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Sample records for u2 snrnp addition

  1. Evidence that C9ORF72 Dipeptide Repeat Proteins Associate with U2 snRNP to Cause Mis-splicing in ALS/FTD Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shanye; Lopez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Kunz, Ryan C; Gangopadhyay, Jaya; Borufka, Carl; Gygi, Steven P; Gao, Fen-Biao; Reed, Robin

    2017-06-13

    Hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9ORF72 gene results in production of dipeptide repeat (DPR) proteins that may disrupt pre-mRNA splicing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) patients. At present, the mechanisms underlying this mis-splicing are not understood. Here, we show that addition of proline-arginine (PR) and glycine-arginine (GR) toxic DPR peptides to nuclear extracts blocks spliceosome assembly and splicing, but not other types of RNA processing. Proteomic and biochemical analyses identified the U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (snRNP) as a major interactor of PR and GR peptides. In addition, U2 snRNP, but not other splicing factors, mislocalizes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm both in C9ORF72 patient induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived motor neurons and in HeLa cells treated with the toxic peptides. Bioinformatic studies support a specific role for U2-snRNP-dependent mis-splicing in C9ORF72 patient brains. Together, our data indicate that DPR-mediated dysfunction of U2 snRNP could account for as much as ∼44% of the mis-spliced cassette exons in C9ORF72 patient brains. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evidence that C9ORF72 Dipeptide Repeat Proteins Associate with U2 snRNP to Cause Mis-splicing in ALS/FTD Patients

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    Shanye Yin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9ORF72 gene results in production of dipeptide repeat (DPR proteins that may disrupt pre-mRNA splicing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and frontotemporal dementia (FTD patients. At present, the mechanisms underlying this mis-splicing are not understood. Here, we show that addition of proline-arginine (PR and glycine-arginine (GR toxic DPR peptides to nuclear extracts blocks spliceosome assembly and splicing, but not other types of RNA processing. Proteomic and biochemical analyses identified the U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (snRNP as a major interactor of PR and GR peptides. In addition, U2 snRNP, but not other splicing factors, mislocalizes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm both in C9ORF72 patient induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC-derived motor neurons and in HeLa cells treated with the toxic peptides. Bioinformatic studies support a specific role for U2-snRNP-dependent mis-splicing in C9ORF72 patient brains. Together, our data indicate that DPR-mediated dysfunction of U2 snRNP could account for as much as ∼44% of the mis-spliced cassette exons in C9ORF72 patient brains.

  3. Cytoplasmic assembly of snRNP particles from stored proteins and newly transcribed snRNA's in L929 mouse fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauterer, R.A.; Feeney, R.J.; Zieve, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    Newly synthesized snRNAs appear transiently in the cytoplasm where they assemble into ribonucleoprotein particles, the snRNP particles, before returning permanently to the interphase nucleus. In this report, bona fide cytoplasmic fractions, prepared by cell enucleation, are used for a quantitative analysis of snRNP assembly in growing mouse fibroblasts. The half-lives and abundances of the snRNP precursors in the cytoplasm and the rates of snRNP assembly are calculated in L929 cells. With the exception of U6, the major snRNAs are stable RNA species; U1 is almost totally stable while U2 has a half-life of about two cell cycles. In contrast, the majority of newly synthesized U6 decays with a half-life of about 15 h. The relative abundances of the newly synthesized snRNA species U1, U2, U3, U4 and U6 in the cytoplasm are determined by Northern hybridization using cloned probes and are approximately 2% of their nuclear abundance. The half-lives of the two major snRNA precursors in the cytoplasm (U1 and U2) are approximately 20 min as determined by labeling to steady state. The relative abundance of the snRNP B protein in the cytoplasm is determined by Western blotting with the Sm class of autoantibodies and is approximately 25% of the nuclear abundance. Kinetic studies, using the Sm antiserum to immunoprecipitate the methionine-labeled snRNP proteins, suggest that the B protein has a half-life of 90 to 120 min in the cytoplasm. These data are discussed and suggest that there is a large pool of more stable snRNP proteins in the cytoplasm available for assembly with the less abundant but more rapidly turning-over snRNAs

  4. The recruitment of the U5 snRNP to nascent transcripts requires internal loop 1 of U5 snRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Rebecca; Paschedag, Joshua; Novikova, Natalya; Bellini, Michel

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we take advantage of the high spatial resolution offered by the nucleus and lampbrush chromosomes of the amphibian oocyte to investigate the mechanisms that regulate the intranuclear trafficking of the U5 snRNP and its recruitment to nascent transcripts. We monitor the fate of newly assembled fluorescent U5 snRNP in Xenopus oocytes depleted of U4 and/or U6 snRNAs and demonstrate that the U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP is not required for the association of U5 snRNP with Cajal bodies, splicing speckles, and nascent transcripts. In addition, using a mutational analysis, we show that a non-functional U5 snRNP can associate with nascent transcripts, and we further characterize internal loop structure 1 of U5 snRNA as a critical element for licensing U5 snRNP to target both nascent transcripts and splicing speckles. Collectively, our data support the model where the recruitment of snRNPs onto pre-mRNAs is independent of spliceosome assembly and suggest that U5 snRNP may promote the association of the U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP with nascent transcripts.

  5. Knocking Down Snrnp200 Initiates Demorphogenesis of Rod Photoreceptors in Zebrafish

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    Yuan Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The small nuclear ribonucleoprotein 200 kDa (SNRNP200 gene is a fundamental component for precursor message RNA (pre-mRNA splicing and has been implicated in the etiology of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP. This study aims to determine the consequences of knocking down Snrnp200 in zebrafish. Methods. Expression of the Snrnp200 transcript in zebrafish was determined via whole mount in situ hybridization. Morpholino oligonucleotide (MO aiming to knock down the expression of Snrnp200 was injected into zebrafish embryos, followed by analyses of aberrant splicing and expression of the U4/U6-U5 tri-small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs components and retina-specific transcripts. Systemic changes and retinal phenotypes were further characterized by histological study and immunofluorescence staining. Results. Snrnp200 was ubiquitously expressed in zebrafish. Knocking down Snrnp200 in zebrafish triggered aberrant splicing of the cbln1 gene, upregulation of other U4/U6-U5 tri-snRNP components, and downregulation of a panel of retina-specific transcripts. Systemic defects were found correlated with knockdown of Snrnp200 in zebrafish. Only demorphogenesis of rod photoreceptors was detected in the initial stage, mimicking the disease characteristics of RP. Conclusions. We conclude that knocking down Snrnp200 in zebrafish could alter regular splicing and expression of a panel of genes, which may eventually trigger rod defects.

  6. Tim50a, a nuclear isoform of the mitochondrial Tim50, interacts with proteins involved in snRNP biogenesis

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    Robinson Melvin L

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cajal body (CB is a nuclear suborganelle involved in the biogenesis of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs, which are vital for pre-mRNA splicing. Newly imported Sm-class snRNPs traffic through CBs, where the snRNA component of the snRNP is modified, and then target to other nuclear domains such as speckles and perichromatin fibrils. It is not known how nascent snRNPs localize to the CB and are released from this structure after modification. The marker protein for CBs, coilin, may play a role in snRNP biogenesis given that it can interact with snRNPs and SMN, the protein mutated in Spinal Muscular Atrophy. Loss of coilin function in mice leads to significant viability and fertility problems and altered CB formation. Results In this report, we identify a minor isoform of the mitochondrial Tim50, Tim50a, as a coilin interacting protein. The Tim50a transcript can be detected in some cancer cell lines and normal brain tissue. The Tim50a protein differs only from Tim50 in that it contains an additional 103 aa N-terminal to the translation start of Tim50. Importantly, a putative nuclear localization signal is found within these 103 residues. In contrast to Tim50, which localizes to the cytoplasm and mitochondria, Tim50a is strictly nuclear and is enriched in speckles with snRNPs. In addition to coilin, Tim50a interacts with snRNPs and SMN. Competition binding experiments demonstrate that coilin competes with Sm proteins of snRNPs and SMN for binding sites on Tim50a. Conclusion Tim50a may play a role in snRNP biogenesis given its cellular localization and protein interaction characteristics. We hypothesize that Tim50a takes part in the release of snRNPs and SMN from the CB.

  7. The Arabidopsis splicing factors, AtU2AF65, AtU2AF35, and AtSF1 shuttle between nuclei and cytoplasms

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Hyo-Young

    2017-04-21

    The Arabidopsis splicing factors, AtU2AF65, AtU2AF35, and AtSF1 shuttle between nuclei and cytoplasms. These proteins also move rapidly and continuously in the nuclei, and their movements are affected by ATP depletion. The U2AF65 proteins are splicing factors that interact with SF1 and U2AF35 proteins to promote U2snRNP for the recognition of the pre-mRNA 3\\' splice site during early spliceosome assembly. We have determined the subcellular localization and movement of these proteins\\' Arabidopsis homologs. It was found that Arabidopsis U2AF65 homologs, AtU2AF65a, and AtU2AF65b proteins interact with AtU2AF35a and AtU2AF35b, which are Arabidopsis U2AF35 homologs. We have examined the mobility of these proteins including AtSF1 using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and fluorescence loss in photobleaching analyses. These proteins displayed dynamic movements in nuclei and their movements were affected by ATP depletion. We have also demonstrated that these proteins shuttle between nuclei and cytoplasms, suggesting that they may also function in cytoplasm. These results indicate that such splicing factors show very similar characteristics to their human counterparts, suggesting evolutionary conservation.

  8. The Arabidopsis splicing factors, AtU2AF65, AtU2AF35, and AtSF1 shuttle between nuclei and cytoplasms

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Hyo-Young; Lee, Keh Chien; Jang, Yun Hee; Kim, SoonKap; Thu, May Phyo; Lee, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Jeong-Kook

    2017-01-01

    The Arabidopsis splicing factors, AtU2AF65, AtU2AF35, and AtSF1 shuttle between nuclei and cytoplasms. These proteins also move rapidly and continuously in the nuclei, and their movements are affected by ATP depletion. The U2AF65 proteins are splicing factors that interact with SF1 and U2AF35 proteins to promote U2snRNP for the recognition of the pre-mRNA 3' splice site during early spliceosome assembly. We have determined the subcellular localization and movement of these proteins' Arabidopsis homologs. It was found that Arabidopsis U2AF65 homologs, AtU2AF65a, and AtU2AF65b proteins interact with AtU2AF35a and AtU2AF35b, which are Arabidopsis U2AF35 homologs. We have examined the mobility of these proteins including AtSF1 using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and fluorescence loss in photobleaching analyses. These proteins displayed dynamic movements in nuclei and their movements were affected by ATP depletion. We have also demonstrated that these proteins shuttle between nuclei and cytoplasms, suggesting that they may also function in cytoplasm. These results indicate that such splicing factors show very similar characteristics to their human counterparts, suggesting evolutionary conservation.

  9. Spliceosome SNRNP200 Promotes Viral RNA Sensing and IRF3 Activation of Antiviral Response.

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    Nicolas Tremblay

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Spliceosomal SNRNP200 is a Ski2-like RNA helicase that is associated with retinitis pigmentosa 33 (RP33. Here we found that SNRNP200 promotes viral RNA sensing and IRF3 activation through the ability of its amino-terminal Sec63 domain (Sec63-1 to bind RNA and to interact with TBK1. We show that SNRNP200 relocalizes into TBK1-containing cytoplasmic structures upon infection, in contrast to the RP33-associated S1087L mutant, which is also unable to rescue antiviral response of SNRNP200 knockdown cells. This functional rescue correlates with the Sec63-1-mediated binding of viral RNA. The hindered IFN-β production of knockdown cells was further confirmed in peripheral blood cells of RP33 patients bearing missense mutation in SNRNP200 upon infection with Sendai virus (SeV. This work identifies a novel immunoregulatory role of the spliceosomal SNRNP200 helicase as an RNA sensor and TBK1 adaptor for the activation of IRF3-mediated antiviral innate response.

  10. Usb1 controls U6 snRNP assembly through evolutionarily divergent cyclic phosphodiesterase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didychuk, Allison L; Montemayor, Eric J; Carrocci, Tucker J; DeLaitsch, Andrew T; Lucarelli, Stefani E; Westler, William M; Brow, David A; Hoskins, Aaron A; Butcher, Samuel E

    2017-09-08

    U6 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) biogenesis is essential for spliceosome assembly, but not well understood. Here, we report structures of the U6 RNA processing enzyme Usb1 from yeast and a substrate analog bound complex from humans. Unlike the human ortholog, we show that yeast Usb1 has cyclic phosphodiesterase activity that leaves a terminal 3' phosphate which prevents overprocessing. Usb1 processing of U6 RNA dramatically alters its affinity for cognate RNA-binding proteins. We reconstitute the post-transcriptional assembly of yeast U6 snRNP in vitro, which occurs through a complex series of handoffs involving 10 proteins (Lhp1, Prp24, Usb1 and Lsm2-8) and anti-cooperative interactions between Prp24 and Lhp1. We propose a model for U6 snRNP assembly that explains how evolutionarily divergent and seemingly antagonistic proteins cooperate to protect and chaperone the nascent snRNA during its journey to the spliceosome.The mechanism of U6 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) biogenesis is not well understood. Here the authors characterize the enzymatic activities and structures of yeast and human U6 RNA processing enzyme Usb1, reconstitute post-transcriptional assembly of yeast U6 snRNP in vitro, and propose a model for U6 snRNP assembly.

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a U2AF65 variant in complex with a polypyrimidine-tract analogue by use of protein engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sickmier, E. Allen; Frato, Katherine E.; Kielkopf, Clara L.

    2006-01-01

    A complex of the essential splicing factor U2AF 65 and a deoxyuridine oligonucleotide has been crystallized by modification of an interdomain linker. The large subunit of the essential pre-mRNA splicing factor U2 auxiliary factor (U2AF 65 ) binds the polypyrimidine tract near the 3′ splice site of pre-mRNA introns and directs the association of the U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (U2 snRNP) of the spliceosome with the pre-mRNA. Protein engineering, in which the flexible linker region connecting tandem RNA-recognition motifs (RRMs) within the U2AF 65 RNA-binding domain was partially deleted, allowed successful crystallization of the protein–nucleic acid complex. Cocrystals of a U2AF 65 variant with a deoxyuridine dodecamer diffract X-rays to 2.9 Å resolution and contain one complex per asymmetric unit

  12. Spinal Muscular Atrophy: From Defective Chaperoning of snRNP Assembly to Neuromuscular Dysfunction

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    Maia Lanfranco

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA is a neuromuscular disorder that results from decreased levels of the survival motor neuron (SMN protein. SMN is part of a multiprotein complex that also includes Gemins 2–8 and Unrip. The SMN-Gemins complex cooperates with the protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5 complex, whose constituents include WD45, PRMT5 and pICln. Both complexes function as molecular chaperones, interacting with and assisting in the assembly of an Sm protein core onto small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs to generate small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs, which are the operating components of the spliceosome. Molecular and structural studies have refined our knowledge of the key events taking place within the crowded environment of cells and the numerous precautions undertaken to ensure the faithful assembly of snRNPs. Nonetheless, it remains unclear whether a loss of chaperoning in snRNP assembly, considered as a “housekeeping” activity, is responsible for the selective neuromuscular phenotype in SMA. This review thus shines light on in vivo studies that point toward disturbances in snRNP assembly and the consequential transcriptome abnormalities as the primary drivers of the progressive neuromuscular degeneration underpinning the disease. Disruption of U1 snRNP or snRNP assembly factors other than SMN induces phenotypes that mirror aspects of SMN deficiency, and splicing defects, described in numerous SMA models, can lead to a DNA damage and stress response that compromises the survival of the motor system. Restoring the correct chaperoning of snRNP assembly is therefore predicted to enhance the benefit of SMA therapeutic modalities based on augmenting SMN expression.

  13. The 7SK snRNP associates with the little elongation complex to promote snRNA gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egloff, Sylvain; Vitali, Patrice; Tellier, Michael; Raffel, Raoul; Murphy, Shona; Kiss, Tamás

    2017-04-03

    The 7SK small nuclear RNP (snRNP), composed of the 7SK small nuclear RNA (snRNA), MePCE, and Larp7, regulates the mRNA elongation capacity of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) through controlling the nuclear activity of positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb). Here, we demonstrate that the human 7SK snRNP also functions as a canonical transcription factor that, in collaboration with the little elongation complex (LEC) comprising ELL, Ice1, Ice2, and ZC3H8, promotes transcription of RNAPII-specific spliceosomal snRNA and small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) genes. The 7SK snRNA specifically associates with a fraction of RNAPII hyperphosphorylated at Ser5 and Ser7, which is a hallmark of RNAPII engaged in snRNA synthesis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and chromatin isolation by RNA purification (ChIRP) experiments revealed enrichments for all components of the 7SK snRNP on RNAPII-specific sn/snoRNA genes. Depletion of 7SK snRNA or Larp7 disrupts LEC integrity, inhibits RNAPII recruitment to RNAPII-specific sn/snoRNA genes, and reduces nascent snRNA and snoRNA synthesis. Thus, through controlling both mRNA elongation and sn/snoRNA synthesis, the 7SK snRNP is a key regulator of nuclear RNA production by RNAPII. © 2017 The Authors.

  14. Genome-wide analysis of KAP1, the 7SK snRNP complex, and RNA polymerase II

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    Ryan P. McNamara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The transition of RNA polymerase II (Pol II from transcription initiation into productive elongation in eukaryotic cells is regulated by the P-TEFb kinase, which phosphorylates the C-terminal domain of paused Pol II at promoter-proximal regions. Our recent study found that P-TEFb (in an inhibited state bound to the 7SK snRNP complex interacts with the KAP1/TRIM28 transcriptional regulator, and that KAP1 and the 7SK snRNP co-occupy most gene promoters containing paused Pol II. Here we provide a detailed experimental description and analysis of the ChIP-seq datasets that have been deposited into Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO: GS72622, so that independent groups can replicate and expand upon these findings. We propose these datasets would provide valuable information for researchers studying mechanisms of transcriptional regulation including Pol II pausing and pause release. Keywords: P-TEFb/7SK snRNP, KAP1, RNA polymerase II, ChIP-seq, Transcription elongation

  15. Isoforms of U1-70k control subunit dynamics in the human spliceosomal U1 snRNP.

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    Helena Hernández

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Most human protein-encoding genes contain multiple exons that are spliced together, frequently in alternative arrangements, by the spliceosome. It is established that U1 snRNP is an essential component of the spliceosome, in human consisting of RNA and ten proteins, several of which are post-translationally modified and exist as multiple isoforms. Unresolved and challenging to investigate are the effects of these post translational modifications on the dynamics, interactions and stability of the particle. Using mass spectrometry we investigate the composition and dynamics of the native human U1 snRNP and compare native and recombinant complexes to isolate the effects of various subunits and isoforms on the overall stability. Our data reveal differential incorporation of four protein isoforms and dynamic interactions of subunits U1-A, U1-C and Sm-B/B'. Results also show that unstructured post-translationally modified C-terminal tails are responsible for the dynamics of Sm-B/B' and U1-C and that their interactions with the Sm core are controlled by binding to different U1-70k isoforms and their phosphorylation status in vivo. These results therefore provide the important functional link between proteomics and structure as well as insight into the dynamic quaternary structure of the native U1 snRNP important for its function.

