angles of bath seats to determine what... instructional literature or warnings, it is foreseeable that caregivers will install the bath seat on a wet and...

  3. Radionuclides in seals and porpoises in the coastal waters around the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, W.S.; Sumner, D.J.; Baker, J.R.; Kennedy, S.; Reid, R.; Robinson, I.

    1999-01-01

    It has been suggested that marine predators be assessed for biologically relevant contamination levels because of their trophic position. Accordingly, in studying radioactive contamination in the marine environment around the UK, tissues from seals and porpoises have been chosen. Liver and muscle tissue from dead seals and porpoises found stranded around the UK coast have been analysed for the following radionuclides: 134Cs, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239Pu+ 240 Pu. Multifactor analysis of variance indicated that, for radiocaesium, there was no significant difference for harbour seals, grey seals or porpoises in terms of species or gender; however, the tissue activity concentration increased with body weight and decreased with distance from Sellafield, the major nuclear reprocessing plant in the UK. The levels of radiocaesium in muscle were higher than those in liver, while there appeared to be a concentration factor of approximately 3-4 for muscle radiocaesium when compared to radiocaesium levels reported for fish, the main food source of the marine mammals under study. Approximate radiation dose calculations indicated that the average dose from radiocaesium was less than 10% of the dose from the naturally occurring radioisotope of potassium, 40K. The highest tissue activity concentration for plutonium of 0.037 Bq/kg (239Pu+ 240 Pu) was detected in a grey seal stranded at Rathlin Island in Northern Ireland. Calculation of approximate radiation doses from plutonium contamination showed that, as with radiocaesium, the average dose was small compared with that from 40K. In summary, the radiocaesium contamination in seals and porpoises decreased with distance from Sellafield indicating that the BNF plc processing plant was the major source of the contamination. The marine mammals concentrated radiocaesium from their environment by a factor of 300 relative to the concentration in seawater indicating the value of using marine mammal tissue to measure radiocaesium contamination in

  4. Sudden Death Phenomenon While Bathing in Japan - Mortality Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masaru; Shimbo, Takuro; Ikaga, Toshiharu; Hori, Shingo

    2017-07-25

    Bath-related sudden cardiac arrest frequently occurs in Japan, but the mortality data have not been sufficiently reported.Methods and Results:This prospective cross-sectional observational study was conducted in the Tokyo Metropolis, Saga Prefecture and Yamagata Prefecture between October 2012 and March 2013 (i.e., in winter). We investigated the data for all occurrences in these areas for which the emergency medical system needed to be activated because of an accident or acute illness related to bathing. Emergency personnel enrolled the event when activation of the emergency medical system was related to bathing. Of the 4,599 registered bath-related events, 1,527 (33%) were identified as bath-related cardiac arrest events. Crude mortality (no. deaths per 100,000) during the observational period was 10.0 in Tokyo, 11.6 in Yamagata and 8.5 in Saga. According to the mortality data for age and sex, the estimated number of bath-related deaths nationwide was 13,369 in winter, for the 6 months from October (95% CI: 10,862-16,887). Most cardiac arrest events occurred in tubs filled with water with the face submerged in the water. This suggests that drowning plays a crucial role in the etiology of such phenomena. The estimated nationwide number of deaths was 13,369 (95% CI: 10,862-16,887) in winter, for the 6 months from October. Crude mortality during the winter season was 10.0 in Tokyo, 11.6 in Yamagata and 8.5 in Saga.

  5. Impacts of Cropland Changes on Water Balance, Sediment and Nutrient Transport in Eden River, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yumei; Quinn, Paul; Liang, Qiuhua; Adams, Russell

    2017-04-01

    Water is the key to food and human life. Farming is the main part of economic and society in Eden, with approximately 2000 farms which covers 95% of under crops. However, with the growth of farming practice and global climate changes, Eden has presented great challenges and bringing uncertainty in the water quality caused by the agricultural diffuse pollution. This expected to reduce negative impacts of the water diffuse pollution from agriculture in Eden. Therefore, there is a high need to ensure effective water resource management to enhance water quality, to address the flow pathways and sediment transport in different farming practice and cropland changes. Hence we need to understand nutrient and the hydrological flow pathways from soil to Hillslope to channel. The aim of this research is to evaluate the impacts of different cropland changes on water balance, sediment and nutrient transport. By using the hydrological models Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Catchment Runoff Attenuation Flux Tool (CRAFT), it can show the sediment and nutrient export from the load for each flow pathways (overland flow, soil water flow and ground water flow). We will show results from a small research catchment (10km2) area to the whole of Eden (800km2) at a daily time step.

  6. Contaminación del aire interior y del agua de baño en piscinas cubiertas de Guipúzcoa Indoor air and bathing water pollution in indoor swimming pools in Guipúzcoa (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreto Santa Marina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir los niveles de contaminantes presentes en las piscinas cubiertas de Guipúzcoa, tanto en el agua de baño como en el aire, y estudiar la relación entre estos contaminantes y otras variables relacionadas con los sistemas de ventilación y el uso de las instalaciones. Métodos: De las 35 piscinas cubiertas registradas en Guipúzcoa se estudiaron las 20 más utilizadas por nadadores. Cada instalación se muestreó 2 días no consecutivos y se midieron los niveles de cloro libre y combinado y trihalometanos en el agua, así como los de cloro total y cloroformo en el aire. Como indicador de la renovación del aire se midió el dióxido de carbono (CO2. Resultados: El nivel medio de cloro en el aire fue de 0,4mg/m³ y el de cloroformo de 22µg/m³. Los valores de cloro libre y combinado de todas las piscinas se mantuvieron dentro de los valores reglamentarios. El nivel medio de cloroformo del agua de baño fue de 13,7µg/l. El valor del cloroformo del aire puede predecirse razonablemente (R²=0,85, y las variables predictoras son el cloroformo del agua, el CO2 y el número de bañistas del día. Conclusiones: Los niveles de contaminantes en el agua y en el aire de las piscinas de Guipúzcoa son inferiores a los descritos en otros estudios. Sin embargo, utilizando la concentración de 0,5mg/m³ de cloro total en aire, propuesta como valor de referencia para la protección de los nadadores con actividad intensa, un 20% de las instalaciones superarían dicho valor.Objective: To describe levels of pollutants found in indoor swimming pools in Guipúzcoa (Basque Country, Spain, both in the bathing water and in the air, and to study the association between these pollutants and other variables related to ventilation systems and the use of installations. Methods: Of the 35 indoor swimming pools registered in Guipúzcoa, the 20 most frequently used by swimmers were studied. Each installation was sampled on two nonconsecutive days. Free and

  7. Effect of protic solvents on CdS thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Pin-Chuan, E-mail: pcyao@mail.dyu.edu.tw; Chen, Chun-Yu

    2015-03-31

    In this study, cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films are grown on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD) in an aqueous bath containing 10–20 vol.% alcohol. The roles of ethanol as a protic solvent that substantially improves the quality of films are explored extensively. The deposited films in an alcohol bath are found to be more compact and smoother with smaller CdS grains. The X-ray diffractograms of the samples confirm that all films were polycrystalline with mixed wurtzite (hexagonal) and zinkblende (cubic) phases. Raman spectra indicate that, for a film deposited in an alcohol bath, the position of 1LO is closer to the value for single crystal CdS, indicating that these films have a high degree of crystallinity. The as-deposited CdS thin films in a 10 vol.% alcohol bath were found to have the highest visible transmittance of 81.9%. XPS analysis reveals a stronger signal of C1s for samples deposited in the alcohol baths, indicating that there are more carbonaceous residues on the films with protic solvent than on the films with water. A higher XPS S/Cd atomic ratio for films deposited in an alcohol bath indicates that undesirable surface reactions (leading to sulfur containing compounds other than CdS) occur less frequently over the substrates. - Highlights: • Study of CBD-CdS films grown in an alcohol-containing aqueous bath is reported. • The deposited films in an alcohol bath are more compact with smaller CdS grains. • Raman spectra show that in an alcohol bath, the CdS film has a better crystallinity. • XPS reveals more carbon residues remain on the films deposited using alcohol bath. • In an alcohol bath, the undesirable surface reactions with Cd ions were hindered.

  8. Explore the advantage of High-frequency Water Quality Data in Urban Surface Water: A Case Study in Bristol, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Han, D.

    2017-12-01

    Water system is an essential component in a smart city for its sustainability and resilience. The freshness and beauty of the water body would please people as well as benefit the local aquatic ecosystems. Water quality monitoring approach has evolved from the manual lab-based monitoring approach to the manual in-situ monitoring approach, and finally to the latest wireless-sensor-network (WSN) based solutions in recent decades. The development of the in-situ water quality sensors enable humans to collect high-frequency and real-time water quality data. This poster aims to explore the advantages of the high-frequency water quality data over the low-frequency data collected manually. The data is collected by a remote real-time high-frequency water quality monitor system based on the cutting edge smart city infrastructure in Bristol - `Bristol Is Open'. The water quality of Bristol Floating Harbour is monitored which is the focal area of Bristol with new buildings and features redeveloped in the past decades. This poster will first briefly introduce the water quality monitoring system, followed by the analysis of the advantages of the sub-hourly water quality data. Thus, the suggestion on the monitoring frequency will be given.

  9. The occurrence of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, endocrine disruptors and illicit drugs in surface water in South Wales, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Dinsdale, Richard M; Guwy, Alan J

    2008-07-01

    The presence and fate of 56 pharmaceuticals, personal care products, endocrine disruptors and illicit drugs (PPCPs) were investigated in the South Wales region of the UK. Two contrasting rivers: River Taff and River Ely were chosen for this investigation and were monitored for a period of 10 months. The impact of the factors affecting the levels of concentration of PPCPs and illicit drugs in surface water such as surrounding area, proximity to wastewater effluent and weather conditions, mainly rainfall was also investigated. Most PPCPs were frequently found in river water at concentrations reaching single microgL(-1) and their levels depended mainly on the extent of water dilution resulting from rainfall. Discharge of treated wastewater effluent into the river course was found to be the main cause of water contamination with PPCPs. The most frequently detected PPCPs represent the group of pharmaceuticals dispensed at the highest levels in the Welsh community. These were antibacterial drugs (trimethoprim, erythromycin-H(2)O and amoxicillin), anti-inflammatories/analgesics (paracetamol, tramadol, codeine, naproxen, ibuprofen and diclofenac) and antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine and gabapentin). Only four PPCPs out of 56 (simvastatin, pravastatin, digoxin and digoxigenin) were not quantified over the course of the study. Several PPCPs were found to be both ubiquitous and persistent in the aqueous environment (e.g. erythromycin-H(2)O, codeine, carbamazepine, gabapentin and valsartan). The calculated average daily loads of PPCPs indicated that in total almost 6 kg of studied PPCPs are discharged daily into the studied rivers. The illicit drugs studied were found in rivers at low levels of ng L(-1). Average daily loads of amphetamine, cocaine and its main metabolite benzoylecgonine were as follows: 8, 1.2 and 39 gday(-1), respectively. Their frequent occurrence in surface water is primarily associated with their high illegal usage and is strongly associated with the

  10. Predicting the impact of climate change on threatened species in UK waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda C Jones

    Full Text Available Global climate change is affecting the distribution of marine species and is thought to represent a threat to biodiversity. Previous studies project expansion of species range for some species and local extinction elsewhere under climate change. Such range shifts raise concern for species whose long-term persistence is already threatened by other human disturbances such as fishing. However, few studies have attempted to assess the effects of future climate change on threatened vertebrate marine species using a multi-model approach. There has also been a recent surge of interest in climate change impacts on protected areas. This study applies three species distribution models and two sets of climate model projections to explore the potential impacts of climate change on marine species by 2050. A set of species in the North Sea, including seven threatened and ten major commercial species were used as a case study. Changes in habitat suitability in selected candidate protected areas around the UK under future climatic scenarios were assessed for these species. Moreover, change in the degree of overlap between commercial and threatened species ranges was calculated as a proxy of the potential threat posed by overfishing through bycatch. The ensemble projections suggest northward shifts in species at an average rate of 27 km per decade, resulting in small average changes in range overlap between threatened and commercially exploited species. Furthermore, the adverse consequences of climate change on the habitat suitability of protected areas were projected to be small. Although the models show large variation in the predicted consequences of climate change, the multi-model approach helps identify the potential risk of increased exposure to human stressors of critically endangered species such as common skate (Dipturus batis and angelshark (Squatina squatina.

  11. Multiple generations of high salinity formation water in the Triassic Sherwood Sandstone: Wytch Farm oilfield, onshore UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worden, R.H.; Manning, D.A.C.; Bottrell, S.H.

    2006-01-01

    The origin and heterogeneity of oilfield formation water in the Lower Triassic Sherwood Sandstone at Wytch Farm in the Wessex Basin, UK, have been investigated using production data, detailed water geochemistry and O, S and H stable isotope data. The formation waters are highly saline, NaCl-type brines with TDS values of up to 230,000mg/L. There is a general decrease in salinity from the flanks of the field to the crest with Cl - decreasing from about 136,000 to 109,000mg/L. The Cl/Br ratio of the water shows that salinity was largely derived from the dissolution of Upper Triassic continental evaporites found off-structure to the west and north of the field. The water in the field had a meteoric source although variation in δ 2 H values suggests that there may be meteoric waters of different ages in the oilfield, reflecting recharge under different palaeoclimatic conditions. At the crest of the field, aqueous SO 4 2- resulted from dissolution of anhydrite in the reservoir. In contrast, in other parts of the field there is an indication that some of the dissolved SO 4 2- was derived from oxidation of pyrite at some point on the recharge path of meteoric water to the field. There were two meteoric influx events bringing different Cl - concentrations and different δ 2 H values. The first was probably before the Eocene oil influx and could have occurred in the Lower Cretaceous or early Tertiary. The second meteoric influx event probably occurred after or during oil migration into the Wytch Farm structure since the second meteoric water is found at the flanks of the field adjacent to the regions where salt is found in the stratigraphy. The preservation of heterogeneities in oilfield formation water compositions suggests that there has been little aqueous fluid movement or diffusive flux for over 40 million years. Mass flux has been restricted by density stratification within the aquifer and the very low effective permeability for the aqueous phase in the oil

  12. Participation in the water framework directive in the UK and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, Stuart Anthony Lewis; Dubgaard, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Degradation of soil and water resources due to food and fiber production has been a concern for centuries in all societies on this planet. While some geographical regions of the world have experienced higher rates of degradation than others due to topography, rainfall, and level of technological...

  13. Effect and efficacy of thermal environment provided by a new bathing style, “mist sauna bathing”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IWASE Satoshi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mist sauna is a style of bathing in which hot water vapor is sprayed into a bathroom, establishing an air temperature of 40°C with saturated humidity. Bath heater and dryer equipment with mist sauna function was released onto the Japanese market in 2004. After their introduction, various studies investigated the effects of mist sauna bathing, and it has been demonstrated that mist sauna bathing has various effects and efficacies, not only hyperthermic effects but also other effects including on physical appearance. Mist sauna bathing occurs in a bathroom, usually without a toilet, in which the room temperature is approximately 40°C with 100% relative humidity. It has been shown that the mist sauna causes little hemodynamic change, which ensures its safety during bathing. Therefore, we can enjoy safer physiological bathing in a mist sauna than in traditional hot water immersion bathing. In addition, the mist sauna elicits benefits such as improved skin condition, heat acclimation, and autonomic balance. Since mist sauna bathing does not involve immersion of the body in bathtub water, it is less likely to result in an accident during bathing because of the low impact of hemodynamic changes. Recently, mist sauna bathing has drawn attention in the field of nursing care as a bathing style for the hospitalized elderly that can reduce the burden on care-giving personnel during bathing. It is expected that mist sauna will be adopted by homes and various facilities as a useful approach for various purposes, regardless of the user’s age or gender.

  14. Bath-Ambience-A Mechatronic System for Assisting the Caregivers of Bedridden People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Karolina; Machado, José; Carvalho, Vítor; Castro, Marcelo; Costa, Pedro; Matos, Demétrio; Soares, Filomena

    2017-05-18

    The health of older people is receiving special attention and dedication nowadays, with the aim of increasing their general wellbeing and quality of life. Studies into different aspects of the care of the elderly have found that emphasis should be given to solving problems related to bathing in different situations and environments. In particular, it is important to develop new assistive technologies to streamline and ease the burden of a caregiver's daily tasks. Generally-speaking, in the case of bedridden patients, bathing is typically carried out manually by a caregiver, using towels, sponges, and a water basin. Nevertheless, this apparently simple task needs some precautions in order to avoid the risk of microbial infections, falls and other injuries. With that in mind, this paper presents the design of a portable washing system, called Bath-Ambience, which enables bedridden patients to be bathed efficiently without having to be moved from their position. This portable system can be installed in different situations, both in a domestic setting, and in specialized institutions, and allows the caregiver to perform the bathing tasks without compromising health and safety, thereby making it possible to offer a comfortable and hygienic procedure to patients, improving their quality of life. This paper presents the design of the portable Bath-Ambience washing system, which provides efficient assistance for bathing bedridden patients without moving them to another place. This system is mainly dedicated for integration a smart home application in to allow bathing everywhere.

  15. Bath-Ambience—A Mechatronic System for Assisting the Caregivers of Bedridden People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Karolina; Machado, José; Carvalho, Vítor; Castro, Marcelo; Costa, Pedro; Matos, Demétrio; Soares, Filomena

    2017-01-01

    The health of older people is receiving special attention and dedication nowadays, with the aim of increasing their general wellbeing and quality of life. Studies into different aspects of the care of the elderly have found that emphasis should be given to solving problems related to bathing in different situations and environments. In particular, it is important to develop new assistive technologies to streamline and ease the burden of a caregiver’s daily tasks. Generally-speaking, in the case of bedridden patients, bathing is typically carried out manually by a caregiver, using towels, sponges, and a water basin. Nevertheless, this apparently simple task needs some precautions in order to avoid the risk of microbial infections, falls and other injuries. With that in mind, this paper presents the design of a portable washing system, called Bath-Ambience, which enables bedridden patients to be bathed efficiently without having to be moved from their position. This portable system can be installed in different situations, both in a domestic setting, and in specialized institutions, and allows the caregiver to perform the bathing tasks without compromising health and safety, thereby making it possible to offer a comfortable and hygienic procedure to patients, improving their quality of life. This paper presents the design of the portable Bath-Ambience washing system, which provides efficient assistance for bathing bedridden patients without moving them to another place. This system is mainly dedicated for integration a smart home application in to allow bathing everywhere. PMID:28524114

  16. A brain slice bath for physiology and compound microscopy, with dual-sided perifusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyward, P M

    2010-12-01

    Contemporary in vitro brain slice studies can employ compound microscopes to identify individual neurons or their processes for physiological recording or imaging. This requires that the bath used to maintain the tissue fits within the working distances of a water-dipping objective and microscope condenser. A common means of achieving this is to maintain thin tissue slices on the glass floor of a recording bath, exposing only one surface of the tissue to oxygenated bathing medium. Emerging evidence suggests that physiology can be compromised by this approach. Flowing medium past both sides of submerged brain slices is optimal, but recording baths utilizing this principle are not readily available for use on compound microscopes. This paper describes a tissue bath designed specifically for microscopy and physiological recording, in which temperature-controlled medium flows past both sides of the slices. A particular feature of this design is the use of concentric mesh rings to support and transport the live tissue without mechanical disturbance. The design is also easily adapted for use with thin acute slices, cultured slices, and acutely dispersed or cultured cells maintained either on cover slips or placed directly on the floor of the bath. The low profile of the bath provides a low angle of approach for electrodes, and allows use of standard condensers, nosepieces and water-dipping objective lenses. If visualization of individual neurons is not required, the bath can be mounted on a simple stand and used with a dissecting microscope. Heating is integral to the bath, and any temperature controller capable of driving a resistive load can be used. The bath is robust, readily constructed and requires minimal maintenance. Full construction and operation details are given. © 2010 The Author Journal of Microscopy © 2010 The Royal Microscopical Society.

  17. Spatial analysis of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) in fish collected from UK and proximate marine waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhihua, Li; Panton, S; Marshall, Lisa; Fernandes, A; Rose, M; Smith, F; Holmes, Mel

    2018-03-01

    Some commonly consumed marine fish species are considered to display a higher risk of bio-accumulating organic environmental contaminants such as PBDEs. As part of a study to investigate the spatial distribution of these contaminants, data on polybrominated diphenlyethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) were collected and analysed by introducing a web-based resource which enables efficient spatial, species and concentration level representations. Furthermore, hierarchical cluster analyses permits correlations within the data to be predicted. The data provide current information on levels of PBDE and PBB occurrence, allowing identification of locations that show higher contaminant levels. 135 fish samples of various species were analysed from UK marine waters, but encompassing the waters around Norway in the North and to the Algarve in the South. PBDEs were observed in all samples with the majority of measured congeners being detected. The concentrations ranged from 0.087 μg/kg to 8.907 μg/kg whole weight (ww) for the sum of all measured PBDE congeners. PBBs occurred less frequently showing a corresponding range of <0.02 μg/kg to 0.97 μg/kg ww for the sum of seven PBB congeners. Concentrations vary depending on species and locations where landed, e.g. PBBs occurred more frequently and at higher levels in grey mullet from French waters. The high frequency of PBDE occurrence makes it prudent to continue the monitoring of these commonly consumed marine fish species. The web-based resource provides a flexible and efficient tool for assessors and policy-makers to monitor and evaluate levels within caught fish species improving evidenced-based decision processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. New system for bathing bedridden patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Staley, R. A.; Payne, P. A.

    1973-01-01

    Multihead shower facility can be used with minimal patient handling. Waterproof curtain allows patient to bathe with his head out of shower. He can move completely inside shower to wash his face and hair. Main advantage of shower system is time saved in giving bath.

  19. Polyamide 6/clay membranes: effect of precipitation bath in morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Rodholfo da S.B.; Pereira, Caio H. do O; Leite, Amanda M.D.; Araujo, Edcleide M.; Lira, Helio L.

    2015-01-01

    Polyamide 6 membranes and their nanocomposites with 5% clay were obtained by the phase inversion method and the precipitation was made in distilled water bath and also in the mixture of solvent and distilled water. The nanocomposites were characterized by XRD and membranes by SEM. By XRD analysis, it was found that the obtained nanocomposite presents a structure probably exfoliated and / or partially exfoliated, it was also possible to observe the presence of two characteristic peaks (α and γ) of the polyamide 6 phases. In the SEM micrographs it was seen that the presence of clay promote alterations in morphology, size and distribution of pores. The presence of acid in the precipitation bath leads to a significant decrease in the filter layer, but also an increase in the quantity of pore size. (author)

  20. Potential Threats Posed by New or Emerging Marine Biotoxins in UK Waters and Examination of Detection Methodologies Used for Their Control: Cyclic Imines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Davidson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic imines (CIs are a group of phytoplankton produced toxins related to shellfish food products, some of which are already present in UK and European waters. Their risk to shellfish consumers is poorly understood, as while no human intoxication has been definitively related to this group, their fast acting toxicity following intraperitoneal injection in mice has led to concern over their human health implications. A request was therefore made by UK food safety authorities to examine these toxins more closely to aid possible management strategies. Of the CI producers only the spirolide producer Alexandrium ostenfeldii is known to exist in UK waters at present but trends in climate change may lead to increased risk from other organisms/CI toxins currently present elsewhere in Europe and in similar environments worldwide. This paper reviews evidence concerning the prevalence of CIs and CI-producing phytoplankton, together with testing methodologies. Chemical, biological and biomolecular methods are reviewed, including recommendations for further work to enable effective testing. Although the focus here is on the UK, from a strategic standpoint many of the topics discussed will also be of interest in other parts of the world since new and emerging marine biotoxins are of global concern.

  1. The Suitability Of Local Quartz Sand In The Production Of Bath Crucibles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. O. Okpanachi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of local quartz sand in the production of bath crucibles is a study that was carried out in order to impart overall strength on bath crucibles hence reduce breakages during fettling. Therefore this research constitutes a study to enhance the efficiency of production of bath crucibles by addition of quartz sand in slip preparation. The steps taken in the beneficiation of quartz sand for the production of bath crucibles are comminution which entails crushing and milling classification washing liquid dispersion sizing and reduction of iron content by magnetic separation. The slip contains materials like plastic clay feldspar kaolin talc sodium silicate water quartz sand etc. These were all milled in the ball mill for slip production casting and fettling glazing and sintering to get final bath crucibles as the end products. Quartz sand is used in a variety of products essentially as raw material for the foundry casting and glass industries and also in chemicals water filtration and ceramics the heat resistance nature of quartz sand makes it an excellent refractory substance for these industrial processes. Slip can be prepared for production of bath crucibles without the inclusion of quartz sand however the addition of quartz sand is needed to improve the mechanical performance of the slip in the production of bath crucibles.

  2. Changes in water quality of the River Frome (UK) from 1965 to 2009: Is phosphorus mitigation finally working?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowes, M.J., E-mail: mibo@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Maclean Building, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Smith, J.T. [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Burnaby Building, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3QL (United Kingdom); Neal, C. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Maclean Building, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Leach, D.V. [formally Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Winfrith Technology Centre, Dorchester, Dorset, DT2 8ZD (United Kingdom); Scarlett, P.M.; Wickham, H.D.; Harman, S.A.; Armstrong, L.K. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Maclean Building, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Davy-Bowker, J. [Freshwater Biological Association, River Laboratory, East Stoke, Wareham, Dorset, BH20 6BB (United Kingdom); Haft, M. [Freshwater Biological Association, Ferry Landing, Far Sawrey, Ambleside, Cumbria, LA22 0LP (United Kingdom); Davies, C.E. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Maclean Building, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-15

    freely available to the wider science community through the CEH data portal ( (http://gateway.ceh.ac.uk/)). - Research highlights: {yields} Complete water quality data from unique 44 year monitoring programme presented for the first time. {yields} Increases in nutrient pollution from 1965 to 1990 increased river productivity. {yields} Improvements in sewage treatment have reduced P concentration, and improved river ecology. {yields} The timing of diatom blooms is closely related to temperature. {yields} Full data set made freely available to wider research community.

  3. Infant bath seats, drowning and near-drowning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, R W; Donald, T

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the possible role of infant bathtub seats in drowning and near-drowning episodes in infants. A review was conducted of the files of the Forensic Science Centre and Child Protection Unit, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia, for significant immersion incidents in infants involving bathtub seats from January 1998 to December 2003. A total of six cases of drowning occurred over the 6-year period of the study in children under 2 years of age, including two infants. One of these cases, a 7-month-old boy, had been left unattended for some time in an adult bath in a bathtub seat. He was found drowned, having submerged after slipping down and becoming trapped in the seat. Three near-drowning episodes occurred in children under the age of 2 years, including two boys aged 7 and 8 months, both of whom had been left for some time in adult baths in bath seats. Both were successfully resuscitated and treated in hospital. These cases demonstrate the vulnerability of infants to immersion incidents when left unattended in bathtubs. Bathtubs are particularly dangerous for infants as the slippery and smooth surfaces predispose to loss of balance and make escape from water difficult. Infant bathtub seats may give parents and child carers a false sense of security leading to infants being left unattended. Unfortunately, however, infants may fall out of, or slip and become trapped in, such seats. Infants and young children cannot be left unsupervised in water, and devices used as bathing aids such as bathtub seats may contribute to immersion incidents.

  4. Agent-Based Modelling of Agricultural Water Abstraction in Response to Climate, Policy, and Demand Changes: Results from East Anglia, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinscoe, T. H. A.; Knoeri, C.; Fleskens, L.; Barrett, J.

    2014-12-01

    Freshwater is a vital natural resource for multiple needs, such as drinking water for the public, industrial processes, hydropower for energy companies, and irrigation for agriculture. In the UK, crop production is the largest in East Anglia, while at the same time the region is also the driest, with average annual rainfall between 560 and 720 mm (1971 to 2000). Many water catchments of East Anglia are reported as over licensed or over abstracted. Therefore, freshwater available for agricultural irrigation abstraction in this region is becoming both increasingly scarce due to competing demands, and increasingly variable and uncertain due to climate and policy changes. It is vital for water users and policy makers to understand how these factors will affect individual abstractors and water resource management at the system level. We present first results of an Agent-based Model that captures the complexity of this system as individual abstractors interact, learn and adapt to these internal and external changes. The purpose of this model is to simulate what patterns of water resource management emerge on the system level based on local interactions, adaptations and behaviours, and what policies lead to a sustainable water resource management system. The model is based on an irrigation abstractor typology derived from a survey in the study area, to capture individual behavioural intentions under a range of water availability scenarios, in addition to farm attributes, and demographics. Regional climate change scenarios, current and new abstraction licence reforms by the UK regulator, such as water trading and water shares, and estimated demand increases from other sectors were used as additional input data. Findings from the integrated model provide new understanding of the patterns of water resource management likely to emerge at the system level.

  5. Effects of peatland drainage on water quality: a case study of the shallow blanket bogs of Exmoor, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand-Clement, E.; Luscombe, D.; Le Feuvre, N.; Smith, D.; Anderson, K.; Brazier, R. E.

    2012-04-01

    Peatlands are widely represented in the South West of England (i.e. Exmoor, Dartmoor and Bodmin moors), but their existence is currently under threat due to both climate change and the impact of historical human activities. Peat cutting and intensive drainage for agricultural reclamation in the 19th and 20th century, have modified the hydrological behaviour of these shallow peats and dried out the upper layers, causing oxidation, erosion and vegetation change. Such anthropogenic impacts directly affect the storage of carbon, but also the provision of other ecosystem services, such as the supply of drinking water, and the support of specific and rare habitats. Blocking drainage ditches to restore the hydrological behaviour of peatlands has mostly been undertaken in the North of England, but to date, little is still known about the consequences of such management approaches on the overall Carbon stocks. The need to monitor restoration of peatlands in the South West of England arises due to the specific characteristics of the peat - it is often shallower than more northerly peat and dominated by Purple Moor Grass. In addition, and in part because of the shallowness of the resource, the peat has been damaged differently, often with very dense networks of hand-cut ditches which behave as highly efficient drainage networks. Most importantly, their location at the southernmost margin of the UK peatlands' geographical extent makes them extremely vulnerable to climate change, and so it is hypothesised that monitoring of these peatlands may provide an 'early warning system' for climatic impacts that affect more northerly sites in years to come. This study focuses upon the current impact of peatland degradation on water quality on Exmoor. Our experimental approach employs detailed, high resolution monitoring of selected ditches that are representative of damaged conditions on Exmoor, from small- (30 x 30cm ditches) through medium- (50x50cm), large- (1-2m ditches) and finally

  6. 2-Mercaptobenzimidazole, 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole, and Thioglycolic Acid in an Electroless Nickel-Plating Bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ozan Gezerman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of three different materials, 2-mercaptobenzimidazole, 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, and thioglycolic acid, was investigated to improve the performance of electroless nickel-plating baths. By changing the concentrations of these materials, sample plates were coated. Optical microscope images were obtained by selecting representative coated plates. From the results of the investigations, the effects of these materials on electroless nickel plating were observed, and the most appropriate amounts of these materials for nickel plating were determined. Moreover, the nickel plating speed observed with the bath solution containing 2-mercaptobenzimidazole, 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, and thioglycolic acid is higher than that in the case of traditional electroless plating baths, but the nickel consumption amount in the former case is lower. In order to minimize the waste water generated from electroless nickel-plating baths, we determined the lowest amounts of the chemicals that can be used for the concentrations reported in the literature.

  7. Clinical and anti-aging effect of mud-bathing therapy for patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Toyoki; Kudo, Yoshihiro; Horiuchi, Takahiko; Makino, Naoki

    2017-12-06

    Spa bathing is known as a medical treatment for certain diseases causing chronic pains. Spa water contains mineral components which lower the specific heat of the water, resulting in a higher efficiency to warm body-core temperature. This phenomenon yields pain-relieving effect for rheumatoid arthritis, low back pain, sciatic neuralgia, fibromyalgia, etc. Here we introduce medical and biological effects of mud-spa-bathing therapy for fibromyalgia other than pain relief, the changes of blood examination data, and the telomere length of circulating leukocytes. The enrolled 7 patients with fibromyalgia syndrome were hospitalized and were subject to daily mud bathing at 40 °C for 10 min for about a month. Then, their subjective pain was reduced to about a quarter in average. They also showed lowered serum triglyceride and C-reactive protein level, maintaining the levels of aspartate transaminase and creatine phosphokinase, and increases of the red blood cell count, the serum albumin level, and the serum LDL-cholesterol level in comparison with cases without mud-bathing therapy, suggesting that mud bathing prevents inflammation and muscle atrophy and improves nutritional condition in fibromyalgia. In addition, the analysis of telomere length of peripheral leukocytes revealed a trend of negative correlation between telomere shortening and laboratory data change of hemoglobin and serum albumin. These telomeric changes can be explained hypothetically by an effect of mud bathing extending life-span of circulating leukocytes.

  8. Quantum mechanical treatment of large spin baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrig, Robin; Schering, Philipp; Gravert, Lars B.; Fauseweh, Benedikt; Uhrig, Götz S.

    2018-04-01

    The electronic spin in quantum dots can be described by central spin models (CSMs) with a very large number Neff≈104 to 106 of bath spins posing a tremendous challenge to theoretical simulations. Here, a fully quantum mechanical theory is developed for the limit Neff→∞ by means of iterated equations of motion (iEoM). We find that the CSM can be mapped to a four-dimensional impurity coupled to a noninteracting bosonic bath in this limit. Remarkably, even for infinite bath the CSM does not become completely classical. The data obtained by the proposed iEoM approach are tested successfully against data from other, established approaches. Thus the iEoM mapping extends the set of theoretical tools that can be used to understand the spin dynamics in large CSMs.

  9. Novikov Engine with Fluctuating Heat Bath Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalbe, Karsten; Hoffmann, Karl Heinz

    2018-04-01

    The Novikov engine is a model for heat engines that takes the irreversible character of heat fluxes into account. Using this model, the maximum power output as well as the corresponding efficiency of the heat engine can be deduced, leading to the well-known Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency. The classical model assumes constant heat bath temperatures, which is not a reasonable assumption in the case of fluctuating heat sources. Therefore, in this article the influence of stochastic fluctuations of the hot heat bath's temperature on the optimal performance measures is investigated. For this purpose, a Novikov engine with fluctuating heat bath temperature is considered. Doing so, a generalization of the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency is found. The results can help to quantify how the distribution of fluctuating quantities affects the performance measures of power plants.

  10. Objective Assessment of an Ionic Foot bath (Ion Cleanse): Testing Its Ability to Remove Potentially Toxic Elements from the Body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, D.A.; Cooley, K.; Seely, D.; Kennedy, D.A.; Cooley, K.; Einarson, Th.R.; Seely, D.

    2012-01-01

    Ionic foot baths are often used in holistic health centres and spas to aid in detoxification; however, claims that these machines eliminate toxins from the body have not been rigorously evaluated. In this proof-of-principle study, we sought to measure the release of potentially toxic elements from ionic foot baths into distilled and tap water with and without feet. Water samples were collected and analyzed following 30-minute ionic foot bath sessions without feet using both distilled (n=1) and tap water (n=6) and following four ionic foot baths using tap water (once/week for 4 weeks) in six healthy participants. Urine collection samples were analyzed at four points during the study. Hair samples were analyzed for element concentrations at baseline and study conclusion. Contrary to claims made for the machine, there does not appear to be any specific induction of toxic element release through the feet when running the machine according to specifications

  11. Focal epilepsy presenting as a bath-induced paroxysmal event/breath-holding attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Stutchfield

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Water reflex epilepsy can mimic a range of other conditions, and a high index of suspicion is required to establish the diagnosis. Children with water reflex epilepsy can achieve a good quality of life with modified bathing and appropriate antiepileptic medication.

  12. Health effects of freshwater bathing among primary school children; Design for a randomised exposure study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asperen IA van; Medema GJ; Havelaar AH; Borgdorff MW; CIE; MGB

    1997-01-01

    To study the health effects of bathing in freshwaters that meet current water quality standard, large epidemiological studies are needed. A design is presented of a study among primary school children, that aims to evaluate current water quality standard. The study concerns a randomised exposure

  13. (Microbiological studies of small hot-bath-pools and hot-whirl-pools (author's transl))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Exner, M; Havenith, N

    1981-01-01

    Hot small bathing pools and hot whirl-pools have the following characteristics: small watervolume, thick squeeze of swimmers, high water temperature (37-40 degrees C) and small dimension of filters. By this, the quality of bathing-water is influenced detrimentally. To elaborate the hygienic problems, bathing-water samples were taken before, during and after the visiting-hours and were tested for facultative-pathogenic microorganisms. During this investigation E. coli was isolated in 25 degrees, Coliforms and Proteus species in 37.3%, P. aeruginosa in 36%, S. aureus in 26.3%, Enterococci in 42.3 %, Candida albicans in 3.6% and yeast totally in 8.3%.

  14. Emollient bath additives for the treatment of childhood eczema (BATHE): multicentre pragmatic parallel group randomised controlled trial of clinical and cost effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santer, Miriam; Ridd, Matthew J; Francis, Nick A; Stuart, Beth; Rumsby, Kate; Chorozoglou, Maria; Becque, Taeko; Roberts, Amanda; Liddiard, Lyn; Nollett, Claire; Hooper, Julie; Prude, Martina; Wood, Wendy; Thomas, Kim S; Thomas-Jones, Emma; Williams, Hywel C; Little, Paul

    2018-05-03

    To determine the clinical effectiveness and cost effectiveness of including emollient bath additives in the management of eczema in children. Pragmatic randomised open label superiority trial with two parallel groups. 96 general practices in Wales and western and southern England. 483 children aged 1 to 11 years, fulfilling UK diagnostic criteria for atopic dermatitis. Children with very mild eczema and children who bathed less than once weekly were excluded. Participants in the intervention group were prescribed emollient bath additives by their usual clinical team to be used regularly for 12 months. The control group were asked to use no bath additives for 12 months. Both groups continued with standard eczema management, including leave-on emollients, and caregivers were given standardised advice on how to wash participants. The primary outcome was eczema control measured by the patient oriented eczema measure (POEM, scores 0-7 mild, 8-16 moderate, 17-28 severe) weekly for 16 weeks. Secondary outcomes were eczema severity over one year (monthly POEM score from baseline to 52 weeks), number of eczema exacerbations resulting in primary healthcare consultation, disease specific quality of life (dermatitis family impact), generic quality of life (child health utility-9D), utilisation of resources, and type and quantity of topical corticosteroid or topical calcineurin inhibitors prescribed. 483 children were randomised and one child was withdrawn, leaving 482 children in the trial: 51% were girls (244/482), 84% were of white ethnicity (447/470), and the mean age was 5 years. 96% (461/482) of participants completed at least one post-baseline POEM, so were included in the analysis, and 77% (370/482) completed questionnaires for more than 80% of the time points for the primary outcome (12/16 weekly questionnaires to 16 weeks). The mean baseline POEM score was 9.5 (SD 5.7) in the bath additives group and 10.1 (SD 5.8) in the no bath additives group. The mean POEM score

  15. Electrodeposition of gold from formaldehyde-sulfite baths: bath stability and deposits characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana L. Cardoso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It was investigated Au(I-sulfite baths containing formaldehyde. As a result, high stability was achieved for baths containing formaldehyde concentration close to 10 mL L-1 with a lifetime superior to 600 days. On the other hand, cyclic voltammograms indicated that the increase of formaldehyde concentration in the bath promotes decreasing of the maximum cathodic current, so that, if the formaldehyde concentration is high, the surface areal concentration of gold will be low. Also, the lowest surface roughness was obtained for 10 mL L-1 of formaldehyde.

  16. [History of hot spring bath treatment in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wanpeng; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Yinghong; Gu Li, A Man; Li, Ming; Zhang, Xin

    2011-07-01

    As early as the 7th century B.C. (Western Zhou Dynasty), there is a recording as 'spring which contains sulfur could treat disease' on the Wentang Stele written by WANG Bao. Wenquan Fu written by ZHANG Heng in the Easten Han Dynasty also mentioned hot spring bath treatment. The distribution of hot springs in China has been summarized by LI Daoyuan in the Northern Wei Dynasty in his Shuijingzhu which recorded hot springs in 41 places and interpreted the definition of hot spring. Bencao Shiyi (by CHEN Cangqi, Tang Dynasty) discussed the formation of and indications for hot springs. HU Zai in the Song Dynasty pointed out distinguishing hot springs according to water quality in his book Yuyin Conghua. TANG Shenwei in the Song Dynasty noted in Jingshi Zhenglei Beiji Bencao that hot spring bath treatment should be combined with diet. Shiwu Bencao (Ming Dynasty) classified hot springs into sulfur springs, arsenicum springs, cinnabar springs, aluminite springs, etc. and pointed out their individual indications. Geologists did not start the work on distribution and water quality analysis of hot springs until the first half of the 20th century. There are 972 hot springs in Wenquan Jiyao (written by geologist ZHANG Hongzhao and published in 1956). In July 1982, the First National Geothermal Conference was held and it reported that there were more than 2600 hot springs in China. Since the second half of the 20th century, hot spring sanatoriums and rehabilitation centers have been established, which promoted the development of hot spring bath treatment.

  17. Mapping bare soil in South West Wales, UK, using high resolution colour infra-red aerial photography for water quality and flood risk management applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Helena; Neale, Simon; Coe, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    Natural Resources Wales is a UK government body responsible for environmental regulation, among other areas. River walks in Water Framework Directive (WFD) priority catchments in South West Wales, UK, identified soil entering water courses due to poaching and bank erosion, leading to deterioration in the water quality and jeopardising the water quality meeting legal minimum standards. Bare soil has also been shown to cause quicker and higher hydrograph peaks in rural catchments than if those areas were vegetated, which can lead to flooding of domestic properties during peak storm flows. The aim was to target farm visits by operational staff to advise on practices likely to improve water quality and to identify areas where soft engineering solutions such as revegetation could alleviate flood risk in rural areas. High resolution colour-infrared aerial photography, 25cm in the three colour bands and 50cm in the near infrared band, was used to map bare soil in seven catchments using supervised classification of a five band stack including the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Mapping was combined with agricultural land use and field boundary data to filter out arable fields, which are supposed to bare soil for part of their cycle, and was very successful when compared to ground truthing, with the exception of silage fields which contained sparse, no or unproductive vegetation at the time the imagery was acquired leading to spectral similarity to bare soil. A raindrop trace model was used to show the path sediment from bare soil areas would take when moving through the catchment to a watercourse, with hedgerows inserted as barriers following our observations from ground truthing. The findings have been used to help farmers gain funding for improvements such as fencing to keep animals away from vulnerable river banks. These efficient and automated methods can be rolled out to more catchments in Wales and updated using aerial imagery acquired more recently to

  18. Effects of bathing on cerebral blood flow in healthy volunteers. Using Patlak plot method with technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiromi; Yorizumi, Kouji

    1997-01-01

    We studied the effects of bathing in warm water on cerebral blood flow (CBF). Seven healthy male volunteers were subjected to experiments. The subjects were bathed in warm water at 39degC for 20 minutes in a sitting position immersed up to the neck. Each subject received two CBF examinations: one under normal conditions and the other after taking a bath mentioned above. There was an interval of at least seven days between the two examinations. To measure CBF, we used the Patlak plot method with technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (99m-Tc ECD). To examine CBF after bathing, 99m-Tc ECD was injected within 10 minutes after bathing. Brain perfusion index (BPI) and regional CBF (rCBF) were used as indexes for evaluating CBF. The body temperature, pulse, blood pressure, arterial oxygen and carbon dioxide pressure, and hematocrit were also measured. Wilcoxon's signed rank test was used for statistical analyses. The following were observed: BPI increased significantly after bathing (p<0.05). rCBF in the cerebral cortex, particularly in the frontal lobe, tended to increase after bathing (p<0.05). No definite changes were observed in the cerebellar cortex, caudate nucleus, or thalamus. The body temperature and pulse increased significantly after bathing. No definite changes were observed in blood pressure, arterial oxygen and carbon dioxide pressure, or hematocrit. From the above, we conclude that bathing in warm water causes the cerebral blood flow to increase in healthy subjects. (author)

  19. A practical demonstration in modelling diclofenac and propranolol river water concentrations using a GIS hydrology model in a rural UK catchment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A.C. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) Wallingford, Benson Lane, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: ajo@ceh.ac.uk; Keller, V. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) Wallingford, Benson Lane, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Williams, R.J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) Wallingford, Benson Lane, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Young, A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) Wallingford, Benson Lane, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB (United Kingdom)

    2007-03-15

    An existing GIS hydrology water quality model, LF2000-WQX, was applied to predict the concentrations of the pharmaceuticals diclofenac and propranalol in catchments. As a practical exercise the predominantly rural Tamar (UK) catchment was chosen. Consumption, excretion, and fate data were used to estimate the pharmaceutical input load for the model. The predicted concentrations throughout most of the catchment were 1 ng/L or less under low flow (90th percentile) conditions. However, at a few locations, downstream of small sewage treatment plants, concentrations above 25 ng/L were predicted. This exercise shows that it is relatively straightforward to predict the concentrations of new and emerging organic microcontaminants in real catchments using existing GIS hydrology water quality models. Further testing will be required to establish their accuracy. - A GIS hydrology model was used to predict pharmaceutical concentration hot spots in a rural catchment.

  20. A practical demonstration in modelling diclofenac and propranolol river water concentrations using a GIS hydrology model in a rural UK catchment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.C.; Keller, V.; Williams, R.J.; Young, A.

    2007-01-01

    An existing GIS hydrology water quality model, LF2000-WQX, was applied to predict the concentrations of the pharmaceuticals diclofenac and propranalol in catchments. As a practical exercise the predominantly rural Tamar (UK) catchment was chosen. Consumption, excretion, and fate data were used to estimate the pharmaceutical input load for the model. The predicted concentrations throughout most of the catchment were 1 ng/L or less under low flow (90th percentile) conditions. However, at a few locations, downstream of small sewage treatment plants, concentrations above 25 ng/L were predicted. This exercise shows that it is relatively straightforward to predict the concentrations of new and emerging organic microcontaminants in real catchments using existing GIS hydrology water quality models. Further testing will be required to establish their accuracy. - A GIS hydrology model was used to predict pharmaceutical concentration hot spots in a rural catchment

  1. Helpless patients' perception of bed-bath in tertiary health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helpless patients' perception of bed-bath in tertiary health institutions in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria. ... Journal Home > Vol 10, No 2 (2005) > ... patients to bed bathing by nurses is a very important aspect of quality assurance in nursing care.

