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Sample records for ug g-1 sediment

  1. 46 CFR 54.01-35 - Corrosion (modifies UG- 25).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Corrosion (modifies UG- 25). 54.01-35 Section 54.01-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS General Requirements § 54.01-35 Corrosion (modifies UG- 25). (a) Vessels or portions of vessels subject to...

  2. Sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff R. Hupp; Michael R. Schening

    2000-01-01

    Sedimentation is arguably the most important water-quality concern in the United States. Sediment trapping is cited frequently as a major function of riverine-forested wetlands, yet little is known about sedimcntation rates at the landscape scale in relation to site parameters, including woody vegetation type, elevation, velocity, and hydraulic connection to the river...

  3. Challenges to and proposals for underground gas storage (UGS business in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangxiong Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Underground gas storage (UGS is one of the major storage and peak-shaving means in the world among numerous storage ways via gas fields, small-scale LNG, etc. With the rapid development of natural gas industry in China, the seasonal peak-shaving issues are increasingly prominent, so how to achieve sustainable development of UGS business has become a major problem at present. In view of this, we studied the present status and trend of UGS development abroad and analyzed the following challenges encountered by UGS in China. (1 UGS construction falls behind the world and peak-shaving capacity is insufficient. (2 There is lack of quality gas sources for storage and the complicated geological conditions make the cost of UGS construction high. (3 UGS construction is still at the preliminary stage, so experience is not enough in safety and scientific operation and management. (4 UGS construction, management and operation are not unified as a whole, so its maximum efficiency fails to be exerted. (5 The economic benefit of UGS is difficult to be shown without independent cost accounting. Based on the experience of other countries, some proposals were put forward on UGS development under the actual present situation: to strengthen strategic UGS layout, intensify storage site screening in key areas and steadily promote UGS construction; to establish professional UGS technical and management teams and intensify the research of key technologies; and to set up a complete and rationally-distributed UGS construction, operation and management system.

  4. ASDEX-UG. ASDEX upgrade project proposal. Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-05-01

    The objective of ASDEX UG is to investigate the problems relating to tokamak divertor physics and the boundary layer of hot plasmas which cannot be covered otherwise by either ASDEX or other EUROPEAN tokamaks, including JET, but whose investigation is indispensable for NET and INTOR. The configuration of ASDEX UG is changed as compared with ASDEX due to the requirement that all poloidal field coils are located outside the toroidal field magnet. This leads to a highly elongated D-shaped plasma with an ''open'' divertor, which does not allow to close the divertor chamber by such simple means as in ASDEX. In section 2, the aims of ASDEX UG are repeated briefly and the essential features and parameters of the tokamak system are summarized. The summary includes an overview of the tokamak design, the time schedule of design and construction concluding with the estimated investment cost and manpower required. In section 3 the tokamak system components are treated. The circuits and energy supply for the different electrical components are described in section 4. Auxiliary heating requirements and methods are discussed in section 5. Section 6 presents a survey over the periphery of the tokamak system including preparation of the building and radiation shielding. Section 7 outlines the physical programme. Section 8 is devoted to diagnostics. Finally, the principal concepts for control, data acquisition and handling are outlined in section 9. (orig./AH)

  5. Measurements of reactivity of reactor G1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernot, J.; Koechlin, J.C.; Portes, L.; Teste du Bailler, A.

    1957-01-01

    The various methods used during the physical study of the reactor G1 to determine the variations of the effective multiplication factor consecutive to a given change in the geometry of the multiplying medium, are presented and discussed. The comparison of the results obtained by these various methods has allowed their validity to be tested and precise conditions of use to be given. In the first part are presented the principles used and their ranges of validity. In the second part the experimental results are given, together with some indications on their comparison with theoretical estimations. (author) [fr

  6. Noble magnetic barriers in the ASDEX UG tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Halima; Punjabi, Alkesh; Vazquez, Justin

    2010-02-01

    The second-order perturbation method of creating invariant tori inside chaos in Hamiltonian systems (Ali, H.; Punjabi, A. Plasma Phys. Contr. F. 2007, 49, 1565-1582) is applied to the axially symmetric divertor experiment upgrade (ASDEX UG) tokamak to build noble irrational magnetic barriers inside chaos created by resonant magnetic perturbations (m, n)=(3, 2)+(4, 3), with m and n the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers of the Fourier expansion of the magnetic perturbation. The radial dependence of the Fourier modes is ignored. The modes are considered to be locked and have the same amplitude δ. A symplectic mathematical mapping in magnetic coordinates is used to integrate magnetic field line trajectories in the ASDEX UG. Tori with noble irrational rotational transform are the last ones to be destroyed by perturbation in Hamiltonian systems. For this reason, noble irrational magnetic barriers are built inside chaos, and the strongest noble irrational barrier is identified. Three candidate locations for the strongest noble barrier in ASDEX UG are selected. All three candidate locations are chosen to be roughly midway between the resonant rational surfaces ψ32 and ψ43. ψ is the magnetic coordinate of the flux surface. The three candidate surfaces are the noble irrational surfaces close to the surface with q value that is a mediant of q=3/2 and 4/3, q value of the physical midpoint of the two resonant surfaces, and the q value of the surface where the islands of the two perturbing modes just overlap. These q values of the candidate surfaces are denoted by q MED, q MID, and q OVERLAP. The strongest noble barrier close to q MED has the continued fraction representation (CFR) [1;2,2,1∞] and exists for δ≤2.6599×10-4; the strongest noble barrier close to q MID has CFR [1;2,2,2,1∞] and exists for δ≤4.6311×10-4; and the strongest noble barrier close to q OVERLAP has CFR [1;2,2,6,2,1∞] and exists for δ≤1.367770×10-4. From these results, the strongest

  7. Reactor G1: high power experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laage, F. de; Teste du Baillet, A.; Veyssiere, A.; Wanner, G.

    1957-01-01

    The experiments carried out in the starting-up programme of the reactor G1 comprised a series of tests at high power, which allowed the following points to be studied: 1- Effect of poisoning by Xenon (absolute value, evolution). 2- Temperature coefficients of the uranium and graphite for a temperature distribution corresponding to heating by fission. 3- Effect of the pressure (due to the coiling system) on the reactivity. 4- Calibration of the security rods as a function of their position in the pile (1). 5- Temperature distribution of the graphite, the sheathing, the uranium and the air leaving the canals, in a pile running normally at high power. 6- Neutron flux distribution in a pile running normally at high power. 7- Determination of the power by nuclear and thermodynamic methods. These experiments have been carried out under two very different pile conditions. From the 1. to the 15. of August 1956, a series of power increases, followed by periods of stabilisation, were induced in a pile containing uranium only, in 457 canals, amounting to about 34 tons of fuel. A knowledge of the efficiency of the control rods in such a pile has made it possible to measure with good accuracy the principal effects at high temperatures, that is, to deal with points 1, 2, 3, 5. Flux charts giving information on the variations of the material Laplacian and extrapolation lengths in the reflector have been drawn up. Finally the thermodynamic power has been measured under good conditions, in spite of some installation difficulties. On September 16, the pile had its final charge of 100 tons. All the canals were loaded, 1,234 with uranium and 53 (i.e. exactly 4 per cent of the total number) with thorium uniformly distributed in a square lattice of 100 cm side. Since technical difficulties prevented the calibration of the control rods, the measurements were limited to the determination of the thermodynamic power and the temperature distributions (points 5 and 7). This report will

  8. Applications of Universal Grammar (UG) in the ESL/EFL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwold, Lorne O.

    2007-01-01

    The article proposes Stern's (1983) framework for classifying issues related to instruction in order to ascertain the relevance of Universal Grammar (UG) in the ESL/EFL classroom. Discussed in this article, particularly as UG pertains to them, are issues related to: (a) L1 transfer; (b) teaching rules and giving error correction versus presenting…

  9. Analytical Review of Universal Grammar (UG) Approach on Second Language Acquisition (SLA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwandy

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the analysis of Universal Grammar (UG) approach on Second Language Acquisition (SLA). This paper is significant as the sources for teacher or researcher of the second language since this elaboration is deeply focusing on the use of UG on SLA. The method used in this academic writing is inductive method of…

  10. 46 CFR 54.10-10 - Standard hydrostatic test (modifies UG-99).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard hydrostatic test (modifies UG-99). 54.10-10... PRESSURE VESSELS Inspection, Reports, and Stamping § 54.10-10 Standard hydrostatic test (modifies UG-99). (a) All pressure vessels shall satisfactorily pass the hydrostatic test prescribed by this section...

  11. Measurements of reactivity of reactor G1; Mesures de reactivite sur reacteur G1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernot, J; Koechlin, J C; Portes, L; Teste du Bailler, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    The various methods used during the physical study of the reactor G1 to determine the variations of the effective multiplication factor consecutive to a given change in the geometry of the multiplying medium, are presented and discussed. The comparison of the results obtained by these various methods has allowed their validity to be tested and precise conditions of use to be given. In the first part are presented the principles used and their ranges of validity. In the second part the experimental results are given, together with some indications on their comparison with theoretical estimations. (author) [French] Nous exposons et discutons diverses methodes utilisees, lors de l'etude physique du reacteur G1, pour determiner les variations du facteur de multiplication effectif consecutives a un changement donne dans la geometrie du milieu multiplicateur. La comparaison des resultats obtenus par diverses methodes nous a permis de tester leur validite et d'en preciser les conditions d'emploi. Dans une premiere partie, nous exposons les principes utilises et leurs domaines de validite. Dans une seconde partie nous donnons les resultats experimentaux obtenus avec quelques indications sur leur comparaison avec les estimations theoriques. (auteur)

  12. Reduced hepatic tumor incidence in cyclin G1-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Rugaard; Factor, Valentina M; Fantozzi, Anna

    2003-01-01

    found that the p53 levels in the cyclin G1-deficient mice are 2-fold higher that in wild-type mice. Moreover, we showed that treatment of mice with the alkylating agent 1,4-bis[N,N'-di(ethylene)-phosphamide]piperazine (Dipin), followed by partial hepatectomy, decreased G1-S transition in cyclin G1-null...

  13. 26 CFR 301.6503(g)-1 - Suspension pending correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension pending correction. 301.6503(g)-1 Section 301.6503(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... Collection § 301.6503(g)-1 Suspension pending correction. The running of the periods of limitations provided...

  14. 26 CFR 1.514(g)-1 - Business lease indebtedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....514(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.514(g)-1... to cases such as the following: Example 1. A university pledges some of its investment securities...

  15. Bla g 1 allergen levels in Zagreb area household dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prester, Ljerka; Macan, Jelena

    2011-03-01

    Cockroach allergy is a health problem in many parts of the world. In urban environments, indoor exposure to cockroach allergens involves a risk of asthma. The aim of this study was to measure the mass fraction of Bla g 1, a major allergen of the German cockroach (Blatella germanica) in 30 house samples, collected at random from Zagreb area households, Croatia. Dust samples were collected on cellulose filters by vacuuming living rooms floors. After extraction, Bla g 1 was detected using the commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Only four of the thirty households had detectable Bla g 1 levels, and only in one was its concentration higher than 2.0 U g(-1), the threshold associated with sensitisation. The Bla g 1 ELISA proved highly sensitive, with the detection limit of 0.12 U g(-1). The within- and between-assay imprecision was 8.9 % and 14.4 %, respectively, and accuracy 85 % to 120 %. Low Bla g 1 levels in the household dust support previously reported low prevalence of skin sensitisation to B. germanica among Zagreb residents. Further monitoring should reveal if there are differences in cockroach allergen exposure and sensitisation between households from other geographic areas in Croatia.

  16. Rapid biodegradation of organophosphorus pesticides by Stenotrophomonas sp. G1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Shuyan; Chen, Yao; Wang, Daosheng; Shi, Taozhong; Wu, Xiangwei; Ma, Xin; Li, Xiangqiong; Hua, Rimao; Tang, Xinyun; Li, Qing X.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Stenotrophomonas sp. G1 was isolated from chlorpyrifos contaminated sludge. • Strain G1 is closest to Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila. • Strain G1 can efficiently degrade 8 organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). • Intracellular methyl parathion hydrolase is responsible for the OP degradation. • Three factors were orthogonally optimized for degradation of methyl parathion. - Abstract: Organophosphorus insecticides have been widely used, which are highly poisonous and cause serious concerns over food safety and environmental pollution. A bacterial strain being capable of degrading O,O-dialkyl phosphorothioate and O,O-dialkyl phosphate insecticides, designated as G1, was isolated from sludge collected at the drain outlet of a chlorpyrifos manufacture plant. Physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis suggested that strain G1 belongs to the genus Stenotrophomonas. At an initial concentration of 50 mg/L, strain G1 degraded 100% of methyl parathion, methyl paraoxon, diazinon, and phoxim, 95% of parathion, 63% of chlorpyrifos, 38% of profenofos, and 34% of triazophos in 24 h. Orthogonal experiments showed that the optimum conditions were an inoculum volume of 20% (v/v), a substrate concentration of 50 mg/L, and an incubation temperature in 40 °C. p-Nitrophenol was detected as the metabolite of methyl parathion, for which intracellular methyl parathion hydrolase was responsible. Strain G1 can efficiently degrade eight organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and is a very excellent candidate for applications in OP pollution remediation

  17. Rapid biodegradation of organophosphorus pesticides by Stenotrophomonas sp. G1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Shuyan; Chen, Yao [Key Laboratory of Agri-food Safety of Anhui Province, Lab of Quality & Safety and Risk Assessment for Agro-products on Storage and Preservation (Hefei), Ministry of Agriculture, School of Resource and Environment, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Wang, Daosheng [School of Life Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Shi, Taozhong; Wu, Xiangwei; Ma, Xin; Li, Xiangqiong [Key Laboratory of Agri-food Safety of Anhui Province, Lab of Quality & Safety and Risk Assessment for Agro-products on Storage and Preservation (Hefei), Ministry of Agriculture, School of Resource and Environment, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Hua, Rimao, E-mail: rimaohua@ahau.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Agri-food Safety of Anhui Province, Lab of Quality & Safety and Risk Assessment for Agro-products on Storage and Preservation (Hefei), Ministry of Agriculture, School of Resource and Environment, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Tang, Xinyun [School of Life Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Li, Qing X. [Department of Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1955 East–West Road, Honolulu, HI 957822 (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Stenotrophomonas sp. G1 was isolated from chlorpyrifos contaminated sludge. • Strain G1 is closest to Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila. • Strain G1 can efficiently degrade 8 organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). • Intracellular methyl parathion hydrolase is responsible for the OP degradation. • Three factors were orthogonally optimized for degradation of methyl parathion. - Abstract: Organophosphorus insecticides have been widely used, which are highly poisonous and cause serious concerns over food safety and environmental pollution. A bacterial strain being capable of degrading O,O-dialkyl phosphorothioate and O,O-dialkyl phosphate insecticides, designated as G1, was isolated from sludge collected at the drain outlet of a chlorpyrifos manufacture plant. Physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis suggested that strain G1 belongs to the genus Stenotrophomonas. At an initial concentration of 50 mg/L, strain G1 degraded 100% of methyl parathion, methyl paraoxon, diazinon, and phoxim, 95% of parathion, 63% of chlorpyrifos, 38% of profenofos, and 34% of triazophos in 24 h. Orthogonal experiments showed that the optimum conditions were an inoculum volume of 20% (v/v), a substrate concentration of 50 mg/L, and an incubation temperature in 40 °C. p-Nitrophenol was detected as the metabolite of methyl parathion, for which intracellular methyl parathion hydrolase was responsible. Strain G1 can efficiently degrade eight organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and is a very excellent candidate for applications in OP pollution remediation.

  18. Semigroup Method on a MX/G/1 Queueing Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alim Mijit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By using the Hille-Yosida theorem, Phillips theorem, and Fattorini theorem in functional analysis we prove that the MX/G/1 queueing model with vacation times has a unique nonnegative time-dependent solution.

  19. Putting Ug99 on the map: An update on current and future monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodson, D P; Nazari, K; Park, R F

    2011-01-01

    Detection of stem rust race TTKSK (Ug99) from Uganda in 1998/99 highlighted not only the extremely high vulnerability of the global wheat crop to stem rust but also a lack of adequate global systems to monitor such a threat. Progress in the development and expansion of the Global Cereal Rust...... Monitoring System (GCRMS) is described. The current situation regarding the Ug99 lineage of races is outlined and the potential for expansion into important wheat areas is considered. The GCRMS has successfully tracked the spread and changes that are occurring within the Ug99 lineage and is now well...... capacity for race analysis is seen to be critical and integration of the Global Rust Reference Centre into the stem rust monitoring network is seen as a positive development. The current acute situation with severe epidemics of stripe rust in many countries indicates a clear need for more effective global...

  20. Creation of second order magnetic barrier inside chaos created by NTMs in the ASDEX UG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Halima; Punjabi, Alkesh

    2012-10-01

    Understanding and stabilization of neoclassical tearing modes (NTM) in tokamaks is an important problem. For low temperature plasmas, tearing modes are believed to be mainly driven by current density gradient. For collisionless plasmas, even when plasma is stable to classical tearing modes, helical reduction in bootstrap current in O-point of an island can destabilize NTMs when an initial island is seeded by other global MHD instabilities or when microturbulence triggers the transition from a linear to nonlinear instability. The onset of NTMs leads to the most serious beta limit in ASDEX UG tokamak [O. Gubner et al 2005 NF 39 1321]. The important NTMs in the ASDDEX UG are (m,n)=(3,2)+(4,3)+(1,1). Realistic parameterization of these NTMs and the safety factor in ASDEX UG are given in [O. Dumbrajs et al 2005 POP 12 1107004]. We use a symplectic map in magnetic coordinates for the ASDEX UG to integrate field lines in presence of the NTMs. We add a second order control term [H. Ali and A. Punjabi 2007 PPCF 49 1565] to this ASDEX UG field line Hamiltonian to create an invariant magnetic surface inside the chaos generated by the NTMs. The relative strength, robustness, and resilience of this barrier are studied to ascertain the most desirable noble barrier in the ASDEX UG with NTMs. We present preliminary results of this work, and discuss its implications with regard to magnetic transport barriers for increasing strength of magnetic perturbations. This work is supported by the grants DE-FG02-01ER54624 and DE-FG02-04ER54793.

  1. Targeted introgression of stem rust Ug99 resistance from wheatgrasses into pasta and bread wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past 50 years, a number of stem rust resistance (Sr) genes have been transferred from several wheat-related grasses into durum (i.e. pasta) and bread wheat through chromosome translocations and additions. To utilize these genes for controlling the Ug99 races of the stem rust pathogen, we ini...

  2. The M/G/1 queue with permanent customers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, O.J.; Cohen, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The authors examine an M/G/1 FCFS (first come, first served) queue with two types of customers: ordinary customers, who arrive according to a Poisson process, and permanent customers, who immediately return to the end of the queue after having received a service. The influence of the permanent

  3. Nonparametric inference from the M/G/1 workload

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Bøgsted; Pitts, Susan M.

    2006-01-01

    Consider an M/G/1 queue with unknown service-time distribution and unknown traffic intensity ρ. Given systematically sampled observations of the workload, we construct estimators of ρ and of the service-time distribution function, and we study asymptotoic properties of these estimators....

  4. Nonparametric inference from the M/G/1 workload

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Bøgsted; Pitts, Susan M.

    Consider an M/G/1 queue with unknown service-time distribution and unknown traffic intensity $\\rho$. Given systematically sampled observations of the workload, we construct estimators of $\\rho$ and of the service-time distribution function, and we study asymptotic properties of these estimators....

  5. 26 CFR 1.167(g)-1 - Basis for depreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Basis for depreciation. 1.167(g)-1 Section 1.167... for depreciation. The basis upon which the allowance for depreciation is to be computed with respect... property at that time, is the basis for computing depreciation. [T.D. 6500, 25 FR 11402, Nov. 26, 1960...

  6. Design principles of the yeast G1/S switch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Yang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A hallmark of the G1/S transition in budding yeast cell cycle is the proteolytic degradation of the B-type cyclin-Cdk stoichiometric inhibitor Sic1. Deleting SIC1 or altering Sic1 degradation dynamics increases genomic instability. Certain key facts about the parts of the G1/S circuitry are established: phosphorylation of Sic1 on multiple sites is necessary for its destruction, and both the upstream kinase Cln1/2-Cdk1 and the downstream kinase Clb5/6-Cdk1 can phosphorylate Sic1 in vitro with varied specificity, cooperativity, and processivity. However, how the system works as a whole is still controversial due to discrepancies between in vitro, in vivo, and theoretical studies. Here, by monitoring Sic1 destruction in real time in individual cells under various perturbations to the system, we provide a clear picture of how the circuitry functions as a switch in vivo. We show that Cln1/2-Cdk1 sets the proper timing of Sic1 destruction, but does not contribute to its destruction speed; thus, it acts only as a trigger. Sic1's inhibition target Clb5/6-Cdk1 controls the speed of Sic1 destruction through a double-negative feedback loop, ensuring a robust all-or-none transition for Clb5/6-Cdk1 activity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the degradation of a single-phosphosite mutant of Sic1 is rapid and switch-like, just as the wild-type form. Our mathematical model confirms our understanding of the circuit and demonstrates that the substrate sharing between the two kinases is not a redundancy but a part of the design to overcome the trade-off between the timing and sharpness of Sic1 degradation. Our study provides direct mechanistic insight into the design features underlying the yeast G1/S switch.

  7. Effects of lead-contaminated sediment on Rana sphenocephala tadpoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, D.W.; Krest, S.K.; Ortiz-Santaliestra, M.

    2006-01-01

    We exposed larval southern leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala) to lead-contaminated sediments to determine the lethal and sublethal effects of this metal. Tadpoles were laboratory-raised from early free-swimming stage through metamorphosis at lead concentrations of 45, 75, 180, 540, 2360, 3940, 5520, and 7580 mg/kg dry weight in sediment. Corresponding pore water lead concentrations were 123, 227, 589, 1833, 8121, 13,579, 19,038, and 24,427 ug/L. Tadpoles exposed to lead concentrations in sediment of 3940 mg/kg or higher died within 2 to 5 days of exposure. At lower concentrations, mortality through metamorphosis ranged from 3.5% at 45 mg/kg lead to 37% at 2360 mg/kg lead in sediment. The LC50 value for lead in sediment was 3728 mg/kg (95% CI=1315 to 72,847 mg/kg), which corresponded to 12,539 ug/L lead in pore water (95% CI= 4000 to 35,200 ug/L). Early growth and development were depressed at 2,360 mg/kg lead in sediment (8100 ug/L in pore water) but differences were not evident by the time of metamorphosis. The most obvious effect of lead was its pronounced influence on skeletal development. Whereas tadpoles at 45 mg/kg lead in sediment did not display permanent abnormalities, skeletal malformations increased in frequency and severity at all higher lead concentrations. By 2360 mg/kg, 100% of surviving metamorphs displayed severe spinal problems, reduced femur and humerus lengths, deformed digits, and other bone malformations. Lead concentrations in tissues correlated positively with sediment and pore water concentrations.

  8. Heavy Metals Contamination in Coastal Sediments of Karachi, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, A.; Mumtaz, M.; Zaigham, N. A.; Mallick, K. A.; Saied, S.; Khwaja, H. A.

    2008-12-01

    Toxic compounds such as heavy metals exert chronic and lethal effects in animals, plants, and human health. With the rapid industrialization, urbanization, and economic development in Karachi, heavy metals are continuing to be introduced to estuarine and coastal environment through rivers, runoff and land-based point sources. Pollution in the Karachi coastal region (167 km long) is mainly attributed to Lyari and Malir Rivers flowing through the city of Karachi. Both rivers are served by various channels of domestic and industrial wastes carrying more than 300 million gallons per day untreated effluent of 6000 industries and ultimately drain into the beaches of Arabian Sea. Concentrations of selected heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in surface sediments from eighty-eight sites in Karachi coastal region were studied in order to understand metal contamination due to industrialization, urbanization, and economic development in Karachi. Sediment samples were collected in 2005 and 2006. We have found that heavy metal concentrations in surface sediments varied from 0.006 to 24.3 ug/g for Cd, 5.1 to 95 ug/g for Co, 2.9 to 571 ug/g for Cr, 6.9 to 272 ug/g for Cu, 0.55 to 6.5% for Fe, 1.2 to 318 ug/g for Mn, 7.5 to 75 ug/g for Ni, 6.3 to 121 ug/g for Pb, and 3.3 to 389 ug/g for Zn. Enrichment factors (EFs) were calculated to assess whether the concentrations observed represent background or contaminated levels. The highest levels of metals were found to be at the confluence of the Lyari and Malir River streams at the Arabian Sea, indicating the impact of the effluents of the highly urbanized and industrialized city of Karachi. Furthermore, this study assessed heavy metal toxicity risk with the application of Sediment Quality Guideline (SQG) indices (effect range low/effect range median values, ERL/ERM). Results indicated that the potential toxicity of marine environment can cause adverse biological effects to the biota directly and the human health

  9. Toxicity of lead-contaminated sediment to mute swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, D.D.; Beyer, W.N.; Hoffman, D.J.; Morton, Alexandra; Sileo, L.; Audet, D.J.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Most ecotoxicological risk assessments of wildlife emphasize contaminant exposure through ingestion of food and water. However, the role of incidental ingestion of sediment-bound contaminants has not been adequately appreciated in these assessments. This study evaluates the toxicological consequences of contamination of sediments with metals from hard-rock mining and smelting activities. Lead-contaminated sediments collected from the Coeur d'Alene River Basin in Idaho were combined with either a commercial avian maintenance diet or ground rice and fed to captive mute swans (Cygnus olor) for 6 weeks. Experimental treatments consisted of maintenance or rice diets containing 0, 12 (no rice group), or 24% highly contaminated (3,950 ug/g lead) sediment or 24% reference (9.7 ug/g lead) sediment. Although none of the swans died, the group fed a rice diet containing 24% lead-contaminated sediment were the most severely affected, experiencing a 24% decrease in mean body weight, including three birds that became emaciated. All birds in this treatment group had nephrosis; abnormally dark, viscous bile; and significant (p < 0.05) reductions in hematocrit and hemoglobin concentrations compared to their pretreatment levels. This group also had the greatest mean concentrations of lead in blood (3.2 ug/g), brain (2.2 ug/g), and liver (8.5 ug/g). These birds had significant (alpha = 0.05) increases in mean plasma alanine aminotransferase activity, cholesterol, and uric acid concentrations and decreased plasma triglyceride concentrations compared to all other treatment groups. After 14 days of exposure, mean protoporphyrin concentrations increased substantially, and mean delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity decreased by more than 95% in all groups fed diets containing highly contaminated sediments. All swans fed diets that contained 24% lead-contaminated sediment had renal acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies, which are diagnostic of lead poisoning in waterfowl. Body

  10. Measurement of the proton spin structure function g1p

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pussieux, T.

    1994-10-01

    In order to check the Bjorken sum rule and confirm the EMC surprising conclusion on the spin structure of the proton, the measurement of the spin structure function of the proton has been performed by the Spin Muon Collaboration via the polarized muon nucleon deep inelastic scattering. The results of the 1993 run are presented within a kinematical range of 0.003 2 = 10 GeV 2 . The first moment of the polarized spin structure function g 1 p is found to be two standard deviations below the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule. Assuming SU(3) for hyperons β decays, the quark spin contribution to the proton spin is extracted. Combining all available data on proton, neutron and deuton, The Bjorken sum rule is confirmed within 10%. (author). 25 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  11. ATP binding cassette G1-dependent cholesterol efflux during inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Maria C; Ji, Ailing; Jahangiri, Anisa; Vaughan, Ashley M; de Beer, Frederick C; van der Westhuyzen, Deneys R; Webb, Nancy R

    2011-02-01

    ATP binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) mediates the transport of cellular cholesterol to HDL, and it plays a key role in maintaining macrophage cholesterol homeostasis. During inflammation, HDL undergoes substantial remodeling, acquiring lipid changes and serum amyloid A (SAA) as a major apolipoprotein. In the current study, we investigated whether remodeling of HDL that occurs during acute inflammation impacts ABCG1-dependent efflux. Our data indicate that lipid free SAA acts similarly to apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) in mediating sequential efflux from ABCA1 and ABCG1. Compared with normal mouse HDL, acute phase (AP) mouse HDL containing SAA exhibited a modest but significant 17% increase in ABCG1-dependent efflux. Interestingly, AP HDL isolated from mice lacking SAA (SAAKO mice) was even more effective in promoting ABCG1 efflux. Hydrolysis with Group IIA secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)-IIA) significantly reduced the ability of AP HDL from SAAKO mice to serve as a substrate for ABCG1-mediated cholesterol transfer, indicating that phospholipid (PL) enrichment, and not the presence of SAA, is responsible for alterations in efflux. AP human HDL, which is not PL-enriched, was somewhat less effective in mediating ABCG1-dependent efflux compared with normal human HDL. Our data indicate that inflammatory remodeling of HDL impacts ABCG1-dependent efflux independent of SAA.

  12. Resistance to stem rust Ug99 in six bread wheat cultivars maps to chromosome 6DS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Vera, Eric E; Nelson, Sarah; Singh, Ravi P; Basnet, Bhoja R; Haley, Scott D; Bhavani, Sridhar; Huerta-Espino, Julio; Xoconostle-Cazares, Beatriz G; Ruiz-Medrano, Roberto; Rouse, Matthew N; Singh, Sukhwinder

    2014-01-01

    Identified SSR markers ( Xcfd49 and Xbarc183 ) linked with stem rust resistance for efficient use in marker-assisted selection and stacking of resistance genes in wheat breeding programs. More than 80 % of the worldwide wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) area is currently sown with varieties susceptible to the Ug99 race group of stem rust fungus. However, wheat lines Niini, Tinkio, Coni, Pfunye, Blouk, and Ripper have demonstrated Ug99 resistance at the seedling and adult plant stages. We mapped stem rust resistance in populations derived from crosses of a susceptible parent with each of the resistant lines. The segregation of resistance in each population indicated the presence of a single gene. The resistance gene in Niini mapped to short arm of chromosome 6D and was flanked by SSR markers Xcfd49 at distances of 3.9 cM proximal and Xbarc183 8.4 cM distal, respectively. The chromosome location of this resistance was validated in three other populations: PBW343/Coni, PBW343/Tinkio, and Cacuke/Pfunye. Resistance initially postulated to be conferred by the SrTmp gene in Blouk and Ripper was also linked to Xcfd49 and Xbarc183 on 6DS, but it was mapped proximal to Xbarc183 at a similar position to previously mapped genes Sr42 and SrCad. Based on the variation in diagnostic marker alleles, it is possible that Niini and Pfunye may carry different resistance genes/alleles. Further studies are needed to determine the allelic relationships between various genes located on chromosome arm 6DS. Our results provide valuable molecular marker and genetic information for developing Ug99 resistant wheat varieties in diverse germplasm and using these markers to tag the resistance genes in wheat breeding.

  13. Geology of the U12n.07 UG-3 drill hole, area 12, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, S.S.; Cunningham, M.J.

    1975-11-01

    The U12n.07 UG-3 horizontal drill hole, located near the eastern edge of the center of Rainier Mesa, Nevada Test Site, was drilled to a total depth of 809 m (2,653 ft). This hole was drilled to further evaluate the tunnel-level stratigraph, and structure southwest of the U12n tunnel complex. The drill hole is collared in the middle of Tertiary tunnel bed 3A and penetrates upsection through tunnel beds 3 and 4 and terminates in subunit 4K, all of Tertiary age. Stratigraphy, structure, engineering geology, and physical properties and their relation to tunnel engineering are discussed

  14. Problems of Gas Pressure Build-up in Casing String of UGS and Gas Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Sovius

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of three basic parts. The opening part is a brief description of problems associated with the secondary untightness of UGS wells (Underground Gas Storages and gas wells generally.The main part of the paper is composed of some cases that we have met in our company. Solution proposals of various cases are also supplied in this part. Separate problem situations are described in terms of finding out an untight point and also a testing result and consequential removing of untightness.The conclusion includes knowledge summary that were taken by solution of complicatedsituations connected with well non-hermeticity.

  15. Reactor G1: high power experiments; Experiences a forte puissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laage, F de; Teste du Baillet, A; Veyssiere, A; Wanner, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Retel, H [Societe Rateau, D.E.A. (France)

    1957-07-01

    The experiments carried out in the starting-up programme of the reactor G1 comprised a series of tests at high power, which allowed the following points to be studied: 1- Effect of poisoning by Xenon (absolute value, evolution). 2- Temperature coefficients of the uranium and graphite for a temperature distribution corresponding to heating by fission. 3- Effect of the pressure (due to the coiling system) on the reactivity. 4- Calibration of the security rods as a function of their position in the pile (1). 5- Temperature distribution of the graphite, the sheathing, the uranium and the air leaving the canals, in a pile running normally at high power. 6- Neutron flux distribution in a pile running normally at high power. 7- Determination of the power by nuclear and thermodynamic methods. These experiments have been carried out under two very different pile conditions. From the 1. to the 15. of August 1956, a series of power increases, followed by periods of stabilisation, were induced in a pile containing uranium only, in 457 canals, amounting to about 34 tons of fuel. A knowledge of the efficiency of the control rods in such a pile has made it possible to measure with good accuracy the principal effects at high temperatures, that is, to deal with points 1, 2, 3, 5. Flux charts giving information on the variations of the material Laplacian and extrapolation lengths in the reflector have been drawn up. Finally the thermodynamic power has been measured under good conditions, in spite of some installation difficulties. On September 16, the pile had its final charge of 100 tons. All the canals were loaded, 1,234 with uranium and 53 (i.e. exactly 4 per cent of the total number) with thorium uniformly distributed in a square lattice of 100 cm side. Since technical difficulties prevented the calibration of the control rods, the measurements were limited to the determination of the thermodynamic power and the temperature distributions (points 5 and 7). This report will

  16. Commentary: "An Evaluation of Universal Grammar and the Phonological Mind"-UG Is Still a Viable Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berent, Iris

    2016-01-01

    Everett (2016b) criticizes The Phonological Mind thesis (Berent, 2013a,b) on logical, methodological and empirical grounds. Most of Everett's concerns are directed toward the hypothesis that the phonological grammar is constrained by universal grammatical (UG) principles. Contrary to Everett's logical challenges, here I show that the UG hypothesis is readily falsifiable, that universality is not inconsistent with innateness (Everett's arguments to the contrary are rooted in a basic confusion of the UG phenotype and the genotype), and that its empirical evaluation does not require a full evolutionary account of language. A detailed analysis of one case study, the syllable hierarchy, presents a specific demonstration that people have knowledge of putatively universal principles that are unattested in their language and these principles are most likely linguistic in nature. Whether Universal Grammar exists remains unknown, but Everett's arguments hardly undermine the viability of this hypothesis.

  17. Commentary: “An Evaluation of Universal Grammar and the Phonological Mind”—UG Is Still a Viable Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berent, Iris

    2016-01-01

    Everett (2016b) criticizes The Phonological Mind thesis (Berent, 2013a,b) on logical, methodological and empirical grounds. Most of Everett’s concerns are directed toward the hypothesis that the phonological grammar is constrained by universal grammatical (UG) principles. Contrary to Everett’s logical challenges, here I show that the UG hypothesis is readily falsifiable, that universality is not inconsistent with innateness (Everett’s arguments to the contrary are rooted in a basic confusion of the UG phenotype and the genotype), and that its empirical evaluation does not require a full evolutionary account of language. A detailed analysis of one case study, the syllable hierarchy, presents a specific demonstration that people have knowledge of putatively universal principles that are unattested in their language and these principles are most likely linguistic in nature. Whether Universal Grammar exists remains unknown, but Everett’s arguments hardly undermine the viability of this hypothesis. PMID:27471480

  18. An investigation into breast imaging as part of the undergraduate (UG) education of diagnostic radiography students in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strudwick, R.M.; Taylor, K.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: How mammography is incorporated into undergraduate (UG) radiography training may influence student perception of the speciality and its potential as a future career option. An overview is provided of the academic and clinical content of UG radiography courses relating to mammography across the UK. Methods: Using mixed methods and an iterative, inductive approach supplying quantitative and qualitative data, we identify any variations and discuss possible causes which may help influence future training strategies. A self-designed questionnaire containing open and closed questions was sent online using SurveyMonkey™ to course leaders of all Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) offering BSc (Hons) Diagnostic Radiography courses in the UK. Responses were analysed for trends which were further explored by semi structured telephone interviews. These were transcribed and evaluated using a thematic analysis, the themes being categorised and coded. Results: 19 of 24 (79%) HEIs responded to the questionnaire. Follow up telephone interviews were conducted with five course leaders to further explore themes. Academic teaching ranged from 3 to 25 h over the 3 year course. Compared to other specialities 10 (53%) HEIs spent less time on mammography with 12 (63%) citing HCPC standards as the reason. 11 (65%) HEIs sent students on mammography placements, 2 (12%) sent females only. Placement times ranged between 2 days and 2 weeks. Influences included availability of expert teaching and relationship with clinical departments. Conclusion: There is variation in undergraduate exposure to mammography. Students views should be sought to add validity to these findings - Highlights: • A summary of undergraduate (UG) breast imaging in the UK. • Themes around the delivery of UG breast imaging education in university and practice. • Opinions of UG course leaders and other stakeholders about UG breast imaging education. • There is a variation across UK universities in

  19. The strongest magnetic barrier in the DIII-D tokamak and comparison with the ASDEX UG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Halima; Punjabi, Alkesh

    2013-05-01

    Magnetic perturbations in tokamaks lead to the formation of magnetic islands, chaotic field lines, and the destruction of flux surfaces. Controlling or reducing transport along chaotic field lines is a key challenge in magnetically confined fusion plasmas. A local control method was proposed by Chandre et al. [Nucl. Fusion 46, 33-45 (2006)] to build barriers to magnetic field line diffusion by addition of a small second-order control term localized in the phase space to the field line Hamiltonian. Formation and existence of such magnetic barriers in Ohmically heated tokamaks (OHT), ASDEX UG and piecewise analytic DIII-D [Luxon, J.L.; Davis, L.E., Fusion Technol. 8, 441 (1985)] plasma equilibria was predicted by the authors [Ali, H.; Punjabi, A., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 49, 1565-1582 (2007)]. Very recently, this prediction for the DIII-D has been corroborated [Volpe, F.A., et al., Nucl. Fusion 52, 054017 (2012)] by field-line tracing calculations, using experimentally constrained Equilibrium Fit (EFIT) [Lao, et al., Nucl. Fusion 25, 1611 (1985)] DIII-D equilibria perturbed to include the vacuum field from the internal coils utilized in the experiments. This second-order approach is applied to the DIII-D tokamak to build noble irrational magnetic barriers inside the chaos created by the locked resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) (m, n)=(3, 1)+(4, 1), with m and n the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers of the Fourier expansion of the magnetic perturbation with amplitude δ. A piecewise, analytic, accurate, axisymmetric generating function for the trajectories of magnetic field lines in the DIII-D is constructed in magnetic coordinates from the experimental EFIT Grad-Shafranov solver [Lao, L, et al., Fusion Sci. Technol. 48, 968 (2005)] for the shot 115,467 at 3000 ms in the DIII-D. A symplectic mathematical map is used to integrate field lines in the DIII-D. A numerical algorithm [Ali, H., et al., Radiat. Eff. Def. Solids Inc. Plasma Sc. Plasma Tech. 165, 83

  20. Contamination of Omnivorous Freshwater Fish Species and Sediments by Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niewiadowska Alicja

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence and concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs were determined in 158 muscle samples of bream (Abramis brama and roach (Rutilus rutilus, and 84 samples of sediments collected from 10 river and lake sampling sites in 2011 and 2012. The concentrations of DDTs (p,p’-DDT, o,p’-DDT, p,p’-DDE, and p,p’-DDD, HCH isomers (a-, ß-, and y-HCH, HCB, and PCBs (six indicator PCB congeners 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180 were determined using the capillary gas chromatography. The mean concentrations of DDTs in bream and roach were in the range of 11.2-654 and 4.5-121 ug/kg wet weight respectively, and PCBs were in the range of 1.3-75.9 and 1.1-112 ug/kg wet weight, respectively. Mean concentrations of DDTs and PCBs in sediments were 0.5-270 ug/kg dry weight and ⋋0.1-2.2 ug/kg dry weight respectively. The study showed clear spatial differences in the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in fish and sediments from different aquatic ecosystems. The highest levels of contaminants were detected in fish and sediments from the Vistula River in vicinity of Cracow. The possible risk to the fish meat consumers and ecological risk were evaluated.

  1. Root cause analysis of the fatigue failures of the pulsation dampers of a large underground gas storage (UGS) system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, A.; Lange, D. de; Maljaars, J.; Tenbrock-Ingenhorst, A.; Gottmer, A.

    2014-01-01

    Two large identical 6-cylinder Ariel JGB/6 reciprocating compressors each of 7.5 MW, are used for an underground gas storage system (UGS) plant of RWE Gasspeicher GmbH located in Epe, Germany. The system is in operation since 2005. In 2011 several internals parts (baffle plates and baffle choke

  2. Identification and validation of single nucleotide polymorphic markers linked to Ug99 stem rust resistance in spring wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Eriks. and E. Henn.) is one of the most destructive diseases world-wide. Races belonging to Ug99 (or TTKSK) continue to cause crop losses in East Africa and threaten global wheat production. Developing and deploying wheat varieties with multiple race...

  3. Genomic analysis of a novel gene conferring resistance to Ug99 stem rust in Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat production is threatened by the disease stem rust, which is caused by the biotrophic fungal pathogen Puccinia graminis Pers.:Pers. f. sp. tritici (Pgt). Among all known Pgt races, TTKSK (Ug99) and TRTTF are significant threats to North American wheat production due to their virulence against f...

  4. Identification and characterization of Sr13, a tetraploid wheat gene that confers resistance to the Ug99 stem rust race group

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) Ug99 race group is virulent to most stem rust resistance genes currently deployed in wheat and poses a serious threat to global wheat production. The durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) gene Sr13 confers resistance to Ug99 in addition to virulent rac...

  5. Analysis of the G1 arrest position of senescent WI38 cells by quinacrine dihydrochloride nuclear fluorescence: evidence for a late G1 arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorman, S.D.; Cristofalo, V.J.

    1986-01-01

    Senescence of the human diploid fibroblast-like cell line, W138, is characterized by a loss of proliferative activity and an arrest of cells with a 2C DNA content (G1 or G0). To examine the specific region within G1 in which senescent cells arrest, senescent cells were stained with quinacrine dihydrochloride (QDH) and their nuclear fluorescence was compared with that of young cultures arrested in early and late G1 by serum deprivation and hydroxyurea exposure, respectively. Release of these G1-arrested young cultures from their blocking conditions and timing the kinetics of their entry into the S phase by autoradiographic detection of [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation revealed that serum-deprived cells entered the S phase within 15-18h, whereas hydroxyurea-exposed cells entered the S phase within 1.5h, thus confirming their relative G1-arrest positions. QDH-stained, serum-deprived and hydroxyurea-exposed young cells exhibited relative nuclear fluorescence intensities of 51.7 and 23.9, respectively. Senescent cells exhibited a relative nuclear fluorescence intensity of 17.4, closely resembling the fluorescence of young cultures arrested in late G1 by hydroxyurea exposure. These data support the concept that senescent cells are arrested from further progression in the cell cycle in late G1

  6. Corrosion Test Results for Inconel 600 vs Inconel-Stainless UG Bellows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, P.E.

    2002-01-01

    The Conversion Project (CP) of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involves converting slightly less than 40 kg of 233 U to a stable form for safe storage. The operation is performed within a few vessels interconnected by valves and 1/2-in. metal tubing. During this conversion, a particularly toxic and corrosive by-product is formed, namely aqueous hydrofluoric acid (HF). The production of HF is a result of the hydrolysis of UF 6 and subsequent steam treatments of UO 2 F 2 . For each mole of UF 6 converted, 6 mol of HF are produced. The HF that forms during conversion combines with water to produce approximately 1.5 L of 33 wt % HF. As this mixture is transferred within the process system, the tubing and valves are exposed to high concentrations of HF in liquid and vapor form. Of particular concern in the system are the almost 30 valves that have the potential for exposure to HF. For these valves, a vendor-supplied UG valve was installed. UG valves consist of an Alloy 400 (Monel) body and stem tip and Alloy 600 (Inconel) bellows. These valves have been used under experimental conditions that simulate the CP. It has been established that they have a finite life when exposed to a HF and air environment. Most failures were seen around the flange at the bottom of the bellows, and it was suspected that this flange and the weld material were not Inconel. In December 2001, the vendor confirmed that this flange was not Inconel but instead was stainless steel 316. After discussions between the vendor and ORNL staff involved with the CP effort, it was decided that the entire wetted area of the bellows would be fabricated from Alloy 600. In March 2002, four newly fabricated bellows assemblies were received from the vendor for the purposes of corrosion testing in HF. This report presents results from the corrosion tests conducted to determine if the new design of the bellows would enhance their corrosion resistance

  7. Corrosion Test Results for Inconel 600 vs Inconel-Stainless UG Bellows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, P.E.

    2002-09-11

    The Conversion Project (CP) of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involves converting slightly less than 40 kg of {sup 233}U to a stable form for safe storage. The operation is performed within a few vessels interconnected by valves and 1/2-in. metal tubing. During this conversion, a particularly toxic and corrosive by-product is formed, namely aqueous hydrofluoric acid (HF). The production of HF is a result of the hydrolysis of UF{sub 6} and subsequent steam treatments of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}. For each mole of UF{sub 6} converted, 6 mol of HF are produced. The HF that forms during conversion combines with water to produce approximately 1.5 L of 33 wt % HF. As this mixture is transferred within the process system, the tubing and valves are exposed to high concentrations of HF in liquid and vapor form. Of particular concern in the system are the almost 30 valves that have the potential for exposure to HF. For these valves, a vendor-supplied UG valve was installed. UG valves consist of an Alloy 400 (Monel) body and stem tip and Alloy 600 (Inconel) bellows. These valves have been used under experimental conditions that simulate the CP. It has been established that they have a finite life when exposed to a HF and air environment. Most failures were seen around the flange at the bottom of the bellows, and it was suspected that this flange and the weld material were not Inconel. In December 2001, the vendor confirmed that this flange was not Inconel but instead was stainless steel 316. After discussions between the vendor and ORNL staff involved with the CP effort, it was decided that the entire wetted area of the bellows would be fabricated from Alloy 600. In March 2002, four newly fabricated bellows assemblies were received from the vendor for the purposes of corrosion testing in HF. This report presents results from the corrosion tests conducted to determine if the new design of the bellows would enhance their corrosion resistance.

  8. The protein source in embryo culture media influences birthweight: a comparative study between G1 v5 and G1-PLUS v5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinliang; Li, Ming; Chen, Lixue; Liu, Ping; Qiao, Jie

    2014-07-01

    Does protein source or human serum albumin (HSA) in embryo culture media influence the subsequent birthweight? A significant difference was observed in gestational age- and gender-adjusted birthweight (Z scores) and the proportion of large-for-gestational age (LGA) babies between embryos cultured in G1 v5 and those cultured in G1-PLUS v5 media. It has been reported that the birthweights of singletons born from embryos cultured in Vitrolife are significantly higher than those cultured in the Cook group of media, and that G1-PLUS (Vitrolife, Gothenburg, Sweden) is associated with increased birth and placenta weights compared with Medicult ISMI. This study was a retrospective analysis of neonatal birthweights, and included 1097 singletons born from fresh embryo transfer cycles at the Center for Reproductive Medicine of Peking University Third Hospital between January 2011 and August 2012. The number of singletons born from G1 v5 culture media was 489, and the number of singletons born from G1-PLUS v5 media was 608. Patients media groups. The absolute birthweights for singletons resulting from G1-PLUS v5 were not different from singletons resulting from G1 v5 (3375.9 ± 479.6 g versus 3333.2 ± 491.6 g, respectively; P = 0.14). However the Z scores for singletons from embryos cultured in G1-PLUS v5 were significantly higher than for singletons cultured in G1 v5 (0.28 ± 1.12 versus 0.09 ± 1.15, respectively; P = 0.04), and more LGA babies were born from G1-PLUS v5 culture compared with G1 v5 (16.8 versus 12.1%, respectively; P = 0.03) culture. Finally, multiple linear regression analysis suggested that female weight (P = 0.00), male height (P = 0.04), gestational age at birth (P = 0.00), infant gender (P = 0.00) and culture media (P = 0.04) all had significant effects on the birthweights of singleton newborns. This study was limited by its retrospective design. Our study suggests that protein source/HSA has a significant effect on birthweights of singleton newborns

  9. Cytometry of chromatin bound Mcm6 and PCNA identifies two states in G1 that are separated functionally by the G1 restriction point1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobberger James W

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytometric measurements of DNA content and chromatin-bound Mcm2 have demonstrated bimodal patterns of expression in G1. These patterns, the replication licensing function of Mcm proteins, and a correlation between Mcm loading and cell cycle commitment for cells re-entering the cell cycle, led us to test the idea that cells expressing a defined high level of chromatin-bound Mcm6 in G1 are committed - i.e., past the G1 restriction point. We developed a cell-based assay for tightly-bound PCNA (PCNA* and Mcm6 (Mcm6*, DNA content, and a mitotic marker to clearly define G1, S, G2, and M phases of the cell cycle. hTERT-BJ1, hTERT-RPE-1, and Molt4 cells were extracted with Triton X-100 followed by methanol fixation, stained with antibodies and DAPI, then measured by cytometry. Results Bivariate analysis of cytometric data demonstrated complex patterns with distinct clustering for all combinations of the 4 variables. In G1, cells clustered in two groups characterized by low and high Mcm6* expression. Serum starvation and release experiments showed that residence in the high group was in late G1, just prior to S phase. Kinetic experiments, employing serum withdrawal, and stathmokinetic analysis with aphidicolin, mimosine or nocodazole demonstrated that cells with high levels of Mcm6* cycled with the committed phases of the cell cycle (S, G2, and M. Conclusions A multivariate assay for Mcm6*, PCNA*, DNA content, and a mitotic marker provides analysis capable of estimating the fraction of pre and post-restriction point G1 cells and supports the idea that there are at least two states in G1 defined by levels of chromatin bound Mcm proteins.

  10. Observations on the electronic equipment employed for making measurements on the pile G1; Observations sur le materiel electronique utilise pour les mesures sur la pile G1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ailloud, J; Belin, P; Meunier, A; Tarabella, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    The electronic apparatus employed during the manipulations carried out on the pile G1 is briefly described, with the aim of putting on record the inconveniences encountered in the course of the operation of this equipment. (author) [French] On decrit succinctement l'appareillage electronique utilise durant les manipulations effectuees sur la pile G1, dans le but de noter les inconvenients rencontres au cours de l'exploitation de cet appareillage. (auteur)

  11. The role of unattended ground sensors (UGS) in regional confidence building and arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vannoni, M.; Duggan, R.

    1997-03-01

    Although the Cold War has ended, the world has not become more peaceful. Without the stability provided by an international system dominated by two super-powers, local conflicts are more likely to escalate. Agreements to counter destabilizing pressures in regional conflicts can benefit from the use of cooperative monitoring. Cooperative monitoring is the collecting, analyzing, and sharing of information among parties to an agreement. Ground sensor technologies can contribute to the collection of relevant information. If implemented with consideration for local conditions, cooperative monitoring can build confidence, strengthen existing agreements, and set the stage for continued progress. This presentation describes two examples: the Israeli-Egyptian Sinai agreements of the 1970s and a conceptual example for the contemporary Korean Peninsula. The Sinai was a precedent for the successful use of UGS within the context of cooperative monitoring. The Korean Peninsula is the world`s largest military confrontation. Future confidence building measures that address the security needs of both countries could decrease the danger of conflict and help create an environment for a peace agreement.

  12. Identification, expression and phylogenetic analysis of EgG1Y162 from Echinococcus granulosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengbo; Ma, Xiumin; Zhu, Yuejie; Wang, Hongying; Liu, Xianfei; Zhu, Min; Ma, Haimei; Wen, Hao; Fan, Haining; Ding, Jianbing

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study was to clone, identify and analyze the characteristics of egG1Y162 gene from Echinococcus granulosus. Methods: Genomic DNA and total RNAs were extracted from four different developmental stages of protoscolex, germinal layer, adult and egg of Echinococcus granulosus, respectively. Fluorescent quantitative PCR was used for analyzing the expression of egG1Y162 gene. Prokaryotic expression plasmid of pET41a-EgG1Y162 was constructed to express recombinant His-EgG1Y162 antigen. Western blot analysis was performed to detect antigenicity of EgG1Y162 antigen. Gene sequence, amino acid alignment and phylogenetic tree of EgG1Y162 were analyzed by BLAST, online Spidey and MEGA4 software, respectively. Results: EgG1Y162 gene was expressed in four developmental stages of Echinococcus granulosus. And, egG1Y162 gene expression was the highest in the adult stage, with the relative value of 19.526, significantly higher than other three stages. Additionally, Western blot analysis revealed that EgG1Y162 recombinant protein had good reaction with serum samples from Echinococcus granulosus infected human and dog. Moreover, EgG1Y162 antigen was phylogenetically closest to EmY162 antigen, with the similarity over 90%. Conclusion: Our study identified EgG1Y162 antigen in Echinococcus granulosus for the first time. EgG1Y162 antigen had a high similarity with EmY162 antigen, with the genetic differences mainly existing in the intron region. And, EgG1Y162 recombinant protein showed good antigenicity. PMID:25337206

  13. Identification, expression and phylogenetic analysis of EgG1Y162 from Echinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengbo; Ma, Xiumin; Zhu, Yuejie; Wang, Hongying; Liu, Xianfei; Zhu, Min; Ma, Haimei; Wen, Hao; Fan, Haining; Ding, Jianbing

    2014-01-01

    This study was to clone, identify and analyze the characteristics of egG1Y162 gene from Echinococcus granulosus. Genomic DNA and total RNAs were extracted from four different developmental stages of protoscolex, germinal layer, adult and egg of Echinococcus granulosus, respectively. Fluorescent quantitative PCR was used for analyzing the expression of egG1Y162 gene. Prokaryotic expression plasmid of pET41a-EgG1Y162 was constructed to express recombinant His-EgG1Y162 antigen. Western blot analysis was performed to detect antigenicity of EgG1Y162 antigen. Gene sequence, amino acid alignment and phylogenetic tree of EgG1Y162 were analyzed by BLAST, online Spidey and MEGA4 software, respectively. EgG1Y162 gene was expressed in four developmental stages of Echinococcus granulosus. And, egG1Y162 gene expression was the highest in the adult stage, with the relative value of 19.526, significantly higher than other three stages. Additionally, Western blot analysis revealed that EgG1Y162 recombinant protein had good reaction with serum samples from Echinococcus granulosus infected human and dog. Moreover, EgG1Y162 antigen was phylogenetically closest to EmY162 antigen, with the similarity over 90%. Our study identified EgG1Y162 antigen in Echinococcus granulosus for the first time. EgG1Y162 antigen had a high similarity with EmY162 antigen, with the genetic differences mainly existing in the intron region. And, EgG1Y162 recombinant protein showed good antigenicity.

  14. Application and expression of HSV gG1 protein from a recombinant strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hua; Yan, Huishen; Huang, Tao; Li, Guocai; Gong, Weijuan; Jiao, Hongmei; Chen, Hongju; Ji, Mingchun

    2010-11-01

    According to the homologous sequence of glycoprotein G1 (gG1) genes from different strains of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), a pair of primers was designed to amplify the gG1 gene fragment by PCR. Both the PCR product and the pGEX-4T-1 vector were digested with EcoR I and Sal I. The gG1 gene fragment was subcloned into the digested pGEX-4T-1 vector to construct a recombinant plasmid (pGEX-4T-1-gG1). The resultant plasmid was identified by dual-enzyme digestion and sequence analysis, and then transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 for expression under the induction of isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactoside (IPTG). The expressed GST-gG1 fragment was detected by SDS-PAGE and purified by affinity chromatography. The properties of GST-gG1 fragment were evaluated by immunoblot analysis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on the GST-gG1 fragment were used for determining IgG or IgM to HSV-1. The GST-gG1 fragment-specific ELISA was also compared with ELISA with whole-HSV-1 antigen and commercial ELISA kits. The gG1-specific IgG and IFN-γ producing CD8+ T cells were induced in mice immunized with the GST-gG1 fragment. These results indicated that the GST-gG1 fragment could be used for replacing whole-virus antigen to detect IgM and IgG to HSV-1 in human sera, which provided a strategy for developing vaccines to protect HSV-1 infection using gG1 fragment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The DNA Replication Checkpoint Directly Regulates MBF-Dependent G1/S Transcription▿

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, Chaitali; Patel, Prasanta K.; Rosebrock, Adam; Oliva, Anna; Leatherwood, Janet; Rhind, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    The DNA replication checkpoint transcriptionally upregulates genes that allow cells to adapt to and survive replication stress. Our results show that, in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the replication checkpoint regulates the entire G1/S transcriptional program by directly regulating MBF, the G1/S transcription factor. Instead of initiating a checkpoint-specific transcriptional program, the replication checkpoint targets MBF to maintain the normal G1/S transcriptional program du...

  16. Immunoglobulin G1 Allotype Influences Antibody Subclass Distribution in Response to HIV gp140 Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Kratochvil

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibody subclasses exhibit extensive polymorphisms (allotypes that could potentially impact the quality of HIV-vaccine induced B cell responses. Allotypes of immunoglobulin (Ig G1, the most abundant serum antibody, have been shown to display altered functional properties in regard to serum half-life, Fc-receptor binding and FcRn-mediated mucosal transcytosis. To investigate the potential link between allotypic IgG1-variants and vaccine-generated humoral responses in a cohort of 14 HIV vaccine recipients, we developed a novel protocol for rapid IgG1-allotyping. We combined PCR and ELISA assays in a dual approach to determine the IgG1 allotype identity (G1m3 and/or G1m1 of trial participants, using human plasma and RNA isolated from PBMC. The IgG1-allotype distribution of our participants mirrored previously reported results for caucasoid populations. We observed elevated levels of HIV gp140-specific IgG1 and decreased IgG2 levels associated with the G1m1-allele, in contrast to G1m3 carriers. These data suggest that vaccinees homozygous for G1m1 are predisposed to develop elevated Ag-specific IgG1:IgG2 ratios compared to G1m3-carriers. This elevated IgG1:IgG2 ratio was further associated with higher FcγR-dimer engagement, a surrogate for potential antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP function. Although preliminary, these results suggest that IgG1 allotype may have a significant impact on IgG subclass distribution in response to vaccination and associated Fc-mediated effector functions. These results have important implications for ongoing HIV vaccine efficacy studies predicated on engagement of FcγR-mediated cellular functions including ADCC and ADCP, and warrant further investigation. Our novel allotyping protocol provides new tools to determine the potential impact of IgG1 allotypes on vaccine efficacy.

  17. Rachunek kosztów działańjako podstawa wyceny usług

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertruda Krystyna Świderska

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Artykuł prezentuje wykorzystanie rachunku kosztów działań do wyceny usług na trzech rynkach podlegających centralnym regulacjom – rynku usług pocztowych, telekomunikacyjnych oraz świadczeń zdrowotnych. Doświadczenia krajów Unii Europejskiej (w tym Polski pokazują nowe obszary wykorzystania rachunku kosztów działań. Potwierdzają, że zastosowanie tego narzędzia pozwala na kontrolę kosztów ponoszonych przy świadczeniu usług oraz wycenę na podstawie rzeczywistego rachunku ekonomicznego. Takie podejście gwarantuje przejrzystość procesu wyceny na rynkach, na których odgrywa to szczególnie istotną rolę. W części pierwszej przedstawiono zarys koncepcji rachunku kosztów działań wykorzystanej w PPUP Poczta Polska. Scharakteryzowano zastosowane rozwiązanie dostosowane do specyfiki działań poczty, zawierające elementy obiektowego rachunku kosztów działań oraz rachunku kosztów działań sterowanego czasem. W części drugiej zaprezentowano zastosowanie koncepcji rachunku kosztów działań do wyceny świadczonych usług w British Telecom. Wykorzystanie właściwych nośników kosztów pozwala na prawidłowe przypisanie kosztów obiektom je generującym. W części trzeciej opisano doświadczenia krajów Unii Europejskiej w zakresie stosowania rachunku kosztów działań do wyceny świadczeń medycznych. Stanowią one przesłankę dla wdrożenia tej koncepcji do wyceny usług zdrowotnych na rynku polskim.

  18. Experience gained in two years operation of G1; Experience acquise au cours de deux ans de fonctionnement du reacteur G1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de, Rouville; Pascal, [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Scalliet, [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1958-07-01

    Technical specifications in respect of the first plutonium generating graphite reactor, the G1 at Marcoule, were stated in a paper read at the first Geneva Conference in 1955. We shall not therefore deal further with the technical characteristics of G1 in the present note, but rather propose to define - in the characteristic fields we think will be of major interest to foreign specialists - the results obtained in two and a half years operation since G1 first became critical on january 7, 1956. (author)Fren. [French] Les caracteristiques techniques du premier reacteur plutonigene, au graphite, de Marcoule, G1, ont ete donnees dans une communication presentee a la premiere conference de Geneve, en 1955. Nous n'y reviendrons donc pas dans la presente note qui a pour objet de faire le point, dans quelques domaines caracteristiques, qui nous ont paru les plus susceptibles d'interesser les specialistes etrangers, des resultats obtenus et des experiences faites au cours des deux annees et demi de fonctionnement du reacteur qui ont suivi sa divergence, le 7 janvier 1956. (auteur)

  19. Natural uranium-graphite system. Critial experiments on the G1 reactor; Systeme uranium naturel-graphite. Experiences critiques sur le reacteur G1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, A P; Tanguy, P; Teste du Bailler, A; Zaleski, C P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    A number of experiments have been performed during the start up period of the G1 (1956) and G2 (1958) reactors in Marcoule, both on their lattices and on different lattices (hollow rods, clusters, under moderated lattices). The first chapter gives a thorough description of the two reactors. The second chapter deals with buckling measurements, both absolute (flux plots) and relative by the method of progressive substitution. The experimental results are summarised in Table VI. The third chapter contains a number of other measurements performed on G1. (author)Fren. [French] Le demarrage des reacteurs G1 (1956) et G2 (1958) de Marcoule nous a permis d'effectuer une serie d'experiences tant sur les reseaux de ces piles que sur des reseaux differents (elements tubulaires ou divises, reseaux sous-moderes, etc...). Dans une premiere partie, nous donnons une description detaillee des deux reacteurs. Dans la deuxieme partie, relative aux mesures de laplaciens, nous decrivons d'abord les mesures absolues de laplaciens (cartes de flux), puis les mesures relatives effectuees par la methode originale de remplacement progressif. Les resultats experimentaux sont rassembles dans le tableau VI. Dans la troisieme partie, nous rappelons un certain nombre d'autres mesures effectuees sur G1. (auteur)

  20. A note on negative customers, GI/G/1 workload, and risk processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Boucherie; O.J. Boxma (Onno); K. Sigman

    1996-01-01

    textabstractRecently the workload distribution in the M/G/1 queue with work removal has been analysed, and has been shown to exhibit a generalized Pollaczek-Khintchine form. The latter result is explained in this note by transforming the model into a standard GI/G/1 queue. Some extensions are also

  1. A hyperactive transcriptional state marks genome reactivation at the mitosis–G1 transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, Chris C.-S.; Bartman, Caroline R.; Huang, Peng; Ginart, Paul; Stonestrom, Aaron J.; Keller, Cheryl A.; Face, Carolyne; Jahn, Kristen S.; Evans, Perry; Sankaranarayanan, Laavanya; Giardine, Belinda; Hardison, Ross C.; Raj, Arjun; Blobel, Gerd A.

    2016-01-01

    During mitosis, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and many transcription factors dissociate from chromatin, and transcription ceases globally. Transcription is known to restart in bulk by telophase, but whether de novo transcription at the mitosis–G1 transition is in any way distinct from later in interphase remains unknown. We tracked Pol II occupancy genome-wide in mammalian cells progressing from mitosis through late G1. Unexpectedly, during the earliest rounds of transcription at the mitosis–G1 transition, ∼50% of active genes and distal enhancers exhibit a spike in transcription, exceeding levels observed later in G1 phase. Enhancer–promoter chromatin contacts are depleted during mitosis and restored rapidly upon G1 entry but do not spike. Of the chromatin-associated features examined, histone H3 Lys27 acetylation levels at individual loci in mitosis best predict the mitosis–G1 transcriptional spike. Single-molecule RNA imaging supports that the mitosis–G1 transcriptional spike can constitute the maximum transcriptional activity per DNA copy throughout the cell division cycle. The transcriptional spike occurs heterogeneously and propagates to cell-to-cell differences in mature mRNA expression. Our results raise the possibility that passage through the mitosis–G1 transition might predispose cells to diverge in gene expression states. PMID:27340175

  2. A hyperactive transcriptional state marks genome reactivation at the mitosis-G1 transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, Chris C-S; Bartman, Caroline R; Huang, Peng; Ginart, Paul; Stonestrom, Aaron J; Keller, Cheryl A; Face, Carolyne; Jahn, Kristen S; Evans, Perry; Sankaranarayanan, Laavanya; Giardine, Belinda; Hardison, Ross C; Raj, Arjun; Blobel, Gerd A

    2016-06-15

    During mitosis, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and many transcription factors dissociate from chromatin, and transcription ceases globally. Transcription is known to restart in bulk by telophase, but whether de novo transcription at the mitosis-G1 transition is in any way distinct from later in interphase remains unknown. We tracked Pol II occupancy genome-wide in mammalian cells progressing from mitosis through late G1. Unexpectedly, during the earliest rounds of transcription at the mitosis-G1 transition, ∼50% of active genes and distal enhancers exhibit a spike in transcription, exceeding levels observed later in G1 phase. Enhancer-promoter chromatin contacts are depleted during mitosis and restored rapidly upon G1 entry but do not spike. Of the chromatin-associated features examined, histone H3 Lys27 acetylation levels at individual loci in mitosis best predict the mitosis-G1 transcriptional spike. Single-molecule RNA imaging supports that the mitosis-G1 transcriptional spike can constitute the maximum transcriptional activity per DNA copy throughout the cell division cycle. The transcriptional spike occurs heterogeneously and propagates to cell-to-cell differences in mature mRNA expression. Our results raise the possibility that passage through the mitosis-G1 transition might predispose cells to diverge in gene expression states. © 2016 Hsiung et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  3. Triangular M/G/1-type and tree-like QBD Markov chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Houdt, B.; Leeuwaarden, van J.S.H.

    2009-01-01

    In applying matrix-analytic methods to M/G/1-type and tree-like QBD Markov chains, it is crucial to determine the solution to a (set of) nonlinear matrix equation(s). This is usually done via iterative methods. We consider the highly structured subclass of triangular M/G/1-type and tree-like QBD

  4. Global and local asymptotics for the busy period of an M/G/1 queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denisov, D.E.; Shneer, V.

    2010-01-01

    We consider an M/G/1 queue with subexponential service times. We give a simple derivation of the global and local asymptotics for the busy period. Our analysis relies on the explicit formula for the joint distribution for the number of customers and the length of the busy period of an M/G/1 queue.

  5. The Development of “Eldo Ngano 1”: The World’s World’s First Ug99 Resistant Mutant Wheat Variety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, Brian P.

    2014-01-01

    The wheat black stem rust disease is a virulent race of fungus, Puccinia graminis, which affects wheat plants and is caused by a strain of fungus known as Ug99. Named for its place and year of origin, Ug99 was first discovered on wheat in Uganda in 1999. The spores of this plant disease are airborne and can be easily spread by wind. If not prevented, the disease can destroy 70 to 100 per cent of the yield of wheat crops. Annually on average 8.3 million tonnes of wheat grain is lost to this disease, costing US $1.23 billion per year. Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda are hot spots for this disease. In 2009, growing international concern regarding the horrific impact of Ug99 on wheat led to the establishment of IAEA project INT/5/150, Responding to the Transboundary Threat of Wheat Black Stem Rust (Ug99). This project has involved over 18 countries and 5 national and international institutions, and examined possible mutation induction treatments to deal with the challenges posed by Ug99. Meetings and workshops to facilitate the project efforts have been held in Kenya and Turkey. Ug99 continues to spread globally and has now reached the Islamic Republic of Iran. There are also reports of suspected disease occurrences in Europe. It is essential that work continues on developing mutant lines for further crop protection that can be utilized worldwide to safeguard the wheat crop from this devastating disease

  6. Quantification of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV-UG) in single and mixed infected Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) using quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Saadia; Winter, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The quantity of genomic DNA-A and DNA-B of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic virus Uganda (Uganda variant, EACMV-UG) was analysed using quantitative PCR to assess virus concentrations in plants from susceptible and tolerant cultivars. The concentrations of genome components in absolute and relative quantification experiments in single and mixed viral infections were determined. Virus concentration was much higher in symptomatic leaf tissues compared to non-symptomatic leaves and corresponded with the severity of disease symptoms. In general, higher titres were recorded for EACMV-UG Ca055 compared to ACMV DRC6. The quantitative assessment also showed that the distribution of both viruses in the moderately resistant cassava cv. TMS 30572 was not different from the highly susceptible cv. TME 117. Natural mixed infections with both viruses gave severe disease symptoms. Relative quantification of virus genomes in mixed infections showed higher concentrations of EACMV-UG DNA-A compared to ACMV DNA-A, but a marked reduction of EACMV-UG DNA-B. The higher concentrations of EACMV-UG DNA-B compared to EACMV DNA-A accumulation in single infections were consistent. Since DNA-B is implicated in virus cell-to-cell spread and systemic movement, the abundance of the EACMV-UG DNA-B may be an important factor driving cassava mosaic disease epidemic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhibition of G1-phase arrest induced by ionizing radiation in hematopoietic cells by overexpression of genes involved in the G1/S-phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epperly, M.; Berry, L.; Halloran, A.; Greenberger, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    D-type cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk-4) are likely involved in regulating passage of cells through the G 1 phase of the cell cycle. A decrease in the proportion of cells in G 1 , a relatively radiation-sensitive phase of the cell cycle, should result in increased resistance to ionizing radiation; however, the effect of such overexpression on X-ray-induced G 1 -phase arrest is not known. Radiation survival curves were obtained at a dose rate of either 8 cGy/min or 1 Gy/min for subclones of the IL-3-dependent hematopoietic progenitor cell line 32D cl 3 expressing transgenes for either cyclin-D1, D2 or D3 or cdk-4. We compared the results to those with overexpression of the transgene for Bcl-2, whose expression enhances radiation survival and delays apoptosis. Cells overexpressing transgenes for each D-type cyclin or Bcl-2 had an increased number of cells in S phase compared to parent line 32D cl 3; however, overexpression of cdk-4 had no effect on cell cycle distribution. Cell death resulting from withdrawal of IL-3 was not affected by overexpression of D2, cdk-4 or Bcl-2. Flow cytometry 24 h after 5 Gy irradiation demonstrated that overexpression of each G 1 -phase regulatory transgene decreased the proportion of cells at the G 1 /S-phase border. Western analysis revealed induction of cyclin-D protein levels by irradiation, but no change in the D O , but a significant increase in the rvec n for cyclin-D or cdk-4 transgene-overexpressing clones at 1 Gy/min (P 1 /S-phase arrest. 31 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Role of HLA-G1 in trophoblast cell proliferation, adhesion and invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Feng, E-mail: jiangfeng1161@163.com [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, 569 Xinsi Road, Baqiao District, Xi' an 710038 (China); Zhao, Hongxi [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, 569 Xinsi Road, Baqiao District, Xi' an 710038 (China); Wang, Li [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100853 (China); Guo, Xinyu [Assisted Reproductive Center, General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Guangzhou 510010 (China); Wang, Xiaohong; Yin, Guowu [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, 569 Xinsi Road, Baqiao District, Xi' an 710038 (China); Hu, Yunsheng [Department of Orthopedics, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710038 (China); Li, Yi [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, 569 Xinsi Road, Baqiao District, Xi' an 710038 (China); Yao, Yuanqing, E-mail: yuanqingyaoxa@163.com [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2015-02-27

    Trophoblast cells are important in embryo implantation and fetomaternal tolerance. HLA-G is specifically expressed at the maternal–fetal interface and is a regulator in pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to detect the effect of HLA-G1 on trophoblast cell proliferation, adhesion, and invasion. Human trophoblast cell lines (JAR and HTR-8/SVneo cells) were infected with HLA-G1-expressing lentivirus. After infection, HLA-G1 expression of the cells was detected by western blotting. Cell proliferation was detected by the BrdU assay. The cell cycle and apoptosis of JAR and HTR-8/SVneo cells was measured by flow cytometry (FCM). The invasion of the cells under different conditions was detected by the transwell invasion chamber assay. HLA-G1 didn't show any significant influence on the proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion, and invasion of trophocytes in normal culture conditions. However, HLA-G1 inhibited JAR and HTR-8/SVneo cells invasion induced by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) under normal oxygen conditions. In conditions of hypoxia, HLA-G1 couldn't inhibit the induction of cell invasion by HGF. HLA-G1 is not an independent factor for regulating the trophocytes. It may play an indirect role in embryo implantation and formation of the placenta. - Highlights: • HLA-G1 could not influence trophocytes under normal conditions. • HLA-G1 inhibited cell invasion induced by HGF under normal oxygen condition. • HLA-G1 could not influence cell invasion under hypoxia conditions.