  16. U1 snRNP Alteration and Neuronal Cell Cycle Reentry in Alzheimer Disease

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    Bing Bai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aberrancy of U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP complex and RNA splicing has been demonstrated in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Importantly, the U1 proteopathy is AD-specific, widespread and early-occurring, thus providing a very unique clue to the AD pathogenesis. The prominent feature of U1 histopathology is its nuclear depletion and redistribution in the neuronal cytoplasm. According to the preliminary data, the initial U1 cytoplasmic distribution pattern is similar to the subcellular translocation of the spliceosome in cells undergoing mitosis. This implies that the U1 mislocalization might reflect the neuronal cell cycle-reentry (CCR which has been extensively evidenced in AD brains. The CCR phenomenon explains the major molecular and cellular events in AD brains, such as Tau and amyloid precursor protein (APP phosphorylation, and the possible neuronal death through mitotic catastrophe (MC. Furthermore, the CCR might be mechanistically linked to inflammation, a critical factor in the AD etiology according to the genetic evidence. Therefore, the discovery of U1 aberrancy might strengthen the involvement of CCR in the AD neuronal degeneration.

  17. Functional organization of the Sm core in the crystal structure of human U1 snRNP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Gert; Trowitzsch, Simon; Kastner, Berthold; Lührmann, Reinhard; Wahl, Markus C

    2010-12-15

    U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) recognizes the 5'-splice site early during spliceosome assembly. It represents a prototype spliceosomal subunit containing a paradigmatic Sm core RNP. The crystal structure of human U1 snRNP obtained from natively purified material by in situ limited proteolysis at 4.4 Å resolution reveals how the seven Sm proteins, each recognize one nucleotide of the Sm site RNA using their Sm1 and Sm2 motifs. Proteins D1 and D2 guide the snRNA into and out of the Sm ring, and proteins F and E mediate a direct interaction between the Sm site termini. Terminal extensions of proteins D1, D2 and B/B', and extended internal loops in D2 and B/B' support a four-way RNA junction and a 3'-terminal stem-loop on opposite sides of the Sm core RNP, respectively. On a higher organizational level, the core RNP presents multiple attachment sites for the U1-specific 70K protein. The intricate, multi-layered interplay of proteins and RNA rationalizes the hierarchical assembly of U snRNPs in vitro and in vivo.

  18. Variability in clinical phenotypes of PRPF8-linked autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa correlates with differential PRPF8/SNRNP200 interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, Pascal; Passarin, Olga; Munier, Francis L; Tran, Viet H; Vaclavik, Veronika

    2018-01-01

    To expand the genotype/phenotype correlations in patients with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP) harboring PRPF8 variants. Two patients, a father and his daughter, harboring a novel p.PRPF8-Glu2331* variant, underwent ophthalmic examination at 3-year-interval, including fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence, optical coherence tomography, and ISCEV standard full field ERGs. All reported disease-causing PRPF8 variants were collected and localized in the PRPF8 and PRPF8/SNRNP200 protein structures. The p.PRPF8-Glu2331* variant results in a truncated PRPF8 protein lacking the last five C-terminal amino acids and caused in the two patients a severe clinical phenotype, with the macula being affected from the second decade on. All but two adRP-linked variants are located in the last exon 43 encoding the C-terminal tail of the C-terminal PRPF8 Jab1 domain. The p.PRPF8-Ser2118Phe and -Asn2280Lys variants encoded by exons 39 and 42, respectively, are located at the basis of the C-terminal tail. Frame-shift mutations and nonconservative amino acid changes in PRPF8 typically cause severe clinical phenotypes. The conservative missense variant p.PRPF8-Arg2310Lys that is not altering the global charge of the C-terminal tail, and variants located at the basis of the C-terminal tail show milder clinical phenotypes, in accordance with functional data on PRPF8/SNRNP200 interactions in yeast.

  19. U2 laulusõnade tundmine lennutab Hawaile

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Iiri bänd U2 algatas oma uue albumi "U2 18 Singles väljatuleku puhul internetis võistluse "Hunt The Lyric", kus fännidel on võimalus võita reis Hawaile (reisi paketis ka U2 "Vertigo" tuuri kontsert 9. dets.)

  20. Path integral for coherent states of the dynamical U2 group and U2/1 supergroup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochetov, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    A part-integral formulation in the representation of coherent states for the unitary U 2 group and U 2/1 supergroup is introduced. U 2 and U 2/1 path integrals are shown to be defined on the coset spaces U 2 /U 1 xU 1 and U 2/1 /U 1/1 xU 1 , respectively. These coset appears as curved classical phase spaces. Partition functions are expressed as path integrals over these spaces. In the case when U 2 and U 2/1 are the dynamical groups, the corresponding path integrals are evaluated with the help of linear fractional transformations that appear as the group (supergroup) action in the coset space (superspace). Possible applications for quantum models are discussed. 9 refs

  1. Unobtrusive Software and System Health Management with R2U2 on a Parallel MIMD Coprocessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Johann; Moosbrugger, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic monitoring of software and system health of a complex cyber-physical system requires observers that continuously monitor variables of the embedded software in order to detect anomalies and reason about root causes. There exists a variety of techniques for code instrumentation, but instrumentation might change runtime behavior and could require costly software re-certification. In this paper, we present R2U2E, a novel realization of our real-time, Realizable, Responsive, and Unobtrusive Unit (R2U2). The R2U2E observers are executed in parallel on a dedicated 16-core EPIPHANY co-processor, thereby avoiding additional computational overhead to the system under observation. A DMA-based shared memory access architecture allows R2U2E to operate without any code instrumentation or program interference.

  2. Local U(2,2) Symmetry in Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Finster, Felix

    1997-01-01

    Local gauge freedom in relativistic quantum mechanics is derived from a measurement principle for space and time. For the Dirac equation, one obtains local U(2,2) gauge transformations acting on the spinor index of the wave functions. This local U(2,2) symmetry allows a unified description of electrodynamics and general relativity as a classical gauge theory.

  3. Local U(2,2) symmetry in relativistic quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, Felix

    1998-12-01

    Local gauge freedom in relativistic quantum mechanics is derived from a measurement principle for space and time. For the Dirac equation, one obtains local U(2,2) gauge transformations acting on the spinor index of the wave functions. This local U(2,2) symmetry allows a unified description of electrodynamics and general relativity as a classical gauge theory.

  4. U-2 Bono sünnipäevapidu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    10. mail toimub Guitar Safari pubis Estonian U Fan Clubi eestvedamisel ansambli U-2 laulja-kitarristi Bono sünnipäevakontert. Üritust soojendab DJ Zwillig ning peaesinejateks on ansamblid The Bluesyard ja Sequence

  5. A Realistic $U(2)$ Model of Flavor arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Linster, Matthias

    We propose a simple $U(2)$ model of flavor compatible with an $SU(5)$ GUT structure. All hierarchies in fermion masses and mixings arise from powers of two small parameters that control the $U(2)$ breaking. In contrast to previous $U(2)$ models this setup can be realized without supersymmetry and provides an excellent fit to all SM flavor observables including neutrinos. We also consider a variant of this model based on a $D_6 \\times U(1)_F$ flavor symmetry, which closely resembles the $U(2)$ structure, but allows for Majorana neutrino masses from the Weinberg operator. Remarkably, in this case one naturally obtains large mixing in the lepton sector from small mixing in the quark sector. The model also offers a natural option for addressing the Strong CP Problem and Dark Matter by identifying the Goldstone boson of the $U(1)_F$ factor as the QCD axion.

  6. Neutrino mass with large S U (2 )L multiplet fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Takaaki; Okada, Hiroshi

    2017-11-01

    We propose an extension of the standard model introducing large S U (2 )L multiplet fields which are quartet and septet scalars and quintet Majorana fermions. These multiplets can induce the neutrino masses via interactions with the S U (2 ) doublet leptons. We then find the neutrino masses are suppressed by a small vacuum expectation value of the quartet/septet and an inverse of the quintet fermion mass, relaxing the Yukawa hierarchies among the standard model fermions. We also discuss collider physics at the Large Hadron Collider, considering the production of charged particles in these multiplets, and due to the effects of violating the custodial symmetry, some specific signatures can be found. Then, we discuss the detectability of these signals.

  7. High-pressure study of the non-Fermi liquid material U2Pt2In

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrela, P.; Visser, A. de; Boer, F.R. de; Pereira, L.C.J.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of hydrostatic pressure (p≤1.8 GPa) on the non-Fermi liquid state of U 2 Pt 2 In is investigated by electrical resistivity measurements in the temperature interval 0.3-300 K. The experiments were carried out on single-crystals with the current along (I parallel c) and perpendicular (I parallel a) to the tetragonal axis. The pressure effect is strongly current-direction dependent. For I parallel a we observe a rapid recovery of the Fermi-liquid T 2 -term with pressure. A comparison of the data with the magnetotransport theory of Rosch provides evidence for the location of U 2 Pt 2 In at an antiferromagnetic quantum critical point. For I parallel c the resistivity increases under pressure, indicating the enhancement of an additional scattering mechanism. (orig.)

  8. Oxidation behaviour of U2Ti alloy in dry air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S.P.; Gupta, N.K.; Jat, Ram Avtar; Parida, S.C.; Mukerjee, S.K.

    2016-01-01

    U 2 Ti alloy is being considered as promising storage material for storage of hydrogen isotopes. However, the absorption capacity of this reactive alloy can be affected due to presence of oxygen in the process gas. Hence, it is necessary to know the kinetic of this alloy in presence of oxygen. In this study, U 2 Ti alloy was prepared by arc melting method followed by vacuum annealing. The alloy was characterized by XRD, SEM and EDX methods. The isothermal oxidation behaviour of U 2 Ti alloy was investigated in the temperature range of 548-623 K in dry air for 24 hours by using thermo gravimetric technique. The oxidation curves are shown. The oxidation curves were analysed using the rate equation: (Δm/a) n = kt, where, (Δm/a) is the mass gain per unit area, n is the power exponent, k is the rate constant and t is time in (seconds). Analysis of the results shows that the oxidation reaction follows linear rate law (n ~ 1). Using the linear rate law, the rate constant (k) of oxidation reaction was evaluated at each temperature in the range 548-623 K. The variation of (ln k) with reciprocal temperature is shown. The activation energy of this oxidation reaction in the temperature range 548-623 K was calculated using the Arrhenius equation and found to be 76 kJ/mol. The XRD analysis of the oxidation products was found to be U 3 O 8 and TiO 2 . (author)

  9. Ising versus S U (2) 2 string-net ladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Julien

    2018-03-01

    We consider the string-net model obtained from S U (2) 2 fusion rules. These fusion rules are shared by two different sets of anyon theories. In this paper, we study the competition between the two corresponding non-Abelian quantum phases in the ladder geometry. A detailed symmetry analysis shows that the nontrivial low-energy sector corresponds to the transverse-field cluster model that displays a critical point described by the s o (2) 1 conformal field theory. Other sectors are obtained by freezing spins in this model.

  10. The Fourier U(2 Group and Separation of Discrete Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Bernardo Wolf

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The linear canonical transformations of geometric optics on two-dimensional screens form the group Sp(4,R, whose maximal compact subgroup is the Fourier group U(2_F; this includes isotropic and anisotropic Fourier transforms, screen rotations and gyrations in the phase space of ray positions and optical momenta. Deforming classical optics into a Hamiltonian system whose positions and momenta range over a finite set of values, leads us to the finite oscillator model, which is ruled by the Lie algebra so(4. Two distinct subalgebra chains are used to model arrays of N^2 points placed along Cartesian or polar (radius and angle coordinates, thus realizing one case of separation in two discrete coordinates. The N^2-vectors in this space are digital (pixellated images on either of these two grids, related by a unitary transformation. Here we examine the unitary action of the analogue Fourier group on such images, whose rotations are particularly visible.

  11. Hydrogen absorption-desorption properties of U2Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Takuya; Tanaka, Satoru; Yamawaki, Michio

    1990-01-01

    Hydrogen absorption-desorption properties of U 2 Ti intermetallic compound was examined over the temperature range of 298 to 973 K and at hydrogen pressures below 10 5 Pa. It absorbs hydrogen up to 7.6 atoms per F.U. (formula unit) by two step reactions and hence each desorption isotherm is separated into two plateau regions. In the first plateau, a newly-found ternary hydride is formed, where the hydrogen concentration, c H , reaches 2.4 H atoms/F.U. In the second plateau, UH 3 is formed and c H reaches 7.6 H atoms/F.U. The specimen is disintegrated into fine powder in the second plateau, while in the first plateau the ternary hydride which was identified to be UTi 2 H x (x=4.8 to 6.2) showed high durability against powdering. It is predicted that UTi 2 can be suitable material for tritium storage. (orig.)

  12. Yeast endoribonuclease stimulated by Novikoff Hepatoma small nuclear RNAS U1 and U2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, A.

    1982-01-01

    Using [ 3 H]m 7 Gppp[ 14 C]RNA-poly(A) from yeast as a substrate, an endoribonuclease has been detected in enzyme fractions derived from a high salt wash of ribonucleoprotein particles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The [ 3 H]m 7 Gppp[ 14 C]RNA-poly(A) seems to be a preferred substrate since other polyribonucleotides are hydrolyzed more slowly, if at all. The enzyme is inhibited by ethidium bromide, but fully double-stranded polyribonucleotides are not hydrolyzed. The hydrolysis of [ 3 H]m 7 Gppp[ 14 C]RNA-poly(A) is stimulated about 2.5-fold by the addition of small nuclear RNAs U1 and U2 of Novikoff hepatoma cells. Results show that the stimulation involves an interaction of the labeled RNA with the small nuclear RNA

  13. Facile CO cleavage by a multimetallic CsU2 nitride complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falcone, Marta; Scopelliti, Rosario; Mazzanti, Marinella; Kefalidis, Christos E.; Maron, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Uranium nitrides are important materials with potential for application as fuels for nuclear power generation, and as highly active catalysts. Molecular nitride compounds could provide important insight into the nature of the uranium-nitride bond, but currently little is known about their reactivity. In this study, we found that a complex containing a nitride bridging two uranium centers and a cesium cation readily cleaved the C≡O bond (one of the strongest bonds in nature) under ambient conditions. The product formed has a [CsU 2 (μ-CN)(μ-O)] core, thus indicating that the three cations cooperate to cleave CO. Moreover, the addition of MeOTf to the nitride complex led to an exceptional valence disproportionation of the CsU IV -N-U IV core to yield CsU III (OTf) and [MeN=U V ] fragments. The important role of multimetallic cooperativity in both reactions is illustrated by the computed reaction mechanisms.

  14. A yeast endoribonuclease stimulated by Novikoff hepatoma small nuclear RNAs U1 and U2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, A.

    1982-01-01

    Using [ 3 H]m 7 Gppp[ 14 C]RNA-poly(A) from yeast as a substrate, an endoribonuclease has been detected in enzyme fractions derived from a high salt wash of ribonucleoprotein particles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The [ 3 H]m 7 Gppp[ 14 C]RNA-poly(A) seems to be a preferred substrate since other polyribonucleotides are hydrolyzed more slowly, if at all. The enzyme is inhibited by ethidium bromide, but fully double-stranded polyribonucleotides are not hydrolyzed. The hydrolysis of [ 3 H]m 7 Gppp[ 14 C]RNA-poly(A) is stimulated about 2.5-fold by the addition of small nuclear RNAs U1 and U2 of Novikoff hepatoma cells. Results show that the stimulation involves an interaction of the labeled RNA with the small nuclear RNA

  15. R2U2: Monitoring and Diagnosis of Security Threats for Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Johann; Moosbruger, Patrick; Rozier, Kristin Y.

    2015-01-01

    We present R2U2, a novel framework for runtime monitoring of security properties and diagnosing of security threats on-board Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). R2U2, implemented in FPGA hardware, is a real-time, REALIZABLE, RESPONSIVE, UNOBTRUSIVE Unit for security threat detection. R2U2 is designed to continuously monitor inputs from the GPS and the ground control station, sensor readings, actuator outputs, and flight software status. By simultaneously monitoring and performing statistical reasoning, attack patterns and post-attack discrepancies in the UAS behavior can be detected. R2U2 uses runtime observer pairs for linear and metric temporal logics for property monitoring and Bayesian networks for diagnosis of security threats. We discuss the design and implementation that now enables R2U2 to handle security threats and present simulation results of several attack scenarios on the NASA DragonEye UAS.

  16. RLIM interacts with Smurf2 and promotes TGF-β induced U2OS cell migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yongsheng; Yang, Yang; Gao, Rui; Yang, Xianmei; Yan, Xiaohua; Wang, Chenji; Jiang, Sirui; Yu, Long

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → RLIM directly binds to Smurf2. → RLIM enhances TGF-β responsiveness in U2OS cells. → RLIM promotes TGF-β driven migration of osteosarcoma U2OS cells. -- Abstract: TGF-β (transforming growth factor-β), a pleiotropic cytokine that regulates diverse cellular processes, has been suggested to play critical roles in cell proliferation, migration, and carcinogenesis. Here we found a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase RLIM which can directly bind to Smurf2, enhancing TGF-β responsiveness in osteosarcoma U2OS cells. We constructed a U2OS cell line stably over-expressing RLIM and demonstrated that RLIM promoted TGF-β-driven migration of U2OS cells as tested by wound healing assay. Our results indicated that RLIM is an important positive regulator in TGF-β signaling pathway and cell migration.

  17. U2AF1 mutations alter splice site recognition in hematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilagan, Janine O; Ramakrishnan, Aravind; Hayes, Brian; Murphy, Michele E; Zebari, Ahmad S; Bradley, Philip; Bradley, Robert K

    2015-01-01

    Whole-exome sequencing studies have identified common mutations affecting genes encoding components of the RNA splicing machinery in hematological malignancies. Here, we sought to determine how mutations affecting the 3' splice site recognition factor U2AF1 alter its normal role in RNA splicing. We find that U2AF1 mutations influence the similarity of splicing programs in leukemias, but do not give rise to widespread splicing failure. U2AF1 mutations cause differential splicing of hundreds of genes, affecting biological pathways such as DNA methylation (DNMT3B), X chromosome inactivation (H2AFY), the DNA damage response (ATR, FANCA), and apoptosis (CASP8). We show that U2AF1 mutations alter the preferred 3' splice site motif in patients, in cell culture, and in vitro. Mutations affecting the first and second zinc fingers give rise to different alterations in splice site preference and largely distinct downstream splicing programs. These allele-specific effects are consistent with a computationally predicted model of U2AF1 in complex with RNA. Our findings suggest that U2AF1 mutations contribute to pathogenesis by causing quantitative changes in splicing that affect diverse cellular pathways, and give insight into the normal function of U2AF1's zinc finger domains. © 2015 Ilagan et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  18. Unlimited Horizons: Design and Development of the U-2. [NASA Aeronautics Book Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    This book describes the creation, history, design, and research value of the U-2 program. It also describes the involvement of NACA, as a cover story, and the later use by NASA of these aircraft as environmental research platforms.

  19. Creating subgroups of U(2w) for quantum-minus computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vos, Alexis; Boes, Michiel

    2011-01-01

    Classical reversible computers on w bits are isomorphic to the (finite) symmetric group S 2 w ; quantum computers on w qubits are isomorphic to the (Lie) unitary group U(2 w ). We investigate and classify groups X which represent computers intermediate between classical reversible computers and quantum computers. Such intermediate groups X may exist in three flavours: - finite groups of order larger than (2 w )!,; - infinite but discrete groups, and; - Lie groups of dimension smaller than (2 w ). The larger the group, the more powerful the computer may be, but the smaller the group, the easier it can be to build the computer hardware. In the present paper, we investigate the first two flavours only. For our purpose, we start from 1-qubit transformations, represented by 2 x 2 unitary matrices. We call this group the creator. Its members are called gates and act on one qubit. Controlled gates are quantum circuits acting on w qubits, such that the 1-qubit transformation (applied to a particular qubit) depends on the state of the w - 1 other qubits. The controlled gates generate the group X of 2 w x 2 w matrices, called the creation. We discuss all creators of order up to 8. Additionally a creator of order 16 and one of order 192 are discussed.