  2. The Demonstration Test Catchment Approach to Land and Water Management in the river Eden Watershed, UK. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonczyk, J.; Quinn, P. F.; Haygarth, P.; Reaney, S.; Wilkinson, M.; Burke, S.; McGonigle, D.; Harris, B.

    2010-12-01

    The Demonstration Test Catchment (DTC) initiative is a five year project to address pollution issues in catchments. The initiative will study the wider environmental problems suffered by catchments which are under intense farming pressures and potential climate change impacts. The UK Department for Food, Agriculture and Rural Affairs (Defra) in partnership with the Environment Agency for England and Wales (EA) have funded this initiative to answer key policy concerns in catchments. The first key step has been the establishment of a ‘research platform’ at three catchments in the UK (The Eden, Wensum and Hampshire Avon) whereby funding of 9.3 million dollars has gone into funding new equipment and pollution sampling regimes have been established. Within each catchment between three and four, 8-10km2 sub-catchments have been established. The experimental design and thinking for DTCs will be explained fully in this paper. The next phase of the project will install an extensive suite of land management and pollution mitigation interventions. In parallel to this monitoring work, a full knowledge exchange package will seek to engage with farmers, the rural community and understand the governance regime at the broader catchment scale. There is also a need for a modelling component to upscale the findings to the whole of the UK. Whilst this is an ambitious goal, there is a very basic commitment of working with rural communities to come up with real solutions that will help underpin effective policy making for the future. The research platform covers a multi-scale approach to the monitoring strategy that will allow local grouping of mitigation measures to be studied local in terms of impact and propagated to the catchment scale. Even with high level of funding, the DTC can only fully instrument a catchment of 8-10km2. Beyond this scale, the EA and the standard catchment monitoring will continue as normal. The focus here is to prove that mitigation can be achieved within

  3. Factors influencing the choice of bathing with medicated versus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soap is a cleansing agent obtained through the chemical interaction between fat and alkali. Bathing has become a daily routine of most people as a result of the ready availability of the bathing soap. The aim of this study is to find out reasons for an individual's choice of bathing soap and awareness of any potential adverse ...

  4. A theory of electron baths: One-electron system dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, H.K.

    1992-01-01

    The second-quantized, many-electron, atomic, and molecular Hamiltonian is partitioned both by the identity or labeling of the spin orbitals and by the dynamics of the spin orbitals into a system coupled to a bath. The electron bath is treated by a molecular time scale generalized Langevin equation approach designed to include one-electron dynamics in the system dynamics. The bath is formulated as an equivalent chain of spin orbitals through the introduction of equivalent-chain annihilation and creation operators. Both the dynamics and the quantum grand canonical statistical properties of the electron bath are examined. Two versions for the statistical properties of the bath are pursued. Using a weak bath assumption, a bath statistical average is defined which allows one to achieve a reduced dynamics description of the electron system which is coupled to the electron bath. In a strong bath assumption effective Hamiltonians are obtained which reproduce the dynamics of the bath and which lead to the same results as found in the weak bath assumption. The effective (but exact) Hamiltonian is found to be a one-electron Hamiltonian. A reduced dynamics equation of motion for the system population matrix is derived and found to agree with a previous version. This equation of motion is useful for studying electron transfer in the system when coupled to an electron bath

  5. 20 CFR 654.412 - Bathing, laundry, and handwashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. 654.412... RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.412 Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. (a) Bathing and handwashing facilities, supplied with hot and cold...

  6. Characteristics of sudden bath-related death investigated by medical examiners in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideto; Hikiji, Wakako; Tanifuji, Takanobu; Abe, Nobuyuki; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2015-01-01

    Sudden bath-related deaths occur frequently in Japan, particularly among elderly people. However, the precise mechanism of bath-related death remains uncertain, and effective prevention strategies have not been established. Cases of bath-related deaths (n = 3289) were selected from all cases handled by the Tokyo Medical Examiner's Office from 2009 to 2011 (N = 41 336). The ages and occurrence dates were examined, and major autopsy findings, including toxicological analysis, were evaluated for the autopsied cases (n = 550). Most cases occurred in individuals older than 60 years of age during winter. Analysis of autopsy findings revealed water inhalation signs in many cases (n = 435, 79.1%). Circulatory system diseases constituted more than half of the pathological findings regarding factors that may have contributed significantly to death (n = 300, 54.5%), and cardiac lesions were the most common pathological finding (n = 250, 45.5%). However, approximately one-third of the cases exhibited no remarkable pathological findings (n = 198, 36.0%). A quarter of all cases involved blood ethanol levels that exceeded 0.5 mg/mL (n = 140). The results suggested that drowning plays an important role in the final process of bath-related death. Circulatory system diseases may be the primary underlying pathology; however, there were variations in the medical histories and pathologies of cases of bath-related death. From a preventive perspective, family members should pay attention to elderly people with circulatory system diseases during bathing, particularly in winter. Additionally, the notion that ill or inebriated individuals should not take baths should be reinforced.

  7. The oil-dispersion bath in anthroposophic medicine--an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büssing, Arndt; Cysarz, Dirk; Edelhäuser, Friedrich; Bornhöft, Gudrun; Matthiessen, Peter F; Ostermann, Thomas

    2008-12-04

    Anthroposophic medicine offers a variety of treatments, among others the oil-dispersion bath, developed in the 1930s by Werner Junge. Based on the phenomenon that oil and water do not mix and on recommendations of Rudolf Steiner, Junge developed a vortex mechanism which churns water and essential oils into a fine mist. The oil-covered droplets empty into a tub, where the patient immerses for 15-30 minutes. We review the current literature on oil-dispersion baths. The following databases were searched: Medline, Pubmed, Embase, AMED and CAMbase. The search terms were 'oil-dispersion bath' and 'oil bath', and their translations in German and French. An Internet search was also performed using Google Scholar, adding the search terms 'study' and 'case report' to the search terms above. Finally, we asked several experts for gray literature not listed in the above-mentioned databases. We included only articles which met the criterion of a clinical study or case report, and excluded theoretical contributions. Among several articles found in books, journals and other publications, we identified 1 prospective clinical study, 3 experimental studies (enrolling healthy individuals), 5 case reports, and 3 field-reports. In almost all cases, the studies described beneficial effects - although the methodological quality of most studies was weak. Main indications were internal/metabolic diseases and psychiatric/neurological disorders. Beyond the obvious beneficial effects of warm bathes on the subjective well-being, it remains to be clarified what the unique contribution of the distinct essential oils dispersed in the water can be. There is a lack of clinical studies exploring the efficacy of oil-dispersion baths. Such studies are recommended for the future.

  8. The oil-dispersion bath in anthroposophic medicine – an integrative review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büssing, Arndt; Cysarz, Dirk; Edelhäuser, Friedrich; Bornhöft, Gudrun; Matthiessen, Peter F; Ostermann, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Background Anthroposophic medicine offers a variety of treatments, among others the oil-dispersion bath, developed in the 1930s by Werner Junge. Based on the phenomenon that oil and water do not mix and on recommendations of Rudolf Steiner, Junge developed a vortex mechanism which churns water and essential oils into a fine mist. The oil-covered droplets empty into a tub, where the patient immerses for 15–30 minutes. We review the current literature on oil-dispersion baths. Methods The following databases were searched: Medline, Pubmed, Embase, AMED and CAMbase. The search terms were 'oil-dispersion bath' and 'oil bath', and their translations in German and French. An Internet search was also performed using Google Scholar, adding the search terms 'study' and 'case report' to the search terms above. Finally, we asked several experts for gray literature not listed in the above-mentioned databases. We included only articles which met the criterion of a clinical study or case report, and excluded theoretical contributions. Results Among several articles found in books, journals and other publications, we identified 1 prospective clinical study, 3 experimental studies (enrolling healthy individuals), 5 case reports, and 3 field-reports. In almost all cases, the studies described beneficial effects – although the methodological quality of most studies was weak. Main indications were internal/metabolic diseases and psychiatric/neurological disorders. Conclusion Beyond the obvious beneficial effects of warm bathes on the subjective well-being, it remains to be clarified what the unique contribution of the distinct essential oils dispersed in the water can be. There is a lack of clinical studies exploring the efficacy of oil-dispersion baths. Such studies are recommended for the future. PMID:19055811

  9. The oil-dispersion bath in anthroposophic medicine – an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bornhöft Gudrun

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthroposophic medicine offers a variety of treatments, among others the oil-dispersion bath, developed in the 1930s by Werner Junge. Based on the phenomenon that oil and water do not mix and on recommendations of Rudolf Steiner, Junge developed a vortex mechanism which churns water and essential oils into a fine mist. The oil-covered droplets empty into a tub, where the patient immerses for 15–30 minutes. We review the current literature on oil-dispersion baths. Methods The following databases were searched: Medline, Pubmed, Embase, AMED and CAMbase. The search terms were 'oil-dispersion bath' and 'oil bath', and their translations in German and French. An Internet search was also performed using Google Scholar, adding the search terms 'study' and 'case report' to the search terms above. Finally, we asked several experts for gray literature not listed in the above-mentioned databases. We included only articles which met the criterion of a clinical study or case report, and excluded theoretical contributions. Results Among several articles found in books, journals and other publications, we identified 1 prospective clinical study, 3 experimental studies (enrolling healthy individuals, 5 case reports, and 3 field-reports. In almost all cases, the studies described beneficial effects – although the methodological quality of most studies was weak. Main indications were internal/metabolic diseases and psychiatric/neurological disorders. Conclusion Beyond the obvious beneficial effects of warm bathes on the subjective well-being, it remains to be clarified what the unique contribution of the distinct essential oils dispersed in the water can be. There is a lack of clinical studies exploring the efficacy of oil-dispersion baths. Such studies are recommended for the future.

  10. Occurrence and spatial distribution of chemical contaminants in edible fish species collected from UK and proximate marine waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, A R; Mortimer, D; Holmes, M; Rose, M; Zhihua, L; Huang, X; Smith, F; Panton, S; Marshall, L

    2018-05-01

    The occurrence of a range of regulated and emerging organic environmental contaminants was investigated in 182 samples of edible marine fish sampled mainly from UK marine regions, but extending northerly to the coast of Norway and south to the Algarve. These species (sprats, mackerel, turbot, halibut, herring, grey mullet, sea bass, grey mullet, sardines, etc.) are among those considered to be at the highest risk of contamination with regulated contaminants such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs, dioxins), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), but the occurrence of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) was also investigated. Sub-sets of samples (50-75) were also analysed for emerging contaminants: polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), polybrominated and mixed halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls (PBDD/Fs, PXDD/Fs and PXBs) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). Contaminant occurrence varied with species and location, but all measured contaminants were detected, with sprats, sea bass, sardines, mackerel, and herring showing higher tissue concentrations. The concentrations of the different contaminants in the various samples were mapped utilising the GPS coordinate data of the capture locations to visualise spatial distribution levels. In terms of catch location, fish sampled from the coasts of southern Britain, north-western France and the Irish Sea appeared to contain proportionately higher levels of some contaminants - e.g. samples from the Irish Sea tended to show higher PCN concentrations, whereas higher levels of PCBs were observed in some fish sampled off the coasts of northern France. Similarly, samples of mullet from the southeast coast of UK showed much higher concentrations of BDE-99 than the other regions. In terms of occurrence trends, PCDD/F and PCB concentrations show a modest decline over the last decade but where limited background data is available for emerging

  11. Microbiological quality for bathing water in the "Conde del Guadalhorce" reservoir of Málaga City, Spain, 2000-2005 Calidad microbiológica de las aguas de baño del embalse Conde de Guadalhorce, de Málaga (España, 2000-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Jesús Gámez de la Hoz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Determine the presence and evolution of indicators microorganisms of water pollution in “Conde del Guadalhorce” reservoir, Málaga city, Spain. A second objective was to analyze pollution degree and evaluate the sanitary quality of bathing water and compliance with European Directive 76/160/CE. Method. A total of 120 water samples were collected in two bathing freshwater sites during May to September sampling period between 2000 to 2005, and the numbers of total coliforms (CT, faecal coliforms (CF and faecal streptococci (EF were enumerated using the membrane filtration method. We used the log-normal distribution method and calculate the logarithmic means, percentile points, ratios CF:EF, ANOVA and Pearson correlations. Results. Only two samples overcome CF limit values at Camping sampling station during 2000 year. Ratios CF:EF values were higher (> 4 during 2000 to 2002, and lower (∝ ∝ Conclusions. “Conde del Guadalhorce” reservoir showed hygienic conditions for safety bathing. Globally, water bathing quality is good. CT, CF y EF indicators were agreed with UE Directive during 2000-2005, with exception CF at Camping station in 2000 year. CT y CF concentrations at Camping were frecuently higher than Kiosko, it could be caused to swimmers abundance and recreational activities. There was a trend towards rising EF, it could be caused to faecal pollution source of animal origin, needed to research it.Introducción. Determinar la presencia y evolución de microorganismos indicadores de contaminación en las aguas del embalse Conde del Guadalhorce, Málaga (España. Un segundo objetivo fue analizar el grado de contaminación y evaluar la calidad sanitaria del agua de baño según la Directiva 76/160/CE. Método. Se tomaron 120 muestras de aguas en 2 lugares de baño durante la temporada de mayo a septiembre en el período 2000 a 2005, y se enumeraron las bacterias coliformes totales (CT, coliformes fecales (CF y estreptococos

  12. Impact of a Hydrophobic Sphere onto a Bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Daniel M.; Edmonds, John; Galeano-Rios, Carlos A.; Milewski, Paul A.

    2017-11-01

    Small hydrophobic particles impacting a water surface can rebound completely from the interface (Lee & Kim, Langmuir, 2008). In the present work, we focus on the bouncing dynamics of millimetric hydrophobic spheres impacting the surface of a quiescent water bath. Particular attention is given to the dependence of the normal coefficient of restitution and contact time on the impact velocity and the radius and density of the sphere. Our experimental observations are compared to the predictions of a fluid model derived from linearized Navier-Stokes under the assumption of a high Reynolds number regime (Galeano-Rios et al., JFM, in press). In the model, the motions of the sphere and the fluid interface are found by imposing the natural geometric and kinematic compatibility conditions. Future directions will be discussed. C.A.G.-R. and P.A.M. gratefully acknowledge support through the EPSRC project EP/N018176/1.

  13. Presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in sand from bathing beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, F J; Surman, S B; Martin, K; Wareing, D R; Humphrey, T J

    1999-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. in sand from non-EEC standard and EEC standard designated beaches in different locations in the UK and to assess if potentially pathogenic strains were present. Campylobacter spp. were detected in 82/182 (45%) of sand samples and Salmonella spp. in 10/182 (6%). Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 46/92 (50%) of samples from non-EEC standard beaches and 36/90 (40%) from EEC standard beaches. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was greater in wet sand from both types of beaches but, surprisingly, more than 30% of samples from dry sand also contained these organisms. The major pathogenic species C. jejuni and C. coli were more prevalent in sand from non-EEC standard beaches. In contrast, C. lari and urease positive thermophilic campylobacters, which are associated with seagulls and other migratory birds, were more prevalent in sand from EEC standard beaches. Campylobacter isolates were further characterized by biotyping and serotyping, which confirmed that strains known to be of types associated with human infections were frequently found in sand on bathing beaches.

  14. Microbiological Guideline Values for Recreational Bathing in Canada: Time for Change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Lévesque

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Recreational bathing is an activity practiced by thousands of Canadians every year. While its health benefits are numerous, bathing in polluted water can also be a source of health problems. These problems are generally nonspecific and are difficult to detect through usual health monitoring systems. Most involve ear and eye ailments, febrile respiratory illness and, particularly, gastroenteritis. In 1992, Health Canada recommended microbiological guideline values for recreational water quality. The values are based on the presence of fecal indicator bacteria, namely, enterococci for marine water, and Escherichia coli or fecal coliforms for fresh water. In marine water, the guideline value is set at 35 enterococci/100 mL, while in fresh water, the standard is 200 E coli/100 mL or 200 fecal coliforms/100 mL when experience demonstrates that over 90% of the fecal coliforms are E coli. Notwithstanding certain variances, many Canadian provinces apply these guidelines. However, in Ontario, the guideline is 100 E coli/100 mL. Over the past several years, many epidemiological studies, including randomized clinical trials, have examined the relationship between bathing in polluted water and ensuing health problems. On review of this literature, the Canadian guideline values for marine water seems appropriate, but scientific evidence argues toward lowering the Canadian guideline values for fresh water to 100 E coli/100 mL, in line with the standard currently in effect in Ontario.

  15. Fluoride in drinking water and risk of hip fracture in the UK: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, S; Cooper, C; Kellingray, S; Russell, G; Hughes, H; Coggon, D

    2000-01-22

    Although the benefits of water fluoridation for dental health are widely accepted, concerns remain about possible adverse effects, particularly effects on bone. Several investigators have suggested increased rates of hip fracture in places with high concentrations of fluoride in drinking water, but this finding has not been consistent, possibly because of unrecognised confounding effects. We did a case-control study of men and women aged 50 years and older from the English county of Cleveland, and compared patients with hip fracture with community controls. Current addresses were ascertained for all participants; for those who agreed to an interview and who passed a mental test, more detailed information was obtained about lifetime residential history and exposure to other known and suspected risk factors for hip fracture. Exposures to fluoride in water were estimated from the residential histories and from information provided by water suppliers. Analysis was by logistic regression. 914 cases and 1196 controls were identified, of whom 514 and 527, respectively, were interviewed. Among those interviewed, hip fracture was strongly associated with low body-mass index (p for trend water ranged from 0.15 to 1.79 ppm. Current residence in Hartlepool was a good indicator for high lifetime exposure to fluoride. After adjustment for potential confounders, the odds ratio associated with an average lifetime exposure to fluoride > or =0.9 ppm was 1.0 [95% CI 0.7-1.5]. There is a low risk of hip fracture for people ingesting fluoride in drinking water at concentrations of about 1 ppm. This low risk should not be a reason for withholding fluoridation of water supplies.

  16. Distribution of Legionella pneumophila bacteria and Naegleria and Hartmannella amoebae in thermal saline baths used in balneotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbikowska, Elżbieta; Walczak, Maciej; Krawiec, Arkadiusz

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the coexistence and interactions between free living amoebae of Naegleria and Hartmannella genera and pathogenic Legionella pneumophila bacteria in thermal saline baths used in balneotherapy in central Poland. Water samples were collected from November 2010 to May 2011 at intervals longer than 1 month. The microorganisms were detected with the use of a very sensitive fluorescence in situ hybridisation method. In addition, the morphology of the amoebae was studied. Despite relatively high salinity level, ranging from 1.5 to 5.0 %, L. pneumophila were found in all investigated baths, although their number never exceeded 10(6) cells dm(-3). Hartmannella were not detected, while Naegleria fowleri were found in one bath. The observation that N. fowleri and L. pneumophila may coexist in thermal saline baths is the first observation emphasising potential threat from these microorganisms in balneotherapy.

  17. CFD Modeling of Swirl and Nonswirl Gas Injections into Liquid Baths Using Top Submerged Lances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, Nazmul; Naser, J.; Brooks, G.; Reuter, M. A.; Matusewicz, R. W.

    2010-02-01

    Fluid flow phenomena in a cylindrical bath stirred by a top submerged lance (TSL) gas injection was investigated by using the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling technique for an isothermal air-water system. The multiphase flow simulation, based on the Euler-Euler approach, elucidated the effect of swirl and nonswirl flow inside the bath. The effects of the lance submergence level and the air flow rate also were investigated. The simulation results for the velocity fields and the generation of turbulence in the bath were validated against existing experimental data from the previous water model experimental study by Morsi et al.[1] The model was extended to measure the degree of the splash generation for different liquid densities at certain heights above the free surface. The simulation results showed that the two-thirds lance submergence level provided better mixing and high liquid velocities for the generation of turbulence inside the water bath. However, it is also responsible for generating more splashes in the bath compared with the one-third lance submergence level. An approach generally used by heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system simulations was applied to predict the convective mixing phenomena. The simulation results for the air-water system showed that mean convective mixing for swirl flow is more than twice than that of nonswirl in close proximity to the lance. A semiempirical equation was proposed from the results of the present simulation to measure the vertical penetration distance of the air jet injected through the annulus of the lance in the cylindrical vessel of the model, which can be expressed as L_{va} = 0.275( {do - di } )Frm^{0.4745} . More work still needs to be done to predict the detail process kinetics in a real furnace by considering nonisothermal high-temperature systems with chemical reactions.

  18. Modifications for water management guidance based on an assessment of swimming pool water consumption of an operational facility in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, L; Chew, J; Woodley, I; Colbourne, J; Pond, K

    2015-01-01

    Water use is a significant operational cost factor for large swimming pool facilities, however it has been overshadowed by the recent focus on energy consumption and carbon emissions. Currently it is difficult for operators to make decisions in relation to water efficiency due to the lack of information on the relationship between pool operation and water use. This study has started to address this issue by reviewing water use at a fully operational facility. The analysis of the consumption d...

  19. Distributions and concentrations of thallium in surface waters of a region impacted by historical metal mining (Cornwall, UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsi, Kristi; Turner, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Thallium is a highly toxic heavy metal whose concentrations and distributions in the aquatic environment are poorly defined. In this study, concentrations of aqueous and total Tl have been measured in water samples from a variety of rivers and effluents (the latter related to historical metal mining) in the county of Cornwall, SW England. Aqueous concentrations ranged from about 13 ng L(-1) in a river whose catchment contained no metal mines to 2,640 ng L(-1) in water abstracted directly from an abandoned mine shaft. Concentrations of Tl in rivers were greatest in the vicinity of mine-related effluents, with a maximum value measured of about 770 ng L(-1). Thallium was not efficiently removed by the conventional, active treatment of mine water, and displayed little interaction with suspended particles. Its mobility in surface waters, coupled with concentrations that are close to a quality guideline of 800 ng L(-1), is cause for concern. Accordingly, we recommend that the metal is more closely monitored in this and other regions impacted by mining activities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Recovery process for electroless plating baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Roger W.; Neff, Wayne A.

    1992-01-01

    A process for removing, from spent electroless metal plating bath solutions, accumulated byproducts and counter-ions that have deleterious effects on plating. The solution, or a portion thereof, is passed through a selected cation exchange resin bed in hydrogen form, the resin selected from strong acid cation exchangers and combinations of intermediate acid cation exchangers with strong acid cation exchangers. Sodium and nickel ions are sorbed in the selected cation exchanger, with little removal of other constituents. The remaining solution is subjected to sulfate removal through precipitation of calcium sulfate hemihydrate using, sequentially, CaO and then CaCO.sub.3. Phosphite removal from the solution is accomplished by the addition of MgO to form magnesium phosphite trihydrate. The washed precipitates of these steps can be safely discarded in nontoxic land fills, or used in various chemical industries. Finally, any remaining solution can be concentrated, adjusted for pH, and be ready for reuse. The plating metal can be removed from the exchanger with sulfuric acid or with the filtrate from the magnesium phosphite precipitation forming a sulfate of the plating metal for reuse. The process is illustrated as applied to processing electroless nickel plating baths.

  1. Bathing littoral water pollution related to ditches fecal coliform concentration and load (first stage); Inquinamento delle acque litorali adibite alla balneazione in relazione alla concentrazione e al carico di coliformi fecali dei fossi (prima fase di studio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoni, Franco [ARPAT, Lucca (Italy). Dipt. Provinciale U.O. Biologia Ambientale; Quilici, Mariachiara; Brunelli, Iacopo

    1997-08-01

    Fecal coliforms concentration and load, and flow of four ditches (Burlamacca, Abate, Motrone, Fiumetto) with mouth into Versilia coast have been studied. Superficial water environmental impact on surrounding sea-water (according to DPR 470/82) has been evaluated. During the study period (from April to September) these mouths behave like lagoons, showing negative positive or no flow, in relation both to the sea and to affluent waters hydrodynamic force. Positive correlation between mm of rain fallen during the week before the drawing and the number of FC/100 ml of ditches water has been pointed out, while there is no correlation with FC/100 ml of sea-water. Sea-water pollution is influenced by ditches flow a nd load of FC s{sup -1}; these two parameters are not correlated to rain, because it is often associated with sea-land wind. Fiumetto ditch is an exception, with its significant correlation index (r = 0.64). The correlation between the number of FC s{sup -1} of the ditches and the number of FC/100 ml of littoral water is significant for Burlamacca and Abate ditches (r > 0.63, p < 0.05). Burlamacca ditch produces greater fecal pollution (FC s{sup -1} = 247077332) than Motrone (FC {sup -1} = 5406436), Abate (FCs{sup -1} = 4114183) and Fiumetto (FCs{sup -1} 2201103) ditches.

  2. Thermal baths as quantum resources: more friends than foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurizki, Gershon; Shahmoon, Ephraim; Zwick, Analia

    2015-12-01

    In this article we argue that thermal reservoirs (baths) are potentially useful resources in processes involving atoms interacting with quantized electromagnetic fields and their applications to quantum technologies. One may try to suppress the bath effects by means of dynamical control, but such control does not always yield the desired results. We wish instead to take advantage of bath effects, that do not obliterate ‘quantumness’ in the system-bath compound. To this end, three possible approaches have been pursued by us. (i) Control of a quantum system faster than the correlation time of the bath to which it couples: such control allows us to reveal quasi-reversible/coherent dynamical phenomena of quantum open systems, manifest by the quantum Zeno or anti-Zeno effects (QZE or AZE, respectively). Dynamical control methods based on the QZE are aimed not only at protecting the quantumness of the system, but also diagnosing the bath spectra or transferring quantum information via noisy media. By contrast, AZE-based control is useful for fast cooling of thermalized quantum systems. (ii) Engineering the coupling of quantum systems to selected bath modes: this approach, based on field-atom coupling control in cavities, waveguides and photonic band structures, allows one to drastically enhance the strength and range of atom-atom coupling through the mediation of the selected bath modes. More dramatically, it allows us to achieve bath-induced entanglement that may appear paradoxical if one takes the conventional view that coupling to baths destroys quantumness. (iii) Engineering baths with appropriate non-flat spectra: this approach is a prerequisite for the construction of the simplest and most efficient quantum heat machines (engines and refrigerators). We may thus conclude that often thermal baths are ‘more friends than foes’ in quantum technologies.

  3. Thermal baths as quantum resources: more friends than foes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurizki, Gershon; Zwick, Analia; Shahmoon, Ephraim

    2015-01-01

    In this article we argue that thermal reservoirs (baths) are potentially useful resources in processes involving atoms interacting with quantized electromagnetic fields and their applications to quantum technologies. One may try to suppress the bath effects by means of dynamical control, but such control does not always yield the desired results. We wish instead to take advantage of bath effects, that do not obliterate ‘quantumness’ in the system-bath compound. To this end, three possible approaches have been pursued by us. (i) Control of a quantum system faster than the correlation time of the bath to which it couples: such control allows us to reveal quasi-reversible/coherent dynamical phenomena of quantum open systems, manifest by the quantum Zeno or anti-Zeno effects (QZE or AZE, respectively). Dynamical control methods based on the QZE are aimed not only at protecting the quantumness of the system, but also diagnosing the bath spectra or transferring quantum information via noisy media. By contrast, AZE-based control is useful for fast cooling of thermalized quantum systems. (ii) Engineering the coupling of quantum systems to selected bath modes: this approach, based on field–atom coupling control in cavities, waveguides and photonic band structures, allows one to drastically enhance the strength and range of atom–atom coupling through the mediation of the selected bath modes. More dramatically, it allows us to achieve bath-induced entanglement that may appear paradoxical if one takes the conventional view that coupling to baths destroys quantumness. (iii) Engineering baths with appropriate non-flat spectra: this approach is a prerequisite for the construction of the simplest and most efficient quantum heat machines (engines and refrigerators). We may thus conclude that often thermal baths are ‘more friends than foes’ in quantum technologies. (invited comment)

  4. The Water Quality of the River Enborne, UK: Observations from High-Frequency Monitoring in a Rural, Lowland River System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Halliday

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a 2-year study of water quality in the River Enborne, a rural river in lowland England. Concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus species and other chemical determinands were monitored both at high-frequency (hourly, using automated in situ instrumentation, and by manual weekly sampling and laboratory analysis. The catchment land use is largely agricultural, with a population density of 123 persons km−2. The river water is largely derived from calcareous groundwater, and there are high nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. Agricultural fertiliser is the dominant source of annual loads of both nitrogen and phosphorus. However, the data show that sewage effluent discharges have a disproportionate effect on the river nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics. At least 38% of the catchment population use septic tank systems, but the effects are hard to quantify as only 6% are officially registered, and the characteristics of the others are unknown. Only 4% of the phosphorus input and 9% of the nitrogen input is exported from the catchment by the river, highlighting the importance of catchment process understanding in predicting nutrient concentrations. High-frequency monitoring will be a key to developing this vital process understanding.

  5. Escherichia coli at Ohio Bathing Beaches--Distribution, Sources, Wastewater Indicators, and Predictive Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, Donna S.; Gifford, Amie M.; Darner, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    Results of studies during the recreational seasons of 2000 and 2001 strengthen the science that supports monitoring of our Nation?s beaches. Water and sediment samples were collected and analyzed for concentrations of Escherichia coli (E. coli). Ancillary water-quality and environmental data were collected or compiled to determine their relation to E. coli concentrations. Data were collected at three Lake Erie urban beaches (Edgewater, Villa Angela, and Huntington), two Lake Erie beaches in a less populated area (Mentor Headlands and Fairport Harbor), and one inland-lake beach (Mosquito Lake). The distribution of E. coli in water and sediments within the bathing area, outside the bathing area, and near the swash zone was investigated at the three Lake Erie urban beaches and at Mosquito Lake. (The swash zone is the zone that is alternately covered and exposed by waves.) Lake-bottom sediments from outside the bathing area were not significant deposition areas for E. coli. In contrast, interstitial water and subsurface sediments from near the swash zone were enriched with E. coli. For example, E. coli concentrations were as high as 100,000 colonies per 100 milliliters in some interstitial waters. Although there are no standards for E. coli in swash-zone materials, the high concentrations found at some locations warrant concern for public health. Studies were done at Mosquito Lake to identify sources of fecal contamination to the lake and bathing beach. Escherichia coli concentrations decreased with distance from a suspected source of fecal contamination that is north of the beach but increased at the bathing beach. This evidence indicated that elevated E. coli concentrations at the bathing beach are of local origin rather than from transport of bacteria from sites to the north. Samples collected from the three Lake Erie urban beaches and Mosquito Lake were analyzed to determine whether wastewater indicators could be used as surrogates for E. coli at bathing beaches

  6. Performance of Flow and Heat Transfer in a Hot-Dip Round Coreless Galvanizing Bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Qiang; Zhang, Chengbo; Xu, Yong; Zhou, Li; Kong, Hui; Wang, Jia

    2017-04-01

    Flow field in a coreless hot-dip galvanizing pot was investigated through a water modeling experiment. The corresponding velocity vector was measured using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter. The flow field of molten zinc in the bath was also analyzed. Steel strip velocities from 1.7 to 2.7 m/s were adopted to determine the effect of steel strip velocity on the molten zinc flow in the bath. A large vortex filled the space at the right side of the sink roll, under linear speed from 1.0 to 2.7 m/s and width from 1.0 to 1.3 m of the steel strip, because of the effects of wall and shear stress. The results of the water modeling experiment were compared with those of numerical simulations. In the simulation, Maxwell equations were solved using finite element method to obtain magnetic flux density, electromagnetic force, and Joule heating. The Joule heating rate reached the maximum and minimum values near the side wall and at the core of the bath, respectively, because of the effect of skin and proximity. In an industrial-sized model, the molten zinc flow and temperature fields driven by electromagnetic force and Joule heating in the inductor of a coreless galvanizing bath were numerically simulated. The results indicated that the direction of electromagnetic force concentrated at the center of the galvanizing pot horizontal planes and exerted a pinch effect on molten zinc. Consequently, molten zinc in the pot was stirred by electromagnetic force. Under molten zinc flow and electromagnetic force stirring, the temperature of the molten zinc became homogeneous throughout the bath. This study provides a basis for optimizing electromagnetic fields in coreless induction pot and fine-tuning the design of steel strip parameters.

  7. Flocculation of organic carbon from headwaters to estuary - the impact of soil erosion, water quality and land use on carbon transformation processes in eight streams draining Exmoor, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoalv, J.; Groeneveld, M.; Quine, T. A.; Tranvik, L.

    2017-12-01

    Flocculation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in streams and rivers is a process that contributes to the pool of particulate organic carbon (POC) in the aquatic system. In low-energy waters the increased sedimentation rates of this higher-density fraction of organic carbon (OC) makes POC important in allocating organic carbon into limnic storage, which subsequently influences emissions of greenhouse gases from the continental environment to the atmosphere. Allochthonous OC, derived from the terrestrial environment by soil erosion and litterfall, import both mineral aggregate-bound and free OC into freshwaters, which comprise carbon species of different quality and recalcitrance than autochthonous in-stream produced OC, such as from biofilms, aquatic plants and algae. Increased soil erosion due to land use change (e.g. agriculture, deforestation etc.) influences the input of allochthonous OC, which can lead to increased POC formation and sedimentation of terrestrial OC at flocculation boundaries in the landscape, i.e. where coagulation and flocculation processes are prone to occur in the water column. This study investigates the seasonal variation in POC content and flocculation capacity with respect to water quality (elemental composition) in eight river systems (four agricultural and four wooded streams) with headwaters in Exmoor, UK, that drain managed and non-managed land into Bristol Channel. Through flocculation experiments the samples were allowed to flocculate by treatments with added clay and salt standards that simulate the flocculation processes by 1) increased input of sediment into streams, and 2) saline mixing at the estuarine boundary, in order to quantify floc production and investigate POC quality by each process respectively. The results show how floc production, carbon quality and incorporation (e.g. complexation) of metals and rare earth elements (REE) in produced POC and remaining DOC in solution vary in water samples over the season and how

  8. (Hygienic quality of lakes which are used as open-air bath. 2. Communication: Comparison of biochemical typed Escherichia coli strains isolated from lake water and bird excrements (author's transl))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dott, W.; Wolff, H.J.; Botzenhart, K.

    1981-01-01

    368 strains of Escherichia coli were isolated from lakewaters and bird excrements (mainly black-headed gulls) using mandatory methods for drinking water examination. All strains were further characterized by 43 biochemical physiological and 30 morphological features. Besides the API 30 E Enterobacteriaceae system and the Roche Enterotube system of biochemical testing were used comparatively. The analysis using numerical methods for taxonomy pointed out that a single biotop could be characterized by the small physiological variation of the strains.

  9. Acute irritant reaction to an antiseptic bath emollient

    OpenAIRE

    Saw, N; Hindmarsh, J

    2005-01-01

    Antiseptic bath emollients are commonly prescribed for treatment of eczema and are generally safe for frequent application. Although acute irritant reactions are uncommon it is nevertheless recognised and could have significant morbidity. This case describes a young male patient who developed an acute irritant reaction localised to the external genitalia, mimicking Fournier's gangrene, after overnight application of Oilatum Plus antiseptic bath emollients.

  10. Acute irritant reaction to an antiseptic bath emollient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, N; Hindmarsh, J

    2005-01-01

    Antiseptic bath emollients are commonly prescribed for treatment of eczema and are generally safe for frequent application. Although acute irritant reactions are uncommon it is nevertheless recognised and could have significant morbidity. This case describes a young male patient who developed an acute irritant reaction localised to the external genitalia, mimicking Fournier's gangrene, after overnight application of Oilatum Plus antiseptic bath emollients. PMID:15701748

  11. Influence of bath temperature and bath composition on Co-Ag electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Torres, Jose; Valles, Elisa; Gomez, Elvira

    2010-01-01

    A study of the best conditions to prepare smooth heterogeneous Co-Ag films with low amounts of S from a thiourea-based electrolytic bath has been performed. Using a 0.01 M AgClO 4 + 0.1 M Co(ClO 4 ) 2 + 0.1 M thiourea + 0.1 M sodium gluconate + 0.3 M H 3 BO 3 + 0.1 M NaClO 4 bath, low temperature (10 o C) allowed obtaining compact and smooth deposits containing 2 wt.% sulphur. Decreasing thiourea content 0.06 M and increasing gluconate concentration up to 0.3 M, better deposits (more compact with lower sulphur content (1.2 wt.%)) were obtained. A clear influence of the species present in the bath on the film quality was observed: while gluconate favoured film cohesion, boric acid hindered hydrogen adsorption. For all films, fcc-Ag, hcp-Co and hcp-CoAg 3 phases were always detected by XRD, TEM and electron diffraction, their proportions varying with the electrodeposition conditions. Magnetic measurements revealed that the increase in the CoAg 3 led to an increase in the film coercivity. GMR values were only measured at cryogenic temperatures, they being higher for the deposits with the lowest sulphur content revealing that sulphur exerts a negative effect on magnetoresistance.

  12. A quantum Otto engine with finite heat baths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pozas-Kerstjens, Alejandro; Brown, Eric G.; Hovhannisyan, Karen V.

    2018-01-01

    We study a driven harmonic oscillator operating an Otto cycle by strongly interacting with two thermal baths of finite size. Using the tools of Gaussian quantum mechanics, we directly simulate the dynamics of the engine as a whole, without the need to make any approximations. This allows us...... to understand the non-equilibrium thermodynamics of the engine not only from the perspective of the working medium, but also as it is seen from the thermal baths' standpoint. For sufficiently large baths, our engine is capable of running a number of perfect cycles, delivering finite power while operating very...... close to maximal efficiency. Thereafter, having traversed the baths, the perturbations created by the interaction abruptly deteriorate the engine's performance. Weadditionally study the correlations generated in the system, and, in particular, we find a direct connection between the build up of bath...

  13. Report on survey project for demonstration of warm sea water bathing facilities using unutilized resources such as wastes in islands by carbonizing them into energy; 2001 nendo kankyo chowa gata energy community field test jigyo chosa hokokusho. Rito ni okeru haikibutsu tou mikatsuyo shigen no tanka energyka no kaisui on'yoku shisetsu heno jissho chosa jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    Surveys and discussions have been performed in Yuge Town in Ehime Prefecture for aiming at promotion of district development and zero emission in islands by carbonizing general wastes (household refuses and business operation wastes) and bamboos in the islands to utilize their energies as a substitute for the heat source of the warm sea water bathing facilities, as well as utilizing the produced carbides as soil improving materials or deodorants. The surveys were performed on bamboo carbonizing and gas carbonizing technologies, energy utilization feasibility, analysis of wastes composition, and identification of quantity of bamboos in existence. In discussing the energy utilization system by means of carbonization, it was revealed that the introduction of the bamboo carbonizing and gas carbonizing technologies can sufficiently satisfy the heat demand of the Yuge Town community facilities, although the amount of heat that can be supplied may vary because of difference in the technical processes. Also with regard to the problems of dioxins contained in the discharged gas and the problems of heavy metals contained in the carbides, it was discovered that different environmental criteria can be met as evidenced by the existing demonstration data. (NEDO)

  14. The Optimization of the Oiling Bath Cosmetic Composition Containing Rapeseed Phospholipids and Grapeseed Oil by the Full Factorial Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Górecki

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The proper condition of hydrolipid mantle and the stratum corneum intercellular matrix determines effective protection against transepidermal water loss (TEWL. Some chemicals, improper use of cosmetics, poor hygiene, old age and some diseases causes disorder in the mentioned structures and leads to TEWL increase. The aim of this study was to obtain the optimal formulation composition of an oiling bath cosmetic based on rapeseed phospholipids and vegetable oil with high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In this work, the composition of oiling bath form was calculated and the degree of oil dispersion after mixing the bath preparation with water was selected as the objective function in the optimizing procedure. The full factorial design 23 in the study was used. The concentrations of rapeseed lecithin ethanol soluble fraction (LESF, alcohol (E and non-ionic emulsifier (P were optimized. Based on the calculations from our results, the optimal composition of oiling bath cosmetic was: L (LESF 5.0 g, E (anhydrous ethanol 20.0 g and P (Polysorbate 85 1.5 g. The optimization procedure used in the study allowed to obtain the oiling bath cosmetic which gives above 60% higher emulsion dispersion degree 5.001 × 10−5 cm−1 compared to the initial formulation composition with the 3.096 × 10−5 cm−1.

  15. Colonization of Legionella species in Turkish baths in hotels in Alanya, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Haluk; Arslan, Hande

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of Legionella species in water samples collected from Turkish baths in hotels in Alanya, Turkey, from August 2003 to September 2013. Water samples were collected in 100-mL sterile containers and then concentrated by filtration. Heat treatment was used to eliminate other microorganisms from the samples, which were then spread on Legionella-selective-buffered charcoal yeast extract alpha (BCYE-α) agar and on BCYE-α agar supplemented with glycine, vancomycin, polymyxin, and cycloheximide. Cysteine-dependent colonies were identified by latex agglutination. In total, 135 samples from 52 hotels with Turkish baths were evaluated. Legionella species were identified in 11/52 (21.2%) hotels and 18/135 (13.3%) samples. The most frequently isolated species was Legionella pneumophila, with most isolates belonging to serogroups 6 (55.6%) and 1 (22.2%). The colony count was 1000 CFU mL(-1) in three samples. These findings suggest that the hot water systems of Turkish baths in hotels must be viewed as a possible source of travel-associated Legionnaires' disease, and preventative measures should be put in place.

  16. Quality control of disinfection in ultrasonic baths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoene, H. [Technical University Dresden (Germany). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering; Jatzwauk, L. [University Hospital of the Technical University Dresden (Germany). Abt. Krankenhaushygiene

    2002-07-01

    Numerous investigations under laboratory conditions confirmed the microbicidal efficacy of ultrasonication. Morphological destruction was shown on bacteria and fungi as well as on different virus species. Ultrasonic treatment seems to increase the effect of different antibiotics and disinfectants. Reasons for this synergism are largely unknown and uninvestigated, but the active principle seems to bee the dispersing effect of ultrasonication in combination with the destruction of cell wall or cell membrane. Unfortunately no validation of test conditions exists for most of these investigations, regarding intensity and frequency of ultrasonic waves, temperature of liquid medium and measurement of cavitation which is an essential part of physical and chemical effects in ultrasonic baths. In contrast to most laboratory experiments sound density of ultrasound for treatment of medical instruments is below 1 W/cm{sup 2} because instruments will be destroyed under stronger ultrasonic conditions. The frequency is below 50 KHz. This paper describes bactericidal and fungicidal effects of low- intensity-ultrasonication and its synergistical support to chemical disinfection. (orig.)

  17. [Survival of Bacillus anthracis spores in various tannery baths].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendrycka, M; Mierzejewski, J

    2000-01-01

    The influence of tannery baths: liming, deliming, bating, pickling, tanning, retannage on the survival and on the germination dynamism of B. anthracis spores (Sterne strain) was investigated. The periods and the conditions of this influence were established according to technological process of cow hide tannage. Practically after every bath some part of the spores remained vital. The most effective killing of spores occurred after pickling, liming and deliming. Inversely, the most viable spores remained after bating and retannage process. The lack of correlation that was observed between survival and germination of spores after retannage bath can be explained by different mechanism of spores germination inhibition and their killing.

  18. The Comparison of the Effects of Contrast Bath on Circulation of Contralateral Lower Limb in Type 2 Diabetic and Healthy Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Shafizadegan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contrast bath is a thermal agent that is used as alternative heat and cold water on a target limb. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in long term leads to vascular insufficiency. It seems that contrast bath is useful for patients with diabetes mellitus due to the increase in blood flow and vascular pumping. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect(s of contrast bath on circulation of contralateral lower limb in women with type 2diabetes mellitus compared to healthy subjects. Methods: Fifteen diabetic females aged between 30-60 years, who were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, and 30 matched control females participated in this research. The oral temperature, skin temperature of the first web space of the foot, and the pulse of dorsalis pedis artery were measured and recorded. These results were evaluated prior to, immediately and 10 minutes after the contrast bath. The contrast bath protocol included the immersion of the right foot in the warm bath (38-44 °C for four minutes and then in the cold bath (10-18 °C for one minute. These processes were repeated five times as the total duration of the intervention was 24 minutes. The treatment was started and terminated with warm water. Repeated measures and independent t-test were used for data analysis. Results: The dorsalis pedis pulse was significantly higher at all times of the measurements except between immediately post the contrast bath and after 10 minutes of applying it in the diabetic group (P=0.58. The results of the skin temperature measurement demonstrated incremental changes in the healthy and the diabetic groups. The oral temperature at all times was not significantly different in the normal and the diabetic groups (P>0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that contrast bath can increase circulation in the contralateral limb. However, its influence on superficial and deep blood flow is uncertain.

  19. Effect of non-solvents used in the coagulation bath on morphology of PVDF membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Beatriz Thürmer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to prepare a poly (vinylidene fluoride (PVDF membrane using different non-solvents in the coagulation bath for the phase inversion method. In order to increase the mechanical strength of membranes, facing the pressure of work, was used a macro-porous polyester support. The morphology and structure of the resulting membranes were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, porosity measurements, water and 1-octanol uptake, contact angle, pure water flux, hydraulic permeability and hydraulic resistance. The morphology and pure water flux changed significantly using ethanol (symmetric membrane and/or water (asymmetric membrane as the non-solvent. The symmetric membrane presented a high hydrophobic surface (water contact angle ~136º and a higher pure water flux and porosity than the asymmetric membrane, which presented a lower hydrophobicity surface (water contact angle ~90º. The morphologies obtained suggest different applications.

  20. Universe unveiled the cosmos in my bubble bath

    CERN Document Server

    Vishveshwara, C V

    2015-01-01

    The bubbles were swirling all around me, massaging my body. As I luxuriated in this fantastic bath, I gasped realizing that those bubbles carried with them miniature galaxies bringing the entire Cosmos into my bathtub... Alfie is back. And so are George and other characters from the author’s previous book Einstein’s Enigma or Black Holes in My Bubble Bath. While the present book, Universe Unveiled - The Cosmos in My Bubble Bath, is completely independent, its storyline can be considered a sequel to the previous one. The scientific content spanning ancient world models to the most recent mysteries of cosmology is presented in an entirely nontechnical and descriptive style through the discussions between Alfie, the enlightened learner, and George, professor of astrophysics. Fantasies, based on these discussions that cover the scientific facts, are created by the magical bubble baths taken by Alfie. Universe Unveiled blends accurate science with philosophy, drama, humour, and fantasy to create an exciting co...