  9. Global phylogeography and genetic diversity of the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto genotype G1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkar, Liina; Laurimäe, Teivi; Acosta-Jamett, Gerardo; Andresiuk, Vanessa; Balkaya, Ibrahim; Casulli, Adriano; Gasser, Robin B; van der Giessen, Joke; González, Luis Miguel; Haag, Karen L; Zait, Houria; Irshadullah, Malik; Jabbar, Abdul; Jenkins, David J; Kia, Eshrat Beigom; Manfredi, Maria Teresa; Mirhendi, Hossein; M'rad, Selim; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Oudni-M'rad, Myriam; Pierangeli, Nora Beatriz; Ponce-Gordo, Francisco; Rehbein, Steffen; Sharbatkhori, Mitra; Simsek, Sami; Soriano, Silvia Viviana; Sprong, Hein; Šnábel, Viliam; Umhang, Gérald; Varcasia, Antonio; Saarma, Urmas

    2018-05-19

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) is the major cause of human cystic echinococcosis worldwide and is listed among the most severe parasitic diseases of humans. To date, numerous studies have investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of E. granulosus s.s. in various geographic regions. However, there has been no global study. Recently, using mitochondrial DNA, it was shown that E. granulosus s.s. G1 and G3 are distinct genotypes, but a larger dataset is required to confirm the distinction of these genotypes. The objectives of this study were to: (i) investigate the distinction of genotypes G1 and G3 using a large global dataset; and (ii) analyse the genetic diversity and phylogeography of genotype G1 on a global scale using near-complete mitogenome sequences. For this study, 222 globally distributed E. granulosus s.s. samples were used, of which 212 belonged to genotype G1 and 10 to G3. Using a total sequence length of 11,682 bp, we inferred phylogenetic networks for three datasets: E. granulosus s.s. (n = 222), G1 (n = 212) and human G1 samples (n = 41). In addition, the Bayesian phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses were performed. The latter yielded several strongly supported diffusion routes of genotype G1 originating from Turkey, Tunisia and Argentina. We conclude that: (i) using a considerably larger dataset than employed previously, E. granulosus s.s. G1 and G3 are indeed distinct mitochondrial genotypes; (ii) the genetic diversity of E. granulosus s.s. G1 is high globally, with lower values in South America; and (iii) the complex phylogeographic patterns emerging from the phylogenetic and geographic analyses suggest that the current distribution of genotype G1 has been shaped by intensive animal trade. Copyright © 2018 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of HLA-G1 in trophoblast cell proliferation, adhesion and invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Feng; Zhao, Hongxi; Wang, Li; Guo, Xinyu; Wang, Xiaohong; Yin, Guowu; Hu, Yunsheng; Li, Yi; Yao, Yuanqing

    2015-01-01

    Trophoblast cells are important in embryo implantation and fetomaternal tolerance. HLA-G is specifically expressed at the maternal–fetal interface and is a regulator in pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to detect the effect of HLA-G1 on trophoblast cell proliferation, adhesion, and invasion. Human trophoblast cell lines (JAR and HTR-8/SVneo cells) were infected with HLA-G1-expressing lentivirus. After infection, HLA-G1 expression of the cells was detected by western blotting. Cell proliferation was detected by the BrdU assay. The cell cycle and apoptosis of JAR and HTR-8/SVneo cells was measured by flow cytometry (FCM). The invasion of the cells under different conditions was detected by the transwell invasion chamber assay. HLA-G1 didn't show any significant influence on the proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion, and invasion of trophocytes in normal culture conditions. However, HLA-G1 inhibited JAR and HTR-8/SVneo cells invasion induced by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) under normal oxygen conditions. In conditions of hypoxia, HLA-G1 couldn't inhibit the induction of cell invasion by HGF. HLA-G1 is not an independent factor for regulating the trophocytes. It may play an indirect role in embryo implantation and formation of the placenta. - Highlights: • HLA-G1 could not influence trophocytes under normal conditions. • HLA-G1 inhibited cell invasion induced by HGF under normal oxygen condition. • HLA-G1 could not influence cell invasion under hypoxia conditions

  11. Synthesis and characterization of supramolecule self-assembly polyami-doamine (PAMAM G1-G1 NH2, CO2H end group Megamer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Louie

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Supramolecule self-assembly polyamidoamine (PAMAM dendrimer refers to the chemical sys-tems made up of a discrete number of assembled molecular subunits or components. These strat-egies involve the covalent assembly of hierarchical components reactive monomers, branch cells or dendrons around atomic or molecular cores according to divergent/convergent dendritic branching principles, systematic filling of space around a core with shells (layers of branch cells. The polydispersity index (PDI for the supramolecule megamer are pretty closed to one, are in agreement with the Poisson probability distribution. Polyamidoamine (PAMAM den-drimer G1-G1 that it was PAMAM Megamer NH2, COOH end groupsynthesized and character-ized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMRspectra and GelPermeation Chromatography (GPC.

  12. Discovery of a Novel Stem Rust Resistance Allele in Durum Wheat that Exhibits Differential Reactions to Ug99 Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaveeramuthu Nirmala

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wheat stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn, can incur yield losses in susceptible cultivars of durum wheat, Triticum turgidum ssp. durum (Desf. Husnot. Although several durum cultivars possess the stem rust resistance gene Sr13, additional genes in durum wheat effective against emerging virulent races have not been described. Durum line 8155-B1 confers resistance against the P. graminis f. sp. tritici race TTKST, the variant race of the Ug99 race group with additional virulence to wheat stem rust resistance gene Sr24. However, 8155-B1 does not confer resistance to the first-described race in the Ug99 race group: TTKSK. We mapped a single gene conferring resistance in 8155-B1 against race TTKST, Sr8155B1, to chromosome arm 6AS by utilizing Rusty/8155-B1 and Rusty*2/8155-B1 populations and the 90K Infinium iSelect Custom bead chip supplemented by KASP assays. One marker, KASP_6AS_IWB10558, cosegregated with Sr8155B1 in both populations and correctly predicted Sr8155B1 presence or absence in 11 durum cultivars tested. We confirmed the presence of Sr8155B1 in cultivar Mountrail by mapping in the population Choteau/Mountrail. The marker developed in this study could be used to predict the presence of resistance to race TTKST in uncharacterized durum breeding lines, and also to combine Sr8155B1 with resistance genes effective to Ug99 such as Sr13. The map location of Sr8155B1 cannot rule out the possibility that this gene is an allele at the Sr8 locus. However, race specificity indicates that Sr8155B1 is different from the known alleles Sr8a and Sr8b.

  13. Final COMPASS results on the spin-dependent structure functions $g_1^p$ and $g_1^d$ in the deep-inelastic and nonperturbative regions

    CERN Document Server

    Badelek, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    This paper summarizes the COMPASS Collaboration legacy on measurements of the proton and deuteron spin-dependent structure functions, $g_1^p$ and $g_1^d$ at $Q^2 1$ (GeV/c)$^2$. In both regions and at the lowest measured $x, g^d_1 (x)$ is consistent with zero while $g^p_1 (x)$ is positive. This is the first time that the spin effects are observed at such low values of $x$. The NLO QCD fit of $g_1$ world data gives well constrained quark helicity distributions; gluons are poorly determined. Quark helicity contribution to nucleon spin is $0.26 < \\Delta \\Sigma < 0.36$. From the COMPASS data alone the Bjorken sum rule is verified to $9\\%$ accuracy and the extracted flavour-singlet axial charge is $a_0 (Q^2 = 3 (\\text{GeV/}c)^2) = 0.32 \\pm 0.02_{stat.} \\pm 0.04_{syst.} \\pm 0.05_{evol.}$.

  14. Moments of the Spin Structure Functions g1p and g1d for 0.05 < Q2 < 3.0 GeV2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prok, Yelena; Bosted, Peter; Burkert, Volker; Deur, Alexandre; Dharmawardane, Kahanawita; Dodge, Gail; Griffioen, Keith; Kuhn, Sebastian; Minehart, Ralph; Adams, Gary; Amaryan, Moscov; Amaryan, Moskov; Anghinolfi, Marco; Asryan, G.; Audit, Gerard; Avagyan, Harutyun; Baghdasaryan, Hovhannes; Baillie, Nathan; Ball, J.P.; Ball, Jacques; Baltzell, Nathan; Barrow, Steve; Battaglieri, Marco; Beard, Kevin; Bedlinskiy, Ivan; Bektasoglu, Mehmet; Bellis, Matthew; Benmouna, Nawal; Berman, Barry; Biselli, Angela; Blaszczyk, Lukasz; Boyarinov, Sergey; Bonner, Billy; Bouchigny, Sylvain; Bradford, Robert; Branford, Derek; Briscoe, William; Brooks, William; Bultmann, S.; Bueltmann, Stephen; Butuceanu, Cornel; Calarco, John; Careccia, Sharon; Carman, Daniel; Casey, Liam; Cazes, Antoine; Chen, Shifeng; Cheng, Lu; Cole, Philip; Collins, Patrick; Coltharp, Philip; Cords, Dieter; Corvisiero, Pietro; Crabb, Donald; Crede, Volker; Cummings, John; Dale, Daniel; Dashyan, Natalya; De Masi, Rita; De Vita, Raffaella; De Sanctis, Enzo; Degtiarenko, Pavel; Denizli, Haluk; Dennis, Lawrence; Dhuga, Kalvir; Dickson, Richard; Djalali, Chaden; Doughty, David; Dugger, Michael; Dytman, Steven; Dzyubak, Oleksandr; Egiyan, Hovanes; Egiyan, Kim; Elfassi, Lamiaa; Elouadrhiri, Latifa; Eugenio, Paul; Fatemi, Renee; Fedotov, Gleb; Feldman, Gerald; Fersch, Robert; Feuerbach, Robert; Forest, Tony; Fradi, Ahmed; Funsten, Herbert; Garcon, Michel; Gavalian, Gagik; Gevorgyan, Nerses; Gilfoyle, Gerard; Giovanetti, Kevin; Girod, Francois-Xavier; Goetz, John; Golovach, Evgeny; Gothe, Ralf; Guidal, Michel; Guillo, Matthieu; Guler, Nevzat; Guo, Lei; Gyurjyan, Vardan; Hadjidakis, Cynthia; Hafidi, Kawtar; Hakobyan, Hayk; Hanretty, Charles; Hardie, John; Hassall, Neil; Heddle, David; Hersman, F.; Hicks, Kenneth; Hleiqawi, Ishaq; Holtrop, Maurik; Huertas, Marco; Hyde, Charles; Ilieva, Yordanka; Ireland, David; Ishkhanov, Boris; Isupov, Evgeny; Ito, Mark; Jenkins, David; Jo, Hyon-Suk; Johnstone, John; Joo, Kyungseon; Juengst, Henry; Kalantarians, Narbe; Keith, Christopher; Kellie, James; Khandaker, Mahbubul; Kim, Kui; Kim, Kyungmo; Kim, Wooyoung; Klein, Andreas; Klein, Franz; Klusman, Mike; Kossov, Mikhail; Krahn, Zebulun; Kramer, Laird; Kubarovsky, Valery; Kuhn, Joachim; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Viacheslav; Lachniet, Jeff; Laget, Jean; Langheinrich, Jorn; Lawrence, Dave; Lima, Ana; Livingston, Kenneth; Lu, Haiyun; Lukashin, K.; MacCormick, Marion; Marchand, Claude; Markov, Nikolai; Mattione, Paul; McAleer, Simeon; McKinnon, Bryan; McNabb, John; Mecking, Bernhard; Mestayer, Mac; Meyer, Curtis; Mibe, Tsutomu; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Mirazita, Marco; Miskimen, Rory; Mokeev, Viktor; Morand, Ludyvine; Moreno, Brahim; Moriya, Kei; Morrow, Steven; Moteabbed, Maryam; Mueller, James; Munevar Espitia, Edwin; Mutchler, Gordon; Nadel-Turonski, Pawel; Nasseripour, Rakhsha; Niccolai, Silvia; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Niczyporuk, Bogdan; Niroula, Megh; Niyazov, Rustam; Nozar, Mina; O' Rielly, Grant; Osipenko, Mikhail; Ostrovidov, Alexander; Park, Kijun; Pasyuk, Evgueni; Paterson, Craig; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Philips, Sasha; Pierce, J.; Pivnyuk, Nikolay; Pocanic, Dinko; Pogorelko, Oleg; Popa, Iulian; Pozdnyakov, Sergey; Preedom, Barry; Price, John; Procureur, Sebastien; Protopopescu, Dan; Qin, Liming; Raue, Brian; Riccardi, Gregory; Ricco, Giovanni; Ripani, Marco; Ritchie, Barry; Rosner, Guenther; Rossi, Patrizia; Rowntree, David; Rubin, Philip; Sabatie, Franck; Salamanca, Julian; Salgado, Carlos; Santoro, Joseph; Sapunenko, Vladimir; Schumacher, Reinhard; Seely, Mikell; Serov, Vladimir; Sharabian, Youri; Sharov, Dmitri; Shaw, Jeffrey; Shvedunov, Nikolay; Skabelin, Alexander; Smith, Elton; Smith, Lee; Sober, Daniel; Sokhan, Daria; Stavinskiy, Aleksey; Stepanyan, Samuel; Stepanyan, Stepan; Stokes, Burnham; Stoler, Paul; Strakovski, Igor; Strauch, Steffen; Suleiman, Riad; Taiuti, Mauro; Tedeschi, David; Tkabladze, Avtandil; Tkachenko, Svyatoslav; Todor, Luminita; Ungaro, Maurizio; V

    2009-02-01

    The spin structure functions $g_1$ for the proton and the deuteron have been measured over a wide kinematic range in $x$ and \\Q2 using 1.6 and 5.7 GeV longitudinally polarized electrons incident upon polarized NH$_3$ and ND$_3$ targets at Jefferson Lab. Scattered electrons were detected in the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer, for $0.05 < Q^2 < 5 $\\ GeV$^2$ and $W < 3$ GeV. The first moments of $g_1$ for the proton and deuteron are presented -- both have a negative slope at low \\Q2, as predicted by the extended Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule. The first result for the generalized forward spin polarizability of the proton $\\gamma_0^p$ is also reported, and shows evidence of scaling above $Q^2$ = 1.5 GeV$^2$. Although the first moments of $g_1$ are consistent with Chiral Perturbation Theory (\\ChPT) calculations up to approximately $Q^2 = 0.06$ GeV$^2$, a significant discrepancy is observed between the $\\gamma_0^p$ data and \\ChPT\\ for $\\gamma_0^p$,even at the lowest \\Q2.

  15. Final COMPASS results on the spin-dependent structure functions $g_1^p$ and $g_1^d$ in the deep-inelastic and nonperturbative regions

    CERN Document Server

    Badelek, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    This paper summarizes the COMPASS Collaboration legacy on measurements of the proton and deuteron spin-dependent structure functions, $g_1^p$ and $g_1^d$ at $Q^2 1$ (GeV/c)$^2$. In both regions and at the lowest measured $x, g^d_1 (x)$ is consistent with zero while $g^p_1 (x)$ is positive. This is the first time that the spin effects are observed at such low values of $x$. The NLO QCD fit of $g_1$ world data gives well constrained quark helicity distributions; gluons are poorly determined. Quark helicity contribution to nucleon spin is $0.26 < \\Delta \\Sigma < 0.36$. From the COMPASS data alone the Bjorken sum rule is verified to $9\\%$ accuracy and the extracted flavour-singlet axial charge is $a_0 (Q^2 = 3 (\\text{GeV/}c)^2) = 0.32 \\pm 0.02_{stat.} \\pm 0.04_{syst.} \\pm 0.05_{evol.}$.

  16. Redox-mediated bypass of restriction point via skipping of G1pm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greene James J

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that cancer cells bypass the restriction point, R, and undergo uncontrolled cell proliferation. Hypothesis and evidence We suggest here that fibrosarcoma cells enter G1ps directly from M, skipping G1pm, hence bypassing R, in response to redox modulation. Evidence is presented from the published literature that demonstrate a shortening of the cycle period of transformed fibroblasts (SV-3T3 compared to the nontransformed 3T3 fibroblasts, corresponding to the duration of G1pm in the 3T3 fibroblasts. Evidence is also presented that demonstrate that redox modulation can induce the CUA-4 fibroblasts to bypass R, resulting in a cycle period closely corresponding to the cycle period of fibrosarcoma cells (HT1080. Conclusion The evidence supports our hypothesis that a low internal redox potential can cause fibrosarcoma cells to skip the G1pm phase of the cell cycle.

  17. The regulation of ras-raf signaling pathway on G1 phase of the irradiated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Dehuang; Dong Bo; Liu Nongle; Wen Gengyun; Luo Qingliang; Mao Bingzhi

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the way of ras-raf signaling pathway which regulate the G 1 phase in irradiated KG-1 cells. Methods: Blocked the GM-CSF signaling pathway by transfected DN-ras and then momentary transfected cyclin D1 into irradiated KG-1 cells, the effects of cyclin D1 on G 1 phase was examined. Results: The irradiated KG-1 cells transfected DN-ras can't recover form G 1 phase arrest even though the GM-CSF was given,momentary transfected cyclin D1 promote the irradiated KG-1 cells from G 1 arrest. Conclusion: Activation of ras-raf signaling pathway regulate the cell cycle of the irradiated KG-1 cells through promotion the expression of the cyclin D1

  18. Modelling M/G/1 queueing systems with server vacations using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simple numerical examples are also provided to illustrate the func- ... M/G/1/N queueing systems with server vacations under a limited service discipline ...... system contents in a discrete-time non-preemptive priority queue with general service.

  19. Measurement of the Proton and Deuteron Spin Structure Function g1 in the Resonance Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, K.; Akagi, T.; Perry Anthony; Antonov, R.; Arnold, R.G.; Todd Averett; Band, H.R.; Bauer, J.M.; Borel, H.; Peter Bosted; Vincent Breton; Button-Shafer, J.; Jian-Ping Chen; T.E. Chupp; J. Clendenin; C. Comptour; K.P. Coulter; G. Court; Donald Crabb; M. Daoudi; Donal Day; F.S. Dietrich; James Dunne; H. Dutz; R. Erbacher; J. Fellbaum; Andrew Feltham; Helene Fonvieille; Emil Frlez; D. Garvey; R. Gearhart; Javier Gomez; P. Grenier; Keith Griffioen; S. Hoeibraten; Emlyn Hughes; Charles Hyde-Wright; J.R. Johnson; D. Kawall; Andreas Klein; Sebastian Kuhn; M. Kuriki; Richard Lindgren; T.J. Liu; R.M. Lombard-Nelsen; Jacques Marroncle; Tomoyuki Maruyama; X.K. Maruyama; James Mccarthy; Werner Meyer; Zein-Eddine Meziani; Ralph Minehart; Joseph Mitchell; J. Morgenstern; Gerassimos Petratos; R. Pitthan; Dinko Pocanic; C. Prescott; R. Prepost; P. Raines; Brian Raue; D. Reyna; A. Rijllart; Yves Roblin; L. Rochester; Stephen Rock; Oscar Rondon-Aramayo; Ingo Sick; Lee Smith; Tim Smith; M. Spengos; F. Staley; P. Steiner; S. St. Lorant; L.M. Stuart; F. Suekane; Z.M. Szalata; Huabin Tang; Y. Terrien; Tracy Usher; Dieter Walz; Frank Wesselmann; J.L. White; K. Witte; C. Young; Brad Youngman; Haruo Yuta; G. Zapalac; Benedikt Zihlmann; Zimmermann, D.

    1997-01-01

    We have measured the proton and deuteron spin structure functions g 1 p and g 1 d in the region of the nucleon resonances for W 2 2 and Q 2 ≅ 0.5 and Q 2 ≅ 1.2 GeV 2 by inelastically scattering 9.7 GeV polarized electrons off polarized 15 NH 3 and 15 ND 3 targets. We observe significant structure in g 1 p in the resonance region. We have used the present results, together with the deep-inelastic data at higher W 2 , to extract Γ(Q 2 ) (triple b ond) ∫ 0 1 g 1 (x,Q 2 ) dx. This is the first information on the low-Q 2 evolution of Gamma toward the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn limit at Q 2 = 0

  20. Evaluation of the hydrometer for testing immunoglobulin G1 concentrations in Holstein colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, L C; Gay, C C; Hancock, D D; Besser, T E

    1994-06-01

    Hydrometer measurement in globulin and IgG1 concentration measured by the radial immunodiffusion technique were compared for 915 samples of first milking colostrum from Holstein cows. Least squares analysis of the relationship between hydrometer measurement and IgG1 concentration was improved by log transformation of IgG1 concentration and resulted in a significant linear relationship between hydrometer measurement and log10 IgG1 concentration; r2 = .469. At 50 mg of globulin/ml of colostrum, the recommended hydrometer cutoff point for colostrum selection, the sensitivity of the hydrometer as a test of IgG1 concentration in Holstein colostrum was 26%, and the negative predictive value was 67%. The negative predictive value and sensitivity of the hydrometer as a test of IgG1 in Holstein colostrum was improved, and the cost of misclassification of colostrum was minimized, when the cutoff point for colostrum selection was increased above the recommended 50 mg/ml.

  1. Cyclin G1 inhibits the proliferation of mouse endometrial stromal cell in decidualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Qian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Uterine stromal cell decidualization is a dynamic physiological process in which cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis are orchestrated and occur in a temporal and cell-specific manner. This process is important for successful embryo implantation. Many cell-cycle regulators are involved in decidualization. The protein cyclin G1 is a unique regulator of the cell cycle with dual functions in cell proliferation. It was reported that cyclin G1 is expressed in mouse uterine stromal cells during the period of peri-implantation. To prove the function of cyclin G1 in mouse uterine stromal cells during this period, immunohistochemistry was used to stain mouse uterine tissues on days 4-8 of pregnancy. The results showed obvious spatial and temporal expression of cyclin G1 in uterine stromal cells, and that it is expressed in the cells of the primary decidual zone (PDZ on day 5 and secondary decidual zone (SDZ on days 6 and 7, when the stromal cells experienced active proliferation and differentiation was initiated. Applying the decidualization model of cultured primary stromal cells in vitro, we further revealed that the expression of cyclin G1 is associated with decidualization of stromal cells induced by medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA and estradiol-17β (E2. RNA interference was used for the knockdown of cyclin G1 in the induced decidual cells. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that the proportion of cells in the S stage was increased, and decreased in the G2/M phase. Our study indicates that cyclin G1, as a negative regulator of the cell cycle, plays an important role in the process of decidualization in mouse uterine stromal cells by inhibiting cell-cycle progression.

  2. Measurement of the thermal utilisation factor of the reactor G1; Mesure du facteur d'utilisation thermique du reacteur G1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roullier, F; Schmitt, A P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    The thermal utilisation factor of the lattice of the reactor G1 has been measured by applying the autoradiographic technique to thin detectors irradiated in the cell. The experimental apparatus is described, and the results compared with those obtained by calculation based on various formulae. The results of the study of the thermal flux distribution in a cell containing a thorium rod of the same diameter as the uranium rods in the lattice are also given. The precision of the measurements is discussed. Value found: f diameter 26 = 0.8949 {+-} 0,005. (author) [French] Le facteur d'utilisation thermique du reseau du reacteur G1 a ete mesure en appliquant la technique de l'autoradiographie a des detecteurs minces irradies dans la cellule. Les dispositifs experimentaux sont decrits et les resultats sont compares a ceux obtenus par le calcul a partir de diverses formules. Les resultats de l'etude de la distribution du flux thermique dans une cellule contenant une barre de thorium de meme diametre que les barres d'uranium du reseau sont egalement indiques. La precision des mesures est discutee. Valeur trouvee: f diametre 26 = 0,8949 {+-} 0,005. (author)

  3. Selection of G1 Phase Yeast Cells for Synchronous Meiosis and Sporulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, David T

    2017-01-01

    Centrifugal elutriation is a procedure that allows the fractionation of cell populations based upon their size and shape. This allows cells in distinct cell cycle stages can be captured from an asynchronous population. The technique is particularly helpful when performing an experiment to monitor the progression of cells through the cell cycle or meiosis. Yeast sporulation like gametogenesis in other eukaryotes initiates from the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Conveniently, S. cerevisiae arrest in G1 phase when starved for nutrients and so withdrawal of nitrogen and glucose allows cells to abandon vegetative growth in G1 phase before initiating the sporulation program. This simple starvation protocol yields a partial synchronization that has been used extensively in studies of progression through meiosis and sporulation. By using centrifugal elutriation it is possible to isolate a homogeneous population of G1 phase cells and induce them to sporulate synchronously, which is beneficial for investigating progression through meiosis and sporulation. An additionally benefit of this protocol is that cell populations can be isolated based upon size and both large and small cell populations can be tested for progression through meiosis and sporulation. Here we present a protocol for purification of G1 phase diploid cells for examining synchronous progression through meiosis and sporulation.

  4. Is there a hard gluonic contribution to the first moment of g1?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodwin, G.T.; Qiu, Jianwei

    1990-01-01

    We show that the size of the hard gluonic contribution to the first moment of the proton's spin-dependent structure function g 1 is entirely a matter of the convention used in defining the quark distributions. If the UV regulator for the spin-dependent quark distributions respects the gauge invariance of Green's functions (allows shifts of loop momenta) and respects the analyticity structure of the unregulated distributions, then the hard gluonic contribution to the first moment of g 1 vanishes. This is the case, for example, in dimensional regularization. By relaxing the requirement that the regulator allow shifts of loop moments, we are able to obtain a nonvanishing hard gluonic contribution to the first moment of g 1 . However, the first moments of the resulting quark distributions correspond to matrix elements that are either gauge variant or involve nonlocal operators and, hence, have no analogue in the standard operator-product expansion. 11 refs., 2 figs

  5. Cdk phosphorylation of the Ste11 transcription factor constrains differentiation-specific transcription to G1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaerulff, Søren; Andersen, Nicoline Resen; Borup, Mia Trolle

    2007-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells normally differentiate from G(1); here we investigate the mechanism preventing expression of differentiation-specific genes outside G(1). In fission yeast, induction of the transcription factor Ste11 triggers sexual differentiation. We find that Ste11 is only active in G(1) when...... Cdk activity is low. In the remaining part of the cell cycle, Ste11 becomes Cdk-phosphorylated at Thr 82 (T82), which inhibits its DNA-binding activity. Since the ste11 gene is autoregulated and the Ste11 protein is highly unstable, this Cdk switch rapidly extinguishes Ste11 activity when cells enter...... S phase. When we mutated T82 to aspartic acid, mimicking constant phosphorylation, cells no longer underwent differentiation. Conversely, changing T82 to alanine rendered Ste11-controlled transcription constitutive through the cell cycle, and allowed mating from S phase with increased frequency...

  6. Hydroxyurea does not prevent synchronized G1 Chinese hamster cells from entering the DNA synthetic period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, R.A.; Tobey, R.A.; Hildebrand, C.E.

    1976-01-01

    Using very high concentrations of radioactively labeled thymidine, we show that synchronized G 1 cells treated with hydroxyurea entered the DNA synthetic period at a time and rate indistinguishable from that of untreated cells, although the rate of DNA synthesis was greatly reduced in the drug-treated cultures. The DNA synthesized in the presence of hydroxyurea was less than or equal to 1 x 10 7 daltons, all of which could be chased into bulk DNA of approximately 3.5 x 10 8 daltons within 3 hr after removal of hydroxyurea. Hydroxyurea synchronized cells are apparently not blocked at the G 1 /S boundary but in the S phase itself

  7. Measurement of the temperature of the neutrons in reactor G1; Mesure de la temperature des neutrons dans la pile G1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raievski, V; Sautiez, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    A precise experimental method has been adapted to the analysis of the spectrum of neutrons in the thermal region. This method uses the technique of modulation applied to a beam of neutrons issuing from a characteristic point in the pile. The analysis of the spectrum is made by adjusting, by the method of least squares, an analytical form to the experimental results. In this report are given the results obtained with a beam from the centre of the moderator of G1. The spectrum of this beam essentially represents the spectrum of the neutrons in the moderator. The most probable velocity was determined by means of Maxwell's functions. The measurements were made of different moderator temperatures between 304 deg. K and 435 deg. K. (author) [French] Une methode experimentale precise a ete mise au point pour l'analyse du spectre des neutrons dans le domaine thermique. Cette methode utilise la technique de la modulation appliquee a un faisceau de neutrons issu d'un point caracteristique de la pile. L'analyse du spectre est faite en ajustant par la methode des moindres carres une forme analytique aux resultats experimentaux. Dans ce rapport, on donne les resultats obtenus sur un faisceau du centre du moderateur de G1. Le spectre de ce faisceau represente convenablement le spectre des neutrons dans le moderateur. On s'est limite ici a une fonction de Maxwell dont on a recherche la vitesse la plus probable. Les mesures ont ete faites avec une temperature du moderateur variant entre 304 deg. K et 435 deg. K. (auteur)

  8. New Seeds are Resistant to Wheat Stem Rust (Ug99) Multinational Programme Supported by FAO and IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Full text: A multinational effort supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization marked a key milestone this week when a Kenyan university debuted two new varieties of disease-resistant wheat to the nation's farmers. Over the past two days, thousands of Kenyan farmers have visited Eldoret University in western Kenya for a two-day agriculture fair highlighting the latest farming technologies. Supporting the development of the new varieties were the IAEA's Technical Cooperation Department and the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. They manage an interregional Technical Cooperation project to develop varieties of wheat that are resistant to a devastating type of fungus, causing a disease known as wheat stem rust. Wheat stem rust under control for over 30 years, but a resurgence of the disease was discovered in 1999 in Uganda that swiftly spread to neighbouring Kenya. The wheat stem rust, caused by the strain of the fungus known as Ug99, named after its place and year of origin, has since spread to Iran, Yemen and South Africa and threatens crops as far away as India as spores are carried by wind. Parasitic rusts threaten global wheat production, reducing plant growth and crop yields. The disease can destroy up to 70-100 percent of the yield of wheat crop if not prevented. 'Improving food security in developing countries through the use of nuclear techniques is an important priority of the IAEA', said IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano. 'I am pleased that we have been able to make an important contribution to fighting wheat rust'. 'Wheat rusts, particularly the Ug99 strain, are a major threat to food security because rust epidemics can result in devastating yield losses. This international project involving affected countries, plant scientists and breeders and international organizations is a major breakthrough. It clearly shows the benefits of FAO/IAEA collaboration and that

  9. The DNA replication checkpoint directly regulates MBF-dependent G1/S transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Chaitali; Patel, Prasanta K; Rosebrock, Adam; Oliva, Anna; Leatherwood, Janet; Rhind, Nicholas

    2008-10-01

    The DNA replication checkpoint transcriptionally upregulates genes that allow cells to adapt to and survive replication stress. Our results show that, in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the replication checkpoint regulates the entire G(1)/S transcriptional program by directly regulating MBF, the G(1)/S transcription factor. Instead of initiating a checkpoint-specific transcriptional program, the replication checkpoint targets MBF to maintain the normal G(1)/S transcriptional program during replication stress. We propose a mechanism for this regulation, based on in vitro phosphorylation of the Cdc10 subunit of MBF by the Cds1 replication-checkpoint kinase. Replacement of two potential phosphorylation sites with phosphomimetic amino acids suffices to promote the checkpoint transcriptional program, suggesting that Cds1 phosphorylation directly regulates MBF-dependent transcription. The conservation of MBF between fission and budding yeast, and recent results implicating MBF as a target of the budding yeast replication checkpoint, suggests that checkpoint regulation of the MBF transcription factor is a conserved strategy for coping with replication stress. Furthermore, the structural and regulatory similarity between MBF and E2F, the metazoan G(1)/S transcription factor, suggests that this checkpoint mechanism may be broadly conserved among eukaryotes.

  10. Sojourn times in the M/G/1 FB queue with light-tailed service times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R.H. Mandjes (Michel); M. Nuyens

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe asymptotic decay rate of the sojourn time of a customer in the stationary M/G/1 queue under the Foreground-Background (FB) service discipline is studied. The FB discipline gives service to those customers that have received the least service so far. We prove that for light-tailed

  11. The Remaining Service Time Upon Reaching a High Level in M/G/1 Queues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk; Nicola, V.F.; van Ommeren, Jan C.W.

    The distribution of the remaining service time upon reaching some target level in an M/G/1 queue is of theoretical as well as practical interest. In general, this distribution depends on the initial level as well as on the target level, say, B. Two initial levels are of particular interest, namely,

  12. The spin dependent structure function g1 of the deuteron and the proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klostermann, L.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis presents a study on the spin structure of the nucleon, via deep inelastic scattering (DIS) of polarised nuons on polarised proton and deuterium targets. The work was done in the Spin Muon Collaboration (SMC) at CERN in Geneva. From the asymmetry in the scattering cross section for nucleon and lepton spins parallel and anti-parallel, one con determine the spin dependent structure function g 1 , which contains information on the quark and gluon spin distribution functions. The interpretation in the frame work of the quark parton model (QPM) of earlier results on g 1 p by the European Muon Collaboration (EMC), gave an indication that only a small fraction of the proton spin, compatible with zero, is carried by the spins of the constituent quarks. The SMC was set up to check this unexpected result with improved accuracy, and to combine measurements of g 1 p and g 1 d to test a fundamental sum rule in quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the Bjorken sum rule. (orig./WL)

  13. Analysis of an M/G/1 queue with customer impatience and an adaptive arrival process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, O.J.; Prabhu, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    We study an M/G/1 queue with impatience and an adaptive arrival process. The rate of the arrival process changes according to whether an incoming customer is accepted or rejected. We analyse two different models for impatience : (i) based on workload, and (ii) based on queue length. For the

  14. Solid-phase synthesis and biological activity of a thioether analogue of conotoxin G1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Jon; Grunnet, Morten; Jespersen, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    of two isomers, which were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the muscular nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The two isomers were found to have IC(50) values (inhibitory activities) of 144 microM and 48 microM, compared to 0.18 microM for native conotoxin G1....

  15. The M/G/1 queue with quasi-restricted accessibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, O.J.; Perry, D.; Stadje, W.; Zacks, S.

    2009-01-01

    We consider single-server queues of the M/G/1 kind with a special kind of partial customer rejection called quasi-restricted accessibility (QRA). Under QRA, the actual service time assigned to an arriving customer depends on his service requirement, say x, the current workload, say w, and a

  16. 26 CFR 1.430(g)-1 - Valuation date and valuation of plan assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the adjusted fair market value of plan assets, assets that are added to a plan as a result of a plan... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Certain Stock Options § 1.430(g)-1 Valuation date and.... Paragraph (c) of this section describes rules regarding the determination of the asset value for purposes of...

  17. Apparatus of irradiation of steel test pieces in the Marcoule pile G 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinot, R.; Wallet, Ph.

    1960-01-01

    Test pieces of steel were irradiated in the reactor G1 at Marcoule, in convectors replacing fuel elements, and in vertical channels in furnace-heated containers. The apparatus designed for this irradiation is described: containers, converter-rods, suspension fixtures and clamps, temperature measurement devices, lead castles and unloading set-ups. (author) [fr

  18. Human IgG1 antibodies suppress angiogenesis in a target-independent manner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogdanovich, Sasha; Kim, Younghee; Mizutani, Takeshi; Yasuma, Reo; Tudisco, Laura; Cicatiello, Valeria; Bastos-Carvalho, Ana; Kerur, Nagaraj; Hirano, Yoshio; Baffi, Judit Z; Tarallo, Valeria; Li, Shengjian; Yasuma, Tetsuhiro; Arpitha, Parthasarathy; Fowler, Benjamin J; Wright, Charles B; Apicella, Ivana; Greco, Adelaide; Brunetti, Arturo; Ruvo, Menotti; Sandomenico, Annamaria; Nozaki, Miho; Ijima, Ryo; Kaneko, Hiroki; Ogura, Yuichiro; Terasaki, Hiroko; Ambati, Balamurali K; Leusen, Jeanette HW; Langdon, Wallace Y; Clark, Michael R; Armour, Kathryn L; Bruhns, Pierre; Verbeek, J Sjef; Gelfand, Bradley D; De Falco, Sandro; Ambati, Jayakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant angiogenesis is implicated in diseases affecting nearly 10% of the world's population. The most widely used anti-angiogenic drug is bevacizumab, a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody that targets human VEGFA. Although bevacizumab does not recognize mouse Vegfa, it inhibits angiogenesis in

  19. The Hot Stellar Content and HB morphology of the massive globular cluster G1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, R.

    2010-09-01

    We propose to obtain deep WFC3 imagery of the Local Group's most luminous globular cluster, G1. Our primary aim is to define the hot stellar content and the extent of what appears to be a multimodal horizontal branch, analogous to those known in Omega Cen and NGC 2808. G1 is 40 kpc distant in the M31, and it would have been highly unlikely that collision with a giant molecular clould would be responsible for the complex populations which must therefore be the result of self-enrichment. We will obtain data very similar to those obtained for the known Galactic multimodal globular clusters NGC 6388 and 6441, and compare the stellar distribution on the horizontal branch with models. We can constrain the fraction of helium-enriched stars, if present, and search for supra-horizontal branch and other anomalous hot, evolved, stars. Parallel ACS observations will be the deepest ever obtained in the adjacnt field to G1, and will help to constrain whether G1 was the nucleus of a now disrupted galaxy.

  20. Sojourn times in the M/G/1 FB queue with light-tailed service times.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandjes, M.R.H.; Nuijens, M.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACT The asymptotic decay rate of the sojourn time of a customer in the stationary M/G/1 queue under the Foreground-Background (FB) service discipline is studied. The FB discipline gives service to those customers that have received the least service so far. We prove that for lighttailed service

  1. 26 CFR 1.45G-1 - Railroad track maintenance credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAXES Rules for Computing Credit for Investment in Certain Depreciable Property § 1.45G-1 Railroad track... extensions) Federal income tax return for the taxable year the RTMC is claimed. Paragraph (b) of this section..., accounting and bookkeeping, marketing, legal services; janitorial services; office building rental; banking...

  2. Heavy-traffic analysis for the GI/G/1 queue with heavy-tailed distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.J. Boxma (Onno); J.W. Cohen

    1997-01-01

    textabstractWe consider a $GI/G/1$ queue in which the service time distribution and/or the interarrival time distribution has a heavy tail, i.e., a tail behaviour like $t^{-nu$ with $1

  3. Sojourn time asymptotics in the M/G/1 processor sharing queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P. Zwart (Bert); O.J. Boxma (Onno)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractWe show for the M/G/1 processor sharing queue that the service time distribution is regularly varying of index $-nu$, $nu$ non-integer, iff the sojourn time distribution is regularly varying of index $-nu $. This result is derived from a new expression for the Laplace-Stieltjes transform

  4. Cdk2 Inhibition Prolongs G1 Phase Progression in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koledová, Z.; Rašková-Kafková, L.; Calábková, L.; Kryštof, Vladimír; Doležel, P.; Divoký, V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 2 (2010), s. 181-193 ISSN 1547-3287 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/08/1649 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : embryonic stem cells * cell cycle * G1 phase Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.791, year: 2010

  5. The DNA Replication Checkpoint Directly Regulates MBF-Dependent G1/S Transcription▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Chaitali; Patel, Prasanta K.; Rosebrock, Adam; Oliva, Anna; Leatherwood, Janet; Rhind, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    The DNA replication checkpoint transcriptionally upregulates genes that allow cells to adapt to and survive replication stress. Our results show that, in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the replication checkpoint regulates the entire G1/S transcriptional program by directly regulating MBF, the G1/S transcription factor. Instead of initiating a checkpoint-specific transcriptional program, the replication checkpoint targets MBF to maintain the normal G1/S transcriptional program during replication stress. We propose a mechanism for this regulation, based on in vitro phosphorylation of the Cdc10 subunit of MBF by the Cds1 replication-checkpoint kinase. Replacement of two potential phosphorylation sites with phosphomimetic amino acids suffices to promote the checkpoint transcriptional program, suggesting that Cds1 phosphorylation directly regulates MBF-dependent transcription. The conservation of MBF between fission and budding yeast, and recent results implicating MBF as a target of the budding yeast replication checkpoint, suggests that checkpoint regulation of the MBF transcription factor is a conserved strategy for coping with replication stress. Furthermore, the structural and regulatory similarity between MBF and E2F, the metazoan G1/S transcription factor, suggests that this checkpoint mechanism may be broadly conserved among eukaryotes. PMID:18662996

  6. Nonparametric estimation of the stationary M/G/1 workload distribution function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Bøgsted

    2005-01-01

    In this paper it is demonstrated how a nonparametric estimator of the stationary workload distribution function of the M/G/1-queue can be obtained by systematic sampling the workload process. Weak convergence results and bootstrap methods for empirical distribution functions for stationary associ...

  7. Mapping resistance to the Ug99 race group of the stem rust pathogen in a spring wheat landrace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiker, E M; Gordon, T C; Chao, S; Newcomb, M; Rouse, M N; Jin, Y; Wanyera, R; Acevedo, M; Brown-Guedira, G; Williamson, S; Bonman, J M

    2015-04-01

    A new gene for Ug99 resistance from wheat landrace PI 374670 was detected on the long arm of chromosome 7A. Wheat landrace PI 374670 has seedling and field resistance to stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp tritici Eriks. & E. Henn (Pgt) race TTKSK. To elucidate the inheritance of resistance, 216 BC1F2 families, 192 double haploid (DH) lines, and 185 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were developed by crossing PI 374670 and the susceptible line LMPG-6. The parents and progeny were evaluated for seedling resistance to Pgt races TTKSK, MCCFC, and TPMKC. The DH lines were tested in field stem rust nurseries in Kenya and Ethiopia. The DH lines were genotyped with the 90K wheat iSelect SNP genotyping platform. Goodness-of-fit tests indicated that a single dominant gene in PI 374670 conditioned seedling resistance to the three Pgt races. The seedling resistance locus mapped to the long arm of chromosome 7A and this result was verified in the RIL population screened with the flanking SNP markers using KASP assays. In the same region, a major QTL for field resistance was detected in a 7.7 cM interval and explained 34-54 and 29-36% of the variation in Kenya and Ethiopia, respectively. Results from tests with specific Pgt races and the csIH81 marker showed that the resistance was not due to Sr22. Thus, a new stem rust resistance gene or allele, either closely linked or allelic to Sr15, is responsible for the seedling and field resistance of PI 374670 to Ug99.

  8. Energy transport, polar amplification, and ITCZ shifts in the GeoMIP G1 ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Russotto

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The polar amplification of warming and the ability of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ to shift to the north or south are two very important problems in climate science. Examining these behaviors in global climate models (GCMs running solar geoengineering experiments is helpful not only for predicting the effects of solar geoengineering but also for understanding how these processes work under increased carbon dioxide (CO2. Both polar amplification and ITCZ shifts are closely related to the meridional transport of moist static energy (MSE by the atmosphere. This study examines changes in MSE transport in 10 fully coupled GCMs in experiment G1 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP, in which the solar constant is reduced to compensate for the radiative forcing from abruptly quadrupled CO2 concentrations. In G1, poleward MSE transport decreases relative to preindustrial conditions in all models, in contrast to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5 abrupt4xCO2 experiment, in which poleward MSE transport increases. We show that since poleward energy transport decreases rather than increases, and local feedbacks cannot change the sign of an initial temperature change, the residual polar amplification in the G1 experiment must be due to the net positive forcing in the polar regions and net negative forcing in the tropics, which arise from the different spatial patterns of the simultaneously imposed solar and CO2 forcings. However, the reduction in poleward energy transport likely plays a role in limiting the polar warming in G1. An attribution study with a moist energy balance model shows that cloud feedbacks are the largest source of uncertainty regarding changes in poleward energy transport in midlatitudes in G1, as well as for changes in cross-equatorial energy transport, which are anticorrelated with ITCZ shifts.

  9. Abnormal G1 arrest in the cell lines from LEC strain rats after X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, M.; Uehara, K.; Kirisawa, R.; Endoh, D.; Arai, S.; Okui, T.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of X-irradiation of cell lines from LEC and WKAH strain rats on a progression o cell cycle was investigated. When WKAH rat ells were exposed to 5 Gy of X-rays and their cell cycle distribution was determined by a flow cytometer, the proportion of S-phase cells decrease and that of G2/M-phase cells in creased at 8 hr post-irradiation. At 18 and 24 hr post-irradiation, approximately 80% of the cells appeared in the G1 phase. On the contrary, the proportion of S-phase cells increased and that of G1-phase cells decreased in LEC rats during 8-24 hr post-irradiation, compared with that at 0 hr post-irradiation. Thus, radiation-induced delay in the progression from the G1 phase to S phase (G1 arrest) was observed inWKAH rat cells but not in LEC rat cells. In the case of WKAH rat cells, the intensities of the bands of p53 protein increased at 1 and 2 hr after X-irradiation at 5 Gy, compared with those of un-irradiated cells and at 0 hr post-irradiation. In contrast, the intensities of the bands were faint and did not significantly increase in LEC rat ells during 0-6 hr incubation after X-irradiation. Present results suggested that the radioresistant DNA synthesis in LEC rat cells is thought to be due to the abnormal G1 arrest following X-irradiation

  10. Anaerobic denitrification in fungi from the coastal marine sediments off Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Manohar, C.S.; Raghukumar, C.

    and 5 applying the formula 3.14* r 2 * h, the total hyphal lengths were expressed as biovolume g -1 dry sediment. The biovolume was converted to biomass using the conversion factor 0.2 g cm -3 (Newell et al. 1986). The C biomass was calculated... in the sediment sections at St-I (A) & St-II (B). Bacterial C data during Oct 2005 and April 2006 is depicted as numbers*10 4 pg C g -1 dry sediments whereas it is numbers * 10 3 pg C g-1 dry sediment during the other sampling periods. Fungal C biomass...

  11. Sediment Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou

    Flow and sediment transport are important in relation to several engineering topics, e.g. erosion around structures, backfilling of dredged channels and nearshore morphological change. The purpose of the present book is to describe both the basic hydrodynamics and the basic sediment transport...... mechanics. Chapter 1 deals with fundamentals in fluid mechanics with emphasis on bed shear stress by currents, while chapter 3 discusses wave boundary layer theory. They are both written with a view to sediment transport. Sediment transport in rivers, cross-shore and longshore are dealt with in chapters 2......, 4 and 5, respectively. It is not the intention of the book to give a broad review of the literature on this very wide topic. The book tries to pick up information which is of engineering importance. An obstacle to the study of sedimentation is the scale effect in model tests. Whenever small...

  12. The spin-dependent structure function g1 of the deuteron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueltmann, S.

    1996-01-01

    Results on the spin-dependent structure function g 1 d of the deuteron measured by the Spin Muon Collaboration at CERN are presented. They are based on deep-inelastic scattering of 190 GeV polarized muons off a polarized deuteron target in the kinematic range of 0.003 ≤ x Bj ≤ 0.7 and 1 GeV 2 ≤ Q 2 ≤ 60 GeV 2 . The structure function is found to be negative for small values of x Bj , while the proton structure function g 1 p measured earlier by the SMC is positive over the whole x Bj -range. The Bjorken sum rule is in good agreement with the first moments of the structure functions, while the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule is violated by more than three standard deviations for the deuteron measurement. (author)

  13. The MAP, M/G1,G2/1 queue with preemptive priority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong Dae Choi

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the MAP, M/G1,G2/1 queue with preemptive resume priority, where low priority customers arrive to the system according to a Markovian arrival process (MAP and high priority customers according to a Poisson process. The service time density function of low (respectively: high priority customers is g1(x (respectively: g2(x. We use the supplementary variable method with Extended Laplace Transforms to obtain the joint transform of the number of customers in each priority queue, as well as the remaining service time for the customer in service in the steady state. We also derive the probability generating function for the number of customers of low (respectively, high priority in the system just after the service completion epochs for customers of low (respectively, high priority.

  14. Rare Coumarins Induce Apoptosis, G1 Cell Block and Reduce RNA Content in HL60 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widelski Jarosław

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The rare coumarins stenocarpin, stenocarpin isobutyrate, oficinalin, oficinalin isobutyrate, 8-methoxypeucedanin and the known xanthotoxin, isoimperatorin, bergapten, peucedanin and 8–methoxyisoimperatorin were isolated from Peucedanum luxurians Tamamsch. (Apiaceae and identified by means of spectral data (1D and 2D NMR. Their immunomodulating activity was evaluated by flow cytometry and their influence on HL60 cells as well as on PHA-stimulated PBLs was tested. All tested coumarins induce apoptosis (maximal in the 48 h culture and decrease cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner, especially in HL60 cells. They also induce partial G1 block, but only in HL60 cells (at 100 µM concentrations. Dose-dependent reduction of RNA content was also found in G1 cells treated by the coumarins. All of the tested coumarins also possessed immunomodulatory activities. Bergapten and xanthotoxin were found to be the best candidates for further evaluation as anti-cancer drugs.

  15. Multilevel processor-sharing algorithm for M/G/1 systems with priorities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yassouridis, A.; Koller, R.

    1983-01-01

    The well-known multilevel processor-sharing algorithm for M/G/1 systems without priorities is extended to M/G/1 systems with priority classes. The average response time t/sub j/(x) and the average waiting time w/sub j/(x) for a j-class job, which requires a total service of x sec, are analytically calculated. Some figures demonstrate how the priority classes and the total number of different levels affect the behaviour of the functions t/sub j/(x) and w/sub j/(x). In addition, the foreground-background algorithm with priorities, which is not yet covered in the literature, is treated as a special case of the multilevel processor-sharing algorithm. 8 references.

  16. Recuperation of the energy released in the G-1, an air-cooled graphite reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambadal, P.; Pascal, M.

    1955-01-01

    The CEA (in his five-year setting plan) has objective among others, the realization of the two first french reactors moderated with graphite. The construction of the G-1 reactor in Marcoule, first french plutonic core, is achieved so that it will diverge in the beginning of 1956 and reach its full power in the beginning of the second semester of the same year. In this report we will detail the specificities of the reactor and in particular its cooling and energy recuperation system. The G-1 reactor being essentially intended to allow the french technicians to study the behavior of an energy installation supply taking its heat in a nuclear source as early as possible. (M.B.) [fr

  17. Differential regulation of the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks in G1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlow, Jacqueline H; Lisby, Michael; Rothstein, Rodney

    2008-01-01

    -induced breaks are recognized by Rfa1 only after the cell enters S phase. This difference is dependent on the DNA end-binding Yku70/Yku80 complex. Cell-cycle regulation is also observed in the DNA damage checkpoint response. Specifically, the 9-1-1 complex is required in G1 cells to recruit the Ddc2 checkpoint...... protein to damaged DNA, while, upon entry into S phase, the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdc28 and the 9-1-1 complex both serve to recruit Ddc2 to foci. Together, these results demonstrate that the DNA repair machinery distinguishes between different types of damage in G1, which translates into different modes...

  18. Beta1 integrins regulate chondrocyte rotation, G1 progression, and cytokinesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aszodi, Attila; Hunziker, Ernst B; Brakebusch, Cord

    2003-01-01

    Beta1 integrins are highly expressed on chondrocytes, where they mediate adhesion to cartilage matrix proteins. To assess the functions of beta1 integrin during skeletogenesis, we inactivated the beta1 integrin gene in chondrocytes. We show here that these mutant mice develop a chondrodysplasia...... of various severity. beta1-deficient chondrocytes had an abnormal shape and failed to arrange into columns in the growth plate. This is caused by a lack of motility, which is in turn caused by a loss of adhesion to collagen type II, reduced binding to and impaired spreading on fibronectin, and an abnormal F......-actin organization. In addition, mutant chondrocytes show decreased proliferation caused by a defect in G1/S transition and cytokinesis. The G1/S defect is, at least partially, caused by overexpression of Fgfr3, nuclear translocation of Stat1/Stat5a, and up-regulation of the cell cycle inhibitors p16 and p21...

  19. Measurement of the Polarized Structure Function $g_1^p$ at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, R.D.; Forte, S.; Hughes, V.W.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Ridolfi, G.; Ball, Richard D.; Deshpande, Abhay; Forte, Stefano; Hughes, Vernon W.; Lichtenstadt, Jechiel; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    1996-01-01

    We present estimates of possible data on spin-dependent asymmetries in inclusive scattering of high energy polarized electrons by high energy polarized protons at HERA, including statistical errors, and discuss systematic uncertainties. We show that these data would shed light on the small x behaviour of the polarized structure function g_1, and would reduce substantially the uncertainty on the determination of the polarized gluon distribution.

  20. Temperature duality on Riemann surface and cosmological solutions for genus g = 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Jun; Wang Shunjin

    1999-01-01

    A bosonic string model at finite temperature on the gravitation g μν and the dilaton φ background field is examined. Moreover, the duality relation of energy momentum tensor on high genus Riemann surface is derived. At the same time, the temperature duality invariance for the action of string gas matter is proved in 4-D Robertson-Walker metric, the string cosmological solutions and temperature duality of the equations of motion for genus g = 1 and 2 are also investigated

  1. The MX/G/1 queue with queue length dependent service times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong Dae Choi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We deal with the MX/G/1 queue where service times depend on the queue length at the service initiation. By using Markov renewal theory, we derive the queue length distribution at departure epochs. We also obtain the transient queue length distribution at time t and its limiting distribution and the virtual waiting time distribution. The numerical results for transient mean queue length and queue length distributions are given.

  2. NONUNIFORM EXPANSION OF THE YOUNGEST GALACTIC SUPERNOVA REMNANT G1.9+0.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Green, David A.; Hwang, Una; Petre, Robert; Krishnamurthy, Kalyani; Willett, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    We report measurements of the X-ray expansion of the youngest Galactic supernova remnant, G1.9+0.3, using Chandra observations in 2007, 2009, and 2011. The measured rates strongly deviate from uniform expansion, decreasing radially by about 60% along the X-ray bright SE-NW axis from 0.84% ± 0.06% yr –1 to 0.52% ± 0.03% yr –1 . This corresponds to undecelerated ages of 120-190 yr, confirming the young age of G1.9+0.3 and implying a significant deceleration of the blast wave. The synchrotron-dominated X-ray emission brightens at a rate of 1.9% ± 0.4% yr –1 . We identify bright outer and inner rims with the blast wave and reverse shock, respectively. Sharp density gradients in either the ejecta or ambient medium are required to produce the sudden deceleration of the reverse shock or the blast wave implied by the large spread in expansion ages. The blast wave could have been decelerated recently by an encounter with a modest density discontinuity in the ambient medium, such as may be found at a wind termination shock, requiring strong mass loss in the progenitor. Alternatively, the reverse shock might have encountered an order-of-magnitude density discontinuity within the ejecta, such as may be found in pulsating delayed-detonation Type Ia models. We demonstrate that the blast wave is much more decelerated than the reverse shock in these models for remnants at ages similar to G1.9+0.3. Similar effects may also be produced by dense shells possibly associated with high-velocity features in Type Ia spectra. Accounting for the asymmetry of G1.9+0.3 will require more realistic three-dimensional Type Ia models

  3. A next-to-leading order QCD analysis of the spin structure function $g_1$

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067425; Arik, E; Badelek, B; Bardin, G; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Betev, L; Birsa, R; De Botton, N R; Bradamante, Franco; Bravar, A; Bressan, A; Bültmann, S; Burtin, E; Crabb, D; Cranshaw, J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Dalla Torre, S; Van Dantzig, R; Derro, B R; Deshpande, A A; Dhawan, S K; Dulya, C M; Eichblatt, S; Fasching, D; Feinstein, F; Fernández, C; Forthmann, S; Frois, Bernard; Gallas, A; Garzón, J A; Gilly, H; Giorgi, M A; von Goeler, E; Görtz, S; Gracia, G; De Groot, N; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Haft, K; Von Harrach, D; Hasegawa, T; Hautle, P; Hayashi, N; Heusch, C A; Horikawa, N; Hughes, V W; Igo, G; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kabuss, E M; Kageya, T; Karev, A G; Kessler, H J; Ketel, T; Kiryluk, J; Kiselev, Yu F; Krämer, Dietrich; Krivokhizhin, V G; Kröger, W; Kukhtin, V V; Kurek, K; Kyynäräinen, J; Lamanna, M; Landgraf, U; Le Goff, J M; Lehár, F; de Lesquen, A; Lichtenstadt, J; Litmaath, M; Magnon, A; Mallot, G K; Marie, F; Martin, A; Martino, J; Matsuda, T; Mayes, B W; McCarthy, J S; Medved, K S; Meyer, W T; Van Middelkoop, G; Miller, D; Miyachi, Y; Mori, K; Moromisato, J H; Nassalski, J P; Naumann, Lutz; Niinikoski, T O; Oberski, J; Ogawa, A; Ozben, C; Pereira, H; Perrot-Kunne, F; Peshekhonov, V D; Piegia, R; Pinsky, L; Platchkov, S K; Pló, M; Pose, D; Postma, H; Pretz, J; Puntaferro, R; Rädel, G; Rijllart, A; Reicherz, G; Roberts, J; Rodríguez, M; Rondio, Ewa; Sabo, I; Saborido, J; Sandacz, A; Savin, I A; Schiavon, R P; Schiller, A; Sichtermann, E P; Simeoni, F; Smirnov, G I; Staude, A; Steinmetz, A; Stiegler, U; Stuhrmann, H B; Szleper, M; Tessarotto, F; Thers, D; Tlaczala, W; Tripet, A; Ünel, G; Velasco, M; Vogt, J; Voss, Rüdiger; Whitten, C; Windmolders, R; Willumeit, R; Wislicki, W; Witzmann, A; Ylöstalo, J; Zanetti, A M; Zaremba, K; Zhao, J

    1998-01-01

    We present a next-to-leading order QCD analysis of the presently available data on the spin structure function $g_1$ including the final data from the Spin Muon Collaboration (SMC). We present resu lts for the first moments of the proton, deuteron and neutron structure functions, and determine singlet and non-singlet parton distributions in two factorization schemes. We also test the Bjor ken sum rule and find agreement with the theoretical prediction at the level of 10\\%.

  4. Irradiated graphite studies prior to decommissioning of G1, G2 and G3 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonal, J.P.; Vistoli, J.Ph.; Combes, C.

    2005-01-01

    G1 (46 MW th ), G2 (250 MW th ) and G3 (250 MW th ) are the first French plutonium production reactors owned by CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique). They started to be operated in 1956 (G1), 1959 (G2) and 1960 (G3); their final shutdown occurred in 1968, 1980 and 1984 respectively. Each reactor used about 1200 tons of graphite as moderator, moreover in G2 and G3, a 95 tons graphite wall is used to shield the rear side concrete from neutron irradiation. G1 is an air cooled reactor operated at a graphite temperature ranging from 30 C to 230 C; G2 and G3 are CO 2 cooled reactors and during operation the graphite temperature is higher (140 C to 400 C). These reactors are now partly decommissioned, but the graphite stacks are still inside the reactors. The graphite core radioactivity has decreased enough so that a full decommissioning stage may be considered. Conceming this decommissioning, the studies reported here are: (i) stored energy in graphite, (ii) graphite radioactivity measurements, (iii) leaching of radionuclide ( 14 C, 36 Cl, 63 Ni, 60 Co, 3 H) from graphite, (iv) chlorine diffusion through graphite. (authors)

  5. Tet1 is required for Rb phosphorylation during G1/S phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Shengsong; Zhu, Ziqi; Wang, Yiqin; Wang, Yanru; Xu, Longxia; Chen, Xuemei; Xu, Qing; Zhang, Qimin; Zhao, Xin; Yu, Yi; Wu, Denglong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Tet1 was required for NIT3T3 proliferation. •Tet1 depletion inhibited G1-S entry. •Cyclin D1 accumulation and Rb phosphorylation was blocked by Tet1 knockdown. -- Abstract: DNA methylation plays an important role in many biological processes, including regulation of gene expression, maintenance of chromatin conformation and genomic stability. TET-family proteins convert 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), which indicates that these enzymes may participate in DNA demethylation. The function of TET1 has not yet been well characterized in somatic cells. Here, we show that depletion of Tet1 in NIH3T3 cells inhibits cell growth. Furthermore, Tet1 knockdown blocks cyclin D1 accumulation in G1 phase, inhibits Rb phosphorylation and consequently delays entrance to G1/S phase. Taken together, this study demonstrates that Tet1 is required for cell proliferation and that this process is mediated through the Rb pathway

  6. Control of G1 in the developing Drosophila eye: rca1 regulates Cyclin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X; Zavitz, K H; Thomas, B J; Lin, M; Campbell, S; Zipursky, S L

    1997-01-01

    In the developing eye of Drosophila melanogaster, cells become synchronized in the G1 phase of the cell cycle just prior to the onset of cellular differentiation and morphogenesis. In roughex (rux) mutants, cells enter S phase precociously because of ectopic activation of a Cyclin A/Cdk complex in early G1. This leads to defects in cell fate and pattern formation, and results in abnormalities in the morphology of the adult eye. A screen for dominant suppressors of the rux eye phenotype led to the identification of mutations in cyclin A, string (cdc25), and new cell cycle genes. One of these genes, regulator of cyclin A (rca1), encodes a novel protein required for both mitotic and meiotic cell cycle progression. rca1 mutants arrest in G2 of embryonic cell cycle 16 with a phenotype very similar to cyclin A loss of function mutants. Expression of rca1 transgenes in G1 or in postmitotic neurons promotes Cyclin A protein accumulation and drives cells into S phase in a Cyclin A-dependent fashion.

  7. Dux4 induces cell cycle arrest at G1 phase through upregulation of p21 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Hongliang; Wang, Zhaoxia; Jin, Suqin; Hao, Hongjun; Zheng, Lemin; Zhou, Boda; Zhang, Wei; Lv, He; Yuan, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Dux4 induced TE671 cell proliferation defect and G1 phase arrest. • Dux4 upregulated p21 expression without activating p53. • Silencing p21 rescued Dux4 mediated proliferation defect and cell cycle arrest. • Sp1 binding site was required for Dux4-induced p21 promoter activation. - Abstract: It has been implicated that Dux4 plays crucial roles in development of facioscapulohumeral dystrophy. But the underlying myopathic mechanisms and related down-stream events of this retrogene were far from clear. Here, we reported that overexpression of Dux4 in a cell model TE671 reduced cell proliferation rate, and increased G1 phase accumulation. We also determined the impact of Dux4 on p53/p21 signal pathway, which controls the checkpoint in cell cycle progression. Overexpression of Dux4 increased p21 mRNA and protein level, while expression of p53, phospho-p53 remained unchanged. Silencing p21 rescued Dux4 mediated proliferation defect and cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, we demonstrated that enhanced Dux4 expression increased p21 promoter activity and elevated expression of Sp1 transcription factor. Mutation of Sp1 binding site decreased dux4 induced p21 promoter activation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays confirmed the Dux4-induced binding of Sp1 to p21 promoter in vivo. These results suggest that Dux4 might induce proliferation inhibition and G1 phase arrest through upregulation of p21

  8. Preferential radiosensitization of G1 checkpoint--deficient cells by methylxanthines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, Kenneth J.; Wiens, Linda W.; Demers, G. William; Galloway, Denise A.; Le, Tiep; Rice, Glenn C.; Bianco, James A.; Singer, Jack W.; Groudine, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a checkpoint-based strategy for preferential radiosensitization of human tumors with deficient and/or mutant p53. Methods and Materials: A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines differing in their expression of the p53 tumor suppressor gene were produced by transduction with the E6 oncogene from human papilloma virus type 16. The cells expressing E6 (E6+) lack a G1 arrest in response to ionizing radiation, are deficient in p53 and p21 expression, and exhibit a fivefold greater clonogenic survival following 10 Gy radiation. Results: Postirradiation incubation with millimolar concentrations of the methylxanthine pentoxifylline (PTX) results in preferential radiosensitization of the E6+ cells compared to the LXSN+ vector transduced controls. There is a threefold sensitization of the LXSN+ cells and a 15-fold sensitization of the E6+ cells, which results in equal clonogenic survival of the two lines. Flow cytometry reveals PTX abrogation of the radiation induced G2 arrest for both cell lines. PTX also prolongs G1 transit for both cell lines. Preliminary results are presented using a novel methylxanthine, lisofylline (LSF), which has similar cell cycle effects on G1 and G2 and achieves differential radiosensitization at micromolar concentrations that are sustainable in humans. Conclusions: This checkpoint-based strategy is a promising approach for achieving preferential radiosensitization of p53- tumors relative to p53+ normal tissues

  9. Influence of Thermal Treatment on the Characteristics of Major Oyster Allergen Cra g 1 (Tropomyosin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lei; Li, Guoming; Gu, Ruizeng; Cai, Muyi; Lu, Jun

    2018-04-15

    Shellfish, including oysters, often cause allergic reactions in adults. Thermal treatment is one of the most common technologies to deal with seafood, which may affect biological properties. The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of heating on conformation and potential allergenicity of oyster-derived tropomyosin (Cra g 1). SDS-PAGE showed that there was an apparent band at 35KD of raw tropomyosin after purification and more significant polymers appeared in heated protein. Interestingly, the obviously changes in the intensity of CD signal and ANS-binding fluorescence were observed especially in the case of roasted form, which was associated with an increase in antibody reactivity. The degree of IgE binding of this treatment was demonstrated in the order roasted>boiled > raw. Furthermore, sequence alignment and amino acid composition revealed that Cra g 1 shared relatively high homology to tropomyosins from other shellfish and was abundant in lysine that was apt to be modified by reducing sugars during heating. Heated Cra g 1 produces higher IgE reactivity than raw one, owing to denaturation and formation of polymers. These findings will benefit more diagnosis and management of potential allergenicity due to shellfish. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Two pathways of DNA double-strand break repair in G1 cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazunov, A.V.

    1988-01-01

    The G1 cells of the diploid yeast Saccharomyces cerevislae are known to be capable of a slow repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) during holding the cells in a non-nutrient medium. In the present paper, it has been shown that S. cerevislae cells γ-irradiated in the G1 phase of cell cycle are capable of fast repair of DNA DSB; this process is completed within 30-40 min of holding the cells in water at 28 deg C. For this reason, the kinetics of DNA DSB repair during holding the cells in a non-nutrient medium are biphasic, i.e., the first, ''fast'' phase is completed within 30-40 min; wheras the second, ''slow'' one, within 48 h. Mutations rad51, rad52, rad54 and rad55 inhibit the fast repair of DNA DSB, whereas mutations rad50, rad53 and rad57 do not practically influence this process. It has been shown that the observed fast and slow repair of DNA DSB in the G1 diploid cells of S, cerevislae are separate pathways of DNA DSB repair in yeast

  11. Clinical reactivity of celery cultivars in allergic patients: Role of Api g 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dölle, S; Welter, S; Ruppel, E; Lehmann, K; Schwarz, D; Jensen-Jarolim, E; Zieglmayer, P; Franken, P; Worm, M

    2018-04-01

    Celery (Apium graveolens L.) is a vegetable consumed world-wide. Celery stalks and celeriac roots are often ingredients in convenient food products like spice blends and soups. In this study, we examined the allergenicity of distinct celeriac cultivars. Sixteen celery-allergic patients were identified using a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. Ten different celeriac cultivars were used for skin prick testing in the patients. Two cultivars were further applied for oral food challenges; their protein composition was analysed by immunoblotting, and contents of major allergen Api g 1 were quantified. From the 10 investigated celeriac cultivars, two cultivars elicited significantly different skin reactivity ("Anita": 5.0 [2.0-12.0] mm vs "Prinz": 7.0 [3.0-9.5] mm; P = .047). Moreover, "Anita" induced fewer symptoms after a controlled oral-celeriac challenge in 14 patient (P Api g 1 in "Prinz" than in "Anita." Taken together, the data from this study suggest that cultivar Anita is better tolerated in celery-allergic patients than "Prinz." Differences in the protein expression profile between the cultivars, particularly the different content of Api g 1, could cause the different allergenicity. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Measurement of the form factor ratio g1/f1 in LAMBDA beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innes, W.R.

    1974-01-01

    The beta decay of 306 polarized lambdas was observed. The lambdas, which had a mean polarization of 70 percent, were produced by a 1.06 GeV/c π minus beam incident on a CH 2 target. The lambda decay particle trajectories were measured with a solenoidal magnetic spectrometer utilizing spark chambers with magnetostrictive readout. The beta decays were differentiated from other decay modes with an isobutane threshold Cherenkov counter. Using only information which depended upon the polarization, g 1 /f 1 was found to be 0.44- 0 . 13 +0 . 20 . Using only information independent of the polarization, g 1 /f 1 was found to be 0.62- 0 . 13 +0 . 17 . Combining all information yielded a value for g 1 /f 1 of 0.56- 0 . 11 +0 . 13 . Although these results taken by themselves are consistent with the Cabbibo theory prediction of 0.69, when combined with previous experiments there is a possibly significant discrepancy in the polarization dependent results. (U.S.)