  20. Facile CO Cleavage by a Multimetallic CsU2 Nitride Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Marta; Kefalidis, Christos E; Scopelliti, Rosario; Maron, Laurent; Mazzanti, Marinella

    2016-09-26

    Uranium nitrides are important materials with potential for application as fuels for nuclear power generation, and as highly active catalysts. Molecular nitride compounds could provide important insight into the nature of the uranium-nitride bond, but currently little is known about their reactivity. In this study, we found that a complex containing a nitride bridging two uranium centers and a cesium cation readily cleaved the C≡O bond (one of the strongest bonds in nature) under ambient conditions. The product formed has a [CsU2 (μ-CN)(μ-O)] core, thus indicating that the three cations cooperate to cleave CO. Moreover, the addition of MeOTf to the nitride complex led to an exceptional valence disproportionation of the CsU(IV) -N-U(IV) core to yield CsU(III) (OTf) and [MeN=U(V) ] fragments. The important role of multimetallic cooperativity in both reactions is illustrated by the computed reaction mechanisms. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Creating subgroups of U(2{sup w}) for quantum-minus computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vos, Alexis; Boes, Michiel, E-mail: alex@elis.UGent.b [Imec v.z.w. and Vakgroep elektronika en informatiesystemen Universiteit Gent Sint Pietersnieuwstraat 41 B - 9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2011-03-01

    Classical reversible computers on w bits are isomorphic to the (finite) symmetric group S{sub 2}{sup w}; quantum computers on w qubits are isomorphic to the (Lie) unitary group U(2{sup w}). We investigate and classify groups X which represent computers intermediate between classical reversible computers and quantum computers. Such intermediate groups X may exist in three flavours: - finite groups of order larger than (2{sup w}); - infinite but discrete groups, and; - Lie groups of dimension smaller than (2{sup w}). The larger the group, the more powerful the computer may be, but the smaller the group, the easier it can be to build the computer hardware. In the present paper, we investigate the first two flavours only. For our purpose, we start from 1-qubit transformations, represented by 2 x 2 unitary matrices. We call this group the creator. Its members are called gates and act on one qubit. Controlled gates are quantum circuits acting on w qubits, such that the 1-qubit transformation (applied to a particular qubit) depends on the state of the w - 1 other qubits. The controlled gates generate the group X of 2{sup w} x 2{sup w} matrices, called the creation. We discuss all creators of order up to 8. Additionally a creator of order 16 and one of order 192 are discussed.

  2. Lattice QCD at the physical point meets S U (2 ) chiral perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürr, Stephan; Fodor, Zoltán; Hoelbling, Christian; Krieg, Stefan; Kurth, Thorsten; Lellouch, Laurent; Lippert, Thomas; Malak, Rehan; Métivet, Thibaut; Portelli, Antonin; Sastre, Alfonso; Szabó, Kálmán; Budapest-Marseille-Wuppertal Collaboration

    2014-12-01

    We perform a detailed, fully correlated study of the chiral behavior of the pion mass and decay constant, based on 2 +1 flavor lattice QCD simulations. These calculations are implemented using tree-level, O (a )-improved Wilson fermions, at four values of the lattice spacing down to 0.054 fm and all the way down to below the physical value of the pion mass. They allow a sharp comparison with the predictions of S U (2 ) chiral perturbation theory (χ PT ) and a determination of some of its low energy constants. In particular, we systematically explore the range of applicability of next-to-leading order (NLO) S U (2 ) χ PT in two different expansions: the first in quark mass (x expansion), and the second in pion mass (ξ expansion). We find that these expansions begin showing signs of failure for Mπ≳300 MeV , for the typical percent-level precision of our Nf=2 +1 lattice results. We further determine the LO low energy constants (LECs), F =88.0 ±1.3 ±0.2 and BMS ¯(2 GeV )=2.61 (6 )(1 ) GeV , and the related quark condensate, ΣMS ¯(2 GeV )=(272 ±4 ±1 MeV )3 , as well as the NLO ones, ℓ¯3=2.6 (5 )(3 ) and ℓ¯4=3.7 (4 )(2 ), with fully controlled uncertainties. We also explore the next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) expansions and the values of NNLO LECs. In addition, we show that the lattice results favor the presence of chiral logarithms. We further demonstrate how the absence of lattice results with pion masses below 200 MeV can lead to misleading results and conclusions. Our calculations allow a fully controlled, ab initio determination of the pion decay constant with a total 1% error, which is in excellent agreement with experiment.

  3. Quantum algebra Uqp(u2) and application to the rotational collective dynamics of the nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, R.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis concerns some aspects of new symmetries in Nuclear Physics. It comprises three parts. The first one is devoted to the study of the quantum algebra U qp (u 2 ). More precisely, we develop its Hopf algebraic structure and we study its co-product structure. The bases of the representation theory of U qp (u 2 ) are introduced. On one hand, we construct the finite-dimensional irreducible representations of U qp (u 2 ). On the other hand, we calculate the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients with the projection operator method. To complete our study, we construct some deformed boson mappings of the quantum algebras U qp (u 2 ), U q 2 (su 2 ) and U qp (u 1,1 ). The second part deals with the construction of a new phenomenological model of the non rigid rotator. This model is based on the quantum algebra U qp (u 2 ). The rotational energy and the E2 reduced transition probabilities are obtained. They depend on the two deformation parameters q and p of the quantum algebra. We show how the use of the two-parameter deformation of the algebra U qp (u 2 ) leads to a generalization of the U q (su 2 )-rotator model. We also introduce a new model of the anharmonic oscillator on the basis of the quantum algebra U qp (u 2 ). We show that the system of the U q (su 2 )-rotator and of the anharmonic oscillator can be coupled with the use of the deformation parameters of U qp (u 2 ). A ro-vibration energy formula and expansion 'a la' Dunham are obtained. The aim of the lest part is to apply our non rigid rotator model to the rotational collective dynamics of the superdeformed nuclei of the A∼130 - 150 and A∼190 mass regions and deformed nuclei of the actinide and rare earth series. We adjust the free parameters of our model and compare our results with those arising from four other models of the non rigid rotator. A comparative analysis is given in terms of transition energies. We calculate the dynamical moments of inertia with the fitted parameters. A comparison between the

  4. Alpha Particles and X Rays Interact in Inducing DNA Damage in U2OS Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollazzo, Alice; Brzozowska, Beata; Cheng, Lei; Lundholm, Lovisa; Haghdoost, Siamak; Scherthan, Harry; Wojcik, Andrzej

    2017-10-01

    Survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki are monitored for health effects within the Life Span Study (LSS). The LSS results represent the most important source of data about cancer effects from ionizing radiation exposure, which forms the foundation for the radiation protection system. One uncertainty connected to deriving universal risk factors from these results is related to the problem of mixed radiation qualities. The A-bomb explosions generated a mixed beam of the sparsely ionizing gamma radiation and densely ionizing neutrons. However, until now the possible interaction of the two radiation types of inducing biological effects has not been taken into consideration. The existence of such interaction would suggest that the application of risk factors derived from the LSS to predict cancer effects after pure gamma-ray irradiation (such as in the Fukushima prefecture) leads to an overestimation of risk. To analyze the possible interaction of radiation types, a mixed-beam exposure facility was constructed where cells can be exposed to sparsely ionizing X rays and densely ionizing alpha particles. U2OS cells were used, which are stably transfected with a plasmid coding for the DNA repair gene 53BP1 coupled to a gene coding for the green fluorescent protein (GFP). The induction and repair of DNA damage, which are known to be related to cancer induction, were analyzed. The results suggest that alpha particles and X rays interact, leading to cellular and possibly cancer effects, which cannot be accurately predicted based on assuming simple additivity of the individual mixed-beam components.

  5. Non-circadian expression masking clock-driven weak transcription rhythms in U2OS cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Hoffmann

    Full Text Available U2OS cells harbor a circadian clock but express only a few rhythmic genes in constant conditions. We identified 3040 binding sites of the circadian regulators BMAL1, CLOCK and CRY1 in the U2OS genome. Most binding sites even in promoters do not correlate with detectable rhythmic transcript levels. Luciferase fusions reveal that the circadian clock supports robust but low amplitude transcription rhythms of representative promoters. However, rhythmic transcription of these potentially clock-controlled genes is masked by non-circadian transcription that overwrites the weaker contribution of the clock in constant conditions. Our data suggest that U2OS cells harbor an intrinsically rather weak circadian oscillator. The oscillator has the potential to regulate a large number of genes. The contribution of circadian versus non-circadian transcription is dependent on the metabolic state of the cell and may determine the apparent complexity of the circadian transcriptome.

  6. Split-Family SUSY, U(2)^5 Flavour Symmetry and Neutrino Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Jones-Pérez, Joel

    2014-01-01

    In split-family SUSY, one can use a U(2)^3 symmetry to protect flavour observables in the quark sector from SUSY contributions. However, attempts to extend this procedure to the lepton sector by using an analogous U(2)^5 symmetry fail to reproduce the neutrino data without introducing some form of fine-tuning. In this work, we solve this problem by shifting the U(2)^2 symmetry acting on leptons towards the second and third generations. This allows neutrino data to be reproduced without much difficulties, as well as protecting the leptonic flavour observables from SUSY. Key signatures are a $\\mu\\to e\\gamma$ branching ratio possibly observable in the near future, as well as having selectrons as the lightest sleptons.

  7. Transcription on lampbrush chromosome loops in the absence of U2 snRNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Tsvetkov, A; Jantsch, M; Wu, Z; Murphy, C; Gall, J G

    1992-01-01

    The five small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) involved in splicing occur on the loops of amphibian lampbrush chromosomes and in hundreds to thousands of extrachromosomal granules called B snurposomes. To assess the role of these snRNAs during transcription and to explore possible relationships between the loops and B snurposomes, we injected single-stranded antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (oligos) against U1 and U2 snRNA into toad and newt oocytes. As shown before, antisense U1 and U2 oligos caused tr...

  8. Determination of interstitial oxygen atom position in U2N3+xOy by near edge structure study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, A. K.; Zhao, Y. W.; Long, Z.; Hu, Y.; Wang, X. F.; Yang, R. L.; Bao, H. L.; Zeng, R. G.; Liu, K. Z.

    2018-06-01

    The determination of interstitial oxygen atom site in U2N3+xOy film could facilitate the understanding of the oxidation mechanism of α-U2N3 and the effect of U2N3+xOy on anti-oxidation. By comparing the similarities and variances between N K edge and O K edge electron energy loss spectra (EELS) for oxidized α-U2N3 and UO2, the present work looks at the local structure of nitrogen and oxygen atoms in U2N3+xOy film, identifying the most possible position of interstitial O atom.

  9. Point group invariants in the Uqp(u(2)) quantum algebra picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibler, M.

    1993-07-01

    Some consequences of a qp-quantization of a point group invariant developed in the enveloping algebra of SU(2) are examined. A set of open problems concerning such invariants in the U qp (u(2)) quantum algebra picture is briefly discussed. (author) 18 refs

  10. The Role of U2AF1 Mutations in the Pathogenesis of Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    splicing contribute to disease patho mutation in the spliceosome gene U2AF1 and observed hemat also occur in patients with MDS or acute myeloid...Method for Combining Non-Independent, One-Sided Tests of Significance. Biometrics 31, 987–992. Buschbeck, M., Uribesalgo, I., Wibowo, I., Rué, P

  11. Investigations of mechanical properties and Debye temperature of U2Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattaraj, D.; Dash, Smruti; Kulkarni, S.G.

    2012-01-01

    U 2 Ti is a potential solid state material for safe storage, supply and recovery of hydrogen isotopes. It is not pyrophoric and its hydride is resistance to powdering upon hydrogenation. These two properties made this alloy advantageous over the conventionally used uranium as tritium getter material. Hence, thorough study of material properties like thermodynamic and elastic properties of U 2 Ti is important. Recently, present authors have reported thermodynamic functions for U 2 Ti. However, elastic moduli of this alloy have not been reported. The second derivatives of the internal energy with respect to strain, gives adiabatic elastic constants. Thus adiabatic elastic constants are related to interatomic potentials of material. They are also related to the thermal properties of a solid through the Debye theory. For metal hydride material, the elastic constants are useful for an evaluation of the elastic contribution to the hydrogen-hydrogen interaction energy and the elastic energy associated with the precipitation of hydride phases. The present paper reports the ultrasonic measurement of the elastic moduli and Debye temperature of U 2 Ti at room temperature using 38 DL plus ultrasonic velocitymeter

  12. Structural instability and ground state of the U_2Mo compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losada, E.L.; Garcés, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    This work reports on the structural instability at T = 0 °K of the U_2Mo compound in the C11_b structure under the distortion related to the C_6_6 elastic constant. The electronic properties of U_2Mo such as density of states (DOS), bands and Fermi surface (FS) are studied to understand the source of the instability. The C11_b structure can be interpreted as formed by parallel linear chains along the z-directions each one composed of successive U–Mo–U blocks. Hybridization due to electronic interactions inside the U–Mo–U blocks is slightly modified under the D_6 distortion. The change in distance between chains modifies the U–U interaction and produces a split of f-states. The distorted structure is stabilized by a decrease in energy of the hybridized states, mainly between d-Mo and f-U states, together with the f-band split. Consequently, an induced Peierls distortion is produced in U_2Mo due to the D_6 distortion. It is important to note that the results of this work indicate that the structure of the ground state of the U_2Mo compound is not the assumed C11_b structure. It is suggested for the ground state a structure with hexagonal symmetry (P6 #168), ∼0.1 mRy below the energy of the recently proposed Pmmn structure. - Highlights: • Structural instability of the C11b compound due to the D6 deformation. • Induced Peierls distortion due to the D6 deformation. • Distorted structure is stabilized by hybridization and split of f-Uranium state. • P6 (#168) suggested ground state for the U_2Mo compound.

  13. The possibility of the mixed valence state in the uranium intermetallic compounds: UCoGa5, U2Ru2Sn and U2RuGa8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troc, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The mixed valence (MV) phenomenon has been observed so far in a large number of various compounds but containing only lanthanides. These properties are usually associated with the mixing of the localised f-state and the band states. The usual valence state for magnetic uranium intermetallics is the trivalent state 5f 3 or hybridised 5f 2 6d 1 , both are nearly degenerate in energy and can compete for a stability of the compound. In some cases a gain in an energy minimum may be achieved by very fast fluctuating between these two states with a time of 10 -14 s, which does not allow to yield the ordered state even if the exchange interactions (favourite the U-U distances) would be able for that. The latter cases seem to concern the described here intermetallics: one ternary compound based on Co, UCoGa 5 , and the two uranium ternary compounds based on Ru, namely U 2 Ru 2 Sn and U 2 RuGa 8 which all crystallize in a tetragonal unit cell. All these compounds show a maximum in their temperature dependences of the magnetic susceptibility measured along and perpendicular to the c-axis. Such a behaviour, which is reminiscent of a number of Ce (Sm, Eu) and Yb compounds for which χ(T) has in the past been considered by Sales and Wohlleben (SW) by applying their ICF model or by Lawrance et al. following their scaling procedure. It turned out that these phenomenological models can also be applied to the considered here two Ru-based uranium ternaries from which some reliable energy parameters could be found. In order to further support the mixing valence scenario for the first such cases in uranium compounds presented here, the transport and thermodynamic properties are also discussed. However, some of the most important results confirming the MV state, e.g., in U 2 RuGa 8 , has recently been achieved from the inelastic neutron scattering performed in the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory on the ISIS facility. From these measurements a characteristic gap of 60 meV has been

  14. Magnetic structure of the heavy-fermion compound U2Zn17

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, D. E; Shirane, G.; Shapiro, S. M.

    1986-01-01

    The phase transition of U2Zn17 at 9.7K has been investigated by neutron powder diffraction. The transition corresponds to the onset of antiferromagnetic order where the U moments are oriented antiparallel to their neighbors within the basal planes and the near neighbor along the c^ axis of this r...... of this rhombohedral compound. At 5K, the ordered moments lie within the basal planes and are of magnitude (0.8±0.1) μB, which is substantially below the paramagnetic moment of 2.25 μB/U atom given by high-temperature susceptibility data......The phase transition of U2Zn17 at 9.7K has been investigated by neutron powder diffraction. The transition corresponds to the onset of antiferromagnetic order where the U moments are oriented antiparallel to their neighbors within the basal planes and the near neighbor along the c^ axis...

  15. Synthesis, crystal structure and magnetic properties of U2RuGa8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grin', Yu.N.; Rogl', P.; Aksel'rud, L.G.; Pecharskij, V.K.; Yarmolyuk, Ya.P.

    1988-01-01

    Synthesis of a new uranium intermetallic compound of U 2 RuGa 8 composition was conducted. The compound crystallizes in Ho 2 CoGa 8 structural type, met earlier only in compounds of rare earths. Magnetic susceptibility of the compound is rather high and is practically independent of temperature in 80-300 K range. This feature is typical for paramagnetism of electron gas and testifies to the absence of localized magnetic moments on ruthenium and uranium atoms

  16. Lower Neurocognitive Function in U-2 Pilots: Relationship to White Matter Hyperintensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-09

    computer-based instrument, more com- prehensive neuropsychological testing is required to draw conclu- sions about the general cognitive profile of...consistency with other neuropsychological instrument batteries.24 MRI assessment. Structural MRI data for U2Ps were collected at the Research Imaging...report no disclo- sures. L. Rowland serves as an editorial board member of Schizophrenia Bulletin and is funded by NIH grants R01MH094520 and

  17. Closure plan for Corrective Action Unit 109: U-2bu subsidence crater, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    The U-2bu subsidence crater, Corrective Action Unit 109, will be closed in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection operational permit, and the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The U-2bu subsidence crater is located in Area 2 of the Nevada Test Site. It was created in 1971 by an underground nuclear test with the name Miniata. The crater has a diameter of 288 meters (944 feet) and an approximate depth of 35 meters (115 feet). Based on the results of the analyses reported in the site characterization report, the only constituents of concern in the U-2bu subsidence crater include leachable lead and total petroleum hydrocarbons. Closure activities will include the excavation and disposal of impacted soil from the top of the crater. Upon completion of excavation, verification samples will be collected to show that the leachable lead has been removed to concentrations below the regulatory action level. After sample results show that the lead has been removed, the excavated area will be backfilled and a soil flood diversion berm will be constructed as a best management practice. An independent registered professional engineer will certify the site was closed following the approved Closure Plan. Post-closure care is not warranted for this site because closure activities will involve removal of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act constituents of concern

  18. RCRA Part A permit characterization plan for the U-2bu subsidence crater. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This plan presents the characterization strategy for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 109, U-2bu Subsidence Crater (referred to as U-2bu) in Area 2 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The objective of the planned activities is to obtain sufficient characterization data for the crater soils and observed wastes under the conditions of the current Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part A permit. The scope of the characterization plan includes collecting surface and subsurface soil samples with hand augers and for the purpose of site characterization. The sampling strategy is to characterize the study area soils and look for RCRA constituents. Observable waste soils and surrounding crater soils will be analyzed and evaluated according to RCRA closure criteria. Because of the status of the crater a RCRA Part A permit site, acquired radionuclide analyses will only be evaluated in regards to the health and safety of site workers and the disposition of wastes generated during site characterization. The U-2bu Subsidence Crater was created in 1971 by a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory underground nuclear test, event name Miniata, and was used as a land-disposal unit for radioactive and hazardous waste from 1973 to 1988

  19. Closure plan for Corrective Action Unit 109: U-2bu subsidence crater, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The U-2bu subsidence crater, Corrective Action Unit 109, will be closed in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection operational permit, and the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The U-2bu subsidence crater is located in Area 2 of the Nevada Test Site. It was created in 1971 by an underground nuclear test with the name Miniata. The crater has a diameter of 288 meters (944 feet) and an approximate depth of 35 meters (115 feet). Based on the results of the analyses reported in the site characterization report, the only constituents of concern in the U-2bu subsidence crater include leachable lead and total petroleum hydrocarbons. Closure activities will include the excavation and disposal of impacted soil from the top of the crater. Upon completion of excavation, verification samples will be collected to show that the leachable lead has been removed to concentrations below the regulatory action level. After sample results show that the lead has been removed, the excavated area will be backfilled and a soil flood diversion berm will be constructed as a best management practice. An independent registered professional engineer will certify the site was closed following the approved Closure Plan. Post-closure care is not warranted for this site because closure activities will involve removal of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act constituents of concern.