  1. Synchronization enhancement via an oscillatory bath in a network of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-02-05

    Feb 5, 2015 ... 2Monell Chemical Senses Center, 3500 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA ... The robustness of synchronization strategy is tested using a local and global ..... enhancement effect that the oscillatory bath has in the ...

  2. Influence of an oscillator bath on the nucleation rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amritkar, R.E.

    1984-09-01

    The nucleation rate of a system in a metastable state coupled to an oscillator bath is considered. It is shown that for a weak coupling and small oscillator frequencies the nucleation rate increases. (author)

  3. Phosphorus-31 NMR analysis of gold plating baths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.E.

    1992-03-01

    This report describes the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of gold plating baths in the Micro-Miniature Electronic Assembly department of Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD). The baths were analyzed for phosphorylated components. In freshly prepared gold plating baths in this department the principle compound observed is aminotrimethyl-phosphonate, or ATMP. As the bath is used in production, the ATMP breaks down; and new compounds, aminodimethylphosphonate (ADMP), aminomonomethylphosphonate, (AMMP), and inorganic phosphate (H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}), are formed. The NMR method has been used for almost three years to monitor the concentrations of the ATMP and breakdown products. In a previous report, results from January through October 1988 were reported. In this report, results from November 1988 through January 1991 are given.

  4. Characteristic functions of quantum heat with baths at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurell, Erik

    2018-06-01

    This paper is about quantum heat defined as the change in energy of a bath during a process. The presentation takes into account recent developments in classical strong-coupling thermodynamics and addresses a version of quantum heat that satisfies quantum-classical correspondence. The characteristic function and the full counting statistics of quantum heat are shown to be formally similar. The paper further shows that the method can be extended to more than one bath, e.g., two baths at different temperatures, which opens up the prospect of studying correlations and heat flow. The paper extends earlier results on the expected quantum heat in the setting of one bath [E. Aurell and R. Eichhorn, New J. Phys. 17, 065007 (2015), 10.1088/1367-2630/17/6/065007; E. Aurell, Entropy 19, 595 (2017), 10.3390/e19110595].

  5. A full bath for the senses - the Roman philosophy of thermal baths as new dimension for modern baths; Vollbad der Sinne - roemische Thermenphilosophie als neue Badedimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunus, C.

    1997-03-01

    The attractiveness of an exquisite bath is mainly determined by its variety of activities harmoniously adjusted to each other. The symbiosis of a feeling of comfort orientated at activities, also termed as ``wellness``, is supposed to be in harmony with the possibilities of passive and active sport (recreation). In order to meet these high demands more and more fun swimming pools, saunas and renowned hotels use the famous Roman custom of thermal baths as an example for the implementation of their visions of baths which exhilarate the senses. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Attraktivitaet einer anspruchsvollen Badeeinrichtung wird im wesentlichen durch ihr harmonisch aufeinander abgestimmtes Erlebnisangebot bestimmt. Hierbei sollte die Symbiose aus erlebnisorientiertem Wohlgefuehl, neudeutsch `Wellness`, in harmonischem Einklang mit den Moeglichkeiten passiver und aktiver Koerperertuechtigung (Recreation) stehen. Um diesen hohen Anspruechen gerecht zu werden, nutzen immer mehr Erlebnis- bzw. Freizeitbaeder, renommierte Hotels, Saunabetriebe etc. die beruehmte roemische Thermenkultur als Vorbild fuer die Realisierung ihrer die Sinne berauschenden Badevisionen. (orig.)

  6. The impact of pumped water from a de-watered Magnesian limestone quarry on an adjacent wetland: Thrislington, County Durham, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayes, W.M.; Large, A.R.G.; Younger, P.L.

    2005-01-01

    Although quarrying is often cited as a potential threat to wetland systems, there is a lack of relevant, quantitative case studies in the literature. The impact of pumped groundwater discharged from a quarry into a wetland area was assessed relative to reference conditions in an adjacent fen wetland that receives only natural runoff. Analysis of vegetation patterns at the quarry wetland site, using Detrended Correspondence Analysis and the species indicator values of Ellenberg, revealed a clear disparity between community transitions in the quarry wetland and the reference site. Limited establishment of moisture-sensitive taxa, the preferential proliferation of robust wetland species and an overall shift towards lower species diversity in the quarry wetland were explicable primarily by the physico-chemical environment created by quarry dewatering. This encompassed high pH (up to 12.8), sediment-rich effluent creating a nutrient-poor substrate with poor moisture retention in the quarry wetland, and large fluctuations in water levels. - High pH, sediment-rich runoff from a quarry constrains floristic diversity in an adjacent wetland

  7. The impact of pumped water from a de-watered Magnesian limestone quarry on an adjacent wetland: Thrislington, County Durham, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayes, W.M. [Institute for Research on Environment and Sustainability, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: w.m.mayes@ncl.ac.uk; Large, A.R.G. [School of Geography, Politics and Sociology, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Younger, P.L. [Institute for Research on Environment and Sustainability, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2005-12-15

    Although quarrying is often cited as a potential threat to wetland systems, there is a lack of relevant, quantitative case studies in the literature. The impact of pumped groundwater discharged from a quarry into a wetland area was assessed relative to reference conditions in an adjacent fen wetland that receives only natural runoff. Analysis of vegetation patterns at the quarry wetland site, using Detrended Correspondence Analysis and the species indicator values of Ellenberg, revealed a clear disparity between community transitions in the quarry wetland and the reference site. Limited establishment of moisture-sensitive taxa, the preferential proliferation of robust wetland species and an overall shift towards lower species diversity in the quarry wetland were explicable primarily by the physico-chemical environment created by quarry dewatering. This encompassed high pH (up to 12.8), sediment-rich effluent creating a nutrient-poor substrate with poor moisture retention in the quarry wetland, and large fluctuations in water levels. - High pH, sediment-rich runoff from a quarry constrains floristic diversity in an adjacent wetland.

  8. TEMPO DE VIABILIDADE DE AMOSTRAS DE SANGUE VENOSO BOVINO DESTINADAS AO EXAME HEMOGASOMÉTRICO, QUANDO MANTIDAS SOB CONSERVAÇÃO EM ÁGUA GELADA VIABILITY TIME OF BLOOD GAS ANALYSIS IN BOVINE VENOUS BLOOD SAMPLES STORED IN ICE WATER BATH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Augusto Naylor Lisbôa

    2001-04-01

    adequadamente conservadas em banho de água gelada, mantendo, assim, o seu valor diagnóstico.In order to verify the viability of blood gas analysis in bovine venous blood stored on ice water bath, two samples (10ml each were taken from the jugular vein of 14 healthy animals (7 males and 7 females, 1- to 5-year-old, using plastic syringes and attached needles filled with sodium heparin (1,000IU. The blood samples were obtained anaerobically, the air bubbles observed were immediately removed, and the needle was maintened capped with a rubber stopper. Each syringe of the pair was distinctally stored at room temperature (23-30ºC or in ice water bath (0-4ºC during the experimental period. Values of pH, carbon dioxide (PvCO2 and oxigen (PvO2 tensions, bicarbonate (HCO3-, total carbon dioxide (TCO2, base excess (BE, standard bicarbonate (StB, oxigen saturation (SatO2, and oxigen content (O2 were determined soon after sampling and after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 24 hours. According to the type of storage temperature, the results were analysed through repeated measurements ANOVA, considering the contrast between the mean value of each time and the initial one. On the storage at room temperature, the in vitro changes were characterized from continuous decreases in pH, PvO2, BE, StB, SatO2, and O2 values, and gradual increase in PvCO2, starting at 2- or 3-hour after the collection. In the samples stored at 0-4ºC, on the other hand, the changes in pH occurred only at the 4th hour, and the stability of the PvCO2, BE, and StB values were maintened for up to the 6th hour. These results indicated that the diagnostic utility of blood gas analysis is conserved in bovine venous blood samples adequately stored up to 6 hours in ice water bath, at 0-4ºC.

  9. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Dose-Response and Bathing Water Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most commonly identified opportunistic pathogen associated with pool acquired bather disease. To better understand why this microorganism poses this protracted problem we recently appraised P. aeruginosa pool risk management. Much is known about the ...

  10. Throwing the baby out with the bath water?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensig, Jakob; Heinemann, Trine

    2016-01-01

    It is timely and important that new developments in CA become the subject of principled debate. John Heritage’s recent papers on the role of epistemics constitute one such development and by re-analysing excerpts from this work, the papers in this special issue reveal some significant problems...

  11. First collaborative study on bacteriophages in bathing waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooijman KA; Ghameshlou Z; Bahar M; Havelaar AH; MGB

    1998-01-01

    Het eerste internationale ringonderzoek met bacteriofagen in zwemwater werd in mei 1997 georganiseerd. Zestien Europese laboratoria (inclusief het organiserende laboratorium) namen deel aan de studie. Zij analyseerden faag referentiematerialen (RMs) voor de bepaling van somatische colifagen (RMs

  12. Control of electron spin decoherence in nuclear spin baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren-Bao

    2011-03-01

    Nuclear spin baths are a main mechanism of decoherence of spin qubits in solid-state systems, such as quantum dots and nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers of diamond. The decoherence results from entanglement between the electron and nuclear spins, established by quantum evolution of the bath conditioned on the electron spin state. When the electron spin is flipped, the conditional bath evolution is manipulated. Such manipulation of bath through control of the electron spin not only leads to preservation of the center spin coherence but also demonstrates quantum nature of the bath. In an NV center system, the electron spin effectively interacts with hundreds of 13 C nuclear spins. Under repeated flip control (dynamical decoupling), the electron spin coherence can be preserved for a long time (> 1 ms) . Thereforesomecharacteristicoscillations , duetocouplingtoabonded 13 C nuclear spin pair (a dimer), are imprinted on the electron spin coherence profile, which are very sensitive to the position and orientation of the dimer. With such finger-print oscillations, a dimer can be uniquely identified. Thus, we propose magnetometry with single-nucleus sensitivity and atomic resolution, using NV center spin coherence to identify single molecules. Through the center spin coherence, we could also explore the many-body physics in an interacting spin bath. The information of elementary excitations and many-body correlations can be extracted from the center spin coherence under many-pulse dynamical decoupling control. Another application of the preserved spin coherence is identifying quantumness of a spin bath through the back-action of the electron spin to the bath. We show that the multiple transition of an NV center in a nuclear spin bath can have longer coherence time than the single transition does, when the classical noises due to inhomogeneous broadening is removed by spin echo. This counter-intuitive result unambiguously demonstrates the quantumness of the nuclear spin bath

  13. The Effect of LiCl and Coagulation Bath Temperature on the Structure and Performance of PVDF Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Sedaghat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF membranes are widely used in microfiltration and ultrafiltration processes for their excellent mechanical and chemical resistance and thermal stability in comparison with other polymeric membranes. Non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS is the most important method by which the PVDF membranes are prepared. The structure of the membranes prepared by NIPS method depends on different parameters including the concentration of the polymer solution, polymer molecular weight, the composition and temperature of coagulation bath, type of solvent and the presence of additives in the initial solution. In the present work, the effects of coagulation bath temperature and LiCl content of the dope solution were studied with respect to the structure and performance of PVDF membranes. N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone and water were used as solvent and coagulation bath, respectively. A set of analytical techniques including: scanning electron microscopy, mechanical test, pure water permeability and mean pore radius of pores was used to characterize the membranes. Moreover, the separation of humic acid, a main biological contaminant in surface water resources, was studied to determine membranes performance. The results show that at constant coagulation bath temperature, presence of LiCl in the dope solution increased the number as well as the mean pore radius of the pores at the surface of membranes and consequently, pure water permeability of the membranes was increased, whereas, the mechanical strength and humic acid rejection of the membranes were dropped. Moreover, at a constant content of LiCl, increasing the coagulation bath temperature decreased the size of macrovoids so that the mechanical strength as well as humic acid rejection of the membranes was increased.

  14. Impact of daily chlorhexidine baths and hand hygiene compliance on nosocomial infection rates in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Reséndez, Michel Fernando; Garza-González, Elvira; Mendoza-Olazaran, Soraya; Herrera-Guerra, Alexis; Rodríguez-López, Juan Manuel; Pérez-Rodriguez, Edelmiro; Mercado-Longoria, Roberto; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrián

    2014-07-01

    Up to 25% of all nosocomial infections (NIs) develop in critically ill patients. Our objective was to evaluate chlorhexidine (CHX) bathing and hand hygiene (HH) compliance in the reduction of NIs in the intensive care unit. The study comprised three 6-month periods: preintervention (PIP; soap/water bathing), intervention (IP; bathing with CHX-impregnated wipes), and postintervention (PoIP; soap/water bathing). An HH program was implemented during the IP and PoIP. Primary outcomes were global and specific NI rates. A total of 1007 patients were included. Infection rates per 100 discharges were higher in the PIP compared with the IP and also higher in the PoIP compared with the IP (P = .0004 and .0109, respectively). Global infection rates per 1000 hospital-days were higher in the PIP than in the IP (P = .0268). The rates of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) were higher in the PIP than in the IP (P = .036 and .0001, respectively). Isolation of Acinetobacter baumannii from VAP specimens (P = .0204) and isolation of Candida spp from CAUTI specimens (P = .0005) decreased as well. The combined intervention reduced global and specific infection rates, including rates of VAP associated with A baumannii and CAUTI associated with Candida spp. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Generation of a bubble universe using a negative energy bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Dong-il; Yeom, Dong-han

    2011-01-01

    This paper suggests a model for a bubble universe using buildable false vacuum bubbles. We study the causal structures of collapsing false vacuum bubbles using double-null simulations. False vacuum bubbles violate the null energy condition and emit negative energy along the outgoing direction through semi-classical effects. If there are a few collapsing false vacuum bubbles and they emit negative energy to a certain region, then the region can be approximated by a negative energy bath, which means that the region is homogeneously filled by negative energy. If a false vacuum bubble is generated in the negative energy bath and the tension of the bubble effectively becomes negative in the bath, then the bubble can expand and form an inflating bubble universe. This scenario uses a set of assumptions different from those in previous studies because it does not require tunneling to unbuildable bubbles.

  16. Isotope investigation of anodic slime movements in copper electrorefining baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanski, T.; Kohman, L.; Strzelecki, M.; Chojecki, M.; Kaczynska, R.; Wieclaw, B.

    1975-01-01

    A method was developed and introduced for monitoring the movement of silver-containing anodic slimes in copper electrorefining baths. Radioactive 111 Ag was used as tracer and copper plates labelled with the tracer were inserted into the anodes. During electrorefining the slime produced was continuously marked by the tracer. The activity of 111 Ag was measured at various points inside the bath by sampling and continuously registered with the aid of integrators. It was found that more than 99 percent of the slime slipped to the bottom of the bath close to the anode surface and did not migrate even at highest electrolyte flow rates. Small quantities of suspended slime contained an insignificant concentration of silver and should not be a source of cathode contamination. (author)

  17. Performance of Inductors Attached to a Galvanizing Bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinping; Yuan, Shuo; Liu, Chi; Yang, Peng; Qian, Chaoqun; Song, Bao

    2013-12-01

    By taking a galvanizing bath with inductors from an Iron and Steel Co., Ltd as an example, the distributions of Lorentz force and generated heat in the inductor are simulated. As a result, the zinc flow and the temperature distribution driven by the Lorentz force and the generated heat in the inductor of a galvanizing bath are simulated numerically, and their characteristics are analyzed. The relationship of the surface-weighted average velocity at the outlet and the temperature difference between the inlet and the outlet and the effective power for the inductor is studied. Results show that with an increase in effective power for the inductor, the surface-weighted average velocity at the outlet and the temperature difference between the inlet and the outlet increase gradually. We envisage this work to lay a foundation for the study of the performance of the galvanizing bath in future.

  18. Bath parameter dependence of chemically deposited Copper Selenide thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mamun; Islam, A.B.M.O.

    2004-09-01

    In this article, a low cost chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique has been used for the preparation Of Cu 2-x Se thin films on to glass substrate. Different thin fms (0.2-0.6/μm) were prepared by adjusting the bath parameter like concentration of ammonia, deposition time, temperature of the solution, and the ratios of the mixing composition between copper and selenium in the reaction bath. From these studies, it reveals that at low concentration of ammonia or TEA, the terminal thicknesses of the films are less, which gradually increases with the increase of concentrations and then drop down at still higher concentrations. It has been found that completing the Cu 2+ ions with EA first, and then addition of ammonia yields better results than the reverse process. The film thickness increases with the decrease of value x of Cu 2-x Se. (author)

  19. The Complexity of the BATH Words in Cardiff English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mees, Inger; Osorno, Christina Høøck

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates how a small number of female speakers from Cardiff pronounce items belonging to the lexical set BATH. The data forms a subsample extracted from a longitudinal study on Cardiff English with recordings from 1977, 1990 and 2011. The BATH set comprises items (e.g., chance......, bath) whose citation forms contain the TRAP vowel /æ/ in General American but the PALM vowel /ɑː/ in British RP. In other accents of English, including Cardiff English, the lexical distribution of the items is often less straightforward, with some items taking PALM while others take TRAP. The situation...... analyses. We attempt to establish the social significance attached to the different pronunciations and also to discover if phonological context plays a role for the choice of vowel...

  20. Theories of quantum dissipation and nonlinear coupling bath descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui-Xue; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Hou-Dao; Yan, YiJing

    2018-03-01

    The quest of an exact and nonperturbative treatment of quantum dissipation in nonlinear coupling environments remains in general an intractable task. In this work, we address the key issues toward the solutions to the lowest nonlinear environment, a harmonic bath coupled both linearly and quadratically with an arbitrary system. To determine the bath coupling descriptors, we propose a physical mapping scheme, together with the prescription reference invariance requirement. We then adopt a recently developed dissipaton equation of motion theory [R. X. Xu et al., Chin. J. Chem. Phys. 30, 395 (2017)], with the underlying statistical quasi-particle ("dissipaton") algebra being extended to the quadratic bath coupling. We report the numerical results on a two-level system dynamics and absorption and emission line shapes.

  1. The UK biomass industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billins, P.

    1998-01-01

    A brief review is given of the development of the biomass industry in the UK. Topics covered include poultry litter generation of electricity, gasification plants fuelled by short-rotation coppice, on-farm anaerobic digestion and specialized combustion systems, e.g. straw, wood and other agricultural wastes. (UK)

  2. Eco-labelling of shampoos, shower gels and foam baths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaschka, Ursula; Liebig, Markus; Knacker, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Environmental issues of personal care products have been met with little attention in the past. Monitoring data as well as preliminary environmental risk assessments indicate that some ingredients in personal care products might be relevant pollutants in the environment. Following the precautionary principle, eco-labelling is proposed as an effective tool for source control of one major group of personal care products, shampoos, shower gels and foam baths (SSBs). Eco-labelling is a soft, but effective market driven and product specific approach to lower discharge of environmentally detrimental substances. Products that fulfil the criteria proposed help to minimise the impact of SSBs on the environment. Available assessment tools for dangerous substances (e.g. current legislation on environmental risk assessments and classification, and labelling, eco-labelling criteria for similar products, the calculation of the critical dilution volume) were adapted and integrated into the criteria for the eco-labelling of SSBs. A short outline of the eco-labelling criteria developed for SSBs is provided. The basic criteria concern the effects of the substances discharged into the waste water during and after use. Products with an eco-label award may exclusively contain substances for which basic information about their effects on the environment is available. They may not contain persistent, bioaccumulating, toxic or ecotoxicological substances. In addition, the basic criteria include requirements for the container and consumer information. The basic criteria for eco-labelling SSBs are based on the actual state of science and are at the same time as simple and transparent as possible to ensure the best applicability. SSBs that comply with the described basic criteria can contribute to a lower chemical burden of waste water treatment plants and surface water. The proposal for basic criteria described should stimulate discussion on eco-labelling of SSBs. It should help to pass

  3. Bath vaccination of rainbow trout against yersiniosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raida, Martin Kristian; Buchmann, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    disease (ERM), was investigated at 5, 15 and 25° C. Rainbow trout fry were kept at controlled temperatures for two month before they were immersed in a commercial Yersinia ruckeri O1 bacterin for 10 minutes. Control groups were sham vaccinated using pure water. Fish were challenged with Yersinia ruckeri O...

  4. Meeting the needs of elderly with bathing disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingmark, Magnus; Bernspång, Birgitta

    2011-06-01

    Difficulties with bathing are frequent among older people and are associated with an increasing need for societal support. As loss of independence has a negative impact on health and wellbeing, it is important to study interventions that can provide the required support for people to be able to remain independent. Occupational therapy interventions can improve clients' abilities enabling them to bathe themselves, thus reducing the need for other, more long-term societal support from, e.g. a home help. In this study, two groups of elderly people with difficulties in bathing were compared; the clients in the intervention group were engaged in occupational therapy. A quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group design was used, in which participants with reported difficulties in bathing were recruited consecutively from two municipalities. The clients in the intervention group routinely received occupational therapy, whereas clients in the control group received assistance from a home help for bathing. Activities of daily living, quality of life and home-help allocation were assessed at the baseline and after 15 weeks. Clients in the intervention group received less than three home visits on average, with majority of interventions consisting of graded activity and the use of an encouraging approach. Seventy per cent of the interventions were adaptive. Activities of daily living and quality of life of both groups improved, but the differences of being allocated a home help were significant. Occupational therapy interventions seem beneficial in terms of supporting older people in becoming independent of home help in bathing but the results must be interpreted with caution as there were differences at baseline between the groups. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2011 Australian Association of Occupational Therapists.

  5. Stochastic Stirling Engine Operating in Contact with Active Baths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Zakine

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A Stirling engine made of a colloidal particle in contact with a nonequilibrium bath is considered and analyzed with the tools of stochastic energetics. We model the bath by non Gaussian persistent noise acting on the colloidal particle. Depending on the chosen definition of an isothermal transformation in this nonequilibrium setting, we find that either the energetics of the engine parallels that of its equilibrium counterpart or, in the simplest case, that it ends up being less efficient. Persistence, more than non-Gaussian effects, are responsible for this result.

  6. Stochastic Stirling Engine Operating in Contact with Active Baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakine, Ruben; Solon, Alexandre; Gingrich, Todd; van Wijland, Frédéric

    2017-04-01

    A Stirling engine made of a colloidal particle in contact with a nonequilibrium bath is considered and analyzed with the tools of stochastic energetics. We model the bath by non Gaussian persistent noise acting on the colloidal particle. Depending on the chosen definition of an isothermal transformation in this nonequilibrium setting, we find that either the energetics of the engine parallels that of its equilibrium counterpart or, in the simplest case, that it ends up being less efficient. Persistence, more than non Gaussian effects, are responsible for this result.

  7. Einstein's Enigma of black holes in my bubble bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishveshwara, C.

    2006-01-01

    Einstein's Enigma or Black Holes in My Bubble Bath is a humorous and informal rendition of the story of gravitation theory from the early historic origins to the latest developments in astrophysics, focusing on Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity and black-hole physics. Through engaging conversations and napkin-scribbled diagrams come tumbling the rudiments of relativity, spacetime and much of modern physics, narrated with high didactic and literary talent, and each embedded in casual lessons given by a worldly astrophysicist to his friend. Join the intellectual fun and exalt in the frothy ideas while vicariously taking relaxing baths in this magical bathtub. (orig.)

  8. Conjugate gradient heat bath for ill-conditioned actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceriotti, Michele; Bussi, Giovanni; Parrinello, Michele

    2007-08-01

    We present a method for performing sampling from a Boltzmann distribution of an ill-conditioned quadratic action. This method is based on heat-bath thermalization along a set of conjugate directions, generated via a conjugate-gradient procedure. The resulting scheme outperforms local updates for matrices with very high condition number, since it avoids the slowing down of modes with lower eigenvalue, and has some advantages over the global heat-bath approach, compared to which it is more stable and allows for more freedom in devising case-specific optimizations.

  9. a 3d Based Approach to the Architectural Study of the Roman Bath at the Sanctuary of Apollo Hylates (kourion, Cyprus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faka, M.; Christodoulou, S.; Abate, D.; Ioannou, C.; Hermon, S.

    2017-08-01

    Roman baths represented a popular social practice of everyday life, cited in numerous literary sources and testified by ample archaeological remains all over the Roman Empire. Although regional studies have contributed extensively to our knowledge about how baths functioned and what was their social role in various regions of the Mediterranean, their study in Cyprus is yet to be developed. Moreover, despite the increasing availability of devices and techniques for 3D documentation, various characteristics, especially in relation to the heating and water supply system of the baths, were omitted and were not properly and accurately documented. The pilot case study outlined in this paper presents the 3D documentation of the Roman bath, excavated in the 1950s, within the area of the Sanctuary of Apollo Hylates at Kourion (Limassol district). The creation of an accurate 3D model of the documented area through image and range based techniques combined with topographic data, allows the detailed analysis of architectural elements and their decorative features. At the same time, it enables accurate measurements of the site, which are used as input for the archaeological interpretation and virtual reconstruction of the original shape of the bath. In addition, this project aims to answer a number of archaeological research questions related to Roman baths such as their architectural features, function mode, and technological elements related to heating techniques.

  10. A 3D BASED APPROACH TO THE ARCHITECTURAL STUDY OF THE ROMAN BATH AT THE SANCTUARY OF APOLLO HYLATES (KOURION, CYPRUS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Faka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Roman baths represented a popular social practice of everyday life, cited in numerous literary sources and testified by ample archaeological remains all over the Roman Empire. Although regional studies have contributed extensively to our knowledge about how baths functioned and what was their social role in various regions of the Mediterranean, their study in Cyprus is yet to be developed. Moreover, despite the increasing availability of devices and techniques for 3D documentation, various characteristics, especially in relation to the heating and water supply system of the baths, were omitted and were not properly and accurately documented. The pilot case study outlined in this paper presents the 3D documentation of the Roman bath, excavated in the 1950s, within the area of the Sanctuary of Apollo Hylates at Kourion (Limassol district. The creation of an accurate 3D model of the documented area through image and range based techniques combined with topographic data, allows the detailed analysis of architectural elements and their decorative features. At the same time, it enables accurate measurements of the site, which are used as input for the archaeological interpretation and virtual reconstruction of the original shape of the bath. In addition, this project aims to answer a number of archaeological research questions related to Roman baths such as their architectural features, function mode, and technological elements related to heating techniques.

  11. Efficacy and safety of sodium hypochlorite (bleach) baths in patients with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Su-ming; Ng, Ting Guan; Baba, Roshidah

    2013-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is frequently found in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) and contributes to disease exacerbation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of bleach baths as an adjunctive treatment in AD patients. Patients between 2 and 30 years old with moderate to severe AD were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Patients soaked in diluted bleach or distilled water baths for 10 min, twice a week for 2 months. Efficacy assessments included the Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI) scores and S. aureus density was determined using quantitative bacterial cultures. Patients in the treatment group showed significant reductions in EASI scores. A 41.9% reduction in S. aureus density from baseline was seen at 1 month further reducing to 53.3% at 2 months. Equal numbers of patients in both groups experienced mild side-effects. This study demonstrates that diluted bleach baths clinically improved AD in as little as 1 month. No patient withdrew from the treatment arm because of intolerance to the baths. © 2013 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  12. Effect of Chlorhexidine Bathing Every Other Day on Prevention of Hospital-Acquired Infections in the Surgical ICU: A Single-Center, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Joshua T; Ashton, Carol M; Bui, Lan N; Pham, Vy P; Shirkey, Beverly A; Blackshear, Jolene E; Bersamin, Jimmy B; Pomer, Rubie May L; Johnson, Michael L; Magtoto, Audrey D; Butler, Michelle O; Tran, Shirley K; Sanchez, Leah R; Patel, Jessica G; Ochoa, Robert A; Hai, Shaikh A; Denison, Karen I; Graviss, Edward A; Wray, Nelda P

    2016-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that compared with daily soap and water bathing, 2% chlorhexidine gluconate bathing every other day for up to 28 days decreases the risk of hospital-acquired catheter-associated urinary tract infection, ventilator-associated pneumonia, incisional surgical site infection, and primary bloodstream infection in surgical ICU patients. This was a single-center, pragmatic, randomized trial. Patients and clinicians were aware of treatment-group assignment; investigators who determined outcomes were blinded. Twenty-four-bed surgical ICU at a quaternary academic medical center. Adults admitted to the surgical ICU from July 2012 to May 2013 with an anticipated surgical ICU stay for 48 hours or more were included. Patients were randomized to bathing with 2% chlorhexidine every other day alternating with soap and water every other day (treatment arm) or to bathing with soap and water daily (control arm). The primary endpoint was a composite outcome of catheter-associated urinary tract infection, ventilator-associated pneumonia, incisional surgical site infection, and primary bloodstream infection. Of 350 patients randomized, 24 were excluded due to prior enrollment in this trial and one withdrew consent. Therefore, 325 were analyzed (164 soap and water versus 161 chlorhexidine). Patients acquired 53 infections. Compared with soap and water bathing, chlorhexidine bathing every other day decreased the risk of acquiring infections (hazard ratio = 0.555; 95% CI, 0.309-0.997; p = 0.049). For patients bathed with soap and water versus chlorhexidine, counts of incident hospital-acquired infections were 14 versus 7 for catheter-associated urinary tract infection, 13 versus 8 for ventilator-associated pneumonia, 6 versus 3 for incisional surgical site infections, and 2 versus 0 for primary bloodstream infection; the effect was consistent across all infections. The absolute risk reduction for acquiring a hospital-acquired infection was 9.0% (95% CI, 1.5-16.4%; p

  13. UK ignores treaty obligations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, P.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed critique is offered of United Kingdom (UK) political policy with respect to the Non-Proliferation Treaty, an interim agreement valid while nuclear disarmament was supposed to occur, by a representative of Greenpeace, the anti-nuclear campaigning group. The author argues that the civil and military nuclear programmes are still firmly linked, and emphasises his opinions by quoting examples of how UK politicians have broken treaty obligations in order to pursue their own political, and in some cases financial, goals. It is argued that the treaty has failed to force nuclear countries to disarm because of its promoted civil nuclear power programmes. (U.K.)

  14. Synchronization enhancement via an oscillatory bath in a network of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-02-05

    Feb 5, 2015 ... The possibility of using a dynamic environment to achieve and optimize phase synchronization in a network of self-excited cells with free-end boundary conditions is addressed in this paper. The dynamic environment is an oscillatory bath coupled linearly to a network of four cells. The boundaries of the ...

  15. Heat bath method for the twisted Eguchi-Kawai model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabricius, K.; Haan, O.

    1984-01-01

    We reformulate the twisted Eguchi-Kawaii model in a way that allows us to use the heat bath method for the updating procedure of the link matrices. This new formulation is more efficient by a factor of 2.5 in computer time and of 2.3 in memory need. (orig.)

  16. Heat bath method for the twisted Eguchi-Kawai model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabricius, K.; Haan, O.

    1984-08-16

    We reformulate the twisted Eguchi-Kawaii model in a way that allows us to use the heat bath method for the updating procedure of the link matrices. This new formulation is more efficient by a factor of 2.5 in computer time and of 2.3 in memory need.

  17. Electrochemical treatment of spent tan bath solution for reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Benhadji

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A spent tanning bath contains high concentration of salts, chromium and protein. The treatment system for removal of chlorides or chromium from this effluent is expensive. In this context this waste has to be reused. Our study focuses on the application of advanced oxidation processes for protein removal present in a tanning bath. To improve the quality of the chromium tanning bath, two electrochemical processes (electrooxidation and peroxi-electrocoagulation process, PEP are investigated in a batch reactor. The effects of operational parameters such as reactor configuration, current density and electrolysis time on chemical oxygen demand (COD and protein removal efficiency are examined. Results indicated that under the optimum operating range for process, the COD and protein removal efficiency reached 53 and 100%, respectively. The optimum values are determined for the hybrid process (PEP under 0.13 A·cm−2 over 2 h. The treated tanning bath is used as a tanning solution in leather processing. The influence of chromium salt dose, pH solution, stirring time and contact time on the leather characteristic is evaluated. The hides tanned after the addition of 0.25% of commercial chromium salt, at pH solution, leaving them stirring for 4 h with a contact time of 2 days, and showed good hydrothermal stability and physical characteristics of leather.

  18. Bath Stone - a Possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The Middle Jurassic strata of England have several horizons of oolitic and bioclastic limestones that provide high quality dimension stone. One of the most important is found in and near the City of Bath. The Great Oolite Group (Upper Bathonian) contains the Combe Down and Bath Oolites, consisting of current bedded oolites and shelly oolites, that have been used extensively as freestones for construction nearby, for prestigious buildings through much of southern England and more widely. The stone has been used to some extent since Roman times when the city, then known as Aquae Sulis, was an important hot spa. The stone was used to a limited extent through medieval times but from the early 18th century onwards was exploited on a large scale through surface quarrying and underground mining. The City was extensively redeveloped in the 18th to early 19th century, mostly using Bath Stone, when the spas made it a fashionable resort. Buildings from that period include architectural "gems" such as the Royal Crescent and Pulteney Bridge, as well as the renovated Roman Baths. Many buildings were designed by some of the foremost British architects of the time. The consistent use of this stone gives the City an architectural integrity throughout. These features led to the designation of the City as a World Heritage Site. It is a requirement in current City planning policy documents that Bath Stone should be used for new building to preserve the appearance of the City. More widely the stone was used in major houses (e.g. Buckingham Palace and Apsley House in London; King's Pavilion in Brighton); civic buildings (e.g. Bristol Guildhall; Dartmouth Naval College in Devon); churches and cathedrals (e.g. Truro Cathedral in Cornwall); and engineered structures (e.g. the large Dundas Aqueduct on the Kennet and Avon Canal). More widely, Bath Stone has been used in Union Station in Washington DC; Toronto Bible College and the Town Hall at Cape Town, South Africa. Extraction declined in

  19. Guide to UK renewable energy companies 2001. 6. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This 2001 edition of the guide to UK renewable companies and equipment and service providers presents summaries of the different industry sectors covering wind power, photovoltaics, solar water heating, geothermal heat pump, hydroelectric power, marine current and wave technology, bioenergy, power generation from landfill gas, energy from waste, and cogeneration. A UK company classification listing and index is provided along with listing of UK organisations and companies and an index of advertisers

  20. UK nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronow, W.S.

    Regulations and conditions for the commissioning of nuclear power plants in the UK, their siting, licence conditions, design safety assessment, inspection during construction and conditions for safety in operation are listed. (J.P.)

  1. UK victims of trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Burgoyne

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of court cases shows how hard it is forvictims of trafficking to win the right to remain in the UK. Case law is inconsistent and more research and data collection are urgently needed.

  2. 67. The safety engineering at driving of destroyed hearth and repair of bath fettling during operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.V.

    1993-01-01

    The safety engineering at driving of destroyed hearth and repair of bath fettling during operation was considered. All operational conditions at driving of destroyed hearth and repair of bath fettling during operation were studied.

  3. Chemical bath deposition of CdS thin films doped with Zn and Cu

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Zn- and Cu-doped CdS thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by the chemical bath technique. ... Cadmium sulfide; chemical bath deposition; doping; optical window. 1. ..... at low temperature (10 K), finding similar trends than.

  4. Implementing Evidence-Based Neonatal Skin Care With Parent-Performed, Delayed Immersion Baths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, Jeanette; Rapkin, Gloria

    2017-12-01

    There has been a recent trend toward delaying newborn baths because of mounting evidence that delayed bathing promotes breastfeeding, decreases hypothermia, and allows for more parental involvement with newborn care. A multidisciplinary team from a maternal-new-born unit at a military medical center designed and implemented an evidence-based practice change from infant sponge baths shortly after birth to delayed immersion baths. An analysis of newborn temperature data showed that newborns who received delayed immersion baths were less likely to be hypothermic than those who received a sponge bath shortly after birth. Furthermore, parents reported that they liked participating in bathing their newborns and that they felt prepared to bathe them at home. © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  5. Technological choice and change in the Southwest Bath in the Athenian Agora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artz, James

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available During its five architectural phases, the Southwest bath in the Athenian Agora changes from a Greek-style bath into a Roman-style bath. This article will focus on the first two phases, when Roman elements begin to be incorporated into the traditional forms of Greek bath architecture – particularly, a hypocaust floor system and a concrete vaulted ceiling built into a traditional Greek tholos bath. After describing these architectural features and analyzing the techniques used in their construction, I will examine possible sources of influence on the design and construction of the Southwest baths. The Roman army, citizenry, and workmen could all have potentially affected the incorporation of Roman bathing technologies and building techniques into the Southwest bath. The available evidence, however, indicates that the most likely source of influence is Roman workmen, who were employed in large numbers for the numerous building projects underway in Augustan Athens.

  6. Fabrication of ZnO nanorod using spray-pyrolysis and chemical bath deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramadhani, Muhammad F., E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id; Pasaribu, Maruli A. H., E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id; Yuliarto, Brian, E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id; Nugraha, E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id [Advanced Functional Materials Laboratory, Engineering Physics Department Faculty of Industrial Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-02-24

    ZnO thin films with nanorod structure were deposited using Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis method for seed growth, and Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) for nanorod growth. High purity Zn-hydrate and Urea are used to control Ph were dissolved in ethanol and aqua bidest in Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis process. Glass substrate was placed above the heater plate of reaction chamber, and subsequently sprayed with the range duration of 5, 10 and 20 minutes at the temperatures of 3500 C. As for the Chemical Bath Deposition, the glass substrate with ZnO seed on the surface was immerse to Zn-hydrate, HMTA (Hexa Methylene Tetra Amine) and deionized water solution for duration of 3, 5 and 7 hour and temperatures of 600 C, washed in distilled water, dried, and annealed at 3500 C for an hour. The characterization of samples was carried out to reveal the surface morphology using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). From the data, the combination of 5 minutes of Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis process and 3 hour of CBD has showed the best structure of nanorod. Meanwhile the longer Spraying process and CBD yield the bigger nanorod structure that have been made, and it makes the films more dense which make the nanorod collide each other and as a result produce unsymetric nanorod structure.

  7. Bath Salts Abuse Leading to New-Onset Psychosis and Potential for Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Michelle E; Thomas-Rozea, Crystal; Hahn, David

    Bath salts have recently emerged as a popular designer drug of abuse causing significant hazardous effects on mental health and physical health, resulting in public health legislation making its usage illegal in the United States. To educate mental health providers on the effects of the new designer drug bath salts, including its potential to cause psychosis and violence in patients. This is a case report on a 40-year-old male with no past psychiatric history who presented with new-onset psychosis and increased risk for violence after ingesting bath salts. In addition, a literature review was performed to summarize the documented effects of bath salts abuse and the current U.S. public health legislation on bath salts. The presented case illustrates a new-onset, substance-induced psychotic disorder related to bath salts usage. The literature review explains the sympathomimetic reaction and the potential for psychotic symptoms. To discuss the physical and psychological effects of bath salts, treatment options for bath salts abuse and U.S. legislation by Ohio state law to current U.S. federal law that bans production, sale, and possession of main substances found in bath salts. It is important for mental health providers to be aware of bath salts, understand the physical and psychiatric effects of bath salts and be familiar with current legislative policy banning its usage. Lastly, bath salts abuse should be in the differential diagnosis where psychosis is new onset or clinically incongruent with known primary presentation of a psychotic disorder.

  8. Quantitative assessment of combination bathing and moisturizing regimens on skin hydration in atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Charles; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2009-01-01

    Standard recommendations for skin care for patients with atopic dermatitis stress the importance of skin hydration and the application of moisturizers. However, objective data to guide recommendations regarding the optimal practice methods of bathing and emollient application are scarce. This study quantified cutaneous hydration status after various combination bathing and moisturizing regimens. Four bathing/moisturizer regimens were evaluated in 10 subjects, five pediatric subjects with atopic dermatitis and five subjects with healthy skin. The regimens consisted of bathing alone without emollient application, bathing and immediate emollient application, bathing and delayed application, and emollient application alone. Each regimen was evaluated in all subjects, utilizing a crossover design. Skin hydration was assessed with standard capacitance measurements. In atopic dermatitis subjects, emollient alone yielded a significantly (p hydration over 90 minutes (206.2% baseline hydration) than bathing with immediate emollient (141.6%), bathing and delayed emollient (141%), and bathing alone (91.4%). The combination bathing and emollient application regimens demonstrated hydration values at 90 minutes not significantly greater than baseline. Atopic dermatitis subjects had a decreased mean hydration benefit compared with normal skin subjects. Bathing without moisturizer may compromise skin hydration. Bathing followed by moisturizer application provides modest hydration benefits, though less than that of simply applying moisturizer alone.

  9. Using a Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety to Evaluate a Hospital-wide Daily Chlorhexidine Bathing Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caya, Teresa; Musuuza, Jackson; Yanke, Eric; Schmitz, Michelle; Anderson, Brooke; Carayon, Pascale; Safdar, Nasia

    2015-01-01

    We undertook a systems engineering approach to evaluate housewide implementation of daily chlorhexidine bathing. We performed direct observations of the bathing process and conducted provider and patient surveys. The main outcome was compliance with bathing using a checklist. Fifty-seven percent of baths had full compliance with the chlorhexidine bathing protocol. Additional time was the main barrier. Institutions undertaking daily chlorhexidine bathing should perform a rigorous assessment of implementation to optimize the benefits of this intervention.

  10. A Three-Year Follow-Up Study of Antibiotic and Metal Residues, Antibiotic Resistance and Resistance Genes, Focusing on Kshipra—A River Associated with Holy Religious Mass-Bathing in India: Protocol Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Diwan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antibiotic resistance (ABR is one of the major health emergencies for global society. Little is known about the ABR of environmental bacteria and therefore it is important to understand ABR reservoirs in the environment and their potential impact on health. Method/Design: Quantitative and qualitative data will be collected during a 3-year follow-up study of a river associated with religious mass-bathing in Central India. Surface-water and sediment samples will be collected from seven locations at regular intervals for 3 years during religious mass-bathing and in absence of it to monitor water-quality, antibiotic residues, resistant bacteria, antibiotic resistance genes and metals. Approval has been obtained from the Ethics Committee of R.D. Gardi Medical College, Ujjain, India (No. 2013/07/17-311. Results: The results will address the issue of antibiotic residues and antibiotic resistance with a focus on a river environment in India within a typical socio-behavioural context of religious mass-bathing. It will enhance our understanding about the relationship between antibiotic residue levels, water-quality, heavy metals and antibiotic resistance patterns in Escherichia coli isolated from river-water and sediment, and seasonal differences that are associated with religious mass-bathing. We will also document, identify and clarify the genetic differences/similarities relating to phenotypic antibiotic resistance in bacteria in rivers during religious mass-bathing or during periods when there is no mass-bathing.

  11. A Three-Year Follow-Up Study of Antibiotic and Metal Residues, Antibiotic Resistance and Resistance Genes, Focusing on Kshipra-A River Associated with Holy Religious Mass-Bathing in India: Protocol Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Vishal; Purohit, Manju; Chandran, Salesh; Parashar, Vivek; Shah, Harshada; Mahadik, Vijay K; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Tamhankar, Ashok J

    2017-05-29

    Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is one of the major health emergencies for global society. Little is known about the ABR of environmental bacteria and therefore it is important to understand ABR reservoirs in the environment and their potential impact on health. Quantitative and qualitative data will be collected during a 3-year follow-up study of a river associated with religious mass-bathing in Central India. Surface-water and sediment samples will be collected from seven locations at regular intervals for 3 years during religious mass-bathing and in absence of it to monitor water-quality, antibiotic residues, resistant bacteria, antibiotic resistance genes and metals. Approval has been obtained from the Ethics Committee of R.D. Gardi Medical College, Ujjain, India (No. 2013/07/17-311). The results will address the issue of antibiotic residues and antibiotic resistance with a focus on a river environment in India within a typical socio-behavioural context of religious mass-bathing. It will enhance our understanding about the relationship between antibiotic residue levels, water-quality, heavy metals and antibiotic resistance patterns in Escherichia coli isolated from river-water and sediment, and seasonal differences that are associated with religious mass-bathing. We will also document, identify and clarify the genetic differences/similarities relating to phenotypic antibiotic resistance in bacteria in rivers during religious mass-bathing or during periods when there is no mass-bathing.

  12. ZnSe thin films by chemical bath deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokhande, C.D.; Patil, P.S.; Tributsch, H. [Hahn-Meitner-Institute, Bereich Physikalische Chemie, Abt. CS, Glienicker Strasse-100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Ennaoui, A. [Hahn-Meitner-Institute, Bereich Physikalische Chemie, Abt. CG, Glienicker Strasse-100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)

    1998-09-04

    The ZnSe thin films have been deposited onto glass substrates by the simple chemical bath deposition method using selenourea as a selenide ion source from an aqueous alkaline medium. The effect of Zn ion concentration, bath temperature and deposition time period on the quality and thickness of ZnSe films has been studied. The ZnSe films have been characterized by XRD, TEM, EDAX, TRMC (time-resolved microwave conductivity), optical absorbance and RBS techniques for their structural, compositional, electronic and optical properties. The as-deposited ZnSe films are found to be amorphous, Zn rich with optical band gap, Eg, equal to 2.9 eV

  13. Portable bathtub: technology for bed bath in bedridden patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirce Stein Backes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: determine the benefits of the Portable Bathtub as technology for bed bath in bedridden patients. Method: qualitative research of exploratory-descriptive character, whose data were collected by means of 30 interviews with patients, family members and professionals directly involved in bed bath, carried out with Portable Bathtub, in bedridden patients of a medical clinic, from July to December 2015. Results: from the data encoded by thematic content analysis resulted two categories: Portable Bathtub: from morphine to the patient's rekindled eyes; From mechanized practice to unique, transforming care. Conclusion: we concluded that the Portable Bathtub constitutes enhancing technology, as it enables clinical improvement of the patient's general condition and transcends traditional mechanized practices by the reach of advanced nursing care practices.

  14. Portable bathtub: technology for bed bath in bedridden patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Dirce Stein; Gomes, Carine Alves; Pereira, Simone Barbosa; Teles, Noelucy Ferreira; Backes, Marli Terezinha Stein

    2017-04-01

    determine the benefits of the Portable Bathtub as technology for bed bath in bedridden patients. qualitative research of exploratory-descriptive character, whose data were collected by means of 30 interviews with patients, family members and professionals directly involved in bed bath, carried out with Portable Bathtub, in bedridden patients of a medical clinic, from July to December 2015. from the data encoded by thematic content analysis resulted two categories: Portable Bathtub: from morphine to the patient's rekindled eyes; From mechanized practice to unique, transforming care. we concluded that the Portable Bathtub constitutes enhancing technology, as it enables clinical improvement of the patient's general condition and transcends traditional mechanized practices by the reach of advanced nursing care practices.