  13. Dux4 induces cell cycle arrest at G1 phase through upregulation of p21 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Hongliang; Wang, Zhaoxia; Jin, Suqin; Hao, Hongjun [Department of Neurology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034 (China); Zheng, Lemin [The Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Sciences of Education Ministry, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Molecular Biology and Regulatory Peptides of Health Ministry, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhou, Boda [The Department of Cardiology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, Wei; Lv, He [Department of Neurology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034 (China); Yuan, Yun, E-mail: yuanyun2002@sohu.com [Department of Neurology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034 (China)

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Dux4 induced TE671 cell proliferation defect and G1 phase arrest. • Dux4 upregulated p21 expression without activating p53. • Silencing p21 rescued Dux4 mediated proliferation defect and cell cycle arrest. • Sp1 binding site was required for Dux4-induced p21 promoter activation. - Abstract: It has been implicated that Dux4 plays crucial roles in development of facioscapulohumeral dystrophy. But the underlying myopathic mechanisms and related down-stream events of this retrogene were far from clear. Here, we reported that overexpression of Dux4 in a cell model TE671 reduced cell proliferation rate, and increased G1 phase accumulation. We also determined the impact of Dux4 on p53/p21 signal pathway, which controls the checkpoint in cell cycle progression. Overexpression of Dux4 increased p21 mRNA and protein level, while expression of p53, phospho-p53 remained unchanged. Silencing p21 rescued Dux4 mediated proliferation defect and cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, we demonstrated that enhanced Dux4 expression increased p21 promoter activity and elevated expression of Sp1 transcription factor. Mutation of Sp1 binding site decreased dux4 induced p21 promoter activation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays confirmed the Dux4-induced binding of Sp1 to p21 promoter in vivo. These results suggest that Dux4 might induce proliferation inhibition and G1 phase arrest through upregulation of p21.

  14. 17 CFR 270.17g-1 - Bonding of officers and employees of registered management investment companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... employees of registered management investment companies. 270.17g-1 Section 270.17g-1 Commodity and... ACT OF 1940 § 270.17g-1 Bonding of officers and employees of registered management investment companies. (a) Each registered management investment company shall provide and maintain a bond which shall...

  15. Annex I.G. Demolition of the G1 stack at Marcoule by toppling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The G1 stack at Marcoule was constructed during the first half of 1956 as a ventilation outlet for the G1 reactor, which is cooled by air. After the G1 reactor was decommissioned, the G1 stack served as a ventilation outlet for two new nuclear facilities on the site. Being no longer in compliance with regulations and having many inadequacies and uncertainties in terms of the prestressed concrete, the stack posed a potential damage risk in extreme wind or in the event of an earthquake. In 1994 it was decided that a new stack would be built to act as an outlet for the existing nuclear facilities, and that the old one would be demolished. The G1 stack was 100 m in height, 10 m in diameter and constructed with 24 vertically stacked concrete rings consisting of nine prefabricated sections, each 3.6 m in height. It was capped by a metal deflector (about 6 m in height and weighing 50 t). The inside consisted of nine semicircular tubes constructed of steel sheet metal weighing 120 t. The base of the stack consisted of the foundation, a plate and a base plate which were constructed at the site. The barrel sections were prefabricated. Construction lasted from January 1956 to June 1956. At the base, the cylindrical portion of the stack widened to form three feet extending to a depth of 7.5 m. The base plate of the stack was formed onsite to the height of 16.7 m and then prestressed using cables. A repair carried out in 1964 included adding a concrete lining of the initial rings of the cylinder up to a level of 22.1 m. Additional prestressing with the base plate and repair of the horizontal and vertical prestressing of the barrel were also carried out, leaving only 22 rings and 43 visible cables. The total mass of the stack was 2170 t, including: - Concrete: cylinder 800 t, base plate 1200 t; - Steel: internal structures 120 t, deflector 50 t. The main radiological risk was the presence of traces of tritium. The radioactive inventory for the entire stack was estimated in 2000

  16. Identification of herpesvirus proteins that contribute to G1/S arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paladino, Patrick; Marcon, Edyta; Greenblatt, Jack; Frappier, Lori

    2014-04-01

    Lytic infection by herpesviruses induces cell cycle arrest at the G1/S transition. This appears to be a function of multiple herpesvirus proteins, but only a minority of herpesvirus proteins have been examined for cell cycle effects. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the viral proteins that contribute to G1/S arrest, we screened a library of over 200 proteins from herpes simplex virus type 1, human cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) for effects on the G1/S interface, using HeLa fluorescent, ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (Fucci) cells in which G1/S can be detected colorimetrically. Proteins from each virus were identified that induce accumulation of G1/S cells, predominantly tegument, early, and capsid proteins. The identification of several capsid proteins in this screen suggests that incoming viral capsids may function to modulate cellular processes. The cell cycle effects of selected EBV proteins were further verified and examined for effects on p53 and p21 as regulators of the G1/S transition. Two EBV replication proteins (BORF2 and BMRF1) were found to induce p53 but not p21, while a previously uncharacterized tegument protein (BGLF2) was found to induce p21 protein levels in a p53-independent manner. Proteomic analyses of BGLF2-interacting proteins identified interactions with the NIMA-related protein kinase (NEK9) and GEM-interacting protein (GMIP). Silencing of either NEK9 or GMIP induced p21 without affecting p53 and abrogated the ability of BGLF2 to further induce p21. Collectively, these results suggest multiple viral proteins contribute to G1/S arrest, including BGLF2, which induces p21 levels likely by interfering with the functions of NEK9 and GMIP. Most people are infected with multiple herpesviruses, whose proteins alter the infected cells in several ways. During lytic infection, the viral proteins block cell proliferation just before the cellular DNA replicates. We used a novel screening method to identify proteins

  17. The H,G_1,G_2 photometric system with scarce observational data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penttilä, A.; Granvik, M.; Muinonen, K.; Wilkman, O.

    2014-07-01

    The H,G_1,G_2 photometric system was officially adopted at the IAU General Assembly in Beijing, 2012. The system replaced the H,G system from 1985. The 'photometric system' is a parametrized model V(α; params) for the magnitude-phase relation of small Solar System bodies, and the main purpose is to predict the magnitude at backscattering, H := V(0°), i.e., the (absolute) magnitude of the object. The original H,G system was designed using the best available data in 1985, but since then new observations have been made showing certain features, especially near backscattering, to which the H,G function has troubles adjusting to. The H,G_1,G_2 system was developed especially to address these issues [1]. With a sufficient number of high-accuracy observations and with a wide phase-angle coverage, the H,G_1,G_2 system performs well. However, with scarce low-accuracy data the system has troubles producing a reliable fit, as would any other three-parameter nonlinear function. Therefore, simultaneously with the H,G_1,G_2 system, a two-parameter version of the model, the H,G_{12} system, was introduced [1]. The two-parameter version ties the parameters G_1,G_2 into a single parameter G_{12} by a linear relation, and still uses the H,G_1,G_2 system in the background. This version dramatically improves the possibility to receive a reliable phase-curve fit to scarce data. The amount of observed small bodies is increasing all the time, and so is the need to produce estimates for the absolute magnitude/diameter/albedo and other size/composition related parameters. The lack of small-phase-angle observations is especially topical for near-Earth objects (NEOs). With these, even the two- parameter version faces problems. The previous procedure with the H,G system in such circumstances has been that the G-parameter has been fixed to some constant value, thus only fitting a single-parameter function. In conclusion, there is a definitive need for a reliable procedure to produce

  18. Application of isotope-dilution laser ablation ICP-MS for direct determination of Pu concentrations in soils at pg g(-1) levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulyga, Sergei F; Tibi, Markus; Heumann, Klaus G

    2004-01-01

    The methods available for determination of environmental contamination by plutonium at ultra-trace levels require labor-consuming sample preparation including matrix removal and plutonium extraction in both nuclear spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. In this work, laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was applied for direct analysis of Pu in soil and sediment samples. Application of a LINA-Spark-Atomizer system (a modified laser ablation system providing high ablation rates) coupled with a sector-field ICP-MS resulted in detection limits as low as 3x10(-13) g g(-1) for Pu isotopes in soil samples containing uranium at a concentration of a few microg g(-1). The isotope dilution (ID) technique was used for quantification, which compensated for matrix effects in LA-ICP-MS. Interferences by UH+ and PbO2+ ions and by the peak tail of 238U+ ions were reduced or separated by use of dry plasma conditions and a mass resolution of 4000, respectively. No other effects affecting measurement accuracy, except sample inhomogeneity, were revealed. Comparison of results obtained for three contaminated soil samples by use of alpha-spectrometry, ICP-MS with sample decomposition, and LA-ICP-IDMS showed, in general, satisfactory agreement of the different methods. The specific activity of (239+240)Pu (9.8 +/- 3.0 mBq g(-1)) calculated from LA-ICP-IDMS analysis of SRM NIST 4357 coincided well with the certified value of 10.4 +/- 0.2 mBq g(-1). However, the precision of LA-ICP-MS for determination of plutonium in inhomogeneous samples, i.e. if "hot" particles are present, is limited. As far as we are aware this paper reports the lowest detection limits and element concentrations yet measured in direct LA-ICP-MS analysis of environmental samples.

  19. Application of isotope-dilution laser ablation ICP-MS for direct determination of Pu concentrations in soils at pg g-1 levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulyga, Sergei F.; Tibi, Markus; Heumann, Klaus G.

    2004-01-01

    The methods available for determination of environmental contamination by plutonium at ultra-trace levels require labor-consuming sample preparation including matrix removal and plutonium extraction in both nuclear spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. In this work, laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was applied for direct analysis of Pu in soil and sediment samples. Application of a LINA-Spark-Atomizer system (a modified laser ablation system providing high ablation rates) coupled with a sector-field ICP-MS resulted in detection limits as low as 3 x 10 -13 g g -1 for Pu isotopes in soil samples containing uranium at a concentration of a few μg g -1 . The isotope dilution (ID) technique was used for quantification, which compensated for matrix effects in LA-ICP-MS. Interferences by UH + and PbO 2 + ions and by the peak tail of 238 U + ions were reduced or separated by use of dry plasma conditions and a mass resolution of 4000, respectively. No other effects affecting measurement accuracy, except sample inhomogeneity, were revealed. Comparison of results obtained for three contaminated soil samples by use of α-spectrometry, ICP-MS with sample decomposition, and LA-ICP-IDMS showed, in general, satisfactory agreement of the different methods. The specific activity of 239+240 Pu (9.8±3.0 mBq g -1 ) calculated from LA-ICP-IDMS analysis of SRM NIST 4357 coincided well with the certified value of 10.4±0.2 mBq g -1 . However, the precision of LA-ICP-MS for determination of plutonium in inhomogeneous samples, i.e. if ''hot'' particles are present, is limited. As far as we are aware this paper reports the lowest detection limits and element concentrations yet measured in direct LA-ICP-MS analysis of environmental samples. (orig.)

  20. Partial combustion of a fuel cartridge in reactor G1; Combustion partielle d'une cartouche de combustible dans le reacteur G 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, Rouville; Leduc,; Segot, [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    On the 26 october 1956, after having stopped a few days, the G1 reactor was started up again. The burst slug system gave a first warning at 19 h 07 on loading side, a second one at 19 h 13 on unloading side, and so on others. Ath 15 the Control Engineer ordered a quick decrease of power and then, made it rise again from 2 to 5 MW, to find out, with accuracy, the failing channel. Soon after, in order to avoid any exterior contamination, scanning had to be stopped and a {gamma} ray detecting system outside the burst slug piping system, found out the damaged element in the channel 19-13. The health stations recording showed that the highest experienced measures were still notably lower than the maxima permissible levels. The methodical examination and the unloading of the damaged channel lasted three weeks. On the loading side, bare uranium billets could be seen on a magnesia powder bed. On the unloading side, the can was undamaged, but the element's end was hanging inside the gap of the inlet air. Pushed back, about 30 cm (12 in.), on the loading side, the element got blocked up. After several tests, while argon was still being injected, working staff being kept under strict protection conditions, a countersink tube was operating like the one used for drilling. The channel was cleaned up by sucking up, without, however, avoiding slight contamination in the building of the reactor. On the 7 december 1956, the reactor had a divergence at 2 MW, the first since the fault. A hundred or so channels were still giving a background, therefore making the burst slug system inefficient for those channels. Systematical brushing and sucking up were not able to reduce it beyond a certain level. It forced the reactor to operate during several months with 56 unloaded semi-channels. At last, in june 1957, two handling allowed the reactor to operate in a satisfactory way: removal of 1 mm-thickness of graphite, by re-reaming 54 semi-channels and setting on the burst slug detection

  1. Caffeine inhibits cell proliferation by G0/G1 phase arrest in JB6 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takashi; He, Zhiwei; Ma, Wei-Ya; Schmid, Patricia C; Bode, Ann M; Yang, Chung S; Dong, Zigang

    2004-05-01

    Caffeine is a major biologically active constituent in coffee and tea. Because caffeine has been reported to inhibit carcinogenesis in UVB-exposed mice, the cancer-preventing effect of caffeine has attracted considerable attention. In the present study, the effect of caffeine in quiescent (G0 phase) cells was investigated. Pretreatment with caffeine suppressed cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner 36 h after addition of fetal bovine serum as a cell growth stimulator. Analysis by flow cytometry showed that caffeine suppressed cell cycle progression at the G0/G1 phase, i.e., 18 h after addition of fetal bovine serum, the percentages of cells in G0/G1 phase in 1 mM caffeine-treated cells and in caffeine-untreated cells were 61.7 and 29.0, respectively. The percentage of cells in G0/G1 phase at 0 h was 75.5. Caffeine inhibited phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein at Ser780 and Ser807/Ser811, the sites where retinoblastoma protein has been reported to be phosphorylated by cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (cdk4). Furthermore, caffeine inhibited the activation of the cyclin D1-cdk4 complex in a dose-dependent manner. However this compound did not directly inhibit the activity of this complex. In addition, caffeine did not affect p16INK4 or p27Kip1 protein levels, but inhibited the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) and glycogen synthase kinase 3beta. Our results showed that caffeine suppressed the progression of quiescent cells into the cell cycle. The inhibitory mechanism may be due to the inhibition of cell growth signal-induced activation of cdk4, which may be involved in the inhibition of carcinogenesis in vivo.

  2. THE ABSENCE OF RADIO EMISSION FROM THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER G1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller-Jones, J. C. A. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Wrobel, J. M. [NRAO Domenici Science Operations Center, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Sivakoff, G. R.; Heinke, C. O.; Miller, R. E. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Room 238 CEB, Edmonton, AB T6G 2G7 (Canada); Plotkin, R. M. [Astronomical Institute ' Anton Pannekoek' , University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Di Stefano, R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Greene, J. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 71712 (United States); Ho, L. C. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Joseph, T. D.; Maccarone, T. J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield SO17 IBJ (United Kingdom); Kong, A. K. H., E-mail: james.miller-jones@curtin.edu.au [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-10

    The detections of both X-ray and radio emission from the cluster G1 in M31 have provided strong support for existing dynamical evidence for an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) of mass (1.8 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} M{sub Sun} at the cluster center. However, given the relatively low significance and astrometric accuracy of the radio detection, and the non-simultaneity of the X-ray and radio measurements, this identification required further confirmation. Here we present deep, high angular resolution, strictly simultaneous X-ray and radio observations of G1. While the X-ray emission (L{sub X} = 1.74{sup +0.53}{sub -0.44} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 36} (d/750 kpc){sup 2} erg s{sup -1} in the 0.5-10 keV band) remained fully consistent with previous observations, we detected no radio emission from the cluster center down to a 3{sigma} upper limit of 4.7 {mu}Jy beam{sup -1}. Our favored explanation for the previous radio detection is flaring activity from a black hole low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB). We performed a new regression of the 'Fundamental Plane' of black hole activity, valid for determining black hole mass from radio and X-ray observations of sub-Eddington black holes, finding log M{sub BH} = (1.638 {+-} 0.070)log L{sub R} - (1.136 {+-} 0.077)log L{sub X} - (6.863 {+-} 0.790), with an empirically determined uncertainty of 0.44 dex. This constrains the mass of the X-ray source in G1, if a black hole, to be <9.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} M{sub Sun} at 95% confidence, suggesting that it is a persistent LMXB. This annuls what was previously the most convincing evidence from radiation for an IMBH in the Local Group, though the evidence for an IMBH in G1 from velocity dispersion measurements remains unaffected by these results.

  3. M/G/1/K system with push-out scheme under vacation policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji Kasahara

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider an M/G/1/K system with push-out scheme and multiple vacations. This model is particularly important in situations where it is essential to provide short waiting times to messages which are selected for service. We analyze the behavior of two types of messages: one that succeeds in transmission and the other that fails. We derive the Laplace-Stieltjes transform of the waiting time distribution for the message which is eventually served. Finally, we show some numerical results including the comparisons between the push-out and the ordinary blocking models.

  4. Analysis of Rca1 function at the G1-S transition in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Querings, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    Tight control of APC/C-Cdh1Fzr activity is essential for progression through mitosis and establishment of the G1 phase. Rca1 is a nuclear protein that inhibits the APC/C-Cdh1Fzr complex during G2 to allow cyclin accumulation and subsequent entry into mitosis. In this thesis, a localisation study of Rca1 was performed revealing that a nuclear localisation sequence (NLS) and other domains in the protein mediate efficient nuclear accumulation. Besides its function in G2, Rca1 expression can prom...

  5. Modelling M/G/1 queueing systems with server vacations using stochastic Petri nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ramanath

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The theory of non-Markovian stochastic Petri nets is employed in this paper to derive an alternative method for studying the steady state behaviour of the M/G/1 vacation queueing system with a limited service discipline. Three types of vacation schemes are considered, and sytems with both a finite population and those with an infinite population (but finite capacity are considered. Simple numerical examples are also provided to illustrate the functionality of the methods and some useful performance measures for the system are obtained.

  6. The kernel G1(x,x') and the quantum equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceccatto, H.; Foussats, A.; Giacomini, H.; Zandron, O.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper, it is re-examined the formulation of the quantum equivalence principle (QEP) and its compatibility with the conditions which must be fulfilled by the kernel G 1 (x,x') is discussed. It is also determined the base of solutions which give the particle model in a curved space-time in terms of Cauchy's data for such a kernel. Finally, it is analyzed the creation of particles in this model by studying the time evolution of creation and annihilation operators. This method is an alternative to one that uses Bogoliubov's transformation as a mechanism of creation. (author)

  7. Modeling and Optimization of M/G/1-Type Queueing Networks: An Efficient Sensitivity Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Tang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model for M/G/1-type queueing networks with multiple user applications and limited resources is established. The goal is to develop a dynamic distributed algorithm for this model, which supports all data traffic as efficiently as possible and makes optimally fair decisions about how to minimize the network performance cost. An online policy gradient optimization algorithm based on a single sample path is provided to avoid suffering from a “curse of dimensionality”. The asymptotic convergence properties of this algorithm are proved. Numerical examples provide valuable insights for bridging mathematical theory with engineering practice.

  8. Cellular shear stiffness reflects progression of arsenic-induced transformation during G1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Alexandra; Eldridge, Will J; Jakobsen, Nina Munkholt

    2017-01-01

    epithelial cells were exposed to sodium arsenite to initiate early stages of transformation. Exposed cells were cultured in soft agar to further transformation and select for clonal populations exhibiting anchorage independent growth. Shear stiffness of various cell populations in G1 was assessed using...... reduced stiffness relative to control clonal lines, which were cultured in soft agar but did not receive arsenic treatment. The relative standard deviation of the stiffness of Arsenic clones was reduced compared to control clones, as well as to the arsenic exposed cell population. Cell stiffness...

  9. Strategies for a centralized single product multiclass M/G/1 make-to-stock queue

    OpenAIRE

    Abouee-Mehrizi, Hossein; Balcıoğlu, Ahmet Barış; Balcioglu, Ahmet Baris; Baron, Opher

    2012-01-01

    Make-to-stock queues are typically investigated in the M/M/1 settings. For centralized single-item systems with backlogs, the multilevel rationing (MR) policy is established as optimal and the strict priority (SP) policy is a practical compromise, balancing cost and ease of implementation. However, the optimal policy is unknown when service time is general, i.e., for M/G/1 queues. Dynamic programming, the tool commonly used to investigate the MR policy in make-to-stock queues, is less practic...

  10. Analysis of Repairable Geo/G/1 Queues with Negative Customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doo Ho Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider discrete-time Geo/G/1 queues with negative customers and a repairable server. The server is subject to failure due to a negative customer arrival. As soon as a negative customer arrives at a system, the server fails and one positive (ordinary customer is forced to leave. At a failure instant, the server is turned off and the repair process immediately begins. We construct the mathematical model and present the probability generating functions of the system size distribution and the FCFS sojourn time distribution. Finally, some numerical examples are given to show the influence of negative customer arrival on the performance measures of the system.

  11. Imaging Potential Evaluation of Fab Derived from the Anti-EGFRvIII Monoclonal Antibody 4G1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Shen; He, Yujia; He, Yanqiong; Wang, Liang; Jia, Jianhua; Shan, Xiaomin; Liu, Shuang; Tang, Min; Peng, Zhiping; Liu, Xujie

    2018-05-31

    As one of the most crucial epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) variants, EGFRvIII can be detected in various tumors but rarely in normal tissues, making it an ideal target for prognosis, diagnosis or immune therapy. The recently developed anti-EGFRvIII monoclonal antibody (mAb), 4G1, has been validated as a promising molecular probe to detect EGFRvIII expression in tumors by single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography imaging. To overcome shortcomings associated with the whole antibody, including long-term retention, circulation and enhanced permeability and retention effects, the Fab fragment of 4G1 (Fab-4G1) was generated, labeled with 131 I and evaluated in vitro and in vivo to test its potential application in molecular imaging. Whole mAb 4G1 was first digested by immobilized ficin and then purified through a protein A column to generate the Fab fragment, Fab-4G1. Next, SDS-PAGE, Western blot, indirect fluorescence assay, flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were performed to verify molecular weight, specificity and affinity of Fab-4G1. Finally, biodistribution planar gamma imaging was performed by injection of 131 I-labeled Fab-4G1 into xenografted EGFRvIII-overexpressed tumors in nude mice. Parallel studies were also performed with intact 4G1. The molecular weight of Fab was determined to be 35-40 kDa by SDS-PAGE. In vitro tests confirmed both intact 4G1 and Fab-4G1 specifically bound EGFRvIII but not wild-type EGFR, and Fab-4G1 showed decreased affinity. Compared to 131 I-4G1, biodistribution studies showed lower tumor uptake of 131 I-Fab-4G1 at all time points, but much faster elimination in all normal organs. As for planar gamma imaging, 131 I-Fab-4G1 and 31 I-4G1 showed similar imaging effect at 2 h after injection of tracer, while 131 I-Fab-4G1 was eliminated more quickly with time, suggesting radiolabeled Fab-4G1 could be potentially used for imaging of EGFRvIII-positive tumors at early time points. Radiolabeled

  12. Solution structures of α-conotoxin G1 determined by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardi, A.; Galdes, A.; Florance, J.; Maniconte, D.

    1989-01-01

    Two-dimensional NMR data have been used to generate solution structures of α-conotoxin G1, a potent peptide antagonist of the acetylcholine receptor. Structural information was obtained in the form of proton-proton internuclear distance constraints, and initial structures were produced with a distance geometry algorithm. Energetically more favorable structures were generated by using the distance geometry structures as input for a constrained energy minimization program. The results of both of these calculations indicate that the overall backbone conformation of the molecule is well-defined by the NMR data whereas the side-chain conformations are generally less well-defined. The main structural features derived from the NMR data were the presence of tight turns centered on residues Pro 5 and Arg 9 . The solution structures are compared with previous proposed models of conotoxin G1, and the NMR data are interpreted in conjunction with chemical modification studies and structural properties of other antagonists of the acetylcholine receptor to gain insight into structure-activity relationships in these peptide toxins

  13. The importance of G1/S-border and mitosis in the fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliakis, G.; Nuesse, M.

    1983-01-01

    The ability of synchronized Ehrlich ascites tumour cells to repair PLD was measured by introducing delays in their progression through the cell cycle either in the same phase as that where the irradiation was given or in a subsequent phase. Cells were incubated for this purpose either in balanced salt solution which nonspecifically delayed progression in all cell cycle phases or with 0.5 μg/ml aphidicolin which delayed cells in S-phase. Cells which had been delayed in their progression through the cell cycle were able to repair PLD irrespective of the phase at which they were held. In cases where the delay in the progression through the cell cycle was introduced in a phase subsequent to that of the exposure to irradiation, repair of PLD was observed only if the cells had not passed the G1/S-border or mitosis. Based on these results, the importance of G1/S-border and mitosis in the fixation of PLD is suggested. (orig.)

  14. Mercury contamination history of an estuarine floodplain reconstructed from a 210Pb-dated sediment core (Berg River, South Africa)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kading, TJ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available in this 210Pb-dated sediment core at <50 ng g_1 HgT throughout the core, but with 1.3 ng g_1 methylmercury in surface sediments. The 210Pb dating of the core provides a first record of mercury deposition to the site and reveals the onset of enhanced mercury...

  15. Cell cycle arrest in plants: what distinguishes quiescence, dormancy and differentiated G1?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velappan, Yazhini; Signorelli, Santiago; Considine, Michael J

    2017-10-17

    Quiescence is a fundamental feature of plant life, which enables plasticity, renewal and fidelity of the somatic cell line. Cellular quiescence is defined by arrest in a particular phase of the cell cycle, typically G1 or G2; however, the regulation of quiescence and proliferation can also be considered across wider scales in space and time. As such, quiescence is a defining feature of plant development and phenology, from meristematic stem cell progenitors to terminally differentiated cells, as well as dormant or suppressed seeds and buds. While the physiology of each of these states differs considerably, each is referred to as 'cell cycle arrest' or 'G1 arrest'. Here the physiology and molecular regulation of (1) meristematic quiescence, (2) dormancy and (3) terminal differentiation (cell cycle exit) are considered in order to determine whether and how the molecular decisions guiding these nuclear states are distinct. A brief overview of the canonical cell cycle regulators is provided, and the genetic and genomic, as well as physiological, evidence is considered regarding two primary questions: (1) Are the canonical cell cycle regulators superior or subordinate in the regulation of quiescence? (2) Are these three modes of quiescence governed by distinct molecular controls? Meristematic quiescence, dormancy and terminal differentiation are each predominantly characterized by G1 arrest but regulated distinctly, at a level largely superior to the canonical cell cycle. Meristematic quiescence is intrinsically linked to non-cell-autonomous regulation of meristem cell identity, and particularly through the influence of ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis, in partnership with reactive oxygen species, abscisic acid and auxin. The regulation of terminal differentiation shares analogous features with meristematic quiescence, albeit with specific activators and a greater role for cytokinin signalling. Dormancy meanwhile appears to be regulated at the level of chromatin

  16. The Pseudomonas syringae type III effector HopG1 targets mitochondria, alters plant development, and suppresses plant innate immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Anna; Guo, Ming; Li, Guangyong; Elowsky, Christian; Clemente, Thomas E.; Alfano, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae uses a type III protein secretion system to inject type III effectors into plant cells. Primary targets of these effectors appear to be effector-triggered immunity (ETI) and pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI). The type III effector HopG1 is a suppressor of ETI that is broadly conserved in bacterial plant pathogens. Here we show that HopG1 from P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 also suppresses PTI. Interestingly, HopG1 localizes to plant mitochondria, suggesting that its suppression of innate immunity may be linked to a perturbation of mitochondrial function. While HopG1 possesses no obvious mitochondrial signal peptide, its N-terminal two-thirds was sufficient for mitochondrial localization. A HopG1-GFP fusion lacking HopG1’s N-terminal 13 amino acids was not localized to the mitochondria reflecting the importance of the N-terminus for targeting. Constitutive expression of HopG1 in Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) and Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) dramatically alters plant development resulting in dwarfism, increased branching and infertility. Constitutive expression of HopG1 in planta leads to reduced respiration rates and an increased basal level of reactive oxygen species. These findings suggest that HopG1’s target is mitochondrial and that effector/target interaction promotes disease by disrupting mitochondrial functions. PMID:19863557

  17. A Discrete-Time Geo/G/1 Retrial Queue with Two Different Types of Vacations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze a discrete-time Geo/G/1 retrial queue with two different types of vacations and general retrial times. Two different types of vacation policies are investigated in this model, one of which is nonexhaustive urgent vacation during serving and the other is normal exhaustive vacation. For this model, we give the steady-state analysis for the considered queueing system. Firstly, we obtain the generating functions of the number of customers in our model. Then, we obtain the closed-form expressions of some performance measures and also give a stochastic decomposition result for the system size. Moreover, the relationship between this discrete-time model and the corresponding continuous-time model is also investigated. Finally, some numerical results are provided to illustrate the effect of nonexhaustive urgent vacation on some performance characteristics of the system.

  18. Disruption of Netrin G1 by a balanced chromosome translocation in a girl with Rett syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Isabella; Freude, Kristine; Kübart, Sabine

    2005-01-01

    with different C-termini: one membrane bound through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor and the other soluble. The membrane-bound protein isoform would be affected by the breakpoint, whereas the soluble form would remain intact. Our results suggest that the central nervous system is sensitive to NTNG1...... hybridisations, utilizing probes derived from breakpoint spanning BACs, detected several aberrant fragments specific for the patient. Sequence analysis of the cloned junction fragment indicated that on chromosome 1 the predominantly brain-expressed Netrin G1 (NTNG1) gene is disrupted, whereas on chromosome 7...... there was no indication for a truncated gene. The chromosome 1 breakpoint lies within the 3' part of NTNG1 and affects alternatively spliced transcripts, suggesting that the phenotype in this patient is the result of disturbed NTNG1 expression. In silico translation of the NTNG1 splice variants predicted protein isoforms...

  19. Simulation Research on Vehicle Active Suspension Controller Based on G1 Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gen; Li, Hang; Zhang, Shuaiyang; Luo, Qiuhui

    2017-09-01

    Based on the order relation analysis method (G1 method), the optimal linear controller of vehicle active suspension is designed. The system of the main and passive suspension of the single wheel vehicle is modeled and the system input signal model is determined. Secondly, the system motion state space equation is established by the kinetic knowledge and the optimal linear controller design is completed with the optimal control theory. The weighting coefficient of the performance index coefficients of the main passive suspension is determined by the relational analysis method. Finally, the model is simulated in Simulink. The simulation results show that: the optimal weight value is determined by using the sequence relation analysis method under the condition of given road conditions, and the vehicle acceleration, suspension stroke and tire motion displacement are optimized to improve the comprehensive performance of the vehicle, and the active control is controlled within the requirements.

  20. Parafibromin inhibits cancer cell growth and causes G1 phase arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chun; Kong Dong; Tan, M.-H.; Pappas, Donald L.; Wang, P.-F.; Chen, Jindong; Farber, Leslie; Zhang Nian; Koo, H.-M.; Weinreich, Michael; Williams, Bart O.; Teh, B.T.

    2006-01-01

    The HRPT2 (hereditary hyperparathyroidism type 2) tumor suppressor gene encodes a ubiquitously expressed 531 amino acid protein termed parafibromin. Inactivation of parafibromin predisposes one to the development of HPT-JT syndrome. To date, the role of parafibromin in tumorigenesis is largely unknown. Here, we report that parafibromin is a nuclear protein that possesses anti-proliferative properties. We show that overexpression of parafibromin inhibits colony formation and cellular proliferation, and induces cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. Moreover, HPT-JT syndrome-derived mutations in HRPT2 behave in a dominant-negative manner by abolishing the ability of parafibromin to suppress cell proliferation. These findings suggest that parafibromin has a critical role in cell growth, and mutations in HRPT2 can directly inhibit this role

  1. Flavor singlet contribution to the structure function g1 at small-x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, J.; Ryskin, M.G.

    1996-02-01

    The singlet contribution to the g 1 (x, Q 2 ) structure function are calculated in the double-logarithmic approximation of perturbative QCD in the region x s ln 2 (1/x)) k which are not included in the GLAP evolution equations are shown to give a power-like rise at small-x which is much stronger than the extrapolation of the GLAP expressions. The dominant contribution is due to the gluons which, in contrast to the unpolarized case, mix with the fermions also in the region x<<1. The two main reasons why the small-x behavior of the double logarithmic approximation is so much stronger than the usual GLAP evolution are: the larger kinematical region of integration (in particular, no ordering in transverse momentum) and the contributions from non-ladder diagrams. (orig.)

  2. Phytotoxic eremophilane sesquiterpenes from the coprophilous fungus Penicillium sp. G1-a14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Valle, Paulina; Figueroa, Mario; Mata, Rachel

    2015-02-27

    Bioassay-directed fractionation of an extract from the grain-based culture of the coprophilous fungus Penicillium sp. G1-a14 led to the isolation of a new eremophilane-type sesquiterpene, 3R,6R-dihydroxy-9,7(11)-dien-8-oxoeremophilane (1), along with three known analogues, namely, isopetasol (2), sporogen AO-1 (3), and dihydrosporogen AO-1 (4). The structure of 1 was elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Assignment of absolute configuration at the stereogenic centers of 1 was achieved using ECD spectroscopy combined with time-dependent density functional theory calculations. Sporogen AO-1 (3) and dihydrosporogen AO-1 (4) caused significant inhibition of radicle growth against Amaranthus hypochondriacus (IC50 = 0.17 mM for both compounds) and Echinochloa crus-galli (IC50 = 0.17 and 0.30 mM, respectively).

  3. Human anti-rhesus D IgG1 antibody produced in transgenic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouquin, Thomas; Thomsen, Mads; Nielsen, Leif Kofoed

    2002-01-01

    antigen, which is responsible for alloimmunization of RhD- mothers carrying an RhD+ fetus. Anti-RhD extracted from plants specifically reacted with RhD+ cells in antiglobulin technique, and elicited a respiratory burst in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Plant-derived antibody had equivalent......Transgenic plants represent an alternative to cell culture systems for producing cheap and safe antibodies for diagnostic and therapeutic use. To evaluate the functional properties of a 'plantibody', we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing full-length human IgG1 against the Rhesus D...... properties to CHO cell-produced anti-RhD antibody, indicating its potential usefulness in diagnostic and therapeutic programs....

  4. Investigations on the discrete Gi(G)1 queue with and without loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gergely, T.; Toeroek, T.L.

    1975-12-01

    A comprehensive discussion of the method for investigating queuing systems characterized by random variables of integer values is given. Specially the discrete GI(G)1 queuing systems are considered. The first part of the paper takes a short summary on the theory of discrete stochastic processes. In the second part the properties of the fundamental characteristics of the queuing system as the busy period, the waiting time and the output processes are discussed. In the last section some remarks are added to show the direction of further investigations. To demonstrated the simplicity of the relations verified in the paper some computed examples are presented in the appendix. The computations were performed with a mini-computer of 8K words memory. (Sz.Z.)

  5. Preliminary stratigraphic and petrologic characterization of core samples from USW-G1, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, A.C.; Carroll, P.R.

    1981-11-01

    Tuffs of the Nevada Test Site are currently under investigation to determine their potential for long-term storage of radioactive waste. As part of this program, hole USW-G1 was drilled to a depth of 6000 ft below the surface, in the central part of the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Petrographic study of the USW-G1 core is presented in this report and shows the tuffs (which generally were variably welded ash flows) are partly recrystallized to a variety of secondary minerals. The important alteration products are zeolites (heulandite, clinoptilolite, mordenite and analcime), smectite clays with minor interstratified illite, albite, micas, potassium feldspar, and various forms of silica. Iijima's zeolite zones I through IV of burial metamorphism can be recognized in the core. Zeolites are first observed at about the 1300-ft depth, and the high-temperature boundary of zeolite stability in this core occurs at about 4350 ft. Analcime persists, either metastably or as a retrograde mineral, deeper in the core. The oxidation state of Fe-Ti oxide minerals, through most of the core, increases as the degree of welding decreases, but towards the bottom of the hole, reducing conditions generally prevail. Four stratigraphic units transected by the core may be potentially favorable sites for a waste repository. These four units, in order of increasing depth in the core, are (1) the lower cooling unit of the Topopah Spring Member, (2) cooling unit II of the Bullfrog Member, (3) the upper part of the Tram tuff, and (4) the Lithic-rich tuff

  6. First detection of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) in dogs in central Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, Rihab Ali; Daugschies, Arwid; Gawlowska, Sandra; Elnahas, Ayman; Kern, Peter; Bashir, Sofia; Ali, Mohammed Sir Alkhatim; Osman, Amin; Romig, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Eighty-four stray dogs shot as a part of a governmental rabies control program in two neighboring towns of central Sudan were examined for the presence of Echinococcus spp. and other intestinal helminths. Echinococcus worms were identified to species level by PCR and gene sequencing. For comparative reasons, rectal content of the necropsied dogs was examined for helminth eggs and subjected to copro-PCR for Echinococcus. At necropsy, 51.2% (43/84) of the dogs harbored Echinococcus canadensis (G6/7) worms with worm burdens ranging from 22,000 to 80,000. Dipylidiun caninum was found in 53.6% of the dogs. At coproscopy, taeniid eggs were found in 37 of the 43 dogs which were positive for Echinococcus at necropsy, but none in the 41 necropsy-negative dogs. In addition, 58% of the rectal samples contained eggs of Toxocara spp., 34.5% eggs of Trichuris spp. (34.5%), and 26% eggs of Ancylostoma caninum. Copro-PCR gave positive results for E. canadensis with 97.5% (39/40) of nonhibiting samples from the necropsy positive dogs; the one remaining dog tested positive for E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1), whose partial cox1 and nad1 sequences showed a 100% identity with various reference sequences of the G1 genotype. 100% of 38 non-inhibited samples taken from the necropsy-negative dogs were also negative in copro-PCR. This is the first study which combines prevalence and genetic identification of Echinococcus spp. in dogs of Sudan. Together with a recent report from cattle, it confirms the autochthonous presence, at low level, of E. granulosus sensu stricto in Central Sudan.

  7. Preliminary stratigraphic and petrologic characterization of core samples from USW-G1, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, A.C.; Carroll, P.R. (eds.)

    1981-11-01

    Tuffs of the Nevada Test Site are currently under investigation to determine their potential for long-term storage of radioactive waste. As part of this program, hole USW-G1 was drilled to a depth of 6000 ft below the surface, in the central part of the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Petrographic study of the USW-G1 core is presented in this report and shows the tuffs (which generally were variably welded ash flows) are partly recrystallized to a variety of secondary minerals. The important alteration products are zeolites (heulandite, clinoptilolite, mordenite and analcime), smectite clays with minor interstratified illite, albite, micas, potassium feldspar, and various forms of silica. Iijima`s zeolite zones I through IV of burial metamorphism can be recognized in the core. Zeolites are first observed at about the 1300-ft depth, and the high-temperature boundary of zeolite stability in this core occurs at about 4350 ft. Analcime persists, either metastably or as a retrograde mineral, deeper in the core. The oxidation state of Fe-Ti oxide minerals, through most of the core, increases as the degree of welding decreases, but towards the bottom of the hole, reducing conditions generally prevail. Four stratigraphic units transected by the core may be potentially favorable sites for a waste repository. These four units, in order of increasing depth in the core, are (1) the lower cooling unit of the Topopah Spring Member, (2) cooling unit II of the Bullfrog Member, (3) the upper part of the Tram tuff, and (4) the Lithic-rich tuff.

  8. The impact of geoengineering on vegetation in experiment G1 of the GeoMIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glienke, Susanne; Irvine, Peter J.; Lawrence, Mark G.

    2015-10-01

    Solar Radiation Management (SRM) has been proposed as a mean to partly counteract global warming. The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) has simulated the climate consequences of a number of SRM techniques. Thus far, the effects on vegetation have not yet been thoroughly analyzed. Here the vegetation response to the idealized GeoMIP G1 experiment from eight fully coupled Earth system models (ESMs) is analyzed, in which a reduction of the solar constant counterbalances the radiative effects of quadrupled atmospheric CO2 concentrations (abrupt4 × CO2). For most models and regions, changes in net primary productivity (NPP) are dominated by the increase in CO2, via the CO2 fertilization effect. As SRM will reduce temperatures relative to abrupt4 × CO2, in high latitudes this will offset increases in NPP. In low latitudes, this cooling relative to the abrupt4 × CO2 simulation decreases plant respiration while having little effect on gross primary productivity, thus increasing NPP. In Central America and the Mediterranean, generally dry regions which are expected to experience increased water stress with global warming, NPP is highest in the G1 experiment for all models due to the easing of water limitations from increased water use efficiency at high-CO2 concentrations and the reduced evaporative demand in a geoengineered climate. The largest differences in the vegetation response are between models with and without a nitrogen cycle, with a much smaller CO2 fertilization effect for the former. These results suggest that until key vegetation processes are integrated into ESM predictions, the vegetation response to SRM will remain highly uncertain.

  9. Underground gas storage Uelsen: Findings from planning, building and commissioning the surface buildings and structures; Untertagegasspeicher (UGS) Uelsen: Erkenntnisse aus Planung, Bau und Inbetriebnahme der obertaegigen Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Focke, H.; Brueggmann, R.; Mende, F.; Steinkraus, D.; Wauer, R. [BEB Erdgas und Erdoel GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The article describes the concepts of the plants and equipment and the specific features of the underground storage at Uelsen. The underground storage will be purpose-built as an H-gas storage in a nearly depleted sandstone deposit. At a nominal deliverability of 250.000 cubic m/h (Vn) the storage at Uelsen has more potential for expansion. This potential was taken into account by designing appropriate pressure stages, capacities, performance characteristics and space. (orig.). [Deutsch] Die nachfolgende Veroeffentlichung stellt das anlagentechnische Grundkonzept und die spezifischen Besonderheiten des UGS Uelsen dar. Der im suedwestlichen Niedersachsen als H-Gasspeicher in einer nahezu ausgefoerderten Buntsandsteinlagerstaette eingerichtete UGS Uelsen wird in mehreren Ausbaustufen bedarfsgerecht fertiggestellt. Bei einer Nennentnahmekapazitaet von 450.000 m{sup 3}/h (Vn) und einer Nenninjektionsleistung von 250.000 m{sup 3}/h (Vn) weist der UGS Uelsen noch weiteres Potential fuer Erweiterungen auf. Dieses Ausbaupotential wurde bei der Planung und dem Bau der bestehenden Anlagen durch Festlegung entsprechender Druckstufen, Kapazitaeten, Leistungsgroessen und Platzanordnungen beruecksichtigt. (orig.)

  10. Creation of a magnetic barrier at a noble q close to physical midpoint between two resonant surfaces in the ASDEX UG tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Justin; Ali, Halima; Punjabi, Alkesh

    2009-11-01

    Ciraolo, Vittot and Chandre method of building invariant manifolds inside chaos in Hamiltonian systems [Ali H. and Punjabi A, Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion, 49, 1565--1582 (2007)] is used in the ASDEX UG tokamak. In this method, a second order perturbation is added to the perturbed Hamiltonian [op cit]. It creates an invariant torus inside the chaos, and reduces the plasma transport. The perturbation that is added to the equilibrium Hamiltonian is at least an order of magnitude smaller than the perturbation that causes chaos. This additional term has a finite, limited number of Fourier modes. Resonant magnetic perturbations (m,n) = (3,2)+(4,3) are added to the field line Hamiltonian for the ASDEX UG. An area-preserving map for the field line trajectories in the ASDEX UG is used. The common amplitude δ of these modes that gives complete chaos between the resonant surfaces ψ43 and ψ32 is determined. A magnetic barrier is built at a surface with noble q that is very nearly equals to the q at the physical midpoint between the two resonant surfaces. The maximum amplitude of magnetic perturbation for which this barrier can be sustained is determined. This work is supported by US Department of Energy grants DE-FG02-07ER54937, DE-FG02-01ER54624 and DE-FG02-04ER54793.

  11. Reprint of "Survey and first molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) in Pampas fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus) in Buenos Aires province, Argentina".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scioscia, Nathalia Paula; Petrigh, Romina Sandra; Beldomenico, Pablo Martín; Fugassa, Martín; Denegri, Guillermo María

    2017-01-01

    Echinococcosis is a zoonosis caused by tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s. l.) has a world-wide distribution and its transmission is primarily maintained in a synanthropic cycle with dogs as definitive hosts and livestock species as intermediate hosts. However, many wild canids also function as definitive hosts for E. granulosus s. l. Echinococcosis in humans is mainly caused by E. granulosus sensu stricto (s. s.) G1 genotype. In the present work, we expanded the epidemiological study on echinococcosis reported cases in Pampas fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus) to provide a prevalence estimate for rural areas of southern Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Ninety-five whole intestines were analyzed using the sedimentation and counting technique with a result of 83 foxes (87.37%) harboring at least one helminth species. E. granulosus s. l. adults were found in one Pampas fox (1.05%). These adult helminthes were E. granulosus s. s. (G1) according to the genotyping analysis of a 450-bp region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. 26 CFR 1.1402(g)-1 - Treatment of certain remuneration erroneously reported as net earnings from self-employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reported as net earnings from self-employment. 1.1402(g)-1 Section 1.1402(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... self-employment. (a) General rule. If an amount is erroneously paid as self-employment tax, for any... self-employment income on a return filed on or before the due date prescribed for filing such return...

  13. The Drosophila mitochondrial translation elongation factor G1 contains a nuclear localization signal and inhibits growth and DPP signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Trivigno

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the human mitochondrial elongation factor G1 (EF-G1 are recessive lethal and cause death shortly after birth. We have isolated mutations in iconoclast (ico, which encodes the highly conserved Drosophila orthologue of EF-G1. We find that EF-G1 is essential during fly development, but its function is not required in every tissue. In contrast to null mutations, missense mutations exhibit stronger, possibly neomorphic phenotypes that lead to premature death during embryogenesis. Our experiments show that EF-G1 contains a secondary C-terminal nuclear localization signal. Expression of missense mutant forms of EF-G1 can accumulate in the nucleus and cause growth and patterning defects and animal lethality. We find that transgenes that encode mutant human EF-G1 proteins can rescue ico mutants, indicating that the underlying problem of the human disease is not just the loss of enzymatic activity. Our results are consistent with a model where EF-G1 acts as a retrograde signal from mitochondria to the nucleus to slow down cell proliferation if mitochondrial energy output is low.

  14. The Drosophila mitochondrial translation elongation factor G1 contains a nuclear localization signal and inhibits growth and DPP signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivigno, Catherine; Haerry, Theodor E

    2011-02-25

    Mutations in the human mitochondrial elongation factor G1 (EF-G1) are recessive lethal and cause death shortly after birth. We have isolated mutations in iconoclast (ico), which encodes the highly conserved Drosophila orthologue of EF-G1. We find that EF-G1 is essential during fly development, but its function is not required in every tissue. In contrast to null mutations, missense mutations exhibit stronger, possibly neomorphic phenotypes that lead to premature death during embryogenesis. Our experiments show that EF-G1 contains a secondary C-terminal nuclear localization signal. Expression of missense mutant forms of EF-G1 can accumulate in the nucleus and cause growth and patterning defects and animal lethality. We find that transgenes that encode mutant human EF-G1 proteins can rescue ico mutants, indicating that the underlying problem of the human disease is not just the loss of enzymatic activity. Our results are consistent with a model where EF-G1 acts as a retrograde signal from mitochondria to the nucleus to slow down cell proliferation if mitochondrial energy output is low.

  15. Atomic absorption spectrophotometric determination of microgram levels of Co, Ni, Cu, Pb, and Zn in soil and sediment extracts containing large amounts of Mn and Fe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1973-01-01

    An atomic absorption spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of seven metal ions in the hydroxylamine extract of soils and sediments. Mn, Fe, and Zn are directly determined in the aqueous extract upon dilution. Co, Ni, Cu, and Pb in a separate aliquot of the extract are chelated with APDC (ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate) and extracted into MIBK (methyl isobutyl ketone) before determination. Data are presented to show the quantitative recovery of microgram levels of Co, Ni, Cu, and Pb by APDC-MIBK chelation-extraction from synthetic solutions containing as much as 2,000 ug/ml (micrograms per milliliter) Mn or 50 ug/ml Fe. Recovery of known amounts of the metal ions from sample solutions is equally satisfactory. Reproducible results are obtained by replicate analyses of two sediment samples for the seven metals.

  16. Altered G1 checkpoint control determines adaptive survival responses to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothman, David A.; Meyers, Mark; Odegaard, Eric; Wang, Meizhi

    1996-01-01

    Adaptive survival responses (ASRs) are observed when cells become more resistant to a high dose of a cytotoxic agent after repeated low dose exposures to that agent or another genotoxic agent. Confluent (G 0 /G 1 ) human normal (GM2936B, GM2937A, AG2603, IMR-90), cancer-prone (XPV2359), and neoplastic (U1-Mel, HEp-2, HTB-152) cells were primed with repeated low doses of X-rays (ranging from 0.05-10 cGy/day for 4 days), then challenged with a high dose (290-450 cGy) on day 5. U1-Mel and HEp-2 cells showed greater than 2-fold transient survival enhancement when primed with 1-10 cGy. ASRs in U1-Mel or HEp-2 cells were blocked by cycloheximide or actinomycin D. Increases in cyclins A and D1 mRNAs were noted in primed compared to unirradiated U1-Mel and HEp-2 cells; however, only cyclin A protein levels increased. Cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein levels were constitutively elevated in HEp-2 and U1-Mel cells, compared to the other human normal and neoplastic cells examined, and were not altered by low or high doses of radiation. Low dose primed U1-Mel cells entered S-phase 4-6 h faster than unprimed U1-Mel cells upon low-density replating. Similar responses in terms of survival recovery, transcript and protein induction, and altered cell cycle regulation were not observed in the other human normal, cancer-prone or neoplastic cells examined. We hypothesize that only certain human cells can adapt to ionizing radiation by progressing to a point later in G 1 (the A point) where DNA repair processes and radioresistance can be induced. ASRs in human cells correlated well with constitutively elevated levels of PCNA and cyclin D1, as well as inducibility of cyclin A. We propose that a protein complex composed of cyclin D1, PCNA, and possibly cyclin A may play a role in cell cycle regulation and DNA repair, which determine ASRs in human cells

  17. Intragenic origins due to short G1 phases underlie oncogene-induced DNA replication stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macheret, Morgane; Halazonetis, Thanos D

    2018-03-01

    Oncogene-induced DNA replication stress contributes critically to the genomic instability that is present in cancer. However, elucidating how oncogenes deregulate DNA replication has been impeded by difficulty in mapping replication initiation sites on the human genome. Here, using a sensitive assay to monitor nascent DNA synthesis in early S phase, we identified thousands of replication initiation sites in cells before and after induction of the oncogenes CCNE1 and MYC. Remarkably, both oncogenes induced firing of a novel set of DNA replication origins that mapped within highly transcribed genes. These ectopic origins were normally suppressed by transcription during G1, but precocious entry into S phase, before all genic regions had been transcribed, allowed firing of origins within genes in cells with activated oncogenes. Forks from oncogene-induced origins were prone to collapse, as a result of conflicts between replication and transcription, and were associated with DNA double-stranded break formation and chromosomal rearrangement breakpoints both in our experimental system and in a large cohort of human cancers. Thus, firing of intragenic origins caused by premature S phase entry represents a mechanism of oncogene-induced DNA replication stress that is relevant for genomic instability in human cancer.

  18. Echinococcus canadensis (G7) and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) in swine of southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, D U; Botton, S A; Tonin, A A; Azevedo, M I; Graichen, D A S; Noal, C B; de la Rue, M L

    2014-05-28

    The cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an important zoonotic disease caused by the parasite Echinococcus spp. In Brazil, this parasite is present in Rio Grande do Sul (RS) state, border with Argentina and Uruguay, causing several damages to human and animal health. This study aimed to identify Echinococcus spp. in hydatid cysts of swine and evaluate the similarity of the genotypes through the phylogenetic analysis. A total of 3,101,992 swine were slaughtered in the central/northern region of RS/Brazil, during 2008-2012. Five isolates were characterized as hydatid cyst by molecular analysis, based on the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox-I). The genotypes E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1) (n=2) and E. canadensis (G7) (n=3) were identified in the hydatid cysts. The swine represents a potential intermediate host for different genotypes of Echinococcus spp., besides it can contribute to the perpetuation of the parasite's life cycle in rural areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Serum-induced G0/G1 transition in chemically transformed 3T3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, H.E.; Buchou, T.; Mester, J.

    1987-01-01

    Quiescent, chemically transformed (benzo-a-pyrene) BALB/c 3T3 cells (BP A31) enter the cell division cycle when exposed to complete medium containing 10% fetal calf serum (FCS); the number of cells recruited is a function of the duration of serum exposure. The recruitment of cells by short (<4 h) serum pulses is not inhibited by simultaneous exposure to cycloheximide (CH), and therefore the initial commitment does not require protein synthesis. The cells enter S phase with a constant delay following the removal of CH, even if CH exposure has been continued for as long as 20 h after the end of the serum pulse. The cell recruitment by serum pulses was inhibited by 5,6-dichloro-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-benzimidazole (DRB), an inhibitor of cytoplasmic mRNA accumulation. These data suggest that serum exposure produces a stable memory that is necessary and sufficient for the eventual progression through G1 to S phase that occurs when protein synthesis is resumed after the removal of CH; this memory probably consists of mRNA species that are induced by serum and that are stable in the absence of protein synthesis. Unexpectedly, pretreatment of quiescent BP A31 cells with CH (8-24 h) dramatically increased the fraction of the total cell population that is recruited by a serum pulse of fixed duration

  20. Screening of recombinant glycosyltransferases reveals the broad acceptor specificity of stevia UGT-76G1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewitte, Griet; Walmagh, Maarten; Diricks, Margo; Lepak, Alexander; Gutmann, Alexander; Nidetzky, Bernd; Desmet, Tom

    2016-09-10

    UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) are a promising class of biocatalysts that offer a sustainable alternative for chemical glycosylation of natural products. In this study, we aimed to characterize plant-derived UGTs from the GT-1 family with an emphasis on their acceptor promiscuity and their potential application in glycosylation processes. Recombinant expression in E. coli provided sufficient amounts of enzyme for the in-depth characterization of the salicylic acid UGT from Capsella rubella (UGT-SACr) and the stevia UGT from Stevia rebaudiana (UGT-76G1Sr). The latter was found to have a remarkably broad specificity with activities on a wide diversity of structures, from aliphatic and branched alcohols, over small phenolics to larger flavonoids, terpenoids and even higher glycoside compounds. As an example for its industrial potential, the glycosylation of curcumin was thoroughly evaluated. Under optimized conditions, 96% of curcumin was converted within 24h into the corresponding curcumin β-glycosides. In addition, the reaction was performed in a coupled system with sucrose synthase from Glycine max, to enable the cost-efficient (re)generation of UDP-Glc from sucrose as abundant and renewable resource. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. TGFβ lengthens the G1 phase of stem cells in aged mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daynac, Mathieu; Pineda, Jose R; Chicheportiche, Alexandra; Gauthier, Laurent R; Morizur, Lise; Boussin, François D; Mouthon, Marc-André

    2014-12-01

    Neurogenesis decreases during aging causing a progressive cognitive decline but it is still controversial whether proliferation defects in neurogenic niches result from a loss of neural stem cells or from an impairment of their progression through the cell cycle. Using an accurate fluorescence-activated cell sorting technique, we show that the pool of neural stem cells is maintained in the subventricular zone of middle-aged mice while they have a reduced proliferative potential eventually leading to the subsequent decrease of their progeny. In addition, we demonstrate that the G1 phase is lengthened during aging specifically in activated stem cells, but not in transit-amplifying cells, and directly impacts on neurogenesis. Finally, we report that inhibition of TGFβ signaling restores cell cycle progression defects in stem cells. Our data highlight the significance of cell cycle dysregulation in stem cells in the aged brain and provide an attractive foundation for the development of anti-TGFβ regenerative therapies based on stimulating endogenous neural stem cells. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  2. Data fitting by G1 rational cubic Bézier curves using harmony search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najihah Mohamed

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A metaheuristic algorithm, called Harmony Search (HS is implemented for data fitting by rational cubic Bézier curves. HS is a derivative-free real parameter optimization algorithm, and draws an inspiration from the musical improvisation process of searching for a perfect state of harmony. HS is suitable for multivariate non-linear optimization problem. It is mainly achieved by data fitting using rational cubic Bézier curves with G1 continuity for every joint of segments of the whole data sets. This approach has significant contributions in making the technique automated. HS is used to optimize positions of middle points and values of the shape parameters. Test outline images and comparative experimental analysis are presented to show effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method. Statistical testing between HS and two other different metaheuristic algorithms is used in the analysis on several outline images. All of the algorithms improvised a near optimal solution but the result that is obtained by the HS is better than the results of the other two algorithms.

  3. Antiviral therapy in chronic hepatitis C (G1 in Russia: cost and effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rudakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Genotype 1 HCV treatment in Russia assume as bitherapy (pegylated interferon – PG plus ribavirin – RBV as three therapy based on HCV protease inhibitor such as telaprevir (TLV, boceprevir (BCV or simeprevir (SMV plus PG/RBV. Medical technologies characterize neither clinical effectiveness, safety profile nor cost-effectiveness so it’s crucial to assess different costs related antiviral regimens. Three therapy costs for naïve patients including TLV, BCV, SMV are higher bitherapy 2,6; 2,5; 3,1 times accordingly. Similar TLV and BCV effectiveness for naïve patients defines TLV or BCV as the preferable 1-st line regimen, depending on regional features of pricing. SMV and TLV efficacy is similar among naïve patients and ralapsers but SMV is affordable for partially responders and non-responders after previous bitherapy. SMV cost is 1,4 times higher vs TLV but SMV has improved tolerability, less drug-drug interactions and shorter course. Insufficient bitherapy effectiveness for G1 HCV (SVR 24 – 39%-55% is required repeated course of three therapy for half of patient population. The first line regimen based on innovation will improve clinical outcomes for more patients and provide cost saving vs previous bitherapy based on PG/RBV. 

  4. Extracellular matrix-dependent myosin dynamics during G1-S phase cell cycle progression in hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhadriraju, Kiran; Hansen, Linda K.

    2004-01-01

    Cell spreading and proliferation are tightly coupled in anchorage-dependent cells. While adhesion-dependent proliferation signals require an intact actin cytoskeleton, and some of these signals such as ERK activation have been characterized, the role of myosin in spreading and cell cycle progression under different extracellular matrix (ECM) conditions is not known. Studies presented here examine changes in myosin activity in freshly isolated hepatocytes under ECM conditions that promote either proliferation (high fibronectin density) or growth arrest (low fibronectin density). Three different measures were obtained and related to both spreading and cell cycle progression: myosin protein levels and association with cytoskeleton, myosin light chain phosphorylation, and its ATPase activity. During the first 48 h in culture, corresponding with transit through G1 phase, there was a six-fold increase in both myosin protein levels and myosin association with actin cytoskeleton. There was also a steady increase in myosin light chain phosphorylation and ATPase activity with spreading, which did not occur in non-spread, growth-arrested cells on low density of fibronectin. Myosin-inhibiting drugs blocked ERK activation, cyclin D1 expression, and S phase entry. Overexpression of the cell cycle protein cyclin D1 overcame both ECM-dependent and actomyosin-dependent inhibition of DNA synthesis, suggesting that cyclin D1 is a key event downstream of myosin-dependent cell cycle regulation

  5. Barium ionization mechanisms in the CRRES G-1 and G-11b releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunton, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    The G-11b chemical release experiment form the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) was conducted in darkness below the solar UV terminator to test the Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV) hypothesis. The Quadrupole Ion Mass Spectrometer (QIMS) aboard CRRES measured fluxes of barium ions from this darkness release that were only a factor of ten smaller than the G-1 release measurements in full sunlight. Possible mechanisms for this significant barium ionization in darkness include CIV, charge exchange with O + , collisional ionization and associative ionization. The authors have evaluated the relative contributions of the collisional mechanisms by constructing a simple model of barium ions from the darkness release seem to be consistent with recent measurements of the charge transfer cross section. A collective plasma ionization mechanism such as CIV does not seem to necessary in order to explain the large barium ion fluxes observed. However, QIMS could only detect barium ions formed several seconds after the initial detonation of the release canister. A CIV process could still have occurred very early in the expansion of the barium neutral cloud and the mass spectrometer would not have detected these ions

  6. Inhibition of G0/G1 Switch 2 Ameliorates Renal Inflammation in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Matsunaga

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a global health problem, and novel therapies to treat CKD are urgently needed. Here, we show that inhibition of G0/G1 switch 2 (G0s2 ameliorates renal inflammation in a mouse model of CKD. Renal expression of chemokine (C-C motif ligand 2 (Ccl2 was increased in response to p65 activation in the kidneys of wild-type 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6Nx mice. Moreover, 5/6Nx Clk/Clk mice, which carry homozygous mutations in the gene encoding circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK, did not exhibit aggravation of apoptosis or induction of F4/80-positive cells. The renal expression of G0s2 in wild-type 5/6Nx mice was important for the transactivation of Ccl2 by p65. These pathologies were ameliorated by G0s2 knockdown. Furthermore, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of G0s2 expression was identified by high-throughput chemical screening, and the inhibitor suppressed renal inflammation in 5/6Nx mice. These findings indicated that G0s2 inhibitors may have applications in the treatment of CKD.

  7. Atrazine degradation by bioaugmented sediment from constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runes, H B; Jenkins, J J; Bottomley, P J

    2001-10-01

    The potential to establish pesticide biodegradation in constructed wetland sediment was investigated. Under microcosm conditions, bioaugmentation of sediment with small quantities of an atrazine spill-site soil (1:100 w/w) resulted in the mineralization of 25-30% of 14C ethyl atrazine (1-10 microg g(-1) sediment) as 14CO2 under both unsaturated and water-saturated conditions; atrazine and its common metabolites were almost undetectable after 30 days incubation. By comparison, unbioaugmented sediment supplemented with organic amendments (cellulose or cattail leaves) mineralized only 2-3% of 14C ethyl atrazine, and extractable atrazine and its common metabolites comprised approximately 70% of the original application. The population density of atrazine-degrading microorganisms in unbioaugmented sediment was increased from approximately 10(2)/g to 10(4)/g by bioaugmentation (1:100 w/w), and increased by another 60-fold (6.0x10(5) g(-1)) after incubation with 10 microg g(-1) of atrazine. A high population of atrazine degraders (approximately 10(6) g(-1)) and enhanced rates of atrazine mineralization also developed in bioaugmented sediment after incubation in flooded mesocosms planted with cattails (Typha latifolia) and supplemented with atrazine (3.2 mg l(-1), 1 microg g(-1) sediment). In the absence of atrazine, neither the population of atrazine degraders, nor the atrazine mineralizing potential of bioaugmented sediment increased, regardless of the presence or absence of cattails. Bioaugmentation might be a simple method to promote pesticide degradation in nursery run-off channeled through constructed wetlands, if persistence of degraders in the absence of pesticide is not a serious constraint.

  8. Factors influencing mercury in freshwater surface sediments of northeastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamman, N.C.; Chalmers, A.; Clair, T.A.; Major, A.; Moore, R.B.; Norton, S.A.; Shanley, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    We report on an inventory and analysis of sediment mercury (Hg) concentrations from 579 sites across northeastern North America. Sediment Hg concentrations ranged from the limit of detection ca. 0.01-3.7 ??g g -1 (dry weight, d.w.), and the average concentration was 0.19 ??g g-1 (d.w.) Sediment methylmercury concentrations ranged from 0.15 to 21 ng g-1 (d.w.) and the mean concentration was 3.83 ng g -1 (d.w.). Total Hg concentrations (HgT) were greatest in lakes > reservoirs > rivers, although the proportion of Hg as methylmercury showed an inverse pattern. Total Hg was weakly and positively correlated with the sediment organic matter and percent of watershed as forested land, and weakly and negatively correlated with sediment solids content, drainage area, and agricultural land. Sediment methylmercury concentrations were weakly and positively correlated to wetland area, and weakly and negatively correlated to drainage area. Methylmercury, expressed as a percentage of HgT was positively correlated to agricultural land area. For sites with co-located sediment and fish-tissue sampling results, there was no relationship between sediment Hg and fish-tissue Hg. Finally, our data indicate that at least 44% of waters across the region have sediment HgT concentrations in excess of Canadian and United States minimum sediment contaminant guidelines for the protection of aquatic biota. ?? 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  9. Advanced MicroObserver UGS integration with and cueing of the BattleHawk squad level loitering munition and UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steadman, Bob; Finklea, John; Kershaw, James; Loughman, Cathy; Shaffner, Patti; Frost, Dean; Deller, Sean

    2014-06-01

    Textron's Advanced MicroObserver(R) is a next generation remote unattended ground sensor system (UGS) for border security, infrastructure protection, and small combat unit security. The original MicroObserver(R) is a sophisticated seismic sensor system with multi-node fusion that supports target tracking. This system has been deployed in combat theaters. The system's seismic sensor nodes are uniquely able to be completely buried (including antennas) for optimal covertness. The advanced version adds a wireless day/night Electro-Optic Infrared (EOIR) system, cued by seismic tracking, with sophisticated target discrimination and automatic frame capture features. Also new is a field deployable Gateway configurable with a variety of radio systems and flexible networking, an important upgrade that enabled the research described herein. BattleHawkTM is a small tube launched Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) with a warhead. Using transmitted video from its EOIR subsystem an operator can search for and acquire a target day or night, select a target for attack, and execute terminal dive to destroy the target. It is designed as a lightweight squad level asset carried by an individual infantryman. Although BattleHawk has the best loiter time in its class, it's still relatively short compared to large UAVs. Also it's a one-shot asset in its munition configuration. Therefore Textron Defense Systems conducted research, funded internally, to determine if there was military utility in having the highly persistent MicroObserver(R) system cue BattleHawk's launch and vector it to beyond visual range targets for engagement. This paper describes that research; the system configuration implemented, and the results of field testing that was performed on a government range early in 2013. On the integrated system that was implemented, MicroObserver(R) seismic detections activated that system's camera which then automatically captured images of the target. The geo-referenced and time-tagged Micro

  10. SUN1 silencing inhibits cell growth through G0/G1 phase arrest in lung adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang W

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Weiyi Huang,* Haihua Huang,* Lei Wang, Jiong Hu, Weifeng Song Department of Oncology, The First People’s Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Cytoskeleton is critical for carcinoma cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Sad-1 and UNC-84 domain containing 1 (SUN1 is one of the core linkers of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton. However, the functions of SUN1 in lung adenocarcinoma are largely unknown.Methods: In this study, we first transduced the lentivirus delivering the short hairpin RNA (shRNA against SUN1 to lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549 and 95D cells with high efficiency. After lentivirus infection, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were used to detect the expressions of SUN1 mRNA and protein. The cell proliferation and colony formation were detected by MTT assay and colony formation assay, respectively. The cell distribution in the cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry.Results: Both mRNA and protein levels of SUN1 were significantly decreased in A549 and 95D cells after lentivirus infection, as indicated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Next, we found that cell proliferation and colony formation were markedly reduced in SUN1 silenced cells. Moreover, suppression of SUN1 led to cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase. Furthermore, Cyclin D1, CDK6, and CDK2 expressions were obviously reduced in A549 cells after SUN1 silencing.Conclusion: These results suggest that SUN1 plays an essential role in proliferation of lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro and may be used as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma in the future. Keywords: SUN1, lung cancer, proliferation

  11. The impact of geoengineering on vegetation in experiment G1 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Peter; Glienke, Susanne; Lawrence, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Solar Radiation Management (SRM) has been proposed as a means to partly counteract global warming. The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) simulated the climate consequences of a number of SRM techniques, but the effects on vegetation have not yet been thoroughly studied. Here, the vegetation response to the idealized GeoMIP G1 experiment is analyzed, in which a reduction of the solar constant counterbalances the radiative effects of quadrupled atmospheric CO2 concentrations; the results from eight fully coupled earth system models (ESMs) are included. For most models and regions, changes in net primary productivity (NPP) are dominated by the increase in CO2, via the CO2 fertilization effect. As SRM will lower temperatures, in high latitudes this will reverse gains in NPP from the lifting of temperature limitations. In low latitudes this cooling relative to the 4xCO2 simulation decreases plant respiration whilst having little effect on gross primary productivity, increasing NPP. Despite reductions in precipitation in most regions in response to SRM, runoff and NPP increase in many regions including those previously highlighted as potentially being at risk of drought under SRM. This is due to simultaneous reductions in evaporation and increases in water use efficiency by plants due to higher CO2 concentrations. The relative differences between models in the vegetation response are substantially larger than the differences in their climate responses. The largest differences between models are for those with and without a nitrogen-cycle, with a much smaller CO2 fertilization effect for the former. These results suggest that until key vegetation processes are integrated into ESM predictions, the vegetation response to SRM will remain highly uncertain.

  12. An Immunoglobulin G1 Monoclonal Antibody Highly Specific to the Wall of Cryptosporidium Oocysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, C.; Vesey, G.; Slade, M.; Ferrari, B.; Veal, D. A.; Williams, K.

    2000-01-01

    The detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in drinking water is critically dependent on the quality of immunofluorescent reagents. Experiments were performed to develop a method for producing highly specific antibodies to Cryptosporidium oocysts that can be used for water testing. BALB/c mice were immunized with six different antigen preparations and monitored for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM responses to the surface of Cryptosporidium oocysts. One group of mice received purified oocyst walls, a second group received a soluble protein preparation extracted from the outside of the oocyst wall, and the third group received whole inactivated oocysts. Three additional groups were immunized with sequentially prepared oocyst extracts to provide for a comparison of the immune response. Mice injected with the soluble protein extract demonstrated an IgG response to oocysts surface that was not seen in the whole-oocyst group. Mice injected with whole oocysts showed an IgM response only, while mice injected with purified oocyst walls showed little increase in IgM or IgG levels. Of the additional reported preparations only one, BME (2-mercaptoethanol treated), produced a weak IgM response to the oocyst wall. A mouse from the soluble oocyst extract group yielding a high IgG response was utilized to produce a highly specific IgG1 monoclonal antibody (Cry104) specific to the oocyst surface. Comparative flow cytometric analysis indicated that Cry104 has a higher avidity and specificity to oocysts in water concentrates than other commercially available antibodies. PMID:10973448

  13. Modelling of aflatoxin G1 reduction by kefir grain using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Farzaneh; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Rezaei, Karamatollah; Rahmani, Anosheh

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) is one of the main toxic contaminants in pistachio nuts and causes potential health hazards. Hence, AFG1 reduction is one of the main concerns in food safety. Kefir-grains contain symbiotic association of microorganisms well known for their aflatoxin decontamination effects. In this study, a central composite design (CCD) using response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to develop a model in order to predict AFG1 reduction in pistachio nuts by kefir-grain (already heated at 70 and 110°C). The independent variables were: toxin concentration (X1: 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 ng/g), kefir-grain level (X2: 5, 10, 20, 10 and 25%), contact time (X3: 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h), and incubation temperature (X4: 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60°C). There was a significant reduction in AFG1 (p kefir-grain used. The variables including X1, X3 and the interactions between X2-X4 as well as X3-X4 have significant effects on AFG1 reduction. The model provided a good prediction of AFG1 reduction under the assay conditions. Optimization was used to enhance the efficiency of kefir-grain on AFG1 reduction. The optimum conditions for the highest AFG1 reduction (96.8%) were predicted by the model as follows: toxin concentration = 20 ng/g, kefir-grain level = 10%, contact time = 6 h, and incubation temperature = 30°C which validated practically in six replications.