  20. Sequence Classification: 893627 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Non-TMB Non-TMH Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB >gi|6325043|ref|NP_015111.1| Component of U2 snRNP; disrupti...on causes reduced U2 snRNP levels; physically interacts with Msl1p; putative homolo

  1. The Influence of Poly Vinil Alcohol Amount and Temperatures of the SolProcess on the Formation of (NH4)2U2O7 Gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indra-Suryawan; Bangun-Wasito; Damunir; Hidayati; Setyo-Sulardi; Bambang-Siswanto; Ari-Handayani

    2000-01-01

    Research on the influence of poly vinil alcohol and temperatures on theresulted sol solutions. The sols were fed into gelation process using ammoniamedium and resulted were (NH 4 ) 2 U 2 O 7 gels spherical. The PVA variablesaddition on the sol process were 10; 15; 20; 25 and 30 g/1l uranyl nitrates.The temperature variables on the sol process were 75, 80, 85, 90 and 95 o C.The sol which successfully resulted (NH 4 ) 2 U 2 O 7 gel the gelation processwas on the PVA amount of 15 g and 90 o C. The resulted gel was then washed,dried and calcinate. The characterization of shape and surface of gel havebeen carried out using SEM photography. The density of gels were measured.For the 15 g PVA addition, the density was 8.3710 g/ml. While for process at90 o C, the density was 7.8871 g/ml. (author)

  2. Contribution to the U$_2$C$_3$ formation by the synthetic reaction and by the decomposition of UC$_2$; Beitrag zur U$_2$C$_3$-bildung nach der synthetischen reaktion und durch zerfall von UC$_2$

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buschinelli, A. J.A.

    1974-06-01

    This work is a contribution to the study of the mechanism and of the kinetics of the U$_2$C$_3$ formation by the synthetic reaction. The influences of a mechanical and a thermical pre-treatment of the samples on the reaction kinetics were investigated and discussed taking into account other information from the literature. The relative increasing of the U$_2$C$_3$ nucleation rate due to the pulverization corresponds approximately to the surface enlargement of the pulverized material. The activation energy for the synthetic reaction in powder was found to be 94 +- 7 kcal/mol. The negative influence of nitrogen, oxygen and tungsten on the U$_2$C$_3$ formation was reported. In the decomposition of UC$_2$ to U$_2$C$_3$ and graphite, the influences of the morphology of the graphite precipitate and the fast neutron irradiation on the beginning of the U$_2$C$_3$ formation were also investigated.

  3. Diffraction study on the nonstoichiometric α-U2N3+x phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serizawa, H.; Fukuda, K.; Ishii, Y.; Funahashi, S.; Katsura, M.

    1993-01-01

    X-ray and neutron diffraction studies were performed on nonstoichiometric α-U 2 N 3+ x having a composition range 1.68 2 N 3+x in this composition range was distorted Mn 2 O 3 -type. Structure parameters of U and N atoms were determined. The results showed that positions of U atoms varied continuously with nitrogen content. No evidence of the modification from bcc to fcc could be obtained. Interatomic distances of U-U and U-N were determined. The position parameter of N atoms showed that N atoms were slightly deviated from the tetrahedral site. (author)

  4. Additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumith, A; Thomas, M; Shah, Z; Coathup, M; Blunn, G

    2018-04-01

    Increasing innovation in rapid prototyping (RP) and additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D printing, is bringing about major changes in translational surgical research. This review describes the current position in the use of additive manufacturing in orthopaedic surgery. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:455-60.

  5. Hyperpolarized [U-(2) H, U-(13) C]Glucose reports on glycolytic and pentose phosphate pathway activity in EL4 tumors and glycolytic activity in yeast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Kerstin N; Hartl, Johannes; Keller, Markus A; Hu, De-En; Kettunen, Mikko I; Rodrigues, Tiago B; Ralser, Markus; Brindle, Kevin M

    2015-12-01

    A resonance at ∼181 ppm in the (13) C spectra of tumors injected with hyperpolarized [U-(2) H, U-(13) C]glucose was assigned to 6-phosphogluconate (6PG), as in previous studies in yeast, whereas in breast cancer cells in vitro this resonance was assigned to 3-phosphoglycerate (3PG). These peak assignments were investigated here using measurements of 6PG and 3PG (13) C-labeling using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) METHODS: Tumor-bearing mice were injected with (13) C6 glucose and the (13) C-labeled and total 6PG and 3PG concentrations measured. (13) C MR spectra of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient (zwf1Δ) and wild-type yeast were acquired following addition of hyperpolarized [U-(2) H, U-(13) C]glucose and again (13) C-labeled and total 6PG and 3PG were measured by LC-MS/MS RESULTS: Tumor (13) C-6PG was more abundant than (13) C-2PG/3PG and the resonance at ∼181 ppm matched more closely that of 6PG. (13) C MR spectra of wild-type and zwf1Δ yeast cells showed a resonance at ∼181 ppm after labeling with hyperpolarized [U-(2) H, U-(13) C]glucose, however, there was no 6PG in zwf1Δ cells. In the wild-type cells 3PG was approximately four-fold more abundant than 6PG CONCLUSION: The resonance at ∼181 ppm in (13) C MR spectra following injection of hyperpolarized [U-(2) H, U-(13) C]glucose originates predominantly from 6PG in EL4 tumors and 3PG in yeast cells. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Ground state structure of U2Mo: static and lattice dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, D.; Sahoo, B.D.; Joshi, K.D.; Kaushik, T.C.

    2016-01-01

    According to experimental reports, the ground state stable structure of U 2 Mo is tetragonal. However, various theoretical studies performed in past do not get tetragonal phase as the stable structure at ambient conditions. Therefore, the ground state structure of U 2 Mo is still unresolved. In an attempt to understand the ground state properties of this system, we have carried out first principle electronic band structure calculations. The structural stability analysis carried out using evolutionary structure search algorithm in conjunction with ab-inito method shows that a hexagonal structure (space group P6/mmm) is the lowest enthalpy structure at ambient condition and remains stable upto 200 GPa. The elastic and lattice dynamical stability further supports the stability of this phase at ambient condition. Further, using the 0 K calculations in conjunction with finite temperature corrections, we have derived the isotherm and shock adiabat (Hugoniot) of this material. Various equilibrium properties such as ambient pressure volume, bulk modulus, pressure derivative of bulk modulus etc. are derived from equation of state. (author)

  7. Cyberinfrastructure for the collaborative development of U2U decision support tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry L. Biehl

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the use of cyberinfrastructure to create interactive applications as part of the Useful to Usable (U2U project. These applications transform historical climate data, knowledge, and models into decision support tools for end users such as crop farmers, university Extension educators, and other agricultural advisors. In creating a cyberinfrastructure to support the U2U project, four major challenges have been addressed: designing and developing highly usable web applications with frequent feedback, establishing a software engineering environment to support iterative development, integrating and synthesizing historical and current datasets from a variety of sources (local vs. remote, different access methods, and formats, and supporting project collaboration needs of data and document sharing, project management, and public outreach. The overall goals of the cyberinfrastructure and its architecture design are described. Methods for data retrieval and synthesis, as well as the various software components utilized are discussed. The development and integration of tools into the collaborative HUBzero framework are highlighted, including the use of HUBzero’s core features to share ideas, algorithms, and results. A highly iterative development process that includes feedback from experts and end-users to feed requirement definition, design and application updates are also examined.

  8. Subjective experiences of watching stereoscopic Avatar and U2 3D in a cinema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pölönen, Monika; Salmimaa, Marja; Takatalo, Jari; Häkkinen, Jukka

    2012-01-01

    A stereoscopic 3-D version of the film Avatar was shown to 85 people who subsequently answered questions related to sickness, visual strain, stereoscopic image quality, and sense of presence. Viewing Avatar for 165 min induced some symptoms of visual strain and sickness, but the symptom levels remained low. A comparison between Avatar and previously published results for the film U2 3D showed that sickness and visual strain levels were similar despite the films' runtimes. The genre of the film had a significant effect on the viewers' opinions and sense of presence. Avatar, which has been described as a combination of action, adventure, and sci-fi genres, was experienced as more immersive and engaging than the music documentary U2 3D. However, participants in both studies were immersed, focused, and absorbed in watching the stereoscopic 3-D (S3-D) film and were pleased with the film environments. The results also showed that previous stereoscopic 3-D experience significantly reduced the amount of reported eye strain and complaints about the weight of the viewing glasses.

  9. Closure Plan for Corrective Action Unit 109: U-2bu Subsidence Crater Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannon Parsons

    1999-03-01

    The U-2bu subsidence crater, Corrective Action Unit 109, will be closed in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection operational permit, and the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order. The U-2bu subsidence crater is located in Area 2 of the Nevada Test Site. It was created in 1971 by an underground nuclear test with the name Miniata. The crater has a diameter of 288 meters (944 feet) and an approximate depth of 35 meters (115 feet). The subsidence crater was used as a land disposal unit for radioactive and hazardous waste from 1973 to 1988. Site disposal history is supported by memorandums, letters, and personnel who worked at the Nevada Test Site at the time of active disposal. Closure activities will include the excavation and disposal of impacted soil form the tip of the crater. Upon completion of excavation, verification samples will be collected to show that lead has been removed to concentrations be low regulatory action level. The area will then be backfilled and a soil flood diversion berm will be constructed, and certified by an independent professional engineer as to having followed the approved Closure Plan.

  10. Food additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Food additives URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/ ...

  11. High-field magnetization studies of U2T2Sn (T=Co, Ir, Pt) compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokes, K.; Nakotte, H.; de Boer, F.R.

    1995-01-01

    High-field magnetization measurements at 4.2 K on U 2 T 2 Sn (T = Co, Ir and Pt) compounds have been performed on free and fixed powders up to 57 T. An antiferromagnetic ground state of U 2 Pt 2 Sn is corroborated by a metamagnetic transition at 22 T with very small hysteresis going up and down with field. U 2 Co 2 Sn and U 2 Ir 2 Sn show no metamagnetic transition up to 57 T which is in agreement with the non-magnetic ground state of these compounds. In all cases, the maximum applied field is not sufficient to achieve saturation. The short-pulse measurements presented here are compared with previous results obtained in quasi-static fields up to 35 T

  12. Simple calculation of hybridization effects in UTX and U2T2X compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokes, K.; Brueck, E.; Nakotte, H.; De Chatel, P.F.; De Boer, F.R.

    1995-01-01

    The band widths of several UTX and U 2 T 2 X compounds (T: transition metal, X: p-metal) are evaluated by means of a tight-binding method. The magnetism in both groups of compounds is governed by the hybridization between U f-states and transition-metal d-states. Comparing the sum of all hybridization effects, we find approximately the same hybridization effects in both groups of compounds. We also observe a decrease of the band width with increasing atomic number Z within a transition-metal series. By comparing the band width with the theoretical critical energies for the f 3 and f 2 configurations, it is in some cases possible to predict whether the ground state is magnetically ordered or not. ((orig.))

  13. Coolant radiolysis studies in the high temperature, fuelled U-2 loop in the NRU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliot, A.J.; Stuart, C.R.

    2008-06-01

    An understanding of the radiolysis-induced chemistry in the coolant water of nuclear reactors is an important key to the understanding of materials integrity issues in reactor coolant systems. Significant materials and chemistry issues have emerged in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR), Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) and CANDU reactors that have required a detailed understanding of the radiation chemistry of the coolant. For each reactor type, specific computer radiolysis models have been developed to gain insight into radiolysis processes and to make chemistry control adjustments to address the particular issue. In this respect, modelling the radiolysis chemistry has been successful enough to allow progress to be made. This report contains a description of the water radiolysis tests performed in the U-2 loop, NRU reactor in 1995, which measured the CHC under different physical conditions of the loop such as temperature, reactor power and steam quality. (author)

  14. Crystal structure of U2+xCo2Ga1-x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelinskii, A.V.; Fedorchuk, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    In studies of phase equilibria in the U-Co-Ga system at 600 degrees C, the authors found a ternary compound close in composition to U 2 Co 2 Ga. A sample of composition U 42 Co 40 Ga 18 was prepared by arc-melting a mixture of high-purity U (99.4%), Co (99.99%), and Ga (99.99%) in a purified argon atmosphere. The sample was homogenized at 600 degrees C for 720 h in an evacuated quartz tube and then quenched in cold water. In structure determination, the authors used a DRON-4-07 powder X-ray diffractometer (CuK α radiation, 0.02 degrees 2θ scan step) and the CSD software package. The X-ray diffraction pattern showed tetragonal symmetry, with lattice parameters obtained from least-squares refinements a = 0.707729(5) and c = 0.34707(4) nm

  15. Towards critical physics in 2+1d with U(2N)-invariant fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hands, Simon [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University,Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-04

    Interacting theories of N relativistic fermion flavors in reducible spinor representations in 2+1 spacetime dimensions are formulated on a lattice using domain wall fermions (DWF), for which a U(2N) global symmetry is recovered in the limit that the wall separation L{sub s} is made large. The Gross-Neveu (GN) model is studied in the large-N limit and an exponential acceleration of convergence to the large-L{sub s} limit is demonstrated if the usual parity-invariant mass mψ̄ψ is replaced by the U(2N)-equivalent im{sub 3}ψ̄γ{sub 3}ψ. The GN model and two lattice variants of the Thirring model are simulated for N=2 using a hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm, and studies made of the symmetry-breaking bilinear condensate and its associated susceptibility, the axial Ward identity, and the mass spectrum of both fermion and meson excitations. Comparisons are made with existing results obtained using staggered fermions. For the GN model a symmetry-breaking phase transition is observed, the Ward identity is recovered, and the spectrum found to be consistent with large-N expectations. There appears to be no obstruction to the study of critical UV fixed-point physics using DWF. For the Thirring model the Ward identity is not recovered, the spectroscopy measurements are inconclusive, and no symmetry breaking is observed all the way up to the effective strong coupling limit. This is consistent with a critical Thirring flavor number N{sub c}<2, contradicting earlier staggered fermion results.

  16. Structural Basis for Polypyrimidine Tract Recognition by the Essential Pre-mRNA Splicing Factor U2AF65

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sickmier, E.; Frato, K.; Shen, H.; Paranawithana, S.; Green, M.; Kielkopf, C.

    2006-01-01

    The essential pre-mRNA splicing factor, U2AF 65 , guides the early stages of splice site choice by recognizing a polypyrimidine (Py)-tract consensus sequence near the 3'-splice site. Since Py-tracts are relatively poorly conserved in higher eukaryotes, U2AF 65 is faced with the problem of specifying uridine-rich sequences, yet tolerating a variety of nucleotide substitutions found in natural Py-tracts. To better understand these apparently contradictory RNA binding characteristics, the X-ray structure of the U2AF 65 RNA binding domain bound to a Py-tract composed of seven uridines has been determined at 2.5Angstroms resolution. Specific hydrogen bonds between U2AF 65 and the uracil bases provide an explanation for polyuridine recognition. Flexible sidechains and bound water molecules form the majority of the base contacts, and potentially could rearrange when the U2AF 65 structure adapts to different Py-tract sequences. The energetic importance of conserved residues for Py-tract binding is established by analysis of site-directed mutant U2AF 65 proteins using surface plasmon resonance

  17. Magnetic, transport and electronic structure properties of U2RuGa8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troc, R.; Bukowski, Z.; SuIkowski, C.; Morkowski, J.A.; Szajek, A.; CheIkowska, G.

    2005-01-01

    A single crystal of uranium ternary intermetallic of U 2 RuGa 8 was grown by the Ga self-flux method. This compound crystallizes in the tetragonal unit cell of space group P4/mmm. Despite the fairly large U-U shortest distance of 4.22A, this compound shows no signs of any magnetic ordering down to 1.9K. Instead, the susceptibility measured along the a and c axes, goes through a broad maximum at T max =220K showing a distinct anisotropy. For j||a there is a weak temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity with a large value of ρ 0 =117μΩcm, while for j||c the ρ(T) curve goes through a maximum at about 130K. The magnetoresistivity measured along two crystallographic directions is small and positive. The thermopower S for the two directions studied is positive and larger along the a-axis. It goes through a broad maximum at 175K reaching a value of 45μV/K. The electronic structure has been calculated by the tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbital method (TB-LMTO) and the results were used in calculation of the valence band near the Fermi level compared next to that found in photoemission experiment. The core 4f spectra are also presented. All the above properties are discussed in view of mixed valence behaviour of uranium atom in this compound

  18. Thermal properties of KUO3(s) and K2U2O7 - by high temperature Calvet calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayanthi, K.; Iyer, V.S.; Venugopal, V.

    1998-01-01

    The thermal properties of KUO 3 (s) and K 2 U 2 O 7 (s) were determined using a high temperature Calvet calorimeter by drop method. The enthalpy increments, (H T o - H 298.15 0 ), in kJ/mol for KUO 3 (s) and K 2 U 2 O 7 (s) can be represented by, H T o - H 298.15 0 KUO 3 (s) kJ/mol ± 0.7 = -39.15 + 0.129T + 0.1005x10 -4 T 2 (369-714K) and H T o -H 298.15 0 K 2 U 2 O 7 (s) kJ/mol ± 0.7 = -52.99 + 0.1361T + 0.146x10 -3 T 2 (391 - 683K). (author)

  19. Cycloalkyl-based unsymmetrical unsaturated (U2)-NHC ligands: Flexibility and dissymmetry in ruthenium-catalysed olefin metathesis

    KAUST Repository

    Rouen, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Air-stable Ru-indenylidene and Hoveyda-type complexes bearing new unsymmetrical unsaturated N-heterocyclic carbene (U2-NHC) ligands combining a mesityl unit and a flexible cycloalkyl moiety as N-substituents were synthesised. Structural features, chemical stabilities and catalytic profiles in olefin metathesis of this new library of cycloalkyl-based U2-NHC Ru complexes were studied and compared with their unsymmetrical saturated NHC-Ru homologues as well as a set of commercially available Ru-catalysts bearing either symmetrical SIMes or IMes NHC ligands. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

  20. The U2 snDNA Is a Useful Marker for B Chromosome Detection and Frequency Estimation in the Grasshopper Abracris flavolineata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Diogo; Palacios-Gimenez, Octavio M; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo C

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we describe a strategy to determine the presence of B chromosomes in the living grasshopper Abracris flavolineata by FISH using U2 snDNA as a probe in interphase hemolymph nuclei. In individuals without B chromosomes, (0B) 2 dot signals were noticed, corresponding to A complement U2 snDNA clusters. In +1B and +2B individuals, 4 or 8 additional signals were noticed, respectively. In all cases, the absence or presence of 1 or 2 B chromosomes correlated in hemolymph and in somatic or germline tissues, validating the efficiency of the marker. Our data suggest that the B chromosome of A. flavolineata is present in all somatic tissues. B-carrying individuals showed the same number of B chromosomes in germ and somatic cells, suggesting that the B is mitotically stable. The marker was used to compare B chromosome frequency in the analyzed population with a sample collected previously, in order to test for B frequency changes and differences of B chromosome prevalence among sexes, but no statistically significant differences were noticed. The identification of living animals harboring B chromosomes will be very useful in future studies of B chromosome transmission, as well as in functional studies involving RNA analysis, thus contributing to the understanding of evolutionary history and the possible role of the B chromosome in A. flavolineata. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Useful to Usable (U2U): Transforming climate information into usable tools to support Midwestern agricultural production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopy, L. S.; Widhalm, M.