  15. Nonequlibrium dynamics of scalar fields in a thermal bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisimov, A.; Buchmueller, W.; Drewes, M.; Mendizabal, S.

    2008-12-01

    We study the approach to equilibrium for a scalar field which is coupled to a large thermal bath. Our analysis of the initial value problem is based on Kadanoff-Baym equations which are shown to be equivalent to a stochastic Langevin equation. The interaction with the thermal bath generates a temperature-dependent spectral density, either through decay and inverse decay processes or via Landau damping. In equilibrium, energy density and pressure are determined by the Bose-Einstein distribution function evaluated at a complex quasi-particle pole. The time evolution of the statistical propagator is compared with solutions of the Boltzmann equations for particles as well as quasi-particles. The dependence on initial conditions and the range of validity of the Boltzmann approximation are determined. (orig.)

  16. [The influence of carbon dioxide baths differing in the total mineralization levels on the functional state of the cardiovascular system of the patients presenting with hypertensive disease associated with coronary heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'vova, N V; Tupitsyna, Iu Iu; Badalov, N G; Krasnikov, V E; Lebedeva, O D

    2013-01-01

    The results of the study on the influence of carbon dioxide baths differing in the total mineralization levels on the clinical course of hypertensive disease associated with coronary heart disease and on various functional systems of the body. The data obtained provide an insight into the role of salt concentrations (10 and 20 g/l) in carbon dioxide bath water (1.2 g/l) applied for the traditional treatment of the patients with hypertensive disease associated with concomitant coronary heart disease and musculoskeletal pathology. Highly mineralized bath water has a greater influence on the functional state of the cardiovascular system by causing a more pronounced decrease in peripheral vascular resistance and hypotensive effect. Baths with a salt concentration of 20 g/l markedly reduced pain and had anti-inflammatory effect in the patients with pathology of support and locomotor organs.

  17. Effective interactions between inclusions in an active bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaeifi Yamchi, Mahdi; Naji, Ali

    2017-11-01

    We study effective two- and three-body interactions between non-active colloidal inclusions in an active bath of chiral or non-chiral particles, using Brownian dynamics simulations within a standard, two-dimensional model of disk-shaped inclusions and active particles. In a non-chiral active bath, we first corroborate previous findings on effective two-body repulsion mediated between the inclusions by elucidating the detailed non-monotonic features of the two-body force profiles, including a primary maximum and a secondary hump at larger separations that was not previously reported. We then show that these features arise directly from the formation, and sequential overlaps, of circular layers (or "rings") of active particles around the inclusions, as the latter are brought to small surface separations. These rings extend to radial distances of a few active-particle radii from the surface of inclusions, giving the hard-core inclusions relatively thick, soft, repulsive "shoulders," whose multiple overlaps then enable significant (non-pairwise) three-body forces in both non-chiral and chiral active baths. The resulting three-body forces can even exceed the two-body forces in magnitude and display distinct repulsive and attractive regimes at intermediate to large self-propulsion strengths. In a chiral active bath, we show that, while active particles still tend to accumulate at the immediate vicinity of the inclusions, they exhibit strong depletion from the intervening region between the inclusions and partial depletion from relatively thick, circular zones further away from the inclusions. In this case, the effective, predominantly repulsive interactions between the inclusions turn to active, chirality-induced, depletion-type attractions, acting over an extended range of separations.

  18. Density matrix embedding in an antisymmetrized geminal power bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchimochi, Takashi; Welborn, Matthew; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2015-01-01

    Density matrix embedding theory (DMET) has emerged as a powerful tool for performing wave function-in-wave function embedding for strongly correlated systems. In traditional DMET, an accurate calculation is performed on a small impurity embedded in a mean field bath. Here, we extend the original DMET equations to account for correlation in the bath via an antisymmetrized geminal power (AGP) wave function. The resulting formalism has a number of advantages. First, it allows one to properly treat the weak correlation limit of independent pairs, which DMET is unable to do with a mean-field bath. Second, it associates a size extensive correlation energy with a given density matrix (for the models tested), which AGP by itself is incapable of providing. Third, it provides a reasonable description of charge redistribution in strongly correlated but non-periodic systems. Thus, AGP-DMET appears to be a good starting point for describing electron correlation in molecules, which are aperiodic and possess both strong and weak electron correlation

  19. Bath salt intoxication causing acute kidney injury requiring hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regunath, Hariharan; Ariyamuthu, Venkatesh Kumar; Dalal, Pranavkumar; Misra, Madhukar

    2012-10-01

    Traditional bath salts contain a combination of inorganic salts like Epsom salts, table salt, baking soda, sodium metaphosphate, and borax that have cleansing properties. Since 2010, there have been rising concerns about a new type of substance abuse in the name of "bath salts." They are beta-ketone amphetamine analogs and are derivates of cathinone, a naturally occurring amphetamine analog found in the "khat" plant (Catha edulis). Effects reported with intake included increased energy, empathy, openness, and increased libido. Serious adverse effects reported with intoxication included cardiac, psychiatric, and neurological signs and symptoms. Not much is known about the toxicology and metabolism of these compounds. They inhibit monoamine reuptake (dopamine, nor epinephrine, etc.) and act as central nervous system stimulants with high additive and abuse potential because of their clinical and biochemical similarities to effects from use of cocaine, amphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine. Deaths associated with use of these compounds have also been reported. We report a case of acute kidney injury associated with the use of "bath salt" pills that improved with hemodialysis. © 2012 The Authors. Hemodialysis International © 2012 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  20. CdS films deposited by chemical bath under rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva-Aviles, A.I.; Patino, R.; Oliva, A.I.

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) films were deposited on rotating substrates by the chemical bath technique. The effects of the rotation speed on the morphological, optical, and structural properties of the films were discussed. A rotating substrate-holder was fabricated such that substrates can be taken out from the bath during the deposition. CdS films were deposited at different deposition times (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 min) onto Corning glass substrates at different rotation velocities (150, 300, 450, and 600 rpm) during chemical deposition. The chemical bath was composed by CdCl 2 , KOH, NH 4 NO 3 and CS(NH 2 ) 2 as chemical reagents and heated at 75 deg. C. The results show no critical effects on the band gap energy and the surface roughness of the CdS films when the rotation speed changes. However, a linear increase on the deposition rate with the rotation energy was observed, meanwhile the stoichiometry was strongly affected by the rotation speed, resulting a better 1:1 Cd/S ratio as speed increases. Rotation effects may be of interest in industrial production of CdTe/CdS solar cells.

  1. CdS films deposited by chemical bath under rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva-Aviles, A.I., E-mail: aoliva@mda.cinvestav.mx [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados Unidad Merida, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada. A.P. 73-Cordemex, 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Patino, R.; Oliva, A.I. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados Unidad Merida, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada. A.P. 73-Cordemex, 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2010-08-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) films were deposited on rotating substrates by the chemical bath technique. The effects of the rotation speed on the morphological, optical, and structural properties of the films were discussed. A rotating substrate-holder was fabricated such that substrates can be taken out from the bath during the deposition. CdS films were deposited at different deposition times (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 min) onto Corning glass substrates at different rotation velocities (150, 300, 450, and 600 rpm) during chemical deposition. The chemical bath was composed by CdCl{sub 2}, KOH, NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} and CS(NH{sub 2}){sub 2} as chemical reagents and heated at 75 deg. C. The results show no critical effects on the band gap energy and the surface roughness of the CdS films when the rotation speed changes. However, a linear increase on the deposition rate with the rotation energy was observed, meanwhile the stoichiometry was strongly affected by the rotation speed, resulting a better 1:1 Cd/S ratio as speed increases. Rotation effects may be of interest in industrial production of CdTe/CdS solar cells.

  2. Inverse Leidenfrost effect: self-propelling drops on a bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Anais; van der Meer, Devaraj; Lohse, Detlef; Physics of Fluids Team

    2017-11-01

    When deposited on very hot solid, volatile drops can levitate over a cushion of vapor, in the so-called Leidenfrost state. This phenomenon can also be observed on a hot bath and similarly to the solid case, drops are very mobile due to the absence of contact with the substrate that sustains them. We discuss here a situation of ``inverse Leidenfrost effect'' where room-temperature drops levitate on a liquid nitrogen pool - the vapor is generated here by the bath sustaining the relatively hot drop. We show that the drop's movement is not random: the liquid goes across the bath in straight lines, a pattern only disrupted by elastic bouncing on the edges. In addition, the drops are initially self-propelled; first at rest, they accelerate for a few seconds and reach velocities of the order of a few cm/s, before slowing down. We investigate experimentally the parameters that affect their successive acceleration and deceleration, such as the size and nature of the drops and we discuss the origin of this pattern.

  3. Factors affecting Escherichia coli concentrations at Lake Erie public bathing beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, Donna S.; Darner, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    The environmental and water-quality factors that affect concentrations of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in water and sediment were investigated at three public bathing beachesEdgewater Park, Villa Angela, and Sims Parkin the Cleveland, Ohio metropolitan area. This study was done to aid in the determination of safe recreational use and to help water- resource managers assess more quickly and accurately the degradation of recreational water quality. Water and lake-bottom sediments were collected and ancillary environmental data were compiled for 41 days from May through September 1997. Water samples were analyzed for E. coli concentrations, suspended sediment concentrations, and turbidity. Lake- bottom sediment samples from the beach area were analyzed for E. coli concentrations and percent dry weight. Concentrations of E. coli were higher and more variable at Sims Park than at Villa Angela or Edgewater Park; concentrations were lowest at Edgewater Park. Time-series plots showed that short-term storage (less than one week) of E. coli in lake-bottom sediments may have occurred, although no evidence for long-term storage was found during the sampling period. E. coli concentrations in water were found to increase with increasing wave height, but the resuspension of E. coli from lake-bottom sediments by wave action could not be adequately assessed; higherwave heights were often associated with the discharge of sewage containing E. coli during or after a rainfall and wastewater-treatment plant overflow. Multiple linear regression (MLR) was used to develop models to predict recreational water quality at the in water. The related variables included turbidity, antecedent rainfall, antecedent weighted rainfall, volumes of wastewater-treatment plant overflows and metered outfalls (composed of storm-water runoff and combined-sewer overflows), a resuspension index, and wave heights. For the beaches in this study, wind speed, wind direction, water temperature, and the prswimmers

  4. Distribution and seasonality of microbial indicators and thermophilic campylobacters in two freshwater bathing sites on the River Lune in northwest England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiri-Danso, K; Jones, K

    1999-12-01

    Two freshwater bathing sites, the Crook O'Lune and the University Boathouse, on the River Lune in the north-west of England, were monitored over a 2 year period for the faecal indicators, faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci, the pathogens, Salmonella and Campylobacter, and compliance with the EU Directive on Bathing Water Quality. Faecal indicator numbers showed no seasonal variation, with numbers in the bathing season similar to those in the non-bathing season. They were consistently above the EU Guideline and Imperative standards so that if the EU Bathing Water Quality Directive (76/160/EEC) were applied, neither site would comply. Faecal indicator numbers in the sediments were an order of magnitude higher than in the overlying water. Campylobacter numbers showed seasonal variation in the water with higher counts in winter than in the summer, although numbers were low. Higher numbers were found in the sediments but there was no seasonal variation. Analysis of various inputs showed that indicators and campylobacters came from a mixture of sources, namely a sewage treatment works, agricultural run-off, streams and mallards. Microbial numbers in the water at the Crook O'Lune, which is closer to the sources of pollution, were twice those at the Boathouse. In the sediments they were six to eight times higher. Faecal coliforms were all identified as Escherichia coli of which 80% were a single biotype. Faecal streptococci were all enterococci of which 55% were E. avium, 38% E. faecalis and 7% E. durans. Salmonella was not isolated from either the water column or the sediments. Campylobacters were mainly Camp. jejuni, followed by Camp. coli, UPTC and Camp. lari.

  5. Effects of single low-temperature sauna bathing in patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iiyama, Junichi; Matsushita, Kensuke; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Kawahira, Kazumi

    2008-07-01

    We have previously reported that thermal vasodilation following warm-water bathing and low-temperature sauna bathing (LTSB) at 60 degrees C for 15 min improves the cardiac function in patients with congestive heart failure. Through a comparative before-and-after study, we studied the hemodynamic and clinical effects of single exposure to LTSB in cerebral palsy (CP) patients who usually suffer from chilled extremities and low cardiac output. The study population comprised 16 patients ranging between 19 and 53 years with severe motor and intellectual disabilities. Noninvasive methods were used to estimate the systemic and peripheral circulatory changes before and after LTSB. Using blood flow velocity analysis, the pulsatile and resistive indexes of the peripheral arteries of the patients' lower limbs were calculated. Following LTSB, the patients' deep body temperature increased significantly by 1 degrees C. Their heart rates increased and blood pressure decreased slightly. The total peripheral resistance decreased by 11%, and the cardiac output increased by 14%. There was significant improvement in the parameters that are indicative of the peripheral circulatory status, including the skin blood flow, blood flow velocity, pulsatile index, and resistive index. Numbness and chronic myalgia of the extremities decreased. There were no adverse side effects. Thus, it can be concluded that LTSB improves the peripheral circulation in CP patients.

  6. Linear-algebraic bath transformation for simulating complex open quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Joonsuk; Mostame, Sarah; Fujita, Takatoshi; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Yung, Man-Hong

    2014-01-01

    In studying open quantum systems, the environment is often approximated as a collection of non-interacting harmonic oscillators, a configuration also known as the star-bath model. It is also well known that the star-bath can be transformed into a nearest-neighbor interacting chain of oscillators. The chain-bath model has been widely used in renormalization group approaches. The transformation can be obtained by recursion relations or orthogonal polynomials. Based on a simple linear algebraic approach, we propose a bath partition strategy to reduce the system-bath coupling strength. As a result, the non-interacting star-bath is transformed into a set of weakly coupled multiple parallel chains. The transformed bath model allows complex problems to be practically implemented on quantum simulators, and it can also be employed in various numerical simulations of open quantum dynamics. (paper)

  7. The Association Between Bathing Habits and Severity of Atopic Dermatitis in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutroulis, Ioannis; Pyle, Tia; Kopylov, David; Little, Anthony; Gaughan, John; Kratimenos, Panagiotis

    2016-02-01

    Atopic dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease that frequently affects children. The current recommendations on management using lifestyle modification are highly variable, leading to confusion and uncertainty among patients. To determine current bathing behaviors and the subsequent impact on disease severity. This was an observational cross-sectional study conducted at an urban pediatric emergency department. Parents were asked to fill out a questionnaire concerning the patient's bathing habits. The results were correlated with the atopic dermatitis severity determined by the SCORAD (SCORing Atopic Dermatitis) tool. No difference between variables was found to be significant for bathing frequency, time spent bathing, or use of moisturizers. Multivariate analysis showed that atopic dermatitis severity increased with age greater than 2 years (P = .0004) and with greater bathing duration (P = .001). Atopic dermatitis severity may be associated with a longer duration of bathing. The frequency of bathing does not appear to affect atopic dermatitis severity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. DUST-BATHING BEHAVIORS OF AFRICAN HERBIVORES AND THE POTENTIAL RISK OF INHALATIONAL ANTHRAX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barandongo, Zoe R; Mfune, John K E; Turner, Wendy C

    2018-01-01

    :  Anthrax in herbivorous wildlife and livestock is generally assumed to be transmitted via ingestion or inhalation of Bacillus anthracis spores. Although recent studies have highlighted the importance of the ingestion route for anthrax transmission, little is known about the inhalational route in natural systems. Dust bathing could aerosolize soilborne pathogens such as B. anthracis, exposing dust-bathing individuals to inhalational infections. We investigated the potential role of dust bathing in the transmission of inhalational anthrax to herbivorous wildlife in Etosha National Park, Namibia, an area with endemic seasonal anthrax outbreaks. We 1) cultured soils from dust-bathing sites for the presence and concentration of B. anthracis spores, 2) monitored anthrax carcass sites, the locations with the highest B. anthracis concentrations, for evidence of dust bathing, including a site where a zebra died of anthrax on a large dust bath, and 3) characterized the ecology and seasonality of dust bathing in plains zebra ( Equus quagga), blue wildebeest ( Connochaetes taurinus), and African savanna elephant ( Loxodonta africana) using a combination of motion-sensing camera traps and direct observations. Only two out of 83 dust-bath soils were positive for B. anthracis, both with low spore concentrations (≤20 colony-forming units per gram). We also detected no evidence of dust baths occurring at anthrax carcass sites, perhaps due to carcass-induced changes in soil composition that may deter dust bathing. Finally, despite observing some seasonal variation in dust bathing, preliminary evidence suggests that the seasonality of dust bathing and anthrax mortalities are not correlated. Thus, although dust bathing creates a dramatic cloud of aerosolized soil around an individual, our microbiologic, ecologic, and behavioral results in concert demonstrate that dust bathing is highly unlikely to transmit inhalational anthrax infections.

  9. UK Mission to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    At the end of June, nine experts from UK industry visited CERN to study techniques for developing distributed computing systems and to look at some specific applications. In a packed three-day programme, almost 40 CERN experts presented a comprehensive survey of achievements.

  10. New bathing therapy in Japanese hot springs using radiation from radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimori, Kenji; Okajima, Maiko; Oowada, Mizuno; Koyama, Yoshihisa; Shozugawa, Katsumi; Matsuo, Motoyuki

    2015-01-01

    Japanese-style bathing is an important part of the traditional culture of Japan, and most Japanese people love hot springs. Many kinds of hot springs exist all over Japan and are often a major factor when considering where to go for travel, relaxation and rest. However, other countries, especially in Europe, also use hot springs for medical treatments such as balneo therapy, hydrokinetic therapy, fango therapy and inhalation therapy. Some hot springs in Japan are located on radioactive springs. Five typical radioactive spring areas can be found in Tamagawa (Akita Pref.), Murasugi (Niigata Pref.), Masutomi (Yamanashi Pref.), Misasa (Tottori Pref.), and Sekigane (Tottori Pref.). While hot springs in Japan are mainly used for bathing, these radioactive springs are also used for bedrock bathing and/or inhalation therapy. In Italy, Fango therapy is a medical treatment conducted under a medical doctor's super vision with peloids maturated with hot spring water called 'Fango'. Japanese style Fango, named Biofango R , has already been made by using natural hot springs that have been modified with Italian Fango. Medical evaluation of test subjects has shown good results after treatment with Fango therapy. An important point in Fango therapy is how to make satisfactory maturated peloids. For this purpose, an experiment was conducted at Masutomi hot spring to confirm the possibility of using radioactive spring water to make maturated peloids. The basement material for the peloids used for this experiment was made from bentonite mixed with original rock from the Masutomi hot spring area consisting of crushed basalt and granite that have a fine amount of radioactivity. These peloids were circulated through hot spring water for two weeks to a month and then used for treatment. The medical data showed that therapy using this method resulted in greater improvement in 'test subjects' body functions compared with the data from previous observations. This

  11. The provision of patient personal hygiene in the intensive care unit: a descriptive exploratory study of bed-bathing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyer, Fiona M; O'Sullivan, Judy; Cadman, Nicola

    2011-08-01

    The provision of the patient bed-bath is a fundamental nursing care activity yet few quantitative data and no qualitative data are available on registered nurses' (RNs) clinical practice in this domain in the intensive care unit (ICU). The aim of this study was to describe ICU RNs current practice with respect to the timing, frequency and duration of the patient bed-bath and the cleansing and emollient agents used. The study utilised a two-phase sequential explanatory mixed method design. Phase one used a questionnaire to survey RNs and phase two employed semi-structured focus group (FG) interviews with RNs. Data was collected over 28 days across four Australian metropolitan ICUs. Ethical approval was granted from the relevant hospital and university human research ethics committees. RNs were asked to complete a questionnaire following each episode of care (i.e. bed-bath) and then to attend one of three FG interviews: RNs with less than 2 years ICU experience; RNs with 2-5 years ICU experience; and RNs with greater than 5 years ICU experience. During the 28-day study period the four ICUs had 77.25 beds open. In phase one a total of 539 questionnaires were returned, representing 30.5% of episodes of patient bed-baths (based on 1767 bed occupancy and one bed-bath per patient per day). In 349 bed-bath episodes 54.7% patients were mechanically ventilated. The bed-bath was given between 02.00 and 06.00h in 161 episodes (30%), took 15-30min to complete (n=195, 36.2%) and was completed within the last 8h in 304 episodes (56.8%). Cleansing agents used were predominantly pH balanced soap or liquid soap and water (n=379, 71%) in comparison to chlorhexidine impregnated sponges/cloths (n=86, 16.1%) or other agents such as pre-packaged washcloths (n=65, 12.2%). In 347 episodes (64.4%) emollients were not applied after the bed-bath. In phase two 12 FGs were conducted (three FGs at each ICU) with a total of 42 RN participants. Thematic analysis of FG transcripts across the three

  12. UK Royal Navy WWII Logbooks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2006, the UK and NOAA's Climate Database Modernization Program (CDMP) funded the imaging of approximately 8,000 Royal Navy logbooks in the UK National Archives...

  13. Hewitt launches Research Councils UK

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Trade and Industry Secretary Patricia Hewitt today launched 'Research Councils UK' - a new strategic partnership that will champion research in science, engineering and technology across the UK" (1 page).

  14. Resummed memory kernels in generalized system-bath master equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavros, Michael G.; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2014-01-01

    Generalized master equations provide a concise formalism for studying reduced population dynamics. Usually, these master equations require a perturbative expansion of the memory kernels governing the dynamics; in order to prevent divergences, these expansions must be resummed. Resummation techniques of perturbation series are ubiquitous in physics, but they have not been readily studied for the time-dependent memory kernels used in generalized master equations. In this paper, we present a comparison of different resummation techniques for such memory kernels up to fourth order. We study specifically the spin-boson Hamiltonian as a model system bath Hamiltonian, treating the diabatic coupling between the two states as a perturbation. A novel derivation of the fourth-order memory kernel for the spin-boson problem is presented; then, the second- and fourth-order kernels are evaluated numerically for a variety of spin-boson parameter regimes. We find that resumming the kernels through fourth order using a Padé approximant results in divergent populations in the strong electronic coupling regime due to a singularity introduced by the nature of the resummation, and thus recommend a non-divergent exponential resummation (the “Landau-Zener resummation” of previous work). The inclusion of fourth-order effects in a Landau-Zener-resummed kernel is shown to improve both the dephasing rate and the obedience of detailed balance over simpler prescriptions like the non-interacting blip approximation, showing a relatively quick convergence on the exact answer. The results suggest that including higher-order contributions to the memory kernel of a generalized master equation and performing an appropriate resummation can provide a numerically-exact solution to system-bath dynamics for a general spectral density, opening the way to a new class of methods for treating system-bath dynamics

  15. Diffusion mechanism in molten salt baths during the production of carbide coatings via thermal reactive diffusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aliakbar Ghadi; Hassan Saghafian; Mansour Soltanieh; Zhi-gang Yang

    2017-01-01

    The diffusion mechanism of carbide-forming elements from a molten salt bath to a substrate surface was studied in this research, with particular focus on the processes occurring in the molten bath at the time of coating. Metal, oxide, and metal-oxide baths were investi-gated, and the coating process was performed on H13 steel substrates. Scanning electron microscopy and electron-probe microanalysis were used to study the coated samples and the quenched salt bath. The thickness of the carbide coating layer was 6.5 ± 0.5, 5.2 ± 0.5, or 5.7 ± 0.5μm depending on whether it was deposited in a metal, oxide, or metal-oxide bath, respectively. The phase distribution of vanadium-rich regions was 63%, 57%, and 74% of the total coating deposited in metal, oxide, and metal-oxide baths, respectively. The results obtained using the metal bath indicated that undissolved suspended metal particles deposited onto the substrate surface. Then, carbon subsequently diffused to the sub-strate surface and reacted with the metal particles to form the carbides. In the oxide bath, oxide powders dissolved in the bath with or without binding to the oxidative structure (Na2O) of borax; they were then reduced by aluminum and converted into metal particles. We concluded that, in the metal and oxide baths, the deposition of metal particles onto the sample surface is an important step in the formation of the coating.

  16. The geology of Burnsville Cove, Bath and Highland Counties, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, Christopher; Haynes, John T.; Lambert, Richard A.; White, William B.; Lucas, Philip C.; Garrity, Christopher P.

    2015-01-01

    Burnsville Cove is a karst region in Bath and Highland Counties of Virginia. A new geologic map of the area reveals various units of limestone, sandstone, and siliciclastic mudstone (shale) of Silurian through Devonian age, as well as structural features such as northeast-trending anticlines and synclines, minor thrust faults, and prominent joints. Quaternary features include erosional (strath) terraces and accumulations of mud, sand, and gravel. The caves of Burnsville Cove are located within predominantly carbonate strata above the Silurian Williamsport Sandstone and below the Devonian Oriskany Sandstone. Most of the caves are located within the Silurian Tonoloway Limestone, rather than the Silurian-Devonian Keyser Limestone as reported previously.

  17. Fabrication of CdS films with superhydrophobicity by the microwave assisted chemical bath deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Tan, T; Wang, B; Zhai, R; Song, X; Li, E; Wang, H; Yan, H

    2008-04-15

    A simple method of microwave assisted chemical bath deposition (MA-CBD) was adopted to fabricate cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films. The superhydrophobic surface with a water contact angle (CA) of 151 degrees was obtained. Via a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation, the film was proved having a porous micro/nano-binary structure which can change the property of the surface and highly enhance the hydrophobicity of the film. A possible mechanism was suggested to describe the growth of the porous structure, in which the microwave heating takes an important role in the formation of two distinct characteristic dimensions of CdS precipitates, the growth of CdS sheets in micro-scale and sphere particles in nano-scale. The superhydrophobic films may provide novel platforms for photovoltaic, sensor, microfluidic and other device applications.

  18. Sizewell: UK power demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The Sizewell Inquiry was about whether the next power stations to be built in the UK should be nuclear or coal and, if nuclear, PWRs or AGRs. During the period of the Inquiry forecasts of demand for electricity were low. Now, however, it seems that the forecast demand is much increased. This uncertainty in demand and the wide regional variations are examined in some detail. Facts and figures on electricity sales (area by area) are presented. Also the minutes of supply lost per consumer per year. These show that security of supply is also a problem. It is also shown that the way electricity is used has changed. Whilst electricity generation has been changing to large-scale, centralised power stations the demand patterns may make smaller scale, quickly-constructed units more sensible. The questions considered at the Sizewell Inquiry may, indeed, no longer be the right ones. (UK)

  19. UK Tax Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deakin, John F.

    1998-07-01

    The presentation deals with the North Sea fiscal regime, a modern system for corporation tax payments, transfer pricing, general anti-avoidance rule for direct taxes, treaty refunds, deductibility of interest for corporation tax, UK/US double taxation convention, and plain and simple tax legislation. Part of the background for the presentation was the fact that in England a new Labour Government had replaced the Conservatives and the new Chancellor had announced a review of the North Sea fiscal regime.

  20. Herbal bathing: an analysis of variation in plant use among Saramaccan and Aucan Maroons in Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van 't Klooster, Charlotte I E A; Haabo, Vinije; Ruysschaert, Sofie; Vossen, Tessa; van Andel, Tinde R

    2018-03-15

    Herbal baths play an important role in the traditional health care of Maroons living in the interior of Suriname. However, little is known on the differences in plant ingredients used among and within the Maroon groups. We compared plant use in herbal baths documented for Saramaccan and Aucan Maroons, to see whether similarity in species was related to bath type, ethnic group, or geographical location. We hypothesized that because of their dissimilar cultural background, they used different species for the same type of bath. We assumed, however, that plants used in genital baths were more similar, as certain plant ingredients (e.g., essential oils), are preferred in these baths. We compiled a database from published and unpublished sources on herbal bath ingredients and constructed a presence/absence matrix per bath type and study site. To assess similarity in plant use among and within Saramaccan and Aucan communities, we performed three Detrended Correspondence Analyses on species level and the Jaccard Similarity Index to quantify similarity in bath ingredients. We recorded 349 plants used in six commonly used bath types: baby strength, adult strength, skin diseases, respiratory ailments, genital steam baths, and spiritual issues. Our results showed a large variation in plant ingredients among the Saramaccan and Aucans and little similarity between Saramaccans and Aucans, even for the same type of baths. Plant ingredients for baby baths and genital baths shared more species than the others. Even within the Saramaccan community, plant ingredients were stronger associated with location than with bath type. Plant use in bathing was strongly influenced by study site and then by ethnicity, but less by bath type. As Maroons escaped from different plantations and developed their ethnomedicinal practices in isolation, there has been little exchange in ethnobotanical knowledge after the seventeenth century between ethnic groups. Care should be taken in extrapolating plant

  1. Domestic water buffaloes: Access to surface water, disease prevalence and associated economic losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahi, Ehsan; Abid, Muhammad; Zhang, Huiming; Cui, Weijun; Ul Hasson, Shabeh

    2018-06-01

    Given the shortage and non-availability of freshwater in Pakistan, wastewater is being used for bathing water buffaloes; however, this has a negative impact on animal welfare. Although there is a vast literature on indirect linkages between wastewater and animal productivity, studies focusing on the direct impacts of water buffaloes bathing in wastewater on animal productivity and economic losses are rare. Therefore, using 360 domestic water buffalo farms, this study examines the expenditure and production losses associated with bathing (in wastewater and freshwater) and non-bathing water buffaloes by employing partial budgeting and resource adjustment component techniques. Furthermore, it investigates the prevalence of animal diseases and associated economic effects using correlation analysis and propensity score matching techniques, respectively. The findings reveal that compared to their counterparts (freshwater bathing and non-bathing water buffaloes), buffaloes bathing in wastewater are at increased risk of clinical mastitis, foot and mouth disease (FMD) and tick infestation. Moreover, the use of wastewater for bathing buffaloes also leads to higher economic and production losses by affecting milk productivity, causing premature culling, and reducing slaughter value. The findings of the double-log model show that economic losses are higher if buffaloes bathe in wastewater within 30 min after milking, as there are more chances that those buffaloes would be exposed to bacterial penetration in the teat ducts, which may result in intramammary infection. According to the propensity score matching method, the higher economic damages per month are associated with buffaloes bathing in wastewater and freshwater, 155 and 110 USD per farm, respectively. The study findings reference the need for policies to restrict wastewater access by water buffaloes, and a regular check of and access to cool clean water wallows for bathing during hot summer days, to reduce excess

  2. Electroless nickel plating on abs plastics from nickel chloride and nickel sulfate baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inam-ul-haque; Ahmad, S.; Khan, A.

    2005-01-01

    Aqueous acid nickel chloride and alkaline nickel sulphate bath were studied for electroless nickel planting on acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) plastic. Before electroless nickel plating, specimens were etched, sensitized and activated. Effects of sodium hypophosphite and sodium citrate concentration on the electroless nickel plating thickness were discussed. Aqueous acid nickel chloride bath comprising, nickel chloride 10 g/L, sodium hypophosphite 40 g/L, sodium citrate 40g/L at pH 5.5, temperature 85 deg. C and density of 1 Be/ for thirty minutes gave best coating thickness in micrometer. It was found that acid nickel chloride bath had a greater stability, wide operating range and better coating thickness results than alkaline nickel sulphate bath. Acid nickel chloride bath gave better coating thickness than alkaline nickel sulfate bath

  3. Cadmium sulfide thin films growth by chemical bath deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariech, S.; Aida, M. S.; Bougdira, J.; Belmahi, M.; Medjahdi, G.; Genève, D.; Attaf, N.; Rinnert, H.

    2018-03-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films have been prepared by a simple technique such as chemical bath deposition (CBD). A set of samples CdS were deposited on glass substrates by varying the bath temperature from 55 to 75 °C at fixed deposition time (25 min) in order to investigate the effect of deposition temperature on CdS films physical properties. The determination of growth activation energy suggests that at low temperature CdS film growth is governed by the release of Cd2+ ions in the solution. The structural characterization indicated that the CdS films structure is cubic or hexagonal with preferential orientation along the direction (111) or (002), respectively. The optical characterization indicated that the films have a fairly high transparency, which varies between 55% and 80% in the visible range of the optical spectrum, the refractive index varies from 1.85 to 2.5 and the optical gap value of which can reach 2.2 eV. It can be suggested that these properties make these films perfectly suitable for their use as window film in thin films based solar cells.

  4. Ergodicity of the Stochastic Nosé-Hoover Heat Bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei Chung Lo,; Baowen Li,

    2010-07-01

    We numerically study the ergodicity of the stochastic Nosé-Hoover heat bath whose formalism is based on the Markovian approximation for the Nosé-Hoover equation [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 77 (2008) 103001]. The approximation leads to a Langevin-like equation driven by a fluctuating dissipative force and multiplicative Gaussian white noise. The steady state solution of the associated Fokker-Planck equation is the canonical distribution. We investigate the dynamics of this method for the case of (i) free particle, (ii) nonlinear oscillators and (iii) lattice chains. We derive the Fokker-Planck equation for the free particle and present approximate analytical solution for the stationary distribution in the context of the Markovian approximation. Numerical simulation results for nonlinear oscillators show that this method results in a Gaussian distribution for the particles velocity. We also employ the method as heat baths to study nonequilibrium heat flow in one-dimensional Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU-β) and Frenkel-Kontorova (FK) lattices. The establishment of well-defined temperature profiles are observed only when the lattice size is large. Our results provide numerical justification for such Markovian approximation for classical single- and many-body systems.

  5. Quantum trajectory analysis of multimode subsystem-bath dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Robert E; Na, Kyungsun

    2002-01-01

    The dynamics of a swarm of quantum trajectories is investigated for systems involving the interaction of an active mode (the subsystem) with an M-mode harmonic reservoir (the bath). Equations of motion for the position, velocity, and action function for elements of the probability fluid are integrated in the Lagrangian (moving with the fluid) picture of quantum hydrodynamics. These fluid elements are coupled through the Bohm quantum potential and as a result evolve as a correlated ensemble. Wave function synthesis along the trajectories permits an exact description of the quantum dynamics for the evolving probability fluid. The approach is fully quantum mechanical and does not involve classical or semiclassical approximations. Computational results are presented for three systems involving the interaction on an active mode with M=1, 10, and 15 bath modes. These results include configuration space trajectory evolution, flux analysis of the evolving ensemble, wave function synthesis along trajectories, and energy partitioning along specific trajectories. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using a small number of quantum trajectories to obtain accurate quantum results on some types of open quantum systems that are not amenable to standard quantum approaches involving basis set expansions or Eulerian space-fixed grids.

  6. Creation of quantum steering by interaction with a common bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhe; Xu, Xiao-Qiang; Liu, Bo

    2018-05-01

    By applying the hierarchy equation method, we computationally study the creation of quantum steering in a two-qubit system interacting with a common bosonic bath. The calculation does not adopt conventional approximate approaches, such as the Born, Markov, rotating-wave, and other perturbative approximations. Three kinds of quantum steering, i.e., Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering (EPRS), temporal steering (TS), and spatiotemporal steering (STS), are considered. Since the initial state of the two qubits is chosen as a product state, there does not exist EPRS at the beginning. During the evolution, we find that STS as well as EPRS are generated at the same time. An inversion relationship between STS and TS is revealed. By varying the system-bath coupling strength from weak to ultrastrong regimes, we find the nonmonotonic dependence of STS, TS, and EPRS on the coupling strength. It is interesting to study the dynamics of the three kinds of quantum steering by using an exactly numerical method, which is not considered in previous researches.

  7. Electrolytic Recovery of Nickel from Spent Electroless Nickel Bath Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Idhayachander

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plating industry is one of the largest polluting small scale industries and nickel plating is among the important surface finishing process in this industry. The waste generated during this operation contains toxic nickel. Nickel removal and recovery is of great interest from spent bath for environmental and economic reasons. Spent electroless nickel solution from a reed relay switch manufacturing industry situated in Chennai was taken for electrolytic recovery of nickel. Electrolytic experiment was carried out with mild steel and gold coated mild steel as cathode and the different parameters such as current density, time, mixing and pH of the solution were varied and recovery and current efficiency was studied. It was noticed that there was an increase in current efficiency up to 5 A/dm2 and after that it declines. There is no significant improvement with mixing but with modified cathode there was some improvement. Removal of nickel from the spent electroless nickel bath was 81.81% at 5 A/dm2 and pH 4.23. Under this condition, the content of nickel was reduced to 0.94 g/L from 5.16 g/L. with 62.97% current efficiency.

  8. The effectiveness of using a bath oil to reduce signs of dry skin: A randomized controlled pragmatic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottner, Jan; Kanti, Varvara; Dobos, Gabor; Hahnel, Elisabeth; Lichterfeld-Kottner, Andrea; Richter, Claudia; Hillmann, Kathrin; Vogt, Annika; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Dry skin (xerosis cutis) is increasingly recognized as a relevant health problem in daily life and in health and nursing care. The use of bath additives such as oils is common to reduce dry skin, but empirical evidence supporting this practice is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of using a bath oil additive in improving skin barrier function and ameliorating dry skin in comparison to non-oil containing skin cleansers for bathing or showering. Single centre randomized observer blind pragmatic parallel group trial. Outpatient/community care. Volunteers showing clinically mild to moderate dry skin recruited from the city of Berlin. Healthy children and adults were randomly assigned to use either a commercially available bath oil or to continue using their regular non-oil containing skin cleansers every other day over a study period of 28days. Skin barrier parameters and the severity of dry skin were assessed at baseline and at two follow-up visits at the study centre. Transepidermal water loss was the primary outcome. All sixty participants randomized completed the trial. Median age was 32.5 (IQR 8.3 to 69) years. At the end of study the mean transepidermal water loss in the intervention group was statistically significant lower compared to the control group (mean difference -1.9 (95% CI -3.1 to -0.8) g/m 2 /h). Stratum corneum hydration was statistically significantly higher in the intervention group at the end of the study. Skin surface pH and roughness were comparable in both groups and remained unchanged, while both groups showed a trend to improvement in dry skin symptoms CONCLUSIONS: This pragmatic trial provides empirical evidence that the regular use of the investigated bath oil is effective in improving the skin barrier function in children and adults with mild dry skin when used in routine skin care and supports its use as a basic element for the management of a broad spectrum of dry skin conditions. Clinical

  9. Culture and long-term care: the bath as social service in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traphagan, John W

    2004-01-01

    A central feature of Japan's approach to community-based care of the elderly, including long-term home health care, is the emphasis on providing bath facilities. For mobile elders, senior centers typically provide a public bathing facility in which people can enjoy a relaxing soak along with friends who also visit the centers. In terms of in-home long-term care, visiting bath services are provided to assist family care providers with the difflcult task of bathing a frail or disabled elder--a task made more problematic as a result of the Japanese style of bathing. I argue that the bath, as social service, is a culturally shaped solution to a specific problem of elder care that arises in the Japanese context as a result of the importance of the bath in everyday life for Japanese. While the services may be considered specific to Japan, some aspects of bathing services, particularly the mobile bath service, may also have applicability in the United States.

  10. The UK nuclear programme: The Sizewell experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salter, W.B.

    1990-01-01

    The current status of the Sizewell 'B' PWR programme and the effect on it of the proposed privatisation of U.K electricity generation is reviewed. Departures from and additions to the Standard Nuclear Unit Power Plant System (SNUPPS) reference plant design are given. These include Reactor Coolant System overpressure protection and the addition of an Emergency Charging System and an Emergency Boration System. Improvements in monitoring Reactor Coolant System water level during refuelling and maintenance shutdown operations are presented. (author)

  11. Making Space for Water: A review of SUstainable Drainage systems (SUDs) in a rural/urban area of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Paul; Tellier, Sebastien; Wilkinson, Mark

    2010-05-01

    Expansion of the city of Newcastle included a new development of over 3000 houses and an associated commercial area on agricultural land. The development firmly signed up to the notion that the new estate should adhere to full SUDs design and implementation. In essence there should be no loss of floodplain capacity, the total runoff from the new housing should not increase flood risk downstream and benefits to ecology, recreation and amenity should be fully maximised. Credit must be given to Newcastle City Council, the Environment Agency, the local water company and the developers themselves as a full set of large scale SUDs now exist and they are clearly an asset to the city. However, such a large scale landscape engineering endeavour has not been without direct and indirect problems. This paper reviews some of the experiences, problems and lessons learnt from SUDs implementation, the function of SUDs during flood events and the perception of SUDs by the public. During the life of the project several older estates close to the new development suffered from two major flood events; including foul water inundation, the drowning out of sewer overflows and intense flash flooding. These floods at first gave rise to the public perception that the new development had caused the flooding. During a research project entitled 'making space for water', the instrumentation of the river in the area and the SUDs took place. The hydrological data this produced has given rise to a mixture of positive and negative aspects of SUDs implementation. The cause of one flood was due to the drowning out of key sewer overflows by locally generated by urban flood flow arising from an upstream estate. The second flood was caused by a 48 hour storm event giving rise to high runoff from the rural area again drowning out key sewer overflows. The SUDs were found to perform well during storm events and do not increase runoff from the new estates. The main fundamental complaint is that despite such

  12. The UK nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, J. G.

    1995-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, nuclear power plants are operated by three companies: Nuclear Electric (NE), Scottish Nuclear (SN), and British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL). The state-operated power industry was privatized in 1989 with the exception of nuclear power generation activities, which were made part of the newly founded (state-owned) NE and SN. At the same time, a moratorium on the construction of new nuclear power plants was agreed. Only Sizewell B, the first plant in the UK to be equipped with a pressurized water reactor, was to be completed. That unit was first synchronized with the power grid on February 14, 1995. Another decision in 1989 provided for a review to be conducted in 1994 of the future of the peaceful uses of nuclear power in the country. The results of the review were presented by the government in a white paper on May 9, 1995. Accordingly, NE and SN will be merged and privatized in 1996; the headquarters of the new holding company will be in Scotland. The review does not foresee the construction of more nuclear power plants. However, NE hopes to gain a competitive edge over other sources of primary energy as a result of this privatization, and advocates construction of a dual-unit plant identical with Sizewell B so as to avoid recurrent design and development costs. Outside the UK, the company plans to act jointly with the reactor vendor, Westinghouse, especially in the Pacific region; a bid submitted by the consortium has been shortisted by the future operator of the Lungmen nuclear power plant project in Taiwan. In upgrading the safety of nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe, the new company will be able to work through existing contacts of SN. (orig.) [de

  13. Managing UK nuclear liabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadnicki, Mike; MacKerron, Gordon.

    1997-01-01

    This paper sets out a framework for a fundamental reappraisal of the management of nuclear liabilities in the United Kingdom, built around two policy objectives, sustainable development and cost-effectiveness. The practical implications of the policy objectives are explored in relation to nuclear liability strategies, such as the adequacy or otherwise of current funding arrangements, the completeness of liability estimates and the distribution of financial responsibility between the public and private sector. A fundamental review of the management of nuclear liabilities is urged in the light of inadequacies identified in this paper. (UK)

  14. Alternative irradiation system for efficiency manganese bath determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passos Leite, Sandro, E-mail: sandro@ird.gov.b [Programa de Engenharia Nuclear/COPPE, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Caixa Postal 68509, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Wagner Pereira, Walsan, E-mail: walsan@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria LNMRI/IRD/CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende, s/no, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, CEP: 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Xavier da Silva, Ademir, E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.b [Programa de Engenharia Nuclear/COPPE, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Caixa Postal 68509, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Simoes da Fonseca, Evaldo, E-mail: evaldo@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria LNMRI/IRD/CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende, s/no, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, CEP: 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Souza Patrao, Karla Cristina de, E-mail: karla@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria LNMRI/IRD/CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende, s/no, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, CEP: 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2010-12-15

    An alternative irradiation system, which works with a radionuclide neutron source and manganese sulphate solution volume have been proposed for efficiency determination of a Manganese Bath System (MBS). This irradiation system was designed by simulation with MCNP5 code, considering a californium neutron source in several manganese sulphate volumes and different neutron reflectors. Although its solution specific activity are less than those in nuclear reactors, the simulation results have showed that the irradiation system proposed takes a manganese neutron capture increase up to 200 times when it compared to manganese neutron capture from a MBS whose diameter is about 100 cm. That becomes possible to use those samples for some of the absolute specific activity measuring methods.

  15. Chemical bath ZnSe thin films: deposition and characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhande, C. D.; Patil, P. S.; Ennaoui, A.; Tributsch, H.

    1998-01-01

    The zinc selenide (ZnSe) thin films have been deposited by a simple and inexpensive chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The selenourea was used as a selenide ion source. The ZnSe films have been characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), Rutherford back scattering (RBS), and optical absorption. The as-deposited ZnSe films on various substrates are found to be amorphous and contain O2 and N2 in addition to Zn and Se. The optical band gap of the film is estimated to be 2.9 eV. The films are photoactive as evidenced by time resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC).

  16. Hydrometallurgical treatment of plutonium. Bearing salt baths waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bros, P.; Gozlan, J.P.; Lecomte, M.; Bourges, J.

    1993-01-01

    The salt flux issuing from the electrorefining of plutonium metal alloy in salt baths (KCI + NaCI) poses a difficult problem of the back-end alpha waste management. An alternative to the salt process promoted by Los Alamos Laboratory is to develop a hydrometallurgical treatment. A new process based on the electrochemistry technique in aqueous solution has been defined and tested successfully in the CEA. The diagram of the process exhibits two principal steps: in the head-end, a dissolution in HNO 3 medium accompanied with an electrolytic dechlorination leading to a quantitative elimination of chloride as CI 2 gas followed by its trapping one soda lime cartridge, a complete oxidative dissolution of the refractory Pu residues by electrogenerated Ag(II), in the back-end: the Pu and Am recoveries by chromatographic extractions. (authors). 10 figs., 9 refs

  17. Thermoluminescence of Zn O thin films deposited by chemical bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho A, M. C.; Cruz V, C.; Bernal H, R.; Berman M, D.; Castano M, V. M.