  14. The g0/g1 switch gene 2 is an important regulator of hepatic triglyceride metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinfang; Zhang, Yahui; Qian, Hang; Lu, Juan; Zhang, Zhifeng; Min, Xinwen; Lang, Mingjian; Yang, Handong; Wang, Nanping; Zhang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Factors that regulate the disposal of hepatic triglycerides contribute to the development of hepatic steatosis. G0/G1 switch gene 2 (G0S2) is a target of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and plays an important role in regulating lipolysis in adipocytes. Therefore, we investigated whether G0S2 plays a role in hepatic lipid metabolism. Adenovirus-mediated expression of G0S2 (Ad-G0S2) potently induced fatty liver in mice. The liver mass of Ad-G0S2-infected mice was markedly increased with excess triglyceride content compared to the control mice. G0S2 did not change cellular cholesterol levels in hepatocytes. G0S2 was found to be co-localized with adipose triglyceride lipase at the surface of lipid droplets. Hepatic G0S2 overexpression resulted in an increase in plasma Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)/Very-Low-density (VLDL) lipoprotein cholesterol level. Plasma High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and ketone body levels were slightly decreased in Ad-G0S2 injected mice. G0S2 also increased the accumulation of neutral lipids in cultured HepG2 and L02 cells. However, G0S2 overexpression in the liver significantly improved glucose tolerance in mice. Livers expressing G0S2 exhibited increased 6-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1-3-diazol-4-yl) amino)-6-deoxyglucose uptake compared with livers transfected with control adenovirus. Taken together, our results provide evidence supporting an important role for G0S2 as a regulator of triglyceride content in the liver and suggest that G0S2 may be a molecular target for the treatment of insulin resistance and other obesity-related metabolic disorders.

  15. Rates of BTEX Biodegradation under Nitrate Reducing Conditions in Wetland Sediments Impacted by Contaminated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, L. K.; McGuire, J. T.; Cozzarelli, I.; Smith, E. W.; Kneeshaw, T.

    2010-12-01

    Biodegradation rates are often controlled by dynamic interactions that occur at mixing interfaces between water masses of differing redox state. This study seeks to understand the controls on rates of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and m,p,o-xylenes) degradation at a mixing interface by using in-situ experiments to simulate contaminated aquifer water containing nitrate discharging to a methanogenic wetland. BTEX biodegradation was evaluated during “dry” conditions (2009) and “wet” conditions (2010) in a shallow wetland near Bemidji, MN using innovative in-situ microcosms (ISMs) to measure rates of change over 8 weeks (2009) and 9 weeks (2010). ISM samplers contained an inner chamber filled with wetland sediments that were allowed to incubate for 2 weeks. This chamber was then closed to the surrounding environment and amended with test solution composed of contaminated groundwater augmented with tracer (bromide), nitrate and BTEX spike. Analysis of ISM sediments suggests that nitrate reduction and biodegradation rates are a function of both mineralogical and microbiological controls. Loss of nitrate, interpreted as nitrate reduction, was observed in both the dry and wet years with reduction slightly faster in the dry year (2.21mg/L/day versus 1.59 mg/L/day). Nitrate reduction was likely coupled to oxidation of various electron donors present in the system, including not only BTEX but also naturally occurring labile organic matter (ex. acetate) and inorganic electron donors (ex. Fe2+). BTEX degradation rates were considerably higher during the “wet” year than the “dry” year, with the fastest rates occurring immediately following test solution additions. For example, in the first 2 days of the “wet” ISM experiments degradation rates were 57.97ug/L/day for Benzene, 73.24ug/L/day for Toluene, 12.37ug/L/day for Ethyl Benzene and 85.61ug/L/day for Xylene compared to an ISM from the dry year which had slower degradation rates of 2.83ug/L/day for

  16. Distribution of the rare earth elements in the surface sediments from the lower Wuding River of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longjiang, M.; Duowen, M.; Ke, H.; Jinghong, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The abundance and distribution of rare earth elements (REE) and their signatures in the Wuding River of China were studied from samples of surface sediments and related to the geological formation in its watershed. The total REE (ΣREE) average concentrations of the Wuding River sediments (144.56 μg g -1 ), is lower than that in the Yangtze River sediments (167.10 μg g -1 ), getting closer to the values of the Yellow River sediments (137.76 μg g -1 ), being equivalent to the values of the UCC (the upper continental crust) (146.37 μg g-1). The chondrite-normalized REEs indicated LREE enrichment and flat HREE depletion and also showed a slightly negative Eu-anomaly. A similar chondrite-normalized REE distribution pattern between the Wuding River sediments and Yellow River sediments demonstrated the Wuding River sediments are the important material sources of the Yellow River sediments. UCC-normalized REE patterns between the Wuding River sediments and the Yellow River sediments were almost equivalent and close to the UCC. These implied the Wuding River sediments and the Yellow River sediments are subjected mostly to physical weathering due to higher erosion rates. Consequently, they can be used to trace the UCC compositions. (author)

  17. Activity in mice of recombinant BCG-EgG1Y162 vaccine for Echinococcus granulosus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiumin; Zhao, Hui; Zhang, Fengbo; Zhu, Yuejie; Peng, Shanshan; Ma, Haimei; Cao, Chunbao; Xin, Yan; Yimiti, Delixiati; Wen, Hao; Ding, Jianbing

    2016-01-01

    Cystic hydatid disease is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus which is distributed worldwide. The disease is difficult to treat with surgery removal is the only cure treatment. In the high endemic areas, vaccination of humans is believed a way to protect communities from the disease. In this study we vaccinated BALB/c mice with rBCG-EgG1Y162, and then detected the level of IgG and IgE specifically against the recombinant protein by ELISA, rBCG-EgG1Y162 induced strong and specific cellular and humoral immune responses. In vitro study showed that rBCG-EgG1Y162 vaccine not only promote splenocytes proliferation but also active T cell. In addition, the rBCG-EgG1Y162 induced a protection in the mice against secondary infection of Echinococcus granulosus.

  18. Endothelial ATP-binding cassette G1 in mouse endothelium protects against hemodynamic-induced atherosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Shanshan [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 300070 (China); Department of Pediatrics, Baodi District People’s Hospital of Tianjin City, Tianjin, 301800 (China); Wang, Jiaxing [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, 100191 (China); Zhang, Xu; Shi, Ying; Li, Bochuan; Bao, Qiankun [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 300070 (China); Pang, Wei [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, 100191 (China); Ai, Ding [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 300070 (China); Zhu, Yi [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 300070 (China); Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, 100191 (China); He, Jinlong, E-mail: hejinlong@tmu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 300070 (China)

    2016-08-19

    Activated vascular endothelium inflammation under persistent hyperlipidemia is the initial step of atherogenesis. ATP-binding cassette G1 (ABCG1) is a crucial factor maintaining sterol and lipid homeostasis by transporting cholesterol efflux to high-density lipoprotein. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of ABCG1 in endothelial inflammation activation during early-stage atherogenesis in mice and the underlying mechanisms. Endothelial cell (EC)-specific ABCG1 transgenic (EC-ABCG1-Tg) mice were generated and cross-bred with low-density lipoprotein receptor–deficient (Ldlr{sup −/−}) mice. After a 4-week Western-type diet, the mice were sacrificed for assessing atherosclerosis. Human umbilical vein ECs were treated with different flows, and ABCG1 was adenovirally overexpressed to investigate the mechanism in vitro. Compared with Ldlr{sup −/−} mouse aortas, EC-ABCG1-Tg/Ldlr{sup −/−} aortas showed decreased early-stage lesions. Furthermore, the lesion area in the EC-ABCG1-Tg/Ldlr{sup −/−} mouse aortic arch but not thoracic aorta was significantly reduced, which suggests a protective role of ABCG1 under atheroprone flow. In vitro, overexpression of ABCG1 attenuated EC activation caused by oscillatory shear stress. Overexpression of ABCG1 blunted cholesterol-activated ECs in vitro. In exploring the mechanisms of ABCG1 attenuating endothelial inflammation, we found that ABCG1 inhibited oscillatory flow-activated nuclear factor kappa B and NLRP3 inflammasome in ECs. ABCG1 may play a protective role in early-stage atherosclerosis by reducing endothelial activation induced by oscillatory shear stress via suppressing the inflammatory response. - Highlights: • EC-ABCG1-Tg mice in a Ldlr{sup −/−} background showed decreased atherosclerosis. • Overexpression of ABCG1 in ECs decreased OSS-induced EC activation. • NLRP3 and NF-κB might be an underlying mechanism of ABCG1 protective role.

  19. On the electronic structure of 5g1 complexes of element 125: a quasi - relativistic MS-Xα study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhyoun, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Quasi-relativistic SCF Xα calculations are reported for the hypothetical complexes E0 2 2+ , EF 6 (E = element 125) and the 5f 1 ion Np0 2 2 + . The calculations indicate that the E complexes have a 5g 1 outer electronic configuration with good agreement with previous predictions. The ligand field energy diagram for G 1 system in 0 h symmetry in discussed in relation to the obtained X α results

  20. Final COMPASS results on the deuteron spin-dependent structure function g1d and the Bjorken sum rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Adolph

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Final results are presented from the inclusive measurement of deep-inelastic polarised-muon scattering on longitudinally polarised deuterons using a 6LiD target. The data were taken at 160 GeV beam energy and the results are shown for the kinematic range 1(GeV/c24GeV/c2 in the mass of the hadronic final state. The deuteron double-spin asymmetry A1d and the deuteron longitudinal-spin structure function g1d are presented in bins of x and Q2. Towards lowest accessible values of x, g1d decreases and becomes consistent with zero within uncertainties. The presented final g1d values together with the recently published final g1p values of COMPASS are used to again evaluate the Bjorken sum rule and perform the QCD fit to the g1 world data at next-to-leading order of the strong coupling constant. In both cases, changes in central values of the resulting numbers are well within statistical uncertainties. The flavour-singlet axial charge a0, which is identified in the MS‾ renormalisation scheme with the total contribution of quark helicities to the nucleon spin, is extracted at next-to-leading order accuracy from only the COMPASS deuteron data: a0(Q2=3(GeV/c2=0.32±0.02stat±0.04syst±0.05evol. Together with the recent results on the proton spin structure function g1p, the results on g1d constitute the COMPASS legacy on the measurements of g1 through inclusive spin-dependent deep inelastic scattering.

  1. On the measurability of the structure function g1(x,Q2) in ep collisions at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemlein, J.

    1995-08-01

    The possibility is investigated to measure the polarized structure function g 1 (x, Q 2 ) in the collider mode of HERA operating with a polarized lepton and proton beam. The x dependence of g 1 can be measured at a statistical precision of ∝15% to 70% in the range 0.0005 2 > 2 at beam polarizations λ p ∝λ e =0.8 and L int =60 pb -1 . (orig.)

  2. Estimating the small-x exponent of the structure function g1NS from the Bjorken sum rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauf, Anke; Meyer-Hermann, Michael; Soff, Gerhard

    2002-01-01

    We present a new estimate of the exponent governing the small-x behavior of the nonsinglet structure function g 1 p-n derived under the assumption that the Bjorken sum rule is valid. We use the world wide average of α s and the NNNLO QCD corrections to the Bjorken sum rule. The structure function g 1 NS is found to be clearly divergent for small x

  3. FACT prevents the accumulation of free histones evicted from transcribed chromatin and a subsequent cell cycle delay in G1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena Morillo-Huesca

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The FACT complex participates in chromatin assembly and disassembly during transcription elongation. The yeast mutants affected in the SPT16 gene, which encodes one of the FACT subunits, alter the expression of G1 cyclins and exhibit defects in the G1/S transition. Here we show that the dysfunction of chromatin reassembly factors, like FACT or Spt6, down-regulates the expression of the gene encoding the cyclin that modulates the G1 length (CLN3 in START by specifically triggering the repression of its promoter. The G1 delay undergone by spt16 mutants is not mediated by the DNA-damage checkpoint, although the mutation of RAD53, which is otherwise involved in histone degradation, enhances the cell-cycle defects of spt16-197. We reveal how FACT dysfunction triggers an accumulation of free histones evicted from transcribed chromatin. This accumulation is enhanced in a rad53 background and leads to a delay in G1. Consistently, we show that the overexpression of histones in wild-type cells down-regulates CLN3 in START and causes a delay in G1. Our work shows that chromatin reassembly factors are essential players in controlling the free histones potentially released from transcribed chromatin and describes a new cell cycle phenomenon that allows cells to respond to excess histones before starting DNA replication.

  4. Perswazyjność komunikatów reklamowych w Internecie na podstawie analizy usług finansowych SKOK-ów

    OpenAIRE

    Idzik, Beata

    2014-01-01

    Praca jest wynikiem kilkuletnich obserwacji praktycznej strony funkcjonowania reklamy w zakresie usług finansowych. Autorka starała się oddać wyraz swojemu zainteresowaniu psychologią konsumenta, marketingiem w sektorze finansowym a także fascynacji możliwościom, jakie stwarzają w tym zakresie nowe technologie oparte na Internecie. Praca ma charakter teoretyczno - badawczy. W założeniach metodologicznych sformułowano problem badawczy, cele oraz cztery hipotezy badawcze, które poddano wery...

  5. Concentrations of organotin compounds in sediment and clams collected from coastal areas in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midorikawa, Sayaka; Arai, Takaomi; Harino, Hiroya; Ohji, Madoka; Nguyen Duc Cu; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki

    2004-01-01

    Levels of butyltin (BT) and phenyltin (PT) compounds were determined in sediments and clam Meretrix spp. collected from north and central coastal areas in Vietnam. Concentrations of TBT in sediments ranged from 0.89 to 34 ng g -1 dry wt and those in clams ranged from 1.4 to 56 ng g -1 wet wt. The levels of TBT in sediments and clams from Vietnam were within limits reported from other countries. Further, the TBT level in clams was lower than the tolerable average residue level (TARL) estimated based on tolerable daily intake (TDI). Trace amounts of PTs were also found in both sediment and clam samples. In sediments from north and central Vietnam, the concentrations of TBT were highest in the order of Hue (28 ng g -1 dry wt), Cua Luc (15 ng g -1 dry wt), Sam Son (6.3 ng g -1 dry wt), and Tra Co (5.5 ng g -1 dry wt). Among the clams from north and central Vietnam, the levels of TBT in clams from Cua Luc were dramatically high at 47 ng g -1 wet wt. TBT formed the principal butyltin species in sediment at all sites studied. The ratios of TBT in sediment were higher among BT compounds at all study sites. Of total BTs, TBT was the dominant species in clams from almost all sites studied. In spatial distribution, TPT showed a pattern similar to TBT, suggesting the use of TPT as an antifouling paint. The partition coefficient between sediment and calms was calculated. The partition coefficients of TBT and TPT were 2.01 (0.56-5.5) and 9.23 (3.1-20), respectively. These results show that sediment-bound TBT is a source of contamination to clams in addition to dissolved TBT

  6. Microbial and biochemical alterations due to storage of deep-sea sediments under ambient tropical conditions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Das, A.; Fernandes, C.E.G.; Naik, S.S.; Mourya, B.S.; Sujith, P.P.; Sharma, R; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    -tight polythene containers. Changes in microbial and biochemical parameters were monitored once in every two months for a year. Bacterial counts and ATP decreased from ~108 to ~107 g-1 and ~103 to ~101 ng g-1 dry sediment respectively, within 8-10 months before...

  7. Histone H1 interphase phosphorylation becomes largely established in G1 or early S phase and differs in G1 between T-lymphoblastoid cells and normal T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gréen Anna

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histone H1 is an important constituent of chromatin, and is involved in regulation of its structure. During the cell cycle, chromatin becomes locally decondensed in S phase, highly condensed during metaphase, and again decondensed before re-entry into G1. This has been connected to increasing phosphorylation of H1 histones through the cell cycle. However, many of these experiments have been performed using cell-synchronization techniques and cell cycle-arresting drugs. In this study, we investigated the H1 subtype composition and phosphorylation pattern in the cell cycle of normal human activated T cells and Jurkat T-lymphoblastoid cells by capillary electrophoresis after sorting of exponentially growing cells into G1, S and G2/M populations. Results We found that the relative amount of H1.5 protein increased significantly after T-cell activation. Serine phosphorylation of H1 subtypes occurred to a large extent in late G1 or early S phase in both activated T cells and Jurkat cells. Furthermore, our data confirm that the H1 molecules newly synthesized during S phase achieve a similar phosphorylation pattern to the previous ones. Jurkat cells had more extended H1.5 phosphorylation in G1 compared with T cells, a difference that can be explained by faster cell growth and/or the presence of enhanced H1 kinase activity in G1 in Jurkat cells. Conclusion Our data are consistent with a model in which a major part of interphase H1 phosphorylation takes place in G1 or early S phase. This implies that H1 serine phosphorylation may be coupled to changes in chromatin structure necessary for DNA replication. In addition, the increased H1 phosphorylation of malignant cells in G1 may be affecting the G1/S transition control and enabling facilitated S-phase entry as a result of relaxed chromatin condensation. Furthermore, increased H1.5 expression may be coupled to the proliferative capacity of growth-stimulated T cells.

  8. The spin-dependent structure function $g_1(x)$ of the proton from polarized deep-inelastic muon scattering

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067425; Arvidson, A; Badelek, B; Bardin, G; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Betev, L; Birsa, R; De Botton, N R; Bradamante, Franco; Bravar, A; Bressan, A; Bültmann, S; Burtin, E; Crabb, D; Cranshaw, J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Dalla Torre, S; Van Dantzig, R; Derro, B R; Deshpande, A A; Dhawan, S K; Dulya, C M; Eichblatt, S; Fasching, D; Feinstein, F; Fernández, C; Forthmann, S; Frois, Bernard; Gallas, A; Garzón, J A; Gilly, H; Giorgi, M A; Görtz, S; Gracia, G; De Groot, N; Haft, K; Von Harrach, D; Hasegawa, T; Hautle, P; Hayashi, N; Heusch, C A; Horikawa, N; Hughes, V W; Igo, G; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kabuss, E M; Kageya, T; Karev, A G; Ketel, T; Kiryluk, J; Kiselev, Yu F; Krivokhizhin, V G; Kröger, W; Kukhtin, V V; Kurek, K; Kyynäräinen, J; Lamanna, M; Landgraf, U; Le Goff, J M; Lehár, F; de Lesquen, A; Lichtenstadt, J; Litmaath, M; Magnon, A; Mallot, G K; Marie, F; Martin, A; Martino, J; Matsuda, T; Mayes, B W; McCarthy, J S; Medved, K S; Meyer, W T; Van Middelkoop, G; Miller, D; Miyachi, Y; Mori, K; Moromisato, J H; Nassalski, J P; Naumann, Lutz; Niinikoski, T O; Oberski, J; Ogawa, A; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Pereira, H; Perrot-Kunne, F; Peshekhonov, V D; Pinsky, L; Platchkov, S K; Pló, M; Pose, D; Postma, H; Pretz, J; Puntaferro, R; Rädel, G; Rijllart, A; Reicherz, G; Rodríguez, M; Rondio, Ewa; Roscherr, B; Sabo, I; Saborido, J; Sandacz, A; Savin, I A; Schiavon, R P; Schiller, A; Sichtermann, E P; Simeoni, F; Smirnov, G I; Staude, A; Steinmetz, A; Stiegler, U; Stuhrmann, H B; Szleper, M; Tessarotto, F; Thers, D; Tlaczala, W; Tripet, A; Ünel, G; Velasco, M; Vogt, J; Voss, Rüdiger; Whitten, C; Windmolders, R; Wislicki, W; Witzmann, A; Ylöstalo, J; Zanetti, A M; Zaremba, K

    1997-01-01

    We present a new measurement of the virtual photon proton asymmetry $A_1^{\\rm p}$ from deep inelastic scattering of polarized muons on polarized protons in the kinematic range $0.0008 1$ GeV$^{2}$. A perturbative QCD evolution in next-to-leading order is used to determine $g_1^{\\rm p}(x)$ at a constant $Q^2$. At $Q^{2} = 10$ GeV$^{2}$ we find, in the measured range, $\\int_{0.003}^{0.7} g_{1}^{\\rm p}(x){\\rm d}x = 0.139 \\pm 0.006~({\\rm stat})\\pm 0.008~({\\rm syst)} \\pm 0.006~({\\rm evol})$. The value of the first moment $\\Gamma_{1}^{\\rm p} = \\int_{0}^{1} g_{1}^{\\rm p}(x){\\rm d}x$ of $g_{1}^{\\rm p}$ depends on the approach used to describe the behaviour of $g_{1}^{\\rm p}$ at low $x$. We find that the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule is violated. With our published result for $\\Gamma_{1}^{\\rm d}$ we confirm the Bjorken sum rule with an accuracy of $\\approx 15\\%$ at the one standard deviation level.

  9. The spin structure function g1p of the proton and a test of the Bjorken sum rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Adolph

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available New results for the double spin asymmetry A1p and the proton longitudinal spin structure function g1p are presented. They were obtained by the COMPASS Collaboration using polarised 200 GeV muons scattered off a longitudinally polarised NH3 target. The data were collected in 2011 and complement those recorded in 2007 at 160 GeV, in particular at lower values of x. They improve the statistical precision of g1p(x by about a factor of two in the region x≲0.02. A next-to-leading order QCD fit to the g1 world data is performed. It leads to a new determination of the quark spin contribution to the nucleon spin, ΔΣ, ranging from 0.26 to 0.36, and to a re-evaluation of the first moment of g1p. The uncertainty of ΔΣ is mostly due to the large uncertainty in the present determinations of the gluon helicity distribution. A new evaluation of the Bjorken sum rule based on the COMPASS results for the non-singlet structure function g1NS(x,Q2 yields as ratio of the axial and vector coupling constants |gA/gV|=1.22±0.05 (stat.±0.10 (syst., which validates the sum rule to an accuracy of about 9%.

  10. The Spin Structure Function $g_1^{\\rm p}$ of the Proton and a Test of the Bjorken Sum Rule

    CERN Document Server

    Adolph, C.; Alexeev, M.G.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anosov, V.; Austregesilo, A.; Azevedo, C.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E.R.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bodlak, M.; Boer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bressan, A.; Buchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Chang, W.C.; Chiosso, M.; Choi, I.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L.; Curiel, Q.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; M. Finger jr; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; von Hohenesche, N. du Fresne; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Fuchey, E.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Giordano, F.; Gnesi, I.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmuller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grosse-Perdekamp, M.; Grube, B.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; Hahne, D.; von Harrach, D.; Hashimoto, R.; Heinsius, F.H.; Herrmann, F.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; Hsieh, C.Yu; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jorg, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kramer, M.; Kremser, P.; Krinner, F.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kuchinski, N.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R.P.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levillain, M.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Longo, R.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makins, N.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.K.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matousek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Miyachi, Y.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nerling, F.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Novy, J.; Nowak, W.D.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Peng, J.C.; Pereira, F.; Pesek, M.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Riedl, C.; Rocco, E.; Rossiyskaya, N.S.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Rychter, A.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, C.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schonning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Selyunin, A.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Wolbeek, J. ter; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Tosello, F.; Tskhay, V.; Uhl, S.; Veloso, J.; Virius, M.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zink, A.

    2016-02-10

    New results for the double spin asymmetry $A_1^{\\rm p}$ and the proton longitudinal spin structure function $g_1^{\\rm p}$ are presented. They were obtained by the COMPASS collaboration using polarised 200 GeV muons scattered off a longitudinally polarised NH$_3$ target. The data were collected in 2011 and complement those recorded in 2007 at 160\\,GeV, in particular at lower values of $x$. They improve the statistical precision of $g_1^{\\rm p}(x)$ by about a factor of two in the region $x\\lesssim 0.02$. A next-to-leading order QCD fit to the $g_1$ world data is performed. It leads to a new determination of the quark spin contribution to the nucleon spin, $\\Delta \\Sigma$ ranging from 0.26 to 0.36, and to a re-evaluation of the first moment of $g_1^{\\rm p}$. The uncertainty of $\\Delta \\Sigma$ is mostly due to the large uncertainty in the present determinations of the gluon helicity distribution. A new evaluation of the Bjorken sum rule based on the COMPASS results for the non-singlet structure function $g_1^{\\rm...

  11. Radiosensitization of NSCLC cells by EGFR inhibition is the result of an enhanced p53-dependent G1 arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriegs, Malte; Gurtner, Kristin; Can, Yildiz; Brammer, Ingo; Rieckmann, Thorsten; Oertel, Reinhard; Wysocki, Marek; Dorniok, Franziska; Gal, Andreas; Grob, Tobias J.; Laban, Simon; Kasten-Pisula, Ulla; Petersen, Cordula; Baumann, Michael; Krause, Mechthild; Dikomey, Ekkehard

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: How EGF receptor (EGFR) inhibition induces cellular radiosensitization and with that increase in tumor control is still a matter of discussion. Since EGFR predominantly regulates cell cycle and proliferation, we studied whether a G1-arrest caused by EGFR inhibition may contribute to these effects. Materials and methods: We analyzed human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines either wild type (wt) or mutated in p53 (A549, H460, vs. H1299, H3122) and HCT116 cells (p21 wt and negative). EGFR was inhibited by BIBX1382BS, erlotinib or cetuximab; p21 was knocked down by siRNA. Functional endpoints analyzed were cell signaling, proliferation, G1-arrest, cell survival as well as tumor control using an A549 tumor model. Results: When combined with IR, EGFR inhibition enhances the radiation-induced permanent G1 arrest, though solely in cells with intact p53/p21 signaling. This increase in G1-arrest was always associated with enhanced cellular radiosensitivity. Strikingly, this effect was abrogated when cells were re-stimulated, suggesting the initiation of dormancy. In line with this, only a small non-significant increase in tumor control was observed for A549 tumors treated with fractionated RT and EGFR inhibition. Conclusion: For NSCLC cells increase in radiosensitivity by EGFR inhibition results from enhanced G1-arrest. However, this effect does not lead to improved tumor control because cells can be released from this arrest by re-stimulation

  12. Wpływ informatyzacji Biblioteki Uniwersyteckiej w Poznaniu na zmiany organizacyjne i rozwój usług bibliotecznych

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Karwasiński

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available W artykule omówiono zagadnienia związane z procesami informatyzacji Biblioteki Uniwersyteckiej w Poznaniu. W celu dokładnego scharakteryzowania przemian, prócz rysu historycznego, przedstawiono obszary, które wyraźnie poprawiły jakość pracy personelu i obsługę czytelników oraz przyczyniły się do poznania, upowszechniania i wdrażania nowoczesnych rozwiązań technologicznych. Zaprezentowano proces zmian w zakresie funkcjonowania systemu biblioteczno-informacyjnego Horizon i współpracy z narodowym katalogiem centralnym NUKAT. Opisano etapy rozwoju elektronicznej przestrzeni informacyjnej, w tym budowania elektronicznych zasobów wiedzy i tworzenia narzędzi do ich obsługi i wykorzystania w procesach wyszukiwania źródeł informacji. Zaprezentowano Bibliotekę Uniwersytecką jako partnera w aranżowaniu instytucjonalnych platform cyfrowych do deponowania i udostępniania dorobku intelektualnego społeczności naukowej Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu. Wskazano także funkcjonalność zaprojektowanych i wdrożonych innowacyjnych usług wirtualnych pakietu Libsmart, optymalizujących funkcjonowanie Biblioteki Uniwersyteckiej.

  13. Molecular Cytogenetic Characterization of two Triticum-Secale-Thinopyrum Trigeneric Hybrids Exhibiting Superior Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight, Leaf Rust, and Stem Rust Race Ug99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yi; Duan, Yamei; Liu, Huiping; Chi, Dawn; Cao, Wenguang; Xue, Allen; Gao, Yong; Fedak, George; Chen, Jianmin

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), leaf rust, and stem rust are the most destructive fungal diseases in current world wheat production. The diploid wheatgrass, Thinopyrum elongatum (Host) Dewey (2 n = 2 x = 14, EE) is an excellent source of disease resistance genes. Two new Triticum-Secale-Thinopyrum trigeneric hybrids were derived from a cross between a hexaploid triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack, 2 n = 6 x = 42, AABBRR) and a hexaploid Triticum trititrigia (2 n = 6 x = 42, AABBEE), were produced and analyzed using genomic in situ hybridization and molecular markers. The results indicated that line RE21 contained 14 A-chromosomes, 14 B-chromosomes, three pairs of R-chromosomes (4R, 6R, and 7R), and four pairs of E-chromosomes (1E, 2E, 3E, and 5E) for a total chromosome number of 2 n = 42. Line RE62 contained 14 A-chromosomes, 14 B-chromosomes, six pairs of R-chromosomes, and one pair of translocation chromosomes between chromosome 5R and 5E, for a total chromosome number of 2 n = 42. At the seedling and adult growth stages under greenhouse conditions, line RE21 showed high levels of resistance to FHB, leaf rust, and stem rust race Ug99, and line RE62 was highly resistant to leaf rust and stem rust race Ug99. These two lines (RE21 and RE62) display superior disease resistance characteristics and have the potential to be utilized as valuable germplasm sources for future wheat improvement.

  14. Chemistry of marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, T.F.

    1977-01-01

    Some topics considered are as follows: characterization of sediments in the vicinity of offshore petroleum production; thermal alteration experiments on organic matter in recent marine sediments as a model for petroleum genesis; composition of polluted bottom sediments in Great Lakes harbors; distribution of heavy metals in sediment fractions; recent deposition of lead off the coast of southern California; release of trace constituents from sediments resuspended during dredging operations; and migration of chemical constituents in sediment-seawater interfaces

  15. Mean time for the development of large workloads and large queue lengths in the GI/G/1 queue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Knessl

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the GI/G/1 queue described by either the workload U(t (unfinished work or the number of customers N(t in the system. We compute the mean time until U(t reaches excess of the level K, and also the mean time until N(t reaches N0. For the M/G/1 and GI/M/1 models, we obtain exact contour integral representations for these mean first passage times. We then compute the mean times asymptotically, as K and N0→∞, by evaluating these contour integrals. For the general GI/G/1 model, we obtain asymptotic results by a singular perturbation analysis of the appropriate backward Kolmogorov equation(s. Numerical comparisons show that the asymptotic formulas are very accurate even for moderate values of K and N0.

  16. Precision measurements of g1 of the proton and of the deuteron with 6 GeV electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prok, Y.; Bosted, P.; Kvaltine, N.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adikaram, D.; Aghasyan, M.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Biselli, A. S.; Bono, J.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brock, J.; Brooks, W. K.; Bültmann, S.; Burkert, V. D.; Carlin, C.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cortes, O.; Crabb, D.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fersch, R.; Fleming, J. A.; Forest, T. A.; Garçon, M.; Garillon, B.; Gevorgyan, N.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Girod, F. X.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guegan, B.; Guler, N.; Hafidi, K.; Hanretty, C.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Ho, D.; Holtrop, M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jawalkar, S.; Jiang, X.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Kalantarians, N.; Keith, C.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Meekins, D.; Mineeva, T.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Moutarde, H.; Movsisyan, A.; Munevar, E.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Peng, P.; Phillips, J. J.; Pierce, J.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Raue, B. A.; Rimal, D.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatié, F.; Saini, M. S.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Simonyan, A.; Smith, C.; Smith, G.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stepanyan, S.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Taiuti, M.; Tang, W.; Tkachenko, S.; Ungaro, M.; Vernarsky, B.; Vlassov, A. V.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Weinstein, L. B.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, B.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.; CLAS Collaboration

    2014-08-01

    The inclusive polarized structure functions of the proton and deuteron, g1p and g1d, were measured with high statistical precision using polarized 6 GeV electrons incident on a polarized ammonia target in Hall B at Jefferson Laboratory. Electrons scattered at laboratory angles between 18 and 45 degrees were detected using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). For the usual deep inelastic region kinematics, Q2>1 GeV2 and the final-state invariant mass W >2 GeV, the ratio of polarized to unpolarized structure functions g1/F1 is found to be nearly independent of Q2 at fixed x. Significant resonant structure is apparent at values of W up to 2.3 GeV. In the framework of perturbative quantum chromodynamics, the high-W results can be used to better constrain the polarization of quarks and gluons in the nucleon, as well as high-twist contributions.

  17. Precision measurements of g1 of the proton and the deuteron with 6 GeV electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prok, Yelena; Bosted, Peter; Kvaltine, Nicholas; Adhikari, Krishna; Adikaram-Mudiyanselage, Dasuni; Aghasyan, Mher; Amaryan, Moskov; Anderson, Mark; Anefalos Pereira, Sergio; Avagyan, Harutyun; Baghdasaryan, Hovhannes; Ball, Jacques; Baltzell, Nathan; Battaglieri, Marco; Biselli, Angela; Bono, Jason; Briscoe, William; Brock, Joseph; Brooks, William; Bueltmann, Stephen; Burkert, Volker; Carlin, Christopher; Carman, Daniel; Celentano, Andrea; Chandavar, Shloka; Colaneri, Luca; Cole, Philip; Contalbrigo, Marco; Cortes, Olga; Crabb, Donald; Crede, Volker; D' Angelo, Annalisa; Dashyan, Natalya; De Vita, Raffaella; De Sanctis, Enzo; Deur, Alexandre; Djalali, Chaden; Dodge, Gail; Doughty, David; Dupre, Raphael; El Alaoui, Ahmed; El Fassi, Lamiaa; Elouadrhiri, Latifa; Fedotov, Gleb; Fegan, Stuart; Fersch, Robert; Fleming, Jamie; Forest, Tony; Garcon, Michel; Gevorgyan, Nerses; Ghandilyan, Yeranuhi; Gilfoyle, Gerard; Girod-Gard, Francois-Xavier; Giovanetti, Kevin; Goetz, John; Gohn, Wesley; Gothe, Ralf; Griffioen, Keith; Guegan, Baptiste; Guler, Nevzat; Hafidi, Kawtar; Hanretty, Charles; Harrison, Nathan; Hattawy, Mohammad; Hicks, Kenneth; Ho, Dao; Holtrop, Maurik; Ilieva, Yordanka; Ireland, David; Ishkhanov, Boris; Isupov, Evgeny; Jawalkar, Sucheta; Jiang, Xiaodong; Jo, Hyon-Suk; Joo, Kyungseon; Kalantarians, Narbe; Keith, Christopher; Keller, Daniel; Khandaker, Mahbubul; Kim, Andrey; Kim, Wooyoung; Klein, Andreas; Klein, Franz; Koirala, Suman; Kubarovsky, Valery; Kuhn, Sebastian; Kuleshov, Sergey; Lenisa, Paolo; Livingston, Kenneth; Lu, Haiyun; MacGregor, Ian; Markov, Nikolai; Mayer, Michael; McKinnon, Bryan; Meekins, David; Mineeva, Taisiya; Mirazita, Marco; Mokeev, Viktor; Montgomery, Rachel; MOUTARDE, Herve; Movsisyan, Aram; Munevar Espitia, Edwin; Munoz Camacho, Carlos; Nadel-Turonski, Pawel; Niccolai, Silvia; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria; Osipenko, Mikhail; Ostrovidov, Alexander; Pappalardo, Luciano; Paremuzyan, Rafayel; Park, K; Peng, Peng; Phillips, J J; Pierce, Joshua; Pisano, Silvia; Pogorelko, Oleg; Pozdniakov, Serguei; Price, John; Procureur, Sebastien; Protopopescu, Dan; Puckett, Andrew; Raue, Brian; Rimal, Dipak; Ripani, Marco; Rizzo, Alessandro; Rosner, Guenther; Rossi, Patrizia; Roy, Priyashree; Sabatie, Franck; Saini, Mukesh; Salgado, Carlos; Schott, Diane; Schumacher, Reinhard; Seder, Erin; Sharabian, Youri; Simonyan, Ani; Smith, Claude; Smith, Gregory; Sober, Daniel; Sokhan, Daria; Stepanyan, Stepan; Stepanyan, Samuel; Strakovski, Igor; Strauch, Steffen; Sytnik, Valeriy; Taiuti, Mauro; Tang, Wei; Tkachenko, Svyatoslav; Ungaro, Maurizio; Vernarsky, Brian; Vlasov, Alexander; Voskanyan, Hakob; Voutier, Eric; Walford, Natalie; Watts, Daniel; Weinstein, Lawrence; Zachariou, Nicholas; Zana, Lorenzo; Zhang, Jixie; Zhao, Bo; Zhao, Zhiwen; Zonta, Irene

    2014-08-01

    The inclusive polarized structure functions of the proton and deuteron, g1p and g1d, were measured with high statistical precision using polarized 6 GeV electrons incident on a polarized ammonia target in Hall B at Jefferson Laboratory. Electrons scattered at lab angles between 18 and 45 degrees were detected using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). For the usual DIS kinematics, Q^2>1 GeV^2 and the final-state invariant mass W>2 GeV, the ratio of polarized to unpolarized structure functions g1/F1 is found to be nearly independent of Q^2 at fixed x. Significant resonant structure is apparent at values of W up to 2.3 GeV. In the framework of perturbative QCD, the high-W results can be used to better constrain the polarization of quarks and gluons in the nucleon, as well as high-twist contributions.

  18. Association of pKi-67 with satellite DNA of the human genome in early G1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridger, J M; Kill, I R; Lichter, P

    1998-01-01

    pKi-67 is a nucleolar antigen that provides a specific marker for proliferating cells. It has been shown previously that pKi-67's distribution varies in a cell cycle-dependent manner: it coats all chromosomes during mitosis, accumulates in nuclear foci during G1 phase (type I distribution) and localizes within nucleoli in late G1 S and G2 phase (type II distribution). Although no function has as yet been ascribed to pKi-67, it has been found associated with centromeres in G1. In the present study the distribution pattern of pKi-67 during G1 in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) was analysed in more detail. Synchronization experiments show that in very early G1 cells pKi-67 coincides with virtually all satellite regions analysed, i.e. with centromeric (alpha-satellite), telomeric (minisatellite) and heterochromatic blocks (satellite III) on chromosomes 1 and Y (type Ia distribution). In contrast, later in the G1 phase, a smaller fraction of satellite DNA regions are found collocalized with pKi-67 foci (type Ib distribution). When all pKi-67 becomes localized within nucleoli, even fewer satellite regions remain associated with the pKi-67 staining. However, all centromeric and short arm regions of the acrocentric chromosomes, which are in very close proximity to or even contain the rRNA genes, are collocalized with anti-pKi-67 staining throughout the remaining interphase of the cell cycle. Thus, our data demonstrate that during post-mitotic reformation and nucleogenesis there is a progressive decline in the fraction of specific satellite regions of DNA that remain associated with pKi-67. This may be relevant to nucleolar reformation following mitosis.

  19. Improvement of vascular function by acute and chronic treatment with the GPR30 agonist G1 in experimental diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-lin Li

    Full Text Available The G-protein coupled estrogen receptor 30 (GPR30 is a seven-transmembrane domain receptor that mediates rapid estrogen responses in a wide variety of cell types. This receptor is highly expressed in the cardiovascular system, and exerts vasodilatory effects. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of GPR30 on vascular responsiveness in diabetic ovariectomized (OVX rats and elucidate the possible mechanism involved. The roles of GPR30 were evaluated in the thoracic aorta and cultured endothelial cells. The GPR30 agonist G1 induced a dose-dependent vasodilation in the thoracic aorta of the diabetic OVX rats, which was partially attenuated by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor, nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME and the GPR30-selective antagonist G15. Dose-dependent vasoconstrictive responses to phenylephrine were attenuated significantly in the rings of the thoracic aorta following the acute G1 administration in the diabetic OVX rats. This effect of G1 was abolished partially by L-NAME and G15. The acute administration of G1 increased significantly the eNOS activity and the concentration of NO in the endothelial cells exposed to high glucose. G1 treatment induced an enhanced endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine (Ach in the diabetic OVX rats. Further examination revealed that G1 induced vasodilation in the diabetic OVX rats by increasing the phosphorylation of eNOS. These findings provide preliminary evidence that GPR30 activation leads to eNOS activation, as well as vasodilation, to a certain degree and has beneficial effects on vascular function in diabetic OVX rats.

  20. A novel single virus infection system reveals that influenza virus preferentially infects cells in g1 phase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuta Ueda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influenza virus attaches to sialic acid residues on the surface of host cells via the hemagglutinin (HA, a glycoprotein expressed on the viral envelope, and enters into the cytoplasm by receptor-mediated endocytosis. The viral genome is released and transported in to the nucleus, where transcription and replication take place. However, cellular factors affecting the influenza virus infection such as the cell cycle remain uncharacterized. METHODS/RESULTS: To resolve the influence of cell cycle on influenza virus infection, we performed a single-virus infection analysis using optical tweezers. Using this newly developed single-virus infection system, the fluorescence-labeled influenza virus was trapped on a microchip using a laser (1064 nm at 0.6 W, transported, and released onto individual H292 human lung epithelial cells. Interestingly, the influenza virus attached selectively to cells in the G1-phase. To clarify the molecular differences between cells in G1- and S/G2/M-phase, we performed several physical and chemical assays. Results indicated that: 1 the membranes of cells in G1-phase contained greater amounts of sialic acids (glycoproteins than the membranes of cells in S/G2/M-phase; 2 the membrane stiffness of cells in S/G2/M-phase is more rigid than those in G1-phase by measurement using optical tweezers; and 3 S/G2/M-phase cells contained higher content of Gb3, Gb4 and GlcCer than G1-phase cells by an assay for lipid composition. CONCLUSIONS: A novel single-virus infection system was developed to characterize the difference in influenza virus susceptibility between G1- and S/G2/M-phase cells. Differences in virus binding specificity were associated with alterations in the lipid composition, sialic acid content, and membrane stiffness. This single-virus infection system will be useful for studying the infection mechanisms of other viruses.

  1. Recuperation of the energy released in the G-1, an air-cooled graphite reactor core; Recuperation de l'energie degagee dans G 1 pile a graphite refroidie a l'air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambadal, P [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Pascal, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The CEA (in his five-year setting plan) has objective among others, the realization of the two first french reactors moderated with graphite. The construction of the G-1 reactor in Marcoule, first french plutonic core, is achieved so that it will diverge in the beginning of 1956 and reach its full power in the beginning of the second semester of the same year. In this report we will detail the specificities of the reactor and in particular its cooling and energy recuperation system. The G-1 reactor being essentially intended to allow the french technicians to study the behavior of an energy installation supply taking its heat in a nuclear source as early as possible. (M.B.) [French] Le Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (dans le cadre du plan quinquennal) a entre autres objectifs, la realisation des deux premiers reacteurs francais moderes au graphite. La construction du reacteur G-1 a Marcoule, premiere pile plutonigene francaise, est realise afin qu'il puisse diverger au debut de 1956 et atteindre sa pleine puissance au debut du second semestre de la meme annee. Dans ce rapport nous detaillerons les specificites du reacteur et en particulier son systeme de refroidissement et de recuperation d'energie. Le reacteur G-1 etant essentielement destine a permettre aux techniciens francais d'etudier le plus tot possible le comportement d'une installation productrice d'energie empruntant sa chaleur a une source nucleaire. (M.B.)

  2. Base substitution mutations in uridinediphosphate-dependent glycosyltransferase 76G1 gene of Stevia rebaudiana causes the low levels of rebaudioside A: mutations in UGT76G1, a key gene of steviol glycosides synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong-Heng; Huang, Su-Zhen; Han, Yu-Lin; Yuan, Hai-Yan; Gu, Chun-Sun; Zhao, Yan-Hai

    2014-07-01

    Steviol glycosides, extracted from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana (Bert) Bertoni, are calorie-free sugar substitute of natural origin with intensely sweet (Boileau et al., 2012). Stevioside and rebaudioside A are the two main kinds of the diterpenic glycosides. We analyzed the concentration of stevioside and rebaudioside A in Stevia leaves of about 500 samples (hybrid progenies) and discovered a mutation plant "Z05" with very low levels of rebaudioside A. Because UGT76G1, a uridinediphosphate-dependent glycosyltransferases, is responsible for the conversion from stevioside to rebaudioside A (Richman et al., 2005), so mutation identification was done by sequencing the candidate gene, UGT76G1. In this study molecular analysis of two strains revealed a heterozygotic nonsense mutation of c.389T > G (p.L121X) in UGT76G1. Meanwhile, we found some amino acid substitutions significant change the protein structure. And the difference of enzyme activity between two strains proved the lack of functionality of UGT76G1 of the mutation "Z05". So the nonsense mutation and amino acid substitution mutation resulted in the low levels of rebaudioside A. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Low x Double ln2(1/x) Resummation Effects at the Sum Rules for Nucleon Structure Function g1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziaja, B.

    2001-01-01

    We have estimated the contributions to the moments of polarized nucleon structure function g 1 (x,Q 2 ) coming from the region of the very low x (10 -5 2 (1/x) resummation. The Q 2 evolution of g 1 was described by the unified evolution equations incorporating both the leading order Altarelli-Parisi evolution at large and moderate x, and the double ln 2 (1/x) resummation at small x. The moments were obtained by integrating out the extrapolated nucleon structure function in the region 10 -5 < x<1. (author)

  4. Evaluation of Palm PCRTM G1-12 System: a portable battery-operated PCR thermal cycler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Aminah Ahmed

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Polymerase chain reaction (PCR is the basis of recombinant and other molecular biological techniques. Availability of cheap and robust PCR platforms enables the tests to be performed easily, even in resource constrained settings. Herein we compared the efficacy of a portable thermal cycler ( Palm PCRTM G1-12 System for rapid DNA amplification against the standard Peltier-based thermal cycler using plasmid DNA and genomic DNA in single and multiplex PCR experiments. Our study revealed that the Palm PCRTM G1-12 System could be a portable DNA amplification system to conduct various molecular techniques, especially in places where resources are limited.

  5. Detection of IgG1 and IgG4 subtypes reactive against potato apyrase in schistosomiasis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila de Faria-Pinto

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we showed for the first time that the conserved domains within Schistosoma mansoni ATP diphosphohydrolase isoforms, shared with potato apyrase, possess epitopes for the IgG1 and IgG4 subtypes, as 24 (80% of the 30 schistosomiasis patients were seropositive for this vegetable protein. The analyses for each patient cured (n = 14 after treatment (AT with praziquantel revealed variable IgG1 and IgG4 reactivity against potato apyrase. Different antigenic epitopes shared between the vegetable and parasite proteins could be involved in susceptibility or resistance to S. mansoni AT with praziquantel and these possibilities should be explored.

  6. The TCP4 transcription factor of Arabidopsis blocks cell division in yeast at G1 → S transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Pooja; Padmanabhan, Bhavna; Bhat, Abhay; Sarvepalli, Kavitha; Sadhale, Parag P.; Nath, Utpal

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → TCP4 is a class II TCP transcription factor, that represses cell division in Arabidopsis. → TCP4 expression in yeast retards cell division by blocking G1 → S transition. → Genome-wide expression studies and Western analysis reveals stabilization of cell cycle inhibitor Sic1, as possible mechanism. -- Abstract: The TCP transcription factors control important aspects of plant development. Members of class I TCP proteins promote cell cycle by regulating genes directly involved in cell proliferation. In contrast, members of class II TCP proteins repress cell division. While it has been postulated that class II proteins induce differentiation signal, their exact role on cell cycle has not been studied. Here, we report that TCP4, a class II TCP protein from Arabidopsis that repress cell proliferation in developing leaves, inhibits cell division by blocking G1 → S transition in budding yeast. Cells expressing TCP4 protein with increased transcriptional activity fail to progress beyond G1 phase. By analyzing global transcriptional status of these cells, we show that expression of a number of cell cycle genes is altered. The possible mechanism of G1 → S arrest is discussed.

  7. The spin-dependent structure function $g_{1}(x)$ of the deuteron from polarized deep-inelastic muon scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, D; Adeva, B; Akdogan, T; Arik, E; Arvidson, A; Badelek, B; Ballintijn, M K; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Bardin, G; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Betev, L; Bird, I G; Birsa, R; Björkholm, P; Bonner, B E; De Botton, N R; Boutemeur, M; Bradamante, Franco; Bravar, A; Bressan, A; Bültmann, S; Burtin, E; Cavata, C; Crabb, D; Cranshaw, J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Dalla Torre, S; Van Dantzig, R; Derro, B R; Deshpande, A A; Dhawan, S K; Dulya, C M; Dyring, A; Eichblatt, S; Faivre, Jean-Claude; Fasching, D; Feinstein, F; Fernández, C; Frois, Bernard; Gallas, A; Garzón, J A; Gaussiran, T; Giorgi, M A; von Goeler, E; Gómez, F; Gracia, G; De Groot, N; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Von Harrach, D; Hasegawa, T; Hautle, P; Hayashi, N; Heusch, C A; Horikawa, N; Hughes, V W; Igo, G; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kabuss, E M; Kageya, T; Kalinovskaya, L V; Karev, A G; Kessler, H J; Ketel, T; Kiryluk, J; Kishi, A; Kiselev, Yu F; Klostermann, L; Krämer, Dietrich; Krivokhizhin, V G; Kröger, W; Kukhtin, V V; Kurek, K; Kyynäräinen, J; Lamanna, M; Landgraf, U; Le Goff, J M; Lehár, F; de Lesquen, A; Lichtenstadt, J; Lindqvist, T; Litmaath, M; Loewe, M; Magnon, A; Mallot, G K; Marie, F; Martin, A; Martino, J; Matsuda, T; Mayes, B W; McCarthy, J S; Medved, K S; Van Middelkoop, G; Miller, D; Mori, K; Moromisato, J H; Nagaitsev, A P; Nassalski, J P; Naumann, Lutz; Niinikoski, T O; Oberski, J; Ogawa, A; Ozben, C; Parks, D P; Perrot-Kunne, F; Peshekhonov, V D; Piegaia, R; Pinsky, L; Platchkov, S K; Pló, M; Polec, J; Pose, D; Postma, H; Pretz, J; Puntaferro, R; Pussieux, T; Pyrlik, J; Rädel, G; Rijllart, A; Roberts, J B; Rock, S E; Rodríguez, M; Rondio, Ewa; Rosado, A; Sabo, I; Saborido, J; Sandacz, A; Savin, I A; Schiavon, R P; Schüler, K P; Seitz, R; Semertzidis, Y K; Sever, F; Shanahan, P; Sichtermann, E P; Simeoni, F; Smirnov, G I; Staude, A; Steinmetz, A; Steigler, U; Stuhrmann, H B; Szleper, M; Teichert, K M; Tessarotto, F; Tlaczala, W; Trentalange, S; Tripet, A; Ünel, G; Velasco, M; Vogt, J; Voss, Rüdiger; Weinstein, R; Whitten, C; Windmolders, R; Willumeit, R; Wislicki, W; Witzmann, A; Yañez, A; Ylöstalo, J; Zanetti, A M; Zaremba, K; Zhao, J

    1997-01-01

    We present a new measurement of the spin-dependent structure function $g_{1}^{\\rm d}$ of the deuteron from deep inelastic scattering of 190 GeV polarized muons on polarized deuterons. The results are combined with our previous measurements of $g_{1}^{\\rm d}$. A perturbative QCD evolution in next-to-leading order is used to compute $g_{1}^{\\rm d}(x)$ at a constant $Q^{2}$. At $Q^{2} = 10$ GeV$^{2}$, we obtain a first moment $\\Gamma_{1}^{\\rm d} = \\int_{0}^{1} g_{1}^{\\rm d}{\\rm d}x = 0.041 \\pm 0.008$, a flavour-singlet axial charge of the nucleon $a_{0} = 0.30 \\pm 0.08$, and an axial charge of the strange quark $a_{s} = -0.09 \\pm 0.03$. Using our earlier determination of $\\Gamma_{1}^{\\rm p}$, we obtain $\\Gamma_1^{\\rm p} - \\Gamma_1^{\\rm n} = 0.183 \\pm 0.035$ at $Q^2 = 10\\,\\mbox{GeV}^2$. This result is in agreement with the Bjorken sum rule which predicts $\\Gamma_1^{\\rm p} - \\Gamma_1^{\\rm n} = 0.186 \\pm 0.002$ at the same $Q^2$.

  8. Insensitive bounds for the moments of the sojourn time distribution in the M/G/1 processor-sharing queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, S.K.; Berg, J.L. van den; Boucherie, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the M/G/1 processor-sharing (PS) queue, in particular the sojourn time distribution conditioned on the initial job size. Although several expressions for the Laplace-Stieltjes transform (LST) are known, these expressions are not suitable for computational purposes. This paper

  9. Insensitive bounds for the moments of the sojourn time distribution in the M/G/1 processor-sharing queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, S.K.; van den Berg, Hans Leo; Boucherie, Richardus J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies the M/G/1 processor-sharing (PS) queue and the sojourn time distribution conditioned on the initial job size. Although several expressions for the Laplace-Stieltjes transform (LST) are known, these expressions are not applicable for computational purposes. This paper derives

  10. Overexpression of DOC-1R inhibits cell cycle G1/S transition by repressing CDK2 expression and activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Liu, Xing; Gao, Jinlan; Shi, Xiuyan; Hu, Xihua; Wang, Shusen; Luo, Yang

    2013-01-01

    DOC-1R (deleted in oral cancer-1 related) is a novel putative tumor suppressor. This study investigated DOC-1R antitumor activity and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Cell phenotypes were assessed using flow cytometry, BrdU incorporation and CDK2 kinase assays in DOC-1R overexpressing HeLa cells. In addition, RT-PCR and Western blot assays were used to detect underlying molecular changes in these cells. The interaction between DOC-1R and CDK2 proteins was assayed by GST pull-down and immunoprecipitation-Western blot assays. The data showed that DOC-1R overexpression inhibited G1/S phase transition, DNA replication and suppressed CDK2 activity. Molecularly, DOC-1R inhibited CDK2 expression at the mRNA and protein levels, and there were decreased levels of G1-phase cyclins (cyclin D1 and E) and elevated levels of p21, p27, and p53 proteins. Meanwhile, DOC-1R associated with CDK2 and inhibited CDK2 activation by obstructing its association with cyclin E and A. In conclusion, the antitumor effects of DOC-1R may be mediated by negatively regulating G1 phase progression and G1/S transition through inhibiting CDK2 expression and activation.

  11. G0/G1 switch gene-2 regulates human adipocyte lipolysis by affecting activity and localization of adipose triglyceride lipase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweiger, M.; Paar, M.; Eder, C.; Brandis, J.; Moser, E.; Gorkiewisz, G.; Grond, S.; Radner, F.P.W.; Cerk, I.; Cornaciu, I.; Oberer, M.; Kersten, A.H.; Zechner, R.; Zimmermann, M.B.; Lass, A.

    2012-01-01

    The hydrolysis of triglycerides in adipocytes, termed lipolysis, provides free fatty acids as energy fuel. Murine lipolysis largely depends on the activity of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL)5, which is regulated by two proteins annotated as comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) and G0/G1

  12. A heavy-traffic theorem for the GI/G/1 queue with a Pareto-type service time distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Cohen

    1997-01-01

    textabstractFor the $GI/G/1$-queueing model with traffic load $a<1$, service time distribution $B(t)$ and interarrival time distribution $A(t)$ holds, whenever for $t rightarrow infty$: $$ quad 1-B(t) sim frac{c{(t/ beta)^nu + {rm O ( {rm e^{-delta t ), quad c>0, quad 1< nu < 2, quad delta >

  13. Diagonal K-matrices and transfer matrix eigenspectra associated with the G(1)2 R-matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yung, C.M.; Batchelor, M.T.

    1995-01-01

    We find all the diagonal K-matrices for the R-matrix associated with the minimal representation of the exceptional affine algebra G (1) 2 . The corresponding transfer matrices are diagonalized with a variation of the analytic Bethe ansatz. We find many similarities with the case of the Izergin-Korepin R-matrix associated with the affine algebra A (2) 2 . ((orig.))

  14. The transient M/G/1/0 queue: some bounds and approximations for light traffic with application to reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ben Atkinson

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the transient analysis of the M/G/1/0 queue, for which Pn(t denotes the probability that there are no customers in the system at time t, given that there are n(n=0,1 customers in the system at time 0. The analysis, which is based upon coupling theory, leads to simple bounds on Pn(t for the M/G/1/0 and M/PH/1/0 queues and improved bounds for the special case M/Er/1/0. Numerical results are presented for various values of the mean arrival rate λ to demonstrate the increasing accuracy of approximations based upon the above bounds in light traffic, i.e., as λ→0. An important area of application for the M/G/1/0 queue is as a reliability model for a single repairable component. Since most practical reliability problems have λ values that are small relative to the mean service rate, the approximations are potentially useful in that context. A duality relation between the M/G/1/0 and GI/M/1/0 queues is also described.

  15. Insensitive bounds for the moments of the sojourn time distribution in the M/G/1 processor-sharing queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, S.K.; Cheung, S.K.; van den Berg, Hans Leo; Boucherie, Richardus J.

    This paper studies the M/G/1 processor-sharing (PS) queue, in particular the sojourn time distribution conditioned on the initial job size. Although several expressions for the Laplace-Stieltjes transform (LST) are known, these expressions are not suitable for computational purposes. This paper

  16. Joint distribution of sojourn time and queue length in the M/G/1 queue with (in)finite capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, O.J.

    1984-01-01

    For the M/G/1 queue we study the joint distribution of the number of customers x present immediately before an arrival epoch and of the residual service time ¿ of the customer in service at this epoch. The correlation coefficient (x, ¿) is shown to be positive (negative) when the service time

  17. A novel Robertsonian translocation event leads to transfer of a stem rust resistance gene (Sr52) effective against race Ug99 from Dasypyrum villosum into bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, L L; Pumphrey, M O; Friebe, Bernd; Zhang, P; Qian, C; Bowden, R L; Rouse, M N; Jin, Y; Gill, B S

    2011-06-01

    Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn.) (the causal agent of wheat stem rust) race Ug99 (also designated TTKSK) and its derivatives have defeated several important stem rust resistance genes widely used in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production, rendering much of the worldwide wheat acreage susceptible. In order to identify new resistance sources, a large collection of wheat relatives and genetic stocks maintained at the Wheat Genetic and Genomic Resources Center was screened. The results revealed that most accessions of the diploid relative Dasypyrum villosum (L.) Candargy were highly resistant. The screening of a set of wheat-D. villosum chromosome addition lines revealed that the wheat-D. villosum disomic addition line DA6V#3 was moderately resistant to race Ug99. The objective of the present study was to produce and characterize compensating wheat-D. villosum whole arm Robertsonian translocations (RobTs) involving chromosomes 6D of wheat and 6V#3 of D. villosum through the mechanism of centric breakage-fusion. Seven 6V#3-specific EST-STS markers were developed for screening F(2) progeny derived from plants double-monosomic for chromosomes 6D and 6V#3. Surprisingly, although 6D was the target chromosome, all recovered RobTs involved chromosome 6A implying a novel mechanism for the origin of RobTs. Homozygous translocations (T6AS·6V#3L and T6AL·6V#3S) with good plant vigor and full fertility were selected from F(3) families. A stem rust resistance gene was mapped to the long arm 6V#3L in T6AS·6V#3L and was designated as Sr52. Sr52 is temperature-sensitive and is most effective at 16°C, partially effective at 24°C, and ineffective at 28°C. The T6AS·6V#3L stock is a new source of resistance to Ug99, is cytogenetically stable, and may be useful in wheat improvement.

  18. Piperine causes G1 phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in melanoma cells through checkpoint kinase-1 activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neel M Fofaria

    Full Text Available In this study, we determined the cytotoxic effects of piperine, a major constituent of black and long pepper in melanoma cells. Piperine treatment inhibited the growth of SK MEL 28 and B16 F0 cells in a dose and time-dependent manner. The growth inhibitory effects of piperine were mediated by cell cycle arrest of both the cell lines in G1 phase. The G1 arrest by piperine correlated with the down-regulation of cyclin D1 and induction of p21. Furthermore, this growth arrest by piperine treatment was associated with DNA damage as indicated by phosphorylation of H2AX at Ser139, activation of ataxia telangiectasia and rad3-related protein (ATR and checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1. Pretreatment with AZD 7762, a Chk1 inhibitor not only abrogated the activation of Chk1 but also piperine mediated G1 arrest. Similarly, transfection of cells with Chk1 siRNA completely protected the cells from G1 arrest induced by piperine. Piperine treatment caused down-regulation of E2F1 and phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (Rb. Apoptosis induced by piperine was associated with down-regulation of XIAP, Bid (full length and cleavage of Caspase-3 and PARP. Furthermore, our results showed that piperine treatment generated ROS in melanoma cells. Blocking ROS by tiron protected the cells from piperine mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. These results suggest that piperine mediated ROS played a critical role in inducing DNA damage and activation of Chk1 leading to G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

  19. Repair of U/G and U/A in DNA by UNG2-associated repair complexes takes place predominantly by short-patch repair both in proliferating and growth-arrested cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akbari, Mansour; Otterlei, Marit; Pena Diaz, Javier

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear uracil-DNA glycosylase UNG2 has an established role in repair of U/A pairs resulting from misincorporation of dUMP during replication. In antigen-stimulated B-lymphocytes UNG2 removes uracil from U/G mispairs as part of somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination processes. Using......, PCNA and DNA ligase, the latter detected as activity. Short-patch repair was the predominant mechanism both in extracts and UNG2-ARC from proliferating and less BER-proficient growth-arrested cells. Repair of U/G mispairs and U/A pairs was completely inhibited by neutralizing UNG...

  20. Apparatus of irradiation of steel test pieces in the Marcoule pile G 1; Dispositifs d'irradiation d'eprouvettes d'acier dans la pile G 1 de Marcoule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinot, R.; Wallet, Ph. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    Test pieces of steel were irradiated in the reactor G1 at Marcoule, in convectors replacing fuel elements, and in vertical channels in furnace-heated containers. The apparatus designed for this irradiation is described: containers, converter-rods, suspension fixtures and clamps, temperature measurement devices, lead castles and unloading set-ups. (author) [French] Des eprouvettes d'acier ont ete irradiees dans le reacteur G1 de Marcoule dans des convertisseurs mis a la place d'elements combustibles, et dans des canaux verticaux, en conteneurs chauffes par four. Nous decrivons l'appareillage etudie pour cette irradiation: conteneurs, barreaux-convertisseurs, dispositifs de suspension et d'amarrage, dispositifs de regulation et de mesure de temperature, chateaux de plomb et montages de defournement. (auteur)

  1. Apparatus of irradiation of steel test pieces in the Marcoule pile G 1; Dispositifs d'irradiation d'eprouvettes d'acier dans la pile G 1 de Marcoule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinot, R; Wallet, Ph [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    Test pieces of steel were irradiated in the reactor G1 at Marcoule, in convectors replacing fuel elements, and in vertical channels in furnace-heated containers. The apparatus designed for this irradiation is described: containers, converter-rods, suspension fixtures and clamps, temperature measurement devices, lead castles and unloading set-ups. (author) [French] Des eprouvettes d'acier ont ete irradiees dans le reacteur G1 de Marcoule dans des convertisseurs mis a la place d'elements combustibles, et dans des canaux verticaux, en conteneurs chauffes par four. Nous decrivons l'appareillage etudie pour cette irradiation: conteneurs, barreaux-convertisseurs, dispositifs de suspension et d'amarrage, dispositifs de regulation et de mesure de temperature, chateaux de plomb et montages de defournement. (auteur)

  2. Zasady ujawniania aktywów biologicznychw sprawozdaniach finansowych jednostek rolniczychwedług Międzynarodowych StandardówSprawozdawczości Finansowej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Kiziukiewicz

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Charakterystycznym dla przedsiębiorstw rolniczych składnikiem aktywów są aktywa biologiczne. Wyróżnia je fakt podlegania przemianie biologicznej, wskutek której przekształcają się one w produkty rolnicze lub inne aktywa biologiczne. W związku z tą specyfiką powstaje problem odpowiedniej prezentacji informacji o nich. W artykule są przedstawione zasady i zakres ujawnień o aktywach biologicznych w sprawozdaniu finansowym i dołączanych do niego raportach szczegółowych, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem problemów wyceny według wartości godziwej.

  3. Distribution, enrichment and sources of thallium in the surface sediments of the southwestern coastal Laizhou Bay, Bohai Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Wen; Gao, Xuelu

    2015-07-15

    The concentrations of thallium (Tl) in the surface sediments of the southwestern coastal Laizhou Bay and the rivers it connects were determined. In riverine sediments, the Tl concentrations ranged from 0.34 to 0.76 μg g(-1) in summer; in autumn, the corresponding data were 0.35-1.08 μg g(-1). In marine sediments, the Tl concentrations ranged from 0.36 to 0.58 μg g(-1) in summer; and from 0.30 to 0.56 μg g(-1) in autumn. The grain size, Al and Fe oxides were major factors affecting Tl distribution. Tl in the surface sediments of the studied area was mainly from the natural input with the non-natural input as a subsidiary source. The low concentrations of Tl made it hard to cause potential negative environmental effects in this area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification and mapping of Sr46 from Aegilops tauschii accession CIae 25 conferring resistance to race TTKSK (Ug99) of wheat stem rust pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guotai; Zhang, Qijun; Friesen, Timothy L; Rouse, Matthew N; Jin, Yue; Zhong, Shaobin; Rasmussen, Jack B; Lagudah, Evans S; Xu, Steven S

    2015-03-01

    Mapping studies confirm that resistance to Ug99 race of stem rust pathogen in Aegilops tauschii accession Clae 25 is conditioned by Sr46 and markers linked to the gene were developed for marker-assisted selection. The race TTKSK (Ug99) of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, the causal pathogen for wheat stem rust, is considered as a major threat to global wheat production. To address this threat, researchers across the world have been devoted to identifying TTKSK-resistant genes. Here, we report the identification and mapping of a stem rust resistance gene in Aegilops tauschii accession CIae 25 that confers resistance to TTKSK and the development of molecular markers for the gene. An F2 population of 710 plants from an Ae. tauschii cross CIae 25 × AL8/78 were first evaluated against race TPMKC. A set of 14 resistant and 116 susceptible F2:3 families from the F2 plants were then evaluated for their reactions to TTKSK. Based on the tests, 179 homozygous susceptible F2 plants were selected as the mapping population to identify the simple sequence repeat (SSR) and sequence tagged site (STS) markers linked to the gene by bulk segregant analysis. A dominant stem rust resistance gene was identified and mapped with 16 SSR and five new STS markers to the deletion bin 2DS5-0.47-1.00 of chromosome arm 2DS in which Sr46 was located. Molecular marker and stem rust tests on CIae 25 and two Ae. tauschii accessions carrying Sr46 confirmed that the gene in CIae 25 is Sr46. This study also demonstrated that Sr46 is temperature-sensitive being less effective at low temperatures. The marker validation indicated that two closely linked markers Xgwm210 and Xwmc111 can be used for marker-assisted selection of Sr46 in wheat breeding programs.

  5. Molecular Cytogenetic Characterization of two Triticum–Secale–Thinopyrum Trigeneric Hybrids Exhibiting Superior Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight, Leaf Rust, and Stem Rust Race Ug99

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Dai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB, leaf rust, and stem rust are the most destructive fungal diseases in current world wheat production. The diploid wheatgrass, Thinopyrum elongatum (Host Dewey (2n = 2x = 14, EE is an excellent source of disease resistance genes. Two new Triticum–Secale–Thinopyrum trigeneric hybrids were derived from a cross between a hexaploid triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack, 2n = 6x = 42, AABBRR and a hexaploid Triticum trititrigia (2n = 6x = 42, AABBEE, were produced and analyzed using genomic in situ hybridization and molecular markers. The results indicated that line RE21 contained 14 A-chromosomes, 14 B-chromosomes, three pairs of R-chromosomes (4R, 6R, and 7R, and four pairs of E-chromosomes (1E, 2E, 3E, and 5E for a total chromosome number of 2n = 42. Line RE62 contained 14 A-chromosomes, 14 B-chromosomes, six pairs of R-chromosomes, and one pair of translocation chromosomes between chromosome 5R and 5E, for a total chromosome number of 2n = 42. At the seedling and adult growth stages under greenhouse conditions, line RE21 showed high levels of resistance to FHB, leaf rust, and stem rust race Ug99, and line RE62 was highly resistant to leaf rust and stem rust race Ug99. These two lines (RE21 and RE62 display superior disease resistance characteristics and have the potential to be utilized as valuable germplasm sources for future wheat improvement.

  6. Persistent organic pollutants in soils and sediments from James Ross Island, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klanova, Jana; Matykiewiczova, Nina; Macka, Zdenek; Prosek, Pavel; Laska, Kamil; Klan, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Soil and sediment samples from James Ross Island were analyzed for their PCB, OCP and PAH contents. Soil concentrations ranged between 0.51 and 1.82 ng g -1 for seven indicator PCB congeners, between 0.49 and 1.34 ng g -1 for HCH congeners, between 0.51 and 3.68 ng g -1 for the sum of p,p'-DDT, DDE, and DDD, and between 34.9 and 171 ng g -1 for the sum of 16 EPA PAHs. Sediment levels from 0.32 to 0.83 ng g -1 were found for PCBs, from 0.14 to 0.76 ng g -1 for HCHs, from 0.19 to 1.15 ng g -1 for DDTs, and from 1.4 to 205 ng g -1 for PAHs. A prevalence of low-mass PAHs, less chlorinated PCBs, and more volatile chemicals indicates that the long-range atmospheric transport from populated areas of Africa, South America, and Australia is the most probable contamination source for the solid matrices in James Ross Island. - A survey of soil, sediment and air contamination in James Ross Island, Antarctica serves as a baseline study for evaluation of an anthropogenic impact of the new research facility

  7. G1/S-regulated E2F-containing protein complexes bind to the mouse thymidine kinase gene promoter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Q P; Zhao, S; Levin, A H

    1994-01-01

    report that MT2 includes an E2F-like binding site (GTTCGCGGGCAAA), as shown by the following evidence. (i) MT2 bound specifically to an affinity-purified fusion human E2F protein. (ii) Both MT2 and an authentic E2F site (TTTCGCGCGCTTT) bound specifically to similar or identical nuclear protein complexes...... complexes were also investigated. Studies using specific antibodies revealed that p107, a retinoblastoma-like protein, was present in both E2F-G0/G1 and E2F.S, whereas cyclin E.cyclin A.cdk2 were only present in E2F.S complex(es). These data suggest that removal of the p107-containing E2F.G0/G1 complex...

  8. Evolutionarily conserved transcription factor Apontic controls the G1/S progression by inducing cyclin e during eye development

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Qingxin; Wang, Xianfeng; Ikeo, Kazuho; Hirose, Susumu; Gehring, Walter Jakob; Gojobori, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    During Drosophila eye development, differentiation initiates in the posterior region of the eye disk and progresses anteriorly as a wave marked by the morphogenetic furrow (MF), which demarcates the boundary between anterior undifferentiated cells and posterior differentiated photoreceptors. However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of gene expression immediately before the onset of differentiation remains unclear. Here, we show that Apontic (Apt), which is an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor, is expressed in the differentiating cells posterior to the MF. Moreover, it directly induces the expression of cyclin E and is also required for the G1-to-S phase transition, which is known to be essential for the initiation of cell differentiation at the MF. These observations identify a pathway crucial for eye development, governed by a mechanism in which Cyclin E promotes the G1-to-S phase transition when regulated by Apt.