    2014-12-01

    There is a close connection between weather and climate patterns and successful agricultural production. Therefore, incorporating climate information into farm management is likely to reduce the risk of economic losses and increase profitability. While weather and climate information is becoming ever more abundant and accessible, the use of such information in the agricultural community remains limited. Useful to Usable (U2U): Transforming Climate Variability and Change Information for Cereal Crop Producers is a USDA-NIFA funded research and extension project focused on improving the use of climate information for agricultural production in the Midwestern United States by developing user-driven decision tools and training resources. The U2U team is a diverse and uniquely qualified group of climatologists, crop modelers, agronomists, and social scientists from 9 Midwestern universities and two NOAA Regional Climate Centers. Together, we strive to help producers make better long-term plans on what, when and where to plant and also how to manage crops for maximum yields and minimum environmental damage. To ensure relevance and usability of U2U products, our social science team is using a number of techniques including surveys and focus groups to integrate stakeholder interests, needs, and concerns into all aspects of U2U research. It is through this coupling of physical and social science disciplines that we strive to transform existing climate information into actionable knowledge.

  2. Conserved number of U2 snDNA sites in Piabina argentea, Piabarchus stramineus and two Bryconamericus species (Characidae, Stevardiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diovani Piscor

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The chromosomal location of 5S rRNA and U2 snRNA genes of Piabina argentea, Piabarchus stramineus and two Bryconamericus species from two different Brazilian river basins were investigated, in order to contribute to the understanding of evolutionary characteristics of these repetitive DNAs in the subfamily Stevardiinae. The diploid chromosome number was 2n = 52 for Bryconamericus cf. iheringii, Bryconamericus turiuba, Piabarchus stramineus and Piabina argentea. The 5S rDNA clusters were located on one chromosome pair in P. stramineus and B. cf. iheringii, and on two pairs in B. turiuba and P. argentea. The U2 snDNA clusters were located on the one pair in all species. Two-color FISH experiments showed that the co-localization between 5S rDNA and U2 snDNA in P. stramineus can represent a marker for this species. Thus, the present study demonstrated that the number of U2 snDNA clusters observed for the four species was conserved, but particular characteristics can be found in the genome of each species.

  3. Exact solutions of sl-boson system in U(2l + 1) reversible O(2l + 2) transitional region

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang Xin

    2002-01-01

    Exact eigen-energies and the corresponding wavefunctions of the interacting sl-boson system in U(2l + 1) reversible O(2l +2) transitional region are obtained by using an algebraic Bethe Ansatz with the infinite dimensional Lie algebraic technique. Numerical algorithm for solving the Bethe Ansatz equations by using mathematical package is also outlined

  4. Ribonucleoprotein organization of eukaryotic RNA. XXXII. U2 small nuclear RNA precursors and their accurate 3' processing in vitro as ribonucleoprotein particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieben, E D; Nenninger, J M; Pederson, T

    1985-05-05

    Biosynthetic precursors of U2 small nuclear RNA have been identified in cultured human cells by hybrid-selection of pulse-labeled RNA with cloned U2 DNA. These precursor molecules are one to approximately 16 nucleotides longer than mature U2 RNA and contain 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine "caps". The U2 RNA precursors are associated with proteins that react with a monoclonal antibody for antigens characteristic of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles. Like previously described precursors of U1 and U4 small nuclear RNAs, the pre-U2 RNAs are recovered in cytoplasmic fractions, although it is not known if this is their location in vivo. The precursors are processed to mature-size U2 RNA when cytoplasmic extracts are incubated in vitro at 37 degrees C. Mg2+ is required but ATP is not. The ribonucleoprotein structure of the pre-U2 RNA is maintained during the processing reaction in vitro, as are the 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine caps. The ribonucleoprotein organization is of major importance, as exogenous, protein-free U2 RNA precursors are degraded rapidly in the in vitro system. Two lines of evidence indicate that the conversion of U2 precursors to mature-size U2 RNA involves a 3' processing reaction. First, the reaction is unaffected by a large excess of mature U2 small nuclear RNP, whose 5' trimethylguanosine caps would be expected to compete for a 5' processing activity. Second, when pre-U2 RNA precursors are first stoichiometrically decorated with an antibody specific for 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine, the extent of subsequent processing in vitro is unaffected. These results provide the first demonstration of a eukaryotic RNA processing reaction in vitro occurring within a ribonucleoprotein particle.

  5. A pan-cancer analysis of transcriptome changes associated with somatic mutations in U2AF1 reveals commonly altered splicing events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela N Brooks

    Full Text Available Although recurrent somatic mutations in the splicing factor U2AF1 (also known as U2AF35 have been identified in multiple cancer types, the effects of these mutations on the cancer transcriptome have yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we identified splicing alterations associated with U2AF1 mutations across distinct cancers using DNA and RNA sequencing data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA. Using RNA-Seq data from 182 lung adenocarcinomas and 167 acute myeloid leukemias (AML, in which U2AF1 is somatically mutated in 3-4% of cases, we identified 131 and 369 splicing alterations, respectively, that were significantly associated with U2AF1 mutation. Of these, 30 splicing alterations were statistically significant in both lung adenocarcinoma and AML, including three genes in the Cancer Gene Census, CTNNB1, CHCHD7, and PICALM. Cell line experiments expressing U2AF1 S34F in HeLa cells and in 293T cells provide further support that these altered splicing events are caused by U2AF1 mutation. Consistent with the function of U2AF1 in 3' splice site recognition, we found that S34F/Y mutations cause preferences for CAG over UAG 3' splice site sequences. This report demonstrates consistent effects of U2AF1 mutation on splicing in distinct cancer cell types.

  6. Decompression Sickness and U-2 Operations: Summary of Research, Findings, and Recommendations Regarding Use of Exercise During Prebreathe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Research Laboratory Hypobaric DCS Research Database developed at Brooks AFB, TX, which has detailed information on over 3,000 research chamber... hyperbaric oxygen therapy resulting in complete resolution of all symptoms. After instituting EDP, the same pilot flew 36 U-2 high flights without any...consultation with base SGP and USAFSAM Hyperbarics and MAJCOM/SGPA. Earlier guidance in the 1980’s was much more restrictive and, in fact, permanently

  7. The influence of U-2 fraction of a tortoise spleen extract on the formation of ectopic locus of haemopoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turdyev, A.A.; Prus, E.K.; Basova, A.R.

    1990-01-01

    The implantation of a bone marrow fragment of intact mouse donors below the kidney capsule of irradiated (7 Gy) recipients leads to the formation of the haemopoiesis locus that somewhat exceeds, by mass and cellularity, the new-formed locus of control animals. The U-2 fraction of a tortoise spleen extract administered to recipients irradiated with the same dose increases the mass and cellularity of the haemopoiesis locus by 2.2 and 4.9 times respectively

  8. Ancient Origin of the U2 Small Nuclear RNA Gene-Targeting Non-LTR Retrotransposons Utopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Kenji K; Jurka, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Most non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons encoding a restriction-like endonuclease show target-specific integration into repetitive sequences such as ribosomal RNA genes and microsatellites. However, only a few target-specific lineages of non-LTR retrotransposons are distributed widely and no lineage is found across the eukaryotic kingdoms. Here we report the most widely distributed lineage of target sequence-specific non-LTR retrotransposons, designated Utopia. Utopia is found in three supergroups of eukaryotes: Amoebozoa, SAR, and Opisthokonta. Utopia is inserted into a specific site of U2 small nuclear RNA genes with different strength of specificity for each family. Utopia families from oomycetes and wasps show strong target specificity while only a small number of Utopia copies from reptiles are flanked with U2 snRNA genes. Oomycete Utopia families contain an "archaeal" RNase H domain upstream of reverse transcriptase (RT), which likely originated from a plant RNase H gene. Analysis of Utopia from oomycetes indicates that multiple lineages of Utopia have been maintained inside of U2 genes with few copy numbers. Phylogenetic analysis of RT suggests the monophyly of Utopia, and it likely dates back to the early evolution of eukaryotes.

  9. 46 CFR 54.01-5 - Scope (modifies U-1 and U-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... into Classes I, I-L (low temperature), II, II-L (low temperature), and III. Table 54.01-5(b) describes these classes and sets out additional requirements for welded pressure vessels. (c) The requirements for...-177 or part 64 of this chapter. (3) Except as provided in paragraph (c)(4) of this section, Classes I...

  10. Thermal compatibility of U-2wt.%Mo and U-10wt.%Mo fuel prepared by centrifugal atomization for high density research reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim Ki Hwan; Lee Don Bae; Kim Chang Kyu; Kuk Il Hyun; Hofman, G.E.

    1997-01-01

    Research on the intermetallic compounds of uranium was revived in 1978 with the decision by the international research reactor community to develop proliferation-resistant fuels. The reduction of 93% 235 U (HEU) to 20% 235 U (LEU) necessitates the use of higher U-loading fuels to accommodate the addition 238 U in the LEU fuels. While the vast majority of reactors can be satisfied with U 3 Si 2 -Al dispersion fuel, several high performance reactors require high loadings of up to 8-9 g U cm -3 . Consequently, in the renewed fuel development program of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program, attention has shifted to high density uranium alloys. Early irradiation experiments with uranium alloys showed promise of acceptable irradiation behavior, if these alloys can be maintained in their cubic γ-U crystal structure. It has been reported that high density atomized U-Mo powders prepared by rapid cooling have metastable isotropic γ-U phase saturated with molybdenum, and good γ-U phase stability, especially in U-10wt.%Mo alloy fuel. If the alloy has good thermal compatibility with aluminium, and this metastable gamma phase can be maintained during irradiation, U-Mo alloy would be a prime candidate for dispersion fuel for research reactors. In this paper, U-2w.%Mo and U-10w.%Mo alloy powder which have high density (above 15 g-U/cm 3 ), are prepared by centrifugal atomization. The U-Mo alloy fuel meats are made into rods extruding the atomized powders. The characteristics related to the thermal compatibility of U-2w.%Mo and U-10w.%Mo alloy fuel meat at 400 o C for time up to 2000 hours are examined. (author)

  11. Development and characterization of monolithic fuel miniplate alloy U-2.5Zr-7.5Nb, coated in zircaloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Geraldo Correa

    2014-01-01

    The autocthonal production of nuclear fuel in Brazil for test and research reactors is restricted to MTR (Material Test Reactor) fuel type dispersion plate, using U3Si2 alloy, coated and dispersed in aluminum, developed by IPEN-SP for use in IEA-R1 reactor. Moreover, the UO 2 fuel rod type for power reactors is manufactured by Rezende (RJ) with a German technology by INB under license. Currently, Brazil is performing two programs of developing reactors. Currently, Brazil is developing two reactors. One of them is the development, by CNEN, the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB), for testing, research and radioisotope production. The other one is the development a power reactor for naval propulsion, conducted by the Brazilian Navy. This dissertation presents the development and characterization of monolithic fuel miniplate alloy U-2.5Zr-7.5Nb, coated in zircaloy (ZRY), on a laboratory scale. Due to its innovative features and properties, this fuel can be used as fuel in both test reactors, research and producing radioisotopes for power reactors as small and medium sizes. Thus, this high potential fuel can be used in domestic reactors currently under development. The development of monolithic fuel plate type is made using the technique called 'picture-frame' where a sandwich composed of a monolith alloy U-2.5Zr- 7.5Nb coupled to a frame and coated sheets of Zry is obtained. The alloy U-2.5Zr-7.5Nb was obtained by melting in an induction furnace and then was cast into rectangular ingots of graphite, thus achieving an ingot with approximate dimensions of 170 x 50 x 60 mm. The obtained ingot was hot rolled at 850 ºC, with a 50 % reduction in thickness, in order to refine the raw structure of fusion. Samples cut from the alloy U-2.5Zr-7.5Nb, with dimensions 20 x 20 x 6 mm were placed in frames and plates Zry and joined by TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) under an atmosphere of argon, obtaining a set of 10 mm thick, 45 mm wide and 100 mm long. The sandwiches were hot rolled to

  12. Analysis of the right-handed Majorana neutrino mass in an S U (4 )×S U (2 )L×S U (2 )R Pati-Salam model with democratic texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Masaki J. S.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we attempt to build a unified model with the democratic texture, that has some unification between up-type Yukawa interactions Yν and Yu . Since the S3 L×S3 R flavor symmetry is chiral, the unified gauge group is assumed to be Pati-Salam type S U (4 )c×S U (2 )L×S U (2 )R. The breaking scheme of the flavor symmetry is considered to be S3 L×S3 R→S2 L×S2 R→0 . In this picture, the four-zero texture is desirable for realistic masses and mixings. This texture is realized by a specific representation for the second breaking of the S3 L×S3 R flavor symmetry. Assuming only renormalizable Yukawa interactions, type-I seesaw mechanism, and neglecting C P phases for simplicity, the right-handed neutrino mass matrix MR can be reconstructed from low energy input values. Numerical analysis shows that the texture of MR basically behaves like the "waterfall texture." Since MR tends to be the "cascade texture" in the democratic texture approach, a model with type-I seesaw and up-type Yukawa unification Yν≃Yu basically requires fine-tunings between parameters. Therefore, it seems to be more realistic to consider universal waterfall textures for both Yf and MR, e.g., by the radiative mass generation or the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. Moreover, analysis of eigenvalues shows that the lightest mass eigenvalue MR 1 is too light to achieve successful thermal leptogenesis. Although the resonant leptogenesis might be possible, it also requires fine-tunings of parameters.

  13. Ce2Co3Ge5: a new U2Co3Si5 - type valance fluctuating compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layek, Samar; Hossain, Zakir

    2010-01-01

    Poly crystalline sample of Ce 2 Co 3 Ge 5 have been prepared by arc melting and consequently annealing at 1100 deg C. Rietveld refinement of XRD shows that it crystallize in the orthorhombic U 2 Co 3 Si 5 structure (space group Ibam) with crystal parameters a= 9.802A, b= 11.777A and c= 5.941A and unit cell volume V= 684.8 A 3 The unit cell volume of Ce 2 Co 3 Ge 5 is seen clearly to deviate from that expected on the basis of lanthanide contraction. From susceptibility measurement, effective magnetic moment of this compound μ eff = 0.95 μ B which is lower than magnetic moment free for Ce 3+ ions (2.54 μB) but higher than that of non-magnetic Ce 4+ state (0 μ B ). All these results clearly indicated Ce 2 Co 3 Ge 5 to be a mixed valance compound. (author)

  14. The new NCPSS BL19U2 beamline at the SSRF for small-angle X-ray scattering from biological macromolecules in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Li, Xiuhong; Wang, Yuzhu; Liu, Guangfeng; Zhou, Ping; Wu, Hongjin; Hong, Chunxia; Bian, Fenggang; Zhang, Rongguang

    2016-10-01

    The beamline BL19U2 is located in the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) and is its first beamline dedicated to biological material small-angle X-ray scattering (BioSAXS). The electrons come from an undulator which can provide high brilliance for the BL19U2 end stations. A double flat silicon crystal (111) monochromator is used in BL19U2, with a tunable monochromatic photon energy ranging from 7 to 15 keV. To meet the rapidly growing demands of crystallographers, biochemists and structural biologists, the BioSAXS beamline allows manual and automatic sample loading/unloading. A Pilatus 1M detector (Dectris) is employed for data collection, characterized by a high dynamic range and a short readout time. The highly automated data processing pipeline SASFLOW was integrated into BL19U2, with help from the BioSAXS group of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL, Hamburg), which provides a user-friendly interface for data processing. The BL19U2 beamline was officially opened to users in March 2015. To date, feedback from users has been positive and the number of experimental proposals at BL19U2 is increasing. A description of the new BioSAXS beamline and the setup characteristics is given, together with examples of data obtained.

  15. snRNP proteins in health and disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krausová, Michaela; Staněk, David

    S1084-9521, č. 17 (2017), s. 30150-30157 ISSN 1084-9521 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-00790S; GA MŠk LO1419 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Congenital craniofacial disorders * Haematological malignancies * Mutations * Retinopathy * Spliceosome Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 6.614, year: 2016

  16. Equation of state of U2Mo up-to Mbar pressure range: Ab-initio study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, D.; Sahoo, B. D.; Joshi, K. D.; Kaushik, T. C.

    2018-04-01

    Experimentally, U2Mo is known to exist in tetragonal structure at ambient conditions. In contrast to experimental reports, the past theoretical studies carried out in this material do not find this phase to be stable structure at zero pressure. In order to examine this discrepancy between experiment and theory, we have performed ab-initio electronic band structure calculations on this material. In our theoretical study, we have attempted to search for lowest enthalpy structure at ambient as well at high pressure up to 200 GPa, employing evolutionary structure search algorithm in conjunction with ab-inito method. Our investigations suggest that a hexagonal structure with space group symmetry P6/mmm is the lowest enthalpy structure not only at ambient pressure but also up to pressure range of ˜200 GPa. To further, substantiate the results of these static lattice calculations the elastic and lattice dynamical stability has also been analysed. The theoretical isotherm derived from these calculations has been utilized to determine the Hugoniot of this material. Various physical properties such as zero pressure equilibrium volume, bulk modulus and its pressure derivative has also been derived from theoretical isotherm.

  17. The homeobox transcription factor HOXA9 is a regulator of SHOX in U2OS cells and chicken micromass cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Durand

    Full Text Available The homeobox gene SHOX encodes for a transcription factor that plays an important role during limb development. Mutations or deletions of SHOX in humans cause short stature in Turner, Langer and Leri-Weill syndrome as well as idiopathic short stature. During embryonic development, SHOX is expressed in a complex spatio-temporal pattern that requires the presence of specific regulatory mechanisms. Up to now, it was known that SHOX is regulated by two upstream promoters and several enhancers on either side of the gene, but no regulators have been identified that can activate or repress the transcription of SHOX by binding to these regulatory elements. We have now identified the homeodomain protein HOXA9 as a positive regulator of SHOX expression in U2OS cells. Using luciferase assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we could narrow down the HOXA9 binding site to two AT-rich sequences of 31 bp within the SHOX promoter 2. Virus-induced Hoxa9 overexpression in a chicken micromass model validated the regulation of Shox by Hoxa9 (negative regulation. As Hoxa9 and Shox are both expressed in overlapping regions of the developing limb buds, a regulatory relationship of Hoxa9 and Shox during the process of limb development can be assumed.