    2015-10-01

    Full text: Zn O films on Si were synthesized using a deposition method by chemical bath and thermally treated at 900 degrees C for 12 h in air. The morphological characterization by scanning electron microscopy reveals that uniform films were obtained. To investigate the thermoluminescent properties of the films were exposed to irradiation with beta particles with doses in the range from 0.5 to 128 Gy. The brightness curves obtained using a heating rate of 5 degrees C have two peaks, one at 124 and another at 270 degrees C, and a linear dependence of the integrated thermoluminescence as a function of dose. The second maximum reveals the existence of localized trapping states of potential utility in thermoluminescent dosimetry. (Author)

  18. Skin hydration in nursing home residents using disposable bed baths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Katrin; Tency, Inge; Roelant, Ella; Laureys, Sarina; Devriendt, Hendrik; Lips, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a new way for applying bed baths and reducing the risk for dry skin by comparing the effect of two washing methods on skin hydration. A cluster randomized trial was conducted. Skin hydration was measured before and after implementation of disposable wash gloves, using a MoistureMeter SC at three skin sites. Total skin hydration did not differ between residents at the start of the study in both groups. After implementation, the post minus pre hydration scores were higher for the intervention group than the control group at all skin sites. However, the difference was only significant at cheek site. The use of disposable wash gloves does not increase the risk for dry skin in comparison with traditional washing methods. These results may encourage the introduction of disposable wash gloves as an innovation in daily skin care practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Carbothermic reduction of uranium oxides into solvent metallic baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guisard Restivo, Thomaz A.; Capocchi, Jose D.T.

    2004-01-01

    The carbothermic reduction of UO 2 and U 3 O 8 is studied employing tin and silicon solvent metallic baths in thermal analysis equipment, under Ar inert and N 2 reactive atmospheres. The metallic solvents are expected to lower the U activity by several orders of magnitude owing to strong interactions among the metals. The reduction products are composed of the solvent metal matrix and intermetallic U compounds. Silicon is more effective in driving the reduction since there is no residual UO 2 after the reaction. The gaseous product detected by mass spectrometer (MS) during the reduction is CO. A kinetic study for the Si case was accomplished by the stepwise isothermal analysis (SAI) method, leading to the identification of the controlling mechanisms as chemical reaction at the surface and nucleation, for UO 2 and U 3 O 8 charges, respectively. One example for another system containing Al 2 O 3 is also shown

  20. Hypercalcemic crisis resulting from near drowning in an indoor public bath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ryusaku; Yamada, Go; Amano, Aya; Yamada, Tomoko; Hamamatsu, Keita; Murabe, Hiroyuki; Yokota, Toshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Male, 66. Hypercalcemic crisis. Near drowning state. - - Critical care medicine. Challenging differential diagnosis. Hypercalcemic crisis, generally caused by malignancy or primary hyperparathyroidism, is a life-threatening emergency that can result in multi-organ failure. Lowering the patient's calcium level immediately and determining the correct etiology are essential. We report a case of hypercalcemic crisis with a novel etiology. A 66-year-old male presented to the emergency room in cardiac arrest with a ventricular arrhythmia after being discovered submerged in an indoor public bath. He underwent cardioversion and was emergently intubated. Computed tomography showed bilateral pulmonary edema, suspected from water aspiration. Laboratory data revealed severe hypercalcemia and mild hypernatremia. Following three days of continuous hemodiafiltration, serum Ca decreased to and remained within normal limits. We concluded the etiology of hypercalcemia was absorption of Ca resulting from aspirated water. Near drowning can be a cause of hypercalcemic crisis. For cases of near drowning, it is important to investigate the source of the aspirated water and consider electrolyte abnormalities in the diagnosis.

  1. UK retail marketing survey 94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This document draws together data on the United Kingdom (UK) petroleum market up to the end of 1993. Lists include suppliers of petrol to the UK market listed by brand name, a regional breakdown of petrol and derv outlets, UK outlets which retail derv. Average retail prices for motor spirit and derv per litre are given as are sites fitted with Vapour Recovery equipment. Other tables shown indicate various companies' share of the market in terms of the percentage of petrol sites, including supermarkets. The volumes of motor spirit and derv delivered to retail and commercial customers between 1984 and 1993 is also given. (UK)

  2. Additional Quantum Properties of Entangled Bipartite Qubit Systems Coupled to Photon Baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana, C

    2016-01-01

    The time evolution of an entangled bi-partite qubit interacting with two independent photon baths in isolated cavities is not unitary. It is shown that the bi-partite qubit oscillates between pure and mixed states, and that the initial entanglement is lost and recovered in time by time as a consequence of its interaction with the baths. (paper)

  3. Reuse of Expired Cefort Drug in Nickel Electrodeposition From Watts Bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia-Andrada Duca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the possibility to use ceftriaxone (CEFTR active compound from expired Cefort as additive in nickel electrodeposition from Watts baths. Electrochemical behaviour and the influence of CEFTR on nickel electroplating were studied by electrochemical methods. Experimental data recommends CEFTR as additive in nickel electroplating from Watts baths.

  4. Two-level system in spin baths: Non-adiabatic dynamics and heat transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Dvira

    2014-04-01

    We study the non-adiabatic dynamics of a two-state subsystem in a bath of independent spins using the non-interacting blip approximation, and derive an exact analytic expression for the relevant memory kernel. We show that in the thermodynamic limit, when the subsystem-bath coupling is diluted (uniformly) over many (infinite) degrees of freedom, our expression reduces to known results, corresponding to the harmonic bath with an effective, temperature-dependent, spectral density function. We then proceed and study the heat current characteristics in the out-of-equilibrium spin-spin-bath model, with a two-state subsystem bridging two thermal spin-baths of different temperatures. We compare the behavior of this model to the case of a spin connecting boson baths, and demonstrate pronounced qualitative differences between the two models. Specifically, we focus on the development of the thermal diode effect, and show that the spin-spin-bath model cannot support it at weak (subsystem-bath) coupling, while in the intermediate-strong coupling regime its rectifying performance outplays the spin-boson model.

  5. Effect of some addition agents on the electrodeposition of cadmium from acidic chloride baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Halim, A.M.; Baghlaf, A.O.; Sobahi, M.I.

    1984-01-01

    A further development of a chloride-based cadmium plating bath containing 0.3 M CdCl 2 .(5/2)H 2 O, 0.1 M HCl, 0.4 M H 3 BO 3 and 2.0 M NH 4 Cl (bath I) is described. The influences of the individual addition agents thiourea, coumarin Ni 2+ ions and I - ions on the characteristics of cadmium electrodeposition from acidic chloride electrolytes containing 0.3 M CdCl 2 .(5/2)H 2 O, 0.1 M HCl, 0.4 M H 3 BO 3 , 2.0 M NH 4 Cl, 0.5 M sodium potassium tartrate and 5 g gelatin l -1 (bath II) were studied. Bath II including a combination of the four above-mentioned additives was denoted bath III. The additive-containing bath III produced a brighter but less hard cadmium deposit than the additive-free bath II. The individual effects of melamine, 3-methyl-4-p-methoxyphenylazopyrazol-5-one, dimethylformamide (DMF) and DMF with biacetyl-bis-(benzoylhydrazone) on the cathodic polarization and current efficiency of cadmium electrodeposition from baths II and III, as well as on the morphology and microhardness of the as-plated cadmium deposits, were investigated and discussed. (Auth.)

  6. Two-level system in spin baths: Non-adiabatic dynamics and heat transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segal, Dvira [Chemical Physics Theory Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 Saint George St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6 (Canada)

    2014-04-28

    We study the non-adiabatic dynamics of a two-state subsystem in a bath of independent spins using the non-interacting blip approximation, and derive an exact analytic expression for the relevant memory kernel. We show that in the thermodynamic limit, when the subsystem-bath coupling is diluted (uniformly) over many (infinite) degrees of freedom, our expression reduces to known results, corresponding to the harmonic bath with an effective, temperature-dependent, spectral density function. We then proceed and study the heat current characteristics in the out-of-equilibrium spin-spin-bath model, with a two-state subsystem bridging two thermal spin-baths of different temperatures. We compare the behavior of this model to the case of a spin connecting boson baths, and demonstrate pronounced qualitative differences between the two models. Specifically, we focus on the development of the thermal diode effect, and show that the spin-spin-bath model cannot support it at weak (subsystem-bath) coupling, while in the intermediate-strong coupling regime its rectifying performance outplays the spin-boson model.

  7. Steady-state entanglement and thermalization of coupled qubits in two common heat baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li-Zhen; Man, Zhong-Xiao; Xia, Yun-Jie

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we study the steady-state entanglement and thermalization of two coupled qubits embedded in two common baths with different temperatures. The common bath is relevant when the two qubits are difficult to be isolated to only contact with their local baths. With the quantum master equation constructed in the eigenstate representation of the coupled qubits, we have demonstrated the variations of steady-state entanglement with respect to various parameters of the qubits' system in both equilibrium and nonequilibrium cases of the baths. The coupling strength and energy detuning of the qubits as well as the temperature gradient of the baths are found to be beneficial to the enhancement of the entanglement. We note a dark state of the qubits that is free from time-evolution and its initial population can greatly influence the steady-state entanglement. By virtues of effective temperatures, we also study the thermalization of the coupled qubits and their variations with energy detuning.

  8. New Brightener for Zn-Fe Alloy Plating from Sulphate Bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Praveen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Zn-Fe alloy electrodeposition was carried out in the presence of condensation product 2-{[(1E-(3,4-dimethoxyphenylmethylidene]amino}-3-hydroxypropanoic acid formed between veratraldehyde and serine in acid sulphate bath. Hull cell was used for optimizing the operating parameters and bath constituents. During deposition, the potential was shifted towards cathodic direction in the presence of addition agents and brightener. The polarization studies show that deposition taking place in basic bath and optimum bath was 1.08 and 1.15 V, respectively. Current efficiency and throwing power were reached around 85% and 26%, respectively. The SEM images of bright deposit indicated its fine-grained nature and appreciable reduction in the grain size. XRD studies have showed that the grain size of the deposit generated from optimum bath was 16 nm. UV-visible spectroscopic studies confirm the formation of complex between metal ion and brightener.

  9. Method and apparatus for replenishing the helium bath in the rotor of a superconducting generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, A.; Schnapper, C.

    1980-01-01

    In order to replenish a helium bath in the super-conducting rotor of an electrical machine, in which bath liquid helium boils at subatmospheric pressure, with liquid helium from a helium reservoir, the liquid helium in the reservoir being at ambient pressure and a part of the liquid helium changing to the vapor phase during flow from the reservoir to the bath, liquid helium is introduced into the bath at a distance from the rotor axis of rotation, the liquid and vapor phases of the helium flowing from the reservoir to the bath are separated from one another in a phase separator fixed to the rotor, and the separated vapor phase is extracted from the separator. (MM) [de

  10. Thermodynamic analysis and experimental study on the oxidation of the Zn-Al-Mg coating baths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Xuping, E-mail: sxping@cczu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China); Zhou, Jie; Wang, Jianhua; Wu, Changjun; Liu, Ya; Tu, Hao; Peng, Haoping [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • The surface oxidation products of the Zn-Al-Mg melt were analyzed with XPS. • Certain Al must be added in bath containing Mg to get stable galvanizing melts. • The oxidation products vary with the bath composition. • Oxidation can be predicted in galvanizing by using the calculated phase diagrams. • The thermodynamic analysis can be used to design the practical bath melts. - Abstract: Surface oxidation of molten Zn-6Al baths containing 0.0, 3.0 and 6.0 wt. % Mg were analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is formed on the surface of the Zn-6Al bath, while MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MgO occur at 460 °C in the Zn-6Al-3Mg and Zn-6Al-6Mg baths, respectively. Thermodynamic analysis on the oxidation of the Zn-Al-Mg baths was performed. Calculated phase diagrams at 460 °C and 560 °C show good agreements with the experimental results. MgO or MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} exists in almost the entire composition range of the calculated oxidation diagrams. According to the calculation, oxidation products depend on the composition and temperature of the baths. The primary and secondary oxidation products of the Zn-Al-Mg baths can be reasonably explained by oxidation phase diagrams. Utilizing these results, the favorable practical bath melts and operating conditions can be designed.

  11. UK Nuclear Workforce Demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, John

    2017-01-01

    UK Nuclear Sites: DECOMMISSIONING - 26 Magnox Reactors, 2 Fast Reactors; OPERATIONAL - 14 AGRs, 1 PWR; 9.6 GWe Total Capacity. Nuclear Workforce Demand • Total workforce demand is expected to grow from ~88,000 in 2017 to ~101,000 in 2021 • Average “inflow” is ~7,000 FTEs per annum • 22% of the workforce is female (28% in civil, 12% in defence) • 81% generic skills, 18% nuclear skills, 1% subject matter experts • 3300 trainees total in SLCs and Defence Enterprise (16% graduate trainees) • At peak demand on Civils Construction, over 4,000 workers will be required on each nuclear new build site • Manufacturing workforce is expected to rise from around 4,000 in 2014 to 8,500 at the peak of onsite activity in 2025

  12. Opportunities for the UK in solar detoxification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, P A; Walker, G M

    1997-12-31

    The most investigated approach to the solar detoxification of water involves the use of titanium dioxide, TiO{sub 2}, as the photocatalyst. The involvement of engineers in photocatalytic water detoxification research has been far too low, the research effort in photochemical reactor design has not been sufficient, with the result that a well-defined application for solar, or UV lamp, -driven TiO{sub 2}-based water detoxification technology has not been identified. The most effective and carefully investigated reactor design remains that in which TiO{sub 2} is added as a slurry to the contaminated water, however, the cost implications of the subsequent separation of the slurry from the treated water have not been addressed in any sensible fashion. The poor quantum efficiencies, rate constants and overlap between the solar emission spectrum and the absorption spectrum of TiO{sub 2} has resulted in very low solar detoxification efficiencies. This, in turn, means that very large areas of land will be necessary to accommodate a solar detoxification reactor, however UK industry, and the water companies in particular, have no interest in investing in water and/or wastewater treatment methods which demand increased land usage. In addition both industry and the water companies have little or no knowledge of, or interest in, novel detoxification technologies. From the above, the only conclusion can be that the application of the solar-driven photocatalytic detoxification of high-volume and most low-volume water in the UK is not a commercial option, and so is unlikely to be in the near future. (author)

  13. Opportunities for the UK in solar detoxification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, P.A.; Walker, G.M.

    1996-12-31

    The most investigated approach to the solar detoxification of water involves the use of titanium dioxide, TiO{sub 2}, as the photocatalyst. The involvement of engineers in photocatalytic water detoxification research has been far too low, the research effort in photochemical reactor design has not been sufficient, with the result that a well-defined application for solar, or UV lamp, -driven TiO{sub 2}-based water detoxification technology has not been identified. The most effective and carefully investigated reactor design remains that in which TiO{sub 2} is added as a slurry to the contaminated water, however, the cost implications of the subsequent separation of the slurry from the treated water have not been addressed in any sensible fashion. The poor quantum efficiencies, rate constants and overlap between the solar emission spectrum and the absorption spectrum of TiO{sub 2} has resulted in very low solar detoxification efficiencies. This, in turn, means that very large areas of land will be necessary to accommodate a solar detoxification reactor, however UK industry, and the water companies in particular, have no interest in investing in water and/or wastewater treatment methods which demand increased land usage. In addition both industry and the water companies have little or no knowledge of, or interest in, novel detoxification technologies. From the above, the only conclusion can be that the application of the solar-driven photocatalytic detoxification of high-volume and most low-volume water in the UK is not a commercial option, and so is unlikely to be in the near future. (author)

  14. UK manufacturers construction joint venture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report examines the legal and commercial framework for UK manufacturers to collaborate in a construction venture for a small combustion/steam cycle power plant fueled with biomass. The integration of technology and project plan, the working capital and capitalisation, financial aspects, the market plan, turnkey packages, joint venture entities, and collaboration are discussed. (UK)

  15. Solar energy: a UK assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    A panel convened by UK-ISES to analyze all aspects of solar energy systems and to assess the potential for solar energy utilization and research and development needs in the UK and for export is reported. Topics covered include: solar energy in relation to other energy sources; international solar energy research and development program; the physical nature of solar energy and its availability in the UK and other countries; thermal collection, storage, and low-temperature applications; solar energy and architecture; solar thermal power systems; solar cells; agricultural and biological systems; photochemical systems; social, legal, and political considerations with particular reference to the UK; and future policy on solar research and development for the UK. (WDM)

  16. The effectiveness of bed bathing practices on skin integrity and hospital-acquired infections among adult patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veje, Pia; Larsen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    is: What is the effectiveness of traditional towel bed bath practice compared to other innovate bed bath practices on maintaining skin integrity, skin barrier function and reduction of pathogen microbial counts on skin among adult patients in all settings? Inclusion criteria: Types of participants...... practices, including all bag bath interventions, not limited to any specific type or brand. For the purpose of this systematic review, bag bath interventions include bathing patients with pre-packaged disposal washcloths by use of a different cloth to wash each part of the patient's body. The washcloths...... typically comprise rayon/polyester cloth pre-moistened with an evaporating no-rinse cleanser and emollients. Comparator: The comparator is the traditional bed bath (towel bed bath) intervention, regardless of type and frequency. For the purposes of this systematic review, traditional bed bath refers...

  17. Unexplained neurological events during bathing in young people: Possible association with the use of gas geysers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Prabhjeet

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report sudden, unexplained neurological collapse in 14 young people while bathing with hot water associated with the use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG-based water heaters (gas geysers in ill-ventilated bathrooms. None of the patients reported any circumstantial evidence of seizures or prior epilepsy. One patient developed cortical blindness and demonstrated posterior leucoencephalopathy on imaging studies. The remaining patients made rapid and excellent recovery without any residual neurological sequelae. In these cases, the results of all routine investigations, i.e., serum chemistry, brain imaging (computed tomography in 2 and magnetic resonance imaging in 10 and electroencephalography were normal. The clinical clustering of these cases in winter months with similar presentations of reversible encephalopathy probably indicates an inhalational toxin exposure. Therefore, we postulate a hypothesis that harmful emissions consisting of carbon monoxide (CO, hydrocarbon gases (HC and nitrogen oxides (NOx, produced by incomplete combustion of LPG might be responsible for the cellular injury and subsequent transient neurological deficits. Physicians should be aware of this entity in order to avoid misdiagnosis of this condition as seizures, and a public awareness should also be created regarding the proper use of these devices.

  18. Reduction in hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus with daily chlorhexidine gluconate bathing for medical inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Christopher F; Lloyd-Smith, Elisa; Sidhu, Baljinder; Ritchie, Gordon; Sharma, Azra; Jang, Willson; Wong, Anna; Bilawka, Jennifer; Richards, Danielle; Kind, Thomas; Puddicombe, David; Champagne, Sylvie; Leung, Victor; Romney, Marc G

    2017-03-01

    Daily bathing with chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) is increasingly used in intensive care units to prevent hospital-associated infections, but limited evidence exists for noncritical care settings. A prospective crossover study was conducted on 4 medical inpatient units in an urban, academic Canadian hospital from May 1, 2014-August 10, 2015. Intervention units used CHG over a 7-month period, including a 1-month wash-in phase, while control units used nonmedicated soap and water bathing. Rates of hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) colonization or infection were the primary end point. Hospital-associated S. aureus were investigated for CHG resistance with a qacA/B and smr polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and agar dilution. Compliance with daily CHG bathing was 58%. Hospital-associated MRSA and VRE was decreased by 55% (5.1 vs 11.4 cases per 10,000 inpatient days, P = .04) and 36% (23.2 vs 36.0 cases per 10,000 inpatient days, P = .03), respectively, compared with control cohorts. There was no significant difference in rates of hospital-associated Clostridium difficile. Chlorhexidine resistance testing identified 1 isolate with an elevated minimum inhibitory concentration (8 µg/mL), but it was PCR negative. This prospective pragmatic study to assess daily bathing for CHG on inpatient medical units was effective in reducing hospital-associated MRSA and VRE. A critical component of CHG bathing on medical units is sustained and appropriate application, which can be a challenge to accurately assess and needs to be considered before systematic implementation. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Innovative UK Approaches to Acquisition Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Financial and Operational Imperatives Size of UK armed forces UK Industry ? Political influence PFI / PPP Increased Scrutiny - NAO “ Commercialisation “ of the...acquisition KNOWLEDGE (EXPERIENCE – Lessons learned) KNOWLEDGE (Training) KNOWLEDGE ( Education ) OPTIMAL OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE Operational Capability UK

  20. Maximum Power Output of Quantum Heat Engine with Energy Bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The difference between quantum isoenergetic process and quantum isothermal process comes from the violation of the law of equipartition of energy in the quantum regime. To reveal an important physical meaning of this fact, here we study a special type of quantum heat engine consisting of three processes: isoenergetic, isothermal and adiabatic processes. Therefore, this engine works between the energy and heat baths. Combining two engines of this kind, it is possible to realize the quantum Carnot engine. Furthermore, considering finite velocity of change of the potential shape, here an infinite square well with moving walls, the power output of the engine is discussed. It is found that the efficiency and power output are both closely dependent on the initial and final states of the quantum isothermal process. The performance of the engine cycle is shown to be optimized by control of the occupation probability of the ground state, which is determined by the temperature and the potential width. The relation between the efficiency and power output is also discussed.

  1. Study of an alternative system for manganese bath efficiency determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, Sandro Passos

    2010-01-01

    An alternative irradiation system, using radioisotope neutron sources and a small MnSO 4 solution volume, was proposed m this work to determine the Manganese Bath System (MBS) efficiency. The irradiation system was characterized through simulations with the MCNP radiation transport code from the modeling of 252 Cf(f,n) and 238 PuBe(alpha,n) neutron sources in several MnSO 4 solution volumes and different neutron reflector medium for this solution. The parameter calculated in the simulations was the manganese neutron specific capture (MNSC), which is related to the MnSO 4 solution specific activity. From the proposed systems for 252 Cf (f, n) and 238 PuBe (alpha,n) the NSCM was increased hundred times, in relation with that achieved in the LN/LNMRI/IRD MBS system simulation when irradiated by each these neutron sources. During study for irradiation system characterization its concept was verified using a assemble of test irradiation (ATI), which were spherical glass cavities, with few centimeter in radius, filled with MnSO 4 solution, with and without presence of a neutron reflector medium. These TIA were used in four efficiency measurements and the average value was obtained. (author)

  2. Analysis of tellurium thin films electrodeposition from acidic citric bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalik, Remigiusz; Kutyła, Dawid [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Non-Ferrous Metals, al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Mech, Krzysztof [AGH University of Science and Technology, Academic Centre for Materials and Nanotechnology, al. A. Mickiewicza 30, Krakow (Poland); Żabiński, Piotr, E-mail: rkowalik@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Non-Ferrous Metals, al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2016-12-01

    This work presents the description of the electrochemical process of formation thin tellurium layers from citrate acidic solution. The suggested methodology consists in the preparation of stable acidic baths with high content of tellurium, and with the addition of citrate acid. In order to analyse the mechanism of the process of tellurium deposition, the electroanalytical tests were conducted. The tests of cyclic voltammetry and hydrodynamic ones were performed with the use of polycrystalline gold disk electrode. The range of potentials in which deposition of tellurium in direct four-electron process is possible was determined as well as the reduction of deposited Te° to Te{sup 2−} and its re-deposition as a result of the comproportionation reaction. On the basis of the obtained results, the deposition of tellurium was conducted by the potentiostatic method. The influence of a deposition potential and a concentration of TeO{sub 2} in the solution on the rate of tellurium coatings deposition was examined. The presence of tellurium was confirmed by X-ray spectrofluorometry and electron probe microanalysis. In order to determine the phase composition and the morphology, the obtained coatings were analysed with the use of x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy.

  3. Cobalt Xanthate Thin Film with Chemical Bath Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İ. A. Kariper

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt xanthate thin films (CXTFs were successfully deposited by chemical bath deposition, onto amorphous glass substrates, as well as on p- and n-silicon, indium tin oxide, and poly(methyl methacrylate. The structure of the films was analyzed by far-infrared spectrum (FIR, mid-infrared (MIR spectrum, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. These films were investigated from their structural, optical, and electrical properties point of view. Electrical properties were measured using four-point method, whereas optical properties were investigated via UV-VIS spectroscopic technique. Uniform distribution of grains was clearly observed from the photographs taken by scanning electron microscope (SEM. The transmittance was about 70–80% (4 hours, 50°C. The optical band gap of the CXTF was graphically estimated to be 3.99–4.02 eV. The resistivity of the films was calculated as 22.47–75.91 Ω·cm on commercial glass depending on film thickness and 44.90–73.10 Ω ·cm on the other substrates. It has been observed that the relative resistivity changed with film thickness. The MIR and FIR spectra of the films were in agreement with the literature analogues. The expected peaks of cobalt xanthate were observed in NMR analysis on glass. The films were dipped in chloroform as organic solvent and were analyzed by NMR.

  4. Laser cooling of a harmonic oscillator's bath with optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xunnong; Taylor, Jacob

    Thermal noise reduction in mechanical systems is a topic both of fundamental interest for studying quantum physics at the macroscopic level and for application of interest, such as building high sensitivity mechanics based sensors. Similar to laser cooling of neutral atoms and trapped ions, the cooling of mechanical motion by radiation pressure can take single mechanical modes to their ground state. Conventional optomechanical cooling is able to introduce additional damping channel to mechanical motion, while keeping its thermal noise at the same level, and as a consequence, the effective temperature of the mechanical mode is lowered. However, the ratio of temperature to quality factor remains roughly constant, preventing dramatic advances in quantum sensing using this approach. Here we propose an efficient scheme for reducing the thermal load on a mechanical resonator while improving its quality factor. The mechanical mode of interest is assumed to be weakly coupled to its heat bath but strongly coupled to a second mechanical mode, which is cooled by radiation pressure coupling to a red detuned cavity field. We also identify a realistic optomechanical design that has the potential to realize this novel cooling scheme. Joint Center for Quantum Information and Computer Science, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA.

  5. Beyond heat baths II: framework for generalized thermodynamic resource theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunger Halpern, Nicole

    2018-03-01

    Thermodynamics, which describes vast systems, has been reconciled with small scales, relevant to single-molecule experiments, in resource theories. Resource theories have been used to model exchanges of energy and information. Recently, particle exchanges were modeled; and an umbrella family of thermodynamic resource theories was proposed to model diverse baths, interactions, and free energies. This paper motivates and details the family’s structure and prospective applications. How to model electrochemical, gravitational, magnetic, and other thermodynamic systems is explained. Szilárd’s engine and Landauer’s Principle are generalized, as resourcefulness is shown to be convertible not only between information and gravitational energy, but also among diverse degrees of freedom. Extensive variables are associated with quantum operators that might fail to commute, introducing extra nonclassicality into thermodynamic resource theories. An early version of this paper partially motivated the later development of noncommutative thermalization. This generalization expands the theories’ potential for modeling realistic systems with which small-scale statistical mechanics might be tested experimentally.

  6. Mapping of an ultrasonic bath for ultrasound assisted extraction of mangiferin from Mangifera indica leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Vrushali M; Rathod, Virendra K

    2014-03-01

    The present work deals with the mapping of an ultrasonic bath for the maximum extraction of mangiferin from Mangifera indica leaves. I3(-) liberation experiments (chemical transformations) and extraction (physical transformations) were carried out at different locations in an ultrasonic bath and compared. The experimental findings indicated a similar trend in variation in an ultrasonic bath by both these methods. Various parameters such as position and depth of vessel in an ultrasonic bath, diameter and shape of a vessel, frequency and input power which affect the extraction yield have been studied in detail. Maximum yield of mangiferin obtained was approximately 31 mg/g at optimized parameters: distance of 2.54 cm above the bottom of the bath, 7 cm diameter of vessel, flat bottom vessel, 6.35 cm liquid height, 122 W input power and 25 kHz frequency. The present work indicates that the position and depth of vessel in an ultrasonic bath, diameter and shape of a vessel, frequency and input power have significant effect on the extraction yield. This work can be used as a base for all ultrasonic baths to obtain maximum efficiency for ultrasound assisted extraction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Two-Dimensional Physical and CFD Modelling of Large Gas Bubble Behaviour in Bath Smelting Furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Pan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of large gas bubbles in a liquid bath and the mechanisms of splash generation due to gas bubble rupture in high-intensity bath smelting furnaces were investigated by means of physical and mathematical (CFD modelling techniques. In the physical modelling work, a two-dimensional Perspex model of the pilot plant furnace at CSIRO Process Science and Engineering was established in the laboratory. An aqueous glycerol solution was used to simulate liquid slag. Air was injected via a submerged lance into the liquid bath and the bubble behaviour and the resultant splashing phenomena were observed and recorded with a high-speed video camera. In the mathematical modelling work, a two-dimensional CFD model was developed to simulate the free surface flows due to motion and deformation of large gas bubbles in the liquid bath and rupture of the bubbles at the bath free surface. It was concluded from these modelling investigations that the splashes generated in high-intensity bath smelting furnaces are mainly caused by the rupture of fast rising large gas bubbles. The acceleration of the bubbles into the preceding bubbles and the rupture of the coalescent bubbles at the bath surface contribute significantly to splash generation.

  8. Two-dimensional spectroscopy for harmonic vibrational modes with nonlinear system-bath interactions. I. Gaussian-white case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steffen, T; Tanimura, Y

    The quantum Fokker-Planck equation is derived for a system nonlinearly coupled to a harmonic oscillator bath. The system-bath interaction is assumed to be linear in the bath coordinates but quadratic in the system coordinate. The relaxation induced dynamics of a harmonic system are investigated by

  9. Effects of single moor baths on physiological stress response and psychological state: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stier-Jarmer, M.; Frisch, D.; Oberhauser, C.; Immich, G.; Kirschneck, M.; Schuh, A.

    2017-11-01

    Moor mud applications in the form of packs and baths are widely used therapeutically as part of balneotherapy. They are commonly given as therapy for musculoskeletal disorders, with their thermo-physical effects being furthest studied. Moor baths are one of the key therapeutic elements in our recently developed and evaluated 3-week prevention program for subjects with high stress level and increased risk of developing a burnout syndrome. An embedded pilot study add-on to this core project was carried out to assess the relaxing effect of a single moor bath. During the prevention program, 78 participants received a total of seven moor applications, each consisting of a moor bath (42 °C, 20 min, given between 02:30 and 05:20 p.m.) followed by resting period (20 min). Before and after the first moor application in week 1, and the penultimate moor application in week 3, salivary cortisol was collected, blood pressure and heart rate were measured, and mood state (Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire) was assessed. A Friedman test of differences among repeated measures was conducted. Post hoc analyses were performed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. A significant decrease in salivary cortisol concentration was seen between pre- and post-moor bath in week 1 ( Z = -3.355, p = 0.0008). A non-significant decrease was seen between pre- and post-moor bath in week 3. Mood state improved significantly after both moor baths. This pilot study has provided initial evidence on the stress-relieving effects of single moor baths, which can be a sensible and recommendable therapeutic element of multimodal stress-reducing prevention programs. The full potential of moor baths still needs to be validated. A randomized controlled trial should be conducted comparing this balneo-therapeutic approach against other types of stress reduction interventions.

  10. THE BALNEARY RESOURCE, A GENERATOR OF BUILT HERITAGE. THE STRATIGRAPHIC FEATURES OF HERCULANE BATHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. SPÂNU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The balneary resource, a generator of built heritage. The stratigraphic features of Herculane Baths. The exploitation of natural resources, regardless of type, usually consists of two phases: firstly, the development of exploitation processes and secondly the development of exploitation structures – elements or built structures intended for the processing of the concerned natural resources. Many such structures have been declared architectural heritage monuments due to their historical, documentary, representative and aesthetical value, examples being numerous and varied. Water is the main resource that dictates the occurrence and development of human settlements and creates various typologies that derive from the accessibility, exploitation methods, and adaptation to the conditions and characteristics of the resource. With a peculiar evolution in terms of the dynamics of the binomial composed of natural resource and architectural heritage resource, mineral resources (especially balneal waters fall in a distinct category: although mainly utilitarian in function, they have also cultural, aesthetic and even religious purposes. Besides their curative properties, spa mineral waters can be used as is, in many cases directly from the source, this being the explanation why they have generated such great and continuous interest - forming today a highly stratified built heritage background. Keeping in mind the sustainable development for a medium or a long period of time, an analysis of the interrelations between the balneal natural resource and the deriving architectural heritage is necessary. The purpose of such analysis is determining the limitations of exploitation and identifying the optimal means of safeguarding both elements, the natural water resource and the anthropogenic one, for a more rational territory management.

  11. Sustainability in the UK domestic sector : A review and analysis of the sustainable energy innovations available to homeowners

    OpenAIRE

    Hultgren, Elin

    2015-01-01

    The UK Government has set an ambitious legislative goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80 % by 2050. Of the total energy used in the UK, 31 % is used in the domestic sector. In the domestic sector energy is used for space and hot water heating, lighting, appliances and cooking. Space and hot water heating make up 82 % of the total energy used in the UK domestic sector. Almost all of the energy used in the UK domestic sector originates from depletable resources. In order for the UK to...

  12. Workshop summary: Water as hazard and water as heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostenaru-Dan, Maria

    2017-04-01

    modern time: the water challenges of Venice and Copenhagen, reconstruction after man-made hazards (war) in Beirut and Belgrade, and then technical presentations on meteorology and smart cities and natural hazards. In the afternoon the poster session was held, in frame of the exhibition of fellows in Rome. This included a work of a fellow for flood resilient San Francisco harbour, but also geology issues of Romania. Some of the talks were also acompanied by posters. Another issues discussed was water scarcity and drought. In the exhibition the organiser had an art piece showing water reflection. After the poster visit a book launch of the convener of the workshop with Cerasella Craciun, Space and time visualization published in 2016 by Springer International in the geography series took place. Some of the authors were present. It also built a welcome transition to the introduction to the museum visit on the next day, the Etruscan museum villa Giulia where the workshop took place, to a project showing the virtual model of Tiber valley in antiquity. Ciprian Buzila drew the conclusions and conducted the study tours next day, among others to thermal bathes. Detailed information on the workshop, including some of the abstracts, is available at https://sites.google.com/site/egutopicalevent/home Conclusions The workshop featured participation from Romania, Italy, the USA and UK. Numerous disciplines were present and we made a contribution to science and the arts. Acknowledgements: We would like to thank the European Geosciences Union for this opportunity to conduct a self standing workshop after the series of session "Natural hazards' impact on urban areas and infrastructure". We thank the Accademia di Romania a Roma for providing the spaces.

  13. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  14. Approach to equilibrium in models of a system in contact with a heat bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, S.; Lebowitz, J.L.; Ravishankar, K.

    1986-01-01

    We investigate simple model systems in contact with an infinite heat bath. The former consists of a finite number of particles in a bounded region Λ of R/sup d/, d = 1, 2. The heat baths are infinite particle systems which can penetrate Λ and interact with the system via elastic collisions. Outside Λ the particles move freely and have a Gibbs probability measure prior to entering Λ. We show that starting from almost any initial configuration, the system approaches, as t → ∞, the appropriate Gibbs distribution. The combined system plus bath is Bernoulli

  15. The UK Nitrate Time Bomb (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, R.; Wang, L.; Stuart, M.; Bloomfield, J.; Gooddy, D.; Lewis, M.; McKenzie, A.

    2013-12-01

    The developed world has benefitted enormously from the intensification of agriculture and the increased availability and use of synthetic fertilizers during the last century. However there has also been unintended adverse impact on the natural environment (water and ecosystems) with nitrate the most significant cause of water pollution and ecosystem damage . Many countries have introduced controls on nitrate, e.g. the European Union's Water Framework and Nitrate Directives, but despite this are continuing to see a serious decline in water quality. The purpose of our research is to investigate and quantify the importance of the unsaturated (vadose) zone pathway and groundwater in contributing to the decline. Understanding nutrient behaviour in the sub-surface environment and, in particular, the time lag between action and improvement is critical to effective management and remediation of nutrient pollution. A readily-transferable process-based model has been used to predict temporal loading of nitrate at the water table across the UK. A time-varying nitrate input function has been developed based on nitrate usage since 1925. Depth to the water table has been calculated from groundwater levels based on regional-scale observations in-filled by interpolated river base levels and vertical unsaturated zone velocities estimated from hydrogeological properties and mapping. The model has been validated using the results of more than 300 unsaturated zone nitrate profiles. Results show that for about 60% of the Chalk - the principal aquifer in the UK - peak nitrate input has yet to reach the water table and concentrations will continue to rise over the next 60 years. The implications are hugely significant especially where environmental objectives must be achieved in much shorter timescales. Current environmental and regulatory management strategies rarely take lag times into account and as a result will be poorly informed, leading to inappropriate controls and conflicts

  16. IMMERSION AND BATH VACCINATION AGAINST ENTERIC REDMOUTH DISEASE (ERM) PROVIDES INSUFFICIENT PROTECTION AGAINST BATH CHALLENGE WITH YERSINIA RUCKERI O1 BIOTYPE 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund Strøm, Helene; Otani, Maki; Neumann, Lukas

    trout stock which had been vaccinated against both Y.r. bt 1 and 2 with a commercial “state of the art” immersion vaccine and boosted with a commercial ERM oral vaccine 4 month later. The newly isolated Y.r. bt2 strain has been used to develop a standardized challenge model which gives us...... of the vaccine for 30 seconds as recommended by the manufacturer. As a positive control groups of trout were bath vaccinated for 5 minutes. Two months later was all groups bath challenged with Y.r. bt 2 in duplicate. The challenge data obtained in the present study have indicated that neither a “state of the art......” commercial nor the experimental immersion ERM vaccine provided significant protective immunity against the virulent Y.r. bt2 infections. IP. injection of the experimental vaccine without adjuvant induced full protection. Significant mortality were seen in all immersion and bath vaccinated groups...

  17. Norwegians would - UK wouldn't

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, David.

    1988-01-01

    The Norwegians are now the world leaders in wave power technology and are exporting oscillating water column power stations to Tonga, Western Samoa, Vanuatu and Bali. The United Kingdom research programme was curtailed, although a wave power unit is being constructed on Islay in the Inner Hebrides. Those who favour nuclear energy generation claim that renewable sources, such as wave power, are uneconomic, but the Norwegians claim that the cost of wave-generated electricity is between 3p and 8p depending on local conditions. The economic case for nuclear power over renewables that will be presented at the Hinkley Point C Inquiry is thus less convincing. (U.K.)

  18. Funding Decommissioning - UK Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKerron, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    'Funding' started with CEGB and SSEB (state-owned electric utilities) in 1976 using the internal un-segregated fund route (i.e unfunded). This continued until privatisation of electricity industry (excluding nuclear) in 1990. Assets bought with the internal un-segregated fund were mostly transferred into non-nuclear private utilities. New state-owned Nuclear Electric (England and Wales) was given a 'Fossil Fuel Levy', a consumer charge of 10% on retail bills, amounting to c. BP 1 bn. annually. This allowed Nuclear Electric to trade legally (A reserve of BP 2.5 bn. was available from Government if company ran out of money). By 1996 the newer nuclear stations (AGRS plus PWR) were privatised as British Energy. British Energy started an external segregated fund, the Nuclear Decommissioning Fund, with a starting endowment of c. BP 225 m. - and BE made annual contributions of British Pound 16 m. into the Fund. Assumptions were that BE had 70 to accumulate cash and could get a 3.5% average annual real return. Older stations (Magnox) were left in private sector and went to BNFL in 1997. Magnox inherited the surplus cash in BE - mostly unspent Fossil Fuel Levy receipts - of c. BP 2.6 bn. Government gave an 'Undertaking' to pay BP 3.8 bn. (escalating at 4.5% real annually) for Magnox liabilities, should Magnox Electric run out of cash. BNFL inherited the BP 2.6 bn. and by 2000 had a 'Nuclear Liabilities Investment Portfolio' of c. BP 4 bn. This was a quasi-segregated internal fund for liabilities in general. [Note: overall UK nuclear liabilities in civilian sector were running at c. BP 48 bn. by now]. BE started profitable and paid BP 100 m. annually in dividends to private investors for several years. BE ran into severe financial problems after 2001 and Government organised restructuring aid, now approved by European Commission. Terms include: - BE now to contribute BP 20 m. a year into an expanded Nuclear Liabilities Fund; - A bond issue of BP 275 m. to go to Fund; - 65

  19. "UK today" Tallinnas / Tuuli Oder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oder, Tuuli, 1958-

    2001-01-01

    Vabariikliku inglise keele olümpiaadi raames toimus Tallinnas viktoriini "UK today" lõppvoor. Osalesid 22 kooli kaheliikmelised võistkonnad. Viktoriini tulemused koolide lõikes ja küsimused õigete vastustega

  20. Annealing Temperature Dependence of ZnO Nanostructures Grown by Facile Chemical Bath Deposition for EGFET pH Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazilah Rosli, Aimi; Awang, Zaiki; Sobihana Shariffudin, Shafinaz; Herman, Sukreen Hana

    2018-03-01

    Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanostructures were deposited using chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique in water bath at 95 °C for 4 h. Post-deposition heat treatment in air ambient at various temperature ranging from 200-600 °C for 30 min was applied in order to enhance the electrical properties of ZnO nanostructures as the sensing membrane of extended-gate field effect transistor (EGFET) pH sensor. The as-deposited sample was prepared for comparison. The samples were characterized in terms of physical and sensing properties. FESEM images showed that scattered ZnO nanorods were formed for the as-deposited sample, and the morphology of the ZnO nanorods changed to ZnO nanoflowers when the heat treatment was applied from 200-600 °C. For sensing properties, the samples heated at 300 °C showed the higher sensitivity which was 39.9 mV/pH with the linearity of 0.9792. The sensing properties was increased with the increasing annealing treatment temperature up to 300 °C before decreased drastically.

  1. Ochre Bathing of the Bearded Vulture: A Bio-Mimetic Model for Early Humans towards Smell Prevention and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Tributsch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since primordial times, vultures have been competing with man for animal carcasses. One of these vultures, the once widespread bearded vulture ( Gypaetus barbatus , has the habit of bathing its polluted feathers and skin in red iron oxide - ochre - tainted water puddles. Why? Primitive man may have tried to find out and may have discovered its advantages. Red ochre, which has accompanied human rituals and everyday life for more than 100,000 years, is not just a simple red paint for decoration or a symbol for blood. As modern experiments demonstrate, it is active in sunlight producing aggressive chemical species. They can kill viruses and bacteria and convert smelly organic substances into volatile neutral carbon dioxide gas. In this way, ochre can in sunlight sterilize and clean the skin to provide health and comfort and make it scentless, a definitive advantage for nomadic meat hunters. This research thus also demonstrates a sanitary reason for the vulture’s habit of bathing in red ochre mud. Prehistoric people have therefore included ochre use into their rituals, especially into those in relation to birth and death. Significant ritual impulses during evolution of man may thus have developed bio-mimetically, inspired from the habits of a vulture. It is discussed how this health strategy could be developed to a modern standard helping to fight antibiotics-resistant bacteria in hospitals.

  2. Bathe the baby to make it strong and healthy: plant use and child care among Saramaccan Maroons in Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruysschaert, Sofie; van Andel, Tinde; Van de Putte, Kobeke; Van Damme, Patrick

    2009-01-12

    Young children are vulnerable to a range of illnesses and evil forces. Ethnobotanical folk remedies often play a major role in combating these afflictions. Here we show that plant use is highly valued and practiced within the Saramaccan Maroon Society in Suriname to maintain the general health and well-being of children. To assess the plant use importance in child care, we (1) quantified diversity and current status of herbal pharmacopoeia used in child care and (2) elucidated the reasons why care takers (mostly mothers) use these plants. We collected botanical vouchers of plants used in child care, carried out an ethnobotanical household survey with 105 women and interviewed 19 key informants. A total of 178 plant species were used in child care for different purposes. Preventive practices were preferred over curing remedies and plants were most frequently used to keep young children strong and healthy. Child care had a strong magical connotation. Bathing proved to be the most important type of application, often combined with drinking small amounts of the bath water. Plants play an important role in child care, but more research is needed on how Maroon plant use reflects actual health problems in young children in the Surinamese interior.

  3. Books, Baths, and Burials: Notes on Certain Nineteenth Century Adoptive Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Philip M.

    1973-01-01

    Early legislation relating to street lighting, baths and washhouses, burial of the dead, public libraries and public improvements in England and Wales, reflected Parliament's suspicion of local democracy and distrust of local authorities. (9 references) (Author)

  4. Directed motion generated by heat bath nonlinearly driven by external noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, J Ray; Barik, D; Banik, S K

    2007-01-01

    Based on the heat bath system approach where the bath is nonlinearly modulated by an external Gaussian random force, we propose a new microscopic model to study directed motion in the overdamped limit for a nonequilibrium open system. Making use of the coupling between the heat bath and the external modulation as a small perturbation, we construct a Langevin equation with multiplicative noise- and space-dependent dissipation and the corresponding Fokker-Planck-Smoluchowski equation in the overdamped limit. We examine the thermodynamic consistency condition and explore the possibility of observing a phase-induced current as a consequence of state-dependent diffusion and, necessarily, nonlinear driving of the heat bath by the external noise

  5. Directed motion generated by heat bath nonlinearly driven by external noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, J Ray [Department of Physics, Katwa College, Katwa, Burdwan 713 130, West Bengal (India); Barik, D [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Banik, S K [Department of Physics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0435 (United States)

    2007-12-07

    Based on the heat bath system approach where the bath is nonlinearly modulated by an external Gaussian random force, we propose a new microscopic model to study directed motion in the overdamped limit for a nonequilibrium open system. Making use of the coupling between the heat bath and the external modulation as a small perturbation, we construct a Langevin equation with multiplicative noise- and space-dependent dissipation and the corresponding Fokker-Planck-Smoluchowski equation in the overdamped limit. We examine the thermodynamic consistency condition and explore the possibility of observing a phase-induced current as a consequence of state-dependent diffusion and, necessarily, nonlinear driving of the heat bath by the external noise.

  6. Flashback phenomenon and residual neurological deficits after the use of "bath salt" 3, 4- methylenedioxypyrovalerone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangold, Aaron R; Bravo, Thomas P; Traub, Stephen J; Maher, Steven A; Lipinski, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    The use and abuse of designer drugs has been recognized for decades; however there are many derivatives of compounds that make their way into the community. Abuse of compound(s) known on the street as "bath salt" is on the rise. We report the case of a 33-year-old man who complained of "flashbacks" and right arm shaking that followed a night of "bath salt" snorting. The active compound methylenedioxypyrovalerone methamphetamine (MDPV) was confirmed; however, analysis of three different "bath salt" products showed difference in their active components. The patient's symptoms remained stable and he was discharged home after observation in the emergency department with instructions to return for any symptom progression. Practitioners should be aware of the abuse of the compounds and that not all "bath salt" products contain MDPV.