  9. Mainstream cigarette smoke exposure alters cytochrome P4502G1 expression in F344 rat olfactory mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotchkiss, J.A.; Nikula, K.J.; Lewis, J.L.; Finch, G.L.; Belinsky, S.A.; Dahl, A.R.

    1994-01-01

    Inhalation of mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) by rats results in multifocal rhinitis, mucous hypersecretion, nasal epithelial hyperplasia and metaplasia, and focal olfactory mucosal atrophy. In humans, cigarette smoking causes long-term, dose-related alterations in olfactory function in both current and former smokers. An olfactory-specific cytochrome P450 has been identified in rabbits and rats. The presence of olfactory-specific P450s, as well as relatively high levels of other biotransformation enzymes, such as NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase, in the olfactory neuroepithelium suggest that these enzyme systems may play a role in olfaction. This hypothesis is strengthened by the observation that, in rats, the temporal gene activation of P4502G1 coincides with the postnatal increase in the sensitivity of olfactory response to odorants. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of MCS exposure on P4502G1 protein expression

  10. A novel peptide sansalvamide analogue inhibits pancreatic cancer cell growth through G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujiki, Michael B.; Milam, Ben; Ding Xianzhong; Roginsky, Alexandra B.; Salabat, M. Reza; Talamonti, Mark S.; Bell, Richard H.; Gu Wenxin; Silverman, Richard B.; Adrian, Thomas E.

    2006-01-01

    Patients with pancreatic cancer have little hope for cure because no effective therapies are available. Sansalvamide A is a cyclic depsipeptide produced by a marine fungus. We investigated the effect of a novel sansalvamide A analogue on growth, cell-cycle phases, and induction of apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. The sansalvamide analogue caused marked time- and concentration-dependent inhibition of DNA synthesis and cell proliferation of two human pancreatic cancer cell lines (AsPC-1 and S2-013). The analogue induced G0/G1 phase cell-cycle arrest and morphological changes suggesting induction of apoptosis. Apoptosis was confirmed by annexin V binding. This novel sansalvamide analogue inhibits growth of pancreatic cancer cells through G0/G1 arrest and induces apoptosis. Sansalvamide analogues may be valuable for the treatment of pancreatic cancer

  11. Molecular characterization of cystic echinococcosis: First record of G7 in Egypt and G1 in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam-Eldin, Yosra H; Abdel Aaty, Heba E; Ahmed, Mona A

    2015-12-01

    Few molecular studies have identified the current status of cystic echinococcosis in Egypt. The present study aimed to ascertain the genotype(s) of Echinococcus granulosus responsible for human hydatidosis in different Egyptian governorates (regions). Animal isolates were collected from 40 camels, 5 pigs and 44 sheep. 27 human isolates were included in the present study. Specific PCR was performed and followed by DNA sequencing for mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA gene and BLAST analysis.The sheep cysts were not hydatid cysts. G6 genotype (camel starin) predominates in human, camel and pig isolates. G7 genotype (pig strain) was detected in two human isolates and one pig isolate. G1 genotype (sheep strain) was detected in one human isolate from Yemen and in no animal isolates. This is the first record of G7 in Egypt and G1 in Yemen.

  12. Evolutionarily conserved transcription factor Apontic controls the G1/S progression by inducing cyclin e during eye development

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Qingxin

    2014-06-16

    During Drosophila eye development, differentiation initiates in the posterior region of the eye disk and progresses anteriorly as a wave marked by the morphogenetic furrow (MF), which demarcates the boundary between anterior undifferentiated cells and posterior differentiated photoreceptors. However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of gene expression immediately before the onset of differentiation remains unclear. Here, we show that Apontic (Apt), which is an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor, is expressed in the differentiating cells posterior to the MF. Moreover, it directly induces the expression of cyclin E and is also required for the G1-to-S phase transition, which is known to be essential for the initiation of cell differentiation at the MF. These observations identify a pathway crucial for eye development, governed by a mechanism in which Cyclin E promotes the G1-to-S phase transition when regulated by Apt.

  13. TopBP1 is required at mitosis to reduce transmission of DNA damage to G1 daughter cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rune Troelsgaard; Kruse, Thomas; Nilsson, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    mitotic entry. In early mitosis, TopBP1 marks sites of and promotes unscheduled DNA synthesis. Moreover, TopBP1 is required for focus formation of the structure-selective nuclease and scaffold protein SLX4 in mitosis. Persistent TopBP1 foci transition into 53BP1 nuclear bodies (NBs) in G1 and precise...... temporal depletion of TopBP1 just before mitotic entry induced formation of 53BP1 NBs in the next cell cycle, showing that TopBP1 acts to reduce transmission of DNA damage to G1 daughter cells. Based on these results, we propose that TopBP1 maintains genome integrity in mitosis by controlling chromatin...

  14. Crystal Structures of Glycosyltransferase UGT78G1 Reveal the Molecular Basis for Glycosylation and Deglycosylation of (Iso)flavonoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modolo, Luzia V.; Li, Lenong; Pan, Haiyun; Blount, Jack W.; Dixon, Richard A.; Wang, Xiaoqiang; (SRNF)

    2010-09-21

    The glycosyltransferase UGT78G1 from Medicago truncatula catalyzes the glycosylation of various (iso)flavonoids such as the flavonols kaempferol and myricetin, the isoflavone formononetin, and the anthocyanidins pelargonidin and cyanidin. It also catalyzes a reverse reaction to remove the sugar moiety from glycosides. The structures of UGT78G1 bound with uridine diphosphate or with both uridine diphosphate and myricetin were determined at 2.1 {angstrom} resolution, revealing detailed interactions between the enzyme and substrates/products and suggesting a distinct binding mode for the acceptor/product. Comparative structural analysis and mutagenesis identify glutamate 192 as a key amino acid for the reverse reaction. This information provides a basis for enzyme engineering to manipulate substrate specificity and to design effective biocatalysts with glycosylation and/or deglycosylation activity.

  15. Lethal and sublethal responses to a sediment bound toxicant by two oligochaetes from Lake Michigan: stylodrilus heringianus and limnodrilus hoffmeisteri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keilty, T.J.

    1987-01-01

    Short-term lethal, and short and long-term sublethal responses by Stylodrilus heringianus (Lumbriculidae) and Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri (Tubificidae) to sediments dosed with endrin were measured in single and mixed species tests. Ninety-six hour LC 50 values were 2588 +/- 1974 and 2757 +/- 995 ug/g dry weight sediment for S. heringianus and L. hoffmeisteri respectively. Ninety-six hour EC 50 burrowing avoidance values (concentration where 50% do not burrow) were one to two orders of magnitude lower than the LC 50 's. Short-term mixed species LC 50 data suggested that L. hoffmeisteri may benefit from the presence of S. heringianus. Long-term sublethal responses were quantified by measuring sediment reworking rates (the rate at which subsurface sediments are egested at the surface and re-buried) in laboratory microcosms. Rates were determined by monitoring a gamma-emitting 137 Cesium marker layer with a well-collimated NaI detector. Sediment endrin concentrations ranged from 3 ng/g to 82 ug/g in six 1300 hour experiments. For S. heringianus, reworking rates were stimulated at low concentrations during the first half of experiments, followed by gradual decreases relative to controls. Stimulation of L. hoffmeisteri reworking was not observed. At high concentrations, early reworking rates were reduced for both species, followed by dramatic decreases later on. In mixed species experiments at high concentrations, the presence of S. heringianus enhanced the reworking of L. hoffmeisteri, although the reverse was not observed. Decreased mortality and increased post experimental dry weights of L. hoffmeisteri in mixed, relative to single species tests were also observed. Generally, post experimental worm weights were inversely related to sediment endrin loads, and bioconcentration factors for S. heringianus (10-40) were approximately fourfold that of L. hoffmeisteri (1-10)

  16. An inhibitor of polyamine synthesis arrests cells at an earlier stage of G1 than does calcium deprivation.

    OpenAIRE

    Cheetham, B F

    1983-01-01

    Methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) completely inhibits the induction of thymidine kinase after serum stimulation of quiescent fibroblasts only if added within 3 h after serum, whereas calcium deprivation blocks this induction up to 12 h after serum stimulation. Experiments in which one of these blocks was imposed as the other was released confirmed that cells blocked by methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) are arrested at an earlier stage in G1 than cells blocked by calcium deprivation.

  17. An inhibitor of polyamine synthesis arrests cells at an earlier stage of G1 than does calcium deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheetham, B F

    1983-01-01

    Methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) completely inhibits the induction of thymidine kinase after serum stimulation of quiescent fibroblasts only if added within 3 h after serum, whereas calcium deprivation blocks this induction up to 12 h after serum stimulation. Experiments in which one of these blocks was imposed as the other was released confirmed that cells blocked by methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) are arrested at an earlier stage in G1 than cells blocked by calcium deprivation. PMID:6843551

  18. Role of polyamines at the G1/S boundary and G2/M phase of the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Tomoko; Nishimura, Kazuhiro; Saiki, Ryotaro; Okudaira, Hiroyuki; Tome, Mayuko; Higashi, Kyohei; Nakamura, Mizuho; Terui, Yusuke; Fujiwara, Kunio; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Igarashi, Kazuei

    2013-06-01

    The role of polyamines at the G1/S boundary and in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle was studied using synchronized HeLa cells treated with thymidine or with thymidine and aphidicolin. Synchronized cells were cultured in the absence or presence of α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), an inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, plus ethylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (EGBG), an inhibitor of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase. When polyamine content was reduced by treatment with DFMO and EGBG, the transition from G1 to S phase was delayed. In parallel, the level of p27(Kip1) was greatly increased, so its mechanism was studied in detail. Synthesis of p27(Kip1) was stimulated at the level of translation by a decrease in polyamine levels, because of the existence of long 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) in p27(Kip1) mRNA. Similarly, the transition from the G2/M to the G1 phase was delayed by a reduction in polyamine levels. In parallel, the number of multinucleate cells increased by 3-fold. This was parallel with the inhibition of cytokinesis due to an unusual distribution of actin and α-tubulin at the M phase. Since an association of polyamines with chromosomes was not observed by immunofluorescence microscopy at the M phase, polyamines may have only a minor role in structural changes of chromosomes at the M phase. In general, the involvement of polyamines at the G2/M phase was smaller than that at the G1/S boundary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Echinococcus ortleppi (G5) and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) loads in cattle from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbinotti, Helier; Santos, Guilherme B; Badaraco, Jeferson; Arend, Ana C; Graichen, Daniel Ângelo S; Haag, Karen L; Zaha, Arnaldo

    2012-09-10

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) and Echinococcus ortleppi (G5) are haplotypes of the parasite formerly known as Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato, which in its larval stage causes cystic hydatid disease, endemic in Southern Brazil. Epidemiological and molecular knowledge about the haplotypes occurring in a region is essential to control the spread of the disease. The aim of this work was to analyze the haplotype frequency and fertility of hydatid cysts in cattle from the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Cysts were collected and classified according to their fertility status. DNA was extracted from protoscoleces and germinal layers and then used as template for the amplification of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene by PCR. Amplicons were purified and sequenced, and the sequences were analyzed for haplotype identification. A total of 638 fertile cysts collected in the last ten years were genotyped. On average, G1 (56.6%) was more frequent than G5 (43.4%). In lungs, the G5 haplotype exhibited a higher parasite load (52.8%), whereas in the liver, G1 was more frequent (90.4%). The analysis revealed an increase in the frequency of G5 haplotype cysts during the period of sampling, and an increase in the abundance of fertile cysts has also been observed in the last several years. Most infertile cysts were genotyped as G1. The possible factors involved in the increase in the proportion of E. ortleppi (G5) and the consequences of this increase are discussed. This study suggests that the proportion of E. ortleppi (G5) loads in cattle may be increasing overtime. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The hard X-ray view of the young supernova remnant G1.9+0.3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoglauer, Andreas; Reynolds, Stephen P.; An, Hongjun

    2015-01-01

    NuSTAR observed G1.9+0.3, the youngest known supernova remnant in the Milky Way, for 350 ks and detected emission up to ~30 keV. The remnant's X-ray morphology does not change significantly across the energy range from 3 to 20 keV. A combined fit between NuSTAR and Chandra shows that the spectrum...

  1. Isolation and characterization of a monoclonal anti CK-2 alpha subunit antibody of the IgG1 subclass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt-Spaniol, I; Boldyreff, B; Issinger, O G

    1992-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody was produced against the recombinant human alpha subunit of CK-2. The antibody was of the IgG1 subclass and it was isolated from serum-free cell culture media and purified by affinity chromatography on Protein G Sepharose. The antibody can be used to detect specifically the CK......-2 alpha subunit in immunoblots from tissue extracts. An ELISA detection test was also established which also allows the identification of the CK-2 alpha subunit....

  2. Detailed petrographic descriptions and microprobe data for tertiary silicic volcanic rocks in drill hole USW G-1, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caporuscio, F.A.; Warren, R.G.; Broxton, D.E.

    1985-12-01

    This report contains detailed petrographic descriptions of 74 thin sections from drill hole USW G-1 at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These descriptions are keyed to the distinctions between devitrified, vitrophyre, vitric, and zeolitized intervals below the Topopah Spring Member repository horizon. The petrographic features of the zeolitized intervals down through the Crater Flat tuff, as well as the sorption properties determined from these intervals, suggest that these zeolite occurrences may each have comparable sorptive capability.

  3. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus through p53-dependent pathway causes cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pei; Wu, Haoyang; Huang, Jiali; Xu, Ying; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Qi; Xu, Xingang

    2018-05-22

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), an enteropathogenic Alphacoronavirus, has caused enormous economic losses in the swine industry. p53 protein exists in a wide variety of animal cells, which is involved in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, cell differentiation and other biological functions. In this study, we investigated the effects of PEDV infection on the cell cycle of Vero cells and p53 activation. The results demonstrated that PEDV infection induces cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase in Vero cells, while UV-inactivated PEDV does not cause cell cycle arrest. PEDV infection up-regulates the levels of p21, cdc2, cdk2, cdk4, Cyclin A protein and down-regulates Cyclin E protein. Further research results showed that inhibition of p53 signaling pathway can reverse the cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase induced by PEDV infection and cancel out the up-regulation of p21 and corresponding Cyclin/cdk mentioned above. In addition, PEDV infection of the cells synchronized in various stages of cell cycle showed that viral subgenomic RNA and virus titer were higher in the cells released from G0/G1 phase synchronized cells than that in the cells released from the G1/S phase and G2/M phase synchronized or asynchronous cells after 18 h p.i.. This is the first report to demonstrate that the p53-dependent pathway plays an important role in PEDV induced cell cycle arrest and beneficially contributes to viral infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. MKP1 phosphatase mediates G1-specific dephosphorylation of H3Serine10P in response to DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Ajit K.; Khan, Shafqat A.; Sharda, Asmita; Reddy, Divya V; Gupta, Sanjay, E-mail: sgupta@actrec.gov.in

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Reversible reduction of H3S10 phosphorylation after DNA damage is G1 phase specific. • Dynamic balance between MAP kinases, MKP1 and MSK1 regulate H3S10P during DDR. • MKP1 associates with chromatin bearing γH2AX in response to DNA damage. • Inhibition of MKP1 activity with specific inhibitor promotes radiation-induced cell death. - Abstract: Histone mark, H3S10 phosphorylation plays a dual role in a cell by maintaining relaxed chromatin for active transcription in interphase and condensed chromatin state in mitosis. The level of H3S10P has also been shown to alter on DNA damage; however, its cell cycle specific behavior and regulation during DNA damage response is largely unexplored. In the present study, we demonstrate G1 cell cycle phase specific reversible loss of H3S10P in response to IR-induced DNA damage is mediated by opposing activities of phosphatase, MKP1 and kinase, MSK1 of the MAP kinase pathway. We also show that the MKP1 recruits to the chromatin in response to DNA damage and correlates with the decrease of H3S10P, whereas MKP1 is released from chromatin during recovery phase of DDR. Furthermore, blocking of H3S10 dephosphorylation by MKP1 inhibition impairs DNA repair process and results in poor survival of WRL68 cells. Collectively, our data proposes a pathway regulating G1 cell cycle phase specific reversible reduction of H3S10P on IR induced DNA damage and also raises the possibility of combinatorial modulation of H3S10P with specific inhibitors to target the cancer cells in G1-phase of cell cycle.

  5. Expression of CAR in SW480 and HepG2 cells during G1 is associated with cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osabe, Makoto; Sugatani, Junko; Takemura, Akiko; Yamazaki, Yasuhiro; Ikari, Akira; Kitamura, Naomi; Negishi, Masahiko; Miwa, Masao

    2008-01-01

    Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a transcription factor to regulate the expression of several genes related to drug-metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that CAR protein accumulates during G1 in human SW480 and HepG2 cells. After the G1/S phase transition, CAR protein levels decreased, and CAR was hardly detected in cells by the late M phase. CAR expression in both cell lines was suppressed by RNA interference-mediated suppression of CDK4. Depletion of CAR by RNA interference in both cells and by hepatocyte growth factor treatment in HepG2 cells resulted in decreased MDM2 expression that led to p21 upregulation and repression of HepG2 cell growth. Thus, our results demonstrate that CAR expression is an early G1 event regulated by CDK4 that contributes to MDM2 expression; these findings suggest that CAR may influence the expression of genes involved in not only the metabolism of endogenous and exogenous substances but also in the cell proliferation

  6. The Spin-dependent Structure Function of the Proton $g_{1}^p$ and a Test of the Bjorken Sum Rule

    CERN Document Server

    Alekseev, M.G.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Austregesilo, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Ball, J.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bertini, R.; Bettinelli, M.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Brona, G.; Burtin, E.; Bussa, M.P.; Chaberny, D.; Cotic, D.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Colantoni, M.; Crespo, M.L.; Dalla Torre, S.; Das, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Diaz, V.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dunnweber, W.; Efremov, A.; El Alaoui, A.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Filin, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; Friedrich, J.M.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gazda, R.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Grabmuller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Hasegawa, T.; Heinsius, F.H.; Hermann, R.; Herrmann, F.; Hess, C.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; Hoppner, Ch.; d'Hose, N.; Ilgner, C.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, O.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jasinski, P.; Jegou, G.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Kafer, W.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu.A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, K.; Konopka, R.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kowalik, K.; Kramer, M.; Kral, A.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kuhn, R.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Lauser, L.; Le Goff, J.M.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Liska, T.; Maggiora, A.; Maggiora, M.; Magnon, A.; Mallot, G.K.; Mann, A.; Marchand, C.; Marroncle, J.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Massmann, F.; Matsuda, T.; Maximov, A.N.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu.V.; Moinester, M.A.; Mutter, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nassalski, J.; Negrini, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Pawlukiewicz-Kaminska, B.; Perevalova, E.; Pesaro, G.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pontecorvo, G.; Pretz, J.; Quintans, C.; Rajotte, J.F.; Ramos, S.; Rapatsky, V.; Reicherz, G.; Richter, A.; Robinet, F.; Rocco, E.; Rondio, E.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, H.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schmitt, L.; Schluter, T.; Schopferer, S.; Schroder, W.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Siebert, H.W.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A.N.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G.I.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Takekawa, S.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Teufel, A.; Tkatchev, L.G.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N.V.; Vossen, A.; Weitzel, Q.; Windmolders, R.; Wislicki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zhao, J.; Zhuravlev, N.; Zvyagin, A.

    2010-01-01

    The inclusive double-spin asymmetry, $A_{1}^{p}$, has been measured at COMPASS in deepinelastic polarised muon scattering off a large polarised NH3 target. The data, collected in the year 2007, cover the range Q2 > 1 (GeV/c)^2, 0.004 < x < 0.7 and improve the statistical precision of g_{1}^{p}(x) by a factor of two in the region x < 0.02. The new proton asymmetries are combined with those previously published for the deuteron to extract the non-singlet spin-dependent structure function g_1^NS(x,Q2). The isovector quark density, Delta_q_3(x,Q2), is evaluated from a NLO QCD fit of g_1^NS. The first moment of Delta_q3 is in good agreement with the value predicted by the Bjorken sum rule and corresponds to a ratio of the axial and vector coupling constants g_A/g_V = 1.28+-0.07(stat)+-0.10(syst).

  7. Global Distribution of Net Electron Acceptance in Subseafloor Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulfer, V. M.; Pockalny, R. A.; D'Hondt, S.

    2017-12-01

    We quantified the global distribution of net electron acceptance rates (e-/m2/year) in subseafloor sediment (>1.5 meters below seafloor [mbsf]) using (i) a modified version of the chemical-reaction-rate algorithm by Wang et al. (2008), (ii) physical properties and dissolved oxygen and sulfate data from interstitial waters of sediment cores collected by the Ocean Drilling Program, Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, International Ocean Discovery Program, and U.S. coring expeditions, and (iii) correlation of net electron acceptance rates to global oceanographic properties. Calculated net rates vary from 4.8 x 1019 e-/m2/year for slowly accumulating abyssal clay to 1.2 x 1023 e-/m2/year for regions of high sedimentation rate. Net electron acceptance rate correlates strongly with mean sedimentation rate. Where sedimentation rate is very low (e.g., 1 m/Myr), dissolved oxygen penetrates more than 70 mbsf and is the primary terminal electron acceptor. Where sedimentation rate is moderate (e.g., 3 to 60 m/Myr), dissolved sulfate penetrates as far as 700 mbsf and is the principal terminal electron acceptor. Where sedimentation rate is high (e.g., > 60 m/Myr), dissolved sulfate penetrates only meters, but is the principal terminal electron acceptor in subseafloor sediment to the depth of sulfate penetration. Because microbial metabolism continues at greater depths than the depth of sulfate penetration in fast-accumulating sediment, complete quantification of subseafloor metabolic rates will require consideration of other chemical species.

  8. OU3 sediment dating and sedimentation rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, R.B.; Wolaver, H.A.; Burger, V.M.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental Technologies at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFS) investigated the sediment history of Standley Lake, Great Western Reservoir, and Mower Reservoir using 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu global fall-out as dating indicators. These Colorado Front Range reservoirs have been the subject of study by various city, state and national agencies due to suspected Department of Energy Rocky Flats Plant impacts. We performed sediment dating as part of the RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report for Operable Unit 3. A sediment chronology profile assists scientist in determining the year of sedimentation for a particular peak concentration of contaminants. Radioisotope sediment dating for the three reservoirs indicated sedimentation rates of 0.7 to 0.8 in./yr. for Standley Lake (SL), 0.9 in./yr. for Great Western Reservoir (GWR), and 0.3 in./yr. in Mower Reservoir (MR). RFS sediment dating for Operable Unit 3 compared favorably with the Hardy, Livingston, Burke, and Volchok Standley Lake study. This report describes the cesium/plutonium sediment dating method, estimates sedimentation rates for Operable Unit 3 reservoirs, and compares these results to previous investigations

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments of two lakes of the Dongting Lake district in Hunan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiang; Yang, Yajing; Zhang, Lugang; Luo, Yushuang; Liu, Fei; Yang, Pinhong

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, 18 and 12 surface sediment samples were collected from Datong Lake and Shanpo Lake, respectively, and the 16 USEPA priority Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in these samples were detected. The result indicated that the Σ16PAHs ranged from 206.56 to 1058.98 ng.g-1 with an average concentration of 667.22 ng.g-1 in sediments from Datong Lake, whereas it ranged from 90.62 to 900.70 ng.g-1 with an average concentration of 364.97 ng.g-1 in sediments from Shanpo Lake. The concentrations of individual PAHs in sediments ranged from 5.50 to 85.23 and from 4.39 to 52.74 ng.g-1 in Datong Lake and Shanpo Lake, respectively. According to the indexes such as HMW/LMW, Ant/(Ant+Phe), Flua/(Flua+Pyr), IcdP/(IcdP+BghiP), and BaA/(BaA+Chr), the PAHs in sediments from both lakes are mainly of pyrogenic origin. The total BaP equivalent in the surface sediment samples from Datong Lake and Shanpo Lake is 42.77 and 33.35 ng.g-1, respectively.

  10. Biodegradation of nonylphenol in river sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, S.Y.; Yu, C.H.; Chang, B.V.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the biodegradation of nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP1EO) and nonylphenol (NP) by aerobic microbes in sediment samples collected at four sites along the Erren River in southern Taiwan. Aerobic degradation rate constants (k 1 ) and half-lives (t 1/2 ) for NP (2 μg g -1 ) ranged from 0.007 to 0.051 day -1 and 13.6 to 99.0 days, respectively; for NP1EO (2 μg g -1 ) the ranges were 0.006 to 0.010 day -1 and 69.3 to 115.5 days. Aerobic degradation rates for NP and NP1EO were enhanced by shaking and increased temperature, and delayed by the addition of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, phthalic acid esters (PAEs), and NaCl, as well as by reduced levels of ammonium, phosphate, and sulfate. Of the microorganism strains isolated from the sediment samples, we found that strain JC1 (identified as Pseudomonas sp.) expressed the best biodegrading ability. Also noted was the presence of 4'-amino-acetophenone, an intermediate product resulting from the aerobic degradation of NP by Pseudomonas sp. - The effects of manipulating several factors on nonylphenol and nonylphenol monoethoxylate degradation in river sediment were analysed

  11. The contribution of bank and surface sediments to fluvial sediment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contribution of bank and surface sediments to fluvial sediment transport of the Pra River. ... the relative contribution of surface and bank sediments to the fluvial sediment transport. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  12. Organochlorinated pesticides in sediments from the Lake Albufera of Valencia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, E; Requena, S; de la Guardia, M; Pastor, A; Carrasco, J M

    2005-09-01

    Bottom sediment samples from 121 sites of the Lake Albufera of Valencia were analyzed. Dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor and op'-DDT were not detected (<0.01 ng g(-1)) in 88-93% of the sites. Aldrin and HCB concentration ranges were between <0.01 and 0.1 ng g(-1) in 86% and 94% of the sites, respectively. Heptachlor-epoxide and lindane 95% confidence intervals were 0.2-0.5 and 0.06-0.12, respectively. The greatest average concentration corresponds to pp'-DDE, pp'-DDD and pp'-DDT. The sum of six isomers and derivatives of the DDT average concentration reaches 2.1 ng g(-1), as opposed to 2.7 ng g(-1) for the sum of 13 pesticides considered. In the site with a major contamination, 27.0 ng g(-1) of pp'-DDD and 12.8 ng g(-1) of pp'-DDT were accumulated. The DDE:DDT proportion average was 0.37, indicating an aged DDT contamination. Concentrations of pesticides in sediments were compared to three sediment quality guidelines, and indicated that a low biological effects level can be expected in either sediments or aquatic organisms.

  13. Ocean Sediment Thickness Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean sediment thickness contours in 200 meter intervals for water depths ranging from 0 - 18,000 meters. These contours were derived from a global sediment...

  14. Center for Contaminated Sediments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Center for Contaminated Sediments serves as a clearinghouse for technology and expertise concerned with contaminated sediments. The...

  15. Geochemistry of sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.

    Considering the potential of elemental data in marine sediments as diagnostic tools of various geological and oceanographic processes, sediment geochemical data from the Indian Ocean region has been reviewed in this article. Emphasis is laid...

  16. Indicators: Sediment Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediment enzymes are proteins that are produced by microorganisms living in the sediment or soil. They are indicators of key ecosystem processes and can help determine which nutrients are affecting the biological community of a waterbody.

  17. Electrodialytic remediation of sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland

    Sediments of harbors and freshwaters are regularly dredged for various reasons: maintenance of navigational depths, recovery of recreational locations, and even environmental recovery. In the past, sediments dredged from harbors have been dumped at sea, however, environmental regulations now, in ...

  18. TEAD4-YAP interaction regulates tumoral growth by controlling cell-cycle arrest at the G1 phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Shin; Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Yamatoji, Masanobu; Nakashima, Dai; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Koide, Nao; Takahara, Toshikazu; Shimizu, Toshihiro; Iyoda, Manabu; Ogawara, Katsunori; Shiiba, Masashi; Tanzawa, Hideki; Uzawa, Katsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    TEA domain transcription factor 4 (TEAD4), which has critical functions in the process of embryonic development, is expressed in various cancers. However, the important role of TEAD4 in human oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) remain unclear. Here we investigated the TEAD4 expression level and the functional mechanism in OSCC using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, TEAD4 knockdown model was used to evaluate cellular proliferation, cell-cycle analysis, and the interaction between TEAD4 and Yes-associated protein (YAP) which was reported to be a transcription coactivator of cellular proliferation. In the current study, we found that TEAD4 expression increased significantly in vitro and in vivo and correlated with tumoral size in OSCC patients. TEAD4 knockdown OSCC cells showed decreased cellular proliferation resulting from cell-cycle arrest in the G1 phase by down-regulation of cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and up-regulation of CDK inhibitors. We also found that the TEAD4-YAP complex in the nuclei may be related closely to transcriptions of G1 arrest-related genes. Taken together, we concluded that TEAD4 might play an important role in tumoral growth and have potential to be a therapeutic target in OSCCs. - Highlights: • TEAD4 contributes to tumor progression in OSCCs. • TEAD4 knockdown results in cell-cycle arrest at the G1phase in OSCC cells. • In TEAD4 knockdown cells, the amount of YAP in the nucleus decreases. • Activation of the TEAD4-YAP complex is an important factor in OSCC tumor growth. • TEAD4 might be a critical biomarker and a therapeutic target for OSCCs.

  19. Determination of iridium at low levels (sub ng g-1) in geological materials by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morcelli, Claudia Petronilho Ribeiro

    1999-01-01

    The analysis of the platinum group elements (PGE: Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir and Pt) in geological materials is difficult, due to the low concentrations of these elements (ng g -1 or sub ng g -1 ) and their heterogeneous distribution in many geological matrices. The determination of PGE has attracted great interest due not only to the increasing utilization of these elements in modern industry, but also to the information that these elements can provide on mantle processes. The determination of very low amounts of iridium is particularly important on account of some anomalous concentrations of iridium in sedimentary rock samples, related to the impact of an extraterrestrial object responsible for extinctions at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary. In the present paper, a radiochemical neutron activation method for the determination of iridium in geological materials is presented. The procedure consisted of thermal neutron irradiation of about 500 mg of the sample, followed by sintering with sodium peroxide, precipitation with tellurium and high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry with a hyper-pure Ge detector. The accuracy and precision of the procedure were evaluated by analysis of the certified reference material SARM-7 (South Africa Bureau of Standards) and W-1 (USGS). The detection limit for the analytical conditions employed was 0.004 ng g -1 . The procedure was applied to the reference materials TDB-1 and WGB-1 (CANMET), which present provisional values for Ir, and to the reference materials GXR-3, GXR-5 and GXR- 6 (USGS), which do not present information values for Ir. This work is a contribution to Ir values in these reference materials. As an example of application of the method to real samples, the developed procedure was employed in the determination of iridium in basalts from Parana basin, collected in Bom Guara do Sul, Santa Catarina, provided by the Geosciences Institute of the University of Campinas. (author)

  20. ABT-263 induces G1/G0-phase arrest, apoptosis and autophagy in human esophageal cancer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qing-Huan; Que, Fu-Chang; Gu, Chun-Ping; Zhong, De-Sheng; Zhou, Dan; Kong, Yi; Yu, Le; Liu, Shu-Wen

    2017-12-01

    Both the anti- and pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family are regulated by a conserved Bcl-2 homology (BH3) domain. ABT-263 (Navitoclax), a novel BH3 mimetic and orally bioavailable Bcl-2 family inhibitor with high affinity for Bcl-xL, Bcl-2 and Bcl-w has entered clinical trials for cancer treatment. But the anticancer mechanisms of ABT-263 have not been fully elucidated. In this study we investigated the effects of ABT-263 on human esophageal cancer cells in vitro and to explore its anticancer mechanisms. Treatment with ABT-263 dose-dependently suppressed the viability of 3 human esophageal cancer cells with IC 50 values of 10.7±1.4, 7.1±1.5 and 8.2±1.6 μmol/L, in EC109, HKESC-2 and CaES-17 cells, respectively. ABT-263 (5-20 μmol/L) dose-dependently induced G 1 /G 0 -phase arrest in the 3 cancer cell lines and induced apoptosis evidenced by increased the Annexin V-positive cell population and elevated levels of cleaved caspase 3, cleaved caspase 9 and PARP. We further demonstrated that ABT-263 treatment markedly increased the expression of p21 Waf1/Cip1 and decreased the expression of cyclin D1 and phospho-Rb (retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein) (Ser780) proteins that contributed to the G 1 /G 0 -phase arrest. Knockdown of p21 Waf1/Cip1 attenuated ABT-263-induced G 1 /G 0 -phase arrest. Moreover, ABT-263 treatment enhanced pro-survival autophagy, shown as the increased LC3-II levels and decreased p62 levels, which counteracted its anticancer activity. Our results suggest that ABT-263 exerts cytostatic and cytotoxic effects on human esophageal cancer cells in vitro and enhances pro-survival autophagy, which counteracts its anticancer activity.

  1. On the Discrete-Time GeoX/G/1 Queues under N-Policy with Single and Multiple Vacations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung J. Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the discrete-time GeoX/G/1 queue under N-policy with single and multiple vacations. In this queueing system, the server takes multiple vacations and a single vacation whenever the system becomes empty and begins to serve customers only if the queue length is at least a predetermined threshold value N. Using the well-known property of stochastic decomposition, we derive the stationary queue-length distributions for both vacation models in a simple and unified manner. In addition, we derive their busy as well as idle-period distributions. Some classical vacation models are considered as special cases.

  2. Waiting time analysis for MX/G/1 priority queues with/without vacations under random order of service discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norikazu Kawasaki

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We study MX/G/1 nonpreemptive and preemptive-resume priority queues with/without vacations under random order of service (ROS discipline within each class. By considering the conditional waiting times given the states of the system, which an arbitrary message observes upon arrival, we derive the Laplace-Stieltjes transforms of the waiting time distributions and explicitly obtain the first two moments. The relationship for the second moments under ROS and first-come first-served disciplines extends the one found previously by Takacs and Fuhrmann for non-priority single arrival queues.

  3. Approximation of the steady state system state distribution of the M/G/1 retrial queue with impatient customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stihi Nadjet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For M/G/1 retrial queues with impatient customers, we review the results, concerning the steady state distribution of the system state, presented in the literature. Since the existing formulas are cumbersome (so their utilization in practice becomes delicate or the obtaining of these formulas is impossible, we apply the information theoretic techniques for estimating the above mentioned distribution. More concretely, we use the principle of maximum entropy which provides an adequate methodology for computing a unique estimate for an unknown probability distribution based on information expressed in terms of some given mean value constraints.

  4. Molecular basis for vulnerability to mitochondrial and oxidative stress in a neuroendocrine CRI-G1 cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Chandiramani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many age-associated disorders (including diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases are linked to mitochondrial dysfunction, which leads to impaired cellular bioenergetics and increased oxidative stress. However, it is not known what genetic and molecular pathways underlie differential vulnerability to mitochondrial dysfunction observed among different cell types.Starting with an insulinoma cell line as a model for a neuronal/endocrine cell type, we isolated a novel subclonal line (named CRI-G1-RS that was more susceptible to cell death induced by mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibitors than the parental CRI-G1 line (renamed CRI-G1-RR for clarity. Compared to parental RR cells, RS cells were also more vulnerable to direct oxidative stress, but equally vulnerable to mitochondrial uncoupling and less vulnerable to protein kinase inhibition-induced apoptosis. Thus, differential vulnerability to mitochondrial toxins between these two cell types likely reflects differences in their ability to handle metabolically generated reactive oxygen species rather than differences in ATP production/utilization or in downstream apoptotic machinery. Genome-wide gene expression analysis and follow-up biochemical studies revealed that, in this experimental system, increased vulnerability to mitochondrial and oxidative stress was associated with (1 inhibition of ARE/Nrf2/Keap1 antioxidant pathway; (2 decreased expression of antioxidant and phase I/II conjugation enzymes, most of which are Nrf2 transcriptional targets; (3 increased expression of molecular chaperones, many of which are also considered Nrf2 transcriptional targets; (4 increased expression of β cell-specific genes and transcription factors that specify/maintain β cell fate; and (5 reconstitution of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.The molecular profile presented here will enable identification of individual genes or gene clusters that shape vulnerability to mitochondrial dysfunction and

  5. Arrest of irradiated G1, S, or G2 cells at mitosis using nocodazole promotes repair of potentially lethal damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliakis, G.; Nuesse, M.

    1984-01-01

    The ability of synchronized Ehrlich ascites tumor cells, irradiated in G1, S, and G2 phases, to repair potentially lethal damage when arrested at mitosis by using 0.4 μg/ml nocodazole, a specific inhibitor of microtubule polymerization, has been studied. Cells irradiated in these phases were found to repair potentially lethal damage at mitosis. The extent of this repair was similar to that observed for cells irradiated at the same stages in the cell cycle but allowed to repair potentially lethal damage by incubating in balanced salt solution for 6 hr after X irradiation

  6. Thermal analyses for a nuclear-waste repository in tuff using USW-G1 borehole data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.L.

    1982-10-01

    Thermal calculations using properties of tuffs obtained from the USW-G1 borehole, located near the SW margin of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), have been completed for a nuclear waste repository sited in welded tuff below the water table. The analyses considered two wasteforms, high level waste and spent fuel, emplaced at two different, gross thermal loadings, 50 and 75 kW/Acre (20.24 and 30.36 kW/ha). Calculations were made assuming that no boiling of the groundwater occurs; i.e., that the hydrostatic head potential was reestablished soon after waste emplacement. 23 figures, 2 tables

  7. A Fast Newton-Shamanskii Iteration for a Matrix Equation Arising from M/G/1-Type Markov Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chang Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the nonlinear matrix equations arising in the analysis of M/G/1-type and GI/M/1-type Markov chains, the minimal nonnegative solution G or R can be found by Newton-like methods. We prove monotone convergence results for the Newton-Shamanskii iteration for this class of equations. Starting with zero initial guess or some other suitable initial guess, the Newton-Shamanskii iteration provides a monotonically increasing sequence of nonnegative matrices converging to the minimal nonnegative solution. A Schur decomposition method is used to accelerate the Newton-Shamanskii iteration. Numerical examples illustrate the effectiveness of the Newton-Shamanskii iteration.

  8. Metal concentrations in sediments from tourist beaches of Miri City, Sarawak, Malaysia (Borneo Island).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, R; Jonathan, M P; Roy, Priyadarsi D; Wai-Hwa, L; Prasanna, M V; Sarkar, S K; Navarrete-López, M

    2013-08-15

    Forty-three sediment samples were collected from the beaches of Miri City, Sarawak, Malaysia to identify the enrichment of partially leached trace metals (PLTMs) from six different tourist beaches. The samples were analyzed for PLTMs Fe, Mn, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn. The concentration pattern suggest that the southern side of the study area is enriched with Fe (1821-6097 μg g(-1)), Mn (11.57-90.22 μg g(-1)), Cr (51.50-311 μg g(-1)), Ni (18-51 μg g(-1)), Pb (8.81-84.05 μg g(-1)), Sr (25.95-140.49 μg g(-1)) and Zn (12.46-35.04 μg g(-1)). Compared to the eco-toxicological values, Cr>Effects range low (ERL), Lowest effect level (LEL), Severe effect level (SEL); Cu>Unpolluted sediments, ERL, LEL; Pb>Unpolluted sediments and Ni>ERL and LEL. Comparative results with other regions indicate that Co, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn are higher, indicating an external input rather than natural process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Distribution Characteristics and Pollution Status Evaluation of Sediments Nutrients in a Drinking Water Reservoir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ting-lin; Liu, Fei; Shi, Jian-chao

    2016-01-15

    The main purpose of this paper is to illustrate the influence of nutrients distribution in sediments on the eutrophication of drinking water reservoir. The sediments of three representative locations were field-sampled and analyzed in laboratory in March 2015. The distribution characteristics of TOC, TN and TP were measured, and the pollution status of sediments was evaluated by the comprehensive pollution index and the manual for sediment quality assessment. The content of TOC in sediments decreased with depth, and there was an increasing trend of the nitrogen content. The TP was enriched in surface sediment, implying the nutrients load in Zhoucun Reservoir was aggravating as the result of human activities. Regression analysis indicated that the content of TOC in sediments was positively correlated with contents of TN and TP in sediments. The TOC/TN values reflected that the vascular land plants, which contain cellulose, were the main source of organic matter in sediments. The comprehensive pollution index analysis result showed that the surface sediments in all three sampling sites were heavily polluted. The contents of TN and TP of surface sediments in three sampling sites were 3273-4870 mg x kg(-1) and 653-2969 mg x kg(-1), and the content of TOC was 45.65-83.00 mg x g(-1). According to the manual for sediment quality assessment, the TN, TP and TOC contents in sediments exceed the standard values for the lowest level of ecotoxicity, so there is a risk of eutrophication in Zhoucun Reservoir.

  10. Comparative Diagnosis of Serum IgG1 and Coproantigen ELISA for Fasciolosis Detection of Goats in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Mendoza, Pedro; Hernández-Guzmán, Karina; Olivares-Pérez, Jaime; Sarracent-Pérez, Jorge; Zumaquero-Ríos, José

    2016-01-01

    The objective of present study was to determine the prevalence of natural caprine fasciolosis in the Mixteca region of Mexico using coproantigen and serum IgG1 ELISA tests for comparative purposes. A total of 1070 serum and faecal samples were analyzed for IgG1 antibodies and coproantigens, using ELISA with E/S products as antigen and a monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA. Prevalence of 73.46% was found using the serological ELISA and a percentage of 77.20 was found for coproantigen ELISA. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for serum ELISA were 86.7% and 96.4%, and for the coproantigen ELISA they were 93.1% and 97.8%, respectively. The seropositive samples were further categorized as low, medium, or high positivity. Results show a great proportion of low and medium positive goats when the serum ELISA test was used. Correlation coefficients between coproantigens and seropositivity were statistically significant (P < 0.01) for low seropositivity (r = 0.93) and medium seropositivity (r = 0.84). The accuracy of faecal antigen ELISA was higher compared to indirect ELISA serological test. Two ELISAs were shown to be useful for demonstrating the current status of F. hepatica infection in the endemic areas and can be employed in studies on epidemiology as well as anthelmintics treatment for preventing economic loss and the risk of transmission to humans. PMID:27563665

  11. Detection of patent infections of Echinococcus granulosus ("sheep-strain", G1) in naturally infected dogs in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherifi, Kurtesh; Rexhepi, Agim; Hamidi, Afrim; Behluli, Behlul; Zessin, Karl-Hans; Mathis, Alexander; Deplazes, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A survey was carried out to assess the occurrence of canine echinococcosis in naturally infected dogs in Kosovo. Using the flotation-ovassay technique, taeniid eggs were found in 23 (7.5%) out of a total of 305 dogs. Eggs from other helminths were detected as well: hookworms 139 (45.5%), Trichuris sp. 87 (28.5%), Toxocara sp. 42 (13.7%), Toxascaris leonina 21 (6.8%) and Dipylidium caninum eight (2.6%). From 21 of the 305 samples (6.9%), taeniids eggs could be collected. Using PCR primers specific for Echinococcus granulosus ("sheep strain", G1), four of these samples (1.3%) resulted positive. The E. granulosus isolates originated from each one stray dog, hunting dog, sheepdog and pet dog. A semi-quantitative analysis showed low to moderate egg counts (2-10 per 1 g faeces) in dogs positive for E. granulosus ("sheep strain", G1) whereas specimens with high (11-20) or very high numbers (> 20) of taeniid eggs were negative in the E. granulosus PCR. Using specific primers for the detection of E. multilocularis, all samples containing taeniid eggs were negative. This is the first report on identification of E. granulosus in dogs from Kosovo where human cystic echinococcosis is a significant medical problem.

  12. The polarised photon g1γ sum rule at the linear collider and high luminosity B factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    The sum rule for the first moment of the polarised (virtual) photon structure function g 1 γ (x,Q 2 ;K 2 ) is revisited in the light of proposals for future e + e - colliders. The sum rule exhibits an array of phenomena characteristic of QCD: for real photons (K 2 =0) electromagnetic gauge invariance constrains the first moment to vanish; the limit for asymptotic photon virtuality (m ρ 2 -bar K 2 -bar Q 2 ) is governed by the electromagnetic U A (1) axial anomaly and the approach to asymptopia by the gluonic anomaly; for intermediate values of K 2 , it reflects the realisation of chiral symmetry and is determined by the off-shell radiative couplings of the pseudoscalar mesons; finally, like many polarisation phenomena in QCD, the first moment of g 1 γ involves the gluon topological susceptibility. In this paper, we review the original sum rule proposed by Narison, Shore and Veneziano and extend the relation with pseudoscalar mesons. The possibility of measuring the sum rule in future polarised e + e - colliders is then considered in detail, focusing on the International Linear Collider (ILC) and high luminosity B factories. We conclude that all the above features of the sum rule should be accessible at a polarised collider with the characteristics of SuperKEKB

  13. YOUNG REMNANTS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE AND THEIR PROGENITORS: A STUDY OF SNR G1.9+0.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborti, Sayan; Childs, Francesca; Soderberg, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    SNe Ia, with their remarkably homogeneous light curves and spectra, have been used as standardizable candles to measure the accelerating expansion of the universe. Yet, their progenitors remain elusive. Common explanations invoke a degenerate star (white dwarf) that explodes upon almost reaching the Chandrasekhar limit, by either steadily accreting mass from a companion star or violently merging with another degenerate star. We show that circumstellar interaction in young Galactic supernova remnants can be used to distinguish between these single and double degenerate (DD) progenitor scenarios. Here we propose a new diagnostic, the surface brightness index, which can be computed from theory and compared with Chandra and Very Large Array (VLA) observations. We use this method to demonstrate that a DD progenitor can explain the decades-long flux rise and size increase of the youngest known galactic supernova remnant (SNR), G1.9+0.3. We disfavor a single degenerate scenario for SNR G1.9+0.3. We attribute the observed properties to the interaction between a steep ejecta profile and a constant density environment. We suggest using the upgraded VLA, ASKAP, and MeerKAT to detect circumstellar interaction in the remnants of historical SNe Ia in the Local Group of galaxies. This may settle the long-standing debate over their progenitors

  14. Iso-suillin isolated from Suillus luteus, induces G1 phase arrest and apoptosis in human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Ying; Yan, Yong-Xin; Zhao, Jun-Xia

    2014-01-01

    Iso-suillin, a natural product isolated from Suillus luteus, has been shown to inhibit the growth of some cancer cell lines. However, the molecular mechanisms of action of this compound are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate how iso-suillin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in a human hepatoma cell line (SMMC-7721). We demonstrated the effects of iso-suillin on cell proliferation and apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells, with no apparent toxicity in normal human lymphocytes, using colony formation assays and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) analysis. Western blotting was used to examine the expression of G1 phase-regulated and apoptosis-associated protein levels in iso-suillin treated SMMC-7721 cells. The results indicated that iso-suillin significantly decreased viability, induced G1 phase arrest and triggered apoptosis in SMMC-7721cells. Taken together, these results suggest the potential of iso-suillin as a candidate for liver cancer treatment.

  15. Betulinic Acid Inhibits Growth of Cultured Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells In Vitro by Inducing G1 Arrest and Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Kumar Vadivelu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Betulinic acid is a widely available plant-derived triterpene which is reported to possess selective cytotoxic activity against cancer cells of neuroectodermal origin and leukemia. However, the potential of betulinic acid as an antiproliferative and cytotoxic agent on vascular smooth muscle (VSMC is still unclear. This study was carried out to demonstrate the antiproliferative and cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid on VSMCs using 3-[4,5-dimethylthizol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay, flow cytometry cell cycle assay, BrdU proliferation assay, acridine orange/propidium iodide staining, and comet assay. Result from MTT and BrdU assays indicated that betulinic acid was able to inhibit the growth and proliferation of VSMCs in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 of 3.8 μg/mL significantly (P<0.05. Nevertheless, betulinic acid exhibited G1 cell cycle arrest in flow cytometry cell cycle profiling and low level of DNA damage against VSMC in acridine orange/propidium iodide and comet assay after 24 h of treatment. In conclusion, betulinic acid induced G1 cell cycle arrest and dose-dependent DNA damage on VSMC.

  16. TopBP1 is required at mitosis to reduce transmission of DNA damage to G1 daughter cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Rune Troelsgaard; Kruse, Thomas; Nilsson, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Genome integrity is critically dependent on timely DNA replication and accurate chromosome segregation. Replication stress delays replication into G2/M, which in turn impairs proper chromosome segregation and inflicts DNA damage on the daughter cells. Here we show that TopBP1 forms foci upon mitotic entry. In early mitosis, TopBP1 marks sites of and promotes unscheduled DNA synthesis. Moreover, TopBP1 is required for focus formation of the structure-selective nuclease and scaffold protein SLX4 in mitosis. Persistent TopBP1 foci transition into 53BP1 nuclear bodies (NBs) in G1 and precise temporal depletion of TopBP1 just before mitotic entry induced formation of 53BP1 NBs in the next cell cycle, showing that TopBP1 acts to reduce transmission of DNA damage to G1 daughter cells. Based on these results, we propose that TopBP1 maintains genome integrity in mitosis by controlling chromatin recruitment of SLX4 and by facilitating unscheduled DNA synthesis. PMID:26283799

  17. p27Kip1 Is Required to Mediate a G1 Cell Cycle Arrest Downstream of ATM following Genotoxic Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica K Cassimere

    Full Text Available The DNA damage response (DDR is a coordinated signaling network that ensures the maintenance of genome stability under DNA damaging stress. In response to DNA lesions, activation of the DDR leads to the establishment of cell cycle checkpoints that delay cell-cycle progression and allow repair of the defects. The tumor suppressor p27Kip1 is a cyclin-CDK inhibitor that plays an important role in regulating quiescence in a variety of tissues. Several studies have suggested that p27Kip1 also plays a role in the maintenance of genomic integrity. Here we demonstrate that p27Kip1 is essential for the establishment of a G1 checkpoint arrest after DNA damage. We also uncovered that ATM phosphorylates p27Kip1 on a previously uncharacterized residue (Ser-140, which leads to its stabilization after induction of DNA double-strand breaks. Inhibition of this stabilization by replacing endogenous p27Kip1 with a Ser-140 phospho-mutant (S140A significantly sensitized cells to IR treatments. Our findings reveal a novel role for p27Kip1 in the DNA damage response pathway and suggest that part of its tumor suppressing functions relies in its ability to mediate a G1 arrest after the induction of DNA double strand breaks.

  18. BDE-47 and BDE-209 inhibit proliferation of Neuro-2a cells via inducing G1-phase arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongmei; Tang, Xuexi; Zhou, Bin; Xu, Ningning; Zhou, Zhongyuan; Fang, Kuan; Wang, You

    2017-03-01

    Cell proliferation is closely related to cell cycle which is strictly regulated by genes and regulatory proteins. In the present study, we comparatively analyzed the toxic effects of BDE-47 and BDE-209 on cell proliferation of Neuro-2a cells, and the possible mechanism was discussed. The results indicated that BDE-47 significantly inhibited the cell proliferation and the cell cycle were arrest at G1 phase, while BDE-209 had little effects on either cell proliferation or cell cycle. qRT-PCR and Western blot assay presented that BDE-47 up-regulated the gene expressions of p53 and p21, which down-regulated the expresseion of cyclinD1 and CDK2, and inhibited retinoblastoma protein (pRb) phosphorylation. This process could effectively arrest the cell cycle at G1 phase, which finally caused the inhibition on Neuro-2a cell proliferation. However, BDE-209 was only up-regulated the gene expressions of p53, also suggested to be involved in the inhibition on Neuro-2a cell proliferation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Mitotic catastrophe occurs in the absence of apoptosis in p53-null cells with a defective G1 checkpoint.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalis Fragkos

    Full Text Available Cell death occurring during mitosis, or mitotic catastrophe, often takes place in conjunction with apoptosis, but the conditions in which mitotic catastrophe may exhibit features of programmed cell death are still unclear. In the work presented here, we studied mitotic cell death by making use of a UV-inactivated parvovirus (adeno-associated virus; AAV that has been shown to induce a DNA damage response and subsequent death of p53-defective cells in mitosis, without affecting the integrity of the host genome. Osteosarcoma cells (U2OSp53DD that are deficient in p53 and lack the G1 cell cycle checkpoint respond to AAV infection through a transient G2 arrest. We found that the infected U2OSp53DD cells died through mitotic catastrophe with no signs of chromosome condensation or DNA fragmentation. Moreover, cell death was independent of caspases, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF, autophagy and necroptosis. These findings were confirmed by time-lapse microscopy of cellular morphology following AAV infection. The assays used readily revealed apoptosis in other cell types when it was indeed occurring. Taken together the results indicate that in the absence of the G1 checkpoint, mitotic catastrophe occurs in these p53-null cells predominantly as a result of mechanical disruption induced by centrosome overduplication, and not as a consequence of a suicide signal.

  20. Inhibition of PI3K by ZSTK474 suppressed tumor growth not via apoptosis but G0/G1 arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, Shingo; Yoshimi, Hisashi; Okamura, Mutsumi; Mukai, Yumiko; Yamori, Takao

    2009-01-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) is a potential target in cancer therapy. Inhibition of PI3K is believed to induce apoptosis. We recently developed a novel PI3K inhibitor ZSTK474 with antitumor efficacy. In this study, we have examined the underlying mode of action by which ZSTK474 exerts its antitumor efficacy. In vivo, ZSTK474 effectively inhibited the growth of human cancer xenografts. In parallel, ZSTK474 treatment suppressed the expression of phospho-Akt, suggesting effective PI3K inhibition, and also suppressed the expression of nuclear cyclin D1 and Ki67, both of which are hallmarks of proliferation. However, ZSTK474 treatment did not increase TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells. In vitro, ZSTK474 induced marked G 0 /G 1 arrest, but did not increase the subdiploid cells or activate caspase, both of which are hallmarks of apoptosis. These results clearly indicated that inhibition of PI3K by ZSTK474 did not induce apoptosis but rather induced strong G 0 /G 1 arrest, which might cause its efficacy in tumor cells.

  1. Mineralogy of drill holes J-13, UE-25A No. 1, and USW G-1 at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bish, D.L.; Chipera, S.J.

    1986-09-01

    The mineralogy of drill holes J-13, UE-25A No. 1, and USW G-1 was previously determined using qualitative and semiquantitative techniques, and most of the available data were neither complete nor accurate. New quantitative x-ray diffraction data were obtained for rocks from all three of these drill holes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These quantitative analyses employed both external and internal standard x-ray powder diffraction methods and permitted the precise determination of all phases commonly found in the tuffs at Yucca Mountain, including glass and opal-CT. These new data supplant previous analyses and include numerous additional phases. New findings of particular importance include better constraints on the distribution of the more soluble silica polymorphs, cristobalite and opal-CT. Opal-CT was associated solely with clinoptilolite-bearing horizons, and cristobalite disappearance coincided with the appearance of analcime in USW G-1. Unlike previous analyses, we identified significant amounts of smectite in drill hole J-13. We found no evidence to support previous reports of the occurrence of erionite or phillipsite in these drill holes

  2. An APC/C-Cdh1 Biosensor Reveals the Dynamics of Cdh1 Inactivation at the G1/S Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondracka, Andrej; Robbins, Jonathan A; Cross, Frederick R

    2016-01-01

    B-type cyclin-dependent kinase activity must be turned off for mitotic exit and G1 stabilization. B-type cyclin degradation is mediated by the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C); during and after mitotic exit, APC/C is dependent on Cdh1. Cdh1 is in turn phosphorylated and inactivated by cyclin-CDK at the Start transition of the new cell cycle. We developed a biosensor to assess the cell cycle dynamics of APC/C-Cdh1. Nuclear exit of the G1 transcriptional repressor Whi5 is a known marker of Start; APC/C-Cdh1 is inactivated 12 min after Whi5 nuclear exit with little measurable cell-to-cell timing variability. Multiple phosphorylation sites on Cdh1 act in a redundant manner to repress its activity. Reducing the number of phosphorylation sites on Cdh1 can to some extent be tolerated for cell viability, but it increases variability in timing of APC/C-Cdh1 inactivation. Mutants with minimal subsets of phosphorylation sites required for viability exhibit striking stochasticity in multiple responses including budding, nuclear division, and APC/C-Cdh1 activity itself. Multiple cyclin-CDK complexes, as well as the stoichiometric inhibitor Acm1, contribute to APC/C-Cdh1 inactivation; this redundant control is likely to promote rapid and reliable APC/C-Cdh1 inactivation immediately following the Start transition.

  3. YOUNG REMNANTS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE AND THEIR PROGENITORS: A STUDY OF SNR G1.9+0.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborti, Sayan; Childs, Francesca; Soderberg, Alicia, E-mail: schakraborti@post.harvard.edu [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    SNe Ia, with their remarkably homogeneous light curves and spectra, have been used as standardizable candles to measure the accelerating expansion of the universe. Yet, their progenitors remain elusive. Common explanations invoke a degenerate star (white dwarf) that explodes upon almost reaching the Chandrasekhar limit, by either steadily accreting mass from a companion star or violently merging with another degenerate star. We show that circumstellar interaction in young Galactic supernova remnants can be used to distinguish between these single and double degenerate (DD) progenitor scenarios. Here we propose a new diagnostic, the surface brightness index, which can be computed from theory and compared with Chandra and Very Large Array (VLA) observations. We use this method to demonstrate that a DD progenitor can explain the decades-long flux rise and size increase of the youngest known galactic supernova remnant (SNR), G1.9+0.3. We disfavor a single degenerate scenario for SNR G1.9+0.3. We attribute the observed properties to the interaction between a steep ejecta profile and a constant density environment. We suggest using the upgraded VLA, ASKAP, and MeerKAT to detect circumstellar interaction in the remnants of historical SNe Ia in the Local Group of galaxies. This may settle the long-standing debate over their progenitors.

  4. Human IgG1 Responses to Surface Localised Schistosoma mansoni Ly6 Family Members Drop following Praziquantel Treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain W Chalmers

    Full Text Available The heptalaminate-covered, syncytial tegument is an important anatomical adaptation that enables schistosome parasites to maintain long-term, intravascular residence in definitive hosts. Investigation of the proteins present in this surface layer and the immune responses elicited by them during infection is crucial to our understanding of host/parasite interactions. Recent studies have revealed a number of novel tegumental surface proteins including three (SmCD59a, SmCD59b and Sm29 containing uPAR/Ly6 domains (renamed SmLy6A SmLy6B and SmLy6D in this study. While vaccination with SmLy6A (SmCD59a and SmLy6D (Sm29 induces protective immunity in experimental models, human immunoglobulin responses to representative SmLy6 family members have yet to be thoroughly explored.Using a PSI-BLAST-based search, we present a comprehensive reanalysis of the Schistosoma mansoni Ly6 family (SmLy6A-K. Our examination extends the number of members to eleven (including three novel proteins and provides strong evidence that the previously identified vaccine candidate Sm29 (renamed SmLy6D is a unique double uPAR/Ly6 domain-containing representative. Presence of canonical cysteine residues, signal peptides and GPI-anchor sites strongly suggest that all SmLy6 proteins are cell surface-bound. To provide evidence that SmLy6 members are immunogenic in human populations, we report IgG1 (as well as IgG4 and IgE responses against two surface-bound representatives (SmLy6A and SmLy6B within a cohort of S. mansoni-infected Ugandan males before and after praziquantel treatment. While pre-treatment IgG1 prevalence for SmLy6A and SmLy6B differs amongst the studied population (7.4% and 25.3% of the cohort, respectively, these values are both higher than IgG1 prevalence (2.7% for a sub-surface tegumental antigen, SmTAL1. Further, post-treatment IgG1 levels against surface-associated SmLy6A and SmLy6B significantly drop (p = 0.020 and p < 0.001, respectively when compared to rising IgG

  5. Study of the sediment contamination levels in a mangrove swamp polluted by a marine oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, T.W.Y.; Ke, L.; Wong, Y.S.; Tam, N.F.Y.

    2002-01-01

    The pattern of oil retention in mangrove sediments was studied in an effort to determine the temporal changes of petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations and composition several months after oil spills occur. Mangroves are inter-tidal wetlands in tropical and subtropical coastlines. Due to the anoxic and water logging characteristics of mangrove sediments, oil residues linger much longer in these wetlands compared to other coastal habitats. In November 2000, an accidental oil spill occurred in the Pearl River Estuary in which approximately 230,000 litres of crude oil was leaked from an oil tanker. The spilled oil migrated to the YiO, a typical mangrove swamp in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. The degree of oil contamination in the sediments depended on the sediment texture and topography of the mangrove. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration of the sediments in the most affected area near a freshwater creek flowing into the sea was 130 times higher than normal, one month after the accident. The mean TPH concentration was 2862 ug/g of dry sediment while the mean carbon preference index was 1.22 compared to the background value of 3.97. The temporal changes of the petroleum hydrocarbon level in 5 defined areas were examined for 7 months after the spill. The most polluted area next to the creek was determined to have very high TPH levels in the muddy sediments even 7 months after the spill. Oil residues infiltrated as deep as 20 cm into the sediments, making it more difficult to degrade than surface pollution and posing long-term adverse effects on trees in the area. It was determined that with growing industrialization and increasing demands for fuel and energy supply, mangroves in South China should be ranked as top priority for protection from oil spills. 19 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs

  6. Study of the sediment contamination levels in a mangrove swamp polluted by a marine oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, T.W.Y.; Ke, L.; Wong, Y.S.; Tam, N.F.Y. [City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2002-07-01

    The pattern of oil retention in mangrove sediments was studied in an effort to determine the temporal changes of petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations and composition several months after oil spills occur. Mangroves are inter-tidal wetlands in tropical and subtropical coastlines. Due to the anoxic and water logging characteristics of mangrove sediments, oil residues linger much longer in these wetlands compared to other coastal habitats. In November 2000, an accidental oil spill occurred in the Pearl River Estuary in which approximately 230,000 litres of crude oil was leaked from an oil tanker. The spilled oil migrated to the YiO, a typical mangrove swamp in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. The degree of oil contamination in the sediments depended on the sediment texture and topography of the mangrove. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration of the sediments in the most affected area near a freshwater creek flowing into the sea was 130 times higher than normal, one month after the accident. The mean TPH concentration was 2862 ug/g of dry sediment while the mean carbon preference index was 1.22 compared to the background value of 3.97. The temporal changes of the petroleum hydrocarbon level in 5 defined areas were examined for 7 months after the spill. The most polluted area next to the creek was determined to have very high TPH levels in the muddy sediments even 7 months after the spill. Oil residues infiltrated as deep as 20 cm into the sediments, making it more difficult to degrade than surface pollution and posing long-term adverse effects on trees in the area. It was determined that with growing industrialization and increasing demands for fuel and energy supply, mangroves in South China should be ranked as top priority for protection from oil spills. 19 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs.

  7. 部件串联的Geometric/G/1可修排队系统费用模型%Parts Series' Geometric/G/1 Repairable Queueing System Cost Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石天林

    2008-01-01

    研究一个部件串联的离散时间Geometric/G/1可修排队系统的费用优化策略.考虑服务台的服务率是可控制的,顾客的到达时间和服务时间均服从几何分布,给出系统的费用参数模型,并结合数值计算实例分析了系统的各参数对系统的最优平均服务时间和最优费用的影响.

  8. Variation of the material laplacian of G1 with the radius of the uranium bar; Variation du laplacien matiere de G1 avec le rayon du barreau d'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanguy, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    In this report are described and interpreted some experiments, carried out in the pile G1 during a period of shut-down, which have made it possible to measure the variation of the material Laplacian of the lattice with the radius of the uranium bar. The variation of the reactivity of the pile is measured when an increasing number of fuel elements are progressively replaced in the central region by fuel elements of greater diameter; it is shown that, starting from measurements based on less than ten per cent of the total number of elements, the variation of reactivity corresponding to the replacement of all the elements can be determined; it is then easy to deduce the variations of the Laplacian. Results: the variations of the Laplacian with the uranium rod diameter are 0 (d. 26 mm), +0.065 {+-} 0.004 m{sup -2} (d. 28 mm) and +0.080 {+-} 0.008 m{sup -2} (d. 32 mm). (author) [French] Dans ce rapport sont decrites et interpretees des experiences realisees sur la pile G1 'froide', experiences qui ont permis de mesurer la variation du Laplacien matiere du reseau avec le rayon du barreau d'uranium. On mesure la variation de reactivite de la pile lorsqu'on remplace progressivement dans la region centrale un nombre croissant de cartouches par des cartouches de plus gros diametre; on montre qu'a partir de mesures portant sur moins de dix pour cent du nombre total de cartouches, on peut determiner la variation de reactivite qui correspondrait au remplacement de toutes les cartouches; il est facile d'en deduire les variations du Laplacien. Resultats: les variations du Laplacien en fonction du diametre du barreau d'uranium sont: 0 (d. 26 mm), +0.065 {+-} 0.004 m{sup -2} (d. 28 mm) and +0.080 {+-} 0.008 m{sup -2} (d. 32 mm). (auteur)

  9. Relative stabilities of IgG1 and IgG4 Fab domains: Influence of the light–heavy interchain disulfide bond architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heads, James T; Adams, Ralph; D'Hooghe, Lena E; Page, Matt J T; Humphreys, David P; Popplewell, Andrew G; Lawson, Alastair D; Henry, Alistair J

    2012-01-01

    The stability of therapeutic antibodies is a prime pharmaceutical concern. In this work we examined thermal stability differences between human IgG1 and IgG4 Fab domains containing the same variable regions using the thermofluor assay. It was found that the IgG1 Fab domain is up to 11°C more stable than the IgG4 Fab domain containing the same variable region. We investigated the cause of this difference with the aim of developing a molecule with the enhanced stability of the IgG1 Fab and the biological properties of an IgG4 Fc. We found that replacing the seven residues, which differ between IgG1 CH1 and IgG4 CH1 domains, while retaining the native IgG1 light-heavy interchain disulfide (L–H) bond, did not affect thermal stability. Introducing the IgG1 type L–H interchain disulfide bond (DSB) into the IgG4 Fab resulted in an increase in thermal stability to levels observed in the IgG1 Fab with the same variable region. Conversely, replacement of the IgG1 L–H interchain DSB with the IgG4 type L–H interchain DSB reduced the thermal stability. We utilized the increased stability of the IgG1 Fab and designed a hybrid antibody with an IgG1 CH1 linked to an IgG4 Fc via an IgG1 hinge. This construct has the expected biophysical properties of both the IgG4 Fc and IgG1 Fab domains and may therefore be a pharmaceutically relevant format. PMID:22761163

  10. CyclinG1 Amplification Enhances Aurora Kinase Inhibitor-Induced Polyploid Resistance and Inhibition of Bcl-2 Pathway Reverses the Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: CyclinG1 (CycG1 is frequently overexpressed in solid tumors and overexpression of CycG1 promotes cell survival upon paclitaxel exposure by inducing polyploidy. Whether and how CycG1 regulates polyploidization caused by small molecular targeted inhibitors remains unclear. Methods: Immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting were utilized to examine protein expression. Cell proliferation was measured by ATPlite assay, and cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were measured by flow cytometry and/or DNA fragmentation assays. Results: Overexpression of CycG1 in breast cancer cells caused apoptosis-resistant polyploidy upon treatment with Aurora kinase inhibitor, ZM447439 (ZM. Addition of ABT-263, a small-molecule BH3 mimetic, to ZM, produced a synergistic loss of cell viability with greater sustained tumor growth inhibition in breast cancer cell lines. Decrease of Mcl-1 and increase of NOXA caused by ZM treatment, were responsible for the synergy. Furthermore, CycG1 was highly expressed in Triple-Negative-Breast-Cancer patients treated with paclitaxel and was paralleled by decreased cell survival. Conclusion: CycG1 is a crucial factor in ZM-induced polyploidy resistance, and ABT-263/ZM combination hold therapeutic utility in the CycG1-amplified subset of breast cancer and CycG1, thus, is a promising target in breast cancer.

  11. On the Two-Moment Approximation of the Discrete-Time GI/G/1 Queue with a Single Vacation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doo Ho Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a discrete-time GI/G/1 queue in which the server takes exactly one vacation each time the system becomes empty. The interarrival times of arriving customers, the service times, and the vacation times are all generic discrete random variables. Under our study, we derive an exact transform-free expression for the stationary system size distribution through the modified supplementary variable technique. Utilizing obtained results, we introduce a simple two-moment approximation for the system size distribution. From this, approximations for the mean system size along with the system size distribution could be obtained. Finally, some numerical examples are given to validate the proposed approximation method.

  12. A short G1 phase imposes constitutive replication stress and fork remodelling in mouse embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahuja, Akshay K.; Jodkowska, Karolina; Teloni, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) represent a transient biological state, where pluripotency is coupled with fast proliferation. ESCs display a constitutively active DNA damage response (DDR), but its molecular determinants have remained elusive. Here we show in cultured ESCs and mouse embryos that H2AX...... these marks of replication stress do not impair the mitotic process and are rapidly lost at differentiation onset. Delaying the G1/S transition in ESCs allows formation of 53BP1 nuclear bodies and suppresses ssDNA accumulation, fork slowing and reversal in the following S-phase. Genetic inactivation of fork...... slowing and reversal leads to chromosomal breakage in unperturbed ESCs. We propose that rapid cell cycle progression makes ESCs dependent on effective replication-coupled mechanisms to protect genome integrity....

  13. Detailed mineralogical characterization of the Bullfrog and Tram members USW-G1, with emphasis on clay mineralogy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bish, D.L.