  18. Alteration of the SETBP1 gene and splicing pathway genes SF3B1, U2AF1, and SRSF2 in childhood acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Hye-Ran; Baek, Hee-Jo; Kook, Hoon; Cho, Duck; Shin, Jong-Hee; Suh, Soon-Pal; Ryang, Dong-Wook; Shin, Myung-Geun

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent somatic SET-binding protein 1 (SETBP1) and splicing pathway gene mutations have recently been found in atypical chronic myeloid leukemia and other hematologic malignancies. These mutations have been comprehensively analyzed in adult AML, but not in childhood AML. We investigated possible alteration of the SETBP1, splicing factor 3B subunit 1 (SF3B1), U2 small nuclear RNA auxiliary factor 1 (U2AF1), and serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 2 (SRSF2) genes in childhood AML. Cytogenetic and molecular analyses were performed to reveal chromosomal and genetic alterations. Sequence alterations in the SETBP1, SF3B1, U2AF1, and SRSF2 genes were examined by using direct sequencing in a cohort of 53 childhood AML patients. Childhood AML patients did not harbor any recurrent SETBP1 gene mutations, although our study did identify a synonymous mutation in one patient. None of the previously reported aberrations in the mutational hotspot of SF3B1, U2AF1, and SRSF2 were identified in any of the 53 patients. Alterations of the SETBP1 gene or SF3B1, U2AF1, and SRSF2 genes are not common genetic events in childhood AML, implying that the mutations are unlikely to exert a driver effect in myeloid leukemogenesis during childhood.

  19. Cajal bodies and snRNPs friends with benefits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Staněk, David

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 6 (2017), s. 671-679 ISSN 1547-6286 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-00790S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : spinal muscular-atrophy * small nuclear-rna * u4/u6.u5 tri-snrnp * xenopus-laevis oocytes * u6 spliceosomal rna * coiled bodies * smn complex * u1 snrnp * u2 snrnp * in-vivo Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Cell biology Impact factor: 3.900, year: 2016

  20. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, Darrell; Nettles, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    The Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection Task started the development of a real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record for the additive manufacturing process using infrared camera imaging and processing techniques. This project will benefit additive manufacturing by providing real-time inspection of internal geometry that is not currently possible and reduce the time and cost of additive manufactured parts with automated real-time dimensional inspections which deletes post-production inspections.

  1. [Food additives and healthiness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  2. Additives in yoghurt production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milna Tudor

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In yoghurt production, mainly because of sensory characteristics, different types of additives are used. Each group, and also each substance from the same group has different characteristics and properties. For that reason, for improvement of yoghurt sensory characteristics apart from addition selection, the quantity of the additive is very important. The same substance added in optimal amount improves yoghurt sensory attributes, but too small or too big addition can reduce yoghurt sensory attributes. In this paper, characteristics and properties of mostly used additives in yoghurt production are described; skimmed milk powder, whey powder, concentrated whey powder, sugars and artificial sweeteners, fruits, stabilizers, casein powder, inulin and vitamins. Also the impact of each additive on sensory and physical properties of yoghurt, syneresis and viscosity, are described, depending on used amount added in yoghurt production.

  3. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Additive and polynomial representations

    CERN Document Server

    Krantz, David H; Suppes, Patrick

    1971-01-01

    Additive and Polynomial Representations deals with major representation theorems in which the qualitative structure is reflected as some polynomial function of one or more numerical functions defined on the basic entities. Examples are additive expressions of a single measure (such as the probability of disjoint events being the sum of their probabilities), and additive expressions of two measures (such as the logarithm of momentum being the sum of log mass and log velocity terms). The book describes the three basic procedures of fundamental measurement as the mathematical pivot, as the utiliz

  5. Monte Carlo analysis of the SU(2)xU(1) and U(2) lattice gauge theories at different space-time dimensionalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, M.; Colet, J.

    1986-01-01

    Using Monte Carlo simulations the SU(2)xU(1) lattice gauge theory has been analyzed, which is equivalent for the Wilson action to a U(2) theory, at space-time dimensionalities from d=3 to 5. It has been shown that there exist first-order phase transitions for both d=4 and d=5. A monopole-condensation mechanism seems to be responsible for these phase transitions. At d=3 no phase transitions have been detected. (orig.)

  6. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  7. Groups – Additive Notation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We translate the articles covering group theory already available in the Mizar Mathematical Library from multiplicative into additive notation. We adapt the works of Wojciech A. Trybulec [41, 42, 43] and Artur Korniłowicz [25].

  8. Groups – Additive Notation

    OpenAIRE

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-01-01

    We translate the articles covering group theory already available in the Mizar Mathematical Library from multiplicative into additive notation. We adapt the works of Wojciech A. Trybulec [41, 42, 43] and Artur Korniłowicz [25].

  9. Human regulator of telomere elongation helicase 1 (RTEL1) is required for the nuclear and cytoplasmic trafficking of pre-U2 RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertzer, Michael; Jouravleva, Karina; Perderiset, Mylene; Dingli, Florent; Loew, Damarys; Le Guen, Tangui; Bardoni, Barbara; de Villartay, Jean-Pierre; Revy, Patrick; Londoño-Vallejo, Arturo

    2015-02-18

    Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome (HHS) is a severe form of Dyskeratosis congenita characterized by developmental defects, bone marrow failure and immunodeficiency and has been associated with telomere dysfunction. Recently, mutations in Regulator of Telomere ELongation helicase 1 (RTEL1), a helicase first identified in Mus musculus as being responsible for the maintenance of long telomeres, have been identified in several HHS patients. Here we show that RTEL1 is required for the export and the correct cytoplasmic trafficking of the small nuclear (sn) RNA pre-U2, a component of the major spliceosome complex. RTEL1-HHS cells show abnormal subcellular partitioning of pre-U2, defects in the recycling of ribonucleotide proteins (RNP) in the cytoplasm and splicing defects. While most of these phenotypes can be suppressed by re-expressing the wild-type protein in RTEL1-HHS cells, expression of RTEL1 mutated variants in immortalized cells provokes cytoplasmic mislocalizations of pre-U2 and other RNP components, as well as splicing defects, thus phenocopying RTEL1-HHS cellular defects. Strikingly, expression of a cytoplasmic form of RTEL1 is sufficient to correct RNP mislocalizations both in RTEL1-HHS cells and in cells expressing nuclear mutated forms of RTEL1. This work unravels completely unanticipated roles for RTEL1 in RNP trafficking and strongly suggests that defects in RNP biogenesis pathways contribute to the pathology of HHS. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-15

    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  11. Model Additional Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwood, Laura

    2001-01-01

    Since the end of the cold war a series of events has changed the circumstances and requirements of the safeguards system. The discovery of a clandestine nuclear weapons program in Iraq, the continuing difficulty in verifying the initial report of Democratic People's Republic of Korea upon entry into force of their safeguards agreement, and the decision of the South African Government to give up its nuclear weapons program and join the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons have all played a role in an ambitious effort by IAEA Member States and the Secretariat to strengthen the safeguards system. A major milestone in this effort was reached in May 1997 when the IAEA Board of Governors approved a Model Protocol Additional to Safeguards Agreements. The Model Additional Protocol was negotiated over a period of less than a year by an open-ended committee of the Board involving some 70 Member States and two regional inspectorates. The IAEA is now in the process of negotiating additional protocols, State by State, and implementing them. These additional protocols will provide the IAEA with rights of access to information about all activities related to the use of nuclear material in States with comprehensive safeguards agreements and greatly expanded physical access for IAEA inspectors to confirm or verify this information. In conjunction with this, the IAEA is working on the integration of these measures with those provided for in comprehensive safeguards agreements, with a view to maximizing the effectiveness and efficiency, within available resources, the implementation of safeguards. Details concerning the Model Additional Protocol are given. (author)

  12. Global S U (3 )C×S U (2 )L×U (1 )Y linear sigma model: Axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identities and decoupling of certain heavy BSM particles due to the Goldstone theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Bryan W.; Starkman, Glenn D.

    2017-09-01

    In the S U (2 )L×S U (2 )R linear sigma model with partially conserved axial-vector currents, a tower of Ward-Takahashi identities (WTI) have long been known to give relations among 1-scalar-particle-irreducible (1 -ϕ -I ) Green's functions, and among I-scalar-particle-reducible (1 -ϕ -R ) transition-matrix (T-matrix) elements for external scalars [i.e. the Brout-Englert-Higgs (BEH) scalar H , and three pseudoscalars π →]. In this paper, we extend these WTI and the resulting relations to the S U (3 )C×S U (2 )L×U (1 )Y linear sigma model including the heaviest generation of Standard Model (SM) fermions—the ungauged (i.e. global) Standard Model SMtb τ ντ G —supplemented with the minimum necessary neutrino content—right-handed neutrinos and Yukawa-coupling-induced Dirac neutrino mass—to obtain the charge-parity (C P )-conserving νDSMtb τ ντ G , and extract powerful constraints on the effective Lagrangian: e.g. showing that they make separate tadpole renormalization unnecessary, and guarantee infrared finiteness. The crucial observation is that ultraviolet quadratic divergences (UVQD), and all other relevant operators, contribute only to mπ2, a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson (NGB) mass-squared, which appears in intermediate steps of calculations. A WTI between T-matrix elements (or, in this global theory equivalently the Goldstone theorem) then enforces mπ2=0 exactly for the true NGB in the spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) mode of the theory. The Goldstone theorem thus causes all relevant operator contributions, originating to all-loop-orders from virtual scalars H ,π → , quarks qLc;tRc;bRc and leptons lL;ντR;τR with (c =r , w , b ), to vanish identically. We show that our regularization-scheme-independent, WTI-driven results are unchanged by the addition of certain S U (3 )C×S U (2 )L×U (1 )Y heavy (MHeavy2≫|q2|,mWeak2 ) C P -conserving matter, such as originate in certain beyond the SM (BSM) models. The global axial-vector WTI

  13. Additive manufacturing of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, Dirk; Seyda, Vanessa; Wycisk, Eric; Emmelmann, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM), the layer-by layer build-up of parts, has lately become an option for serial production. Today, several metallic materials including the important engineering materials steel, aluminium and titanium may be processed to full dense parts with outstanding properties. In this context, the present overview article describes the complex relationship between AM processes, microstructure and resulting properties for metals. It explains the fundamentals of Laser Beam Melting, Electron Beam Melting and Laser Metal Deposition, and introduces the commercially available materials for the different processes. Thereafter, typical microstructures for additively manufactured steel, aluminium and titanium are presented. Special attention is paid to AM specific grain structures, resulting from the complex thermal cycle and high cooling rates. The properties evolving as a consequence of the microstructure are elaborated under static and dynamic loading. According to these properties, typical applications are presented for the materials and methods for conclusion.

  14. Additive manufactured serialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbitt, III, John T.

    2017-04-18

    Methods for forming an identifying mark in a structure are described. The method is used in conjunction with an additive manufacturing method and includes the alteration of a process parameter during the manufacturing process. The method can form in a unique identifying mark within or on the surface of a structure that is virtually impossible to be replicated. Methods can provide a high level of confidence that the identifying mark will remain unaltered on the formed structure.

  15. Concerted evolution of the tandemly repeated genes encoding primate U2 small nuclear RNA (the RNU2 locus) does not prevent rapid diversification of the (CT){sub n} {center_dot} (GA){sub n} microsatellite embedded within the U2 repeat unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, D.; Weiner, A.M. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    1995-12-10

    The RNU2 locus encoding human U2 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) is organized as a nearly perfect tandem array containing 5 to 22 copies of a 5.8-kb repeat unit. Just downstream of the U2 snRNA gene in each 5.8-kb repeat unit lies a large (CT){sub n}{center_dot}(GA){sub n} dinucleotide repeat (n {approx} 70). This form of genomic organization, in which one repeat is embedded within another, provides an unusual opportunity to study the balance of forces maintaining the homogeneity of both kinds of repeats. Using a combination of field inversion gel electrophoresis and polymerase chain reaction, we have been able to study the CT microsatellites within individual U2 tandem arrays. We find that the CT microsatellites within an RNU2 allele exhibit significant length polymorphism, despite the remarkable homogeneity of the surrounding U2 repeat units. Length polymorphism is due primarily to loss or gain of CT dinucleotide repeats, but other types of deletions, insertions, and substitutions are also frequent. Polymorphism is greatly reduced in regions where pure (CT){sub n} tracts are interrupted by occasional G residues, suggesting that irregularities stabilize both the length and the sequence of the dinucleotide repeat. We further show that the RNU2 loci of other catarrhine primates (gorilla, chimpanzee, ogangutan, and baboon) contain orthologous CT microsatellites; these also exhibit length polymorphism, but are highly divergent from each other. Thus, although the CT microsatellite is evolving far more rapidly than the rest of the U2 repeat unit, it has persisted through multiple speciation events spanning >35 Myr. The persistence of the CT microsatellite, despite polymorphism and rapid evolution, suggests that it might play a functional role in concerted evolution of the RNU2 loci, perhaps as an initiation site for recombination and/or gene conversion. 70 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Dihydroptychantol A, a macrocyclic bisbibenzyl derivative, induces autophagy and following apoptosis associated with p53 pathway in human osteosarcoma U2OS cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xia; Wu, William K.K.; Sun Bin; Cui Min; Liu Shanshan; Gao Jian; Lou Hongxiang

    2011-01-01

    Dihydroptychantol A (DHA), a novel macrocyclic bisbibenzyl compound extracted from liverwort Asterella angusta, has antifungal and multi-drug resistance reversal properties. Here, the chemically synthesized DHA was employed to test its anti-cancer activities in human osteosarcoma U2OS cells. Our results demonstrated that DHA induced autophagy followed by apoptotic cell death accompanied with G 2 /M-phase cell cycle arrest in U2OS cells. DHA-induced autophagy was morphologically characterized by the formation of double membrane-bound autophagic vacuoles recognizable at the ultrastructural level. DHA also increased the levels of LC3-II, a marker of autophagy. Surprisingly, DHA-mediated apoptotic cell death was potentiated by the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine, suggesting that autophagy may play a protective role that impedes the eventual cell death. Furthermore, p53 was shown to be involved in DHA-meditated autophagy and apoptosis. In this connection, DHA increased nuclear expression of p53, induced p53 phosphorylation, and upregulated p53 target gene p21 Waf1/Cip1 . In contrast, cytoplasmic p53 was reduced by DHA, which contributed to the stimulation of autophagy. In relation to the cell cycle, DHA decreased the expression of cyclin B 1 , a cyclin required for progression through the G 2 /M phase. Taken together, DHA induces G 2 /M-phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in U2OS cells. DHA-induced apoptosis was preceded by the induction of protective autophagy. DHA-mediated autophagy and apoptosis are associated with the cytoplasmic and nuclear functions of p53.

  17. Induction of polyploidy by nuclear fusion mechanism upon decreased expression of the nuclear envelope protein LAP2β in the human osteosarcoma cell line U2OS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shoshan, Shirley Oren; Simon, Amos J; Jacob-Hirsch, Jasmine; Shaklai, Sigal; Paz-Yaacov, Nurit; Amariglio, Ninette; Rechavi, Gideon; Trakhtenbrot, Luba

    2014-01-28

    Polyploidy has been recognized for many years as an important hallmark of cancer cells. Polyploid cells can arise through cell fusion, endoreplication and abortive cell cycle. The inner nuclear membrane protein LAP2β plays key roles in nuclear envelope breakdown and reassembly during mitosis, initiation of replication and transcriptional repression. Here we studied the function of LAP2β in the maintenance of cell ploidy state, a role which has not yet been assigned to this protein. By knocking down the expression of LAP2β, using both viral and non-viral RNAi approaches in osteosarcoma derived U2OS cells, we detected enlarged nuclear size, nearly doubling of DNA content and chromosomal duplications, as analyzed by fluorescent in situ hybridization and spectral karyotyping methodologies. Spectral karyotyping analyses revealed that near-hexaploid karyotypes of LAP2β knocked down cells consisted of not only seven duplicated chromosomal markers, as could be anticipated by genome duplication mechanism, but also of four single chromosomal markers. Furthermore, spectral karyotyping analysis revealed that both of two near-triploid U2OS sub-clones contained the seven markers that were duplicated in LAP2β knocked down cells, whereas the four single chromosomal markers were detected only in one of them. Gene expression profiling of LAP2β knocked down cells revealed that up to a third of the genes exhibiting significant changes in their expression are involved in cancer progression. Our results suggest that nuclear fusion mechanism underlies the polyploidization induction upon LAP2β reduced expression. Our study implies on a novel role of LAP2β in the maintenance of cell ploidy status. LAP2β depleted U2OS cells can serve as a model to investigate polyploidy and aneuploidy formation by nuclear fusion mechanism and its involvement in cancerogenesis.

  18. Development of a numerical code for the analysis of the linear stability of the U1 and U2 reactors of the CNLV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa P, G.; Estrada P, C.E.; Nunez C, A.; Amador G, R.

    2001-01-01

    The computer code ANESLI-1 developed by the CNSNS and UAM-I, has the main goal of making stability analysis of nuclear reactors of the BWR type, more specifically, the reactors of the U1 and U2 of the CNLV. However it can be used for another kind of applications. Its capacity of real time simulator, allows the prediction of operational transients, and conditions of dynamic steady states. ANESLI-1 was developed under a modular scheme, which allows to extend or/and to improve its scope. The lineal stability analysis predicts the instabilities produced by the wave density phenomenon. (Author)

  19. Magnetic hyperfine interactions of U2 center in CaF2, SrF2 and BaF2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, C.J.F.

    1976-02-01

    The magnetic hyperfine parameters of the U 2 center in CaF 2 , SeF 2 and BaF 2 , using a molecular orbitals scheme have been calculated. The need for the inclusion of mechanisms such as Pauli Repulsion and Covalence in order to describe the electronic structure of the defect has been shown. In the molecular orbitals model a weak covalence parameter has been phenomenologically introduced, mixing the is atomic wavefunction of hydrogen with a properly symmetrized linear combination of 2p F - functions centered on the ions of the first fluorine shell. The results obtained are compared with experimental measurements of EPR and ENDOR. (Author) [pt

  20. The Investigation of Organization Structure o f t he 2013 U - 2 0 World’s Cup i n Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz ÇIYAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted so as to determine how FIFA U - 20 World Cup 2013 Turkey organization was held; who had what responsibilities; and what kind of difficulties were experienced during the organiz ation. In this research, the data was collected according to qualitative research techniques. The general data of the resea rch was obtained from the articl es and books about this subject and up - to - date web sites; the application of the research was prepared after having a detailed and fac e - to - face interview with organiz ation tournament director in Turkey. At the end of the research, the organiz ation wa s evaluated in general and it was concluded that FIFA succeeded in reaching the standard level in this tournament. Because the stadiums were nice and the floors of them were good; there was a favourable media interest; everyb ody did their jobs really well. In addition, this organisation contributed to the advertising of Turkey. It also helped many cities to have a lot of new plants. The organisation promoted the country’s economic development, as well. However, th e biggest failure of the organiz ation was th at this tournament was the one where there were the fewest spectators with tickets with an average of 5.230 per match among all World Cups under 20 year - olds.

  1. BWR zinc addition Sourcebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Susan E.; Giannelli, Joseph F.; Jarvis, Alfred J.