  7. Daily chlorhexidine bathing does not increase skin toxicity after remission induction or stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeren, Dries; Dewulf, Evelyne; Verfaillie, Lydie

    2016-12-01

    A recent multicenter study demonstrated that bathing with chlorhexidine reduces the transmission of resistant organisms and the risk of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections in ICUs. We wanted to confirm the feasibility of this strategy in a cohort of patients in a typical intensive haematology unit. Patients treated with remission induction chemotherapy, autologous or allogeneic stem cell transplantation received daily chlorhexidine bathing. To avoid deshydratation of skin, we used prophylactic application of hydrating lotion, replaced by corticosteroid cream in case of skin toxicity of chemotherapy or conditioning. We studied 15 consecutive admissions of 12 patients. Daily chlorhexidine bathing never needed to be interrupted, even though 53% of patients were treated with intravenous cytarabine. Patients were satisfied with the skin treatment and reported few unwanted effects. Daily chlorhexidine bathing was feasible in our intensive haematology unit in all patients and did not increase skin toxicity, even when treated with IV cytarabine.

  8. Teaching the "A" Level Text: "The Wife of Bath's Prologue and Tale."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spraggs, Gillian

    1988-01-01

    Presents an approach for teaching Chaucer's "Wife of Bath's Prologue and Tale" (from "The Canterbury Tales"). Recommends several reference texts related to the "The Canterbury Tales" and medieval literature in general. (MM)

  9. Health Effect of Forest Bathing Trip on Elderly Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bing Bing; Yang, Zhou Xin; Mao, Gen Xiang; Lyu, Yuan Dong; Wen, Xiao Lin; Xu, Wei Hong; Lyu, Xiao Ling; Cao, Yong Bao; Wang, Guo Fu

    2016-03-01

    Forest bathing trip is a short, leisurely visit to forest. In this study we determined the health effects of forest bathing trip on elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The patients were randomly divided into two groups. One group was sent to forest, and the other was sent to an urban area as control. Flow cytometry, ELISA, and profile of mood states (POMS) evaluation were performed. In the forest group, we found a significant decrease of perforin and granzyme B expressions, accompanied by decreased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and stress hormones. Meanwhile, the scores in the negative subscales of POMS decreased after forest bathing trip. These results indicate that forest bathing trip has health effect on elderly COPD patients by reducing inflammation and stress level. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  10. Prediction of Layer Thickness in Molten Borax Bath with Genetic Evolutionary Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylan, Fatih

    2011-04-01

    In this study, the vanadium carbide coating in molten borax bath process is modeled by evolutionary genetic programming (GEP) with bath composition (borax percentage, ferro vanadium (Fe-V) percentage, boric acid percentage), bath temperature, immersion time, and layer thickness data. Five inputs and one output data exist in the model. The percentage of borax, Fe-V, and boric acid, temperature, and immersion time parameters are used as input data and the layer thickness value is used as output data. For selected bath components, immersion time, and temperature variables, the layer thicknesses are derived from the mathematical expression. The results of the mathematical expressions are compared to that of experimental data; it is determined that the derived mathematical expression has an accuracy of 89%.

  11. New features of entanglement dynamics with initial system–bath correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lin [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Zou, Jian, E-mail: zoujian@bit.edu.cn [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); He, Zhi; Li, Jun-Gang; Shao, Bin [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Wu, Lian-Ao [Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science, The Basque Country University (EHU/UPV), PO Box 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2012-02-06

    We investigate the influence of initial correlations between two qubits and a family of baths on the entanglement dynamics of these two qubits. We show that initial system–bath correlations can effectively avoid the occurrence of entanglement sudden death, and for the initial states with quantum correlations the entanglement between two qubits can be larger than its initial value. Significantly, we find that there exist initial states which we called entanglement preserving states, such that, although the state of the qubit subsystem evolves the entanglement of two qubits does not evolves at all. -- Highlights: ► We obtain analytically solutions of two qubits interacting with a family of baths. ► Having initial quantum correlation with the bath, the system can gain entanglement. ► For some initial states though the system evolves, the entanglement remain the same.

  12. Simulation of a DC electric arc furnace for steelmaking: study in the arc and bath regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Argaez, M. A.; Trapaga Martinez, L. G.

    2001-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed to describe fluid flow, heat transfer, and electromagnetic phenomena in the arc and bath regions of DC electric Arc Furnaces (DC-EAF). The model is used to examine the effect on flow patterns and temperature distribution in the bath, under the influence of both an arc and bottom argon injection in steel or steel/slag systems. Validation of the model employed experimental measurements from systems physically related to DC-EAF from literature. For the conditions analyzed, electromagnetic forces dominate the fluid motion in the bath. Buoyancy and shear forces from the arc have a negligible effect in driving the flow; however, they partially counteract the electromagnetic forces. Slag decreases fluid motion in the steel and enhances temperature stratification in the system. Stirring of the bath, using a 3-nozzle inert gas injection system, is found to promote temperature uniformity in the regions near the lateral wall of the furnace. (Author) 24 refs

  13. New method for determination of trihalomethanes in exhaled breath: Applications to swimming pool and bath environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lourencetti, Carolina; Ballester, Clara; Fernandez, Pilar; Marco, Esther; Prado, Celia; Periago, Juan F.; Grimalt, Joan O.

    2010-01-01

    A method for the estimation of the human intake of trihalomethanes (THMs), namely chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform, during showering and bathing is reported. The method is based on the determination of these compounds in exhaled breath that is collected by solid adsorption on Tenax using a device specifically designed for this purpose. Instrumental measurements were performed by automatic thermal desorption coupled to gas chromatography with electron capture detection. THMs in exhaled breath samples were determined during showering and swimming pool attendance. The levels of these compounds in indoor air and water were also determined as reference for interpretation of the exhaled breath results. The THM concentrations in exhaled breath of the volunteers measured before the exposure experiments showed a close correspondence with the THMs levels in indoor air where the sampler was located. Limits of detection in exhaled breath were dependent on THM analytes and experimental sites. They ranged between 170 and 710 ng m -3 in the swimming pool studies and between 97 and 460 ng m -3 in the showering studies. Application of this method to THMs determination during showering and swimming pool activities revealed statistically significant increases in THMs concentrations when comparing exhaled breath before and after exposure.

  14. Optical and structural characterization of nickel oxide-based thin films obtained by chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidales-Hurtado, M.A.; Mendoza-Galvan, A.

    2008-01-01

    Nickel oxide-based thin films were obtained using the chemical bath deposition method on glass and silicon substrates. The precursor solution used was a mixture of nickel nitrate, urea, and deionized water. Molar concentration of nickel (0.3-1.0 M), deposition time, and immersing cycles were considered as deposition variables. Infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction data reveal that all as-deposited films correspond to the transparent turbostratic phase α(II)-Ni(OH) 2 . However, the rate of deposition depends on nickel content in the solution. After annealing in air at temperatures above of 300 deg. C, the films are transformed to the NiO phase and show a grey/black color. In these films, scanning electron microscopy images show aggregates of thin stacked sheets on their surface, such aggregates can be easily removed leaving only a thin NiO layer of about 30 nm adhered firmly to the substrate, regardless of nickel concentration in the solution and deposition time. In order to obtain thicker NiO films with good optical properties a procedure is developed performing several immersing-annealing cycles

  15. Effect of temperature and pH of ammonium galvanic bath on the properties of Zn-Co alloy coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciej, A; Michalska, J [Department of Materials Science, Silesian University of Technology, 40-019 Katowice (Poland); Simka, W; Nawrat, G; Piotrowski, J, E-mail: artur.maciej@polsl.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland)

    2011-05-15

    The results of investigations on Zn-Co coatings obtained electrochemically in acidic and neutral ammonium baths are presented. The chemical composition, morphology and surface roughness of received coatings were determined together with the current efficiency. It was found that the coatings morphology depends on the process parameters. In the case of neutral bath the increase of bath temperature resulted in decrease of cobalt contents in the coatings, whereas it was not practically observed for acidic baths. It was also observed that surface roughness of the Zn-Co coatings decreased with the increase of temperature for both types of baths. It was also found that the grain size of coatings obtained in neutral bath depends on pH of bath.

  16. Movement of liquid metal in welding bath during welding in longitudinal magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalev, I.M.; Rybakov, A.S.

    1977-01-01

    The specific features are considered of liquid metal flow in a bath during welding of steel 12Kh18N10T plates with a non-consumable electrode in argon under interaction of the arc and bath with a longitudinal constant magnetic field. In controlling the velocity field of metal flow, the longitudinal magnetic field permits to form a seam at automatic welding of horizontal joints on a vertical plane

  17. Potentiometric titration of zinc and cadmium in electrolytes of in galvanic baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosyuga, E.A.; Kalugin, A.A.; Gur'ev, I.A.

    1979-01-01

    The method of potentiometric titration of zinc and cadmium by complexone 3 in electrolytes of galvanic baths using sulphide - silver electrode for determining the finite point of titration is suggested. Copper (2) ions are proposed as indicator ions. The potentiometric determination should be performed at pH=10. The method is verified on model electrolyte solutions and on the electrolyte solutions of operating baths.The technique can be used for automatic control. The time for analysis is 10 minutes

  18. Focal epilepsy presenting as a bath-induced paroxysmal event/breath-holding attack

    OpenAIRE

    Stutchfield, C.J.; Loh, N.R.

    2014-01-01

    Bath-induced paroxysmal events in infants and children can be triggered by various etiologies, including cardiological, neurological, and metabolic causes. It is important to ascertain the underlying cause for such events as this significantly affects the child's management and prognosis. We present the case of a 19-month-old boy who presented with recurrent episodes of apnea, cyanosis, and reduced level of consciousness in response to bathing. Through detailed history and investigation, the ...

  19. Comparing the effects of reflexology and foot bath on sleep quality in the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Seyyedrasooli

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sleep disturbances are common mental problems reported among elders. It seems some non-pharmacological interventions, can improve their sleep quality. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of two interventions, reflexology and foot bath, on sleep quality in elderly people. Methods: This is a clinical trial without control group, conducted on 46 elderly men in two groups of reflexology and foot bath. Written informed consent was completed by subjects. Reflexolo...

  20. Hydro-galvanic and rising - temperature bath therapy for chronic elbow epicondylitis: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mucha

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of two different regimens of physiotherapy for epicondylitis was compared. A combination treatment with hydrogalvanic four-cell bath and arm bath with rising temperature, which had showed good effects in treatment of tennis elbow in an earlier observational study (Mucha 1987, was compared with the analgesic interference current treatment often recommended in the literature (Sadil and Sadil 1994, Noteboom et al 1994, Becker and Reuter 1982. For this study, 60 patients with epicondylitis that was resistant to conservative treatment were randomized into two groups for comparison. In group 1, interference currents were administered twice a day for six weeks and group 2 received combination treatment with the hydrogalvanic four-cell bath and rising- temperature arm bath once a day for six weeks. Criteria for inclusion, control and appraisal were laid down prospectively. Several parameters were used, recorded and statistically evaluated as outcome measures.  These were active joint range of movement of the elbow, grip strength, pain provocation with muscle contraction, palpation pain and pain with functional activities.  The results showed a significant superiority of combination treatment over therapy with interference current. It is therefore recommended that hydrogalvanic four-cell bath and arm bath with rising temperature should be carried out before considering surgical treatment for chronic epicondylitis.

  1. Additive Benefits of Twice Forest Bathing Trips in Elderly Patients with Chronic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Gen Xiang; Cao, Yong Bao; Yang, Yan; Chen, Zhuo Mei; Dong, Jian Hua; Chen, Sha Sha; Wu, Qing; Lyu, Xiao Ling; Jia, Bing Bing; Yan, Jing; Wang, Guo Fu

    2018-02-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF), a clinical syndrome resulting from the consequences of various cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), is increasingly becoming a global cause of morbidity and mortality. We had earlier demonstrated that a 4-day forest bathing trip can provide an adjunctive therapeutic influence on patients with CHF. To further investigate the duration of the impact and the optimal frequency of forest bathing trips in patients with CHF, we recruited those subjects who had experienced the first forest bathing trip again after 4 weeks and randomly categorized them into two groups, namely, the urban control group (city) and the forest bathing group (forest). After a second 4-day forest bathing trip, we observed a steady decline in the brain natriuretic peptide levels, a biomarker of heart failure, and an attenuated inflammatory response as well as oxidative stress. Thus, this exploratory study demonstrated the additive benefits of twice forest bathing trips in elderly patients with CHF, which could further pave the way for analyzing the effects of such interventions in CVDs. Copyright © 2018 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Forest Bathing on Cardiovascular and Metabolic Parameters in Middle-Aged Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the effects of a forest bathing on cardiovascular and metabolic parameters. Nineteen middle-aged male subjects were selected after they provided informed consent. These subjects took day trips to a forest park in Agematsu, Nagano Prefecture, and to an urban area of Nagano Prefecture as control in August 2015. On both trips, they walked 2.6 km for 80 min each in the morning and afternoon on Saturdays. Blood and urine were sampled before and after each trip. Cardiovascular and metabolic parameters were measured. Blood pressure and pulse rate were measured during the trips. The Japanese version of the profile of mood states (POMS test was conducted before, during, and after the trips. Ambient temperature and humidity were monitored during the trips. The forest bathing program significantly reduced pulse rate and significantly increased the score for vigor and decreased the scores for depression, fatigue, anxiety, and confusion. Urinary adrenaline after forest bathing showed a tendency toward decrease. Urinary dopamine after forest bathing was significantly lower than that after urban area walking, suggesting the relaxing effect of the forest bathing. Serum adiponectin after the forest bathing was significantly greater than that after urban area walking.

  3. The influence of nonbilinear system-bath coupling on quantum-mechanical activated rate processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navrotskaya, Irina; Geva, Eitan

    2006-01-01

    The dependence of quantum-mechanical activated rate processes on the system-bath coupling strength was investigated in the case of a double-well nonbilinearly coupled to a harmonic bath, where the system-bath coupling is linear in the bath coordinates and nonlinear in the reaction coordinate. Such nonbilinear coupling is known to give rise to a classical friction kernel which is explicitly dependent on the reaction coordinate. We show that it can also lead to quantum-mechanical barrier-crossing rates, whose dependence on the system-bath coupling strength is qualitatively different from that observed in the quantum-mechanical bilinear case and classical nonbilinear case. More specifically, it is shown that the quantum-mechanical barrier-crossing rate may monotonically increase as a function of the system-bath coupling strength, in cases where the classical barrier-crossing rate goes through a turnover, and that the rate of quantum-mechanical barrier-crossing can be lower than that of classical barrier-crossing. We show that those purely quantum-mechanical effects are of a thermodynamical, rather than dynamical, nature, and that they originate from the difference in friction between the barrier top and the reactant and product wells. Our conclusions are supported by results obtained via the CMD method, which were also found to be in very good agreement with numerically exact calculations based on the QUAPI method

  4. Sub-exponential spin-boson decoherence in a finite bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, V.; Gruebele, M.

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the decoherence of a two-level system coupled to harmonic baths of 4-21 degrees of freedom, to baths with internal anharmonic couplings, and to baths with an additional 'solvent shell' (modes coupled to other bath modes, but not to the system). The discrete spectral densities are chosen to mimic the highly fluctuating spectral densities computed for real systems such as proteins. System decoherence is computed by exact quantum dynamics. With realistic parameter choices (finite temperature, reasonably large couplings), sub-exponential decoherence of the two-level system is observed. Empirically, the time-dependence of decoherence can be fitted by power laws with small exponents. Intrabath anharmonic couplings are more effective at smoothing the spectral density and restoring exponential dynamics, than additional bath modes or solvent shells. We conclude that at high temperature, the most important physical basis for exponential decays is anharmonicity of those few bath modes interacting most strongly with the system, not a large number of oscillators interacting with the system. We relate the current numerical simulations to models of anharmonically coupled oscillators, which also predict power law dynamics. The potential utility of power law decays in quantum computation and condensed phase coherent control are also discussed

  5. The Roman-Irish Bath: Medical/health history as therapeutic assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Ronan

    2014-04-01

    The invention of a new form of hot-air bath in Blarney, Ireland in 1856, variously known in its lifetime as the Roman-Irish or Turkish Bath, acted as the starting point for a the production of a globalised therapeutic landscape. Tracking the diffusion of the Roman-Irish bath template from its local invention in Ireland to a global reach across the Victorian world and recognizing its place within a wider hydrotherapeutic history, this paper frames that diffusion as a valuable empirical addition to assemblage theory. The specific empirical history of the spread of the Roman-Irish/Turkish bath idea is drawn from primary archival and secondary historical sources. It is then discussed and, drawing from work on assemblage theory, analyzed against three broad themes: mobile networks, socio-material practices and contested emergence. The emergent relational geographies of the Roman-Irish Bath identify important roles for the diffusion and transformation of specific medical settings, identities and functions. These were linked in turn to competing social-healing pathways wherein bodies were technologically and morally managed, to produce a more inhabited form of therapeutic assemblage. In all cases the differential diffusion of the bath idea, it's shifting and fractured material forms and multiple inhabitations and discourses were contested and mobile and spoke to an assemblage approach which has ripe potential for exploration across a range of medical/health geography settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Phosphorus-31 NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) analysis of gold plating baths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of the gold plating baths in the Micro-Miniature Electronic Assembly department of Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD). The baths were analyzed for phosphorylated components. In freshly prepared gold plating baths, a 50-percent aqueous solution of aminotrimethylphosphonate (ATMP) is the principal compound observed. As the bath is used in production, the ATMP breaks down and new materials (phosphate, ADMP, and AMMP) are identified. The NMR method was used to monitor the concentrations of the ATMP and breakdown products for a nine-month period. The 225-liter bath had plated approximately 100 square feet of gold during the nine-month period. These results can be used to predict the performance of baths as they are used in production. The accuracy of the analysis is 96 percent for ATMP and 92 percent for phosphate. The precision (relative standard deviation) is 5.2 percent for ATMP and 4.5 percent for phosphate. 1 ref., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Toxin production and antibiotic resistances in Escherichia coli isolated from bathing areas along the coastline of the Oslo fjord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnock, Colin; Nordlie, Anne-Lise; Hjeltnes, Bjarne

    2014-09-01

    The presence of enterovirulent and/or antibiotic resistant strains of Escherichia coli in recreational bathing waters would represent a clear health issue. In total, 144 E. coli isolated from 26 beaches along the inner Oslo fjord were examined for virulence determinants and resistance to clinically important antibiotics. No isolates possessed the genetic determinants associated with enterotoxigenic strains and none showed the prototypic sorbitol negative, O157:H7 phenotype. A small number (∼1 %) produced alpha-hemolysin. Occurrences and patterns of antibiotic resistances were similar to those of E. coli isolated previously from environmental samples. In total, 6 % of the strains showed one or more clinically relevant resistances and 1.4 % were multi-drug resistant. Microarray analyses suggested that the resistance determinants were generally associated with mobile genetic elements. Resistant strains were not clonally related, and were, furthermore not concentrated at one or a few beach sites. This suggests that these strains are entering the waters at a low rate but in a widespread manner. The study demonstrates that resistant E. coli are present in coastal bathing waters where they can come into contact with bathers, and that the resistance determinants are potentially transferable. Some of the resistances registered in the study are to important antibiotics used in human medicine such as fluoroquinolones. The spread of antibiotic resistant genes, from the clinical setting to the environment, has clear implications with respect to the current management of bacterial infections and the long term value of antimicrobial therapy. The present study is the first of its kind in Norway.

  8. Long-term mercury dynamics in UK soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipping, E.; Wadsworth, R.A.; Norris, D.A.; Hall, J.R.; Ilyin, I.

    2011-01-01

    A model assuming first-order losses by evasion and leaching was used to evaluate Hg dynamics in UK soils since 1850. Temporal deposition patterns of Hg were constructed from literature information. Inverse modelling indicated that 30% of 898 rural sites receive Hg only from the global circulation, while in 51% of cases local deposition exceeds global. Average estimated deposition is 16 μg Hg m -2 a -1 to rural soils, 19 μg Hg m -2 a -1 to rural and non-rural soils combined. UK soils currently hold 2490 tonnes of reactive Hg, of which 2140 tonnes are due to anthropogenic deposition, mostly local in origin. Topsoil currently releases 5.1 tonnes of Hg 0 per annum to the atmosphere, about 50% more than the anthropogenic flux. Sorptive retention of Hg in the lower soil exerts a strong control on surface water Hg concentrations. Following decreases in inputs, soil Hg concentrations are predicted to decline over hundreds of years. - Highlights: → Spatial data for mercury in UK soils can be related to past atmospheric deposition. → The residence time of Hg (c. 400 years) depends on gaseous evasion and leaching. → UK soils currently contribute more Hg 0 to the atmosphere than human activities. → Sorption of Hg by deeper soil is a strong control on surface water concentrations. - Atmospherically-deposited anthropogenic mercury, mostly of local origin, has accumulated in UK soils, and is now a significant source of Hg 0 to the global circulation.

  9. Black hole evaporation in a heat bath as a nonequilibrium process and its final fate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saida, Hiromi

    2007-01-01

    We consider a black hole in a heat bath, and the whole system which consists of the black hole and the heat bath is isolated from outside environments. When the black hole evaporates, the Hawking radiation causes an energy flow from the black hole to the heat bath. Therefore, since no energy flow arises in an equilibrium state, the thermodynamic state of the whole system is not in equilibrium. That is, in a region around the black hole, the matter field of Hawking radiation and that of heat bath should be in a nonequilibrium state due to the energy flow. Using a simple model which reflects the nonequilibrium nature of energy flow, we find the nonequilibrium effect on a black hole evaporation as follows: if the nonequilibrium region around a black hole is not so large, the evaporation time scale of a black hole in a heat bath becomes longer than that in an empty space (a situation without heat bath), because of the incoming energy flow from the heat bath to the black hole. However, if the nonequilibrium region around a black hole is sufficiently large, the evaporation time scale in a heat bath becomes shorter than that in an empty space, because a nonequilibrium effect of the temperature difference between the black hole and heat bath appears as a strong energy extraction from the black hole by the heat bath. Further, a specific nonequilibrium phenomenon is found: a quasi-equilibrium evaporation stage under the nonequilibrium effect proceeds abruptly to a quantum evaporation stage at a semi-classical level (at black hole radius R g > Planck length) within a very short time scale with a strong burst of energy. (Contrarily, when the nonequilibrium effect is not taken into account, a quasi-equilibrium stage proceeds smoothly to a quantum stage at R g < Planck length without so strong an energy burst.) That is, the nonequilibrium effect of energy flow tends to make a black hole evaporation process more dynamical and to accelerate that process. Finally, on the final fate

  10. Nuclear power and the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, St.

    2009-01-01

    This series of slides describes the policy of the UK government concerning nuclear power. In January 2008 the UK Government published the White Paper on the Future of Nuclear Power. The White Paper concluded that new nuclear power stations should have a role to play in this country's future energy mix. The role of the Government is neither to build nuclear power plants nor to finance them. The White Paper set out the facilitative actions the Government planned to take to reduce regulatory and planning risks associated with investing in new nuclear power stations. The White Paper followed a lengthy period of consultation where the UK Government sought a wide variety of views from stakeholders and the public across the country on the future of nuclear power. In total energy companies will need to invest in around 30-35 GW of new electricity generating capacity over the next two decades. This is equivalent to about one-third of our existing capacity. The first plants are expected to enter into service by 2018 or sooner. The Office for Nuclear Development (OND) has been created to facilitate new nuclear investment in the UK while the Nuclear Development Forum (NDF) has been established to lock in momentum to secure the long-term future of nuclear power generation in the UK. (A.C.)

  11. Collaboration between physician Emerich Lindenmayer and architect Jan Nevole in restoring the Sokobanja Turkish bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Gordana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sokobanja Turkish bath is an exceptional example of twosection baths and quite particular in its style, structure type and technology used. It is one of the two of the same type that remained in Serbia and the only one that has retained its original function. About its construction we learn from the Vidin sanjak defter from the second half of the 16th century. In the lavish built heritage inventory, Turkish baths are quite unique secular public structures, playing a prominent role in the development of health culture. Based upon their specific function, these baths possess a special architectural expression, are often monumental, decorative and imaginative in their forms and ornamentation. Prince Miloš initiated repair works of the Soko Banja baths and spa springs immediately after the settlement became a part of the Serbian Principality in 1834. When work on restoring the men’s baths started, a separate room with a tub was built for Prince Miloš, while the women’s bath remained in ruins. In 1847, the Ministry of Interior sent Dr Emerich Lindenmayer and architect Jan Nevole, as an expert team, to assess the state of the hammam so that it could be included in the undertakings funded from the state budget. After the assessment and review of the existing issues and upon a detailed report submitted to the Ministry of Interior, complex repairs were conducted in 1850, according to Nevole’s architectural design and his constant supervision. The approach implemented in the architectural renovation process was based on highly regarded principles of the time, thus preserving both the hammam’s original function and its valuable architecture.

  12. Systems Study on the Antirheumatic Mechanism of Tibetan Medicated-Bath Therapy Using Wuwei-Ganlu-Yaoyu-Keli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhong Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In clinical practice at Tibetan area of China, Traditional Tibetan Medicine formula Wuwei-Ganlu-Yaoyu-Keli (WGYK is commonly added in warm water of bath therapy to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA. However, its mechanism of action is not well interpreted yet. In this paper, we first verify WGYK’s anti-RA effect by an animal experiment. Then, based on gene expression data from microarray experiments, we apply approaches of network pharmacology to further reveal the mechanism of action for WGYK to treat RA by analyzing protein-protein interactions and pathways. This study may facilitate our understanding of anti-RA effect of WGYK from perspective of network pharmacology.

  13. Phase-controlled preparation of TiO{sub 2} films and micro(nano)spheres by low-temperature chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Mingsong, E-mail: wangms@mail.ujs.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Li, Qihui; Yu, Haiyan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Hur, Seung Hyun [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eui Jung, E-mail: ejkim@ulsan.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-25

    Highlights: •Simultaneously preparation of TiO{sub 2} films and sphere-like precipitates by low-temperature chemical bath deposition. •The same building blocks observed in the films and precipitates. •Cluster-by-cluster attachment is succeeded by the ion-by-ion growth. •Phase-controlled growth of TiO{sub 2} by the effects of solvent or fluorine ion. -- Abstract: TiO{sub 2} films and micro(nano)spheres have been simultaneously prepared by means of low-temperature chemical bath deposition (CBD). The films and precipitates are found to be constructed of the same building blocks regardless of the bath conditions. Thin nanosheets of ca. 20 nm in thickness serve as the building blocks of rutile TiO{sub 2} grown in an acidic bath. They aggregate to form spheres to reduce the surface energy of the precipitates, while in the films they grow into discrete crystallites on the seeded substrate. Fine control over the crystalline phase of TiO{sub 2} is achieved by replacing some water with ethanol or the addition of NH{sub 4}F. A gradual transition from rutile to anatase is observed as the ethanol and NH{sub 4}F contents are increased. Moreover, the crystallite size of TiO{sub 2} is significantly reduced and there exists monodisperse nanoparticles and aggregate microspheres in the products modified with ethanol and NH{sub 4}F, respectively. This size-dependent phase transition is consistent with previous theoretical and thermodynamic studies. The facile tune of the TiO{sub 2} phase by low-temperature CBD method may be useful to improve the performance of TiO{sub 2} for its various applications.

  14. Ultrahydrophobic water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, J.; Kanitz, C.

    2017-05-01

    When a water drop falls on an oscillating soapy water surface it is observed that coalescence of the drop is inhibited because the drops are bouncing on the surface like on a trampoline. In our research we made experimental and theoretical investigations to an undeformable drop on a deformable bath. We described the vertical movement, predicted the critical bouncing threshold and also made experiments to the effects of an increased Weber number and the horizontal movement of the drop caused by a vertical movement.

  15. Printability Study of Bioprinted Tubular Structures Using Liquid Hydrogel Precursors in a Support Bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houzhu Ding

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Microextrusion-based bioprinting within a support bath material is an emerging additive manufacturing paradigm for complex three-dimensional (3D tissue construct fabrication. Although a support bath medium enables arbitrary in-process geometries to be printed, a significant challenge lies in preserving the shape fidelity upon the extraction of the support bath material. Based on the bioprinting in a support bath paradigm, this paper advances quantitative analyses to systematically determine the printability of cell-laden liquid hydrogel precursors towards filament-based tissue constructs. First, a yield stress nanoclay material is judiciously selected as the support bath medium owing to its insensitivity to temperature and ionic variations that are considered in the context of the current gelatin-alginate bio-ink material formulation. Furthermore, phenomenological observations for the rheology-mediated print outcomes enable the compositions for the bio-ink material (10% gelatin, 3% alginate, in tandem with the support bath medium (4% nanoclay, 0.5% CaCl2, to be identified. To systematically evaluate the performance outcomes for bioprinting within a support bath, this paper advances an experimental parametric study to optimize the 3D structural shape fidelity by varying parameters such as the layer height, extrusion flowrate, printing temperature, and printhead speed, towards fabricating complex 3D structures with the stabilization of the desired shape outcome. Specifically, it is found that the layer height and printhead speed are determinant parameters for the extent of successive layer fusion. Moreover, maintenance of an optimal bath temperature is identified as a key parameter for establishing the printability for the hydrogel bio-ink. Studying this effect is enabled by the custom design of a PID temperature control system with integration with the bioprinter for real-time precision control of the support bath temperature. In order to qualify

  16. Decolorization and removal of cod and bodfrom raw and biotreated textile dye bath effluent through advanced oxidation processes (AOPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Muhammad

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comparative study of the treatment of raw and biotreated (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, UASB textile dye bath effluent using advanced oxidation processes (AOPs is presented. The AOPs applied on raw and biotreated textile dye bath effluent, after characterization in terms of COD, colour, BOD and pH, were ozone, UV, UV/H2O2 and photo-Fenton. The decolorization of raw dye bath effluent was 58% in the case of ozonation. However it was 98% in the case of biotreated dye bath effluent when exposed to UV/H2O2. It is, therefore, suggested that a combination of biotreatment and AOPs be adopted to decolorize dye bath effluent in order to make the process more viable and effective. Biodegradability was also improved by applying AOPs after biotreatment of dye bath effluent.

  17. Nursing Care at the Time of Death: A Bathing and Honoring Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Debra; Calmes, Beth; Grotts, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    To explore family members' experience of a bathing and honoring practice after a loved one's death in the acute care setting.
. A descriptive, qualitative design using a semistructured telephone interview script.
. The Inpatient Adult Oncology Unit at Santa Barbara Cottage Hospital in California. 
. 13 family members who participated in the bathing and honoring practice after their loved one's death on the oncology unit.
. Participants were selected by purposive sampling and interviewed by telephone three to six months after their loved one's death. Interviews using a semistructured script with open-ended questions were recorded, transcribed, verified, and analyzed using phenomenologic research techniques to identify common themes of experience.
. 24 first-level themes and 11 superordinate themes emerged from the data. All participants indicated that the bathing and honoring practice was a positive experience and supported the grieving process. The majority found the practice to be meaningful and stated that it honored their loved one. Many expressed that the bathing and honoring was spiritually significant in a nondenominational way and that they hope it will be made available to all families of patients who die in the hospital. 
. After patient death, a bathing and honoring practice with family member participation is positive and meaningful, and it supports family members' initial grieving.
. This study is a first step toward establishing specific nursing interventions as evidence-based practice that can be incorporated in routine nursing care for patients and families at the end of life.

  18. 222Rn determination in some thermal baths of a central eastern Italian area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desideri, D.; Bruno, M.R.; Roselli, C.

    2004-01-01

    Some recent Italian laws, based on the Euratom Directive 26/96, introduce the obligation of monitoring the exposition to natural radioactivity in particular worksites (thermal baths, mines, basements, etc.). Results of 222 Rn measurements in some thermal baths of Rimini and Pesaro-Urbino provinces (Central Eastern Italy), by Radosys-2000, a complete set suitable to radon concentration measurements with CR-39 plastic alpha-track detectors are reported. Some areas where radon could accumulate (bathing, reaction, muddy, inhalation, insufflation rooms and swimming pools) were selected for the investigation. The dosimeters have been exposed for 98 days. The results show that 222 Rn concentrations are very low in the considered thermal baths (7-71 Bq x m -3 ). Moreover, no difference was observed between the concentrations measured in the therapy rooms (bathing, muddy, inhalation and insufflation rooms, swimming pools) and in the normal areas (passages, reaction rooms, dressing rooms, etc.). The calculated dose contribution to workers was about one tenth of the legally suggested value. (author)

  19. Reproducible insulin secretion from isolated rat pancreas preparations using an organ bath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Asuka; Ouchi, Motoshi; Terada, Misao; Kon, Hiroe; Kishimoto, Satoko; Satoh, Keitaro; Otani, Naoyuki; Hayashi, Keitaro; Fujita, Tomoe; Inoue, Ken-Ichi; Anzai, Naohiko

    2018-02-09

    Diabetes mellitus is a lifestyle-related disease that is characterized by inappropriate or diminished insulin secretion. Ex vivo pharmacological studies of hypoglycemic agents are often conducted using perfused pancreatic preparations. Pancreas preparations for organ bath experiments do not require cannulation and are therefore less complex than isolated perfused pancreas preparations. However, previous research has generated almost no data on insulin secretion from pancreas preparations using organ bath preparations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability of isolated rat pancreas preparations using the organ bath technique in the quantitative analysis of insulin secretion from β-cells. We found that insulin secretion significantly declined during incubation in the organ bath, whereas it was maintained in the presence of 1 µM GLP-1. Conversely, amylase secretion exhibited a modest increase during incubation and was not altered in the presence of GLP-1. These results demonstrate that the pancreatic organ bath preparation is a sensitive and reproducible method for the ex vivo assessment of the pharmacological properties of hypoglycemic agents.

  20. What is the prognosis of nitrogen losses from UK soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, T. P.; Worrall, F.; Whelan, M.; Howden, N. J.

    2009-12-01

    The UK’s high population density, intensive agriculture and relative short, unimpeded rivers mean that the UK is a known “hotspot” of fluvial nitrogen flux. Furthermore, it is known that the fluvial flux of nitrogen from the UK is increasing. This study estimates the release of nitrate from the UK terrestrial biosphere to understand this rising fluvial flux and i to assess the in-stream losses of nitrate, thusgiving an assessment of the fluvial component of the total nitrogen budget of UK. The approach taken by the study is to use an export coefficient model coupled with a description of mineralisation and immobilisation of nitrogen within soil reserves. The study applies the modelling approach to the whole of the UK from 1925 to 2007 using long term records of: land use (including - agricultural, forestry and urban uses); livestock; human population and atmospheric deposition. The study shows that: i) The flux of nitrate from the UK soils varied from 420 to 1463 Ktonnes N/yr with two peaks in the period since 1925, one in 1944 and one in 1967, the first is caused by mineralisation of soil organic matter following large-scale land use change in the Second World War, and the second is a multifactorial response to land use change and intensification. ii) The current trend in the release from soils is downward whilst the current fluvial flux at the tidal limit is upwards. With the current trends fluvial flux at the tidal limit will be greater than release from the soils of the UK, i.e. there will be net gain across the fluvial network. This apparent gain can be explained by the breakthrough of high nitrate groundwater into surface waters.

  1. Nuclear merchant ship propulsion. The present status in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinsey, R.P.

    1976-01-01

    The latest report of the Nuclear Ship Stearing Group which deals with three important aspects; economic assessments, international safety and operating procedures for nuclear ships, and the industrial capability of the UK shipbuilding and nuclear industries, is discussed. The integral design concept for a pressurised water reactor for use as a marine reactor is considered. The operational safety aspects of such reactors and of the attendant refuelling facilities are discussed. U.K. capability in the whole nuclear merchant ship propulsion project is considered; reference being made to the design and construction of small PWR reactors, the development, design and supply of the nuclear propulsion unit, financial aspects, and the requirement for cooperation between industrial interests and governmental research units. (U.K.)

  2. Teaching Astronomy in UK Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Paul; Roberts, Sarah; Newsam, Andy; Barclay, Charles

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to summarise the good, bad and (occasionally) ugly aspects of teaching astronomy in UK schools. It covers the most common problems reported by teachers when asked about covering the astronomy/space topics in school. Particular focus is given to the GCSE Astronomy qualification offered by Edexcel (which is currently the…

  3. Maturing safety in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debenham, A.; Kovan, D.

    1994-01-01

    AEA Technology provides UK nuclear industry with technical services and R+D support, concentrating on plant performance, safety and environmental issues. Today, safety has a new set of priorities, reflected by a more demanding regulatory regime which takes account of concerns such as human factors, severe accidents, risks during plant outages, the need for improving safety culture, etc

  4. Nuclear prospects in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, Robert

    1993-01-01

    During the late 1980s and early 1990s the UK government decided to privatise the UK electricity supply industry. In order to introduce competition into the generation side of the business it was decided that the large generating boards - the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) and in Scotland, the South of Scotland Electricity Board and North of Scotland Hydro Board, - should be split up into smaller companies. In England and Wales two companies were proposed. The larger company National Power would include the nuclear generating business in England and Wales, the smaller company, Power Gen would use fossil generation only. Scotland was also to have two companies, Scottish Power - including Scotland's nuclear stations - and Scottish Hydro. But these were troubled times for the UK nuclear industry. A lot of misinformation was being issued by its opponents, in particular about decommissioning and fuel reprocessing costs. Looking back I can see there were reasons for that. Both National Power and Scottish Power wanted to be absolutely certain that they got the best possible deal and that every imaginable, and unimaginable, cost that may ever arise would be taken care of. This attitude resulted in the estimate of huge liabilities and 'unprecedented guarantees' that the then Secretary of State for Energy in the UK, could not accept

  5. Country report for the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abram, T.

    2000-01-01

    In the frame of the status of the UK nuclear industry, activities concerning fast reactor are reviewed. There is no government funded program except for decommissioning work at Dounrey. Major activities are concerned with knowledge preservation, fuel cycle modelling and scenario studies, and gas-cooled fast reactor feasibility studies. European, international and BNFL collaboration are also reviewed

  6. Ternary Ag-In-S polycrystalline films deposited using chemical bath deposition for photoelectrochemical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Wen-Sheng; Wu, Ching-Chen; Jeng, Ming-Shan; Cheng, Kong-Wei; Huang, Chao-Ming; Lee, Tai-Chou

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the preparation and characterization of ternary Ag-In-S thin films deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates using chemical bath deposition (CBD). The composition of the thin films was varied by changing the concentration ratio of [Ag]/[In] in the precursor solutions. The crystal structure, optical properties, and surface morphology of the thin films were analyzed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), UV-vis spectroscopy, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). GIXRD results indicate that the samples consisted of AgInS 2 and/or AgIn 5 S 8 crystal phases, depending on the composition of the precursor solutions. The film thicknesses, electrical resistivity, flat band potentials, and band gaps of the samples were between 1.12 and 1.37 μm, 3.73 x 10 -3 and 4.98 x 10 4 Ω cm, -0.67 and -0.90 V vs. NHE, and 1.83 and 1.92 eV, respectively. The highest photocurrent density was observed in the sample with [Ag]/[In] = 4. A photocurrent density of 9.7 mA cm -2 was obtained with an applied potential of 0.25 V vs. SCE in the three-electrode system. The photoresponse experiments were conducted in 0.25 M K 2 SO 3 and 0.35 M Na 2 S aqueous electrolyte solutions under irradiation by a 300 W Xe light (100 mW cm -2 ). The results show that ternary Ag-In-S thin film electrodes have potential in water splitting applications.

  7. Ternary Ag-In-S polycrystalline films deposited using chemical bath deposition for photoelectrochemical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Wen-Sheng [Energy and Environmental Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, 195 Sec. 4, Chung-Hsing Road, Hsin-Chu 310, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ching-Chen [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, 168 University Road, Min-Hsiung, Chia-Yi 621, Taiwan (China); Jeng, Ming-Shan [Energy and Environmental Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, 195 Sec. 4, Chung-Hsing Road, Hsin-Chu 310, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Kong-Wei [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chao-Ming [Department of Environmental Engineering, Kun Shan University, 949 Da Wan Road, Yung-Kang City, Tainan Hsien 710, Taiwan (China); Lee, Tai-Chou, E-mail: chmtcl@ccu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, 168 University Road, Min-Hsiung, Chia-Yi 621, Taiwan (China)

    2010-04-15

    This paper describes the preparation and characterization of ternary Ag-In-S thin films deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates using chemical bath deposition (CBD). The composition of the thin films was varied by changing the concentration ratio of [Ag]/[In] in the precursor solutions. The crystal structure, optical properties, and surface morphology of the thin films were analyzed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), UV-vis spectroscopy, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). GIXRD results indicate that the samples consisted of AgInS{sub 2} and/or AgIn{sub 5}S{sub 8} crystal phases, depending on the composition of the precursor solutions. The film thicknesses, electrical resistivity, flat band potentials, and band gaps of the samples were between 1.12 and 1.37 {mu}m, 3.73 x 10{sup -3} and 4.98 x 10{sup 4} {Omega} cm, -0.67 and -0.90 V vs. NHE, and 1.83 and 1.92 eV, respectively. The highest photocurrent density was observed in the sample with [Ag]/[In] = 4. A photocurrent density of 9.7 mA cm{sup -2} was obtained with an applied potential of 0.25 V vs. SCE in the three-electrode system. The photoresponse experiments were conducted in 0.25 M K{sub 2}SO{sub 3} and 0.35 M Na{sub 2}S aqueous electrolyte solutions under irradiation by a 300 W Xe light (100 mW cm{sup -2}). The results show that ternary Ag-In-S thin film electrodes have potential in water splitting applications.

  8. Numerical modeling of transferred arc melting bath heating; Modelisation numerique du chauffage de bains par arc transfere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouvier, A. [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret sur Loing (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Trenty, L.; Guillot, J.B. [Ecole Centrale de Paris, Laboratoire EM2C. CNRS, 92 - Chatenay-Malabry (France); Delalondre, C. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the modeling of a transferred electric arc inside a bath of melted metal. After a recall of the context of the study, the problem of the modeling, which involves magnetohydrodynamic coupling inside the arc and the bath, is described. The equations that govern the phenomena inside the arc and the bath are recalled and the approach used for the modeling of the anode region of the arc is explained using a 1-D sub-model. The conditions of connection between arc and bath calculations are explained and calculation results obtained with a 200 kW laboratory furnace geometry are presented. (J.S.) 8 refs.

  9. Modification of optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS using plasma treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, G.; Krishnan, B.; Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G. Alan; Das Roy, T.K.; Shaji, S.

    2011-01-01

    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) is a well known n-type semiconductor that is widely used in solar cells. Here we report preparation and characterization of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films and modification of their optical and electrical properties using plasma treatments. CdS thin films were prepared from a chemical bath containing Cadmium chloride, Triethanolamine and Thiourea under various deposition conditions. Good quality thin films were obtained during deposition times of 5, 10 and 15 min. CdS thin films prepared for 10 min. were treated using a glow discharge plasma having nitrogen and argon carrier gases. The changes in morphology, optical and electrical properties of these plasma treated CdS thin films were analyzed in detail. The results obtained show that plasma treatment is an effective technique in modification of the optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films.

  10. Physical Properties of Nanostructured CdO Films from Alkaline Baths Containing Saccharin as Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bünyamin Şahin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured cadmium oxide (CdO films were fabricated on glass substrates from alkaline baths containing saccharin as an additive by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR method. The effects of saccharin concentration in the bath on the structural, morphological, and optical properties were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy. The analyses showed that the surface morphologies, XRD peak intensities, Raman spectroscopy, and photoluminescence properties of CdO films changed with saccharin concentration. From the results, it can be said that morphological characteristic and optical properties of the films could be calibrated by adding various saccharin percentages in the growth bath.

  11. Response of Cryolite-Based Bath to a Shift in Heat Input/output Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Taylor, Mark; Dorreen, Mark

    2017-04-01

    A technology for low amperage potline operation is now recognized as a competitive advantage for the aluminum smelting industry in order to align smelter operations with the power and aluminum price markets. This study investigates the cryolite-based bath response to heat balance shifts when the heat extraction from the bath is adjusted to different levels in a laboratory analogue. In the analogue experiments, the heat balance shift is driven by a graphite `cold finger' heat exchanger, which can control the heat extraction from the analogue, and a corresponding change in heat input from the furnace which maintains the control temperature of the lab "cell." This paper reports the first experimental results from shifting the steady state of the lab cell heat balance, and investigates the effects on the frozen ledge and bath superheat. The lab cell energy balances are compared with energy balances in a published industrial cell model.

  12. Preparation of nanocrystalline ZnS by a new chemical bath deposition route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartale, S.D. [Department of Heterogeneous Material Systems (SE2), Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109, Berlin (Germany); Sankapal, B.R. [Department of Heterogeneous Material Systems (SE2), Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109, Berlin (Germany); Lux-Steiner, M. [Department of Heterogeneous Material Systems (SE2), Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109, Berlin (Germany); Ennaoui, A. [Department of Heterogeneous Material Systems (SE2), Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109, Berlin (Germany)]. E-mail: ennaoui@hmi.de

    2005-06-01

    We report a new chemical bath deposition route for the preparation of dense, compact and uniform nanocrystalline ZnS thin films, where thiourea acts as a complexing agent as well as a source of sulfide ions. The structural and morphological characterizations suggest that the film and the residual powder in the bath are formed by the aggregation of clusters of ZnS, namely cluster-by-cluster growth mechanism. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and HRTEM analyses indicate that the film and powder formed in the bath have cubic zinkblende structure. The films have high transmittance of about 75% in the visible region. Post-deposition annealing in Ar slightly improves the crystallinity and decreases the optical bandgap with increasing the annealing temperature.

  13. Preparation of nanocrystalline ZnS by a new chemical bath deposition route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartale, S.D.; Sankapal, B.R.; Lux-Steiner, M.; Ennaoui, A.