    1981-10-01

    The detailed mineralogy of the Bullfrog and Tram Members of the Crater Flat Tuff from drill hole USW-G1 has been examined, primarily to characterize fully the amounts and types of clay minerals in the tuffs and the possible effects clay minerals have on rock properties. Results of bulk sample x-ray diffraction analyses agree closely with previous determinations, although slightly higher clay mineral contents were found in this study. X-ray diffraction analysis of fine fractions revealed that the clay minerals in the tuffs are sodium-saturated montmorillonite-beidellites with typical layer charges and no high-charge layers. These smectites are found in virtually all samples of the Bullfrog and Tram, and there is no correlation between the amounts of smectites and the amounts of zeolite, quartz, and feldspar. Smectites are present in both welded and nonwelded horizons and are scarce in some zones with slight-to-absent welding

  14. Analysis of an M|G|1|R queue with batch arrivals and two hysteretic overload control policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaidamaka Yuliya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hysteretic control of arrivals is one of the most easy-to-implement and effective solutions of overload problems occurring in SIP-servers. A mathematical model of an SIP server based on the queueing system M[X]|G|1(L,H|(H,R with batch arrivals and two hysteretic loops is being analyzed. This paper proposes two analytical methods for studying performance characteristics related to the number of customers in the system. Two control policies defined by instants when it is decided to change the system’s mode are considered. The expression for an important performance characteristic of each policy (the mean time between changes in the system mode is presented. Numerical examples that allow comparison of the efficiency of both policies are given

  15. Phylogenetic relationships among Brazilian howler monkeys, genus Alouatta (Platyrrhini, Atelidae, based on g1-globin pseudogene sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Maria Meireles

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Alouatta (howler monkeys is the most widely distributed of New World primates, and has been arranged in three species groups: the Central American Alouatta palliata group and the South American Alouatta seniculus and Alouatta caraya groups. While the latter is monotypic, the A. seniculus group encompasses at least three species (A. seniculus, A. belzebul and A. fusca. In the present study, approximately 600 base pairs of the g1-globin pseudogene were sequenced in the four Brazilian species (A. seniculus, A. belzebul, A. fusca and A. caraya. Maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods yielded phylogenetic trees with the same arrangement: {A. caraya [A. seniculus (A. fusca, A. belzebul]}. The most parsimonious tree had bootstrap values greater than 82% for all groupings, and strength of grouping values of at least 2, supporting the sister clade of A. fusca and A. belzebul. The study also confirmed the presence of a 150-base pair Alu insertion element and a 1.8-kb deletion in the g1-globin pseudogene in A. fusca, features found previously in the remaining three species. The cladistic classification based on molecular data agrees with those of morphological studies, with the monospecific A. caraya group being clearly differentiated from the A. seniculus group.Os guaribas, do gênero Alouatta, que são os primatas do Novo Mundo com maior distribuição geográfica, têm sido colocados em três grupos de espécies: o grupo Alouatta palliata da América central, e os grupos sulamericanos Alouatta seniculus e Alouatta caraya. Este último é monotípico, mas o grupo A. seniculus inclui pelo menos três espécies (A. seniculus, A. belzebul e A. fusca. Neste estudo, foram seqüenciados aproximadamente 600 pares de base do pseudogene globina g1 nas quatro espécies brasileiras (A. seniculus, A. belzebul, A. fusca e A. caraya. Os métodos de máxima parcimônia e máxima verossimilhança produziram árvores filogenéticas com o mesmo arranjo

  16. Age of G-1 PLUS v5 embryo culture medium is inversely associated with birthweight of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleijkers, Sander H M; van Montfoort, Aafke P A; Smits, Luc J M; Coonen, Edith; Derhaag, Josien G; Evers, Johannes L H; Dumoulin, John C M

    2015-06-01

    Does age of G-1 PLUS v5 embryo culture medium affect IVF outcome? Birthweight of singletons born after IVF showed an inverse association with age of the embryo culture medium, while no association was found between age of culture medium and fertilization rate, embryonic development or ongoing pregnancy. It has been reported that IVF culture media can deteriorate during storage, which suggests that the capacity of culture media to support optimal embryo development decreases over time. Some animal studies showed an effect of storage time on embryo development, in contrast to other studies, while the effect of aging culture medium on IVF outcome in humans is unknown. We used data on outcome of 1832 IVF/ICSI cycles with fresh embryo transfer, performed in the period 2008-2012 to evaluate the association of fertilization rate, embryonic development, ongoing pregnancy and birthweight of singletons with age of the culture medium (Vitrolife AB G-1 PLUS v5). Age of the culture medium was calculated by subtracting the production date from the date of ovum retrieval. Data analysis included linear regression and logistic regression on continuous and categorical outcomes, respectively. Age of the culture medium was not associated with fertilization rate (P = 0.543), early cleavage rate (P = 0.155), percentage of embryos containing four or more cells on Day 2 (P = 0.401), percentage of embryos containing eight or more cells on Day 3 (P = 0.175), percentage of embryos with multinucleated blastomeres (P = 0.527), or ongoing pregnancy (P = 0.729). However, birthweight of the newborn was inversely associated with age of the medium (β = -3.6 g, SE: 1.5 g, P = 0.021), after controlling for possible confounders (day of embryo transfer, number of transferred embryos, child's gender, gestational age at birth, parity, pregnancy complications, maternal smoking, height and weight, and paternal height and weight) and the association was not biased by year of treatment, time since first

  17. Source characterization using compound composition and stable carbon isotope ratio of PAHs in sediments from lakes, harbor, and shipping waterway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Moonkoo; Kennicutt, Mahlon C.; Qian, Yaorong

    2008-01-01

    Molecular compositions and compound specific stable carbon isotope ratios of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) isolated from sediments were used to characterize possible sources of contamination at an urban lake, a harbor, a shipping waterway, and a relatively undisturbed remote lake in the northwest United States. Total PAH concentrations in urban lake sediments ranged from 66.0 to 16,500 μg g -1 dry wt. with an average of 2600 μg g -1 , which is ∼ 50, 100, and 400 times higher on average than PAH in harbor (48 μg g -1 on average), shipping waterway (26 μg g -1 ), and remote lake (7 μg g -1 ) sediments, respectively. The PAH distribution patterns, methyl phenanthrene/phenanthrene ratios, and a pyrogenic index at the sites suggest a pyrogenic origin for PAHs. Source characterization using principal component analysis and various molecular indices including C2-dibenzothiophenes/C2-phenanthrenes, C3-dibenzothiophenes/C3-phenanthrenes, and C2-chrysenes/C2-phenanthrenes ratios, was able to differentiate PAH deposited in sediments from the four sites. The uniqueness of the source of the sediment PAHs from urban lake was also illustrated by compound specific stable carbon isotope analysis. It was concluded that urban lake sediments are accumulating PAH from sources that are unique from contamination detected at nearby sites in the same watershed

  18. Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in estuarine sediment of Tama River in Tokyo urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Akiko; Hosomi, Masaaki; Murakami, Akihiko; Sakakibara, Koji

    1997-01-01

    Aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation rates of petroleum hydrocarbons, i.e., hexadecane (HEX), phenanthrene (PHE), and anthracene (ANT), were determined in estuarine sediment of the Tama River in urban Tokyo, followed by estimating their respective degradation potential. While in a sediment slurry, the aerobic biodegradation rates of these petroleum hydrocarbons ranged from 40 to 70 μg.g -1 dry sediment:day -1 . The anaerobic biodegradation rate of HEX was found to be 5 -8 μg.g -1 dry sediment.day -1 , whereas that of PHE and ANT could not be detected following a 2-month incubation. Aerobic degradation of HEX was not affected by coexistence with either PHE or ANT, nor by the salinity level. The number of HEX-, PHE-, or ANT-utilizing bacteria ranged from 5 - 10% of the total number of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria. We calculated their biodegradation potentials using the biomass of naturally existing petroleum hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria present in the sampled sediment, with results for HEX, PHE, and ANT being 1.0 -3.5, 4.2 x 10 -2 , and 1.2 x 10 -2 -9.4 x 10 -1 μg.g -1 dry sediment day -1 , respectively. In the aerobic tidal sediment of the Tama River, the purification potentials of HEX, PHE, and ANT were assessed to be approximately equal to their accumulation potentials occurring at the normal water level. (Author)

  19. The measurement of g1n polarized structure of the neutron by the E154 experiment at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incerti, Sebastien

    1998-01-01

    This thesis presents the precision measurement of the neutron polarized structure g 1 n performed by the E154 collaboration at the Standford Linear Accelerator Center, USA, in autumn 1995, using a 48.3 GeV polarized electron beam scattered off a polarized Helium 3 target. The scattered electrons were detected using two spectrometer arms, covering the deep inelastic scattering range: 0.0134 2 2 2 at an average value of Q 2 = 5 GeV 2 . Two electromagnetic calorimeters have been designed by the LPC in Clermont-Ferrand and the SphN-CEA in Saclay to measure the scattered electron energy and to eject the contaminating hadron background using, a cellular automaton and a neural network, widely described in this thesis. The analysis performed in Clermont-Ferrand and presented in this document led us to the integral on the measurement region of g 1 n equaling: - 0.34 ± 0.003 STAT ± 0.004 SYST ± 0.001 EVOL at Q 2 = 5 GeV 2 , where our data have been evolved to Q 2 = 5 GeV 2 using the next-to-leading order DGLAP evolution equations and a world parametrization of the polarized parton distributions. The Ellis and Jaffe sum rule is clearly violated. Using different low x extrapolations, our integral is compatible with the Bjorken sum rule. The quark contribution to the nucleon spin is ΔΣ = 29 ± 6 % in the M S-bar scheme and ΔΣ = 37 ± 7% in the AB scheme, at Q 2 = 5 GeV 2 . The gluon contribution seems to be positive and within the range: 0 < ΔG < 2. (author)

  20. Correlating the Impact of Well-Defined Oligosaccharide Structures on Physical Stability Profiles of IgG1-Fc Glycoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Apurva S; Toprani, Vishal M; Okbazghi, Solomon Z; Kim, Jae H; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Middaugh, C Russell; Tolbert, Thomas J; Volkin, David B

    2016-02-01

    As part of a series of articles in this special issue describing 4 well-defined IgG1-Fc glycoforms as a model system for biosimilarity analysis (high mannose-Fc, Man5-Fc, GlcNAc-Fc and N297Q-Fc aglycosylated), the focus of this work is comparisons of their physical properties. A trend of decreasing apparent solubility (thermodynamic activity) by polyethylene glycol precipitation (pH 4.5, 6.0) and lower conformational stability by differential scanning calorimetry (pH 4.5) was observed with reducing size of the N297-linked oligosaccharide structures. Using multiple high-throughput biophysical techniques, the physical stability of the Fc glycoproteins was then measured in 2 formulations (NaCl and sucrose) across a wide range of temperatures (10°C-90°C) and pH (4.0-7.5) conditions. The data sets were used to construct 3-index empirical phase diagrams and radar charts to visualize the regions of protein structural stability. Each glycoform showed improved stability in the sucrose (vs. salt) formulation. The HM-Fc and Man5-Fc displayed the highest relative stability, followed by GlcNAc-Fc, with N297Q-Fc being the least stable. Thus, the overall physical stability profiles of the 4 IgG1-Fc glycoforms also show a correlation with oligosaccharide structure. These data sets are used to develop a mathematical model for biosimilarity analysis (as described in a companion article by Kim et al. in this issue). Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Arctigenin, a natural lignan compound, induces G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimaitili, Aisha; Shu, Zunhua; Cheng, Xiaojiang; Kaheerman, Kadeer; Sikandeer, Alifu; Li, Weimin

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the anticancer potential of arctigenin, a natural lignan compound, in malignant gliomas. The U87MG and T98G human glioma cell lines were treated with various concentrations of arctigenin for 48 h and the effects of arctigenin on the aggressive phenotypes of glioma cells were assessed. The results demonstrated that arctigenin dose-dependently inhibited the growth of U87MG and T98G cells, as determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assays. Arctigenin exposure also induced a 60-75% reduction in colony formation compared with vehicle-treated control cells. However, arctigenin was not observed to affect the invasiveness of glioma cells. Arctigenin significantly increased the proportion of cells in the G 0 /G 1 phase and reduced the number of cells in the S phase, as compared with the control group (Parctigenin increased the expression levels of p21, retinoblastoma and p53 proteins, and significantly decreased the expression levels of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 proteins. Additionally, arctigenin was able to induce apoptosis in glioma cells, coupled with increased expression levels of cleaved caspase-3 and the pro-apoptotic BCL2-associated X protein. Furthermore, arctigenin-induced apoptosis was significantly suppressed by the pretreatment of cells with Z-DEVD-FMK, a caspase-3 inhibitor. In conclusion, the results suggest that arctigenin is able to inhibit cell proliferation and may induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the G 0 /G 1 phase in glioma cells. These results warrant further investigation of the anticancer effects of arctigenin in animal models of gliomas.

  2. cAMP promotes the synthesis in early G1 of gp115, a yeast glycoprotein containing glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandori, R; Popolo, L; Vai, M; Alberghina, L

    1990-08-25

    The glycoprotein gp115 (Mr = 115,000, pI 4.8-5) is localized in the plasma membrane of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and maximally expressed during G1 phase. To gain insight on the mechanism regulating its synthesis, we have examined various conditions of cell proliferation arrest. We used pulse-labeling experiments with [35S]methionine and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis, which allow the detection of the well characterized 100-kDa precursor of gp115 (p100). In the cAMP-requiring mutant cyr1, p100 synthesis is active during exponential growth, shut off by cAMP removal, and induced when growth is restored by cAMP readdition. The inhibition of p100 synthesis also occurs in TS1 mutant cells (ras1ras2-ts1) shifted from 24 to 37 degrees C. During nitrogen starvation of rca1 cells, a mutant permeable to cAMP, p100 synthesis is also inhibited. cAMP complements the effect of ammonium deprivation, promoting p100 synthesis, even when added to cells which have already entered G0. Experiments with the bcy1 and cyr1bcy1 mutants have indicated the involvement of the cAMP-dependent protein kinases in the control of p100 synthesis. Moreover, the synthesis of p100 was unaffected in A364A cells, terminally arrested at START B by alpha-factor. These results indicate that the switch operating on p100 synthesis is localized in early G1 (START A) and is one of the multiple events controlled by the cAMP pathway.

  3. Modeling ERBB receptor-regulated G1/S transition to find novel targets for de novo trastuzumab resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thieffry Denis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In breast cancer, overexpression of the transmembrane tyrosine kinase ERBB2 is an adverse prognostic marker, and occurs in almost 30% of the patients. For therapeutic intervention, ERBB2 is targeted by monoclonal antibody trastuzumab in adjuvant settings; however, de novo resistance to this antibody is still a serious issue, requiring the identification of additional targets to overcome resistance. In this study, we have combined computational simulations, experimental testing of simulation results, and finally reverse engineering of a protein interaction network to define potential therapeutic strategies for de novo trastuzumab resistant breast cancer. Results First, we employed Boolean logic to model regulatory interactions and simulated single and multiple protein loss-of-functions. Then, our simulation results were tested experimentally by producing single and double knockdowns of the network components and measuring their effects on G1/S transition during cell cycle progression. Combinatorial targeting of ERBB2 and EGFR did not affect the response to trastuzumab in de novo resistant cells, which might be due to decoupling of receptor activation and cell cycle progression. Furthermore, examination of c-MYC in resistant as well as in sensitive cell lines, using a specific chemical inhibitor of c-MYC (alone or in combination with trastuzumab, demonstrated that both trastuzumab sensitive and resistant cells responded to c-MYC perturbation. Conclusion In this study, we connected ERBB signaling with G1/S transition of the cell cycle via two major cell signaling pathways and two key transcription factors, to model an interaction network that allows for the identification of novel targets in the treatment of trastuzumab resistant breast cancer. Applying this new strategy, we found that, in contrast to trastuzumab sensitive breast cancer cells, combinatorial targeting of ERBB receptors or of key signaling intermediates does not

  4. Surface-sediment and hermit-crab contamination by butyltins in southeastern Atlantic estuaries after ban of TBT-based antifouling paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Anna, B S; Santos, D M; Marchi, M R R; Zara, F J; Turra, A

    2014-05-01

    Butyltin (BT) contamination was evaluated in hermit crabs from 25 estuaries and in sediments from 13 of these estuaries along about 2,000 km of the Brazilian coast. BT contamination in hermit crabs ranged from 2.22 to 1,746 ng Sn g(-1) of DBT and 1.32 to 318 ng Sn g(-1) of TBT. In sediment samples, the concentration also varied widely, from 25 to 1,304 ng Sn g(-1) of MBT, from 7 to 158 ng Sn g(-1) of DBT, and from 8 to 565 ng Sn g(-1) of TBT. BTs are still being found in surface sediments and biota of the estuaries after the international and Brazilian bans, showing heterogeneous distribution among and within estuaries. Although hermit crabs were previously tested as an indicator of recent BT contamination, the results indicate the presence of contamination, probably from resuspension of BTs from deeper water of the estuary.

  5. Alkane and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments and benthic invertebrates of the northern Chukchi Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, H. Rodger; Taylor, Karen A.

    2017-10-01

    The Hanna Shoal region represents an important northern gateway for transport and deposition in the Chukchi Sea. This study determined the concentration and distribution of organic contaminants (aliphatic hydrocarbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs) in surface sediments from 34 sites across Hanna Shoal. Up to 31 total PAHs, including parent and alkyl homologues were detected with total concentrations ranging from a low of 168 ng g-1 the western flank of Hanna Shoal (station H34) to 1147 ng g-1 at station in Barrow Canyon (station BarC5). Alkyl PAHs were more abundant than parent structures and accounted for 53-64% of the summed concentrations suggesting overall at background levels (< 1600 ng g-1) in sediments. Alkane (C15-C33) hydrocarbons ranged from 4.3 μg g-1 on the southern flank of Hanna shoal to 31 μg g-1 at a northern station. Sediments were often dominated by short chain (C15-C22) alkanes with overall terrestrial aquatic ratios (TAR) for the region averaging 0.20. Based on the ratio of Fl/(Fl+ Py) and BaF/(Baf+BeP) verses (BA/BA+Ch) in sediments, PAHs are largely derived from petrogenic sources with minor amounts of mixed combustion sources. A diversity of PAHs were detected in the northern whelk Neptunea heros foot muscle with total concentrations ranging from 0.14 to 1.5 μg g-1 dry tissue wt. Larger (and presumably older) animals showed higher levels of PAH per unit muscle tissue, suggesting that animals may bioaccumulate PAHs over time, with low but increasing concentrations also present in internal and external eggs. Alkane hydrocarbons were also higher in whelks with distributions similar to that seen in sediments. The mussel Muscularus discors collected in Barrow Canyon showed constrained distributions and substantially lower concentrations of both PAHs and alkanes than the surrounding surface sediments.

  6. Prolonged early G1 arrest by selective CDK4/CDK6 inhibition sensitizes myeloma cells to cytotoxic killing through cell cycle–coupled loss of IRF4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiangao; Di Liberto, Maurizio; Jayabalan, David; Liang, Jun; Ely, Scott; Bretz, Jamieson; Shaffer, Arthur L.; Louie, Tracey; Chen, Isan; Randolph, Sophia; Hahn, William C.; Staudt, Louis M.; Niesvizky, Ruben; Moore, Malcolm A. S.

    2012-01-01

    Dysregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and CDK6 by gain of function or loss of inhibition is common in human cancer, including multiple myeloma, but success in targeting CDK with broad-spectrum inhibitors has been modest. By selective and reversible inhibition of CDK4/CDK6, we have developed a strategy to both inhibit proliferation and enhance cytotoxic killing of cancer cells. We show that induction of prolonged early-G1 arrest (pG1) by CDK4/CDK6 inhibition halts gene expression in early-G1 and prevents expression of genes programmed for other cell-cycle phases. Removal of the early-G1 block leads to S-phase synchronization (pG1-S) but fails to completely restore scheduled gene expression. Consequently, the IRF4 protein required to protect myeloma cells from apoptosis is markedly reduced in pG1 and further in pG1-S in response to cytotoxic agents, such as the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. The coordinated loss of IRF4 and gain of Bim sensitize myeloma tumor cells to bortezomib-induced apoptosis in pG1 in the absence of Noxa and more profoundly in pG1-S in cooperation with Noxa in vitro. Induction of pG1 and pG1-S by reversible CDK4/CDK6 inhibition further augments tumor-specific bortezomib killing in myeloma xenografts. Reversible inhibition of CDK4/CDK6 in sequential combination therapy thus represents a novel mechanism-based cancer therapy. PMID:22718837

  7. Prolonged early G(1) arrest by selective CDK4/CDK6 inhibition sensitizes myeloma cells to cytotoxic killing through cell cycle-coupled loss of IRF4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiangao; Di Liberto, Maurizio; Jayabalan, David; Liang, Jun; Ely, Scott; Bretz, Jamieson; Shaffer, Arthur L; Louie, Tracey; Chen, Isan; Randolph, Sophia; Hahn, William C; Staudt, Louis M; Niesvizky, Ruben; Moore, Malcolm A S; Chen-Kiang, Selina

    2012-08-02

    Dysregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and CDK6 by gain of function or loss of inhibition is common in human cancer, including multiple myeloma, but success in targeting CDK with broad-spectrum inhibitors has been modest. By selective and reversible inhibition of CDK4/CDK6, we have developed a strategy to both inhibit proliferation and enhance cytotoxic killing of cancer cells. We show that induction of prolonged early-G(1) arrest (pG1) by CDK4/CDK6 inhibition halts gene expression in early-G(1) and prevents expression of genes programmed for other cell-cycle phases. Removal of the early-G(1) block leads to S-phase synchronization (pG1-S) but fails to completely restore scheduled gene expression. Consequently, the IRF4 protein required to protect myeloma cells from apoptosis is markedly reduced in pG1 and further in pG1-S in response to cytotoxic agents, such as the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. The coordinated loss of IRF4 and gain of Bim sensitize myeloma tumor cells to bortezomib-induced apoptosis in pG1 in the absence of Noxa and more profoundly in pG1-S in cooperation with Noxa in vitro. Induction of pG1 and pG1-S by reversible CDK4/CDK6 inhibition further augments tumor-specific bortezomib killing in myeloma xenografts. Reversible inhibition of CDK4/CDK6 in sequential combination therapy thus represents a novel mechanism-based cancer therapy.

  8. QRLs for tomato powdery mildew resisance (Oidium lycopersici) in Lycopersicon parviflorum G1.1601 colocalize with two qualitative powdery mildew resistance genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Y.; Huang, C.C.; Hulst, van der R.G.M.; Meijer-Dekens, R.G.; Bonnema, A.B.; Lindhout, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is susceptible to the powdery mildew Oidium lycopersici, but several wild relatives such as Lycopersicon parviflorum G1.1601 are completely resistant. An F-2 population from a cross of Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Moneymaker x Lycopersicon parviflorum G1.1601 was used

  9. Heavy metals in sediments, mussels and oysters from Trinidad and Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas Astudillo, L. de; Chang Yen, I.; Bekele, I.

    2005-01-01

    sites in the Gulf of Paria exceeded local maximum permissible levels (Cu = 20 ug g wet wt; Zn = 50 ug wet wt) for human consumption. These findings indicate that while mussels may be better biological indicators of heavy metal pollution in sediments than oysters, the latter may provide copper and zinc contamination. Further research is needed to determine the most appropriate biological indicators of heavy metal and other pollutants in the local marine environment and to develop protocols for their use [es

  10. Distribution of nutrients in fluvial sediment of the Itajai-Açu river, Blumenau, SC, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseane Susin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study verified the occurrence of nitrogen (Ntotal, NH4+, NO3- e NO2- and phosphorus (Ptotal in fluvial sediments of the Itajaí-Açu River, on the river's course in the urban area of Blumenau city. At the eight sites where the samples were collected, the total nitrogen presented values below those recommended in the CONAMA nº 344/2004 Resolution for sediments which is 4,800.00 µg g-1, with values of 350.00 µg g-1 to 2,100.00 µg g-1. The total phosphorus also presented values below the one recommended by the CONAMA nº 344/2004 Resolution for sediments which is 2,000.00 µg g-1. The values found for total phosphorus varied from 61.50 µg g-1 to 378.00 µg g-1, and were determined as the addition of the organic and the inorganic phosphorus. As for the summation of the NH4+, NO3- and NO2- ions at the eight sites where the sample were collected, it can be observed a greater quantity of these ions in any collecting site and in the other sites the values were low. The content values for the NO2- ions for the studied eight sites were low when compared to the values observed for the NH4+ ion.

  11. NBPF1, a tumor suppressor candidate in neuroblastoma, exerts growth inhibitory effects by inducing a G1 cell cycle arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andries, Vanessa; Vandepoele, Karl; Staes, Katrien; Berx, Geert; Bogaert, Pieter; Van Isterdael, Gert; Ginneberge, Daisy; Parthoens, Eef; Vandenbussche, Jonathan; Gevaert, Kris; Roy, Frans van

    2015-01-01

    NBPF1 (Neuroblastoma Breakpoint Family, member 1) was originally identified in a neuroblastoma patient on the basis of its disruption by a chromosomal translocation t(1;17)(p36.2;q11.2). Considering this genetic defect and the frequent genomic alterations of the NBPF1 locus in several cancer types, we hypothesized that NBPF1 is a tumor suppressor. Decreased expression of NBPF1 in neuroblastoma cell lines with loss of 1p36 heterozygosity and the marked decrease of anchorage-independent clonal growth of DLD1 colorectal carcinoma cells with induced NBPF1 expression further suggest that NBPF1 functions as tumor suppressor. However, little is known about the mechanisms involved. Expression of NBPF was analyzed in human skin and human cervix by immunohistochemistry. The effects of NBPF1 on the cell cycle were evaluated by flow cytometry. We investigated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR the expression profile of a panel of genes important in cell cycle regulation. Protein levels of CDKN1A-encoded p21 CIP1/WAF1 were determined by western blotting and the importance of p53 was shown by immunofluorescence and by a loss-of-function approach. LC-MS/MS analysis was used to investigate the proteome of DLD1 colon cancer cells with induced NBPF1 expression. Possible biological interactions between the differentially regulated proteins were investigated with the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tool. We show that NBPF is expressed in the non-proliferative suprabasal layers of squamous stratified epithelia of human skin and cervix. Forced expression of NBPF1 in HEK293T cells resulted in a G1 cell cycle arrest that was accompanied by upregulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 CIP1/WAF1 in a p53-dependent manner. Additionally, forced expression of NBPF1 in two p53-mutant neuroblastoma cell lines also resulted in a G1 cell cycle arrest and CDKN1A upregulation. However, CDKN1A upregulation by NBPF1 was not observed in the DLD1 cells, which demonstrates that NBPF1 exerts cell

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments and mussels of Corral Bay, south central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma-Fleming, Hernan; P, Adalberto J Asencio; Gutierrez, Elena

    2004-03-01

    PAHs were measured in sediments and mussels (Mytilus chilensis) from Carboneros and Puerto Claro, located in Corral Bay, Valdivia. According to the ratio of phenanthrene/anthracene and fluoranthene/pyrene concentrations, these sites are medium polluted with PAHs originating mainly from pyrolytic sources. Fluoranthene was the major component measured in mussels (3.1-390 ng g(-1) dry weight) and sediments (6.9-74.1 ng g(-1) dry weight). In general, mussels were mainly exposed to the dissolved fraction of the lower molecular weight PAHs (tri- and tetra-aromatics) while the higher molecular ring systems (penta- and hexa-aromatics) were more bioavailable to sediments. Mussel PAHs content was relatively constant, with the exception of the 1999 summer season (March), when higher concentration values were found in both sites; however, PAHs residues in sediments showed a temporal variation.

  13. Sediment supply to beaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels

    2014-01-01

    Many beaches have been built by an onshore supply of sand from the shoreface, and future long-term coastal evolution critically depends on cross-shore sediment exchange between the upper and the lower shorefaces. Even so, cross-shore sediment supply remains poorly known in quantitative terms...... and this reduces confidence in predictions of long-term shoreline change. In this paper, field measurements of suspended sediment load and cross-shore transport on the lower shoreface are used to derive a model for sediment supply from the lower to the upper shoreface at large spatial and temporal scales. Data...

  14. Sediment Core Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides instrumentation and expertise for physical and geoacoustic characterization of marine sediments.DESCRIPTION: The multisensor core logger measures...

  15. The dirt on sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Loren M.; Euliss, Ned H. "Chip"

    2010-01-01

    In the wetland science field, sediment deposition is often thought of as being beneficial especially when one thinks of coastal estuarine systems. For example, sediments deposited from streams and rivers are necessary to naturally build and maintain tidal marshes. These sediments come from eroded upland soils in the interior of the continent. When these sediments are diverted from natural coastal deposition areas, such as occurs from river channelization, we lose marshes through subsidence as is happening throughout coastal Louisiana. However, the value of eroded soils is all a matter of hydrogeomorphic perspective.

  16. Direct radiocarbon dates for Vindija G1 and Velika Pećina Late Pleistocene hominid remains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fred H.; Trinkaus, Erik; Pettitt, Paul B.; Karavanić, Ivor; Paunović, Maja

    1999-01-01

    New accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dates taken directly on human remains from the Late Pleistocene sites of Vindija and Velika Pećina in the Hrvatsko Zagorje of Croatia are presented. Hominid specimens from both sites have played critical roles in the development of current perspectives on modern human evolutionary emergence in Europe. Dates of ≈28 thousand years (ka) before the present (B.P.) and ≈29 ka B.P. for two specimens from Vindija G1 establish them as the most recent dated Neandertals in the Eurasian range of these archaic humans. The human frontal bone from Velika Pećina, generally considered one of the earliest representatives of modern humans in Europe, dated to ≈5 ka B.P., rendering it no longer pertinent to discussions of modern human origins. Apart from invalidating the only radiometrically based example of temporal overlap between late Neandertal and early modern human fossil remains from within any region of Europe, these dates raise the question of when early modern humans first dispersed into Europe and have implications for the nature and geographic patterning of biological and cultural interactions between these populations and the Neandertals. PMID:10535913

  17. A study on M/G/1 retrial G - queue with two phases of service, immediate feedback and working vacations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varalakshmi, M.; Chandrasekaran, V. M.; Saravanarajan, M. C.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we discuss about the steady state behaviour of M/G/1 retrial queueing system with two phases of services and immediate feedbacks under working vacation policy where the regular busy server is affected due to the arrival of negative customers. Upon arrival if the customer finds the server busy, breakdown or on working vacation it enters an orbit; otherwise the customer enters into the service area immediately. After service completion, the customer is allowed to make finite number of immediate feedback. The feedback service also consists of two phases. At the service completion epoch of a positive customer, if the orbit is empty the server goes for a working vacation. The server works at a lower service rate during working vacation (WV) period. Using the supplementary variable technique, we found out the steady state probability generating function for the system and in orbit. System performance measures and reliability measures are discussed. Finally, some numerical examples are presented to validate the analyticalresults.

  18. The G1/S Specific Cyclin D2 Is a Regulator of HIV-1 Restriction in Non-proliferating Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badia, Roger; Pujantell, Maria; Riveira-Muñoz, Eva; Puig, Teresa; Torres-Torronteras, Javier; Martí, Ramón; Clotet, Bonaventura; Ampudia, Rosa M.; Ballana, Ester

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are a heterogeneous cell population strongly influenced by differentiation stimuli that become susceptible to HIV-1 infection after inactivation of the restriction factor SAMHD1 by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK). Here, we have used primary human monocyte-derived macrophages differentiated through different stimuli to evaluate macrophage heterogeneity on cell activation and proliferation and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. Stimulation of monocytes with GM-CSF induces a non-proliferating macrophage population highly restrictive to HIV-1 infection, characterized by the upregulation of the G1/S-specific cyclin D2, known to control early steps of cell cycle progression. Knockdown of cyclin D2, enhances HIV-1 replication in GM-CSF macrophages through inactivation of SAMHD1 restriction factor by phosphorylation. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments show that cyclin D2 forms a complex with CDK4 and p21, a factor known to restrict HIV-1 replication by affecting the function of the downstream cascade that leads to SAMHD1 deactivation. Thus, we demonstrate that cyclin D2 acts as regulator of cell cycle proteins affecting SAMHD1-mediated HIV-1 restriction in non-proliferating macrophages. PMID:27541004

  19. Ponatinib promotes a G1 cell-cycle arrest of merlin/NF2-deficient human schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrilli, Alejandra M; Garcia, Jeanine; Bott, Marga; Klingeman Plati, Stephani; Dinh, Christine T; Bracho, Olena R; Yan, Denise; Zou, Bing; Mittal, Rahul; Telischi, Fred F; Liu, Xue-Zhong; Chang, Long-Sheng; Welling, D Bradley; Copik, Alicja J; Fernández-Valle, Cristina

    2017-05-09

    Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is a genetic syndrome that predisposes individuals to multiple benign tumors of the central and peripheral nervous systems, including vestibular schwannomas. Currently, there are no FDA approved drug therapies for NF2. Loss of function of merlin encoded by the NF2 tumor suppressor gene leads to activation of multiple mitogenic signaling cascades, including platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and SRC in Schwann cells. The goal of this study was to determine whether ponatinib, an FDA-approved ABL/SRC inhibitor, reduced proliferation and/or survival of merlin-deficient human Schwann cells (HSC). Merlin-deficient HSC had higher levels of phosphorylated PDGFRα/β, and SRC than merlin-expressing HSC. A similar phosphorylation pattern was observed in phospho-protein arrays of human vestibular schwannoma samples compared to normal HSC. Ponatinib reduced merlin-deficient HSC viability in a dose-dependent manner by decreasing phosphorylation of PDGFRα/β, AKT, p70S6K, MEK1/2, ERK1/2 and STAT3. These changes were associated with decreased cyclin D1 and increased p27Kip1levels, leading to a G1 cell-cycle arrest as assessed by Western blotting and flow cytometry. Ponatinib did not modulate ABL, SRC, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), or paxillin phosphorylation levels. These results suggest that ponatinib is a potential therapeutic agent for NF2-associated schwannomas and warrants further in vivo investigation.

  20. Modifying effect of 5-fluoro-2-deoxyuridine and thymidine at G1 phase on radiation and chemically induced chromosome rearrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azatyan, R.A.; Voskanyan, A.Z.; Avakyan, V.A.; Akif'ev, A.P.

    1978-01-01

    The yield of structural chromosome mutations induced in Crepis capillaris seeds by X-rays and nitrogen mustard was studied as a function of treatment (at G 1 phase) with an inhibitor of unscheduled DNA synthesis, 5-fluoro-2-deoxyuridine (FdU), and its antagonist, thymidine. Air-dry seeds were irradiated at 10 krad and immediately placed in aqueous solutions of FdU, thymidine, or FdU + thymidine. Ionizing radiation induced only chromosome exchanges in the seeds. When EdU was used, the number of chromosome exchanges was the same although the fraction of simple and isolocus deletions was significantly greater than additive. The effect of FdU was manifested only after 10-hour incubation of the cells. Thymidine alone did not appreciably alter the frequency of radiation-induced aberrations. At the same time, the FdU + thymidine combination decreased the mutation yield i.e. was protective. Frequencies of the chromosome aberration in this experiment were the same as in the control

  1. The APC/C Coordinates Retinal Differentiation with G1 Arrest through the Nek2-Dependent Modulation of Wingless Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Torcato; Meghini, Francesco; Florio, Francesca; Kimata, Yuu

    2017-01-09

    The cell cycle is coordinated with differentiation during animal development. Here we report a cell-cycle-independent developmental role for a master cell-cycle regulator, the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C), in the regulation of cell fate through modulation of Wingless (Wg) signaling. The APC/C controls both cell-cycle progression and postmitotic processes through ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. Through an RNAi screen in the developing Drosophila eye, we found that partial APC/C inactivation severely inhibits retinal differentiation independently of cell-cycle defects. The differentiation inhibition coincides with hyperactivation of Wg signaling caused by the accumulation of a Wg modulator, Drosophila Nek2 (dNek2). The APC/C degrades dNek2 upon synchronous G1 arrest prior to differentiation, which allows retinal differentiation through local suppression of Wg signaling. We also provide evidence that decapentaplegic signaling may posttranslationally regulate this APC/C function. Thus, the APC/C coordinates cell-fate determination with the cell cycle through the modulation of developmental signaling pathways. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of the Expression of the RNA Binding Protein eIF4G1 and Its Clinicopathological Correlation with Serous Ovarian Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanfang Li

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is the most lethal type of malignant tumor in gynecological cancers and is associated with a high percentage of late diagnosis and chemotherapy resistance. Thus, it is urgent to identify a tumor marker or a molecular target that allows early detection and effective treatment. RNA-binding proteins (RBPs are crucial in various cellular processes at the post-transcriptional level. The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 gamma, 1(eIF4G1, an RNA-binding protein, facilitates the recruitment of mRNA to the ribosome, which is a rate-limiting step during the initiation phase of protein synthesis. However, little is known regarding the characteristics of eIF4G1 expression and its clinical significance in ovarian cancer. Therefore, we propose to investigate the expression and clinicopathological significance of eIF4G1 in ovarian cancer patients.We performed Real-time PCR in 40 fresh serous ovarian cancer tissues and 27 normal ovarian surface epithelial cell specimens to assess eIF4G1mRNA expression. Immunohistochemistry (IHC was used to examine the expression of eIF4G1 at the protein level in 134 patients with serous ovarian cancer and 18 normal ovarian tissues. Statistical analysis was conducted to determine the correlation of the eIF4G1 protein levels with the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis in ovarian cancer.The expression of eIF4G1 was upregulated in serous ovarian cancer tissues at both the mRNA (P = 0.0375 and the protein (P = 0.0007 levels. The eIF4G1 expression was significantly correlated with the clinical tumor stage (P = 0.0004 and omentum metastasis (P = 0.024. Moreover, patients with low eIF4G1 protein expression had a longer overall survival time (P = 0.026.These data revealed that eIF4G1 is markedly expressed in serous ovarian cancer and that upregulation of the eIF4G1 protein expression is significantly associated with an advanced tumor stage. Besides, the patients with lower expression of eIF4G1 tend

  3. Loss of lysosomal membrane protein NCU-G1 in mice results in spontaneous liver fibrosis with accumulation of lipofuscin and iron in Kupffer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Y. Kong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Human kidney predominant protein, NCU-G1, is a highly conserved protein with an unknown biological function. Initially described as a nuclear protein, it was later shown to be a bona fide lysosomal integral membrane protein. To gain insight into the physiological function of NCU-G1, mice with no detectable expression of this gene were created using a gene-trap strategy, and Ncu-g1gt/gt mice were successfully characterized. Lysosomal disorders are mainly caused by lack of or malfunctioning of proteins in the endosomal-lysosomal pathway. The clinical symptoms vary, but often include liver dysfunction. Persistent liver damage activates fibrogenesis and, if unremedied, eventually leads to liver fibrosis/cirrhosis and death. We demonstrate that the disruption of Ncu-g1 results in spontaneous liver fibrosis in mice as the predominant phenotype. Evidence for an increased rate of hepatic cell death, oxidative stress and active fibrogenesis were detected in Ncu-g1gt/gt liver. In addition to collagen deposition, microscopic examination of liver sections revealed accumulation of autofluorescent lipofuscin and iron in Ncu-g1gt/gt Kupffer cells. Because only a few transgenic mouse models have been identified with chronic liver injury and spontaneous liver fibrosis development, we propose that the Ncu-g1gt/gt mouse could be a valuable new tool in the development of novel treatments for the attenuation of fibrosis due to chronic liver damage.

  4. Metabolism of methoxychlor by the P450-monooxygenase CYP6G1 involved in insecticide resistance of Drosophila melanogaster after expression in cell cultures of Nicotiana tabacum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joussen, Nicole; Schuphan, Ingolf; Schmidt, Burkhard

    2010-03-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP6G1 of Drosophila melanogaster was heterologously expressed in a cell suspension culture of Nicotiana tabacum. This in vitro system was used to study the capability of CYP6G1 to metabolize the insecticide methoxychlor (=1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)ethane, 1) against the background of endogenous enzymes of the corresponding non-transgenic culture. The Cyp6g1-transgenic cell culture metabolized 96% of applied methoxychlor (45.8 microg per assay) within 24 h by demethylation and hydroxylation mainly to trishydroxy and catechol methoxychlor (16 and 17%, resp.). About 34% of the metabolism and the distinct formation of trishydroxy and catechol methoxychlor were due to foreign enzyme CYP6G1. Furthermore, methoxychlor metabolism was inhibited by 43% after simultaneous addition of piperonyl butoxide (458 microg), whereas inhibition in the non-transgenic culture amounted to 92%. Additionally, the rate of glycosylation was reduced in both cultures. These results were supported by the inhibition of the metabolism of the insecticide imidacloprid (6; 20 microg, 24 h) in the Cyp6g1-transgenic culture by 82% in the presence of piperonyl butoxide (200 microg). Due to CYP6G1 being responsible for imidacloprid resistance of Drosophila or being involved in DDT resistance, it is likely that CYP6G1 conveys resistance to methoxychlor (1). Furthermore, treating Drosophila with piperonyl butoxide could weaken the observed resistance phenomena.

  5. Distribution, Source, and Ecological Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Surface Sediment of Liaodong Bay, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuang; Tao, Ping; Li, Yuxia; Guo, Qi; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Man; Jia, Hongliang; Shao, Mihua

    2018-01-01

    Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in surface sediments from Liaodong Bay, northeast China. The concentration levels of total PAHs (Σ16PAHs) in sediment were 11.0˜249.6 ng·g-1 dry weight (dw), with a mean value of 89.9 ng·g-1 dry weight (dw). From the point of the spatial distribution, high PAHs levels were found in the western areas of Liaodong Bay. In the paper, sources of PAHs were investigated by diagnostic ratios, which indicated that pyrogenic sources were the main sources of PAHs in the sediment of Liaodong Bay. Therefore, selected PAH levels in sediments were compared with Sediments Quality Guidelines (ERM-ERL indexes) for evaluation probable toxic effects on marine organism.

  6. Dynamics of Cohesive Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Claus

    The present thesis considers the transport processes of cohesive sediments. The cohesive sediment used in the laboratory experiments was kaolinite, a clay mineral, in order to be able to reproduce the individual experiments. In the first part of the thesis, the theoretical considerations regarding...

  7. Disease-associated extracellular loop mutations in the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor G1 (ADGRG1; GPR56) differentially regulate downstream signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Ayush; Hall, Randy A

    2017-06-09

    Mutations to the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor ADGRG1 (G1; also known as GPR56) underlie the neurological disorder bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria. Disease-associated mutations in G1 studied to date are believed to induce complete loss of receptor function through disruption of either receptor trafficking or signaling activity. Given that N-terminal truncation of G1 and other adhesion G protein-coupled receptors has been shown to significantly increase the receptors' constitutive signaling, we examined two different bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria-inducing extracellular loop mutations (R565W and L640R) in the context of both full-length and N-terminally truncated (ΔNT) G1. Interestingly, we found that these mutations reduced surface expression of full-length G1 but not G1-ΔNT in HEK-293 cells. Moreover, the mutations ablated receptor-mediated activation of serum response factor luciferase, a classic measure of Gα 12/13 -mediated signaling, but had no effect on G1-mediated signaling to nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) luciferase. Given these differential signaling results, we sought to further elucidate the pathway by which G1 can activate NFAT luciferase. We found no evidence that ΔNT activation of NFAT is dependent on Gα q/11 -mediated or β-arrestin-mediated signaling but rather involves liberation of Gβγ subunits and activation of calcium channels. These findings reveal that disease-associated mutations to the extracellular loops of G1 differentially alter receptor trafficking, depending on the presence of the N terminus, and differentially alter signaling to distinct downstream pathways. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. The Post-periapsis Evolution of Galactic Center Source G1: The Second Case of a Resolved Tidal Interaction with a Supermassive Black Hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witzel, G.; Sitarski, B. N.; Ghez, A. M.; Morris, M. R.; Hees, A.; Do, T.; Naoz, S.; Boehle, A.; Martinez, G.; Chappell, S.; Meyer, L.; Yelda, S.; Becklin, E. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Lu, J. R. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Schödel, R. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomia S/N, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Matthews, K., E-mail: witzel@astro.ucla.edu [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2017-09-20

    We present new adaptive optics (AO) imaging and spectroscopic measurements of Galactic center source G1 from W. M. Keck Observatory. Our goal is to understand its nature and relationship to G2, which is the first example of a spatially resolved object interacting with a supermassive black hole (SMBH). Both objects have been monitored with AO for the past decade (2003–2014) and are comparatively close to the black hole ( a {sub min} ∼ 200–300 au) on very eccentric orbits ( e {sub G1} ∼ 0.99; e {sub G2} ∼ 0.96). While G2 has been tracked before and during periapsis passage ( T {sub 0} ∼ 2014.2), G1 has been followed since soon after emerging from periapsis ( T {sub 0} ∼ 2001.3). Our observations of G1 double the previously reported observational time baseline, which improves its orbital parameter determinations. G1's orbital trajectory appears to be in the same plane as that of G2 but with a significantly different argument of periapsis (Δ ω = 21° ± 4°). This suggests that G1 is an independent object and not part of a gas stream containing G2, as has been proposed. Furthermore, we show for the first time that (1) G1 is extended in the epochs closest to periapsis along the direction of orbital motion, and (2) it becomes significantly smaller over time (450 au in 2004 to less than 170 au in 2009). Based on these observations, G1 appears to be the second example of an object tidally interacting with an SMBH. G1's existence 14 yr after periapsis, along with its compactness in epochs further from the time of periapsis, suggest that this source is stellar in nature.

  9. The Rts1 regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A is required for control of G1 cyclin transcription and nutrient modulation of cell size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Artiles

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The key molecular event that marks entry into the cell cycle is transcription of G1 cyclins, which bind and activate cyclin-dependent kinases. In yeast cells, initiation of G1 cyclin transcription is linked to achievement of a critical cell size, which contributes to cell-size homeostasis. The critical cell size is modulated by nutrients, such that cells growing in poor nutrients are smaller than cells growing in rich nutrients. Nutrient modulation of cell size does not work through known critical regulators of G1 cyclin transcription and is therefore thought to work through a distinct pathway. Here, we report that Rts1, a highly conserved regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A, is required for normal control of G1 cyclin transcription. Loss of Rts1 caused delayed initiation of bud growth and delayed and reduced accumulation of G1 cyclins. Expression of the G1 cyclin CLN2 from an inducible promoter rescued the delayed bud growth in rts1Delta cells, indicating that Rts1 acts at the level of transcription. Moreover, loss of Rts1 caused altered regulation of Swi6, a key component of the SBF transcription factor that controls G1 cyclin transcription. Epistasis analysis revealed that Rts1 does not work solely through several known critical upstream regulators of G1 cyclin transcription. Cells lacking Rts1 failed to undergo nutrient modulation of cell size. Together, these observations demonstrate that Rts1 is a key player in pathways that link nutrient availability, cell size, and G1 cyclin transcription. Since Rts1 is highly conserved, it may function in similar pathways in vertebrates.

  10. Live imaging-based model selection reveals periodic regulation of the stochastic G1/S phase transition in vertebrate axial development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayu Sugiyama

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In multicellular organism development, a stochastic cellular response is observed, even when a population of cells is exposed to the same environmental conditions. Retrieving the spatiotemporal regulatory mode hidden in the heterogeneous cellular behavior is a challenging task. The G1/S transition observed in cell cycle progression is a highly stochastic process. By taking advantage of a fluorescence cell cycle indicator, Fucci technology, we aimed to unveil a hidden regulatory mode of cell cycle progression in developing zebrafish. Fluorescence live imaging of Cecyil, a zebrafish line genetically expressing Fucci, demonstrated that newly formed notochordal cells from the posterior tip of the embryonic mesoderm exhibited the red (G1 fluorescence signal in the developing notochord. Prior to their initial vacuolation, these cells showed a fluorescence color switch from red to green, indicating G1/S transitions. This G1/S transition did not occur in a synchronous manner, but rather exhibited a stochastic process, since a mixed population of red and green cells was always inserted between newly formed red (G1 notochordal cells and vacuolating green cells. We termed this mixed population of notochordal cells, the G1/S transition window. We first performed quantitative analyses of live imaging data and a numerical estimation of the probability of the G1/S transition, which demonstrated the existence of a posteriorly traveling regulatory wave of the G1/S transition window. To obtain a better understanding of this regulatory mode, we constructed a mathematical model and performed a model selection by comparing the results obtained from the models with those from the experimental data. Our analyses demonstrated that the stochastic G1/S transition window in the notochord travels posteriorly in a periodic fashion, with doubled the periodicity of the neighboring paraxial mesoderm segmentation. This approach may have implications for the characterization of

  11. Evolutionary changes in gene expression, coding sequence and copy-number at the Cyp6g1 locus contribute to resistance to multiple insecticides in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W R Harrop

    Full Text Available Widespread use of insecticides has led to insecticide resistance in many populations of insects. In some populations, resistance has evolved to multiple pesticides. In Drosophila melanogaster, resistance to multiple classes of insecticide is due to the overexpression of a single cytochrome P450 gene, Cyp6g1. Overexpression of Cyp6g1 appears to have evolved in parallel in Drosophila simulans, a sibling species of D. melanogaster, where it is also associated with insecticide resistance. However, it is not known whether the ability of the CYP6G1 enzyme to provide resistance to multiple insecticides evolved recently in D. melanogaster or if this function is present in all Drosophila species. Here we show that duplication of the Cyp6g1 gene occurred at least four times during the evolution of different Drosophila species, and the ability of CYP6G1 to confer resistance to multiple insecticides exists in D. melanogaster and D. simulans but not in Drosophila willistoni or Drosophila virilis. In D. virilis, which has multiple copies of Cyp6g1, one copy confers resistance to DDT and another to nitenpyram, suggesting that the divergence of protein sequence between copies subsequent to the duplication affected the activity of the enzyme. All orthologs tested conferred resistance to one or more insecticides, suggesting that CYP6G1 had the capacity to provide resistance to anthropogenic chemicals before they existed. Finally, we show that expression of Cyp6g1 in the Malpighian tubules, which contributes to DDT resistance in D. melanogaster, is specific to the D. melanogaster-D. simulans lineage. Our results suggest that a combination of gene duplication, regulatory changes and protein coding changes has taken place at the Cyp6g1 locus during evolution and this locus may play a role in providing resistance to different environmental toxins in different Drosophila species.

  12. Turn stability in beta-hairpin peptides: Investigation of peptides containing 3:5 type I G1 bulge turns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandl, Tamas; Cochran, Andrea G; Skelton, Nicholas J

    2003-02-01

    The turn-forming ability of a series of three-residue sequences was investigated by substituting them into a well-characterized beta-hairpin peptide. The starting scaffold, bhpW, is a disulfide-cyclized 10-residue peptide that folds into a stable beta-hairpin with two antiparallel strands connected by a two-residue reverse turn. Substitution of the central two residues with the three-residue test sequences leads to less stable hairpins, as judged by thiol-disulfide equilibrium measurements. However, analysis of NMR parameters indicated that each molecule retains a significant folded population, and that the type of turn adopted by the three-residue sequence is the same in all cases. The solution structure of a selected peptide with a PDG turn contained an antiparallel beta-hairpin with a 3:5 type I + G1 bulge turn. Analysis of the energetic contributions of individual turn residues in the series of peptides indicates that substitution effects have significant context dependence, limiting the predictive power of individual amino acid propensities for turn formation. The most stable and least stable sequences were also substituted into a more stable disulfide-cyclized scaffold and a linear beta-hairpin scaffold. The relative stabilities remained the same, suggesting that experimental measurements in the bhpW context are a useful way to evaluate turn stability for use in protein design projects. Moreover, these scaffolds are capable of displaying a diverse set of turns, which can be exploited for the mimicry of protein loops or for generating libraries of reverse turns.

  13. California serogroup GC (G1) glycoprotein is the principal determinant of pH-dependent cell fusion and entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plassmeyer, Matthew L.; Soldan, Samantha S.; Stachelek, Karen M.; Martin-Garcia, Julio; Gonzalez-Scarano, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    Members of the California serogroup of orthobunyaviruses, particularly La Crosse (LAC) and Tahyna (TAH) viruses, are significant human pathogens in areas where their mosquito vectors are endemic. Previous studies using wild-type LAC and TAH181/57, a highly neurovirulent strain with low neuroinvasiveness (Janssen, R., Gonzalez-Scarano, F., Nathanson, N., 1984. Mechanisms of bunyavirus virulence. Comparative pathogenesis of a virulent strain of La Crosse and an avirulent strain of Tahyna virus. Lab. Invest. 50 (4), 447-455), have demonstrated that the neuroinvasive phenotype maps to the M segment, the segment that encodes the two viral glycoproteins GN (G2) and GC (G1), as well as a non-structural protein NSm. To further define the role of GN and GC in fusion and entry, we prepared a panel of recombinant M segment constructs using LAC, TAH181/57, and V22F, a monoclonal-resistant variant of LAC with deficient fusion function. These M segment constructs were then tested in two surrogate assays for virus entry: a cell-to-cell fusion assay based on T7-luciferase expression, and a pseudotype transduction assay based on the incorporation of the bunyavirus glycoproteins on an MLV backbone. Both assays demonstrated that GC is the principal determinant of virus fusion and cell entry, and furthermore that the region delineated by amino acids 860-1442, corresponding to the membrane proximal two-thirds of GC, is key to these processes. These results, coupled with structural modeling suggesting homologies between the carboxy region of GC and Sindbis virus E1, suggest that the LAC GC functions as a type II fusion protein

  14. Stratigraphy and structure of volcanic rocks in drill hole USW-G1, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spengler, R.W.; Byers, F.M. Jr.; Warner, J.B.

    1981-01-01

    Detailed subsurface studies in connection with the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations program are being conducted to investigate the stratigraphic and structural features of volcanic rocks underlying Yucca Mountain, a volcanic highland situated along the western boundary of the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. As part of this continuing effort, drill hole USW-G1 was cored from 292 ft to a depth of 6000 ft from March to August 1980. The stratigraphic section is composed of thick sequences of ash-flow tuff and volcanic breccia interbedded with subordinate amounts of fine- to coarse-grained volcaniclastic rocks. All rocks are of Tertiary age and vary in composition from rhyolite to dacite. The 3005-ft level in the drill hole represents a significant demarcation between unaltered and altered volcanic rocks. For the most part, tuff units above 3005 ft appear devitrified and show little secondary alteration except within tuffaceous beds of Calico Hills, where the rock contains 60 to 80% zeolites. Below 3005 ft, most rocks show intermittent to pervasive alteration to clay minerals and zeolites. Examination of core for structural features revealed the presence of 61 shear fractures, 528 joints, and 4 conspicuous fault zones. Shear fractures mainly occurred in the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff, flow breccia, and near fault zones. Nearly 88% of shear and joint surfaces show evidence of coatings. Approximately 40% of the fractures were categorized as completely healed. Rock quality characteristics as defined by the core index indicate that greater amounts of broken and lost core are commonly associated with (1) the densely welded zone of the Topopah Spring, (2) highly silicified zones, and (3) fault zones

  15. Novel mutation in forkhead box G1 (FOXG1) gene in an Indian patient with Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dhanjit Kumar; Jadhav, Vaishali; Ghattargi, Vikas C; Udani, Vrajesh

    2014-03-15

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by the progressive loss of intellectual functioning, fine and gross motor skills and communicative abilities, deceleration of head growth, and the development of stereotypic hand movements, occurring after a period of normal development. The classic form of RTT involves mutation in MECP2 while the involvement of CDKL5 and FOXG1 genes has been identified in atypical RTT phenotype. FOXG1 gene encodes for a fork-head box protein G1, a transcription factor acting primarily as transcriptional repressor through DNA binding in the embryonic telencephalon as well as a number of other neurodevelopmental processes. In this report we have described the molecular analysis of FOXG1 gene in Indian patients with Rett syndrome. FOXG1 gene mutation analysis was done in a cohort of 34 MECP2/CDKL5 mutation negative RTT patients. We have identified a novel mutation (p. D263VfsX190) in FOXG1 gene in a patient with congenital variant of Rett syndrome. This mutation resulted into a frameshift, thereby causing an alteration in the reading frames of the entire coding sequence downstream of the mutation. The start position of the frameshift (Asp263) and amino acid towards the carboxyl terminal end of the protein was found to be well conserved across species using multiple sequence alignment. Since the mutation is located at forkhead binding domain, the resultant mutation disrupts the secondary structure of the protein making it non-functional. This is the first report from India showing mutation in FOXG1 gene in Rett syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Selumetinib suppresses cell proliferation, migration and trigger apoptosis, G1 arrest in triple-negative breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Lin, Shuchen; Tseng, Kuo-Fu; Han, Kun; Wang, Yaling; Gan, Zhi-Hua; Min, Da-Liu; Hu, Hai-Yan

    2016-10-21

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has aggressive progression with poor prognosis and ineffective treatments. Selumetinib is an allosteric, ATP-noncompetitive inhibitor of MEK1/2, which has benn known as effective antineoplastic drugs for several malignant tumors. We hypothesized that Selumetinib might be potential drug for TNBC and explore the mechanism. After treated with Selumetinib, the viability and mobility of HCC1937 and MDA-MB-231 were detected by MTT, tunnel, wound-healing assay, transwell assay and FCM methods. MiR array was used to analysis the change of miRs. We predicted and verified CUL1 is the target of miR-302a using Luciferase reporter assay. We also silenced the CUL1 by siRNA, to clarify whether CUL1 take part in the cell proliferation, migration and regulated its substrate TIMP1 and TRAF2. Moreover, after transfection, the antagomir of miR-302a and CUL1 over-expressed plasmid into HCC1937 and MDA-MB-231 cell accompanied with the Selumetinib treatment, we detected the proliferation and migration again. Selumetinib reduce the proliferation, migration, triggered apoptosis and G1 arrest in TNBC cell lines. In this process, the miR-302a was up-regulated and inhibited the CUL1 expression. The later negatively regulated the TIMP1 and TRAF2. As soon as we knockdown miR-302a and over-expression CUL1 in TNBC cells, the cytotoxicity of Selumetinib was reversed. MiR-302a targeted regulated the CUL1 expression and mediated the Selumetinib-induced cytotoxicity of triple-negative breast cancer.

  17. A haploid genetic screen identifies the G1/S regulatory machinery as a determinant of Wee1 inhibitor sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijink, Anne Margriet; Blomen, Vincent A; Bisteau, Xavier; Degener, Fabian; Matsushita, Felipe Yu; Kaldis, Philipp; Foijer, Floris; van Vugt, Marcel A T M

    2015-12-08

    The Wee1 cell cycle checkpoint kinase prevents premature mitotic entry by inhibiting cyclin-dependent kinases. Chemical inhibitors of Wee1 are currently being tested clinically as targeted anticancer drugs. Wee1 inhibition is thought to be preferentially cytotoxic in p53-defective cancer cells. However, TP53 mutant cancers do not respond consistently to Wee1 inhibitor treatment, indicating the existence of genetic determinants of Wee1 inhibitor sensitivity other than TP53 status. To optimally facilitate patient selection for Wee1 inhibition and uncover potential resistance mechanisms, identification of these currently unknown genes is necessary. The aim of this study was therefore to identify gene mutations that determine Wee1 inhibitor sensitivity. We performed a genome-wide unbiased functional genetic screen in TP53 mutant near-haploid KBM-7 cells using gene-trap insertional mutagenesis. Insertion site mapping of cells that survived long-term Wee1 inhibition revealed enrichment of G1/S regulatory genes, including SKP2, CUL1, and CDK2. Stable depletion of SKP2, CUL1, or CDK2 or chemical Cdk2 inhibition rescued the γ-H2AX induction and abrogation of G2 phase as induced by Wee1 inhibition in breast and ovarian cancer cell lines. Remarkably, live cell imaging showed that depletion of SKP2, CUL1, or CDK2 did not rescue the Wee1 inhibition-induced karyokinesis and cytokinesis defects. These data indicate that the activity of the DNA replication machinery, beyond TP53 mutation status, determines Wee1 inhibitor sensitivity, and could serve as a selection criterion for Wee1-inhibitor eligible patients. Conversely, loss of the identified S-phase genes could serve as a mechanism of acquired resistance, which goes along with development of severe genomic instability.

  18. Fc receptors for mouse IgG1 on human monocytes: polymorphism and role in antibody-induced T cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tax, W J; Hermes, F F; Willems, R W; Capel, P J; Koene, R A

    1984-09-01

    In previous studies, it was shown that there is polymorphism in the mitogenic effect of mouse IgG1 monoclonal antibodies against the T3 antigen of human T cells. This polymorphism implies that IgG1 anti-T3 antibodies are not mitogenic for T cells from 30% of healthy individuals. The present results demonstrate that this polymorphism is caused by polymorphism of an Fc receptor for mouse IgG1, present on human monocytes. The Fc receptor for murine IgG1 could be detected by a newly developed rosetting assay on monocytes from all individuals responsive to the mitogenic effect of IgG1 anti-T3 antibodies. This Fc receptor was not detectable on monocytes from those individuals exhibiting no mitogenic responses to IgG1 anti-T3 monoclonal antibodies. Cross-linking of T3 antigens appears to be essential for antibody-induced mitosis of T cells, because mononuclear cells that did not proliferate in response to WT 31 (an IgG1 antibody against T3 antigen) showed a proliferative response to Sepharose beads coated with WT 31. The Fc receptor--if functionally present--may be involved in the cross-linking of T3 antigens through anti-T3 antibodies. Further evidence for the involvement of this Fc receptor in antibody-induced T cell proliferation was provided by inhibition studies. Immune complexes containing IgG1 antibodies were able to inhibit the proliferative response to IgG1 anti-T3 antibodies. This inhibition by immune complexes appears to be mediated through the monocyte Fc receptor for mouse IgG1. These findings are important for the interpretation of previously described inhibitory effects of anti-T cell monoclonal antibodies on T cell proliferation, and show that such inhibitory effects may be monocyte-mediated (via immune complexes) rather than caused by a direct involvement of the respective T cell antigens in T cell mitosis. The Fc receptor for mouse IgG1 plays a role in antibody-induced T cell proliferation. Its polymorphism may have important implications for the

  19. G0/G1 Switch Gene 2 controls adipose triglyceride lipase activity and lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Laurens

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Recent data suggest that adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL plays a key role in providing energy substrate from triglyceride pools and that alterations of its expression/activity relate to metabolic disturbances in skeletal muscle. Yet little is known about its regulation. We here investigated the role of the protein G0/G1 Switch Gene 2 (G0S2, recently described as an inhibitor of ATGL in white adipose tissue, in the regulation of lipolysis and oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle. Methods: We first examined G0S2 protein expression in relation to metabolic status and muscle characteristics in humans. We next overexpressed and knocked down G0S2 in human primary myotubes to assess its impact on ATGL activity, lipid turnover and oxidative metabolism, and further knocked down G0S2 in vivo in mouse skeletal muscle. Results: G0S2 protein is increased in skeletal muscle of endurance-trained individuals and correlates with markers of oxidative capacity and lipid content. Recombinant G0S2 protein inhibits ATGL activity by about 40% in lysates of mouse and human skeletal muscle. G0S2 overexpression augments (+49%, p < 0.05 while G0S2 knockdown strongly reduces (−68%, p < 0.001 triglyceride content in human primary myotubes and mouse skeletal muscle. We further show that G0S2 controls lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation in a strictly ATGL-dependent manner. These metabolic adaptations mediated by G0S2 are paralleled by concomitant changes in glucose metabolism through the modulation of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase 4 (PDK4 expression (5.4 fold, p < 0.001. Importantly, downregulation of G0S2 in vivo in mouse skeletal muscle recapitulates changes in lipid metabolism observed in vitro. Conclusion: Collectively, these data indicate that G0S2 plays a key role in the regulation of skeletal muscle ATGL activity, lipid content and oxidative metabolism. Keywords: Lipid metabolism, Skeletal muscle, Lipolysis, Adipose triglyceride lipase

  20. Oleanolic acid induces mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis and G0/G1 phase arrest in gallbladder cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li HF

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Huai-Feng Li,1–3,* Xu-An Wang,1–3,* Shan-Shan Xiang,1–3,* Yun-Ping Hu,1–3 Lin Jiang,1–3 Yi-Jun Shu,1–3 Mao-Lan Li,1–3 Xiang-Song Wu,1–3 Fei Zhang,1–3 Yuan-Yuan Ye,1–3 Hao Weng,1–3 Run-Fa Bao,1–3 Yang Cao,1–3 Wei Lu,1–3 Qian Dong,1–3 Ying-Bin Liu1–3 1Department of General Surgery, 2Laboratory of General Surgery, 3Institute of Biliary Tract Disease, Xinhua Hospital, Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Oleanolic acid (OA, a naturally occurring triterpenoid, exhibits potential antitumor activity in many tumor cell lines. Gallbladder carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the biliary tract, and is a highly aggressive tumor with an extremely poor prognosis. Unfortunately, the effects of OA on gallbladder carcinoma are unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of OA on gallbladder cancer cells and the underlying mechanism. The results showed that OA inhibits proliferation of gallbladder cancer cells in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner on MTT and colony formation assay. A flow cytometry assay revealed apoptosis and G0/G1 phase arrest in GBC-SD and NOZ cells. Western blot analysis and a mitochondrial membrane potential assay demonstrated that OA functions through the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Moreover, this drug inhibited tumor growth in nude mice carrying subcutaneous NOZ tumor xenografts. These data suggest that OA inhibits proliferation of gallbladder cancer cells by regulating apoptosis and the cell cycle process. Thus, OA may be a promising drug for adjuvant chemotherapy in gallbladder carcinoma. Keywords: oleanolic acid, gallbladder carcinoma, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, mitochondrial pathway

  1. Genetic diversity and phylogeography of highly zoonotic Echinococcus granulosus genotype G1 in the Americas (Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico) based on 8279bp of mtDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurimäe, Teivi; Kinkar, Liina; Andresiuk, Vanessa; Haag, Karen Luisa; Ponce-Gordo, Francisco; Acosta-Jamett, Gerardo; Garate, Teresa; Gonzàlez, Luis Miguel; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-11-01

    Echinococcus granulosus is a taeniid cestode and the etiological agent of an infectious zoonotic disease known as cystic echinococcosis (CE) or hydatid disease. CE is a serious public health concern in many parts of the world, including the Americas, where it is highly endemic in many regions. Echinococcus granulosus displays high intraspecific genetic variability and is divided into multiple genotypes (G1-G8, G10) with differences in their biology and etiology. Of these, genotype G1 is responsible for the majority of human and livestock infections and has the broadest host spectrum. However, despite the high significance to the public and livestock health, the data on genetic variability and regional genetic differences of genotype G1 in America are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability and phylogeography of G1 in several countries in America by sequencing a large portion of the mitochondrial genome. We analysed 8279bp of mtDNA for 52 E. granulosus G1 samples from sheep, cattle and pigs collected in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico, covering majority of countries in the Americas where G1 has been reported. The phylogenetic network revealed 29 haplotypes and a high haplotype diversity (Hd=0.903). The absence of phylogeographic segregation between different regions in America suggests the importance of animal transportation in shaping the genetic structure of E. granulosus G1. In addition, our study revealed many highly divergent haplotypes, indicating a long and complex evolutionary history of E. granulosus G1 in the Americas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Nucleotide mismatches between the VP7 gene and the primer are associated with genotyping failure of a specific lineage from G1 rotavirus strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinola Emilio E

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years it was reported that the accumulation of point mutations in VP4 and VP7 genes of rotavirus strains was the main cause of the failure of the G or P-typing. Failures in the correct genotyping of G1, G2, G8, G9 and G10 rotavirus strains were reported in the most commonly used reverse transcription (RT-PCR strategies. Collecting VP7 gene sequences of G1 rotavirus strains from databases we found that 74 (61.2 % out of 121 G1 strains from lineage I showed the four specific mismatches at the 5' end of the 9T1-1 primer, previously associated with the failure of G1-typing. Thus, a great percentage of the G1 strains from lineage I worldwide reported could not have been typed if the Das's RT-PCR strategy were used. This analysis shows that the failure on the detection of the G1 strains could be due to the diversification of rotavirus strains in phylogenetic lineages. Therefore, the use of different RT-PCR strategies with different primer binding locations on the VP7 gene or new typing methodologies -like microarrays procedures- could be a better option to avoid the failure of the G-typing of rotavirus strains detected during surveillance programs.

  3. The phosphorus content of fluvial sediment in rural and industrialized river basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Philip N; Walling, Desmond E

    2002-02-01

    The phosphorus content of fluvial sediment (suspended sediment and the sediment) has been examined in contrasting rural (moorland and agricultural) and industrialized catchments in Yorkshire, UK. The River Swale drains a rural catchment with no major urban and industrial areas, and the total phosphorus (TP) content of fluvial sediment is generally within the range 500-1,500 microg g(-1). There is little evidence of any major downstream increase in TP content. In contrast, fluvial sediment from the industrialized catchments of the Rivers Aire and Calder exhibits both higher levels of TP content and marked downstream increases, with values of TP content ranging from 7,000 microg g(-1) at downstream sites. These elevated levels reflect P inputs from point sources, such as sewage treatment works (STWs) and combined sewer overflows. The influence of STWs is further demonstrated by the downstream increase in the inorganic P/organic P ratio from 4 in the lower reaches. Comparison of the P content of suspended sediment with that of the sediment and both discharge and suspended sediment concentration, reflecting changes in sediment and P sources during high flow events. Spatial variations in the P contents of the sediment evidence a similar pattern as those for suspended sediment, with relatively low levels of TP in the River Swale and elevated levels in the middle and downstream reaches of the Rivers Aire and Calder. The PP concentrations associated with floodplain and channel bed sediment are, however, lower than equivalent values for suspended sediment, and this primarily reflects the differences in the particle size composition between the three types of sediments. Rates of floodplain deposition and the amounts of fine-grained sediment stored in the river channels are relatively high, and suggest that such environments may represent important sinks for PP. Based on the sediment samples collected from the study basins, a simple four-fold classification which relates the

  4. Oil use of the effluent plant ETEO (Effluent Station of Oil Treatment) as combustible for generation of energy in the power plant UG-50Hz; Utulizacao de oleo da ETEO (Estacao de Tratamento de Efluentes Oleosos) para geracao de energia na UG-50Hz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jose Francisco de; Nascimento, Jose Maria do; Silva, Luiz Antonio da; Salazar, Marcos Vinicios; Baptista, Reinaldo Lopes; Barros, Sueli Aguiar [Companhia Siderurgica Nacional (CSN), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-11-01

    The areas of finishing products of CSN Steel Plant generate contaminated effluents with oil and grease , that are treated in ETEO (Effluent Station of Oil Treatment). In this plant, the oil is processed to be sold for the consuming market. However, some seasons of the year, the market does not absorb the oil, and CSN is obliged to defray the burning of this oil, to not interrupt the productive process and cause an environmental impact. Because of this situation, we search alternatives for the viable use of this oil inside CSN steel plant, taking care for the security of the processes and the impact to the environment. This paper describes the details of the work and the implantation of the burning of this oil of the ETEO with BPF oil (type of petrochemical oil) as combustible in the boiler 7 of the power plant UG 50 Hz. For the implantation of this project, operational contingencies of security for equipment was prepared . Moreover, the work included chemical analyses of the oil and the conditions of the boiler using this mixing of oils. The reached results demonstrate the total viability of this project and it was proved another alternative of the use of this residue, with reduction of the fuel costs , steam costs and the electric energy generated in the power plant of CSN. (author)

  5. Spatial distributions and temporal trends in polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Detroit River suspended sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin, Chris; Waltho, Jasmine; Jia, Julia; Burniston, Debbie

    2013-05-01

    Suspended sediments from the Detroit River were collected using sediment traps at sites ranging from western Lake Erie to southern Lake St. Clair to assess spatial distributions and temporal trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The distribution of PBDEs in suspended sediments in the Detroit River appeared influenced by shoreline-based contemporary urban and industrial activities, which stood in contrast to PCBs that were associated with areas of historic industrial activity. Temporal trend data indicate that total PBDE concentrations decreased in the period after 2000 in response to cessation of production of the penta- and octa BDE formulations. Concentrations of total PBDEs ranged from roughly 7 ng g(-1) (4 ng g(-1) BDE 209) in southern Lake St. Clair to several hundred ng g(-1) (60-180 ng g(-1) BDE 209) in the lower reaches of the Detroit River. The widespread occurrence of PBDEs in Detroit River suspended sediments suggests that large urban areas can act as diffuse sources of these chemicals that are used in modern industrial applications and consumer products. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sediment Resuspension Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The full report on sediment resuspension in drinking water storage tanks and a link to an animation of results. This dataset is associated with the following...