    2014-01-01

    Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) have been injecting zinc into the primary coolant via the reactor feedwater system for over 25 years for the purpose of controlling primary system radiation fields. The BWR zinc injection process has evolved since the initial application at the Hope Creek Nuclear Station in 1986. Key transitions were from the original natural zinc oxide (NZO) to depleted zinc oxide (DZO), and from active zinc injection of a powdered zinc oxide slurry (pumped systems) to passive injection systems (zinc pellet beds). Zinc addition has continued through various chemistry regimes changes, from normal water chemistry (NWC) to hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) and HWC with noble metals (NobleChem™) for mitigation of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of reactor internals and primary system piping. While past reports published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) document specific industry experience related to these topics, the Zinc Sourcebook was prepared to consolidate all of the experience gained over the past 25 years. The Zinc Sourcebook will benefit experienced BWR Chemistry, Operations, Radiation Protection and Engineering personnel as well as new people entering the nuclear power industry. While all North American BWRs implement feedwater zinc injection, a number of other BWRs do not inject zinc. This Sourcebook will also be a valuable resource to plants considering the benefits of zinc addition process implementation, and to gain insights on industry experience related to zinc process control and best practices. This paper presents some of the highlights from the Sourcebook. (author)

  2. Hydrophysical Evaluation of Wells TW-B, TW-7, UE-6d, U-2gg PSE 3A, U-10L 1, and UE-6e in Yucca Flat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohlmann, Karl [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Healey, John [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Lyles, Bred [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Cooper, Clay [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Hershey, Ronald L. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This study evaluated six wells in Yucca Flat in support of the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). Accessibility and groundwater sampling conditions were assessed and if conditions permitted, samples were collected for tritium analysis. Four of the wells, TW-B, UE-6d, UE-6e, and TW-7 were sampled in support of UGTA responses to recommendations made by the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine External Peer Review Committee (Navarro, 2016). In addition to its role in support of these responses, TW-7 was included because it is listed in the NNSS Integrated Groundwater Sampling Plan (DOE, 2014) as a required sampling location, although it had not been sampled since 1994. U-2gg PSE 3A and U-10L 1 were evaluated to determine whether deteriorating well conditions can be addressed so that these wells can be used as additional sampling points in Yucca Flat.

  3. Teardrop bladder: additional considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Nine cases of teardrop bladder (TDB) seen at excretory urography are presented. In some of these patients, the iliopsoas muscles were at the upper limit of normal in size, and additional evaluation of the perivesical structures with computed tomography (CT) was necessary. CT demonstrated only hypertrophied muscles with or without perivesical fat. The psoas muscles and pelvic width were measured in 8 patients and compared with the measurements of a control group of males without TDB. Patients with TDB had large iliopsoas muscles and narrow pelves compared with the control group. The psoas muscle width/pelvic width ratio was significantly greater (p < 0.0005) in patients with TDB than in the control group, with values of 1.04 + 0.05 and 0.82 + 0.09, respectively. It is concluded that TDB is not an uncommon normal variant in black males. Both iliopsoas muscle hypertrophy and a narrow pelvis are factors that predispose a patient to TDB

  4. Sewage sludge additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  5. Electronic structure of crystalline uranium nitrides UN, U2N3 and UN2: LCAO calculations with the basis set optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evarestov, R A; Panin, A I; Bandura, A V; Losev, M V

    2008-01-01

    The results of LCAO DFT calculations of lattice parameters, cohesive energy and bulk modulus of the crystalline uranium nitrides UN, U 2 N 3 and UN 2 are presented and discussed. The LCAO computer codes Gaussian03 and Crystal06 are applied. The calculations are made with the uranium atom relativistic effective small core potential by Stuttgart-Cologne group (60 electrons in the core). The calculations include the U atom basis set optimization. Powell, Hooke-Jeeves, conjugated gradient and Box methods are implemented in the author's optimization package, being external to the codes for molecular and periodic calculations. The basis set optimization in LCAO calculations improves the agreement of the lattice parameter and bulk modulus of UN crystal with the experimental data, the change of the cohesive energy due to the optimization is small. The mixed metallic-covalent chemical bonding is found both in LCAO calculations of UN and U 2 N 3 crystals; UN 2 crystal has the semiconducting nature

  6. Dosage of the Abcg1-U2af1 region modifies locomotor and cognitive deficits observed in the Tc1 mouse model of Down syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Marechal

    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS results from one extra copy of human chromosome 21 and leads to several alterations including intellectual disabilities and locomotor defects. The transchromosomic Tc1 mouse model carrying an extra freely-segregating copy of human chromosome 21 was developed to better characterize the relation between genotype and phenotype in DS. The Tc1 mouse exhibits several locomotor and cognitive deficits related to DS. In this report we analyzed the contribution of the genetic dosage of 13 conserved mouse genes located between Abcg1 and U2af1, in the telomeric part of Hsa21. We used the Ms2Yah model carrying a deletion of the corresponding interval in the mouse genome to rescue gene dosage in the Tc1/Ms2Yah compound mice to determine how the different behavioral phenotypes are affected. We detected subtle changes with the Tc1/Ms2Yah mice performing better than the Tc1 individuals in the reversal paradigm of the Morris water maze. We also found that Tc1/Ms2Yah compound mutants performed better in the rotarod than the Tc1 mice. This data support the impact of genes from the Abcg1-U2af1 region as modifiers of Tc1-dependent memory and locomotor phenotypes. Our results emphasize the complex interactions between triplicated genes inducing DS features.

  7. Fisetin, a dietary flavonoid induces apoptosis via modulating the MAPK and PI3K/Akt signalling pathways in human osteosarcoma (U-2 OS cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Ming Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Human osteosarcoma is the most prevalent primary malignant bone tumor with high frequency of invasion and metastasis. Strong resistance coupled with toxicity of the currently available chemotherapeutic drugs poses challenge in treatment. The study aimed to investigate if fisetin, a dietary flavonoid induced apoptosis in human osteosarcoma (U-2 OS cells. Fisetin at 20-100 µM effectively reduced the viability of OS cells, and induced apoptosis by significantly inducing the expression of caspases (Caspases- 3,-8 and -9 and pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax and Bad with subsequent down-regulation of Bcl-xL and Bcl-2. While fisetin inhibited PI3K/Akt pathway and ERK1/2, it caused enhanced expressions of p-JNK, p-c-Jun and p-p38. Fisetin-induced ROS generation and decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential would have also contributed to rise in apoptotic cell counts. The observations suggest that fisetin was able to effectively induce apoptosis of U-2 OS cells through ROS generation and modulation of MAPK and PI3K/Akt signalling cascades.

  8. Additive lattice kirigami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D

    2016-09-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  9. Additive Manufactured Superconducting Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Eric; Rosen, Yaniv; Woolleet, Nathan; Materise, Nicholas; Voisin, Thomas; Wang, Morris; Mireles, Jorge; Carosi, Gianpaolo; Dubois, Jonathan

    Superconducting radio frequency cavities provide an ultra-low dissipative environment, which has enabled fundamental investigations in quantum mechanics, materials properties, and the search for new particles in and beyond the standard model. However, resonator designs are constrained by limitations in conventional machining techniques. For example, current through a seam is a limiting factor in performance for many waveguide cavities. Development of highly reproducible methods for metallic parts through additive manufacturing, referred to colloquially as 3D printing\\x9D, opens the possibility for novel cavity designs which cannot be implemented through conventional methods. We present preliminary investigations of superconducting cavities made through a selective laser melting process, which compacts a granular powder via a high-power laser according to a digitally defined geometry. Initial work suggests that assuming a loss model and numerically optimizing a geometry to minimize dissipation results in modest improvements in device performance. Furthermore, a subset of titanium alloys, particularly, a titanium, aluminum, vanadium alloy (Ti - 6Al - 4V) exhibits properties indicative of a high kinetic inductance material. This work is supported by LDRD 16-SI-004.

  10. tavgU_2d_flx_Nx: MERRA 2D IAU Diagnostic, Surface Fluxes, Diurnal 0.667 x 0.5 degree V5.2.0 (MATUNXFLX) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MATUNXFLX or tavgU_2d_flx_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional surface turbulence flux diagnostic that is time averaged...

  11. Low-temperature structural transition in the quasi-one-dimensional spin-1/2 compound L i2C u2O (SO4) 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousse, G.; Rodríguez-Carvajal, J.; Giacobbe, C.; Sun, M.; Vaccarelli, O.; Radtke, G.

    2017-04-01

    A thorough structural exploration has been made on the quasi-one-dimensional S =1 /2 compound L i2C u2O (SO4) 2 by neutron and synchrotron x-ray diffraction. It reveals the occurrence of a structural transition at 125 K, characterized by a lowering of symmetry from P 42/m to P 1 ¯ , which is possibly driven by an exchange striction mechanism. This transition involves a dimerization of some Cu in the edge-sharing tetrahedral Cu chains. A symmetry mode analysis indicates that one representation, Γ3+Γ4+ , dominates the structural transition. Interestingly, no intermediate structure with P 112 /m symmetry is observed experimentally. Lastly, temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements and neutron diffraction reveal that the magnetic ground state of this compound is a spin-singlet with a spin gap, characterized by the absence of long-range magnetic order down to 1.7 K.

  12. Development and characterization of monolithic fuel miniplate alloy U-2.5Zr-7.5Nb, coated in zircaloy; Desenvolvimento e caracterizacao do combustivel nuclear tipo placa monolitico da liga U-2,5Zr-7,5Nb revestido em zircaloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Geraldo Correa

    2014-06-01

    The autocthonal production of nuclear fuel in Brazil for test and research reactors is restricted to MTR (Material Test Reactor) fuel type dispersion plate, using U3Si2 alloy, coated and dispersed in aluminum, developed by IPEN-SP for use in IEA-R1 reactor. Moreover, the UO{sub 2} fuel rod type for power reactors is manufactured by Rezende (RJ) with a German technology by INB under license. Currently, Brazil is performing two programs of developing reactors. Currently, Brazil is developing two reactors. One of them is the development, by CNEN, the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB), for testing, research and radioisotope production. The other one is the development a power reactor for naval propulsion, conducted by the Brazilian Navy. This dissertation presents the development and characterization of monolithic fuel miniplate alloy U-2.5Zr-7.5Nb, coated in zircaloy (ZRY), on a laboratory scale. Due to its innovative features and properties, this fuel can be used as fuel in both test reactors, research and producing radioisotopes for power reactors as small and medium sizes. Thus, this high potential fuel can be used in domestic reactors currently under development. The development of monolithic fuel plate type is made using the technique called 'picture-frame' where a sandwich composed of a monolith alloy U-2.5Zr- 7.5Nb coupled to a frame and coated sheets of Zry is obtained. The alloy U-2.5Zr-7.5Nb was obtained by melting in an induction furnace and then was cast into rectangular ingots of graphite, thus achieving an ingot with approximate dimensions of 170 x 50 x 60 mm. The obtained ingot was hot rolled at 850 ºC, with a 50 % reduction in thickness, in order to refine the raw structure of fusion. Samples cut from the alloy U-2.5Zr-7.5Nb, with dimensions 20 x 20 x 6 mm were placed in frames and plates Zry and joined by TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) under an atmosphere of argon, obtaining a set of 10 mm thick, 45 mm wide and 100 mm long. The sandwiches were

  13. Impaired STING Pathway in Human Osteosarcoma U2OS Cells Contributes to the Growth of ICP0-Null Mutant Herpes Simplex Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Thibaut; Kalamvoki, Maria

    2017-05-01

    Human herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a widespread pathogen, with 80% of the population being latently infected. To successfully evade the host, the virus has evolved strategies to counteract antiviral responses, including the gene-silencing and innate immunity machineries. The immediately early protein of the virus, infected cell protein 0 (ICP0), plays a central role in these processes. ICP0 blocks innate immunity, and one mechanism is by degrading hostile factors with its intrinsic E3 ligase activity. ICP0 also functions as a promiscuous transactivator, and it blocks repressor complexes to enable viral gene transcription. For these reasons, the growth of a ΔICP0 virus is impaired in most cells, except cells of the human osteosarcoma cell line U2OS, and it is only partially impaired in cells of the human osteosarcoma cell line Saos-2. We found that the two human osteosarcoma cell lines that supported the growth of the ΔICP0 virus failed to activate innate immune responses upon treatment with 2'3'-cyclic GAMP (2'3'-cGAMP), the natural agonist of STING (i.e., stimulator of interferon genes) or after infection with the ΔICP0 mutant virus. Innate immune responses were restored in these cells by transient expression of the STING protein but not after overexpression of interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16). Restoration of STING expression resulted in suppression of ΔICP0 virus gene expression and a decrease in viral yields. Overexpression of IFI16 also suppressed ΔICP0 virus gene expression, albeit to a lesser extent than STING. These data suggest that the susceptibility of U2OS and Saos-2 cells to the ΔICP0 HSV-1 is in part due to an impaired STING pathway. IMPORTANCE The DNA sensor STING plays pivotal role in controlling HSV-1 infection both in cell culture and in mice. The HSV-1 genome encodes numerous proteins that are dedicated to combat host antiviral responses. The immediate early protein of the virus ICP0 plays major role in this process as it targets

  14. Development of a numerical code for the analysis of the linear stability of the U1 and U2 reactors of the CNLV; Desarrollo de un codigo numerico para el analisis de estabilidad lineal de los reactores de las U1 y U2 de la CNLV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa P, G.; Estrada P, C.E. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, 09000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Nunez C, A.; Amador G, R. [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The computer code ANESLI-1 developed by the CNSNS and UAM-I, has the main goal of making stability analysis of nuclear reactors of the BWR type, more specifically, the reactors of the U1 and U2 of the CNLV. However it can be used for another kind of applications. Its capacity of real time simulator, allows the prediction of operational transients, and conditions of dynamic steady states. ANESLI-1 was developed under a modular scheme, which allows to extend or/and to improve its scope. The lineal stability analysis predicts the instabilities produced by the wave density phenomenon. (Author)

  15. effects of sulphur addition on addition on and mechanical properties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    234-8034714355. 8034714355. 1. EFFECTS OF SULPHUR ADDITION ON. ADDITION ON. 2. AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES O. 3. 4. C. W. Onyia. 5. 1DEPT. OF METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS. 6. 2, 4DEPT. OF METALLURGICAL ...

  16. Investigation of phase transformations of U2.5Zr7.5Nb and U3Zr9Nb alloys aging at 600 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantagalli, Natalia Mattar; Tanure, Leandro Paulo de Almeida Reis; Braga, Daniel Martins; Santos, Ana Maria Matildes dos; Ferraz, Wilmar Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Investigation has been made of the effects of high-temperature aging (600 deg C) on the phase transformations in the U2.5Zr7.5Nb and U3Zr9Nb alloys. These alloys have been produced with vacuum induction melting (VIM) furnace in cast ingots. The ingots were homogenized at 1000 deg C for 24 hours in vacuum of -4 torr, and cooled to room temperature at a rate of 3 deg C/min. Specimens from these homogeneous materials, cut in 3 mm high and 10 mm diameter, were reheated to γ phase at 850 deg C, for 1 hour, and aging at 600 deg C at different times from 0.5 to 24 hours. The phases decomposition were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), metallographic, micro-probe analyze by energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and microhardness methods. It was verified that the decomposition of the δ phase proceeds in two steps. The first is a discontinuous precipitation of a lamellar two-phase aggregate composed of alpha solid solution and a metastable gamma phase. The metastable gamma phase has a constant composition at given temperature. After longer annealing, it decomposes eutectoidally into the equilibrium (α + δ 2 ) phases mixture. During this process a modification of the original lamellar microstructure takes place. The obtained metastable phases of these alloys of different compositions were analyzed in relation to their constitution, heat treatability and micrographic features and the results confronted with available distinct uranium alloys data from literature. (author)

  17. Analysis of U2 small nuclear RNA fragments in the bile differentiates cholangiocarcinoma from primary sclerosing cholangitis and other benign biliary disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraniskin, Alexander; Nöpel-Dünnebacke, Stefanie; Schumacher, Brigitte; Gerges, Christian; Bracht, Thilo; Sitek, Barbara; Meyer, Helmut E; Gerken, Guido; Dechene, Alexander; Schlaak, Jörg F; Schroers, Roland; Pox, Christian; Schmiegel, Wolff; Hahn, Stephan A

    2014-07-01

    Up to now the diagnosis of early stage cholangiocarcinoma (CC) has remained difficult, with low sensitivities reported for current diagnostic methods. Based on recent promising findings about circulating U2 small nuclear RNA fragments (RNU2-1f) as novel blood-based biomarkers for pancreatic and colorectal adenocarcinoma, we studied the utility of RNU2-1f as a diagnostic marker of CC in bile fluid. Bile fluid was collected from patients with CC (n = 12), controls (patients with choledocholithiasis) (n = 11) and with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC; n = 11). RNU2-1f levels were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction normalized to cel-54. Measurement of RNU2-1f levels in bile fluids enabled the differentiation of patients with CC from controls in all cases. Furthermore, RNU2-1f levels in bile fluids of patients with CC were significantly higher than in patients with PSC, resulting in a receiver-operating characteristic curve area of 0.856, with sensitivity of 67 % and specificity of 91 %. Our data suggest that the measurement of RNU2-1 fragments detected in the bile fluid can be used as a diagnostic marker for CC and should be included in future prospective diagnostic studies for this disease entity.

  18. Analysis of a cDNA clone expressing a human autoimmune antigen: full-length sequence of the U2 small nuclear RNA-associated B antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habets, W.J.; Sillekens, P.T.G.; Hoet, M.H.; Schalken, J.A.; Roebroek, A.J.M.; Leunissen, J.A.M.; Van de Ven, W.J.M.; Van Venrooij, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    A U2 small nuclear RNA-associated protein, designated B'', was recently identified as the target antigen for autoimmune sera from certain patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and other rheumatic diseases. Such antibodies enabled them to isolate cDNA clone λHB''-1 from a phage λgt11 expression library. This clone appeared to code for the B'' protein as established by in vitro translation of hybrid-selected mRNA. The identity of clone λHB''-1 was further confirmed by partial peptide mapping and analysis of the reactivity of the recombinant antigen with monospecific and monoclonal antibodies. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the 1015-base-pair cDNA insert of clone λHB''-1 revealed a large open reading frame of 800 nucleotides containing the coding sequence for a polypeptide of 25,457 daltons. In vitro transcription of the λHB''-1 cDNA insert and subsequent translation resulted in a protein product with the molecular size of the B'' protein. These data demonstrate that clone λHB''-1 contains the complete coding sequence of this antigen. The deduced polypeptide sequence contains three very hydrophilic regions that might constitute RNA binding sites and/or antigenic determinants. These findings might have implications both for the understanding of the pathogenesis of rheumatic diseases as well as for the elucidation of the biological function of autoimmune antigens

  19. Obtaining of U-2.5Zr7.5Nb and U-3Zr-9Nb alloys by sintering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzeu, Thiago de Oliveira; Paula, Joao Bosco de; Ferraz, Wilmar Barbosa; Santos, Ana Maria Matildes dos; Brina, Jose Giovanni Mascarenhas

    2011-01-01

    The development of metallic fuels with low enrichment to be used in research and test reactors, as well in the future pressurized water reactors, focuses on the search for uranium alloys of high density. Alloying elements such as Zr, Nb and Mo are added to uranium to improve fuel performance in reactors. In this context, the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN) in Belo Horizonte is developing the U-2.5Zr-7.5Nb and U- 3Zr-9Nb (weight %) alloys by the innovative process of sintering that utilizes raw materials in the form of powders. The powders were pressed at 400MPa and then sintered under a vacuum of about 5 x 10-6 Torr at temperatures ranging from 1050 deg to 1300 deg C. The densities of the alloys were measured geometrically and by hydrostatic method using water. The microstructures of the pellets were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the elements of alloying were identified by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) analysis. The obtained results showed a small increasing density with rising sintering temperature. The highest density achieved was approximately 80% of theoretical density. It was also qualitatively observed that the superficial oxidation of the pellets increased with increasing sintering temperature thus avoiding the fusion of the alloys at higher temperatures. (author)

  20. ADDITIVES USED TO OBTAIN FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ardelean

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of food additives in food is determined by the growth of contemporary food needs of the world population. Additives used in food, both natural and artificial ones, contribute to: improving the organoleptic characteristics and to preserve the food longer, but we must not forget that all these additives should not be found naturally in food products. Some of these additives are not harmful and human pests in small quantities, but others may have harmful effects on health.