    2005-01-01

    We report a new chemical bath deposition route for the preparation of dense, compact and uniform nanocrystalline ZnS thin films, where thiourea acts as a complexing agent as well as a source of sulfide ions. The structural and morphological characterizations suggest that the film and the residual powder in the bath are formed by the aggregation of clusters of ZnS, namely cluster-by-cluster growth mechanism. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and HRTEM analyses indicate that the film and powder formed in the bath have cubic zinkblende structure. The films have high transmittance of about 75% in the visible region. Post-deposition annealing in Ar slightly improves the crystallinity and decreases the optical bandgap with increasing the annealing temperature

  14. Modification of optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS using plasma treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, G. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, C.P 66450 (Mexico); Krishnan, B. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, C.P 66450 (Mexico); CIIDIT, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G. Alan; Das Roy, T.K. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, C.P 66450 (Mexico); Shaji, S., E-mail: sshajis@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, C.P 66450 (Mexico); CIIDIT, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2011-08-31

    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) is a well known n-type semiconductor that is widely used in solar cells. Here we report preparation and characterization of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films and modification of their optical and electrical properties using plasma treatments. CdS thin films were prepared from a chemical bath containing Cadmium chloride, Triethanolamine and Thiourea under various deposition conditions. Good quality thin films were obtained during deposition times of 5, 10 and 15 min. CdS thin films prepared for 10 min. were treated using a glow discharge plasma having nitrogen and argon carrier gases. The changes in morphology, optical and electrical properties of these plasma treated CdS thin films were analyzed in detail. The results obtained show that plasma treatment is an effective technique in modification of the optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films.

  15. Thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance in harmonic chains with nonlinear system-bath coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Yi; Li, Hui-Min; Ding, Ze-Jun

    2016-03-01

    Thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance were realized in harmonic chains in this work. We used the generalized Caldeira-Leggett model to study the heat flow. In contrast to most previous studies considering only the linear system-bath coupling, we considered the nonlinear system-bath coupling based on recent experiment [Eichler et al., Nat. Nanotech. 6, 339 (2011), 10.1038/nnano.2011.71]. When the linear coupling constant is weak, the multiphonon processes induced by the nonlinear coupling allow more phonons transport across the system-bath interface and hence the heat current is enhanced. Consequently, thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance are achieved when the nonlinear couplings are asymmetric. However, when the linear coupling constant is strong, the umklapp processes dominate the multiphonon processes. Nonlinear coupling suppresses the heat current. Thermal rectification is also achieved. But the direction of rectification is reversed compared to the results of weak linear coupling constant.

  16. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF IRON SULPHIDE THIN FILMS BY CHEMICAL BATH DEPOSITION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Kassim

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available FeS2 thin films have been deposited by using low cost chemical bath deposition technique. The films obtained under deposition parameters such as bath temperature (90 °C, deposition period (90 min, electrolyte concentration (0.15 M and pH of the reactive mixture (pH 2.5. The thin films were characterized using X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy in order to study the structural and morphological properties. The band gap energy, transition type and absorption properties were determined using UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. X-ray diffraction displayed a pattern consistent with the formation of an orthorhombic structure, with a strong (110 preferred orientation. Atomic force microscopy image showed the substrate surface is well covered with irregular grains. A direct band gap of 1.85 eV was obtained according to optical absorption studies.   Keywords: Iron sulfide, X-ray diffraction, chemical bath deposition, thin films

  17. Topical analgesic added to paraffin enhances paraffin bath treatment of individuals with hand osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrer, Joseph William; Johnson, Aaron Wayne; Mitchell, Ulrike H; Measom, Gary J; Fellingham, Gilbert W

    2011-01-01

    To compare treating patients with symptomatic hand osteoarthritis (OA) with paraffin baths only (PO) (100% wax) or paraffin baths 80% wax with 20% topical analgesic (PTA). Subjects met criteria of the American College of Rheumatology for classifying symptomatic hand OA and had a Dreiser's index score >5 points. Current and average pain at rest and with movement was assessed with visual analogue scales. Hand function was assessed by the functional index for hand OA (FIHOA). Both groups had a significant reduction in their 'current' pain 15 min after the first and twelfth treatments compared to pre-treatment but there was no difference between groups (t = 0.10, p > 0.05). The PTA group had greater improvement over the 12 treatment sessions for their pain at rest (t = 2.92, p paraffin produced significantly greater pain relief at rest and during movement than paraffin baths alone after 12 treatments. Additionally, the PTA group experienced greater improved hand function.

  18. Indian Diaspora In The UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Kulik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The author traces the history of formation of the Indian diaspora in the UK, evaluates the key trends that characterize the current state of diaspora. The article highlights the level of involvement and participation of diaspora in the evolution of the bilateral relations, as well as the influence of diaspora over home and foreign policy in the UK and India. The diaspora today is not just a unique vibrant connection between the two countries, it has also become a factor of influence over domestic, social and economic affairs in both the UK and India. There is a growing number of Indians among British statesmen and politicians. Indians occupy significant posts in various sectors in Britain, including business and finance. This contributes to strengthening of economic ties between the two countries, particularly important considering Britain’s forthcoming exit from the EU. As to internal political matters, though potential issues exist (those include, for instance, the possible transfer from India into Britain of problematic inter-caste relations, India’s criticism over unbalanced approach to teaching colonial history in British schools, the Indian diaspora due to its’ inherent tolerance and moderation generally plays a stabilizing role in the UK, especially on the background of radicalization of other ethnic communities. For the new India the diaspora today is not just an important source of financing, competences and know-how, it is also a significant lobbying and soft-power instrument. This article is part of a broader research, related to the contemporary relations between the United Kingdom and India. Indian diaspora in the UK is an integral part of the unique centuries-long history that connects the two countries. It is poised to remain a strong factor contributing to interdependence and cooperation between Britain and India in the XXI century.

  19. Interval between onset of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis comparing the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink with a hospital-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillett, William; Charlton, Rachel; Nightingale, Alison; Snowball, Julia; Green, Amelia; Smith, Catherine; Shaddick, Gavin; McHugh, Neil

    2017-12-01

    To describe the time interval between the onset of psoriasis and PsA in the UK primary care setting and compare with a large, well-classified secondary care cohort. Patients with PsA and/or psoriasis were identified in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). The secondary care cohort comprised patients from the Bath PsA longitudinal observational cohort study. For incident PsA patients in the CPRD who also had a record of psoriasis, the time interval between PsA diagnosis and first psoriasis record was calculated. Comparisons were made with the time interval between diagnoses in the Bath cohort. There were 5272 eligible PsA patients in the CPRD and 815 in the Bath cohort. In both cohorts, the majority of patients (82.3 and 61.3%, respectively) had psoriasis before their PsA diagnosis or within the same calendar year (10.5 and 23.8%), with only a minority receiving their PsA diagnosis first (7.1 and 14.8%). Excluding those who presented with arthritis before psoriasis, the median time between diagnoses was 8 years [interquartile range (IQR) 2-15] in the CPRD and 7 years (IQR 0-20) in the Bath cohort. In the CPRD, 60.1 and 75.1% received their PsA diagnosis within 10 and 15 years of their psoriasis diagnosis, respectively; this was comparable with 57.2 and 67.7% in the Bath cohort. A similar distribution for the time interval between psoriasis and arthritis was observed in the CPRD and secondary care cohort. These data can inform screening strategies and support the validity of data from each cohort. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. Short communication: Efficacy of copper sulfate hoof baths against digital dermatitis--Where is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Peter T

    2015-04-01

    Digital dermatitis is a major problem in modern dairy production because of decreased animal welfare and financial losses. Individual cow treatments are often seen as too time consuming by farmers, and walk-through hoof baths have therefore been used extensively to control digital dermatitis. For decades, copper sulfate hoof baths have been used to treat and prevent digital dermatitis. Copper sulfate has been referred to as the industry gold standard when it comes to hoof-bath chemicals. In several scientific studies testing the efficacy of other hoof-care products, copper sulfate has been used as a positive control, thereby indicating that copper sulfate has a known positive effect. However, this may not be the case. A dilemma may exist between (1) copper sulfate generally being perceived as being effective against digital dermatitis and (2) a possible lack of well-documented scientific evidence of this effect. The objective of this study was to evaluate the existing scientific literature to determine whether the efficacy of copper sulfate used in hoof baths against digital dermatitis has in fact been demonstrated scientifically. A systematic literature search identified 7 peer-reviewed journal articles describing the efficacy of copper sulfate in hoof baths as treatment or prevention of bovine digital dermatitis. Only 2 of the 7 studies compared copper sulfate to a negative control; most studies were relatively small, and often no clear positive effect of copper sulfate was demonstrated. In conclusion, the frequent claim that copper sulfate is widely reported to be effective is supported by little scientific evidence. Well-designed clinical trials evaluating the effect of copper sulfate against digital dermatitis compared with a negative control are needed. Until such studies have been made, the efficacy of copper sulfate in hoof baths against digital dermatitis remains largely unproven. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier

  1. Electrosynthesis of cadmium selenide films from sodium citrate-selenosulphite bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokhande, C.D.; Lee, Eun-Ho; Jung, Kwang-Deog; Joo, Oh-Shim

    2005-01-01

    Electrosynthesis of cadmium selenide (CdSe) film has been carried out from deposition bath containing sodium selenosulphite, along with cadmium complexed with sodium citrate under potentiostatic deposition condition on titanium substrates. The pH of deposition bath was weakly basic (< 9.0). The CdSe films up to 3.0 μm were deposited. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies revealed that the CdSe films are microcrystalline with increased grain size after annealing. The scanning electron microscopy showed that the films are porous with cauliflower-like morphology. The photelectrochemical characterization showed that the CdSe films are photoactive

  2. CT-QMC-simulations on the single impurity Anderson model with a superconducting bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Florian; Pruschke, Thomas [Institut fuer theoretische Physik, Universitaet Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Goettingen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Coupling a heavy fermion impurity to a superconducting lead induces a competition between the Kondo effect and superconductivity in the low temperature regime. This situation has been modeled with a single impurity Anderson model, where the normal state bath is replaced by a BCS-type superconducting bath in mean field approximation. We study this model using a continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo hybridization expansion algorithm. Results include the impurity Green's functions as well as the corresponding spectral functions obtained from analytic continuation. Two side bands are observed which we discuss in the light of Yu-Shiba-Rusinov states.

  3. Electrodeposited Fe-Co films prepared from a citric-acid-based plating bath

    OpenAIRE

    Yanai, Takeshi; Uto, H.; Shimokawa, Takaya; Nakano, Masaki; Fukunaga, Hirotoshi; Suzuki, K.

    2013-01-01

    Electrodeposited Fe-Co films are commonly prepared in a boric-acid-based bath. In this research, we applied citric acid instead of boric acid for the plating of Fe-Co films because boron in the waste bath is restricted by environmental-protection regulations in Japan. We evaluated the effect of citric acid on the magnetic and structural properties of the films. The saturation magnetization of the Fe-Co films slightly increased while the Fe content in the Fe-Co films decreased with increasing ...

  4. Coherent oscillation in a linear quantum system coupled to a thermal bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, N.F.; Volkas, R.R.; Sawyer, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    We consider the time development of the density matrix for a system coupled to a thermal bath, in models that go beyond the standard two-level systems through addition of an energy excitation degree of freedom and through the possibility of the replacement of the spin algebra by a more complex algebra. We find conditions under which increasing the coupling to the bath above a certain level decreases the rate of entropy production, and in which the limiting behavior is a dissipationless sinusoidal oscillation that could be interpreted as the synchronization of many modes of the uncoupled system

  5. Chemical Bath Deposition and Characterization of CdS layer for CZTS Thin Film Solar Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Kamal, Tasnim; Parvez, Sheikh; Matin, Rummana; Bashar, Mohammad Shahriar; Hossain, Tasnia; Sarwar, Hasan; Rashid, Mohammad Junaebur

    2016-01-01

    CZTS is a new type of an absorber and abundant materials for thin film solar cells (TFSC). Cadmium sulfide (CdS) is the n-type buffer layer of it with band gap of 2.42 eV. Cadmium sulfide (CdS) buffer layer of CZTS solar cell was deposited on soda-lime glass substrates by the Chemical Bath Deposition(CBD) method, using anhydrous Cadmium chloride(CdCl_2) and Thiourea (CS(NH_2)_2). Deposition of CdS using CBD is based on the slow release of Cd^ ions and S^ ions in an alkaline bath which is achi...

  6. The effect of sauna bathing on lipid profile in young, physically active, male subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Dorota Gryka; Wanda Pilch; Marta Szarek; Zbigniew Szygula; Łukasz Tota

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate effects of Finnish sauna bathing on lipid profile in healthy, young men. Material and Methods: Sixteen male subjects (20–23 years) were subjected to 10 sauna bathing sessions in a Finnish sauna every 1 or 2 days. The mean sauna temperature was 90±2°C, while humidity was 5–16%. Each session consisted of three 15-minute parts and a 2-minute cool-down between them. The following measurements were taken before and after the sauna sessions: body mas...

  7. Sustainability in the UK construction minerals industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Clive

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability in the UK construction minerals industry Clive Mitchell, Industrial Minerals Specialist, British Geological Survey, Nottingham, UK Email: Sustainability is not just about environmental protection it also concerns biodiversity, community relations, competence, employment, geodiversity, health and safety, resource efficiency, restoration and stakeholder accountability. The UK construction minerals industry aims to supply essential materials in a sustainabl...

  8. Seasonal UK Drought Forecasting using Statistical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Doug; Fowler, Hayley; Kilsby, Chris; Serinaldi, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    In the UK drought is a recurrent feature of climate with potentially large impacts on public water supply. Water companies' ability to mitigate the impacts of drought by managing diminishing availability depends on forward planning and it would be extremely valuable to improve forecasts of drought on monthly to seasonal time scales. By focusing on statistical forecasting methods, this research aims to provide techniques that are simpler, faster and computationally cheaper than physically based models. In general, statistical forecasting is done by relating the variable of interest (some hydro-meteorological variable such as rainfall or streamflow, or a drought index) to one or more predictors via some formal dependence. These predictors are generally antecedent values of the response variable or external factors such as teleconnections. A candidate model is Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape parameters (GAMLSS). GAMLSS is a very flexible class allowing for more general distribution functions (e.g. highly skewed and/or kurtotic distributions) and the modelling of not just the location parameter but also the scale and shape parameters. Additionally GAMLSS permits the forecasting of an entire distribution, allowing the output to be assessed in probabilistic terms rather than simply the mean and confidence intervals. Exploratory analysis of the relationship between long-memory processes (e.g. large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns, sea surface temperatures and soil moisture content) and drought should result in the identification of suitable predictors to be included in the forecasting model, and further our understanding of the drivers of UK drought.

  9. Military Land-Based Water Purification and Distribution Program (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dusenbury, James S

    2003-01-01

    .... During World War II, it became increasingly apparent that this technology was only partially effective in providing potable and uncontaminated water for drinking, washing, culinary, bathing and laundering purposes...

  10. 49 Trace Metals' Contamination of Stream Water and Irrigated Crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABUBAKAR AHMED

    human consumption as they pose serious health risks due to contamination with the metals. For environmental ... mining activities, industrial and domestic effluents, urban ... drinking and bathing water, irrigation, food, fuel and energy.

  11. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drink and water in food (like fruits and vegetables). 6. Of all the earth’s water, how much is ocean or seas? 97 percent of the earth’s water is ocean or seas. 7. How much of the world’s water is frozen? Of all the water on earth, about 2 percent is frozen. 8. How much ...

  12. Facile fabrication of iron-based superhydrophobic surfaces via electric corrosion without bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Qinghe [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China); Liu, Hongtao, E-mail: liuht100@126.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China); Chen, Tianchi [College of Mechanical & Electrical Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China); Wei, Yan; Wei, Zhu [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China)

    2016-04-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • This paper investigates the fabrication techniques towards superhydrophobic surface on carbon steel substrate via electric corrosion without a bath. • It has a vital significance to the industrialization of the fabrication of superhydrophobic surface on hard metal due to the advantages such as low cost, high efficiency, can be prepared in a large area, easy to construct in the field. • The preparation approach is so facile and time-saving that it delivers an opportunity to construct a superhydrophobic surface on carbon steel substrate and provides the feasibility for industrial application of superhydrophobic surface. • The as-prepared surface has many excellent properties, like low adhesive property, anti-corrosion ability, mechanical durability and anti-icing performance. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic surface is of wide application in the field of catalysis, lubrication, waterproof, biomedical materials, etc. The superhydrophobic surface based on hard metal is worth further study due to its advantages of high strength and wear resistance. This paper investigates the fabrication techniques towards superhydrophobic surface on carbon steel substrate via electric corrosion and studies the properties of as-prepared superhydrophobic surface. The hydrophobic properties were characterized by a water sliding angle (SA) and a water contact angle (CA) measured by the Surface tension instrument. A Scanning electron microscope was used to analyze the structure of the corrosion surface. The surface compositions were characterized by an Energy Dispersive Spectrum. The Electrochemical workstation was used to measure its anti-corrosion property. The anti-icing performance was characterized by a steam-freezing test in Environmental testing chamber. The SiC sandpaper and 500 g weight were used to test the friction property. The research result shows that the superhydrophobic surface can be successfully fabricated by electrocorrosion on

  13. Online Shopping In The UK

    OpenAIRE

    K. K. Ramachandran; K. K. Karthick; M. Saravana Kumar

    2011-01-01

    This paper will contribute to current academic literature in the area of online retailing and consumer behaviour. Our research outlines a survey conducted with respondents from the UK to ascertain their attitudes to grocery shopping both off and online. The findings indicate that, whilst the vast majority of our sample has experience of online shopping, few actively engage in online grocery shopping. Some of the reasons for this are highlighted and the key issues relate to consumer trust and ...

  14. Factors determining UK album success

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Caroline; Simmons, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This article uses a recently compiled dataset on the UK album sales to determine which factors contribute to best-selling album sales success. We control for factors including length of time since release, nationality of artist, artist type and album type, testing the increasing returns to information hypothesis. Information on general public online review scores for the albums in the dataset allows for a strong test of the accuracy of online reviews in predicting music sales, as online revie...

  15. Radon exposures in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Riordan, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    Public and occupational health protection against radon is provided in the UK. Protection is advised where geological conditions cause high concentrations in domestic and commercial buildings. These circumstances are described and the resulting exposures reviewed. An account is given of the limitation scheme for radon in the home and the regulatory scheme for radon at work, the manner in which they are implemented, and the degree to which they are successful. (author)

  16. Remote interest in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, C.

    1993-01-01

    The United Kingdom nuclear industry has moved on from its low-technology solutions to remote handling problems which were popular in the 1950s and 1960s. A change in attitude has occurred which means that users are looking for high-technology solutions to today's remote handling problems. This review focuses on the ways in which their needs are being met and on the demands for future development which they are generating. (UK)

  17. Time to bypass the UK's stagnant waste programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, W.R.; Haslam, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    It is envisaged that a big expansion of nuclear power will be required in the United Kingdom to meet the demand for electric power after gas supplies run out. However, an acceptable scheme for the disposal of all kinds of radioactive waste must be demonstrated before such an expansion is contemplated. Alternatives to the plans being developed by UK Nirex for the burial of low and intermediate level wastes (LLW and ILW) are advanced. The movement of groundwater which could carry radioactivity from an underground repository back to the land surface or into the sea is the main safety issue associated with burying nuclear waste. The water movement would be induced by the head of water from surrounding hillsides or by convection in water warmed by heat-emitting high level waste (HLW). By taking advantage of the coastal situation of both Sellafield and Dounreay, the two UK sites where waste is likely to be buried, these effects can be countered. Drained trench burial with a saline groundwater underpass created by drawing in seawater, is suggested for LLW and some short-lived ILW. A stagnant saline zone, again created from drawn in sea water, is proposed for deep disposal of ILW with a ''flyover'' to drain down surrounding hills. The disposal of HLW in liquid form in nitric acid solution at even deeper levels also making use of a stagnant saline zone is also discussed. (UK)

  18. Solar energy from the roof of the indoor baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lainsecq, M. de

    2000-01-01

    This article describes the solar heating installation on the roof of the indoor pool in Lenk, Switzerland. This combined plant, which also provides heating for an adjacent open-air pool in summer, uses unglazed high-grade steel absorbers instead of the plastic absorbers normally used for open-air swimming pools. The factors that influenced the choice of the absorber are discussed and figures are presented on the energetic and financial characteristics of the installation. The innovative nature of the installation, which produces large volumes of medium-temperature water and features an innovative method of financing, is described

  19. Nutritional Knowledge of UK Coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Cockburn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Athletes obtain nutritional information from their coaches, yet their competency in this area is lacking. Currently, no research exists in the UK which has a different coach education system to many other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sports nutrition knowledge of UK coaching certificate (UKCC level 2 and 3, hockey and netball qualified coaches. All coaches (n = 163 completed a sports nutrition questionnaire to identify: (a if they provided nutritional advice; (b their level of sport nutrition knowledge; and (c factors that may have contributed to their level of knowledge. Over half the coaches provided advice to their athletes (n = 93, 57.1%, even though they were not competent to do so. Coaches responded correctly to 60.3 ± 10.5% of all knowledge questions with no differences between those providing advice and those who did not (p > 0.05. Those coaches who had undertaken formal nutrition training achieved higher scores than those who had not (p < 0.05. In conclusion, UK sports coaches would benefit from continued professional development in sports nutrition to enhance their coaching practice.

  20. A UK perspective on recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, T.

    1991-01-01

    The United Kingdom, through the recycling of depleted uranium from Magnox reactors into Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) fuel, has already recycled significant quantities of reprocessed material in reactors owned by Nuclear Electric plc and Scottish Nuclear Limited. This AGR fuel has been satisfactorily irradiated and discharged over a decade or more, and will be reprocessed in the new Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP), currently under construction in the UK. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) and the UK Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) have also been exploiting the potential of plutonium recycled in mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, which they have been making since 1963. All of the UK nuclear companies are committed to further recycling of Magnox depleted uranium during the 1990s, and it is anticipated that oxide recycling will also become firmly established during the next decade. British Nuclear Fuels and Urenco Ltd, as the providers of fuel cycle services, are developing an infrastructure to close the fuel cycle for oxide nuclear fuel, using both the uranium and plutonium arising from reprocessing. (author)

  1. Worldwide open access: UK leadership?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan Harnad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The web is destined to become humankind's cognitive commons, where digital knowledge is jointly created and freely shared. The UK has been a leader in the global movement toward open access (OA to research but recently its leadership has been derailed by the joint influence of the publishing industry lobby from without and well-intentioned but premature and unhelpful over-reaching from within the OA movement itself. The result has been the extremely counterproductive ‘Finch Report’ followed by a new draft of the Research Councils UK (RCUK OA mandate, downgrading the role of cost-free OA self-archiving of research publications (‘green OA’ in favor of paying subscription publishers over and above subscriptions, out of scarce research funds, in exchange for making single articles OA (‘hybrid gold OA’. The motivation of the new policy is to reform publication and to gain certain re-use rights (CC-BY, but the likely effect would be researcher resistance, very little OA and a waste of research funds. There is still time to fix the RCUK mandate and restore the UK's leadership by taking a few very specific steps to clarify and strengthen the green component by adding a mechanism for monitoring and verifying compliance, with consequences for non-compliance, along lines also being adopted in the EC and the US.

  2. Bath temperature effect on magnetoelectric performance of Ni-lead zirconate titanate-Ni laminated composites synthesized by electroless deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, W. [College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Wang, Y.G., E-mail: yingang.wang@nuaa.edu.c [College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Bi, K. [College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China)

    2011-03-15

    Magnetoelectric (ME) Ni-lead zirconate titanate-Ni laminated composites have been prepared by electroless deposition at various bath temperatures. The structure of the Ni layers deposited at various bath temperatures was characterized by X-ray diffraction, and microstructures were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The magnetostrictive coefficients were measured by means of a resistance strain gauge. The transverse ME voltage coefficient {alpha}{sub E,31} was measured with the magnetic field applied parallel to the sample plane. The deposition rate of Ni increases with bath temperature. Ni layer with smaller grain size is obtained at higher bath temperature and shows higher piezomagnetic coefficient, promoting the ME effect of corresponding laminated composites. It is advantageous to increase the bath temperature, while trying to avoid the breaking of bath constituents. - Research Highlights: Laminated composites without interlayer are prepared by electroless deposition. Bath temperature affects the grain size of the deposited Ni layers. Higher bath temperature is beneficial to obtain stronger ME response.

  3. Turning the tide : tidal power in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Sustainable Development Commission

    2007-01-01

    Contents: Turning the tide : tidal power in the UK -- Executive summary -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 1 : UK tidal resource assessment -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 2 : tidal technologies overview -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 3 : Severn barrage proposals -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 4 : Severn non-barrage options -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 5 : UK case studies. Summarised in the Welsh language version of the executive ...

  4. Synthesis of nanocrystalline nickel-zinc ferrite (Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4) thin films by chemical bath deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawar, D.K.; Pawar, S.M.; Patil, P.S.; Kolekar, S.S.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research highlights: → We have successfully synthesized nickel-zinc ferrite (Ni 0.8 Zn 0.2 Fe 2 O 4 ) thin films on stainless steel substrates using a low temperature chemical bath deposition method. → The surface morphological study showed the compact flakes like morphology. → The as-deposited thin films are hydrophilic (10 o o ) whereas the annealed thin films are super hydrophilic (θ o ) in nature. → Ni 0.8 Zn 0.2 Fe 2 O 4 thin films could be used in supercapacitor. - Abstract: The nickel-zinc ferrite (Ni 0.8 Zn 0.2 Fe 2 O 4 ) thin films have been successfully deposited on stainless steel substrates using a chemical bath deposition method from alkaline bath. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), static water contact angle and cyclic voltammetry measurements. The X-ray diffraction pattern shows that deposited Ni 0.8 Zn 0.2 Fe 2 O 4 thin films were oriented along (3 1 1) plane. The FTIR spectra showed strong absorption peaks around 600 cm -1 which are typical for cubic spinel crystal structure. SEM study revealed compact flakes like morphology having thickness ∼1.8 μm after air annealing. The annealed films were super hydrophilic in nature having a static water contact angle (θ) of 5 o .The electrochemical supercapacitor study of Ni 0.8 Zn 0.2 Fe 2 O 4 thin films has been carried out in 6 M KOH electrolyte. The values of interfacial and specific capacitances obtained were 0.0285 F cm -2 and 19 F g -1 , respectively.

  5. THREE DIMENSIONAL MODELING VIA PHOTOGRAPHS FOR DOCUMENTATION OF A VILLAGE BATH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Balta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is supporting the conceptual discussions of architectural restoration with three dimensional modeling of monuments based on photogrammetric survey. In this study, a 16th century village bath in Ulamış, Seferihisar, and Izmir is modeled for documentation. Ulamış is one of the historical villages within which Turkish population first settled in the region of Seferihisar – Urla. The methodology was tested on an antique monument; a bath with a cubical form. Within the limits of this study, only the exterior of the bath was modeled. The presentation scale for the bath was determined as 1 / 50, considering the necessities of designing structural interventions and architectural ones within the scope of a restoration project. The three dimensional model produced is a realistic document presenting the present situation of the ruin. Traditional plan, elevation and perspective drawings may be produced from the model, in addition to the realistic textured renderings and wireframe representations. The model developed in this study provides opportunity for presenting photorealistic details of historical morphologies in scale. Compared to conventional drawings, the renders based on the 3d models provide an opportunity for conceiving architectural details such as color, material and texture. From these documents, relatively more detailed restitution hypothesis can be developed and intervention decisions can be taken. Finally, the principles derived from the case study can be used for 3d documentation of historical structures with irregular surfaces.

  6. Electrodeposition of zinc-nickel alloy from fluoborate baths - as a substitute for electrogalvanising

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh Bapu, G.N.K.; Ayyapparaju, J.; Devaraj, G.

    Use of fluoborate electroytes have been investigated for depositing a suitable composition of zinc-nickel alloy on mild steel for better corrosion protection. In the present investigation, the plating and bath conditions have been optimized so that zinc-nickel alloy coating from fluoborate solutions find applications for plating wires as well as other articles advantageously in the place of zinc coatings.

  7. Electrodes from carbon nanotubes/NiO nanocomposites synthesized in modified Watts bath for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakamada, Masataka; Abe, Tatsuhiko; Mabuchi, Mamoru

    2016-09-01

    A modified Watts bath coupled with pulsed current electroplating is used to uniformly deposit ultrafine nickel oxide particles (diameter < 4 nm) on multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The capacitance of the multiwalled carbon nanotubes/nickel oxide electrodes was as high as 2480 F g-1 (per mass of nickel oxide), which is close to the theoretical capacitance of NiO.

  8. CdS thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, L.V.; Mendivil, M.I.; Garcia Guillen, G.; Aguilar Martinez, J.A.; Krishnan, B.; Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G.A.; Das Roy, T.K.; Shaji, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CdS thin films by conventional CBD and laser assisted CBD. • Characterized these films using XRD, XPS, AFM, optical and electrical measurements. • Accelerated growth was observed in the laser assisted CBD process. • Improved dark conductivity and good photocurrent response for the LACBD CdS. - Abstract: In this work, we report the preparation and characterization of CdS thin films by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD). CdS thin films were prepared from a chemical bath containing cadmium chloride, triethanolamine, ammonium hydroxide and thiourea under various deposition conditions. The thin films were deposited by in situ irradiation of the bath using a continuous laser of wavelength 532 nm, varying the power density. The thin films obtained during deposition of 10, 20 and 30 min were analyzed. The changes in morphology, structure, composition, optical and electrical properties of the CdS thin films due to in situ irradiation of the bath were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV–vis spectroscopy. The thin films obtained by LACBD were nanocrystalline, photoconductive and presented interesting morphologies. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain nanocrystalline CdS thin films having good optoelectronic properties

  9. Electroplated Fe-Co-Ni films prepared from deep-eutectic-solvent-based plating baths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Yanai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated soft magnetic films from DES-based plating baths, and investigated magnetic properties of the plated films. The plating baths were obtained by stirring the mixture of choline chloride, ethylene glycol, FeCl2 ⋅ 4H2O, NiCl2 ⋅ 6H2O and CoCl2 ⋅ 6H2O. The composition of the electroplated film depended on the amount of the reagent in the plating bath, and we consequently obtained the films with various composition. The current efficiency of the plating process shows high values (> 88 % in the wide composition range. The soft magnetic films with low coercivity were obtained at the Fe compositions of ≈ 30 at.% and > 80 at.%, and we found that low coercivity could be realized by the control of the film composition. We also found that the Fe-rich films prepared from DES-based plating bath have some advantages as a soft magnetic phase for a nanocomposite magnet due to their high saturation magnetization and very fine crystal structure.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin after oral, intramuscular and bath administration in crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Q; Fan, J; Wang, J; Zhu, X; Yin, Y; Zheng, G

    2018-02-01

    The pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin (ENR) was studied in crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) after single administration by intramuscular (IM) injection and oral gavage (PO) at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight and by 5 mg/L bath for 5 hr at 25°C. The plasma concentrations of ENR and ciprofloxacin (CIP) were determined by HPLC. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated based on mean ENR or CIP concentrations using WinNonlin 6.1 software. After IM, PO and bath administration, the maximum plasma concentration (C max ) of 2.29, 3.24 and 0.36 μg/ml was obtained at 4.08, 0.68 and 0 hr, respectively; the elimination half-life (T 1/2β ) was 80.95, 62.17 and 61.15 hr, respectively; the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) values were 223.46, 162.72 and 14.91 μg hr/ml, respectively. CIP, an active metabolite of enrofloxacin, was detected and measured after all methods of drug administration except bath. It is possible and practical to obtain therapeutic blood concentrations of enrofloxacin in the crucian carp using IM, PO and bath immersion administration. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The Encoding of Subjectivity in Chaucer's "The Wife of Bath's Tale" and "The Pardoner's Tale"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgård, Ebbe

    2011-01-01

    This chapter discusses Chaucer's narrative technique in two of The Canterbury Tales and argues that the narrative voice is Chaucer's, and that the subjectivity of the Wife of Bath and the Pardoner should be approached in different ways than through theories of the novel....

  12. CdS thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, L.V.; Mendivil, M.I.; Garcia Guillen, G.; Aguilar Martinez, J.A. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); Krishnan, B. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); CIIDIT – Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G.A.; Das Roy, T.K. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); Shaji, S., E-mail: sshajis@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); CIIDIT – Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • CdS thin films by conventional CBD and laser assisted CBD. • Characterized these films using XRD, XPS, AFM, optical and electrical measurements. • Accelerated growth was observed in the laser assisted CBD process. • Improved dark conductivity and good photocurrent response for the LACBD CdS. - Abstract: In this work, we report the preparation and characterization of CdS thin films by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD). CdS thin films were prepared from a chemical bath containing cadmium chloride, triethanolamine, ammonium hydroxide and thiourea under various deposition conditions. The thin films were deposited by in situ irradiation of the bath using a continuous laser of wavelength 532 nm, varying the power density. The thin films obtained during deposition of 10, 20 and 30 min were analyzed. The changes in morphology, structure, composition, optical and electrical properties of the CdS thin films due to in situ irradiation of the bath were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV–vis spectroscopy. The thin films obtained by LACBD were nanocrystalline, photoconductive and presented interesting morphologies. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain nanocrystalline CdS thin films having good optoelectronic properties.

  13. Antimony sulfide thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaji, S.; Garcia, L.V.; Loredo, S.L.; Krishnan, B.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Antimony sulfide thin films were prepared by normal CBD and laser assisted CBD. • Characterized these films using XRD, XPS, AFM, optical and electrical measurements. • Accelerated growth was observed in the laser assisted CBD process. • These films were photoconductive. - Abstract: Antimony sulfide (Sb_2S_3) thin films were prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD) technique. These thin films were deposited on glass substrates from a chemical bath containing antimony chloride, acetone and sodium thiosulfate under various conditions of normal chemical bath deposition (CBD) as well as in-situ irradiation of the chemical bath using a continuous laser of 532 nm wavelength. Structure, composition, morphology, optical and electrical properties of the Sb_2S_3 thin films produced by normal CBD and LACBD were analyzed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis spectroscopy and Photoconductivity. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain Sb_2S_3 thin films for optoelectronic applications.

  14. Sun protection factor persistence during a day with physical activity and bathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekaer, M.; Faurschou, A.; Philipsen, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The persistence of sunscreens during a day with physical activity and bathing is often debated. We wished to examine the durability of the protection achieved by one sunscreen application. METHODS: Seven areas were marked on the back of 24 volunteers. One area was phototested ...

  15. The Salutary Influence of Forest Bathing on Elderly Patients with Chronic Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genxiang Mao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of the current study was to test the hypothesis that forest bathing would be beneficial for elderly patients with chronic heart failure (CHF as an adjunctive therapy. Two groups of participants with CHF were simultaneously sent to the forest or an urban control area for a four-day trip, respectively. Subjects exposed to the forest site showed a significant reduction of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP in comparison to that of the city group and their own baseline levels. The values for the cardiovascular disease related pathological factors, including endothelin-1 (ET-1, and constituents of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS, including renin, angiotensinogen (AGT, angiotensin II (ANGII, and ANGII receptor type 1 or 2 (AT1 or AT2 in subjects exposed to the forest environment were lower than those in the urban control group. Obviously, a decreased level of inflammatory cytokines and improved antioxidant function was observed in the forest group rather than in the city group. The assessment of the profile of mood states (POMS indicated that the negative emotional mood state was alleviated after forest bathing. As anticipated, a better air quality in the forest site was observed according to the detection of PM2.5 (particulate matter <2.5 μm and negative ions. These results provided direct evidence that forest bathing has a beneficial effect on CHF patients, and thus may pave the way for potential development of forest bathing as an effective adjunctive therapy on cardiovascular disorders.

  16. Optimisation of the formulation of a bubble bath by a chemometric approach market segmentation and optimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, Emilio; Robotti, Elisa; Gennaro, Maria Carla; Bertetto, Mariella

    2003-03-01

    The optimisation of the formulation of a commercial bubble bath was performed by chemometric analysis of Panel Tests results. A first Panel Test was performed to choose the best essence, among four proposed to the consumers; the best essence chosen was used in the revised commercial bubble bath. Afterwards, the effect of changing the amount of four components (the amount of primary surfactant, the essence, the hydratant and the colouring agent) of the bubble bath was studied by a fractional factorial design. The segmentation of the bubble bath market was performed by a second Panel Test, in which the consumers were requested to evaluate the samples coming from the experimental design. The results were then treated by Principal Component Analysis. The market had two segments: people preferring a product with a rich formulation and people preferring a poor product. The final target, i.e. the optimisation of the formulation for each segment, was obtained by the calculation of regression models relating the subjective evaluations given by the Panel and the compositions of the samples. The regression models allowed to identify the best formulations for the two segments ofthe market.

  17. Evaluation of variables which affect the hardness of nickel plate deposited from watts-type baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, G.S.; Wright, R.R.; Neff, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    In the course of the Cascade Improvement Program, many component equipment parts will be electroplated with nickel for corrosion protection. The maximum hardness which will be acceptable in the electroplated deposit is specified in Union Carbide's Job Specification JS-1396, Revision 3, entitled Electroplated Nickel Coatings on Steel Parts. The hardness specification is intended primarily as a control over both organic and inorganic impurities in the deposit. This report covers a study evaluating several of the numerous controllable variables which influence the hardness of the nickel plate deposited from a Watts-type bath. The variables tested were: 1) bath composition, 2) pH, 3) current density, 4) anode-cathode area ratio, and 5) bath temperature. Within the tested ranges of the variables studied, the pH and current density had the most influence on the plate hardness. The softest deposit was obtained with a bath pH of 1.5, a current density of 30 to 40 amperes/square foot, and with the anode-cathode area ratio in the range of 3:1 to 1:1

  18. Antimony sulfide thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaji, S., E-mail: sshajis@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, 66455 (Mexico); CIIDIT—Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Apodaca, Nuevo León (Mexico); Garcia, L.V. [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, 66455 (Mexico); Loredo, S.L. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Unidad Monterrey, PIIT, Apodaca, Nuevo León (Mexico); Krishnan, B. [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, 66455 (Mexico); CIIDIT—Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Apodaca, Nuevo León (Mexico); and others

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • Antimony sulfide thin films were prepared by normal CBD and laser assisted CBD. • Characterized these films using XRD, XPS, AFM, optical and electrical measurements. • Accelerated growth was observed in the laser assisted CBD process. • These films were photoconductive. - Abstract: Antimony sulfide (Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}) thin films were prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD) technique. These thin films were deposited on glass substrates from a chemical bath containing antimony chloride, acetone and sodium thiosulfate under various conditions of normal chemical bath deposition (CBD) as well as in-situ irradiation of the chemical bath using a continuous laser of 532 nm wavelength. Structure, composition, morphology, optical and electrical properties of the Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films produced by normal CBD and LACBD were analyzed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis spectroscopy and Photoconductivity. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films for optoelectronic applications.

  19. 78 FR 73506 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request: Infant Bath Seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... mark or other means that identifies the date (month and year, as a minimum) of manufacture. Section 9... instructions with infant bath seats thus would be ``usual and customary'' and not within the definition of... a GS-12 level, salaried employee. The average hourly wage rate for a mid-level salaried GS-12...

  20. Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chovanec, A.; Grath, J.; Kralik, M.; Vogel, W.

    2002-01-01

    An up-date overview of the situation of the Austrian waters is given by analyzing the status of the water quality (groundwater, surface waters) and water protection measures. Maps containing information of nitrate and atrazine in groundwaters (analyses at monitoring stations), nitrate contents and biological water quality of running waters are included. Finally, pollutants (nitrate, orthophosphate, ammonium, nitrite, atrazine etc.) trends in annual mean values and median values for the whole country for the years 1992-1999 are presented in tables. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  1. [Sulphureous mud-bath therapy and changes in blood pressure: observational investigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, M; Marongiu, M B; Russomanno, G; Conti, V; Manzo, V; Filippelli, A

    2015-01-01

    The chronic arthropathies currently appear to be a major cause of disability with a negative impact on quality of life and health care spending. The mud-bath therapy is a spa treatment that induces benefic effects in chronic rheumatic diseases. It has long been debated on the assumption that the mud-bath spa therapy could have adverse cardiovascular effects which often induce caution and even a contraindication to the use of this treatment in chronic arthropathies associated with cardiovascular alterations such as hypertension. The aim of this observational study was to investigate, in arthrorheumatic subjects, the effects of sulphureous mud-bath cycle on blood pressure and the possible appearance of adverse drug reaction. 169 patients, with age range 42-86 years, suffering by chronic arthropathies were treated with sulphureous mud-bath therapy for 2 weeks. According to the arterial pressure values, measured before the spa treatment, the patients considered were divided in three groups: with normal blood pressure (NOR group); with high blood pressure, after, the latter group was divided in IPET (patients in treatment with antihypertensive drugs) and IPENT (patients not in antihypertensive therapy). The arterial pressure values, maximum and minimum, expressed in mmHg, were detected in the first (T1) - sixth (T6) and twelfth (T12) day of spa treatment. The media arterial pressure values collected before and after T1, before and after T6, before and after T12 , before T1 and after T12 were compared. The data, presented as mean±SD, were compared with the paired Student t test. A p value ≤0.05 was considered significant. The comparison between the mean values detected in pre and post T1, pre and post T6, pre and post T12 have showed that sulphureous mud-bath therapy induced a significant (pmud-bath therapy (post-T12) vs baseline (pre-T1) have demonstrated: in IPET and IPENT groups a significant (pmud-bath therapy in interdisciplinary therapeutic p rotocol of patients

  2. Quantum Kramers model: Corrections to the linear response theory for continuous bath spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rips, Ilya

    2017-01-01

    Decay of the metastable state is analyzed within the quantum Kramers model in the weak-to-intermediate dissipation regime. The decay kinetics in this regime is determined by energy exchange between the unstable mode and the stable modes of thermal bath. In our previous paper [Phys. Rev. A 42, 4427 (1990), 10.1103/PhysRevA.42.4427], Grabert's perturbative approach to well dynamics in the case of the discrete bath [Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1683 (1988), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.61.1683] has been extended to account for the second order terms in the classical equations of motion (EOM) for the stable modes. Account of the secular terms reduces EOM for the stable modes to those of the forced oscillator with the time-dependent frequency (TDF oscillator). Analytic expression for the characteristic function of energy loss of the unstable mode has been derived in terms of the generating function of the transition probabilities for the quantum forced TDF oscillator. In this paper, the approach is further developed and applied to the case of the continuous frequency spectrum of the bath. The spectral density functions of the bath of stable modes are expressed in terms of the dissipative properties (the friction function) of the original bath. They simplify considerably for the one-dimensional systems, when the density of phonon states is constant. Explicit expressions for the fourth order corrections to the linear response theory result for the characteristic function of the energy loss and its cumulants are obtained for the particular case of the cubic potential with Ohmic (Markovian) dissipation. The range of validity of the perturbative approach in this case is determined (γ /ωbrate for the quantum and for the classical Kramers models. Results for the classical escape rate are in very good agreement with the numerical simulations for high barriers. The results can serve as an additional proof of the robustness and accuracy of the linear response theory.

  3. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be found in some metal water taps, interior water pipes, or pipes connecting a house to ... reduce or eliminate lead. See resources below. 5. Children and pregnant women are especially vulnerable to the ...

  4. Long-term mercury dynamics in UK soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipping, E., E-mail: et@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Wadsworth, R.A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Norris, D.A.; Hall, J.R. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Ilyin, I. [Meteorological Synthesizing Centre - East, Krasina pereulok, 16/1, 123056 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-15

    A model assuming first-order losses by evasion and leaching was used to evaluate Hg dynamics in UK soils since 1850. Temporal deposition patterns of Hg were constructed from literature information. Inverse modelling indicated that 30% of 898 rural sites receive Hg only from the global circulation, while in 51% of cases local deposition exceeds global. Average estimated deposition is 16 {mu}g Hg m{sup -2} a{sup -1} to rural soils, 19 {mu}g Hg m{sup -2} a{sup -1} to rural and non-rural soils combined. UK soils currently hold 2490 tonnes of reactive Hg, of which 2140 tonnes are due to anthropogenic deposition, mostly local in origin. Topsoil currently releases 5.1 tonnes of Hg{sup 0} per annum to the atmosphere, about 50% more than the anthropogenic flux. Sorptive retention of Hg in the lower soil exerts a strong control on surface water Hg concentrations. Following decreases in inputs, soil Hg concentrations are predicted to decline over hundreds of years. - Highlights: > Spatial data for mercury in UK soils can be related to past atmospheric deposition. > The residence time of Hg (c. 400 years) depends on gaseous evasion and leaching. > UK soils currently contribute more Hg{sup 0} to the atmosphere than human activities. > Sorption of Hg by deeper soil is a strong control on surface water concentrations. - Atmospherically-deposited anthropogenic mercury, mostly of local origin, has accumulated in UK soils, and is now a significant source of Hg{sup 0} to the global circulation.

  5. Early versus delayed post-operative bathing or showering to prevent wound complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Clare D; Sinha, Sidhartha; Davidson, Brian R; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan

    2015-07-23

    Many people undergo surgical operations during their life-time, which result in surgical wounds. After an operation the incision is closed using stiches, staples, steri-strips or an adhesive glue. Usually, towards the end of the surgical procedure and before the patient leaves the operating theatre, the surgeon covers the closed surgical wound using gauze and adhesive tape or an adhesive tape containing a pad (a wound dressing) that covers the surgical wound. There is currently no guidance about when the wound can be made wet by post-operative bathing or showering. Early bathing may encourage early mobilisation of the patient, which is good after most types of operation. Avoiding post-operative bathing or showering for two to three days may result in accumulation of sweat and dirt on the body. Conversely, early washing of the surgical wound may have an adverse effect on healing, for example by irritating or macerating the wound, and disturbing the healing environment. To compare the benefits (such as potential improvements to quality of life) and harms (potentially increased wound-related morbidity) of early post-operative bathing or showering (i.e. within 48 hours after surgery, the period during which epithelialisation of the wound occurs) compared with delayed post-operative bathing or showering (i.e. no bathing or showering for over 48 hours after surgery) in patients with closed surgical wounds. We searched The Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (30th June 2015); The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library); The Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) (The Cochrane Library); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid EMBASE; EBSCO CINAHL; the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). We considered all randomised trials conducted in patients who had undergone any surgical procedure and had surgical closure of

  6. Review of risk from potential emerging contaminants in UK groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, Marianne; Lapworth, Dan; Crane, Emily; Hart, Alwyn

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the types of emerging organic groundwater contaminants (EGCs) which are beginning to be found in the UK. EGCs are compounds being found in groundwater that were previously not detectable or known to be significant and can come from agricultural, urban and rural point sources. EGCs include nanomaterials, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, industrial compounds, personal care products, fragrances, water treatment by-products, flame retardants and surfactants, as well a...