  7. Sediments and aquatic indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Determinations of 90 Sr, certain gamma emitting nuclides and 239,240 Pu in bottom sediment in the Baltic Sea area and in sedimenting material and biota near the Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power stations were continued in 1984 and 1985. In the bottom sediments of the deep Baltic basins, the total amounts of 90 Sr, 137 Cs and Pu were 8.5-80 Bq m -2 , 83-3200 Bq m -2 and 4.7-190 Bq m -2 , respectively. The ranges were about the same as in the earlier reports 1,2 . In sedimenting material and biota the conentrations of 90 Sr and 239,240 Pu were roughly the same as in 1983. The amounts and selection of reactor originated activation products were not changed in the vicinity of the two nuclear power stations. Small amounts of 137 Cs and 134 Cs released from the Loviisa nuclear power station were detected in 1985

  8. Offshore Surficial Sediment

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This data layer (PAC_EXT.txt and PAC_PRS.txt) represents two of five point coverages of known sediment samples, inspections, and probes from the usSEABED data...

  9. Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in riverine and marine sediments of the Laizhou Bay area, North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Xiaohui; Tang Jianhui; Chen Yingjun; Li Jun; Zhang Gan

    2011-01-01

    PCN congeners were analyzed in marine and riverine sediments of the Laizhou Bay area, North China. Concentrations of PCNs ranged from 0.12 to 5.1 ng g -1 dry weight (dw) with a mean value of 1.1 ng g -1 dw. The levels of PCNs varied largely, with industrial group approximately ten folds higher than those of the rural in riverine sediment. A strong impact by direct discharge from local factories was suggested. Similar compositional profiles were found within groups. High resemblance of compositional profiles between industrial samples and Halowax 1014 was observed. It was indicated that PCNs in riverine sediments were mainly from release of industrial usage, with additional contributions from industrial thermal process at certain sites. In marine sediments, it was suggested that PCNs along the coast of Laizhou Bay were mainly controlled by riverine input. While in the central bay, PCN distributions were possibly impacted by combined multiple factors. - Highlights: → We investigated the PCN levels both in the riverine and marine surface sediments of Laizhou Bay. → PCN concentrations in the river sediments of industrial group were ten times higher than in the rural group. → Leakage from industrial materials and thermal processes were the major sources. → PCNs in the coastal sites were more influenced by the river discharge. → In the centre bay, PCN distributions were possibly impacted by combined multiple factors. - A systematic sampling of riverine and marine sediments was conducted in Laizhou Bay area to investigate the distribution and possible sources of PCNs.

  10. Underwater Sediment Sampling Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    impacted sediments was found to be directly related to the concentration of crude oil detected in the sediment pore waters . Applying this mathematical...Kurt.A.Hansen@uscg.mil. 16. Abstract (MAXIMUM 200 WORDS ) The USCG R&D Center sought to develop a bench top system to determine the amount of total...scattered. The approach here is to sample the interstitial water between the grains of sand and attempt to determine the amount of oil in and on

  11. Syntheses and modulations in the chromatin contents of histones H1/sup o/ and H1 during G1 and S phases in Chinese hamsters cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Anna, J.A.; Gurley, L.R.; Tobey, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Flow cytometry, conventional autoradiography, and autoradiography employing high concentrations of high specific activity [ 3 H]thymidine indicate that (1) treatment of Chinese hamster ovary (line CHO) cells with butyrate truly blocks cells in G 1 and (2) cells blocked in G 1 by isoleucine deprivation remain blocked in G 1 when they are released into complete medium containing butyrate. Measurements of H1/sup o/ content relative to core histones and H1/sup o/:H1 ratios indicate that H1/sup o/ is enhanced somewhat in G 1 cells arrested by isoleucine deprivation; however, (1) treatment with butyrate greatly increases the H1/sup o/ content in G 1 -blocked cells, and (2) the enhancement is very sensitive to butyrate concentration. Measurements of relative histone contents in the isolated chromatin of synchronized cultures also suggest that the acid-soluble content of histone H1 (relative to core histones) becomes greatly depleted in the isolated chromatin when synchronized cells are blocked in early S phase by sequential use of isoleucine deprivation and hydroxyurea blockade. We also have measured [ 3 H]lysine incorporation, various protein ratios, and relative rates of deposition of newly synthesized H1/sup o/, H1, and H4 onto chromatin during G 1 and S in the absence of butyrate. The results suggest a dynamic picture of chromatin organization in which (1) newly synthesized histone H1/sup o/ binds to chromatin during traverse of G 1 and S phases and (2) histone H1 dissociates from (or becomes loosely bound to) chromatin during prolonged early S-phase block with hydroxyurea

  12. Accelerated Rates of Nitrogen Cycling and N2O Production in Salt Marsh Sediments due to Long-Term Fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, X.; Ji, Q.; Angell, J.; Kearns, P.; Bowen, J. L.; Ward, B. B.

    2014-12-01

    Intensified sedimentary production of nitrous oxide (N2O), one of the most potent greenhouse gases, is one of the many possible environmental consequences of elevated nitrogen (N) loading into estuarine ecosystems. This study investigates the response to over 40 years of fertilization of nitrogen removal processes in the sediments of the Great Sippewissett Marsh in Falmouth, MA. Sediment slurries were incubated (1.5 hr) with trace amounts (fertilized sediments (0.89 nmol hr-1 g-1 wet weight) was 30-fold higher than in unfertilized sediments. The ratio of N2O to N2 production was also significantly higher in fertilized sediments (2.9%) than in unfertilized sediments (1.2%). This highlights the disproportionally large effect of long-term fertilization on N2O production in salt marsh sediments. The reduced oxygen level and higher ammonium concentrations in situ probably contributed to the significant rise in N2O production as a result of long-term fertilization. When detected, anammox and coupled nitrification-denitrification accounted for 10% and 14% of the total N2 production in fertilized sediments (30.5 nmol hr-1 g-1 wet weight), respectively, whereas neither was detected in unfertilized sediments. Thus these experiments indicate that N loading has important effects on multiple N cycle processes that result in N loss and N2O production.

  13. Ultrasound assisted mercury extraction from soil and sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collasiol, Andre; Pozebon, Dirce; Maia, Sandra M.

    2004-01-01

    A method for mercury (Hg) determination in soil, river sediment and marine sediment without sample digestion is investigated. Mercury determination is performed by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS) using a flow injection system. Mercury quantitatively leaches out from the investigated marine sediment into 30% (v/v) HNO 3 assisted by ultrasonic irradiation (during 90-120 s) when sample particles size are ≤120 μm. Similar conditions can be applied for Hg determination in river sediment and soil, excepting the time of sonication which needs to be increased to 180 s and KCl is also added to the extraction medium. The presence of 0.15% (m/v) KCl in addition to 30% (v/v) HNO 3 is seen to be effective for quantitative Hg leaching. The certified samples PACS-2 and MESS-3 (both marine sediment from NRCC), Buffalo River (NIST 8704), Montana Soil (NIST 2710) and the non-certified river sediment sample RS-3 were analysed. The attained results were well within the 95% confidence level of the certificate or close to information value. Samples were analysed using aqueous standard calibration. A characteristic mass of 25 pg, a LOD (3s) of 0.2 μg Hg l -1 and a LOQ (10s) of 0.012 μg Hg g -1 are typically attained. These are based on 800 μl of sample solution and 1.000 g of sample mass in 20 ml. The RSD of 10 consecutive runs of the sample is <5%. The proposed method was finally applied for the determination of Hg in real samples of soil, river sediment and marine sediment. The same samples were also analysed using a digestion method giving similar results

  14. Sediment-water distribution of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in Yangtze River Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Gang; You Chun

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) distribution in water and sediment in Yangtze River Estuary showed that the estuary was a sink for PFOS. Salinity was an important parameter in controlling the sediment-water interactions and the fate or transport of PFOS in the aquatic environment. As the salinity (S per mille ) increased from 0.18 to 3.31, the distribution coefficient (K d ) between sediment and water linearly increased from 0.76 to 4.70 L g -1 . The study suggests that PFOS may be carried with the river water and transported for long distances before it reaches to the sea and largely scavenged to the sediment in the estuaries due to the dramatic change in salinity. - PFOS may be largely scavenged to the sediment in estuaries due to the dramatic change in salinity during its transport from lands to oceans.

  15. Cycling G1 CD34+/CD38+ cells potentiate the motility and engraftment of quiescent G0 CD34+/CD38-/low severe combined immunodeficiency repopulating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, Tamara; Kahn, Joy; Kollet, Orit; Petit, Isabelle; Samira, Sarit; Shivtiel, Shoham; Ben-Hur, Herzl; Peled, Amnon; Piacibello, Wanda; Lapidot, Tsvee

    2005-04-01

    The mechanism of human stem cell expansion ex vivo is not fully understood. Furthermore, little is known about the mechanisms of human stem cell homing/repopulation and the role that differentiating progenitor cells may play in these processes. We report that 2- to 3-day in vitro cytokine stimulation of human cord blood CD34(+)-enriched cells induces the production of short-term repopulating, cycling G1 CD34(+)/CD38(+) cells with increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 secretion as well as increased migration capacity to the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and homing to the bone marrow of irradiated nonobese diabetic severe/combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) mice. These cycling G1 cells enhance SDF-1-mediated in vitro migration and in vivo homing of quiescent G0 CD34(+) cells, which is partially abrogated after inhibition of MMP-2/-9 activity. Moreover, the engraftment potential of quiescent G0 SCID repopulating cells (SRCs) is also increased by the cycling G1 CD34(+)/CD38(+) cells. This effect is significantly abrogated after incubation of cycling G1 cells with a neutralizing anti-CXCR4 antibody. Our data suggest synergistic interactions between accessory cycling G1 CD34(+)/CD38(+) committed progenitor cells and quiescent, primitive G0 CD34(+)/CD38(-/low) SRC/stem cells, the former increasing the motility and engraftment potential of the latter, partly via secretion of MMP-9.

  16. Tracking paraglacial sediment with cosmogenic 10Be using an example from the northwest Scottish Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fame, Michelle L.; Owen, Lewis A.; Spotila, James A.; Dortch, Jason M.; Caffee, Marc W.

    2018-02-01

    Beryllium-10 concentrations in samples of sediment and bedrock from five study sites across the Scottish Highlands trace paraglacial sediment sources and define the nature of glacial erosion for the late Quaternary. Exposure ages derived from 10Be concentrations in ridge and lower elevation bedrock range from 10 to 33 ka, which suggest that polythermal ice and warm based ice were primarily responsible for producing glacial sediment. Comparisons of 10Be concentrations between catchment-wide sediment (2.06 ± 0.34 × 104 to 11.24 ± 1.54 × 104 atoms g-1 SiO2; n = 33), near surface deposits (2.71 ± 0.33 × 104 to 3.48 ± 0.49 × 104 atoms g-1 SiO2; n = 6), 4-m-thick deep till (0.68 × 10410Be atoms g-1 SiO2; n = 1), ridge bedrock (8.93 ± 0.47 × 104 to 34.05 ± 1.66 × 104 atoms g-1 SiO2; n = 20), and lower elevation polished bedrock (6.74 ± 0.67 × 104 to 12.65 ± 0.7 × 104 atoms g-1 SiO2, n = 5) indicate that most sand fluxing through catchments in the Scottish Highlands is sourced from the remobilization and vertical mixing of near surface deposits. These findings indicate that glaciogenic material continues to dominate paraglacial sediment budgets more than 11 ka after deglaciation.

  17. Mercury in litterfall and sediment using elemental and isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen in the mangrove of Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoso, Cynara Pedrosa; Bernini, Elaine; Araújo, Beatriz Ferreira; Almeida, Marcelo Gomes de; Rezende, Carlos Eduardo de

    2018-03-01

    Mercury and elemental and isotopic compositions of carbon and nitrogen were determined in litterfall and sediments from the mangrove of the Paraíba do Sul River, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Total mercury (THg) and monomethylmercury (MMHg) concentrations in sediment ranged from 33 to 123 ng g-1 and 0.20-1.38 ng g-1, respectively. The δ13C in sediment varied from -29.4 to -26.5‰ and from 2.4 to 5.8‰ in δ15N. The THg concentration in litterfall and its annual input to the mangrove was 21 ± 2 ng g-1 and 16 ± 4 μg m-2 for the species Laguncularia racemosa, 18 ± 1 ng g-1 and 17 ± 3 μg m-2 for Rhizophora mangle, and 53 ± 4 ng g-1 and 33 ± 4 μg m-2 for Avicennia germinans, respectively. The isotopic composition of leaf litter ranged from -28.6 to -26.9‰ for δ13C and 4.5-7.2‰ for δ15N. Both the highest annual Hg input via litterfall and highest sediment Hg concentration were observed in areas dominated by A. germinans. These results suggest that the rate of litterfall of plant species and the atmospheric deposition have played an important role in the Hg biogeochemical cycle in the mangrove ecosystem.

  18. Study of cadmium, lead and tin distribution in surface marine sediment samples from Ria de Arousa (NW of Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barciela-Alonso, M.C.; Pazos-Capeans, P.; Regueira-Miguens, M.E.; Bermejo-Barrera, A.; Bermejo-Barrera, P.

    2004-01-01

    In this work a study of the Cd, Pb and Sn content in marine surface sediment from the Ria de Arousa has been realised. For this, 21 sediment samples were taken in triplicate, lyophilised and sieved, and the fraction -1 Cd, 26.5-91.3 μg g -1 Pb and 5.0-20.8 μg g -1 Sn. The highest concentrations of these metals are in the inner part of the Ria, near to the port and urban nucleus such as Vilagarcia or Rianxo, and decrease toward the mouth of the Ria

  19. Emergence of Double- and Triple-Gene Reassortant G1P[8] Rotaviruses Possessing a DS-1-Like Backbone after Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jere, Khuzwayo C; Chaguza, Chrispin; Bar-Zeev, Naor; Lowe, Jenna; Peno, Chikondi; Kumwenda, Benjamin; Nakagomi, Osamu; Tate, Jacqueline E; Parashar, Umesh D; Heyderman, Robert S; French, Neil; Cunliffe, Nigel A; Iturriza-Gomara, Miren

    2018-02-01

    To combat the high burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis, multiple African countries have introduced rotavirus vaccines into their childhood immunization programs. Malawi incorporated a G1P[8] rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix) into its immunization schedule in 2012. Utilizing a surveillance platform of hospitalized rotavirus gastroenteritis cases, we examined the phylodynamics of G1P[8] rotavirus strains that circulated in Malawi before (1998 to 2012) and after (2013 to 2014) vaccine introduction. Analysis of whole genomes obtained through next-generation sequencing revealed that all randomly selected prevaccine G1P[8] strains sequenced ( n = 32) possessed a Wa-like genetic constellation, whereas postvaccine G1P[8] strains ( n = 18) had a DS-1-like constellation. Phylodynamic analyses indicated that postvaccine G1P[8] strains emerged through reassortment events between human Wa- and DS-1-like rotaviruses that circulated in Malawi from the 1990s and hence were classified as atypical DS-1-like reassortants. The time to the most recent common ancestor for G1P[8] strains was from 1981 to 1994; their evolutionary rates ranged from 9.7 × 10 -4 to 4.1 × 10 -3 nucleotide substitutions/site/year. Three distinct G1P[8] lineages chronologically replaced each other between 1998 and 2014. Genetic drift was the likely driver for lineage turnover in 2005, whereas replacement in 2013 was due to reassortment. Amino acid substitution within the outer glycoprotein VP7 of G1P[8] strains had no impact on the structural conformation of the antigenic regions, suggesting that it is unlikely that they would affect recognition by vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies. While the emergence of DS-1-like G1P[8] rotavirus reassortants in Malawi was therefore likely due to natural genotype variation, vaccine effectiveness against such strains needs careful evaluation. IMPORTANCE The error-prone RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and the segmented RNA genome predispose rotaviruses to genetic mutation and

  20. The transcription factor Swi4 is target for PKA regulation of cell size at the G1 to S transition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amigoni, Loredana; Colombo, Sonia; Belotti, Fiorella; Alberghina, Lilia; Martegani, Enzo

    2015-08-03

    To investigate the specific target of PKA in the regulation of cell cycle progression and cell size we developed a new approach using the yeast strain GG104 bearing a deletion in adenylate cyclase gene and permeable to cAMP ( cyr1Δ, pde2Δ, msn2Δ, msn4Δ). In this strain the PKA activity is absent and can be activated by addition of cAMP in the medium, without any other change of the growth conditions. In the present work we show that the activation of PKA by exogenous cAMP in the GG104 strain exponentially growing in glucose medium caused a marked increase of cell size and perturbation of cell cycle with a transient arrest of cells in G1, followed by an accumulation of cells in G2/M phase with a minimal change in the growth rate. Deletion of CLN1 gene, but not of CLN2, abolished the transient G1 phase arrest. Consistently we found that PKA activation caused a transcriptional repression of CLN1 gene. Transcription of CLN1 is controlled by SBF and MBF dual-regulated promoter. We found that also the deletion of SWI4 gene abolished the transient G1 arrest suggesting that Swi4 is a target responsible for PKA modulation of G1/S phase transition. We generated a SWI4 allele mutated in the consensus site for PKA (Swi4(S159A)) and we found that expression of Swi4(S159A) protein in the GG104-Swi4Δ strain did not restore the transient G1 arrest induced by PKA activation, suggesting that Swi4 phosphorylation by PKA regulates CLN1 gene expression and G1/S phase transition.

  1. Cytokinetically quiescent (G0/G1) human multiple myeloma cells are susceptible to simultaneous inhibition of Chk1 and MEK1/2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Xin-Yan; Dai, Yun; Youssefian, Leena E; Chen, Shuang; Bodie, Wesley W; Takabatake, Yukie; Felthousen, Jessica; Almenara, Jorge A; Kramer, Lora B; Dent, Paul; Grant, Steven

    2011-11-10

    Effects of Chk1 and MEK1/2 inhibition were investigated in cytokinetically quiescent multiple myeloma (MM) and primary CD138(+) cells. Coexposure to the Chk1 and MEK1/2 inhibitors AZD7762 and selumetinib (AZD6244) robustly induced apoptosis in various MM cells and CD138(+) primary samples, but spared normal CD138(-) and CD34(+) cells. Furthermore, Chk1/MEK1/2 inhibitor treatment of asynchronized cells induced G(0)/G(1) arrest and increased apoptosis in all cell-cycle phases, including G(0)/G(1). To determine whether this regimen is active against quiescent G(0)/G(1) MM cells, cells were cultured in low-serum medium to enrich the G(0)/G(1) population. G(0)/G(1)-enriched cells exhibited diminished sensitivity to conventional agents (eg, Taxol and VP-16) but significantly increased susceptibility to Chk1 ± MEK1/2 inhibitors or Chk1 shRNA knock-down. These events were associated with increased γH2A.X expression/foci formation and Bim up-regulation, whereas Bim shRNA knock-down markedly attenuated lethality. Immunofluorescent analysis of G(0)/G(1)-enriched or primary MM cells demonstrated colocalization of activated caspase-3 and the quiescent (G(0)) marker statin, a nuclear envelope protein. Finally, Chk1/MEK1/2 inhibition increased cell death in the Hoechst-positive (Hst(+)), low pyronin Y (PY)-staining (2N Hst(+)/PY(-)) G(0) population and in sorted small side-population (SSP) MM cells. These findings provide evidence that cytokinetically quiescent MM cells are highly susceptible to simultaneous Chk1 and MEK1/2 inhibition.

  2. Antifoulant (butyltin and copper) concentrations in sediments from the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, David; Loong, Dominica

    2002-01-01

    Antifoulant concentrations are generally low in the Great Barrier Reef, although ship grounding sites present a previously unidentified significant source of antifoulant pollutants in the Great Barrier Reef. - Antifoulant concentrations were determined in marine sediments collected from commercial harbours, marinas, mooring locations on mid-shelf continental islands, and outer reef sites in four regions within the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area in 1999. Highest copper concentrations were present in sediments collected from commercial harbour sampling sites (28-233 μg Cu g -1 dry wt.). In contrast, copper concentrations in sediments collected from boat mooring sites on mid-shelf continental islands and outer reef sites were at background concentrations (i.e. -1 dry wt.). Butyltin was only detectable in four of the 42 sediments sampled for analysis, and was only present in sediments collected from commercial harbours (18-1275 ng Sn g -1 dry wt.) and from marinas (4-5 ng Sn g -1 dry wt.). The detection of tributyltin at marina sites implies that this antifoulant may continue to be used illegally on the hulls of smaller recreational vessels. Sediment samples were also collected opportunistically from the site of a 22,000 t cargo ship grounding in May 1999 at Heath Reef, in the far northern Great Barrier Reef. Butyltin concentrations were grossly elevated (660-340,000 ng Sn g -1 dry wt.) at the grounding site. The impact of residual antifoulants at large ship grounding sites should be recognised as a significant, long-term environmental problem unless antfoulant clean-up strategies are undertaken

  3. Measurement of the Deuteron Spin Structure Function g_1^d(x) for 1 (GeV/c)^2 < Q^2 < 40 (GeV/c)^2

    OpenAIRE

    E155 Collaboration

    1999-01-01

    New measurements are reported on the deuteron spin structure function g_1^d. These results were obtained from deep inelastic scattering of 48.3 GeV electrons on polarized deuterons in the kinematic range 0.01 < x < 0.9 and 1 < Q^2 < 40 (GeV/c)^2. These are the first high dose electron scattering data obtained using lithium deuteride (6Li2H) as the target material. Extrapolations of the data were performed to obtain moments of g_1^d, including Gamma_1^d, and the net quark polarization Delta Si...

  4. Sediment impacts on marine sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, James J; McGrath, Emily; Biggerstaff, Andrew; Bates, Tracey; Bennett, Holly; Marlow, Joseph; Shaffer, Megan

    2015-05-15

    Changes in sediment input to marine systems can influence benthic environments in many ways. Sponges are important components of benthic ecosystems world-wide and as sessile suspension feeders are likely to be impacted by changes in sediment levels. Despite this, little is known about how sponges respond to changes in settled and suspended sediment. Here we review the known impacts of sedimentation on sponges and their adaptive capabilities, whilst highlighting gaps in our understanding of sediment impacts on sponges. Although the literature clearly shows that sponges are influenced by sediment in a variety of ways, most studies confer that sponges are able to tolerate, and in some cases thrive, in sedimented environments. Critical gaps exist in our understanding of the physiological responses of sponges to sediment, adaptive mechanisms, tolerance limits, and the particularly the effect of sediment on early life history stages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sedimentation problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.T.

    1991-01-01

    Roseires Dam and reservoir are located in Sudan, Africa on the Blue Nile River. The hydropower from the reservoir provides approximately 80% of the power used in Sudan, thus having a tremendous economic impact on the country. The reservoir was first impounded in 1966 and has been filled annually since then. The Blue Nile has historically been known to carry heavy sediment loads which is associated with erosion from overgrazing in Ethiopia, the Blue Nile's headwaters. During the flood season, the dam's turbine intakes become blocked with debris and sediment. After a severe blockage in 1981, which prevented hydropower generation for several days, consultants from USAID were asked to make recommendations on reducing the sediment and debris impacts on reservoir operations. This led to debris clearing and dredging equipment acquisitions in 1982. In 1988, blockage occurred again during the flood season. This writer was asked by the World Bank to travel to Sudan, investigate the sediment and debris problems, examine the USAID recommendations, comment on potential sediment and debris problems associated with a proposed plan to raise the dam, make additional recommendations, and return to Sudan several times to determine the effectiveness of there recommendations. This paper discussed the results of the aforementioned activities and describes the new recommendations made by this writer

  6. The oceanic sediment barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, T.J.G.; Searle, R.C.; Wilson, T.R.S.

    1986-01-01

    Burial within the sediments of the deep ocean floor is one of the options that have been proposed for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. An international research programme is in progress to determine whether oceanic sediments have the requisite properties for this purpose. After summarizing the salient features of this programme, the paper focuses on the Great Meteor East study area in the Northeast Atlantic, where most oceanographic effort has been concentrated. The geological geochemical and geotechnical properties of the sediments in the area are discussed. Measurements designed to determine the rate of pore water movement through the sediment column are described. Our understanding of the chemistry of both the solid and pore-water phases of the sediment are outlined, emphasizing the control that redox conditions have on the mobility of, for example, naturally occurring manganese and uranium. The burial of instrumented free-fall penetrators to depths of 30 m beneath the ocean floor is described, modelling one of the methods by which waste might be emplaced. Finally, the nature of this oceanic environment is compared with geological environments on land and attention is drawn to the gaps in our knowledge that must be filled before oceanic burial can be regarded as an acceptable disposal option. (author)

  7. A survey of antifoulants in sediments from Ports and Marinas along the French Mediterranean coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassi, Roberto; Tolosa, Imma; de Mora, Stephen

    2008-11-01

    Due to deleterious effects on non-target organisms, the use of organotin compounds on boat hulls of small vessels (ports and marinas along the France Mediterranean coastline (Cote d'Azur) and analysed for organotin compounds, Irgarol 1051, Sea-nine 211, Chlorothalonil, Dichlofluanid and Folpet. Every port and marina exhibited high levels of organotin compounds, with concentrations in sediments ranging from 37 ng Sn g(-1) dry wt in Menton Garavan to over 4000 ng Sn g(-1) dry wt close to the ship chandler within the port of Villefranche-sur-Mer. TBT degradation indexes suggested that fresh inputs are still made. Among the other antifoulants monitored, only Irgarol 1051 exhibited measurable concentrations in almost every port, with concentrations ranging from 40 ng g(-1) dry wt (Cannes) to almost 700 ng g(-1) dry wt (Villefranche-sur-Mer, ship chandler).

  8. Petrophysics of Palaeogene sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awadalkarim, Ahmed

    defined and understood this would benefit various areas in petroleum industry. The three studied litholgoies are relatively soft and weak sediments, but they are economically important especially in petroleum industry. Drilling through intervals of shale or siliceous ooze sediments could result in severe...... and very costly borehole instability problems which are closely connected with the "bulk properties" of shale. In practice, the main technological challenge is to keep the borehole sufficiently stable until casing is set. Knowing the real in-situ effective stress is crucial to understand and to predict...... related to borehole stability. This Ph.D. study stressed on the importance of using correct β value in estimation of vertical effective stress especially on deep-sea sediments. To assess the geomechanical stability and the stiffness of the three studied lithologies, their β was found and used to calculate...

  9. Repairability during G 1 phase of inducting lesions of sister chromatid exchange produced by mitomycin C in salivary gland cells of mice In Vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz Vallejo, V.L.

    1991-01-01

    The repairability of the injuries that lead to the formation of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) produced by mitomycin C (MMC) with a dose of 2.1 mg/g in vivo, during the G 1 phase in the first cycle of cellular division (before the incorporation of BrdU [5-bromo-2 deoxyurine] to the DNA), as well as during the G 1 phase of the second cycle of cellular division (after the incorporation of BrdU) were analyzed. A 35.1% decrease in the frequency of SCE produced by Mitomycin C was observed, in the early G 1 phase of the first division, with respect to the frequency of SCE induced in the later G 1 phase. When Mitomycin C is given to cells whose DNA is substituted with BrdU in only one of the chain's filaments such decrease is not observed. The results suggest that the injuries caused by MMC, which give place to the SCE, in cells of the salivary glands of the mouse in vivo, are partially repaired only when induced in DNA which has not been substituted with BrdU. (Author)

  10. Optimization of chromatographic conditions for determination of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 by using liquid chromatography-mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadhaningtyas, Dillani Putri; Aryana, Nurhani; Aristiawan, Yosi; Styarini, Dyah

    2017-11-01

    The optimization of instrument condition and chromatographic separation for analysis of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 using liquid chromatography tandem with mass spectrometer detector was conducted in the aim to provide more accurate and reliable analysis results. The aflatoxin known to be serious threat for human health as it is classified as the carcinogenic compounds. The aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 were selected due to its extensive contamination in various agricultural commodities. The best chromatographic separation was obtained using C-18 column with gradient elution of solvent 5 mM ammonium acetate and 0.1% formic acid in methanol at 7 minutes runtime analysis. The linearity of the detector showed satisfied results as the coefficient determination found to be 0.9994, 0.9996, 0.9998 and 0.9987 for aflatoxin B1, G1, B2, and G2 respectively in the range concentration from 1 to 20 ng/g. The quantifier ion selected for the aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 was m/z 285.1, 259, 243 and 313 respectively. The instrument precision at these quantifier ions also showed satisfied result with %RSD was around 3.4 to 6.8%. The optimized method present in this study can be used for further sample analysis.

  11. Operational behavior of the MAP/G/1 queue under N-policy with a single vacation and set-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Woo Lee

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the MAP/G/1 queue under N-policy with a single vacation and set-up. We derive the vector generating functions of the queue length at an arbitrary time and at departures in decomposed forms. We also derive the Laplace-Stieltjes transform of the waiting time. Computation algorithms for mean performance measures are provided.

  12. Synthesis of protected peptides from the human IgG1 hinge region on PEG support using disulfide bond synthons and alkaline or enzymatic detachment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niederhafner, Petr; Šafařík, Martin; Šebestík, Jaroslav; Gut, Vladimír; Maloň, Petr; Hlaváček, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 6 (2006), s. 1023-1025 ISSN 0040-4039 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/03/1362 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : peptide synthesis * IgG1 hinge peptide * PEG carrier Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.509, year: 2006

  13. Situation analysis of physical independence of the equipment and safety circuits of Almaraz NPP regarding R.G. 1.75 rev.3 (2005)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seijas Portela, S.

    2010-01-01

    Situation analysis of physical independence of the electrical equipment and circuits CN safety Almaraz about R.G. 1.75 rev. 3. (2005) The aim of this paper is to present the work done in the analysis of the physical separation of redundant safety electrical equipment (emergency diesel generators, medium voltage, electrical cabinets, etc.) and physical separation of circuits and electrical conduits.

  14. Physical stability comparisons of IgG1-Fc variants: effects of N-glycosylation site occupancy and Asp/Gln residues at site Asn 297.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsenaidy, Mohammad A; Okbazghi, Solomon Z; Kim, Jae Hyun; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Middaugh, C Russell; Tolbert, Thomas J; Volkin, David B

    2014-06-01

    The structural integrity and conformational stability of various IgG1-Fc proteins produced from the yeast Pichia pastoris with different glycosylation site occupancy (di-, mono-, and nonglycosylated) were determined. In addition, the physical stability profiles of three different forms of nonglycosylated Fc molecules (varying amino-acid residues at site 297 in the CH 2 domain due to the point mutations and enzymatic digestion of the Fc glycoforms) were also examined. The physical stability of these IgG1-Fc glycoproteins was examined as a function of pH and temperature by high-throughput biophysical analysis using multiple techniques combined with data visualization tools (three index empirical phase diagrams and radar charts). Across the pH range of 4.0-6.0, the di- and monoglycosylated forms of the IgG1-Fc showed the highest and lowest levels of physical stability, respectively, with the nonglycosylated forms showing intermediate stability depending on solution pH. In the aglycosylated Fc proteins, the introduction of Asp (D) residues at site 297 (QQ vs. DN vs. DD forms) resulted in more subtle changes in structural integrity and physical stability depending on solution pH. The utility of evaluating the conformational stability profile differences between the various IgG1-Fc glycoproteins is discussed in the context of analytical comparability studies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  15. Characterization of Fusobacterium varium Fv113-g1 isolated from a patient with ulcerative colitis based on complete genome sequence and transcriptome analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Sekizuka

    Full Text Available Fusobacterium spp. present in the oral and gut flora is carcinogenic and is associated with the risk of pancreatic and colorectal cancers. Fusobacterium spp. is also implicated in a broad spectrum of human pathologies, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC. Here we report the complete genome sequence of Fusobacterium varium Fv113-g1 (genome size, 3.96 Mb isolated from a patient with UC. Comparative genome analyses totally suggested that Fv113-g1 is basically assigned as F. varium, in particular, it could be reclassified as notable F. varium subsp. similar to F. ulcerans because of partial shared orthologs. Compared with the genome sequences of F. varium ATCC 27725 (genome size, 3.30 Mb and other strains of Fusobacterium spp., Fv113-g1 possesses many accessary pan-genome sequences with noteworthy multiple virulence factors, including 44 autotransporters (type V secretion system, T5SS and 13 Fusobacterium adhesion (FadA paralogs involved in potential mucosal inflammation. Indeed, transcriptome analysis demonstrated that Fv113-g1-specific accessary genes, such as multiple T5SS and fadA paralogs, showed notably increased expression with D-MEM cultivation than with brain heart infusion broth. This implied that growth condition may enhance the expression of such potential virulence factors, leading to remarkable survival against other gut microorganisms and to the pathogenicity to human intestinal epithelium.

  16. An Analytical Study of the Nonsinglet Spin Structure Function g1NS(x,t) Up to NLO in the DGLAP Approach at Small x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borah, Neelakshi N. K.; Choudhury, D. K.

    2014-01-01

    A next-to-leading order QCD calculation of nonsinglet spin structure function g 1 NS (x,t) at small x is presented using the analytical methods: Lagrange’s method and method of characteristics. The compatibility of these analytical approaches is tested by comparing the analytical solutions with the available polarized global fits

  17. High-resolution phylogeography of zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto genotype G1 with an emphasis on its distribution in Turkey, Italy and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkar, Liina; Laurimäe, Teivi; Simsek, Sami; Balkaya, Ibrahim; Casulli, Adriano; Manfredi, Maria Teresa; Ponce-Gordo, Francisco; Varcasia, Antonio; Lavikainen, Antti; González, Luis Miguel; Rehbein, Steffen; VAN DER Giessen, Joke; Sprong, Hein; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-11-01

    Echinococcus granulosus is the causative agent of cystic echinococcosis. The disease is a significant global public health concern and human infections are most commonly associated with E. granulosus sensu stricto (s. s.) genotype G1. The objectives of this study were to: (i) analyse the genetic variation and phylogeography of E. granulosus s. s. G1 in part of its main distribution range in Europe using 8274 bp of mtDNA; (ii) compare the results with those derived from previously used shorter mtDNA sequences and highlight the major differences. We sequenced a total of 91 E. granulosus s. s. G1 isolates from six different intermediate host species, including humans. The isolates originated from seven countries representing primarily Turkey, Italy and Spain. Few samples were also from Albania, Greece, Romania and from a patient originating from Algeria, but diagnosed in Finland. The analysed 91 sequences were divided into 83 haplotypes, revealing complex phylogeography and high genetic variation of E. granulosus s. s. G1 in Europe, particularly in the high-diversity domestication centre of western Asia. Comparisons with shorter mtDNA datasets revealed that 8274 bp sequences provided significantly higher phylogenetic resolution and thus more power to reveal the genetic relations between different haplotypes.

  18. Ethanol extract of Kilkyung-baeksan, a traditional herbal formula, induces G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in human lung cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhee Kim

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: EE-KKBS exerted its cytostatic activity through regulating G1 cell cycle checkpoint in lung cancer cells, and this activity is mainly mediated by one of its component herbs, seeds of Croton tiglium. Collectively, our data suggest that EE-KKBS could be a novel candidate for adjuvant therapy for lung cancer.

  19. X-ray induction of 6-thioguanine-resistant mutants in division arrested, G0/G1 phase Chinese hamster ovary cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, J.P.; Flint, K.B.

    The cytotoxic and mutagenic effect of X-irradiation was determined with Chinese hamster ovary cells arrested in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle through 9 days incubation in serum-free medium. In comparison with exponential phase cultures, the arrested cells showed increased cytotoxicity and mutation induction over the dose range of 50-800 rad. Exponential cultures showed a linear mutant frequency-survival relationship while the arrested cells showed a biphasic linear relationship. A post irradiation holding period 24 h does not result in any change in the mutant frequency. The increased sensitivity of the arrested cells to the mutagenic effects of X-rays appears to be a cell-cycle phase phenomenon. Upon readdition of serum, the arrested cells re-enter the cell cycle in a synchronous manner, reaching S phase at 10-12 h. Cells irradiated at 5 h after serum addition, i.e. in G1, show a similar dose response for mutant frequency, while those irradiated at 10 h or later, i.e. in late G1, S or G2, show lower mutation induction. These observations are consistent with a chromosome interchange mechanism of mutation induction by X-rays, possibly through interactions between repairing regions of the DNA. Irradiation of cells in the G0/G1 phase allow more time for such interactions in the absence of semiconservative DNA replication. (orig.).

  20. 11 CFR 105.1 - Place of filing; House candidates and their authorized committees (2 U.S.C. 432(g)(1)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Place of filing; House candidates and their authorized committees (2 U.S.C. 432(g)(1)). 105.1 Section 105.1 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL DOCUMENT FILING (2 U.S.C. 432(g)) § 105.1 Place of filing; House candidates and their authorized...

  1. MiR-7 triggers cell cycle arrest at the G1/S transition by targeting multiple genes including Skp2 and Psme3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Sanchez

    Full Text Available MiR-7 acts as a tumour suppressor in many cancers and abrogates proliferation of CHO cells in culture. In this study we demonstrate that miR-7 targets key regulators of the G1 to S phase transition, including Skp2 and Psme3, to promote increased levels of p27(KIP and temporary growth arrest of CHO cells in the G1 phase. Simultaneously, the down-regulation of DNA repair-specific proteins via miR-7 including Rad54L, and pro-apoptotic regulators such as p53, combined with the up-regulation of anti-apoptotic factors like p-Akt, promoted cell survival while arrested in G1. Thus miR-7 can co-ordinate the levels of multiple genes and proteins to influence G1 to S phase transition and the apoptotic response in order to maintain cellular homeostasis. This work provides further mechanistic insight into the role of miR-7 as a regulator of cell growth in times of cellular stress.

  2. Regulation of the G1/S Transition in Hepatocytes: Involvement of the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Cdk1 in the DNA Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Corlu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A singular feature of adult differentiated hepatocytes is their capacity to proliferate allowing liver regeneration. This review emphasizes the literature published over the last 20 years that established the most important pathways regulating the hepatocyte cell cycle. Our article also aimed at illustrating that many discoveries in this field benefited from the combined use of in vivo models of liver regeneration and in vitro models of primary cultures of human and rodent hepatocytes. Using these models, our laboratory has contributed to decipher the different steps of the progression into the G1 phase and the commitment to S phase of proliferating hepatocytes. We identified the mitogen dependent restriction point located at the two-thirds of the G1 phase and the concomitant expression and activation of both Cdk1 and Cdk2 at the G1/S transition. Furthermore, we demonstrated that these two Cdks contribute to the DNA replication. Finally, we provided strong evidences that Cdk1 expression and activation is correlated to extracellular matrix degradation upon stimulation by the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα leading to the identification of a new signaling pathway regulating Cdk1 expression at the G1/S transition. It also further confirms the well-orchestrated regulation of liver regeneration via multiple extracellular signals and pathways.

  3. The distribution of plutonium, americium and curium isotopes in pond and stream sediments of the Savannah River Plant, South Carolina, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberts, J.J.; Halverson, J.E.; Orlandini, K.A.

    1986-01-01

    The concentrations of 238 Pu, 239 , 240 Pu, 241 Am and 244 Cm were determined in sediment samples from five streams and two ponds on the Savannah River Plant (SRP) and in four sediment samples from the Savannah River above and below the plant site. The following concentration ranges were determined: 238 Pu, 0.07-386 fCi g -1 ; 239 , 240 Pu, 0.37-1410 fCi g -1 ; 241 Am, 0.1-4360 fCi g -1 ; 244 Cm, -1 . Comparisons of the elemental and isotopic ratios of the sediments show that the majority of the sediments studied have been impacted upon by plant operations and that sediments outside the plant boundary in the Savannah River have only been influenced by aerial releases. Atom ratios of 240 Pu/ 239 Pu indicate that up to 86% of the Pu in these sediments is derived from plant operations. However, comparisons of the concentration data with values for other impacted sediments near nuclear facilities indicate that the levels are relatively small. Finally, <13% of the Pu, Am or Cm in pond sediments is associated with humic or fulvic acids, indicating that little of the material should be remobilized in oxic environments through organic complexation. (author)

  4. Soft-sediment mullions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortner, Hugo

    2015-04-01

    In this contribution I describe the appearance, formation and significance of soft-sediment mullions. I use several examples from synorogenic turbidites of the Alps and the Pyrenees to show their appearance in the field. Soft-sediment mullions are elongate, slightly irregular bulges at the base of coarse-grained clastic beds (sand to conglomerate), separated by narrow, elongate flames of fine-grained material (mud) protruding into the coarse-grained bed. Various processes may lead to the formation of such structures: (1) longitudinal furrows parallel to the sediment transport direction may form by spiral motion in flow rolls during sediment transport (Dzulinski, 1966; Dzulinski & Simpson, 1966). (2) Loading combined with downslope movement can produce elongate structures parallelling the dowslope direction (Anketell et al., 1970). (3) Soft-sediment mullions are oriented perpendicular or oblique to the downslope direction, and show evidence of bedding-parallel shortening. Thus, they resemble cuspate-lobate folds or mullions, which are well-known in ductile structural geology (e.g. Urai et al., 2001). Soft-sediment mullions have been observed in two cases: Either bedding-parallel shortening can be achieved by slump processes, or by active tectonic shortening. Slumping is characterized by an alternation of stretching and shortening (e.g. Ortner, 2007; Alsop & Marco 2014), and therefore mullions do overprint or are overprinted by normal faults. In active depositional systems that are subject to tectonic shortening growth strata will form, but sediments already deposited will be shortened during lithification. In some cases, the formation of soft-sediment mullions predates folding, but the most widespread expression of syn-lithification shortening seems to be soft-sediment mullions, that form in the inner arcs of fold hinges. In the examples documented so far, the size of soft-sediment mullions is dependent on the grain-size of the coarse-grained layer, in which the

  5. Quantifying trail erosion and stream sedimentation with sediment tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark S. Riedel

    2006-01-01

    Abstract--The impacts of forest disturbance and roads on stream sedimentation have been rigorously investigated and documented. While historical research on turbidity and suspended sediments has been thorough, studies of stream bed sedimentation have typically relied on semi-quantitative measures such as embeddedness or marginal pool depth. To directly quantify the...

  6. Are styrene oligomers in coastal sediments of an industrial area aryl hydrocarbon-receptor agonists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seongjin; Lee, Junghyun; Lee, Changkeun; Yoon, Seo Joon; Jeon, Seungyeon; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Giesy, John P; Khim, Jong Seong

    2016-06-01

    Effect-directed analysis (EDA) was performed to identify the major aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists in sediments collected from a highly industrialized area (Lake Shihwa, Korea). Great AhR-mediated potencies were found in fractions containing aromatic compounds with log Kow values of 5-8, and relatively great concentrations of styrene oligomers (SOs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected in those fractions. Until now, there was little information on occurrences and toxic relative potencies (RePs) of SOs in coastal environments. In the present study; i) distributions and compositions, ii) AhR binding affinities, and iii) contributions of SOs to total AhR-mediated potencies were determined in coastal sediments. Elevated concentrations of 10 SOs were detected in sediments of inland creeks ranging from 61 to 740 ng g(-1) dry mass (dm), while lesser concentrations were found in inner (mean = 33 ng g(-1) dm) and outer regions (mean = 25 ng g(-1) dm) of the lake. Concentrations of PAHs in sediments were comparable to those of SOs. 2,4-diphenyl-1-butene (SD3) was the predominant SO analogue in sediments. SOs and PAHs were accumulated in sediments near sources, and could not be transported to remote regions due to their hydrophobicity. RePs of 3 SOs could be derived, which were 1000- to 10,000-fold less than that of one representative potent AhR active PAH, benzo[a]pyrene. Although concentrations of SOs in sediments were comparable to those of PAHs, the collective contribution of SOs to total AhR-mediated potencies were rather small (coastal environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. PAHs concentration and toxicity in organic solvent extracts of atmospheric particulate matter and sea sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Noriatsu; Takeuchi, Shin-ya; Kojima, Keisuke; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Komatsu, Toshiko; Fukushima, Takehiko

    2012-01-01

    The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the toxicity to marine bacteria (Vibrio fischeri) were measured for the organic solvent extracts of sea sediments collected from an urban watershed area (Hiroshima Bay) of Japan and compared with the concentrations and toxicity of atmospheric particulate matter (PM). In atmospheric PM, the PAHs concentration was highest in fine particulate matter (FPM) collected during cold seasons. The concentrations of sea sediments were 0.01-0.001 times those of atmospheric PM. 1/EC50 was 1-10 L g(-1) PM for atmospheric PM and 0.1-1 L g(-1) dry solids for sea sediments. These results imply that toxic substances from atmospheric PM are diluted several tens or hundreds of times in sea sediments. The ratio of the 1/EC50 to PAHs concentration ((1/EC50)/16PAHs) was stable for all sea sediments (0.1-1 L μg(-1) 16PAHs) and was the same order of magnitude as that of FPM and coarse particulate matter (CPM). The ratio of sediments collected from the west was more similar to that of CPM while that from the east was more similar to FPM, possibly because of hydraulic differences among water bodies. The PAHs concentration pattern analyses (principal component analysis and isomer ratio analysis) were conducted and the results showed that the PAHs pattern in sea sediments was quite different to that of FPM and CPM. Comparison with previously conducted PAHs analyses suggested that biomass burning residues comprised a major portion of these other sources.

  8. Direct determination of platinum group elements and their distributions in geological and environmental samples at the ng g(-1) level using LA-ICP-IDMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulyga, Sergei F; Heumann, Klaus G

    2005-10-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma isotope dilution mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-IDMS) was applied to the direct and simultaneous determination of the platinum group elements (PGEs) Pt, Pd, Ru, and Ir in geological and environmental samples. A special laser ablation system with high ablation rates was used, along with sector field ICP-MS. Special attention was paid to deriving the distributions of PGEs in the pulverized samples. IDMS could not be applied to the (mono-isotopic) Rh, but the similar ablation behavior of Ru and Rh allowed Rh to be simultaneously determined via relative sensitivity coefficients. The laser ablation process produces hardly any oxide ions (which usually cause interference in PGE analysis with liquid sample injection), so the ICP-MS can be run in its low mass resolution but high-sensitivity mode. The detection limits obtained for the geological samples were 0.16 ng g(-1), 0.14 ng g(-1), 0.08 ng g(-1), 0.01 ng g(-1) and 0.06 ng g(-1) for Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir and Pt, respectively. LA-ICP-IDMS was applied to different geological reference materials (TDB-1, WGB-1, UMT-1, WMG-1, SARM-7) and the road dust reference material BCR-723, which are only certified for some of the PGEs. Comparisons with certified values as well as with indicative values from the literature demonstrated the validity of the LA-ICP-IDMS method. The PGE concentrations in subsamples of the road dust reference material correspond to a normal distribution, whereas the distributions in the geological reference materials TDB-1, WGB-1, UMT-1, WMG-1, and SARM-7 are more complex. For example, in the case of Ru, a logarithmic normal distribution best fits the analyzed concentrations in TDB-1 subsamples, whereas a pronounced nugget effect was found for Pt in most geological samples.

  9. Neisseria meningitidis Group A IgG1 and IgG2 Subclass Immune Response in African Children Aged 12–23 Months Following Meningococcal Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Daniel; Findlow, Helen; Sow, Samba O.; Idoko, Olubukola T.; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; Carlone, George; Plikaytis, Brian D.; Borrow, Ray

    2015-01-01

    Background. A group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, PsA-TT, was licensed in 2010 and was previously studied in a phase 2 clinical trial to evaluate its safety and immunogenicity in African children 12–23 months of age. Methods. Subjects received either PsA-TT; meningococcal group A, C, W, Y polysaccharide vaccine (PsACWY); or Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (Hib-TT). Forty weeks following primary vaccination, the 3 groups were further randomized to receive either PsA-TT, one-fifth dose of PsACWY, or Hib-TT. Group A–specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass response was characterized using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. The predominant IgG subclass response, regardless of vaccine, was IgG1. One month following primary vaccination, the geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of IgG1 and IgG2 in the PsA-TT group were 21.73 µg/mL and 6.27 µg/mL, whereas in the PsACWY group the mean GMCs were 2.01 µg/mL and 0.97 µg/mL, respectively (P Group A–specific IgG1 and IgG2 GMCs remained greater in the PsA-TT group than in the PsACWY group 40 weeks following primary vaccination (P vaccines. Conclusions. Vaccination of African children aged 12–24 months with either PsA-TT or PsACWY elicited a predominantly IgG1 response. The IgG1:IgG2 mean ratio decreased following successive vaccination with PsACWY, indicating a shift toward IgG2, suggestive of the T-cell–independent immune response commonly associated with polysaccharide antigens. Clinical Trials Registration. SRCTN78147026. PMID:26553689

  10. Genetic characterization of human hydatid cysts shows coinfection by Echinococcus canadensis G7 and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto G1 in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debiaggi, María Florencia; Soriano, Silvia Viviana; Pierangeli, Nora Beatriz; Lazzarini, Lorena Evelina; Pianciola, Luis Alfredo; Mazzeo, Melina Leonor; Moguillansky, Sergio; Farjat, Juan Angel Basualdo

    2017-09-01

    Human cystic echinococcosis caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a highly endemic disease in the province of Neuquén, Patagonia, Argentina. Human infections with E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) G1 and Echinococcus canadensis G6 were reported in Neuquén in previous studies, whereas four genotypes were identified in livestock: G1, G3, G6, and G7. The aim of this study was to identify the genotypes of E. granulosus s.l. isolates from humans of Neuquén province, Patagonia, Argentina, through the 2005-2014 period. Twenty six hydatid cysts were obtained from 21 patients. The most frequent locations were the liver and lungs. Single cysts were observed in 81.0% of patients, and combined infection of liver and lungs was detected in 9.5% of cases. Partial sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) genes identified the presence of E. granulosus s.s. G1 (n = 11; 42.3%) including three different partial sequences; E. canadensis G6 (n = 14; 53.8%) and E. canadensis G7 (n = 1; 3.9%). Coinfection with G1 and G7 genotypes was detected in one patient who harbored three liver cysts. Most of the liver cysts corresponded to G1 and G6 genotypes. This study presents the first report in the Americas of a human infection with E. canadensis G7 and the second worldwide report of a coinfection with two different species and genotypes of E. granulosus s.l in humans. The molecular diversity of this parasite should be considered to redesign or improve the control program strategies in endemic regions.

  11. Inhibition of Rac1 activity induces G1/S phase arrest through the GSK3/cyclin D1 pathway in human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Linna; Zhang, Hongmei; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Wenjuan; Yuan, Juanli; Chen, Xiang; Liu, Juanjuan; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zhipeng

    2014-10-01

    Rac1 has been shown to regulate the cell cycle in cancer cells. Yet, the related mechanism remains unclear. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the mechanism involved in the regulation of G1/S phase transition by Rac1 in cancer cells. Inhibition of Rac1 by inhibitor NSC23766 induced G1/S phase arrest and inhibited the proliferation of A431, SW480 and U2-OS cells. Suppression of GSK3 by shRNA partially rescued G1/S phase arrest and inhibition of proliferation. Incubation of cells with NSC23766 reduced p-AKT and inactivated p-GSK3α and p-GSK3β, increased p-cyclin D1 expression and decreased the level of cyclin D1 protein. Consequently, cyclin D1 targeting transcriptional factor E2F1 expression, which promotes G1 to S phase transition, was also reduced. In contrast, constitutive active Rac1 resulted in increased p-AKT and inactivated p-GSK3α and p-GSK3β, decreased p-cyclin D1 expression and enhanced levels of cyclin D1 and E2F1 expression. Moreover, suppression of GSK3 did not alter p-AKT or Rac1 activity, but decreased p-cyclin D1 and increased total cyclin D1 protein. However, neither Rac1 nor GSK3 inhibition altered cyclin D1 at the RNA level. Moreover, after inhibition of Rac1 or GSK3 following proteasome inhibitor MG132 treatment, cyclin D1 expression at the protein level remained constant, indicating that Rac1 and GSK3 may regulate cyclin D1 turnover through phosphorylation and degradation. Therefore, our findings suggest that inhibition of Rac1 induces cell cycle G1/S arrest in cancer cells by regulation of the GSK3/cyclin D1 pathway.

  12. Wogonin induced G1 cell cycle arrest by regulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and inactivating CDK8 in human colorectal cancer carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Licheng; Lu, Na; Dai, Qinsheng; Zhao, Yue; Zhao, Li; Wang, Hu; Li, Zhiyu; You, Qidong; Guo, Qinglong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Wogonin inhibited HCT116 cells growth and arrested at G1 phase of the cell cycle. • Wogonin down-regulated the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. • Wogonin interfered in the combination of β-catenin and TCF/Lef. • Wogonin limited the kinase activity of CDK8. - Abstract: Wogonin, a naturally occurring mono-flavonoid, has been reported to have tumor therapeutic potential and good selectivity both in vitro and in vivo. Herein, we investigated the anti-proliferation effects and associated mechanisms of wogonin in human colorectal cancer in vitro. The flow-cytometric analysis showed that wogonin induced a G1 phase cell cycle arrest in HCT116 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Meanwhile, the cell cycle-related proteins, such as cyclin A, E, D1, and CDK2, 4 were down-regulated in wogonin-induced G1 cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, we showed that the anti-proliferation and G1 arrest effect of wogonin on HCT116 cells was associated with deregulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Wogonin-treated cells showed decreased intracellular levels of Wnt proteins, and activated degradation complex to phosphorylated and targeted β-catenin for proteasomal degradation. Wogonin inhibited β-catenin-mediated transcription by interfering in the transcriptional activity of TCF/Lef, and repressing the kinase activity of CDK8 which has been considered as an oncogene involving in the development of colorectal cancers. Moreover, CDK8 siRNA-transfected HCT116 cells showed similar results to wogonin treated cells. Thus, our data suggested that wogonin induced anti-proliferation and G1 arrest via Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and it can be developed as a therapeutic agent against human colorectal cancer

  13. Distribution and accumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Hong Kong mangrove sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haowen; Wang, Ying; Wang, Xiaowei; Luan, Tiangang; Tam, Nora F Y

    2014-01-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used extensively as brominated flame retardants in various polymers, and have become serious environmental contaminants, particularly in coastal sediments. Mangrove wetlands are important coastal ecosystems in tropical and subtropical regions, and mangrove sediments are often the pollutant sinks due to their close proximity with human activities. In Hong Kong, sediment samples collected from five mangrove swamps were found to be contaminated with PBDEs and the eight measured BDE congeners, including BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -183 and -209 were detected in all mangrove sediments, indicating that these pollutants were widespread in Hong Kong mangrove wetlands. Among the five swamps, relatively high concentrations of PBDEs were recorded in Mai Po mangrove swamp in the northwestern Hong Kong, which is part of the RAMSAR site but is severely influenced by the pollution from the Pearl River Delta. The depth profile of PBDEs in sediment cores collected from Mai Po also showed the inputs of PBDEs in this mangrove swamp increased year by year. In all sediments, the concentrations of BDE-209 were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than the other congeners in the same sediment. The concentrations of BDE-209 and ∑PBDEs (defined as the sum of seven targeted BDE congeners except BDE-209) ranged from 1.53 to 75.9 ng g(-1) and from 0.57 to 14.4 ng g(-1), respectively. Among the targeted BDE congeners except BDE-209, slightly different composition was recorded among samples collected from different locations, with BDE-153 and -183 being the pre-dominated congeners. In all mangrove swamps, except Tai O in the southwest of Hong Kong, ∑PBDEs concentrations showed a common trend of landward>seaward>mudflat. The concentrations of ∑PBDEs were significantly correlated with total organic matter (TOM) content in sediments but not with the sediment particle sizes in each mangrove swamp. © 2013.

  14. Organochlorine pesticides in surface sediments and suspended particulate matters from the Yangtze estuary, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Min; Cheng Shubo; Ou Dongni; Yang Yi; Liu Hualin; Hou Lijun; Gao Lei; Xu Shiyuan

    2008-01-01

    Total HCHs' and total DDTs' levels in surface sediments (SS) ranged from 0.5 to 17.5 ng g -1 and from 0.9 to 33.1 ng g -1 , averaged 6.0 and 8.2 ng g -1 , respectively. Total HCHs' and total DDTs' levels in suspended particulate matters (SPM) varied from 6.2 to 14.8 ng g -1 with a mean value of 12.3 ng g -1 and were from 3.4 to 25.7 ng g -1 with an average of 16.4 ng g -1 , respectively. Lindane is the main HCHs' source and continuing use in the Yangtze Delta areas of 'pure' γ-HCH (lindane) rather than technical HCH (a mix of largely α- and some γ-HCH). DDTs in SS are mainly accumulated in history. However, high DDT fractions in SPM are indicators of new input of typical dicofol type DDT from 2002 to 2004. It can be seen that most samples from the Yangtze estuary were in ranges where adverse biological effects are expected, either occasionally or frequently. - SPM, more polluted than SS, had similar contaminant composition. New input of lindane and typical dicofol type DDT were found and Yangtze estuary had been affected adversely

  15. SULFIDE MINERALS IN SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The formation processes of metal sulfides in sediments, especially iron sulfides, have been the subjects of intense scientific research because of linkages to the global biogeochemical cycles of iron, sulfur, carbon, and oxygen. Transition metal sulfides (e.g., NiS, CuS, ZnS, Cd...

  16. Soils and organic sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Head, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    The organic component of soils is basically made up of substances of an individual nature (fats, waxes, resins, proteins, tannic substances, and many others), and humic substances (Kononova, 1966). These are complex polymers formed from breakdown products of the chemical and biological degradation of plant and animal residues. They are dark coloured, acidic, predominantly aromatic compounds ranging in molecular weight from less than one thousand to tens of thousands (Schnitzer, 1977). They can be partitioned into three main fractions:(i) Humic acid, which is soluble in dilute alkaline solution, but can be precipitated by acidification of the alkaline extract.(ii) Fulvic acid, which is soluble in alkaline solution, but is also soluble on acidification.(iii) Humin that cannot be extracted from the soil or sediment by dilute acid or alkaline solutions. It has mostly been assumed that the humic and fulvic acid components of the soil are part of the mobile, or 'active' component, and the humin component is part of the 'passive' component. Other types of organic sediments are likely to contain chemical breakdown products of plant material, plant fragments and material brought in from outside sources. The outside material can be contemporaneous with sediment deposition, can be older material, or younger material incorporated into the sediment long after deposition. Recognition of 'foreign' material is essential for dating, but is not an easy task. Examples of separation techniques for humic and non humic components are evaluated for their efficiency

  17. Potential denitrification and nitrous oxide production in the sediments of the Seine River Drainage Network (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Josette A; Mounier, Emmanuelle M; Laverman, Anniet M; Billen, Gilles F

    2010-01-01

    To investigate bottom sediment denitrification at the scale of the Seine drainage network, a semi-potential denitrification assay was used in which river sediments (and riparian soils) were incubated for a few hours under anaerobic conditions with non limiting nitrate concentrations. This method allowed the nitrous oxide (N(2)O) concentration in the headspace, as well as the nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium concentrations to be determined during incubation. The rates at which nitrate decreased and N(2)O increased were then used to assess the potential denitrification activity and associated N(2)O production in the Seine River Basin. We observed a longitudinal pattern characterized by a significant increase of the potential rate of denitrification from upstream sectors to large downstream rivers (orders 7-8), from approximately 3.3 to 9.1 microg NO(3)(-)-N g(-1) h(-1), respectively, while the N(2)O production rates was the highest both in headwaters and in large order rivers (0.14 and 0.09 N(2)O-N g(-1) h(-1), respectively) and significantly lower in the intermediate sectors (0.01 and 0.03 N(2)O-N g(-1) h(-1)). Consequently, the ratio N(2)O production:NO(3) reduction was found to reach 5% in headstreams, whereas it averaged 1.2% in the rest of the drainage network, an intermediate percentage being found for the riparian soils. Finally, the ignition loss of sediments, together with other redundant variables (particulate organic carbon content: g C 100 g(-1) dry weight [dw], moisture: g water 100 g(-1) dw, sediment size production.

  18. Copper effects on bacterial activity of estuarine silty sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Adelaide; Cunha, Ângela; Fernandes, Sandra; Sobral, Paula; Alcântara, Fernanda

    2007-07-01

    Bacteria of silty estuarine sediments were spiked with copper to 200 μg Cu g -1 dry weight sediment in order to assess the impact of copper on bacterial degradation of organic matter and on bacterial biomass production. Bacterial density was determined by direct counting under epifluorescence microscopy and bacterial production by the incorporation of 3H-Leucine. Leucine turnover rate was evaluated by 14C-leucine incorporation and ectoenzymatic activities were estimated as the hydrolysis rate of model substrates for β-glucosidase and leucine-aminopeptidase. The presence of added copper in the microcosms elicited, after 21 days of incubation, generalised anoxia and a decrease in organic matter content. The non-eroded surface of the copper-spiked sediment showed, when compared to the control, a decrease in bacterial abundance and significant lower levels of bacterial production and of leucine turnover rate. Bacterial production and leucine turnover rate decreased to 1.4% and 13% of the control values, respectively. Ectoenzymatic activities were also negatively affected but by smaller factors. After erosion by the water current in laboratory flume conditions, the eroded surface of the control sediment showed a generalised decline in all bacterial activities. The erosion of the copper-spiked sediment showed, however, two types of responses with respect to bacterial activities at the exposed surface: positive responses of bacterial production and leucine turnover rate contrasting with slight negative responses of ectoenzymatic activities. The effects of experimental erosion in the suspended cells were also different in the control and in the copper-spiked sediment. Bacterial cells in the control microcosm exhibited, when compared to the non-eroded sediment cells, decreases in all activities after the 6-h suspension. The response of the average suspended copper-spiked sediment cell differed from the control by a less sharp decrease in ectoenzymatic activities and

  19. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in tropical recent sediments of Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Alexandre de O.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Sediment samples from the Imbé, the Urubu and the Ururaí rivers and from Lake de Cima were studied. These sites are located in the county of Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Aliphatic and aromatic fractions were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS in order to gather information on the degree of contamination by anthropogenic activities and other biogenic contributions. Concentrations of total aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were 1.2, 2.8, 5.8 and 4.3 mug g-1 and 74, 30, 722 and 340 ng g-1 in the Imbé, Ururaí, Urubu rivers and Lake de Cima, respectively. The C20 highly branched isoprenoid alkane was identified in the Urubu sediment. There were no hopanes or steranes in any sample. Anthropogenic aromatic compounds, detected at trace levels, were observed only in the Imbé and in Lake de Cima (227 ng g-1. The fluoranthene/pyrene rate for Lake de Cima was 4.2, suggesting a combustion origin for the PAH. This data is consistent with the frequently sugar cane burning practice that occurs in this region. A greater input from higher plants was observed in the Urubu, Imbé and Lake de Cima sediments; on the other hand, the aquatic input predominates for Ururaí. In summary, Lake de Cima sediment is considered very slightly polluted, while the others are unpolluted.

  20. Mercury, zinc, and copper accumulation in mangrove sediments surrounding a large landfill in southeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, W.; Moscatelli, M.; Rezende, L.G.; Lacerda, L.D.

    2002-01-01

    Mangrove sediments may prevent movement of metals to adjacent bodies of water. - The accumulation of Hg, Zn, and Cu was evaluated in mangrove sediments located between a large, 20-years-old landfill and waters of Guanabara Bay (southeast Brazil). The contamination history of the area provides substantial evidence that metal accumulation in the study site is influenced by past metal emissions from multiple sources (e.g. contaminated rivers and the landfill surrounding the site). At the southern part of the site, metal levels are up to 890 ng g -1 Hg, 850 μg g -1 Zn, and 58 μg g -1 Cu. Enrichment factors and excess (background-deducted) concentration inventories show a high spatial variability of metal contamination and storage in the site, with differences often by a factor higher than two within a sampling station and higher than five between sampling stations. These contrasts are attributable to a coupling between spatial variability of anthropogenic metal input and metal behavior and retention within the sediments. Results indicate that during the last few decades mangrove sediments retained a substantial part of metal emissions to the site, probably reducing the metal transport to Guanabara Bay waters, and suggest the suitability of mangrove ecosystems as physical and biogeochemical barriers to metal contaminant transport

  1. Chemical speciation and transformation of mercury in contaminated sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Drott, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Biomagnification of mercury (Hg) in aquatic food webs occurs almost exclusively as mono-methyl Hg (MeHg). In this thesis, the influence of chemical speciation and environmental conditions on transformations of inorganic Hg (HgII) and MeHg was studied at eight sites in Sweden with Hg contaminated sediments. The source of contamination was either Hg0(l) or phenyl-Hg, and total Hg concentrations ranged between 1.0-1100 nmol g-1. The environmental conditions, e.g. salinity, temperature climate, p...

  2. Sediment problems in reservoirs. Control of sediment deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, Tom

    1997-12-31

    When a reservoir is formed on a river, sediment will deposit in the reservoir. Such processes are unfortunate, for instance, for the implementation of hydroelectric energy. This thesis studies the problem of reservoir sedimentation and discusses methods of removing the sediments. Various aspects of reservoir sedimentation are discussed. Anthropogenic impacts seem to greatly affect the erosion processes. Temporal distribution is uneven, mainly because of the very large flood events. A world map showing the Reservoir Capacity: Annual Sediment Inflow ratio for reservoirs with volume equal to 10% of annual inflow has been prepared. The map shows that sedimentation is severe in the western parts of North and South America, eastern, southern and northern Africa, parts of Australia and most of Asia. The development of medium-sized reservoirs is difficult, as they are too large for conventional flushing technique and too small to store the sediment that accumulates during their economic lifetime. A computer model, SSIIM, was used with good results in a case study of two flood drawdown trials in Lake Roxburg, New Zealand. Two techniques have been developed that permits controlled suction of sediment and water into a pipe: the Slotted Pipe Sediment Sluicer (SPSS) and the Saxophone Sediment Sluicer (SSS). The techniques exploit the inflow pattern in through a slot in a pipe. An equation describing this inflow pattern was derived and verified experimentally. The SPSS is fixed near the reservoir bed, and sediment that deposits on top of it is removed in the sluicing process. The SSS sluices sediment from the surface of the sediment deposits. Some technical and economic conditions affecting the economics of sediment removal from reservoirs have been identified and studied. 79 refs., 112 figs., 14 tabs.

  3. Human Schistosoma haematobium antifecundity immunity is dependent on transmission intensity and associated with immunoglobulin G1 to worm-derived antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Shona; Jones, Frances M.; van Dam, Govert J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Immunity that reduces worm fecundity and, in turn, reduces morbidity is proposed for Schistosoma haematobium, a parasite of major public health importance. Mathematical models of epidemiological trends suggest that antifecundity immunity is dependent on antibody responses to adult......-worm-derived antigen. METHODS: For a Malian cohort (age, 5-29 years) residing in high-transmission fishing villages or a moderate-transmission village, worm fecundity was assessed using the ratio of urinary egg excretion to levels of circulating anodic antigen, a Schistosoma-specific antigen that is steadily secreted......, host age and transmission were negatively associated with worm fecundity. A significant interaction term between host age and transmission indicates that antifecundity immunity develops earlier in high-transmission areas. SWA immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) levels explained the effect of transmission...

  4. Measurement of the electrical resistivity of liquid 32G2 and 32G1 steels by the rotating magnetic field method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovykh, M. A.; Chikova, O. A.; Tsepelev, V. S.; V'yukhin, V. V.

    2017-03-01

    The resistivity of liquid 32G2 and 32G1 steels are measured using the rotating magnetic field method to obtain information on their liquid structures. The technique of measurements is described and the influence of self-induction and viscosity on the resistivity is estimated. The results are discussed in the framework of a microheterogeneous structure of a metallic melt. A conclusion is made about the character of the influence of slag inclusions detected by magnetic powder and ultrasonic methods on the temperature dependences of the resistivities of liquid 32G2 and 32G1 steels. The change in the temperature coefficient of the resistivity of the melt on heating to 1700°C is interpreted using the Nagel-Tauc model.

  5. Development and results of a test program to demonstrate compliance with IEEE STD 384 and R.G. 1.75 electrical separation requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckert, G.P.; Heneberry, E.F.; Walker, F.P.; Konkus, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    The IEEE Std 384-1974, entitled ''Criteria for Separation of Class 1E Equipment and Circuits,'' contains criteria to ensure the independence of redundant Class 1E equipment when designing electrical systems in nuclear plants. The NRC, in R.G. 1.75 Rev. 2, 1978, endorses, with comments, IEEE-384, as the means of achieving independence. One method given in IEEE-384, is that of maintaining a specified separation between components; another method utilizes a combination of separation and barriers. The standard also allows alternative methods to be used when justified by test-based analyses. This paper is a report of a test program undertaken to provide a basis for analysis in the development of alternative methods of achieving separation. The test parameters developed and used, and the results obtained, should prove useful in determining alternative methods of complying with R.G. 1.75 requirements

  6. A measurement of the spin asymmetry and determination of the structure function g1 in deep inelastic muon-proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashman, J.; Combley, F.; Salmon, D.; Wheeler, S.; Baum, G.; Caputo, M.C.; Hughes, V.W.; Oppenheim, R.F.; Papavassiliou, V.; Piegaia, R.; Schueler, K.P.; Bee, C.P.; Brown, S.C.; Court, G.; Francis, D.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; Hayman, P.; Holt, J.R.; Jones, T.; Matthews, M.; Wimpenny, S.J.; Coignet, G.; Windmolders, R.

    1988-01-01

    The spin asymmetry in deep inelastic scattering of longitudinally polarised muons by longitudinally polarised protons has been measured over a large x range (0.01 1 (x) for the proton has been determined and its integral over x found to be 0.114±0.012±0.026, in disagreement with the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule. Assuming the validity of the Bjorken sum rule, this result implies a significant negative value for the integral of g 1 for the neutron. These values for the integrals of g 1 lead to the conclusion that the total quark spin constitutes a rather small fraction of the spin of the nucleon. (orig.)

  7. Atmospheric lead fallout over the last century recorded in Gulf of Lions sediments (Mediterranean Sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miralles, J. . E-mail jmiralles@wanadoo.fr; Veron, A.J.; Radakovitch, O.; Deschamps, P.; Tremblay, T.; Hamelin, B.

    2006-01-01

    Six marine sediment cores from the Gulf of Lions continental slope (700-1700 m water depth) were analyzed for stable lead isotopes and 21 Pb geochronology in order to reconstruct lead atmospheric fallout pattern during the last century. The detrital lead contribution is 25 μg g -1 and the mean sediment anthropogenic inventory is 110 ± 7 μg cm -2 , a little bit higher than atmospheric deposition estimate. Anthropogenic lead accumulation in sediments peaked in early 1970s (1973 ± 2) in agreement with lead emissions features. For the period 1986-1997, the sediment signal also reflect the decrease of atmospheric lead described by independent atmospheric fallout investigations. The anthropogenic Pb deposition in the late 1990s was similar to the 1950s deposition, attesting thus of the output of European environmental policies

  8. Characterization of pH dependent Mn(II) oxidation strategies and formation of a bixbyite-like phase by Mesorhizobium australicum T-G1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohu, Tsing; Santelli, Cara M; Akob, Denise M.; Neu, Thomas R; Ciobota, Valerian; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen; Nietzsche, Sándor; Küsel, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of Mn oxides in natural environments, there are only a few observations of biological Mn(II) oxidation at pH < 6. The lack of low pH Mn-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) isolates limits our understanding of how pH influences biological Mn(II) oxidation in extreme environments. Here, we report that a novel MOB isolate, Mesorhizobium australicum strain T-G1, isolated from an acidic and metalliferous uranium mining area, can oxidize Mn(II) at both acidic and neutral pH using different enzymatic pathways. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed that T-G1 initiated bixbyite-like Mn oxide formation at pH 5.5 which coincided with multi-copper oxidase expression from early exponential phase to late stationary phase. In contrast, reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly superoxide, appeared to be more important for T-G1 mediated Mn(II) oxidation at neutral pH. ROS was produced in parallel with the occurrence of Mn(II) oxidation at pH 7.2 from early stationary phase. Solid phase Mn oxides did not precipitate, which is consistent with the presence of a high amount of H2O2 and lower activity of catalase in the liquid culture at pH 7.2. Our results show that M. australicum T-G1, an acid tolerant MOB, can initiate Mn(II) oxidation by varying its oxidation mechanisms depending on the pH and may play an important role in low pH manganese biogeochemical cycling.