  7. Animal welfare concerns during the use of the water bath for stunning broilers, hens and ducks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindle, V.A.; Lambooij, B.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Workel, L.D.; Gerritzen, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    European legislation demands that slaughter animals, including poultry, be rendered immediately unconscious and insensible until death occurs through blood loss at slaughter. This study addressed requirements for stunner settings (i.e., voltage, wave oscillation frequency) and response parameters

  8. Subjectively sampled vegetation data: Don't throw out the baby with the bath water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lepš, Jan; Šmilauer, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 2 (2007), s. 169-178 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : assumption violation * Braun-Blanquet relevés * experiments Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.133, year: 2007

  9. In situ assay of nitrate reductase activity using portable water bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam Rajsz; Bronisław Wojtuń; Andrzej Bytnerowicz

    2017-01-01

    In environmental research (i.e., plant ecophysiology, environmental microbiology, and environmental chemistry), some assays require incubation of samples at controlled temperature and darkness. Until now, due to a lack of equipment providing such possibility in situ, researchers had to move collected samples to the laboratory for incubation. Obviously, a delayed...

  10. The baby and the bath water: improving metaphors and analogies in high school biology texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shors, Luke

    This dissertation is concerned with understanding how metaphors and analogies function in biology education and whether some of the philosophical critiques of the language used in the field of biology -- and in particular its accompanying metaphors and analogies, have a basis in the educational materials used to teach the subject. This inquiry was carried out through examining the pedagogical features and content of metaphors and analogies from three high school biology textbooks. After identifying over two hundred and twenty-five verbal and pictorial metaphors and analogies, these figures of speech were coded based on prior research that establishes effective characteristics for their use. In tandem with this quantitative analysis, a philosophical analysis considers how well the content of these metaphors and analogies aligns with current scientific understanding and what misunderstandings may be engendered through the use of these metaphors and analogies. The major findings of the analysis include: 1) Textbook authors are much more likely to utilize metaphors and analogies as well as signal their presence to students compared with past analyses; 2) A number of metaphors and analogies either contain errors in analogical mapping or use source analogues that are too antiquated to support today's students; 3) The content of many metaphors and analogies is frequently outdated in reference to current scientific understanding; and 4) Many metaphors and analogies tend to reinforce tacit elements of past scientific paradigms - these are termed 'reinforcing metaphors' in the dissertation and include nature as machine, nature as blueprint or information, nature as business and nature as war. The present work submits several implications for students learning biology as well as the manner in which students come to understand the natural world. The work suggests ways to reduce ineffective metaphors and analogies as well as reliance on reinforcing metaphors. It offers new approaches for the use of metaphors and analogies in biology education as well as specific directions that better reflect a more balanced and modern conception of important topics in biology including viruses, eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, genetics, natural selection and ecology.

  11. Textural and biochemical properties of cobia (Rachycentron canadum) sashimi tenderised with the ultrasonic water bath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hung-Chia; Wong, Ren-Xian

    2012-06-01

    The present study investigated the tenderisation effects ultrasound processing (UT) on farmed cobia sashimi. Age-treated cobia trunk muscles (AT) were used as the control. The pH, total volatile base nitrogen, trimethylamine nitrogen, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, ATP catabolism components, K 1 value, and texture were evaluated. The texture of AT sashimi reached the optimal firmness range with 8.53N at day 7. However, AT samples could not be served raw after day 7 because of their poor freshness indexes, including a TVBN value of 18.53g/100g, a TMAN value of 3.25mg/100g, and a TBARS value 0.983MDAmg/100g. Moreover, the K 1 value of AT sashimi was 20.21% at day 5. UT was employed to efficiently tenderise cobia sashimi with an initial firmness of 9.70-7.82N after 90min of treatment. The results of this study indicate that UT accelerates the biochemical reaction rate, as evidenced by the increases in the TVBN, TMAN, and TBARS contents; however, these values were very low. The results of this study could provide basic information for the development of a novel ultrasonic tenderisation technique in raw seafood designed for restaurants and consumers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Urban Sustainability and Public Health: Throwing the Bath Water Out and Not the Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the affect of urbanization on community health. It exams urbanization trends in the Atlanta metro area and includes information on impervious surfaces, air quality, mitigation strategies, spatial growth modeling, land use, public health surveillance and different data collection methods.

  13. Funding bombshell hits UK physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Michael; Durrani, Matin

    2008-01-01

    Physicists and astronomers in the UK are coming to terms with a massive funding crisis that engulfed one of the country's main funding agencies last month. As a result of an £80m black hole in the budget of the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), it has decided to stop funding research into the International Linear Collider (ILC), withdraw from the Gemini telescopes in Hawaii and Chile, and cease all support for high-energy gamma-ray astronomy and ground-based solar-terrestrial physics. Research grants in particle physics and astronomy could also be cut by up to 25%, which may lead to job losses at university departments.

  14. Whither the UK Continental Shelf?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    The development of the oil and gas fields on the United Kingdom continental shelf has been carried out with remarkable success. However, low oil prices now threaten fresh investment and make it likely that both oil and gas output will start to fall in about 2001. The impact of a number of different price scenarios on further development is assessed. It is concluded that continuing technological improvements and the provision of adequate incentives by government should ensure a long productive future for the province. (UK)

  15. Energy strategies for the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlechild, S.C.; Vaidya, K.G.

    1982-01-01

    This book provides the first comprehensive and integrated model of the UK energy sector which focuses on decision-making and optimisation rather than on forecasting or simulation. It incorporates the production and investment policy of all the major fuels (coal, oil, gas and electricity) over a fifty year horizon and analyses strategy under a variety of different assumptions about costs, demands, technolgy and future decisions. The authors cover the wide spectrum of energy problems and policy, including scenarios of rising il and gas prices, and there are striking calculations of the (low) costs of a non-nuclear plus conservation strategy. (author)

  16. History magazines in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Haydn, Terry

    2013-01-01

    The paper explores the phenomenon of popular history magazines as a facet of public history. The UK has seen a substantial increase in the number of popular history magazines available to the public, with some magazines reaching high levels of circulation. The paper looks at the range of magazines available – from ‘heritage’ and ‘family’ history, to special interest magazines, and more ‘serious’ and scholarly history magazines. What is it that makes history magazines sell, and what influence ...

  17. Effect of radon baths having a radon concentration of 100 mach units (36. 4 nanocuries/liter) on patients having a deforming osteoarthrosis with myocardial damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsarfis, P G; Kostrova, V D; Gerasimenko, V N; Fiveiskaya, A A

    1974-01-01

    The patients took the radon baths at a temperature of 36/sup 0/C for a period of 15 minutes. The treatment consisted of 14 to 16 baths with a break of one day between baths. After completing the baths, pain in the limbs subsided significantly and disappeared in three-fourths of the patients. Locomotor function improved. Muscle tone increased. Improvement in physical function was noted in 75 out of 80 patients. 3 references. (SJR)

  18. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: background and theory (introduction; fractionation in the hydrosphere; mobility factors; radioisotope evolution and aquifer classification; aquifer disequilibria and geochemical fronts); case studies (introduction; (a) conservative, and (b) non-conservative, behaviour); ground water dating applications (general requirements; radon and helium; radium isotopes; uranium isotopes). (U.K.)

  19. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The great variations in concentrations and activity ratios of 234 U/ 238 U in ground waters and the features causing elemental and isotopic mobility in the hydrosphere are discussed. Fractionation processes and their application to hydrology and other environmental problems such as earthquake, groundwater and aquifer dating are described. (UK)

  20. Introducing wood pellet fuel to the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotton, R A; Giffard, A

    2001-07-01

    Technical and non-technical issues affecting the introduction of wood pellet-fired heating to the UK were investigated with the aim of helping to establish a wood pellet industry in the UK. The project examined the growth and status of the industry in continental Europe and North America, reviewed relevant UK standards and legislation, identified markets for pellet heating in the UK, organised workshops and seminars to demonstrate pellet burning appliances, carried out a trial pelletisation of a range of biomass fuels, helped to set up demonstration installations of pellet-fired appliances, undertook a promotional campaign for wood pellet fuel and compiled resource directories for pellet fuel and pellet burning appliances in the UK. The work was completed in three phases - review, identification and commercialisation. Project outputs include UK voluntary standards for wood pellet fuel and combustion appliances, and a database of individuals with an interest in wood pellet fuel.

  1. Long Term Large Scale river nutrient changes across the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Victoria; Naden, Pam; Tipping, Ed; Davies, Helen; Davies, Jessica; Dragosits, Ulli; Muhammed, Shibu; Quinton, John; Stuart, Marianne; Whitmore, Andy; Wu, Lianhai

    2017-04-01

    During recent decades and centuries, pools and fluxes of Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus (C, N and P) in UK rivers and ecosystems have been transformed by the spread and fertiliser-based intensification of agriculture (necessary to sustain human populations), by atmospheric pollution, by human waste (rising in line with population growth), and now by climate change. The principal objective of the UK's NERC-funded Macronutrients LTLS research project has been to account for observable terrestrial and aquatic pools, concentrations and fluxes of C, N and P on the basis of past inputs, biotic and abiotic interactions, and transport processes. More specifically, over the last 200 years, what have been the temporal responses of plant and soil nutrient pools in different UK catchments to nutrient enrichment, and what have been the consequent effects on nutrient transfers from land to the atmosphere, freshwaters and estuaries? The work described here addresses the second question by providing an integrated quantitative description of the interlinked land and water pools and annual fluxes of C, N and P for UK catchments over time. A national-scale modelling environment has been developed, combining simple physically-based gridded models that can be parameterised using recent observations before application to long timescales. The LTLS Integrated Model (LTLS-IM) uses readily-available driving data (climate, land-use, nutrient inputs, topography), and model estimates of both terrestrial and freshwater nutrient loads have been compared with measurements from sites across the UK. Here, the focus is on the freshwater nutrient component of the LTLS-IM, but the terrestrial nutrient inputs required for this are provided by models of nutrient processes in semi-natural and agricultural systems, and from simple models of nutrients arising from human waste. In the freshwater model, lateral routing of dissolved and particulate nutrients and within-river processing such as

  2. Nutritional knowledge of UK coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockburn, Emma; Fortune, Alistair; Briggs, Marc; Rumbold, Penny

    2014-04-10

    Athletes obtain nutritional information from their coaches, yet their competency in this area is lacking. Currently, no research exists in the UK which has a different coach education system to many other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sports nutrition knowledge of UK coaching certificate (UKCC) level 2 and 3, hockey and netball qualified coaches. All coaches (n = 163) completed a sports nutrition questionnaire to identify: (a) if they provided nutritional advice; (b) their level of sport nutrition knowledge; and (c) factors that may have contributed to their level of knowledge. Over half the coaches provided advice to their athletes (n = 93, 57.1%), even though they were not competent to do so. Coaches responded correctly to 60.3 ± 10.5% of all knowledge questions with no differences between those providing advice and those who did not (p > 0.05). Those coaches who had undertaken formal nutrition training achieved higher scores than those who had not (p sports coaches would benefit from continued professional development in sports nutrition to enhance their coaching practice.

  3. Pub Culture in the U.K.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙鑫

    2015-01-01

    In the U.K., pubs can be seen everywhere. They play an important role in the British society. How pubs came into being in the U.K.? Why is pub culture formed and what makes it prosperous? What effects does pub culture make on British society both in the past and in the present? Does any British character be shown in pub culture in the U.K.? In this paper, I will give a brief in-troduction of pub culture's history and development in the U.K.. Besides, the above questions will be explored and analyzed one by one.

  4. Water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity is without a doubt on of the greatest threats to the human species and has all the potential to destabilise world peace. Falling water tables are a new phenomenon. Up until the development of steam and electric motors, deep groudwater...

  5. Water

    OpenAIRE

    Hertie School of Governance

    2010-01-01

    All human life depends on water and air. The sustainable management of both is a major challenge for today's public policy makers. This issue of Schlossplatz³ taps the streams and flows of the current debate on the right water governance.

  6. The Use of Wetting Agents/Fume Suppressants for Minimizing the Atmospheric Emissions from Hard Chromium Electroplating Baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    PFOA), perfluorooctane sulphonic acid (PFOSA) and clofibric acid . Biochim Biophys Acta 1128: 65-72 Kannan K, Koistinen J, Beckmen K, Evans T...mg/dscm (6.6 x 10-6 gr/dscf) Decorative Chromium Plating Baths Using Chromic Acid All new and existing baths 0.01 mg/dscm (4.4 x 10-6 gr/dscf...surface of the baths, causing the production of chromic acid mist. “Surface active” fume suppressants (also called surfactants) are added directly

  7. Usefulness of implantable loop recorder in a patient with syncope during bathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motohiro Nakao, MD

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A 27-year-old man presented to our hospital with a 1-year-hisory of repeated syncope, which particularly occurred while bathing or on a hot day. The head-up tilt test did not induce arrhythmia; however, blood pressure decreased by 39 mm Hg without any symptoms. Given that no bradycardia/tachycardia was induced on electrophysiological study and carotid sinus massage, an implantable loop recorder (ILR was implanted. After 2 months, syncope again occurred during bathing at midnight. Sinus arrest and a maximum ventricular pause of 10.2 s were documented using the ILR. After pacemaker implantation, the patient had not experienced syncope for 14 months.

  8. Control and optimization of baths for electrodeposition of Co-Mo-B amorphous alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prasad

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimization and control of an electrodeposition process for depositing boron-containing amorphous metallic layer of cobalt-molybdenum alloy onto a cathode from an electrolytic bath having cobalt sulfate, sodium molybdate, boron phosphate, sodium citrate, 1-dodecylsulfate-Na, ammonium sulfate and ammonia or sulfuric acid for pH adjustments has been studied. Detailed studies on bath composition, pH, temperature, mechanical agitation and cathode current density have led to optimum conditions for obtaining satisfactory alloy deposits. These alloys were found to have interesting properties such as high hardness, corrosion resistance, wear resistance and also sufficient ductility. A voltammetric method for automatic monitoring and control of the process has been proposed.

  9. Reduced dynamics in spin-boson models: A method for both slow and fast bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golosov, Andrei A.; Friesner, Richard A.; Pechukas, Philip

    2000-01-01

    We study a model for treating dissipative systems, a one dimensional quantum system coupled to a harmonic bath. The dynamics of such a system can be described by Feynman's path integral expression for the reduced density matrix. In this formulation the interaction of the system with the environment is stored in the influence functional. Recently we showed that fast environmental modes that give rise to correlations in the influence functional which are short range in time can be treated efficiently by a memory equation algorithm, which is a discretized version of a master equation. In this work we extend this approach to treat slow environmental modes as well, thereby efficiently linking adiabatic and nonadiabatic regimes. In this extended method the long range correlations in the influence functional arising from slow bath modes are taken into account through Stock's semiclassical self-consistent-field approach. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  10. PbS Thin Films for Photovoltaic Applications Obtained by Non-Traditional Chemical Bath Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-García Claudia Elena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To optimize cost-efficiency relation for thin film solar cells, we explore the recently developed versions of chemical deposition of semiconductor films, together with classic CBD (Chemical Bath Deposition: SILAR (Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction and PCBD (Photo Chemical Bath Deposition, all of them ammonia-free and ecologically friendly. The films of CdS and PbS were made, and experimental solar cells with CdS window layer and PbS absorber elaborated. We found that band gap of PbS films can be monitored by deposition process due to porosity-induced quantum confinement which depends on the parameters of the process. We expect that the techniques employed can be successfully used for production of optoelectronic devices.

  11. Superconducting-circuit quantum heat engine with frequency resolved thermal baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Patrick P.; Souquet, Jean-René; Clerk, Aashish A.

    The study of quantum heat engines promises to unravel deep, fundamental concepts in quantum thermodynamics. With this in mind, we propose a novel, realistic device that efficiently converts heat into work while maintaining reasonably large output powers. The key concept in our proposal is a highly peaked spectral density in both the thermal baths as well as the working fluid. This allows for a complete separation of the heat current from the working fluid. In our setup, Cooper pairs tunnelling across a Josephson junction serve as the the working fluid, while two resonant cavities coupled to the junction act as frequency-resolved thermal baths. The device is operated such that a heat flux carried entirely by the photons induces an electrical current against a voltage bias, providing work.

  12. Chemical bath deposition of indium sulphide thin films: preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokhande, C.D.; Ennaoui, A.; Patil, P.S.; Giersig, M.; Diesner, K.; Muller, M.; Tributsch, H. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany). Bereich Physikalische Chemie

    1999-02-26

    Indium sulphide (In{sub 2}S{sub 3}) thin films have been successfully deposited on different substrates under varying deposition conditions using chemical bath deposition technique. The deposition mechanism of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films from thioacetamide deposition bath has been proposed. Films have been characterized with respect to their crystalline structure, composition, optical and electrical properties by means of X-ray diffraction, TEM, EDAX, optical absorption, TRMC (time resolved microwave conductivity) and RBS. Films on glass substrates were amorphous and on FTO (flourine doped tin oxide coated) glass substrates were polycrystalline (element of phase). The optical band gap of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin film was estimated to be 2.75 eV. The as-deposited films were photoactive as evidenced by TRMC studies. The presence of oxygen in the film was detected by RBS analysis. (orig.) 27 refs.

  13. Ammonia-free chemical bath method for deposition of microcrystalline cadmium selenide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokhande, C.D.; Lee, Eun-Ho; Jung, Kwang-Deog; Joo, Oh-Shim

    2005-01-01

    Chemical deposition of cadmium selenide (CdSe) films has been carried out from alkaline aqueous solution containing Cd 2+ and Se 2- ions. In general, the alkaline pH of the CdSe deposition bath has been adjusted by addition of liquid ammonia. However, the use of ammonia in large-scale chemical deposition method represents an environmental problem due to its volatility and toxicity. The volatility of ammonia changes the pH of deposition bath and results into irreproducible film properties. In the present paper, ammonia-free and weak alkaline (pH < 9.0) chemical method for cadmium selenide film has been developed. The cadmium selenide films are microcrystalline (grain size 0.5-0.7 μm) with hexagonal crystal structure. These films are photoactive and therefore, useful in photo conversion of light into electrical power

  14. Investigation of CdS/InP heterojunction prepared by chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakovics, V.; Horvath, Zs.J.; Horvath, Zs.E.; Barsony, I.; Frigeri, C.; Besagni, T.

    2007-01-01

    CdS thin films have been deposited on InP and glass substrates using the chemical bath deposition technique. Baths containing CdSO 4 , thiourea, and NH 3 were used. The temperature of the deposition process was 65 C and the duration of deposition varied between 20 and 160 minutes. The properties of the CdS/InP heterojunction were investigated by TEM, EDS and X-ray diffraction. TEM pictures, EDS and X-ray rocking curves indicate the formation of a β-In 2 S 3 transition layer at the InP-CdS interface, which may reduce the lattice mismatch between InP and CdS. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. The Effects of Electroless Nickel Plating Bath Conditions on Stability of Solution and Properties of Deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Jin; Lee, Jae Ho

    2000-01-01

    Electroless depositions of nickel were conducted in different bath conditions to find optimum conditions of electroless nickel plating at low operating temperature and pH. The effect of complexing reagent on stability of plating solution was investigated. Sodium citrate complexed plating solution is more stable than sodium pyrophosphate complexed solution. The effects of nickel salt concentration, reducing agent, complexing agent and inhibitor on deposition rate was investigated. The effects of pH on deposition rate and content of phosphorous in deposited nickel were also analyzed. Electroless deposited nickel become crystallized with increasing pH due to lower phosphorous content. In optimum operating bath condition, deposition rate was 7 μm/hr at 60 .deg. C and pH 10.0 without stabilizer. The rate was decreased with stabilizer concentration

  16. Dynamics of a driven spin coupled to an antiferromagnetic spin bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Xiaozhong; Goan, Hsi-Sheng; Zhu, Ka-Di

    2011-01-01

    We study the behavior of the Rabi oscillations of a driven central spin (qubit) coupled to an antiferromagnetic spin bath (environment). It is found that the decoherence behavior of the central spin depends on the detuning, driving strength, qubit-bath coupling and an important factor Ω, associated with the number of coupled atoms, the detailed lattice structure and the temperature of the environment. If detuning exists, Rabi oscillations may show the behavior of collapses and revivals; however, if detuning is absent, such a behavior will not appear. We investigate the weighted frequency distribution of the time evolution of the central spin inversion and give a reasonable explanation of this phenomenon of collapses and revivals. We also discuss the decoherence and pointer states of the qubit from the perspective of von Neumann entropy. We found that the eigenstates of the qubit self-Hamiltonian emerge as pointer states in the weak system-environment coupling limit.

  17. Genuine three-qubit entanglement from coupling to a heat bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eltschka, Christopher [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Regensburg Univ. (Germany); Braun, Daniel [Universite de Toulouse, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique (IRSAMC), Toulouse (France); CNRS, LPT (IRSAMC), Toulouse (France); Siewert, Jens [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad del Pais Vasco UPV/EHU, Bilbao (Spain); Ikerbasque, Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    Initially unentangled qubits which do not interact which each other can become entangled by interacting with a common heat bath. But with more than two qubits, there exist several inequivalent types of entanglement. Therefore it is an important question which types of entanglement can be generated. While exactly determining and quantifying the entanglement for mixed states of more than two qubits is an unsolved problem, recent advancements based on the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger symmetry allow to determine a good lower bound for the entanglement. By using those methods we show that for three qubits coupled to the same heat bath indeed all types of entanglement can be generated for almost all separable initial states.

  18. Quantum thermodynamics of the resonant-level model with driven system-bath coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughian, Patrick; Esposito, Massimiliano; Schmidt, Thomas L.

    2018-02-01

    We study nonequilibrium thermodynamics in a fermionic resonant-level model with arbitrary coupling strength to a fermionic bath, taking the wide-band limit. In contrast to previous theories, we consider a system where both the level energy and the coupling strength depend explicitly on time. We find that, even in this generalized model, consistent thermodynamic laws can be obtained, up to the second order in the drive speed, by splitting the coupling energy symmetrically between system and bath. We define observables for the system energy, work, heat, and entropy, and calculate them using nonequilibrium Green's functions. We find that the observables fulfill the laws of thermodynamics, and connect smoothly to the known equilibrium results.

  19. Structural analysis of CdS thin films obtained by multiple dips of oscillating chemical bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Lazos, C.D. [Seccion de Electronica del Estado Solido, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Rosendo, E., E-mail: erosendo@siu.buap.m [Centro de Investigacion en Dispositivos Semiconductores, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, 14 Sur y San Claudio, Col. San Manuel, C.P. 72570, Puebla (Mexico); Ortega, M. [Seccion de Electronica del Estado Solido, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Oliva, A.I. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Unidad Merida, A.P. 73 Cordemex, 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Tapia, O.; Diaz, T.; Juarez, H.; Garcia, G. [Centro de Investigacion en Dispositivos Semiconductores, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, 14 Sur y San Claudio, Col. San Manuel, C.P. 72570, Puebla (Mexico); Rubin, M. [Facultad de Ciencias de la Computacion, 14 Sur y San Claudio, Col. San Manuel, C.P. 72570, Puebla (Mexico)

    2009-11-25

    Highly oriented CdS thin films with thicknesses greater than 1 mum were deposited by multiple dips, using oscillating chemical bath deposition (OCBD) at the bath temperature of 75 deg. C, and deposition time ranging from 15 to 75 min for a single dip. Samples with different thickness were prepared by repeating the deposition process for two and three times. The films deposited by a single dip have the alpha-greenockite structure showing the (0 0 2) as preferred orientation, as indicated by the X-ray diffraction measurements. This notable characteristic is preserved in the samples obtained from two or three dips. The crystallite size for the samples deposited by a single dip depends on the deposition time, because it varied from 23 to 37 nm as the deposition time increased. Nevertheless for samples deposited by two and three dips, the grain size shows no noticeable change, being about 22 nm.

  20. Short review on chemical bath deposition of thin film and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mugle, Dhananjay, E-mail: dhananjayforu@gmail.com; Jadhav, Ghanshyam, E-mail: ghjadhav@rediffmail.com [Depertment of Physics, Shri Chhatrapati Shivaji College, Omerga-413606 (India)

    2016-05-06

    This reviews the theory of early growth of the thin film using chemical deposition methods. In particular, it critically reviews the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method for preparation of thin films. The different techniques used for characterizations of the chemically films such as X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Electrical conductivity and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) are discussed. Survey shows the physical and chemical properties solely depend upon the time of deposition, temperature of deposition.

  1. Electrodeposition of CdTe thin film from acetate-based ionic liquid bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldiya, Manmohansingh; Bhagat, Dharini; Mukhopadhyay, Indrajit

    2018-05-01

    CdTe being a direct band gap semiconductor, is mostly used in photovoltaics. Here we present, the synthesis of CdTe thin film on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate potentiostatically using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([Bmim][Ac]) ionic liquid (IL) bath at 90 °C. Major advantages of using electrodeposition involves process simplicity, large scalability & economic viability. Some of the benefits offered by IL electrolytic bath are low vapour pressure, wide electrochemical window, and good ionic mobility. Cd(CH3COO)2 (anhydrous) and TeO2 were used as the source precursors. The IL electrolytic bath temperature was kept at 90 °C for deposition, owing to the limited solubility of TeO2 in [Bmim][Ac] IL at room temperature. Cathodic electrodeposition was carried out using a three electrode cell setup at a constant potential of -1.20 V vs. platinum (Pt) wire. The CdTe/FTO thin film were annealed in argon (Ar) atmosphere. Optical study of nanostructured CdTe film were done using UV-Vis-IR and Raman spectroscopy. Raman analysis confirms the formation of CdTe having surface optics (SO) mode at 160.6 cm-1 and transverse optics (TO) mode at 140.5 cm-1. Elemental Te peaks at 123, 140.5 and 268 cm-1 were also observed. The optical band gap of Ar annealed CdTe thin film were found to be 1.47 eV (absorbance band edge ˜ 846 nm). The optimization of deposition parameters using acetate-based IL electrolytic bath to get nearly stoichiometric CdTe thin film is currently being explored.

  2. Note on the quantum correlations of two qubits coupled to photon baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana, Claudia; Rosas-Ortiz, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    The time-evolution of the quantum correlations between two qubits that are coupled to a pair of photon baths is studied. We show that conditioned transitions occurring in the entire system have influence on the time-evolution of the subsystems. Then, we show that the study of the population inversion of each of the qubits is a measure of the correlations between them that is in agreement with the notion of concurrence. (paper)

  3. Morphology and growth behavior of O_2-free chemical bath deposited ZnS thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jet Meitzner, K.; Tillotson, Brock M.; Siedschlag, Amanda T.; Moore, Frederick G.; Kevan, Stephen D.; Richmond, Geraldine L.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the role of reagent concentrations and ambient O_2 on the morphology and growth behavior of ZnS thin films grown with the chemical bath deposition method. We investigate the role of substrate on film morphology, and find significant differences between films deposited on SiO_2 versus Si. The films are also sensitive to dissolved O_2 in the bath, as it causes a layer of SiO_2 to form at the ZnS/Si interface during deposition. Degassing of solutions and an N_2 atmosphere are effective to minimize this oxidation, allowing deposition of ZnS films directly onto Si. Under these conditions, we examine film properties as they relate to reagent bath concentrations. As the reagent concentrations are decreased, both the film roughness and growth rate decrease linearly. We also observe deformation and shifting of X-ray diffraction peaks that increases with decreasing reagent concentrations. The shifts are characteristic of lattice compression (caused by the substitution of oxygen for sulfur), and the deformation is characteristic of distortion of the lattice near crystal grain interfaces (caused by tensile stress from interatomic forces between neighboring crystal grains). At the weakest concentrations, the low roughness suggests a mixed growth mode in which both clusters and individual ZnS nanocrystallites contribute to film growth. With increasing reagent concentrations, the growth mode shifts and becomes dominated by deposition of clusters. - Highlights: • We deposit ZnS thin films by chemical bath deposition in an O_2-free environment. • The O_2-free environment is effective to minimize oxidation of the Si substrate. • The dominant growth mechanism changes with reagent concentrations. • Film morphology and composition change with reagent concentrations. • X-ray diffraction reveals tensile stress between ZnS crystal grains.

  4. X-ray fluorescence analysis of metal concentration in an alloy electroplating bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hines, R.A.

    1980-06-01

    An energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis system has been developed for rapid, simultaneous analysis of gold and copper concentrations in an aqueous electroplating bath. The speed and repeatability of the system make it well suited for in-process control. Data collection and reduction are automatic. The analysis requires less than 10 minutes from taking the sample to printing the gold and copper concentrations

  5. Beneficial effect of hot spring bathing on stress levels in Japanese macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Rafaela S C; Bercovitch, Fred B; Kinoshita, Kodzue; Huffman, Michael A

    2018-05-01

    The ability of animals to survive dramatic climates depends on their physiology, morphology and behaviour, but is often influenced by the configuration of their habitat. Along with autonomic responses, thermoregulatory behaviours, including postural adjustments, social aggregation, and use of trees for shelter, help individuals maintain homeostasis across climate variations. Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) are the world's most northerly species of nonhuman primates and have adapted to extremely cold environments. Given that thermoregulatory stress can increase glucocorticoid concentrations in primates, we hypothesized that by using an available hot spring, Japanese macaques could gain protection against weather-induced cold stress during winter. We studied 12 adult female Japanese macaques living in Jigokudani Monkey Park, Japan, during the spring birth season (April to June) and winter mating season (October to December). We collected faecal samples for determination of faecal glucocorticoid (fGC) metabolite concentrations by enzyme immunoassay, as well as behavioural data to determine time spent in the hot springs, dominance rank, aggression rates, and affiliative behaviours. We used nonparametric statistics to examine seasonal changes in hot spring bathing, and the relationship between rank and air temperature on hot spring bathing. We used general linear mixed-effect models to examine factors impacting hormone concentrations. We found that Japanese macaques use hot spring bathing for thermoregulation during the winter. In the studied troop, the single hot spring is a restricted resource favoured by dominant females. High social rank had both costs and benefits: dominant females sustained high fGC levels, which were associated with high aggression rates in winter, but benefited by priority of access to the hot spring, which was associated with low fGC concentrations and therefore might help reduce energy expenditure and subsequent body heat loss. This unique

  6. Effects of choline chloride on electrodeposited Ni coating from a Watts-type bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yurong; Yang, Caihong; He, Jiawei; Wang, Wenchang [School of Petrochemical Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Mitsuzak, Naotoshi [Qualtec Co., Ltd, Osaka 590-0906 (Japan); Chen, Zhidong, E-mail: zdchen.lab@gmail.com [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials, Surface and Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Material and Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China)

    2016-05-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • ChCl was applied as additive and conducting salt in Watts-type bath. • Progressive addition of ChCl leads to the crystal orientation (1 1 1) predominant. • The grain size and microhardness were refined and enhanced by increasing ChCl. • ChCl could be a good alternative to NiCl{sub 2} and additives for bright Ni electroplating. - Abstract: Electrodeposition of bright nickel (Ni) was carried out in a Watts-type bath. Choline chloride (ChCl) was applied as a multifunctional additive and substitute for nickel chloride (NiCl{sub 2}) in a Watts-type bath. The function of ChCl was investigated through conductivity tests, anodic polarization, and cathodic polarization experiments. The studies revealed that ChCl performed well as a conducting salt, anodic activator, and cathodic inhibitor. The effects of ChCl on deposition rate, preferred orientation, grain size, surface morphology, and microhardness of Ni coatings were also studied. The deposition rate reached a maximum value of greater than 27 μm h{sup −1} when 20 g L{sup −1} ChCl was introduced to the bath. Using X-ray diffraction, it was confirmed that progressive addition of ChCl promoted the preferred crystal orientation modification from (2 0 0) and (2 2 0) to (1 1 1), refined grain size, and enhanced microhardness. The presence of ChCl lowered the roughness of the coating.

  7. Design of γ measurement system of neutron source strength standard with a manganese sulphate bath method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoqiong; Wang Pan; Chen Mingchi; Zhang Hui

    2010-01-01

    It mostly introduced the hardware and software design and test of Measurement System of Neutron Source Strength Standard with a Manganese Sulphate Bath Method. Hardware of system mainly contains six modules named detector, high voltage source, head amplifier, main amplifier, single channel pulse-amplitude analyzer and data acquisition system. The software program of system data acquisition is made up of four functional modules: user login, parameter setting, data collection, and data saving. (authors)

  8. 2-Mercaptobenzimidazole, 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole, and Thioglycolic Acid in an Electroless Nickel-Plating Bath

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Ozan Gezerman; Burcu Didem Çorbacıoğlu

    2015-01-01

    The use of three different materials, 2-mercaptobenzimidazole, 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, and thioglycolic acid, was investigated to improve the performance of electroless nickel-plating baths. By changing the concentrations of these materials, sample plates were coated. Optical microscope images were obtained by selecting representative coated plates. From the results of the investigations, the effects of these materials on electroless nickel plating were observed, and the most appropriate amo...

  9. Pengaruh viskositas kitosan dari berbagai berat molekul terhadap pembuatan kitosan nanopartikel dengan menggunakan Ultrasonic Bath

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Zuhairiah

    2015-01-01

    The effect of chitosan viscosity from various molecular weight to the making of nano particle chitosan by using ultrasonic bath has been studied. Chitosan is one of the natural polysaccharide obtained from the deacetylation of chitin. Today the applications of chitosan have been very numerous and widespread. The development of chitosan research has also highly developed, one of them by modifying chitosan into the nano-sized one. Many ways to modify chitosan into nanoparticles chitosan. In thi...

  10. Kinetics of Ni–Mo electrodeposition from Ni-rich citrate baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltowska-Lehman, E.; Indyka, P.

    2012-01-01

    The kinetics of Ni–Mo alloy electrodeposition on steel substrates from an aqueous citrate–ammonia complex baths has been investigated by means of steady-state polarisation measurements in a system with a rotating disc electrode (RDE). Partial current densities for discharge of Ni(II) and Mo(VI) ions and hydrogen evolution as a function of molybdate concentration in the bath, cathode potentials and the rate of mass transport were determined. It has been shown that – under all investigated conditions – Ni–Mo alloy deposition is more favourable than pure nickel and the cathodic process is strongly influenced by the Mo(VI) content in the solution. The Ni(II) electroreduction rate initially increases, as the cathode potential shifts towards more negative values and the concentration of molybdate grows in the solution. However, for the highest examined MoO 4 2− content, a considerable decrease in the rate of the process is subsequently observed at certain limit potentials, the values of which depend on molybdate concentration and hydrodynamic conditions. This effect, related to the formation of intermediate molybdenum oxides (characterised by very low overvoltage for hydrogen evolution), becomes less pronounced when the RDE rotation speed is increased. Hydrogen evolution is strongly associated with molybdenum deposition. An increase of the molybdate ions concentration in the bath, as well as an increase in the rate of mass transport, leads to an increase in Mo content in deposits and to the reduction of current efficiency. The Ni–Mo coatings electrodeposited from the designed bath (with the current efficiency of about 70%) containing about 30 wt.% Mo, are characterised by a shiny-grey appearance and good adhesion to the steel substrate. They are characterised by column growth and amorphous microstructure with randomly distributed nanocrystallites of the MoNi 4 intermetallic phase.

  11. Exponential quadratic operators and evolution of bosonic systems coupled to a heat bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Xiaotong; Liu Yuxi; Kwek, L. C.; Wang Xiangbin

    2010-01-01

    Using exponential quadratic operators, we present a general framework for studying the exact dynamics of system-bath interaction in which the Hamiltonian is described by the quadratic form of bosonic operators. To demonstrate the versatility of the approach, we study how the environment affects the squeezing of quadrature components of the system. We further propose that the squeezing can be enhanced when parity kicks are applied to the system.

  12. The effect of sauna bathing on lipid profile in young, physically active, male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryka, Dorota; Pilch, Wanda; Szarek, Marta; Szygula, Zbigniew; Tota, Łukasz

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate effects of Finnish sauna bathing on lipid profile in healthy, young men. Sixteen male subjects (20-23 years) were subjected to 10 sauna bathing sessions in a Finnish sauna every 1 or 2 days. The mean sauna temperature was 90±2°C, while humidity was 5-16%. Each session consisted of three 15-minute parts and a 2-minute cool-down between them. The following measurements were taken before and after the sauna sessions: body mass, heart rate, body skinfold thickness. The percentage fat content and then, the lean body mass were calculated. Total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, lipoprotein cholesterol LDL and HDL were measured in blood samples. A statistically significant decrease of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol was observed during 3 weeks of sauna treatment and in the week afterwards. A significant decline in triacylglycerols was found directly after the 1st and 24 h directly after the 10th sauna session. After the 10th sauna session the level of HDL cholesterol remained slightly increased, but this change was not statistically significant. A decrease in blood plasma volume was found directly after the 1st and the last sauna bathing session due to perspiration. An adaptive increase in blood plasma volume was also found after the series of 10 sauna sessions. Ten complete sauna bathing sessions in a Finnish sauna caused a reduction in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol fraction levels during the sessions and a gradual return of these levels to the initial level during the 1st and the 2nd week after the experiment. A small, statistically insignificant increase in HDL-C level and a transient decline in triacylglycerols were observed after those sauna sessions. The positive effect of sauna on lipid profile is similar to the effect that can be obtained through a moderate-intensity physical exercise.

  13. The effect of sauna bathing on lipid profile in young, physically active, male subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Gryka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate effects of Finnish sauna bathing on lipid profile in healthy, young men. Material and Methods: Sixteen male subjects (20–23 years were subjected to 10 sauna bathing sessions in a Finnish sauna every 1 or 2 days. The mean sauna temperature was 90±2°C, while humidity was 5–16%. Each session consisted of three 15-minute parts and a 2-minute cool-down between them. The following measurements were taken before and after the sauna sessions: body mass, heart rate, body skinfold thickness. The percentage fat content and then, the lean body mass were calculated. Total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, lipoprotein cholesterol LDL and HDL were measured in blood samples. Results: A statistically significant decrease of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol was observed during 3 weeks of sauna treatment and in the week afterwards. A significant decline in triacylglycerols was found directly after the 1st and 24 h directly after the 10th sauna session. After the 10th sauna session the level of HDL cholesterol remained slightly increased, but this change was not statistically significant. A decrease in blood plasma volume was found directly after the 1st and the last sauna bathing session due to perspiration. An adaptive increase in blood plasma volume was also found after the series of 10 sauna sessions. Conclusions: Ten complete sauna bathing sessions in a Finnish sauna caused a reduction in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol fraction levels during the sessions and a gradual return of these levels to the initial level during the 1st and the 2nd week after the experiment. A small, statistically insignificant increase in HDL-C level and a transient decline in triacylglycerols were observed after those sauna sessions. The positive effect of sauna on lipid profile is similar to the effect that can be obtained through a moderate-intensity physical exercise.

  14. Effects of choline chloride on electrodeposited Ni coating from a Watts-type bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yurong; Yang, Caihong; He, Jiawei; Wang, Wenchang; Mitsuzak, Naotoshi; Chen, Zhidong

    2016-05-01

    Electrodeposition of bright nickel (Ni) was carried out in a Watts-type bath. Choline chloride (ChCl) was applied as a multifunctional additive and substitute for nickel chloride (NiCl2) in a Watts-type bath. The function of ChCl was investigated through conductivity tests, anodic polarization, and cathodic polarization experiments. The studies revealed that ChCl performed well as a conducting salt, anodic activator, and cathodic inhibitor. The effects of ChCl on deposition rate, preferred orientation, grain size, surface morphology, and microhardness of Ni coatings were also studied. The deposition rate reached a maximum value of greater than 27 μm h-1 when 20 g L-1 ChCl was introduced to the bath. Using X-ray diffraction, it was confirmed that progressive addition of ChCl promoted the preferred crystal orientation modification from (2 0 0) and (2 2 0) to (1 1 1), refined grain size, and enhanced microhardness. The presence of ChCl lowered the roughness of the coating.

  15. Electrodeposition in the Ni-plating bath containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Baigang; Li Lixiang; Li Hongxi

    2008-01-01

    An electrodeposition procedure is performed in the Ni-plating bath containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). The effects of MWNTs on the electrodeposits and process of Ni deposition are investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electrochemical methods. The results show that there is an optimum concentration of MWNTs, at which the surface of the cathode can be uniformly and completely covered by MWNTs and thus Ni can be uniformly deposited on the MWNTs to form the MWNTs coated with a uniform Ni layer. The introduction of MWNTs in the Ni-plating bath increases the cathodic polarization of Ni deposition due to the two aspects as follows: The addition of MWNTs enhances the charge transfer for the reduction of Ni and also supplies a large active surface area for a great deal of nucleation of Ni, consequently results in an increase of concentration polarization. The deposition of Ni on the MWNTs requires the higher activation energy than that on the Cu. The MWNTs adsorbed on the cathode also induce Ni to deposit as smaller grains due to a large increase of nucleation sites of Ni. Therefore, more uniform and compact coating in appearance than Ni coating formed in the plating bath without MWNTs can be obtained

  16. Thermal equilibrium properties of surface hopping with an implicit Langevin bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, M. C.; Corcelli, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of fewest switches surface hopping (FSSH) approach, where the classical degrees of freedom are coupled to an implicit Langevin bath, to establish and maintain an appropriate thermal equilibrium was evaluated in the context of a three site model for electron transfer. The electron transfer model consisted of three coupled diabatic states that each depends harmonically on the collective bath coordinate. This results in three states with increasing energy in the adiabatic representation. The adiabatic populations and distributions of the collective solvent coordinate were monitored during the course of 250 ns FSSH-Langevin (FSSH-L) simulations performed at a broad range of temperatures and for three different nonadiabatic coupling strengths. The agreement between the FSSH-L simulations and numerically exact results for the adiabatic population ratios and solvent coordinate distributions was generally favorable. The FSSH-L method produces a correct Boltzmann distribution of the solvent coordinate on each of the adiabats, but the integrated populations are slightly incorrect because FSSH does not rigorously obey detailed balance. The overall agreement is better at high temperatures and for high nonadiabatic coupling, which agrees with a previously reported analytical and simulation analysis [J. R. Schmidt, P. V. Parandekar, and J. C. Tully, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 044104 (2008)] on a two-level system coupled to a classical bath

  17. Quantum dynamics of hydrogen atoms on graphene. I. System-bath modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfanti, Matteo; Jackson, Bret; Hughes, Keith H; Burghardt, Irene; Martinazzo, Rocco

    2015-09-28

    An accurate system-bath model to investigate the quantum dynamics of hydrogen atoms chemisorbed on graphene is presented. The system comprises a hydrogen atom and the carbon atom from graphene that forms the covalent bond, and it is described by a previously developed 4D potential energy surface based on density functional theory ab initio data. The bath describes the rest of the carbon lattice and is obtained from an empirical force field through inversion of a classical equilibrium correlation function describing the hydrogen motion. By construction, model building easily accommodates improvements coming from the use of higher level electronic structure theory for the system. Further, it is well suited to a determination of the system-environment coupling by means of ab initio molecular dynamics. This paper details the system-bath modeling and shows its application to the quantum dynamics of vibrational relaxation of a chemisorbed hydrogen atom, which is here investigated at T = 0 K with the help of the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method. Paper II deals with the sticking dynamics.

  18. Nuclear spin bath effects in molecular nanomagnets: Direct quantum mechanical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinitsyn, N. A.; Dobrovitski, V. V.

    2004-11-01

    We investigate the influence of nuclear spins on the electronic spin tunneling in magnetic molecules such as Fe8 , focusing on the role of the spin diffusion in the nuclear spin bath. We simulate the quantum spin dynamics by numerically solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the compound system (the electronic spin plus the bath spins). Our results demonstrate that the effect of the spin bath cannot always be modeled as a randomly varying magnetic field acting on the electronic spin. We consider two dynamical regimes: the spin relaxation in a constant magnetic field, and the spin tunneling in the linearly varying magnetic field passing the avoided level crossing, so-called Landau-Zener-Stückelberg (LZS) transition. For the first regime, we confirmed that the hole in the magnetization distribution has the width of the hyperfine fields distribution. For the second regime, we found that the transition probability for moderately slow sweeps deviates from the standard LZS prediction, while for the fast sweeps the deviation is negligible.

  19. New open source medical imaging tools released by CERN and University of Bath collaboration

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Rassat, KT group

    2016-01-01

    New toolbox has applications in medical imaging and cancer diagnosis.   3D X-ray imaging of a patient’s lungs and thorax. The TIGRE toolbox provides a high resolution image with only 1/30th of the radiation for the patient. (Image: Ander Biguri) CERN and the University of Bath have released a new toolbox for fast, accurate 3D X-ray image reconstruction with applications in medical imaging and cancer diagnosis. The software offers a very simple and affordable way to improve imaging and potentially reduce radiation doses for patients. The toolbox is based on Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT), a type of scanning process that takes a series of 2D X-ray pictures and that then processes them into a 3D image. As part of the collaborative project between CERN and the University of Bath, Ander Biguri, a PhD student at Bath, has reviewed a broad range of published CBCT algorithms and adapted them to be faster. Ander Biguri modified the algorithms to run on a laptop fitted with a GPU &ndash...

  20. Effects of heat and cold on health, with special reference to Finnish sauna bathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Ilkka; Laukkanen, Jari A

    2018-05-01

    Environmental stress such as extremely warm or cold temperature is often considered a challenge to human health and body homeostasis. However, the human body can adapt relatively well to heat and cold environments, and recent studies have also elucidated that particularly heat stress might be even highly beneficial for human health. Consequently, the aim of the present brief review is first to discuss general cardiovascular and other responses to acute heat stress, followed by a review of beneficial effects of Finnish sauna bathing on general and cardiovascular health and mortality as well as dementia and Alzheimer's disease risk. Plausible mechanisms included are improved endothelial and microvascular function, reduced blood pressure and arterial stiffness, and possibly increased angiogenesis in humans, which are likely to mediate the health benefits of sauna bathing. In addition to heat exposure with physiological adaptations, cold stress-induced physiological responses and brown fat activation on health are also discussed. This is important to take into consideration, as sauna bathing is frequently associated with cooling periods in cold(er) environments, but their combination remains poorly investigated. We finally propose, therefore, that possible additive effects of heat- and cold-stress-induced adaptations and effects on health would be worthy of further investigation.