  9. β2-adrenoceptor blockage induces G1/S phase arrest and apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells via Ras/Akt/NFκB pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Dong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking and stress, pancreatic cancer (PanCa risk factors, stimulate nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK and catecholamines production respectively. NNK and catecholamine bind the β-adrenoceptors and induce PanCa cell proliferation; and we have previously suggested that β-adrenergic antagonists may suppress proliferation and invasion and stimulate apoptosis in PanCa. To clarify the mechanism of apoptosis induced by β2-adrenergic antagonist, we hypothesize that blockage of the β2-adrenoceptor could induce G1/S phase arrest and apoptosis and Ras may be a key player in PanCa cells. Results The β1 and β2-adrenoceptor proteins were detected on the cell surface of PanCa cells from pancreatic carcinoma specimen samples by immunohistochemistry. The β2-adrenergic antagonist ICI118,551 significantly induced G1/S phase arrest and apoptosis compared with the β1-adrenergic antagonist metoprolol, which was determined by the flow cytometry assay. β2-adrenergic antagonist therapy significantly suppressed the expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, Akt, Bcl-2, cyclin D1, and cyclin E and induced the activation of caspase-3, caspase-9 and Bax by Western blotting. Additionally, the β2-adrenergic antagonist reduced the activation of NFκB in vitro cultured PanCa cells. Conclusions The blockage of β2-adrenoceptor markedly induced PanCa cells to arrest at G1/S phase and consequently resulted in cell death, which is possibly due to that the blockage of β2-adrenoceptor inhibited NFκB, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and Akt pathways. Therefore, their upstream molecule Ras may be a key factor in the β2-adrenoceptor antagonist induced G1/S phase arrest and apoptosis in PanCa cells. The new pathway discovered in this study may provide an effective therapeutic strategy for PanCa.

  10. ATR- and ATM-Mediated DNA Damage Response Is Dependent on Excision Repair Assembly during G1 but Not in S Phase of Cell Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Alo; Blevins, Chessica; Wani, Gulzar; Wani, Altaf A

    2016-01-01

    Cell cycle checkpoint is mediated by ATR and ATM kinases, as a prompt early response to a variety of DNA insults, and culminates in a highly orchestrated signal transduction cascade. Previously, we defined the regulatory role of nucleotide excision repair (NER) factors, DDB2 and XPC, in checkpoint and ATR/ATM-dependent repair pathway via ATR and ATM phosphorylation and recruitment to ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced damage sites. Here, we have dissected the molecular mechanisms of DDB2- and XPC- mediated regulation of ATR and ATM recruitment and activation upon UVR exposures. We show that the ATR and ATM activation and accumulation to UVR-induced damage not only depends on DDB2 and XPC, but also on the NER protein XPA, suggesting that the assembly of an active NER complex is essential for ATR and ATM recruitment. ATR and ATM localization and H2AX phosphorylation at the lesion sites occur as early as ten minutes in asynchronous as well as G1 arrested cells, showing that repair and checkpoint-mediated by ATR and ATM starts early upon UV irradiation. Moreover, our results demonstrated that ATR and ATM recruitment and H2AX phosphorylation are dependent on NER proteins in G1 phase, but not in S phase. We reasoned that in G1 the UVR-induced ssDNA gaps or processed ssDNA, and the bound NER complex promote ATR and ATM recruitment. In S phase, when the UV lesions result in stalled replication forks with long single-stranded DNA, ATR and ATM recruitment to these sites is regulated by different sets of proteins. Taken together, these results provide evidence that UVR-induced ATR and ATM recruitment and activation differ in G1 and S phases due to the existence of distinct types of DNA lesions, which promote assembly of different proteins involved in the process of DNA repair and checkpoint activation.

  11. Characterization of pH dependent Mn(II oxidation strategies and formation of a bixbyite-like phase by Mesorhizobium australicum T-G1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsing eBohu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the ubiquity of Mn oxides in natural environments, there are only a few observations of biological Mn(II oxidation at pH < 6. The lack of low pH Mn-oxidizing bacteria (MOB isolates limits our understanding of how pH influences biological Mn(II oxidation in extreme environments. Here, we report that a novel MOB isolate, Mesorhizobium australicum strain T-G1, isolated from an acidic and metalliferous uranium mining area, can oxidize Mn(II at both acidic and neutral pH using different enzymatic pathways. X-ray diffraction (XRD, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS revealed that T-G1 initiated bixbyite-like Mn oxide formation at pH 5.5 which coincided with multi-copper oxidase (MCO expression from early exponential phase to late stationary phase. In contrast, reactive oxygen species (ROS, particularly superoxide, appeared to be more important for T-G1 mediated Mn(II oxidation at neutral pH. ROS was produced in parallel with the occurrence of Mn(II oxidation at pH 7.2 from early stationary phase. Solid phase Mn oxides did not precipitate, which is consistent with the presence of a high amount of H2O2 and lower activity of catalase in the liquid culture at pH 7.2. Our results show that M. australicum T-G1, an acid tolerant MOB, can initiate Mn(II oxidation by varying its oxidation mechanisms depending on the pH and may play an important role in low pH manganese biogeochemical cycling.

  12. Characterization of pH dependent Mn(II) oxidation strategies and formation of a bixbyite-like phase by Mesorhizobium australicum T-G1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohu, Tsing; Santelli, Cara M; Akob, Denise M.; Neu, Thomas R; Ciobota, Valerian; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen; Nietzsche, Sándor; Küsel, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of Mn oxides in natural environments, there are only a few observations of biological Mn(II) oxidation at pH MOB) isolates limits our understanding of how pH influences biological Mn(II) oxidation in extreme environments. Here, we report that a novel MOB isolate, Mesorhizobium australicum strain T-G1, isolated from an acidic and metalliferous uranium mining area, can oxidize Mn(II) at both acidic and neutral pH using different enzymatic pathways. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed that T-G1 initiated bixbyite-like Mn oxide formation at pH 5.5 which coincided with multi-copper oxidase expression from early exponential phase to late stationary phase. In contrast, reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly superoxide, appeared to be more important for T-G1 mediated Mn(II) oxidation at neutral pH. ROS was produced in parallel with the occurrence of Mn(II) oxidation at pH 7.2 from early stationary phase. Solid phase Mn oxides did not precipitate, which is consistent with the presence of a high amount of H2O2 and lower activity of catalase in the liquid culture at pH 7.2. Our results show that M. australicum T-G1, an acid tolerant MOB, can initiate Mn(II) oxidation by varying its oxidation mechanisms depending on the pH and may play an important role in low pH manganese biogeochemical cycling.

  13. A fully human IgG1 anti-PD-L1 MAb in an in vitro assay enhances antigen-specific T-cell responses

    OpenAIRE

    Grenga, Italia; Donahue, Renee N; Lepone, Lauren M; Richards, Jacob; Schlom, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that interfere with checkpoint molecules are being investigated for the treatment of infectious diseases and cancer, with the aim of enhancing the function of an impaired immune system. Avelumab (MSB0010718C) is a fully human IgG1 MAb targeting programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), which differs from other checkpoint-blocking antibodies in its ability to mediate antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. These studies were conducted to define whether avelumab cou...

  14. Wiener-Hopf analysis of an M/G/1 queue with negative customers and of a related class of random walks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Bayer; O.J. Boxma (Onno)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractTwo variants of an M/G/1 queue with negative customers lead to the study of a random walk $bmsX_{n+1=ppart{bmsX_n+bmsxi_n$ where the integer-valued $bmsxi_n$ are not bounded from below or from above, and are distributed differently in the interior of the state-space and on the boundary.

  15. Evaluation of past and future alterations in tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, based on the clay mineralogy of drill cores USW G-1, G-2, and G-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bish, D.L.

    1989-03-01

    The tuffs at Yucca Mountain in south-central Nevada are being studied by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) to determine their suitability for a high-level radioactive waste repository. For predictive purposes, it is important to understand the alteration history of Yucca Mountain and to know how the minerals in Yucca Mountain tuffs respond to changing conditions such as elevated temperatures. The clay mineralogy of these tuffs has been examined using x-ray powder diffraction, and approximation temperatures of alteration have been determined using available clay mineral data and fluid inclusion analyses. Also, several illites from drill holes USW G-1 and G-2 have been dated using K/Ar techniques, yielding ages of about 11 Myr. The clay mineral in Yucca Mountain tuffs are predominantly interstratified illite/smectites, with minor amounts of chloride, kaolinite, and interstratified chlorite/smectite at depth in USW G-1 and G-2. The reactions observed for these illite/smectites are similar to those observed in pelitic rocks. With depths, the illite/smectites transform from random interstratifications (R = 0) through ordered intermediates (R = 1) to illite in USW G-2 and to Kalkberg (R ≥ 3) interstratifications in USW G-1. The illite/smectites in USW G-3 have not significantly transformed. It appears that the illites in deeper rock results from hydrothermal and diagenetic reactions of earlier-formed smectites. These data demonstrate that the rocks at depth in the northern end of Yucca Mountain were significantly altered about 11 Myr ago. Both clay mineralogy and fluid inclusions suggest that the rocks at depth in USW G-2 have been subjected to postdepositional temperatures of at least 275/degree/C, those in USW G-1 have reached 200/degree/C, and USW G-3 rocks probably have not exceeded 100/degree/C. 64 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Viral control in chronic HIV-1 subtype C infection is associated with enrichment of p24 IgG1 with Fc effector activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Amy; Makuba, Jenniffer M; Ndlovu, Bongiwe; Licht, Anna; Robinson, Hannah; Ramlakhan, Yathisha; Ghebremichael, Musie; Reddy, Tarylee; Goulder, Philip; Walker, Bruce; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Alter, Galit

    2018-04-03

    Postinfection HIV viral control and immune correlates analysis of the RV144 vaccine trial indicate a potentially critical role for Fc receptor-mediated antibody functions. However, the influence of functional antibodies in clade C infection is largely unknown. Plasma samples from 361 chronic subtype C-infected, antiretroviral therapy-naïve participants were tested for their HIV-specific isotype and subclass distributions, along with their Fc receptor-mediated functional potential. Total IgG, IgG subclasses and IgA binding to p24 clade B/C and gp120 consensus C proteins were assayed by multiplex. Antibody-dependent uptake of antigen-coated beads and Fc receptor-mediated natural killer cell degranulation were evaluated as surrogates for antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), respectively. p24 IgG1 was the only subclass associated with viral control (P = 0.01), with higher p24-specific ADCP and ADCC responses detected in individuals with high p24 IgG1. Although p24 IgG1 levels were enriched in patients with elevated Gag-specific T-cell responses, these levels remained an independent predictor of low-viral loads (P = 0.04) and high CD4 counts (P = 0.004) after adjusting for Gag-specific T-cell responses and for protective HLA class I alleles. p24 IgG1 levels independently predict viral control in HIV-1 clade C infection. Whether these responses contribute to direct antiviral control via the recruited killing of infected cells via the innate immune system or simply mark a qualitatively superior immune response to HIV, is uncertain, but highlights the role of p24-specific antibodies in control of clade C HIV-1 infection.

  17. Effects of dietary CLA supplementation, parity and different concentrate levels before calving on immunoglobulin G1, G2 and M concentrations in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eger, Melanie; Horn, Jana; Hussen, Jamal; Schuberth, Hans-Joachim; Scharf, Maria; Meyer, Ulrich; Dänicke, Sven; Bostedt, Hartwig; Breves, Gerhard

    2017-10-01

    Peripartal dairy cows exhibit a higher susceptibility for infectious diseases, which might be linked to the negative energy balance occurring at the onset of lactation. A dietary supplementation of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) may reduce milk fat yield and subsequently lower the energy deficit. The utilization of immunoglobulins (Ig) for colostrogenesis might impair humoral immunity in peripartal dairy cows; therefore this study investigated the effects of a CLA supplement, parity and different dietary energy levels on plasma and colostrum IgG1, IgG2 and IgM levels in dairy cows and their calves. Blood samples were collected from 64 cows from 21days before until 56days after parturition and colostrum samples for the first 3days of lactation. Plasma immunoglobulin concentrations of 19 calves were determined before colostrum uptake. Neither plasma IgG1, nor IgG2 levels were affected by CLA or dietary energy level. However, immunoglobulin levels were affected by parity. Heifers possessed the lowest IgG1 concentrations. IgG2 concentrations were highest in cows with 2 lactations prior to parturition and in heifers after parturition. Plasma IgM levels were characterized by a sharp decrease 3days prior to parturition and were scarcely affected by the feeding regimen or parity. Generally, immunoglobulin levels appear to be mostly independent from the peripartal energy balance of the cows and are not influenced by dietary CLA. However, pronounced differences among parities for IgG1 and IgG2 were revealed which should be further evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Metal Accumulation in Surface Sediment of the Urban and Industrial Coastal Area of the Municipality of Moa (Cuba: Distribution and Pollution Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosbanis Cervantes-Guerra

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The investigation is to evaluate the accumulation of ten elements (Al, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Co, As, Cu, Pb and Zn in surface sediments from the urban and industrial coastal area of Moa. Human activity has influenced the region, which has been developing in one of the most important mining regions of Cuba since the middle of the past century. Two methods were used to assess the contamination of the sediments: the estimation of metal enrichment by calculating the index of geo-accumulation (Igeo and the interpretation of the data obtained based on quality criteria. The overall range of concentrations is 15.7 - 83.5 mg g-1 for aluminum, 1.4 – 17.9 mg g-1 for chromium, 22.8 - 379.5 mg g-1 for iron, 1.5 - 56.2 mg g-1 for manganese, 0.9 – 6.2 mg g-1 for nickel, 56 - 1094 µg g-1 for cobalt, 6 - 126 µg g-1 for arsenic, 17 to 146 µg g-1 for copper, 6 - 66 µg g-1 for lead, and 64 - 576 µg g-1 for zinc. The results obtained from the studied coastal zone show a high level of pollution in surface sediments. The spatial distribution of the elements varied according to the analyzed elements: Al, Cr, Fe and Ni showed high levels of concentration throughout the studied zone; Mn, Co, Cu, As and Zn are in a higher proportion in Moa Bay Cay. In the case of As and Pb, higher concentrations were located at the deltas of Moa and Cayo Guam rivers and also in some areas in the west of the bay.

  19. Single cell analysis of G1 check points-the relationship between the restriction point and phosphorylation of pRb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinsson, Hanna-Stina; Starborg, Maria; Erlandsson, Fredrik; Zetterberg, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Single cell analysis allows high resolution investigation of temporal relationships between transition events in G 1 . It has been suggested that phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (pRb) is the molecular mechanism behind passage through the restriction point (R). We performed a detailed single cell study of the temporal relationship between R and pRb phosphorylation in human fibroblasts using time lapse video-microscopy combined with immunocytochemistry. Four principally different criteria for pRb phosphorylation were used, namely (i) phosphorylation of residues Ser 795 and Ser 780 (ii) degree of pRb-association with the nuclear structure, a property that is closely related with pRb phosphorylation status, (iii) release of the transcription factor E2F-1 from pRb, and (iv) accumulation of cyclin E, which is dependent on phosphorylation of pRb. The analyses of individual cells revealed that passage through R preceded phosphorylation of pRb, which occurs in a gradually increasing proportion of cells in late G 1 . Our data clearly suggest that pRb phosphorylation is not the molecular mechanism behind the passage through R. The restriction point and phosphorylation of pRb thus seem to represent two separate check point in G 1

  20. Robustness and backbone motif of a cancer network regulated by miR-17-92 cluster during the G1/S transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijian Yang

    Full Text Available Based on interactions among transcription factors, oncogenes, tumor suppressors and microRNAs, a Boolean model of cancer network regulated by miR-17-92 cluster is constructed, and the network is associated with the control of G1/S transition in the mammalian cell cycle. The robustness properties of this regulatory network are investigated by virtue of the Boolean network theory. It is found that, during G1/S transition in the cell cycle process, the regulatory networks are robustly constructed, and the robustness property is largely preserved with respect to small perturbations to the network. By using the unique process-based approach, the structure of this network is analyzed. It is shown that the network can be decomposed into a backbone motif which provides the main biological functions, and a remaining motif which makes the regulatory system more stable. The critical role of miR-17-92 in suppressing the G1/S cell cycle checkpoint and increasing the uncontrolled proliferation of the cancer cells by targeting a genetic network of interacting proteins is displayed with our model.

  1. Heptanoate as a neural fuel: energetic and neurotransmitter precursors in normal and glucose transporter I-deficient (G1D) brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin-Valencia, Isaac; Good, Levi B; Ma, Qian; Malloy, Craig R; Pascual, Juan M

    2013-01-01

    It has been postulated that triheptanoin can ameliorate seizures by supplying the tricarboxylic acid cycle with both acetyl-CoA for energy production and propionyl-CoA to replenish cycle intermediates. These potential effects may also be important in other disorders associated with impaired glucose metabolism because glucose supplies, in addition to acetyl-CoA, pyruvate, which fulfills biosynthetic demands via carboxylation. In patients with glucose transporter type I deficiency (G1D), ketogenic diet fat (a source only of acetyl-CoA) reduces seizures, but other symptoms persist, providing the motivation for studying heptanoate metabolism. In this work, metabolism of infused [5,6,7-13C3]heptanoate was examined in the normal mouse brain and in G1D by 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). In both groups, plasma glucose was enriched in 13C, confirming gluconeogenesis from heptanoate. Acetyl-CoA and glutamine levels became significantly higher in the brain of G1D mice relative to normal mice. In addition, brain glutamine concentration and 13C enrichment were also greater when compared with glutamate in both animal groups, suggesting that heptanoate and/or C5 ketones are primarily metabolized by glia. These results enlighten the mechanism of heptanoate metabolism in the normal and glucose-deficient brain and encourage further studies to elucidate its potential antiepileptic effects in disorders of energy metabolism. PMID:23072752

  2. C/EBPα Expression is Partially Regulated by C/EBPβ in Response to DNA Damage and C/EBPα Deficient Fibroblasts Display an Impaired G1 Checkpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Rakesh; Thompson, Elizabeth A.; Yoon, Kyungsil; Smart, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    We observed that C/EBPα is highly inducible in primary fibroblasts by DNA damaging agents that induce strand breaks, alkylate and crosslink DNA as well as those that produce bulky DNA lesions. Fibroblasts deficient in C/EBPα (C/EBPα-/-) display an impaired G1 checkpoint as evidenced by inappropriate entry into S-phase in response to DNA damage and these cells also display an enhanced G1 to S transition in response to mitogens. The induction of C/EBPα by DNA damage in fibroblasts does not require p53. EMSA analysis of nuclear extracts prepared from UVB- and MNNG-treated fibroblasts revealed increased binding of C/EBPβ to a C/EBP consensus sequence and ChIP analysis revealed increased C/EBPβ binding to the C/EBPα promoter. To determine whether C/EBPβ has a role in the regulation of C/EBPα we treated C/EBPβ-/- fibroblasts with UVB or MNNG. We observed C/EBPα induction was impaired in both UVB- and MNNG- treated C/EBPβ-/- fibroblasts. Our study reveals a novel role for C/EBPβ in the regulation of C/EBPα in response to DNA damage and provides definitive genetic evidence that C/EBPα has a critical role in the DNA damage G1 checkpoint. PMID:19581927

  3. Mono(pyridine-N-oxide) DOTA analog and its G1/G4-PAMAM dendrimer conjugates labeled with 177Lu: Radiolabeling and biodistribution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laznickova, A.; Biricova, V.; Laznicek, M.; Hermann, P.

    2014-01-01

    177 Lu radiolabeling of the first (G1-) or fourth (G4-) generation polyaminoamide (PAMAM) dendrimer conjugates with DOTA-like bifunctional chelator with one methylenepyridine-N-oxide pendant arm (DO3A-py NO-C ) stability of the radiolabeled species and their pharmacokinetic characteristics were evaluated in preclinical experiments. The results showed that the G1- and G4-dendrimer conjugates, modified in average with 7.5 or 57 DO3A-py NO-C chelating units, respectively, can also be labeled with 177 Lu with a high specific activity and radiochemical purity even at 37 °C. The radiolabeled species were stable for at least 24 h. Distribution profile of G1-dendrimer conjugate in organs and tissues of rats was more favorable than that of G4 one. On the other hand, the later dendrimer conjugate bears a substantially higher number of metal chelators per molecule enabling binding of a considerably larger number of radiometals. Our results indicate that an employment of dendrimer-chelate conjugates with bound radiometals might represent a prospective way for radiolabeling of biologically active target-specific macromolecules to obtain markedly high specific activity. - Highlights: • Chelation of DOTA-like ligands suitable for biomacromolecules modification. • Radiolabeling of modified PAMAM-dendrimers with 177 Lu. • Determination of stability of the labeled conjugates. • Pharmacokinetic characteristics evaluated in preclinical experiments

  4. Indirect semiquantitative determination of p34cdc2 levels in G1 and G2 cells of the carbohydrate-starved root meristems in Vicia faba var. minor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Polit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, the 34kDa kinase (p34 encoded by the cdc2 gene is a key regulator of both the onset of DNA synthesis (G1 to S phase transition and the onset of mitosis (G1 to M phase transition. Using mouse anti-human PSTAIRE and FITClabelled goat antibodies, indirect semiquantitative determination of p34cdc2 levels was performed in meristematic cells from the control (intact and excised, carbohydrate-starved main roots of Vicia faba var. minor. No evident differences in the intensity of fluorescence was found either between the G1 and G2 cells or between the control cells and the cells arrested at both Principal Control Points by carbohydrate starvation. It seems thus, that the cell cycle block induced in meristematic cells of V. faba var. minor is not correlated with the absolute level of the key cell cycle enzyme responsible for phosphory-lution of cellular proteins, but primarily with the altered activity of p34cdc2.

  5. Genomic and Transcriptomic Associations Identify a New Insecticide Resistance Phenotype for the Selective Sweep at the Cyp6g1 Locus of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battlay, Paul; Schmidt, Joshua M; Fournier-Level, Alexandre; Robin, Charles

    2016-08-09

    Scans of the Drosophila melanogaster genome have identified organophosphate resistance loci among those with the most pronounced signature of positive selection. In this study, the molecular basis of resistance to the organophosphate insecticide azinphos-methyl was investigated using the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel, and genome-wide association. Recently released full transcriptome data were used to extend the utility of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel resource beyond traditional genome-wide association studies to allow systems genetics analyses of phenotypes. We found that both genomic and transcriptomic associations independently identified Cyp6g1, a gene involved in resistance to DDT and neonicotinoid insecticides, as the top candidate for azinphos-methyl resistance. This was verified by transgenically overexpressing Cyp6g1 using natural regulatory elements from a resistant allele, resulting in a 6.5-fold increase in resistance. We also identified four novel candidate genes associated with azinphos-methyl resistance, all of which are involved in either regulation of fat storage, or nervous system development. In Cyp6g1, we find a demonstrable resistance locus, a verification that transcriptome data can be used to identify variants associated with insecticide resistance, and an overlap between peaks of a genome-wide association study, and a genome-wide selective sweep analysis. Copyright © 2016 Battlay et al.

  6. Isorhapontigenin (ISO) inhibited cell transformation by inducing G0/G1 phase arrest via increasing MKP-1 mRNA Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guangxun; Chen, Liang; Li, Jingxia; Zhang, Dongyun; Fang, Yong; Huang, Haishan; Chen, Xiequn; Huang, Chuanshu

    2014-05-15

    The cancer chemopreventive property of Chinese herb new isolate isorhapontigenin (ISO) and mechanisms underlying its activity have never been explored. Here we demonstrated that ISO treatment with various concentrations for 3 weeks could dramatically inhibit TPA/EGF-induced cell transformation of Cl41 cells in Soft Agar assay, whereas co-incubation of cells with ISO at the same concentrations could elicit G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest without redundant cytotoxic effects on non-transformed cells. Further studies showed that ISO treatment resulted in cyclin D1 downregulation in dose- and time-dependent manner. Our results indicated that ISO regulated cyclin D1 at transcription level via targeting JNK/C-Jun/AP-1 activation. Moreover, we found that ISO-inhibited JNK/C-Jun/AP-1 activation was mediated by both upregulation of MKP-1 expression through increasing its mRNA stability and deactivating MKK7. Most importantly, MKP-1 knockdown could attenuate ISO-mediated suppression of JNK/C-Jun activation and cyclin D1 expression, as well as G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and cell transformation inhibition, while ectopic expression of FLAG-cyclin D1 T286A mutant also reversed ISO-induced G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest and inhibition of cell transformation. Our results demonstrated that ISO is a promising chemopreventive agent via upregulating mkp-1 mRNA stability, which is distinct from its cancer therapeutic effect with downregulation of XIAP and cyclin D1 expression.

  7. Algal stabilisation of estuarine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The presence of benthic microalgae can increase the stability of intertidal sediments and influence sediment fluxes within an estuarine environment. Therefore the relative importance of algal stabilisation needs to be understood to help predict the effects of a tidal barrage. The objectives of this study are: to assess the significance of stabilisation of sediments by algae, in relation to the changes in hydrodynamic and sedimentological regimes arising from the construction of tidal power barrages; to identify a reliable and meaningful method of measuring the effectiveness, including duration, of algal binding on sediment stability, and to relate this method to other methods of measuring critical erosion velocity and sediment shear strength; to undertake a series of field experiments investigating the effect of algae on binding sediments and the parameters which could potentially influence such binding and to develop a predictive method for the assessment of sediment stabilisation by algal binding. This report contains plates, figures and tables. (author)

  8. Algal stabilisation of estuarine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The presence of benthic microalgae can increase the stability of intertidal sediments and influence sediment fluxes within an estuarine environment. Therefore the relative importance of algal stabilisation needs to be understood to help predict the effects of a tidal barrage. The biogenic stabilisation of intertidal estuarine sediments by epipelic diatom films and the macrophyte Vaucheria was studied at three sites on the Severn Estuary. The cohesive strength meter (CSM) was developed to measure surface critical shear stress with varied algal density. A number of techniques have been used to determine the general in situ erodibility of cohesive estuarine sediments. The measurements of sediment shear strength and critical erosion velocity were investigated. Field experiments were undertaken to investigate the effect of algae on binding sediments, and a predictive method for the assessment of sediment stabilisation by algal binding was developed. (author)

  9. Chemical and microbiological characterization of mangrove sediments after a large oil-spill in Guanabara Bay - RJ - Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Maciel-Souza,Maria do Carmo; Macrae,Andrew; Volpon,Antonia Garcia Torres; Ferreira,Patrícia Silva; Mendonça-Hagler,Leda Cristina

    2006-01-01

    Seventeen months after a 1,3 million L oil spill into Guanabara Bay, analyses of mangrove sediments showed that the three sites closest to the spill remain highly polluted (>10 µg-g-1 polyaromatic hydrocarbons). A fourth site was less polluted, from which most hydrocarbon degrading bacteria were isolated.

  10. Cyclic Sediment Trading Between Channel and River Bed Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadchi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Much of the previous work on sediment tracing has focused on determining either the initial sources of the sediment (soils derive from a particular rock type) or the erosion processes generating the sediment. However, alluvial stores can be both a source and sink for sediment transported by streams. Here geochemical and fallout radionuclide tracing of river-bed and alluvial sediments are used to determine the role of secondary sources, sediment stores, as potential sources of sediment leaving Emu Creek catchment, southeastern Queensland, Australia. Activity concentrations of 137Cs on the river sediments are consistent with channel erosion being the dominant source at all sites sampled along the river. To characterise the deposition and remobilisation cycles in the catchment, a novel geochemical tracing approach was used. Successive pockets of alluvium were treated as discrete sink terms within geochemical mixing models and their source contributions compared with those of river bed sediments collected adjacent to each alluvial pocket. Three different size fractions were examined; silts and clays (banks indicates a high degree of 'trading' between the fluvial space and the alluvial space. Hence, management works aimed at primarily reducing the supply of sediments to the outlet of Emu Creek should focus on rehabilitation of channel banks in the lower catchment.

  11. Dose rate, mitotic cycle duration, and sensitivity of cell transitions from G1 → S and G2 → M to protracted gamma radiation in root meristems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, L.S.; Hof, J.V.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments were designed to determine the relative radiosensitivity of the cell transition points of G1 → S and G2 → M in root meristems of several plant species. Label and mitotic indices and microspectrophotometry were used to measure the proportions of cells in each mitotic cycle stage in root meristems after protracted gamma radiation. The criterion of radiosensitivity was the dose rate needed to produce a tissue with less than 1 percent cells in S and none in M after 3 days of continuous exposure. The results show that DNA is the primary radiation target in proliferative root meristems and that the cycle duration stipulates the time interval of vulnerability. In each species, nonrandom reproducible cell proportions were established with 2C:4C:8C amounts of nuclear DNA after 3 days of exposure. Roots of Helianthus annuus, Crepis capillaris, and Tradescantia clone 02 had 80 percent cells with a 2C amount of DNA and 20 percent had a 4C amount of DNA. In these species the transition point of G1 → S was more radiosensitive than G2 → M. Roots of Pisum sativum and Triticum aestivum had cell proportions at 2C:4C:8C amounts of DNA in frequencies of 0.10 to 0.20:0.40 to 0.60:0.30 to 0.40. In these two species 0.30 to 0.40 cells underwent radiation-induced endoreduplication that resulted from a rapid inhibition of cell transit from G2 → M and a slower impairment of G1 → S. Cells increased from 2C to 4C and from 4C to 8C amounts of DNA during irradiation. The proportions of nuclei with 2C:4C:8C amounts of DNA were dependent in part upon the relative radiosensitivity of the G1 → S and G2 → M control points. The data show the relative radiosensitivity of the transition points from G1 → S and from G2 → M was species specific and unrelated to the cycle duration and mean nuclear DNA content of the plant species

  12. Ecological and taphonomical influences on coccoliths in surface sediments in the shelf of the Yellow and East China Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaobo; Liu, Chuanlian

    2017-05-01

    Coccoliths, combined with sediment grain size, carbonate calcium and organic matters content, were analyzed to assess the ecological and taphonomical influences on coccolith distribution patterns in surface sediments in the continental shelf of the Yellow and East China Seas. Coccolith abundances ranged from 0 to 2.08×109 coccoliths g-1 sediment. The increasing abundance from the coastal inner shelf to the seaward middle shelf generally reflects the ecological fact that living coccolithophores are more abundant in the mesotrophic shelf waters than in the eutrophic coastal waters, although their deposits are still controlled by taphonomical effects, such as bottom (tidal) currents and calcite preservation conditions. Most abundant coccoliths are found in the fine-grained sediments of southwestern Cheju Island, where both ecology and taphonomy favor coccolith preservation. Still, large densities of coccoliths (>108 coccoliths g-1 sediment) are also found in coarse-grained relict sediments in the middle shelf. Coccolith assemblages were predominated by Gephyrocapsa oceanica and Emiliania huxleyi. The relative abundance of E. huxleyi, in addition to ecological reasons, may relate to selective post-mortem dissolution, since small E. huxleyi coccoliths are more susceptible to dissolution. Coccolith calcite has minor contributions (<1% to 12%) to total sediment CaCO3, and the main parts are attributed to terrigenous CaCO3 debris and relict shell fragments.

  13. G0 Seed Potential of The Aeroponics Potatoes Seed In The Lowlands With A Root Zone Cooling Into G1 In The Highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Sumarni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In tropical country likes in Indonesia, potato seeds that originated from temperate zone can only be produced in low temperature of highland. Besides this way has many limitation of productivity, it often causes soil erosion. To minimize environment destroying risk tuber seed production in lowland is a challenge. This research was done to trace that modified root zone cooling method of aerophonic system can be applied to produce high quality of tuber seeds in lowland. The First Generations (G0 of var. Atlantic and var. Granola were used as plant materials, and randomized block design (RBD with four replications was applied in this research. Data regarding with vegetative as well as tuber production parameters were analyzed using Coefficient of variance (ANOVA and continued with the least significant difference test (LSD; p = 5%. The results showed that aerophonic generated seeds (G0 had vigorous growth and could produce the normal G1. In term of tuber yield component and number of leaves var. Atlantic showed higher than var. Granola did. The comparison of seed weight between G0 and G1 was about 10 grams and 54 g on average, respectively. Since the size and weight of such G1 could be categorized as Large (L in term of commercial seed market, It’s implied that the lowland modified aerophonic system could be nominated as a prospective method for producing G0 tuber seed in the future.    Potensi Bibit G0 Dari Bibit Kentang Aeroponik Di Dataran Rendah Dengan Akar Zona Pendingin Menjadi G1 Di Dataran Tinggi  Abstrak. Di negara tropis seperti di Indonesia, bibit kentang yang berasal dari zona sedang hanya dapat diproduksi pada suhu rendah di dataran tinggi. Selain itu cara ini memiliki banyak keterbatasan produktivitas dan sering menyebabkan erosi tanah. Meminimalkan resiko dampak kerusakan lingkungan akibat produksi benih umbi di dataran rendah adalah sebuah tantangan. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengkaji bahwa metode zona akar

  14. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments from the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Hernandez, C M; Mesa-Albernas, M; Tolosa, I

    2014-01-01

    The spatial distribution of various organochlorinated compounds, e.g. PCBs, DDTs, HCB and HCHs, were investigated in sediments of the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba. Among the target organochlorine compounds measured, ΣDDT isomers were the predominant contaminant with concentrations ranging from 0.019 to 1.27 ng g(-1)dry wt. Lindane was present at very low concentrations in the range n.d. to 0.05 ng g(-1), while PCBs and other organochlorine pesticide residues, such as HCB, Heptaclor, Aldrin and Mirex were lower than detection limits (∼0.010 ng g(-1)). According to established sediment quality guidelines, the OCPs concentrations encountered in the surface sediments are probably not having an adverse effect on sediment dwelling organisms. Compared to concentrations reported in coastal environments from other parts of the world, PCBs and OCs concentrations in surface sediments of Batabanó Gulf were low and similar to the reported for remote and pristine environments. These results contribute to the sparse regional database for organochlorinated compounds in the Caribbean marine environment. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Vertical distribution and anaerobic biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mangrove sediments in Hong Kong, South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chun-Hua; Zhou, Hong-Wei; Wong, Yuk-Shan; Tam, Nora Fung-Yee

    2009-01-01

    The vertical distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at different sediment depths, namely 0-2 cm, 2-4 cm, 4-6 cm, 6-10 cm, 10-15 cm and 15-20 cm, in one of the most contaminated mangrove swamps, Ma Wan, Hong Kong was investigated. It was the first time to study the intrinsic potential of deep sediment to biodegrade PAHs under anaerobic conditions and the abundance of electron acceptors in sediment for anaerobic degradation. Results showed that the total PAHs concentrations (summation of 16 US EPA priority PAHs) increased with sediment depth. The lowest concentration (about 1300 ng g -1 freeze-dried sediment) and the highest value (around 5000 ng g -1 freeze-dried sediment) were found in the surface layer (0-2 cm) and deeper layer (10-15 cm), respectively. The percentage of high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs (4 to 6 rings) to total PAHs was more than 89% at all sediment depths. The ratio of phenanthrene to anthracene was less than 10 while fluoranthene to pyrene was around 1. Negative redox potentials (Eh) were recorded in all of the sediment samples, ranging from - 170 to - 200 mv, with a sharp decrease at a depth of 6 cm then declined slowly to 20 cm. The results suggested that HMW PAHs originated from diesel-powered fishing vessels and were mainly accumulated in deep anaerobic sediments. Among the electron acceptors commonly used by anaerobic bacteria, sulfate was the most dominant, followed by iron(III), nitrate and manganese(IV) was the least. Their concentrations also decreased with sediment depth. The population size of total anaerobic heterotrophic bacteria increased with sediment depth, reaching the peak number in the middle layer (4-6 cm). In contrast, the aerobic heterotrophic bacterial count decreased with sediment depth. It was the first time to apply a modified electron transport system (ETS) method to evaluate the bacterial activities in the fresh sediment under PAH stress. The vertical drop of the ETS activity suggested that the

  16. Distribution, sources and ecological risk assessment of PAHs in surface sediments from the Luan River Estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Daolai; Liu, Jinqing; Jiang, Xuejun; Cao, Ke; Yin, Ping; Zhang, Xunhua

    2016-01-15

    The distribution, sources and risk assessment of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of surface sediments in the Luan River Estuary, China, have been investigated in the research. The results indicated that the total concentrations of 16 PAHs in surface sediments of the Luan River Estuary ranged from 5.1 to 545.1 ng g(-1)dw with a mean value of 120.8 ng g(-1)dw, which is relatively low in comparison with other estuaries around the world. The PAHs in the study area were mainly originated from pyrogenic sources. Besides, PAHs may be contaminated by petrogenic PAHs as indicated by the selected ratios of PAHs, the 2-tailed Pearson correlation analysis and principal components analysis at different sites. The result of the ecological risk assessment shows little negative effect for most individual PAHs in surface sediments of the Luan River Estuary, China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Deficiency of ATP-binding cassette transporters A1 and G1 in macrophages increases inflammation and accelerates atherosclerosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp, Marit; Murphy, Andrew J; Wang, Mi; Pagler, Tamara A; Vengrenyuk, Yuliya; Kappus, Mojdeh S; Gorman, Darren J; Nagareddy, Prabhakara R; Zhu, Xuewei; Abramowicz, Sandra; Parks, John S; Welch, Carrie; Fisher, Edward A; Wang, Nan; Yvan-Charvet, Laurent; Tall, Alan R

    2013-05-24

    Plasma high-density lipoprotein levels are inversely correlated with atherosclerosis. Although it is widely assumed that this is attributable to the ability of high-density lipoprotein to promote cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells, direct experimental support for this hypothesis is lacking. To assess the role of macrophage cholesterol efflux pathways in atherogenesis. We developed mice with efficient deletion of the ATP-binding cassette transporters A1 and G1 (ABCA1 and ABCG1) in macrophages (MAC-ABC(DKO) mice) but not in hematopoietic stem or progenitor populations. MAC-ABC(DKO) bone marrow (BM) was transplanted into Ldlr(-/-) recipients. On the chow diet, these mice had similar plasma cholesterol and blood monocyte levels but increased atherosclerosis compared with controls. On the Western-type diet, MAC-ABC(DKO) BM-transplanted Ldlr(-/-) mice had disproportionate atherosclerosis, considering they also had lower very low-density lipoprotein/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels than controls. ABCA1/G1-deficient macrophages in lesions showed increased inflammatory gene expression. Unexpectedly, Western-type diet-fed MAC-ABC(DKO) BM-transplanted Ldlr(-/-) mice displayed monocytosis and neutrophilia in the absence of hematopoietic stem and multipotential progenitor cells proliferation. Mechanistic studies revealed increased expressions of machrophage colony stimulating factor and granulocyte colony stimulating factor in splenic macrophage foam cells, driving BM monocyte and neutrophil production. These studies show that macrophage deficiency of ABCA1/G1 is proatherogenic likely by promoting plaque inflammation and uncover a novel positive feedback loop in which cholesterol-laden splenic macrophages signal BM progenitors to produce monocytes, with suppression by macrophage cholesterol efflux pathways.

  18. Overexpression of catalase delays G0/G1- to S-phase transition during cell cycle progression in mouse aortic endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onumah, Ogbeyalu E; Jules, George E; Zhao, Yanfeng; Zhou, LiChun; Yang, Hong; Guo, ZhongMao

    2009-06-15

    Although it is understood that hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) promotes cellular proliferation, little is known about its role in endothelial cell cycle progression. To assess the regulatory role of endogenously produced H(2)O(2) in cell cycle progression, we studied the cell cycle progression in mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAECs) obtained from mice overexpressing a human catalase transgene (hCatTg), which destroys H(2)O(2). The hCatTg MAECs displayed a prolonged doubling time compared to wild-type controls (44.0 +/- 4.7 h versus 28.6 +/- 0.8 h, pcatalase inhibitor, prevented the observed diminished growth rate in hCatTg MAECs. Inhibition of catalase activity with aminotriazole abrogated catalase overexpression-induced antiproliferative action. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that the prolonged doubling time was principally due to an extended G(0)/G(1) phase in hCatTg MAECs compared to the wild-type cells (25.0 +/- 0.9 h versus 15.9 +/- 1.4 h, pinhibitors, p21 and p27, which inhibit the Cdk activity required for the G(0)/G(1)- to S-phase transition. Knockdown of p21 and/or p27 attenuated the antiproliferative effect of catalase overexpression in MAECs. These results, together with the fact that catalase is an H(2)O(2) scavenger, suggest that endogenously produced H(2)O(2) mediates MAEC proliferation by fostering the transition from G(0)/G(1) to S phase.

  19. G1- and S-phase syntheses of histones H1 and H1o in mitotically selected CHO cells: utilization of high-performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Anna, J.A.; Thayer, M.M.; Tobey, R.A.; Gurley, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have employed high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to investigate the syntheses of histones H1 and H1o as synchronized cells traverse from mitosis to S phase. Chinese hamster (line CHO) cells were synchronized by mitotic selection, and, at appropriate times, they were pulse labeled for 1 h with [ 3 H]lysine. Histones H1 and H1o were extracted by blending radiolabeled and carrier cells directly in 0.83 M HC1O 4 ; the total HC1O 4 -soluble, Cl 3 CCO 2 H-precipitable proteins were then separated by a modification of an HPLC system employing three mu Bondapak reversed-phase columns. These procedures (1) produce minimally perturbed populations of synchronized proliferating cells and (2) maximize the recovery of radiolabeled histones during isolation and analysis. Measurements of rates of synthesis indicate that the rate of H1 synthesis increases as cells traverse from early to mid G1; as cells enter S phase, the rate of H1 synthesis increases an additional congruent to 22-fold and is proportional to the number of S-phase cells. In contrast to H1, the rate of H1o synthesis is nearly constant throughout G1. As cells progress into S phase, the rate of H1o synthesis increases so that it also appears to be proportional to the number of S-phase cells. Except for the first 1-2 h after mitotic selection, these results are similar to those obtained when cells are synchronized in G1 with the isoleucine deprivation procedure

  20. Organophosphorus flame retardants in mangrove sediments from the Pearl River Estuary, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yong-Xia; Sun, Yu-Xin; Li, Xiao; Xu, Wei-Hai; Zhang, Ying; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Dai, Shou-Hui; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2017-08-01

    Forty-eight surface sediments were collected from three mangrove wetlands in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) of South China to investigate the distribution of organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) and the relationship between OPFRs and microbial community structure determined by phospholipid fatty acid. Concentrations of ΣOPFRs in mangrove sediments of the PRE ranged from 13.2 to 377.1 ng g -1 dry weight. Levels of ΣOPFRs in mangrove sediments from Shenzhen and Guangzhou were significantly higher than those from Zhuhai, indicating that OPFRs were linked to industrialization and urbanization. Tris(chloropropyl)phosphate was the predominant profile of OPFRs in mangrove sediments from Shenzhen (38.9%) and Guangzhou (35.0%), while the composition profile of OPFRs in mangrove sediments from Zhuhai was dominated by tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (25.5%). The mass inventories of OPFRs in the mangrove sediments of Guangzhou, Zhuhai and Shenzhen were 439.5, 133.5 and 662.3 ng cm -2 , respectively. Redundancy analysis revealed that OPFRs induced a shift in the structure of mangrove sediment microbial community and the variations were significantly correlated with tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of pH, temperature, and salt on the stability of Escherichia coli- and Chinese hamster ovary cell-derived IgG1 Fc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cynthia H; Narhi, Linda O; Wen, Jie; Dimitrova, Mariana; Wen, Zai-qing; Li, Jenny; Pollastrini, Joseph; Nguyen, Xichdao; Tsuruda, Trace; Jiang, Yijia

    2012-12-18

    The circulation half-life of a potential therapeutic can be increased by fusing the molecule of interest (an active peptide, the extracellular domain of a receptor, an enzyme, etc.) to the Fc fragment of a monoclonal antibody. For the fusion protein to be a successful therapeutic, it must be stable to process and long-term storage conditions, as well as to physiological conditions. The stability of the Fc used is critical for obtaining a successful therapeutic protein. The effects of pH, temperature, and salt on the stabilities of Escherichia coli- and Chinese hamster ovary cell (CHO)-derived IgG1 Fc high-order structure were probed using a variety of biophysical techniques. Fc molecules derived from both E. coli and CHO were compared. The IgG1 Fc molecules from both sources (glycosylated and aglycosylated) are folded at neutral pH and behave similarly upon heat- and low pH-induced unfolding. The unfolding of both IgG1 Fc molecules occurs via a multistep unfolding process, with the tertiary structure and C(H)2 domain unfolding first, followed by changes in the secondary structure and C(H)3 domain. The acid-induced unfolding of IgG1 Fc molecules is only partially reversible, with the formation of high-molecular weight species. The CHO-derived Fc protein (glycosylated) is more compact (smaller hydrodynamic radius) than the E. coli-derived protein (aglycosylated) at neutral pH. Unfolding is dependent on pH and salt concentration. The glycosylated C(H)2 domain melts at a temperature 4-5 °C higher than that of the aglycosylated domain, and the low-pH-induced unfolding of the glycosylated Fc molecule occurs at a pH ~0.5 pH unit lower than that of the aglycosylated protein. The difference observed between E. coli- and CHO-derived Fc molecules primarily involves the C(H)2 domain, where the glycosylation of the Fc resides.

  2. Mechanism-based screen for G1/S checkpoint activators identifies a selective activator of EIF2AK3/PERK signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Simon R; Platt, Georgina; Barrie, S Elaine; Zoumpoulidou, Georgia; Te Poele, Robert H; Aherne, G Wynne; Wilson, Stuart C; Sheldrake, Peter; McDonald, Edward; Venet, Mathilde; Soudy, Christelle; Elustondo, Frédéric; Rigoreau, Laurent; Blagg, Julian; Workman, Paul; Garrett, Michelle D; Mittnacht, Sibylle

    2012-01-01

    Human cancers often contain genetic alterations that disable G1/S checkpoint control and loss of this checkpoint is thought to critically contribute to cancer generation by permitting inappropriate proliferation and distorting fate-driven cell cycle exit. The identification of cell permeable small molecules that activate the G1/S checkpoint may therefore represent a broadly applicable and clinically effective strategy for the treatment of cancer. Here we describe the identification of several novel small molecules that trigger G1/S checkpoint activation and characterise the mechanism of action for one, CCT020312, in detail. Transcriptional profiling by cDNA microarray combined with reverse genetics revealed phosphorylation of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2-alpha (EIF2A) through the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 3 (EIF2AK3/PERK) as the mechanism of action of this compound. While EIF2AK3/PERK activation classically follows endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signalling that sets off a range of different cellular responses, CCT020312 does not trigger these other cellular responses but instead selectively elicits EIF2AK3/PERK signalling. Phosphorylation of EIF2A by EIF2A kinases is a known means to block protein translation and hence restriction point transit in G1, but further supports apoptosis in specific contexts. Significantly, EIF2AK3/PERK signalling has previously been linked to the resistance of cancer cells to multiple anticancer chemotherapeutic agents, including drugs that target the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway and taxanes. Consistent with such findings CCT020312 sensitizes cancer cells with defective taxane-induced EIF2A phosphorylation to paclitaxel treatment. Our work therefore identifies CCT020312 as a novel small molecule chemical tool for the selective activation of EIF2A-mediated translation control with utility for proof-of-concept applications in EIF2A-centered therapeutic approaches, and as a chemical starting point for

  3. Clearance of Human IgG1-Sensitised Red Blood Cells In Vivo in Humans Relates to the In Vitro Properties of Antibodies from Alternative Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Kathryn L.; Smith, Cheryl S.; Ip, Natasha C. Y.; Ellison, Cara J.; Kirton, Christopher M.; Wilkes, Anthony M.; Williamson, Lorna M.; Clark, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    We previously produced a recombinant version of the human anti-RhD antibody Fog-1 in the rat myeloma cell line, YB2/0. When human, autologous RhD-positive red blood cells (RBC) were sensitised with this IgG1 antibody and re-injected, they were cleared much more rapidly from the circulation than had been seen earlier with the original human-mouse heterohybridoma-produced Fog-1. Since the IgG have the same amino acid sequence, this disparity is likely to be due to alternative glycosylation that results from the rat and mouse cell lines. By comparing the in vitro properties of YB2/0-produced Fog-1 IgG1 and the same antibody produced in the mouse myeloma cell line NS0, we now have a unique opportunity to pinpoint the cause of the difference in ability to clear RBC in vivo. Using transfected cell lines that express single human FcγR, we showed that IgG1 made in YB2/0 and NS0 cell lines bound equally well to receptors of the FcγRI and FcγRII classes but that the YB2/0 antibody was superior in FcγRIII binding. When measuring complexed IgG binding, the difference was 45-fold for FcγRIIIa 158F, 20-fold for FcγRIIIa 158V and approximately 40-fold for FcγRIIIb. The dissimilarity was greater at 100-fold in monomeric IgG binding assays with FcγRIIIa. When used to sensitise RBC, the YB2/0 IgG1 generated 100-fold greater human NK cell antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and had a 103-fold advantage over the NS0 antibody in activating NK cells, as detected by CD54 levels. In assays of monocyte activation and macrophage adherence/phagocytosis, where FcγRI plays major roles, RBC sensitised with the two antibodies produced much more similar results. Thus, the alternative glycosylation profiles of the Fog-1 antibodies affect only FcγRIII binding and FcγRIII-mediated functions. Relating this to the in vivo studies confirms the importance of FcγRIII in RBC clearance. PMID:25302805

  4. Baicalein induces G1 arrest in oral cancer cells by enhancing the degradation of cyclin D1 and activating AhR to decrease Rb phosphorylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Ya-Hsin, E-mail: yhcheng@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan, ROC (China); Li, Lih-Ann; Lin, Pinpin; Cheng, Li-Chuan [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan, ROC (China); Hung, Chein-Hui [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine Sciences, Chang Gung University, Puizi City, Chiayi 613, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Nai Wen [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Chingju [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2012-09-15

    Baicalein is a flavonoid, known to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. As an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand, baicalein at high concentrations blocks AhR-mediated dioxin toxicity. Because AhR had been reported to play a role in regulating the cell cycle, we suspected that the anti-cancer effect of baicalein is associated with AhR. This study investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the anti-cancer effect of baicalein in oral cancer cells HSC-3, including whether such effect would be AhR-mediated. Results revealed that baicalein inhibited cell proliferation and increased AhR activity in a dose-dependent manner. Cell cycle was arrested at the G1 phase and the expression of CDK4, cyclin D1, and phosphorylated retinoblastoma (pRb) was decreased. When the AhR was suppressed by siRNA, the reduction of pRb was partially reversed, accompanied by a decrease of cell population at G1 phase and an increase at S phase, while the reduction of cyclin D1 and CDK4 did not change. This finding suggests that the baicalein activation of AhR is indeed associated with the reduction of pRb, but is independent of the reduction of cyclin D1 and CDK4. When cells were pre-treated with LiCl, the inhibitor of GSK-3β, the decrease of cyclin D1 was blocked and the reduction of pRb was recovered. The data indicates that in HSC-3 the reduction of pRb is both mediated by baicalein through activation of AhR and facilitation of cyclin D1 degradation, which causes cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase, and results in the inhibition of cell proliferation. -- Highlights: ► Baicalein causes the G1 phase arrest by decreasing Rb phosphorylation. ► Baicalein modulates AhR-mediated cell proliferation. ► Both AhR activation and cyclin D1 degradation results in hypophosphorylation of Rb. ► Baicalein facilitates cyclin D1 degradation by signalling the GSK-3β pathway.

  5. Analyses of the peripheral immunome following multiple administrations of avelumab, a human IgG1 anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody

    OpenAIRE

    Donahue, Renee N.; Lepone, Lauren M.; Grenga, Italia; Jochems, Caroline; Fantini, Massimo; Madan, Ravi A.; Heery, Christopher R.; Gulley, James L.; Schlom, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    Background Multiple anti-PD-L1/PD-1 checkpoint monoclonal antibodies (MAb) have shown clear evidence of clinical benefit. All except one have been designed or engineered to omit the possibility to mediate antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) as a second potential mode of anti-tumor activity; the reason for this is the concern of lysis of PD-L1 positive immune cells. Avelumab is a fully human IgG1 MAb which has been shown in prior in vitro studies to mediate ADCC versus a range...

  6. Potential of Murine IgG1 and Human IgG4 to Inhibit the Classical Complement and Fcγ Receptor Activation Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina-Maria Lilienthal

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available IgG antibodies (Abs mediate their effector functions through the interaction with Fcγ receptors (FcγRs and the complement factors. The main IgG-mediated complement activation pathway is induced through the binding of complement C1q to IgG Abs. This interaction is dependent on antigen-dependent hexamer formation of human IgG1 and IgG3 to increase the affinity for the six-headed C1q molecule. By contrast, human IgG4 fails to bind to C1q. Instead, it has been suggested that human IgG4 can block IgG1 and IgG3 hexamerization required for their binding to C1q and activating the complement. Here, we show that murine IgG1, which functionally resembles human IgG4 by not interacting with C1q, inhibits the binding of IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG3 to C1q in vitro, and suppresses IgG2a-mediated complement activation in a hemolytic assay in an antigen-dependent and IgG subclass-specific manner. From this perspective, we discuss the potential of murine IgG1 and human IgG4 to block the complement activation as well as suppressive effects of sialylated IgG subclass Abs on FcγR-mediated immune cell activation. Accumulating evidence suggests that both mechanisms seem to be responsible for preventing uncontrolled IgG (autoAb-induced inflammation in mice and humans. Distinct IgG subclass distributions and functionally opposite IgG Fc glycosylation patterns might explain different outcomes of IgG-mediated immune responses and provide new therapeutic options through the induction, enrichment, or application of antigen-specific sialylated human IgG4 to prevent complement and FcγR activation as well.

  7. Folate deprivation induces cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and apoptosis in hippocampal neuron cells through down-regulation of IGF-1 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Li, Xi; Sun, Qinwei; He, Bin; Jia, Yimin; Cai, Demin; Zhao, Ruqian

    2016-10-01

    Folate deficiency contributes to impaired adult hippocampal neurogenesis, yet the mechanisms remain unclear. Here we use HT-22 hippocampal neuron cells as model to investigate the effect of folate deprivation (FD) on cell proliferation and apoptosis, and to elucidate the underlying mechanism. FD caused cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and increased the rate of apoptosis, which was associated with disrupted expression of folate transport and methyl transfer genes. FOLR1 and SLC46A1 were (Pmethyl transfer pathway and hypermethylation of IGF-1 gene promoter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Clearance of human IgG1-sensitised red blood cells in vivo in humans relates to the in vitro properties of antibodies from alternative cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn L Armour

    Full Text Available We previously produced a recombinant version of the human anti-RhD antibody Fog-1 in the rat myeloma cell line, YB2/0. When human, autologous RhD-positive red blood cells (RBC were sensitised with this IgG1 antibody and re-injected, they were cleared much more rapidly from the circulation than had been seen earlier with the original human-mouse heterohybridoma-produced Fog-1. Since the IgG have the same amino acid sequence, this disparity is likely to be due to alternative glycosylation that results from the rat and mouse cell lines. By comparing the in vitro properties of YB2/0-produced Fog-1 IgG1 and the same antibody produced in the mouse myeloma cell line NS0, we now have a unique opportunity to pinpoint the cause of the difference in ability to clear RBC in vivo. Using transfected cell lines that express single human FcγR, we showed that IgG1 made in YB2/0 and NS0 cell lines bound equally well to receptors of the FcγRI and FcγRII classes but that the YB2/0 antibody was superior in FcγRIII binding. When measuring complexed IgG binding, the difference was 45-fold for FcγRIIIa 158F, 20-fold for FcγRIIIa 158V and approximately 40-fold for FcγRIIIb. The dissimilarity was greater at 100-fold in monomeric IgG binding assays with FcγRIIIa. When used to sensitise RBC, the YB2/0 IgG1 generated 100-fold greater human NK cell antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and had a 103-fold advantage over the NS0 antibody in activating NK cells, as detected by CD54 levels. In assays of monocyte activation and macrophage adherence/phagocytosis, where FcγRI plays major roles, RBC sensitised with the two antibodies produced much more similar results. Thus, the alternative glycosylation profiles of the Fog-1 antibodies affect only FcγRIII binding and FcγRIII-mediated functions. Relating this to the in vivo studies confirms the importance of FcγRIII in RBC clearance.

  9. Chimeras of Bet v 1 and Api g 1 reveal heterogeneous IgE responses in patients with birch pollen allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gepp, Barbara; Lengger, Nina; Bublin, Merima; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Breiteneder, Heimo; Radauer, Christian

    2014-07-01

    Characterization of IgE-binding epitopes of allergens and determination of their patient-specific relevance is crucial for the diagnosis and treatment of allergy. We sought to assess the contribution of specific surface areas of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1.0101 to binding IgE of individual patients. Four distinct areas of Bet v 1 representing in total 81% of its surface were grafted onto the scaffold of its homolog, Api g 1.0101, to yield the chimeras Api-Bet-1 to Api-Bet-4. The chimeras were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. IgE binding of 64 sera from Bet v 1-sensitized subjects with birch pollen allergy was determined by using direct ELISA. Specificity was assessed by means of inhibition ELISA. rApi g 1.0101, Api-Bet-1, Api-Bet-2, Api-Bet-3, and Api-Bet-4 bound IgE from 44%, 89%, 80%, 78%, and 48% of the patients, respectively. By comparing the amount of IgE binding to the chimeras and to rApi g 1.0101, 81%, 70%, 75%, and 45% of the patients showed significantly enhanced IgE binding to Api-Bet-1, Api-Bet-2, Api-Bet-3, and Api-Bet-4, respectively. The minority (8%) of the sera revealed enhanced IgE binding exclusively to a single chimera, whereas 31% showed increased IgE binding to all 4 chimeras compared with rApi g 1.0101. The chimeras inhibited up to 70% of IgE binding to rBet v 1.0101, confirming the specific IgE recognition of the grafted regions. The Bet v 1-specific IgE response is polyclonal, and epitopes are spread across the entire Bet v 1 surface. Furthermore, the IgE recognition profile of Bet v 1 is highly patient specific. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The QCD Analysis Of The World Data On Structure Functions $g_{1}^{p,d,n}$ For Proton, Deuteron And Neutron

    CERN Document Server

    Savin, I A

    2007-01-01

    The fits of all published data on $g_{1}$, including the new COMPASS measurements of $g^{d}_{1}(x,Q^{2})$ , have been performed by using two different QCD evolution formalisms in the next-to-leading-order (NLO) approximation. In both methods we obtain two solutions for fitted parameters of the parton distribution functions (PDFs), one with $\\Delta G >$ 0 and the other - with $\\Delta G <$ 0, where $\\Delta G$ is the first moment of the polarized gluon distribution in nucleon.

  11. The 3-loop non-singlet heavy flavor contributions to the structure function g1(x,Q2 at large momentum transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Behring

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We calculate the massive flavor non-singlet Wilson coefficient for the heavy flavor contributions to the polarized structure function g1(x,Q2 in the asymptotic region Q2≫m2 to 3-loop order in Quantum Chromodynamics at general values of the Mellin variable N and the momentum fraction x, and derive heavy flavor corrections to the Bjorken sum-rule. Numerical results are presented for the charm quark contribution. Results on the structure function g2(x,Q2 in the twist-2 approximation are also given.

  12. Sediment management for reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.

    2005-01-01

    All natural lakes and reservoirs whether on rivers, tributaries or off channel storages are doomed to be sited up. Pakistan has two major reservoirs of Tarbela and Managla and shallow lake created by Chashma Barrage. Tarbela and Mangla Lakes are losing their capacities ever since first impounding, Tarbela since 1974 and Mangla since 1967. Tarbela Reservoir receives average annual flow of about 62 MAF and sediment deposits of 0.11 MAF whereas Mangla gets about 23 MAF of average annual flows and is losing its storage at the rate of average 34,000 MAF annually. The loss of storage is a great concern and studies for Tarbela were carried out by TAMS and Wallingford to sustain its capacity whereas no study has been done for Mangla as yet except as part of study for Raised Mangla, which is only desk work. Delta of Tarbala reservoir has advanced to about 6.59 miles (Pivot Point) from power intakes. In case of liquefaction of delta by tremor as low as 0.12g peak ground acceleration the power tunnels I, 2 and 3 will be blocked. Minimum Pool of reservoir is being raised so as to check the advance of delta. Mangla delta will follow the trend of Tarbela. Tarbela has vast amount of data as reservoir is surveyed every year, whereas Mangla Reservoir survey was done at five-year interval, which has now been proposed .to be reduced to three-year interval. In addition suspended sediment sampling of inflow streams is being done by Surface Water Hydrology Project of WAPDA as also some bed load sampling. The problem of Chasma Reservoir has also been highlighted, as it is being indiscriminately being filled up and drawdown several times a year without regard to its reaction to this treatment. The Sediment Management of these reservoirs is essential and the paper discusses pros and cons of various alternatives. (author)

  13. Evaluation of the effect of temperature, pH, and bioproduction on Hg concentration in sediments, water, molluscs and algae of the delta of the Ebro river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmacher, M; Domingo, J L; Llobet, J M; Corbella, J

    1993-01-01

    The effects of temperature, pH, and bioproduction on mercury levels in sediments, water, molluscs and algae from the delta of the Ebro river (NE Spain) were determined in this study. Mercury concentrations were measured in a cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The ranges of mercury concentrations were the following: sediments, 0.014-0.185 microgram g-1; water, 0.001-0.018 microgram g-1; molluscs, 0.118-0.861 microgram g-1; and algae 0.008-0.026 microgram g-1. Although not statistically significant, a decrease in the pH of the water corresponded with a diminution in the content of mercury in sediments and molluscs, while the mercury levels in water and algae were lower in the areas with high levels of bioproduction. The concentrations of mercury in water significantly decreased with temperature. However, the differences with temperature of the mercury concentrations in sediments did not reach the level of significance. Consequently, water would not be an adequate indicator to determine the levels of mercury contamination, although both sediments and molluscs can be used for this purpose.

  14. Sediment problems in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Harold P.

    1970-01-01

    A recognition of and solution to sediment problems in urban areas is necessary if society is to have an acceptable living environment. Soil erosion and sediment deposition in urban areas are as much an environmental blight as badly paved and littered streets, dilapidated buildings, billboard clutter, inept land use, and air, water, and noise pollution. In addition, sediment has many direct and indirect effects on streams that may be either part of or very remote from the urban environment. Sediment, for example, is widely recognized as a pollutant of streams and other water bodies.

  15. Sediment Geo-Probe System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides wideband in situ measurement capability of compressional wave speed and attenuation and their spatial variability in marine sediments.DESCRIPTION:...

  16. Glacimarine environments: processes and sediments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dowdeswell, J. A; Scourse, James D

    1990-01-01

    .... Sediments released from glaciers grounded in tidewater, floating ice shelves, ice tongues, icebergs and sea ice form complex sequences governed by glaciological, oceanographic, sedimentary and biogenic controls...

  17. Validation of methodology for determination of the mercury methylation potential in sediments using radiotracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zizek, Suzana; Horvat, Milena; Ribeiro Guevara, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    Experiments to determine the mercury methylation potential were performed on sediments from two locations on the river Idrijca (Slovenia), differing in ambient mercury concentrations. The tracer used was the radioactive isotope 197 Hg. The benefit of using this tracer is its high specific activity, which enables spikes as low as 0.02 ng Hg 2+ g -1 of sample to be used. It was therefore possible to compare the efficiency of the methylation potential experiments over a range of spike concentrations from picogram to microgram levels. The first part of the work aimed to validate the experimental blanks and the second part consisted of several series of incubation experiments on two different river sediments using a range of tracer additions. The results showed high variability in the obtained methylation potentials. Increasing Hg 2+ additions gave a decrease in the percentage of the tracer methylated during incubation; in absolute terms, the spikes that spanned four orders of magnitude (0.019-190 pg g -1 of sediment slurry) resulted in MeHg formation between 0.01 and 0.1 ng MeHg g -1 in Podroteja and Kozarska Grapa. Higher spikes resulted in slightly elevated MeHg production (up to a maximum of 0.27 ng g -1 ). The values of methylation potential were similar in both sediments. The results imply that the experimental determination of mercury methylation potential strongly depends on the experimental setup itself and the amount of tracer added to the system under study. It is therefore recommended to use different concentrations of tracer and perform the experiments in several replicates. The amount of mercury available for methylation in nature is usually very small. Therefore, adding very low amounts of tracer in the methylation potential studies probably gives results that have a higher environmental relevance. It is also suggested to express the results obtained in absolute amounts of MeHg produced and not just as the percentage of the added tracer. (orig.)

  18. Validation of methodology for determination of the mercury methylation potential in sediments using radiotracers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizek, Suzana; Ribeiro Guevara, Sergio; Horvat, Milena

    2008-04-01

    Experiments to determine the mercury methylation potential were performed on sediments from two locations on the river Idrijca (Slovenia), differing in ambient mercury concentrations. The tracer used was the radioactive isotope (197)Hg. The benefit of using this tracer is its high specific activity, which enables spikes as low as 0.02 ng Hg(2+) g(-1) of sample to be used. It was therefore possible to compare the efficiency of the methylation potential experiments over a range of spike concentrations from picogram to microgram levels. The first part of the work aimed to validate the experimental blanks and the second part consisted of several series of incubation experiments on two different river sediments using a range of tracer additions. The results showed high variability in the obtained methylation potentials. Increasing Hg(2+) additions gave a decrease in the percentage of the tracer methylated during incubation; in absolute terms, the spikes that spanned four orders of magnitude (0.019-190 pg g(-1) of sediment slurry) resulted in MeHg formation between 0.01 and 0.1 ng MeHg g(-1) in Podroteja and Kozarska Grapa. Higher spikes resulted in slightly elevated MeHg production (up to a maximum of 0.27 ng g(-1)). The values of methylation potential were similar in both sediments. The results imply that the experimental determination of mercury methylation potential strongly depends on the experimental setup itself and the amount of tracer added to the system under study. It is therefore recommended to use different concentrations of tracer and perform the experiments in several replicates. The amount of mercury available for methylation in nature is usually very small. Therefore, adding very low amounts of tracer in the methylation potential studies probably gives results that have a higher environmental relevance. It is also suggested to express the results obtained in absolute amounts of MeHg produced and not just as the percentage of the added tracer.

  19. Studies of nontarget-mediated distribution of human full-length IgG1 antibody and its FAb fragment in cardiovascular and metabolic-related tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsson, Pia; Söderling, Ann-Sofi; Svensson, Lena; Ahnmark, Andrea; Flodin, Christine; Wanag, Ewa; Screpanti-Sundqvist, Valentina; Gennemark, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Tissue distribution and pharmacokinetics (PK) of full-length nontargeted antibody and its antigen-binding fragment (FAb) were evaluated for a range of tissues primarily of interest for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Mice were intravenously injected with a dose of 10 mg/kg of either human IgG1or its FAb fragment; perfused tissues were collected at a range of time points over 3 weeks for the human IgG1 antibody and 1 week for the human FAb antibody. Tissues were homogenized and antibody concentrations were measured by specific immunoassays on the Gyros system. Exposure in terms of maximum concentration (Cmax ) and area under the curve was assessed for all nine tissues. Tissue exposure of full-length antibody relative to plasma exposure was found to be between 1% and 10%, except for brain (0.2%). Relative concentrations of FAb antibody were the same, except for kidney tissue, where the antibody concentration was found to be ten times higher than in plasma. However, the absolute tissue uptake of full-length IgG was significantly higher than the absolute tissue uptake of the FAb antibody. This study provides a reference PK state for full-length whole and FAb antibodies in tissues related to cardiovascular and metabolic diseases that do not include antigen or antibody binding. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  20. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus cysts in north Indian patients: identification of G1, G3, G5 and G6 genotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Sharma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cystic echinococcosis (CE caused by the Echinococcus granulosus, is a major public health problem worldwide, including India. The different genotypes of E. granulosus responsible for human hydatidosis have been reported from endemic areas throughout the world. However, the genetic characterization of E. granulosus infecting the human population in India is lacking. The aim of study was to ascertain the genotype(s of the parasite responsible for human hydatidosis in North India. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To study the transmission patterns of E. granulosus, genotypic analysis was performed on hydatid cysts obtained from 32 cystic echinococcosis (CE patients residing in 7 different states of North India. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit1 (cox1 sequencing was done for molecular identification of the isolates. Most of the CE patients (30/32 were found to be infected with hydatid cyst of either G3 (53.1% or G1 (40.62% genotype and one each of G5 (cattle strain and G6 (camel strain genotype. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate the zoonotic potential of G1 (sheep strain and G3 (buffalo strain genotypes of E. granulosus as these emerged as predominant genotypes infecting the humans in India. In addition to this, the present study reports the first human CE case infected with G5 genotype (cattle strain in an Asian country and presence of G6 genotype (camel strain in India. The results may have important implications in the planning of control strategies for human hydatidosis.

  1. Nuclear accumulation of epidermal growth factor receptor and acceleration of G1/S stage by Epstein-Barr-encoded oncoprotein latent membrane protein 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Yongguang; Song Xing; Deng Xiyun; Xie Daxin; Lee, Leo M.; Liu Yiping; Li Wei; Li Lili; Deng Lin; Wu Qiao; Gong Jianping; Cao Ya

    2005-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is considered to be the major oncogenic protein of EBV-encoded proteins and has always been the core of the oncogenic mechanism of EBV. Advanced studies on nuclear translocation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family have greatly improved our knowledge of the biological function of cell surface receptors. In this study, we used the Tet-on LMP1 HNE2 cell line as a cell model, which is a dual-stable LMP1-integrated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell line and the expression of LMP1 which could be regulated by the Tet system. We found that LMP1 could regulate the nuclear accumulation of EGFR in a dose-dependent manner quantitatively and qualitatively. We also demonstrated that the nuclear localization sequence of EGFR played some roles in the location of the protein within the nucleus under LMP1 regulation and EGFR in the nucleus could bind to the promoters of cyclinD1 and cyclinE, respectively. We further demonstrated that EGFR is involved in the acceleration of the G1/S phase transition by LMP1 through binding to cyclinD1 and cyclinE directly. These findings provided a novel view that the acceleration of LMP1 on the G1/S transition via the nuclear accumulation of EGFR was critical in the process of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

  2. Evaluation of the nature, origin and potentiality of the subsurface Middle Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous source rocks in Melleiha G-1x well, North Western Desert, Egypt