  1. Abundance of dioxygenase genes similar to Ralstonia sp strain U2 nagAc is correlated with naphthalene concentrations in coal tar-contaminated freshwater sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionisi, H.M.; Chewning, C.S.; Morgan, K.H.; Menn, F.M.; Easter, J.P; Sayler, G.S. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Environmental Biotechnology

    2004-07-01

    We designed a real-time PCR assay able to recognize dioxygenase large-subunit gene sequences with more than 90% similarity to the Ralstonia sp. strain U2 nagAc gene (nagAc-like gene sequences) in order to study the importance of organisms carrying these genes in the biodegradation of naphthalene. Sequencing of PCR products indicated that this real-time PCR assay was specific and able to detect a variety of nagAc-like gene sequences. One to 100 ng of contaminated-sediment total DNA in 25-{mu}l reaction mixtures produced an amplification efficiency of 0.97 without evident PCR inhibition. The assay was applied to surficial freshwater sediment samples obtained in or in close proximity to a coal tar-contaminated Superfund site. Naphthalene concentrations in the analyzed samples varied between 0.18 and 106 mg/kg of dry weight sediment. The assay for nagAc-like sequences indicated the presence of (4.1 {+-} 0.7) X 10{sup 3} to (2.9 {+-} 0.3) X 10{sup 5} copies of nagAc-like dioxygenase genes per mug of DNA extracted from sediment samples. These values corresponded to (1.2 {+-} 0.6) X 10{sup 5} to (5.4 {+-} 0.4) X 10{sup 7} copies of this target per g of dry weight sediment when losses of DNA during extraction were taken into account. There was a positive correlation between naphthalene concentrations and nagAc-like gene copies per microgram of DNA = 0.89) and per gram of dry weight sediment = 0.77). These results provide evidence of the ecological significance of organisms carrying nagAc-like genes in the biodegradation of naphthalene.

  2. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  3. How Safe Are Color Additives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Linkedin Pin it Email Print Subscribe: FDA Consumer Health Information Color additives give the red tint to your fruit punch ... in Foods, Drugs, Cosmetics, and Medical Devices Color Additives: FDA's Regulatory Process and Historical Perspectives ... Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition ...

  4. Density measures and additive property

    OpenAIRE

    Kunisada, Ryoichi

    2015-01-01

    We deal with finitely additive measures defined on all subsets of natural numbers which extend the asymptotic density (density measures). We consider a class of density measures which are constructed from free ultrafilters on natural numbers and study a certain additivity property of such density measures.

  5. Study of phase transformation of U-2,5Zr-7,5Nb e U-3Zr-9Nb alloys for application in advanced nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pais, Rafael Witter Dias

    2015-01-01

    Metal fuels are relevant in the nuclear area due to the versatility of its use in the nuclear fuel cycle. Among the alloys of uranium investigated with high potential for use in nuclear power reactors, U-Zr-Nb alloys appear as an important alternative because of their superior physico-chemical and metallurgical properties. These alloys have also potential for use in nuclear testing, research and production radioisotopes of high performance nuclear reactors. Therefore, the development of these alloys is strategic since they are planned to be used in national reactors as RMB (Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor) and LABGENE (Electrical Generation Core Laboratory), currently under development in Brazil. In this work it was realized a extensive study in the scope of the manufacturing, heat treatment and phase transformations of U-2,5Zr-7,5Nb (m/m%) and U-3ZR-9NB (m/m%) fuel alloys. Ingots of both alloys were produced employing a specific methodology developed in this study. This methodology comprised the melting process in a vacuum induction furnace at high temperatures (1500 °C) and thermal-mechanical processing to break the as-cast structure. Samples with typical dimensions (17 x 7 x 2.5 mm) free from macrostructural defects were homogenized at 1000 °C in vacuum of 10 -5 torr for 17.5 hours with a 10°C/min cooling rate until to 820 °C and, subsequently, quenched in water. The samples, randomly selected, were subjected to isothermal treatment tests under different conditions of time and temperature. Isothermal treatments for transformation and retention phases were carried out in a special assembly designed for this work. After the tests, the samples were characterized by the usual phase characterization techniques with particular emphasis for the X-ray diffraction technique. In this way, the Rietveld refinement method was applied. In the case of uranium based alloys it is quite challenging due to the lack of data in the literature. In this work a strategy for the

  6. Finding the chiral gravitational wave background of an axion-S U (2 ) inflationary model using CMB observations and laser interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Ben; Fujita, Tomohiro; Hazumi, Masashi; Katayama, Nobuhiko; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Shiraishi, Maresuke

    2018-02-01

    A detection of B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies would confirm the presence of a primordial gravitational wave background (GWB). In the inflation paradigm, this would be an unprecedented probe of the energy scale of inflation as it is directly proportional to the power spectrum of the GWB. However, similar tensor perturbations can be produced by the matter fields present during inflation, breaking the simple relationship between energy scale and the tensor-to-scalar ratio r . It is therefore important to find ways of distinguishing between the generation mechanisms of the GWB. Without doing a full model selection, we analyze the detectability of a new axion-S U (2 ) gauge field model by calculating the signal-to-noise ratio of future CMB and interferometer observations sensitive to the chirality of the tensor spectrum. We forecast the detectability of the resulting CMB temperature and B-mode (TB) or E-mode and B-mode (EB) cross-correlation by the LiteBIRD satellite, considering the effects of residual foregrounds, gravitational lensing, and assess the ability of such an experiment to jointly detect primordial TB and EB spectra and self-calibrate its polarimeter. We find that LiteBIRD will be able to detect the chiral signal for r*>0.03 , with r* denoting the tensor-to-scalar ratio at the peak scale, and that the maximum signal-to-noise ratio for r*advanced stage of a LISA-like mission, which is designed to be sensitive to the intensity and polarization of the GWB. We find that such experiments would complement CMB observations as they would be able to detect the chirality of the GWB with high significance on scales inaccessible to the CMB. We conclude that CMB two-point statistics are limited in their ability to distinguish this model from a conventional vacuum fluctuation model of GWB generation, due to the fundamental limits on their sensitivity to parity violation. In order to test the predictions of such a model as

  7. Prevalence of Food Additive Intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    1994-01-01

    The prevalence estimates vary with a factor 100. As the results vary so do the study populations. 6 If the different study populations are accounted for, a common conclusion can be drawn: Food additive intolerance is found in adults with atopic symptoms from the respiratory tract and skin. The prevalence......1 The existing prevalence estimates of food additive intolerance(1-4) are being reviewed. 2 In the EEC report the estimated frequency of food additive intolerance is 0.03% to 0.15% based on data from patient groups. 3 The British population study results in a prevalence estimate of 0.......026%. The challenged population is 81 children and adults with a history of reproducible clinical symptoms after ingestion of food additives. 4 In the Danish population study a prevalence of 1-2% is found in children age 5-16. In this study a total of 606 children mainly with atopic disease have been challenged. 5...

  8. Topology Optimization for Additive Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders

    This PhD thesis deals with the combination of topology optimization and additive man-ufacturing (AM, also known as 3D-printing). In addition to my own works, the thesis contains a broader review and assessment of the literature within the field. The thesis first presents a classification...... of the various AM technologies, a review of relevant manufacturing materials, the properties of these materials in the additively manufactured part, as well as manufacturing constraints with a potential for design optimization. Subsequently, specific topology optimization formulations relevant for the most im...... for scalable manufacturing. In relation to interface problems it is shown how a flexible void area may be included into a standard minimum compliance problem by employing an additional design variable field and a sensitivity filter. Furthermore, it is shown how the design of coated structures may be modeled...

  9. (ICSID) ADDITIONAL FACILITY IN INTERNA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    ... which is adopted by Article 5 of the Additional Facility Rules to guide the ... B, Barrister at Law, e-mail: kcezeibe@yahoo.com; Phone 08033950631 and .... revision and annulment which are internally available under the Washington ...

  10. Food additives: an ethical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mepham, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Food additives are an integral part of the modern food system, but opinion polls showing most Europeans have worries about them imply an urgent need for ethical analysis of their use. The existing literature on food ethics, safety assessment and animal testing. Food additives provide certain advantages in terms of many people's lifestyles. There are disagreements about the appropriate application of the precautionary principle and of the value and ethical validity of animal tests in assessing human safety. Most consumers have a poor understanding of the relative benefits and risks of additives, but concerns over food safety and animal testing remain high. Examining the impacts of food additives on consumer sovereignty, consumer health and on animals used in safety testing should allow a more informed debate about their appropriate uses.

  11. Wide and High Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Brian K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Roschli, Alex C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate the enabling technologies for Wide and High Additive Manufacturing (WHAM). WHAM will open up new areas of U.S. manufacturing for very large tooling in support of the transportation and energy industries, significantly reducing cost and lead time. As with Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM), the initial focus is on the deposition of composite materials.

  12. Food additives and preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.

  13. effects of sulphur addition on addition on and mechanical properties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    on the microstructure and mechanical properties of sand cast been investigated ... owed that the addition of sulphur to Al-12wt%Si alloy. 12wt%Si alloy .... 28 materials. 29. Element. Aluminum. Silicon. Al. Si. Ca. Fe. Cu. Zn. Mn. Mg. Cr. B. 99.71.

  14. Characterisation and dissolution studies on the uranium pyrochlore mineral betafite (Ca,U)_2(Nb,Ti,Ta)_2O_7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMaster, S.; Ram, R.; Tardio, J.; Bhargava, S.

    2014-01-01

    The pyrochlore group mineral, betafite (nominally (Ca,U)_2(Nb,Ti,Ta)_2O_7); is a refractory uranium mineral found in many ore deposits, including the currently mined deposit at Rössing, Namibia and the currently unmined deposit at Saima Massif, China. The decreasing abundance of “easy to leach” uranium minerals (i.e. uraninite), has led to interest in the extraction of uranium from refractory uranium minerals such as betafite. In the current study, three naturally occurring betafite mineral samples (obtained from Ambatofotsky and Miarinarivo, Madagascar (BAM and BMM respectively) and Silver Crater Mine, Canada (BSC)) were characterised using ex-situ high temperature X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), multi acid digestion / ICP-MS analysis (composition) and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Dissolution of the three samples was also investigated under conditions similar to those used in commercial tank based uranium leaching processes. XRD analysis showed that all three samples were highly metamict. Samples BMM and BSC showed no assignable diffraction lines before heat treating, whereas the XRD pattern obtained for sample BAM contained diffraction lines that confirmed the presence of crystalline anatase (TiO_2). Heat treatment studies on the samples showed that the betafite in the samples was converted into a crystalline form at 700°C in all 3 samples. Gangue minerals, rutile, Nb-rutile, UTiNb_2O_1_0, and studitite were also found to be present in the heat treated samples. Multi acid digestion ICP-MS analysis showed the natural samples contained between 16 and 26% w/w uranium as well as all the major elements present typically in betafite. XPS analysis was conducted on the unheated betafite samples. XPS analysis showed that the uranium in the samples was predominately in U"5"+ oxidation state. Some U"6"+ was also identified though this was most likely restricted to the outer surface of the samples. Dissolution studies (batch mode) were conducted under the following

  15. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee’s evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for 10 food additives (Allura Red AC; carob bean gum; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid (OSA)– modified gum arabic; pectin; Quinoline Yellow; rosemary extract; steviol glycosides; tartrazine; and xanthan gum) and five groups of flavouring agents (alicyclic, alicyclic-fused and aromatic-fused ring lactones; aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; cinnamyl alcohol and related substances; and tetrahydrofuran and furanone derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: aspartame; cassia gum; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol (CITREM); modified starches; octanoic acid; starch sodium octenyl succinate; and total colouring matters. Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee’s recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives, including flavouring agents, considered at this meeting.

  16. Additive manufacturing of tunable lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Katja; Novak, Tobias; Heinrich, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    Individual additive manufacturing of optical systems based on 3D Printing offers varied possibilities in design and usage. In addition to the additive manufacturing procedure, the usage of tunable lenses allows further advantages for intelligent optical systems. Our goal is to bring the advantages of additive manufacturing together with the huge potential of tunable lenses. We produced tunable lenses as a bundle without any further processing steps, like polishing. The lenses were designed and directly printed with a 3D Printer as a package. The design contains the membrane as an optical part as well as the mechanical parts of the lens, like the attachments for the sleeves which contain the oil. The dynamic optical lenses were filled with an oil. The focal length of the lenses changes due to a change of the radius of curvature. This change is caused by changing the pressure in the inside of the lens. In addition to that, we designed lenses with special structures to obtain different areas with an individual optical power. We want to discuss the huge potential of this technology for several applications. Further, an appropriate controlling system is needed. Wéll show the possibilities to control and regulate the optical power of the lenses. The lenses could be used for illumination tasks, and in the future, for individual measurement tasks. The main advantage is the individuality and the possibility to create an individual design which completely fulfills the requirements for any specific application.

  17. Calcium addition in straw gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risnes, H.; Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2003-01-01

    The present work focuses on the influence of calcium addition in gasification. The inorganic¿organic element interaction as well as the detailed inorganic¿inorganic elements interaction has been studied. The effect of calcium addition as calcium sugar/molasses solutions to straw significantly...... affected the ash chemistry and the ash sintering tendency but much less the char reactivity. Thermo balance test are made and high-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements are performed, the experimental results indicate that with calcium addition major inorganic¿inorganic reactions take place very late...... in the char conversion process. Comprehensive global equilibrium calculations predicted important characteristics of the inorganic ash residue. Equilibrium calculations predict the formation of liquid salt if sufficient amounts of Ca are added and according to experiments as well as calculations calcium binds...

  18. Additive interaction in survival analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Lange, Theis; Andersen, Ingelise

    2012-01-01

    It is a widely held belief in public health and clinical decision-making that interventions or preventive strategies should be aimed at patients or population subgroups where most cases could potentially be prevented. To identify such subgroups, deviation from additivity of absolute effects...... an empirical example of interaction between education and smoking on risk of lung cancer. We argue that deviations from additivity of effects are important for public health interventions and clinical decision-making, and such estimations should be encouraged in prospective studies on health. A detailed...... is the relevant measure of interest. Multiplicative survival models, such as the Cox proportional hazards model, are often used to estimate the association between exposure and risk of disease in prospective studies. In Cox models, deviations from additivity have usually been assessed by surrogate measures...

  19. Additional disulfide bonds in insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Tine N; Pettersson, Ingrid; Huus, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    The structure of insulin, a glucose homeostasis-controlling hormone, is highly conserved in all vertebrates and stabilized by three disulfide bonds. Recently, we designed a novel insulin analogue containing a fourth disulfide bond located between positions A10-B4. The N-terminus of insulin's B......-chain is flexible and can adapt multiple conformations. We examined how well disulfide bond predictions algorithms could identify disulfide bonds in this region of insulin. In order to identify stable insulin analogues with additional disulfide bonds, which could be expressed, the Cβ cut-off distance had...... in comparison to analogues with additional disulfide bonds that were more difficult to predict. In contrast, addition of the fourth disulfide bond rendered all analogues resistant to fibrillation under stress conditions and all stable analogues bound to the insulin receptor with picomolar affinities. Thus...

  20. Aminodisulfides as additives to lubricants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balin, A.I.; Tarasevich, V.B.; Veretenova, T.N.

    1980-01-01

    A study was carried out and tehcnology developed for producing sulfur-nitrogen containing additives of the type of aminodisulfide by interaction of beta, beta-dichlordialkyl (aryl) disulfides with diethanolamine in a medium of sulfur-diethanolamine. The 2,2'-bis-(diethanol)-dialkyl(aryl) disulfides obtained do not hydrolyze in aqueous soltuions of alkalis, exhibit rather high antiscoring properties and are recommended for tests as active additives of high pressure to SOZH and technological lubricants of the oil and emulsion types.

  1. Additive to clay drilling muds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voytenko, V.S.; Nekrasova, V.B.; Nikitinskiy, E.L.; Ponomarev, V.N.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to improve the lubricating and strengthening properties of clay drilling muds. This goal is achieved because the lubricating and strengthening additive used is waste from the pulp and paper industry at the stage of reprocessing crude sulfate soap into phytosterol.

  2. The selective addition of water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Resch, V.; Hanefeld, U.

    2014-01-01

    Water is omnipresent and essential. Yet at the same time it is a rather unreactive molecule. The direct addition of water to C[double bond, length as m-dash]C double bonds is therefore a challenge not answered convincingly. In this perspective we critically evaluate the selectivity and the

  3. Additive manufacturing in maxillofacial reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dincă Luciana Laura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the benefits of using additive manufacturing technologies in maxillofacial reconstruction are highlighted. Based on a real clinical case, the paper describes the manufacture of an implant prototype replacing the right zygomatic bone and a part of maxilla using additive manufacturing technologies. The face is the most expressive part of the human body that makes us unique. It was shown that the maxillofacial prostheses help to improve the psychological state of patients affected by, because low self esteem feeling appears commonly to this patients with the facial defects. The aim of this paper is to show how using additive manufacturing technologies methods within this research, the producing a surgical model will help surgeon to improve the pre-operative planning. For this we used additive manufacturing technologies such as Stereolitography to achieve the biomodel and FDM-fused deposition modelling to obtain a prototype model because these technologies make it possible to obtain prosthesis according to the physical and mechanical requirements of the region of implantation.

  4. Radiation curable Michael addition compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, G.W.; Friedlander, C.B.; McDonald, W.H.; Dowbenko, R.

    1979-01-01

    Radiation polymerizable acrylyloxy-containing reaction products are provided from Michael addition reaction of an amide containing at least two acrylate groups with a primary or secondary amine. The resulting amine adducts of the amide, which contain at least one acrylate group per molecule, possesses high cure rates in air and are useful in compositions for forming coatings. (author)

  5. Additively manufactured porous tantalum implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wauthle, Ruben; Van Der Stok, Johan; Yavari, Saber Amin; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Kruth, Jean Pierre; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas; Weinans, Harrie; Mulier, Michiel; Schrooten, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The medical device industry's interest in open porous, metallic biomaterials has increased in response to additive manufacturing techniques enabling the production of complex shapes that cannot be produced with conventional techniques. Tantalum is an important metal for medical devices because of

  6. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for five food additives (magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate; mineral oil (medium and low viscosity) classes II and III; 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; serine protease (chymotrypsin) from Nocardiopsis prasina expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; and serine protease (trypsin) from Fusarium oxysporum expressed in Fusarium venenatum) and 16 groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; phenol and phenol derivatives; pyrazine derivatives; pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; and sulfur-substituted furan derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: ethyl cellulose, mineral oil (medium viscosity), modified starches and titanium

  7. Protocol for ADDITION-PRO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Nanna Borup; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Jensen, Troels M

    2012-01-01

    disease and microvascular diabetic complications. We also require a better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie and drive early changes in cardiometabolic physiology. The ADDITION-PRO study was designed to address these issues among individuals at different levels of diabetes risk recruited from...... Danish primary care. METHODS/DESIGN: ADDITION-PRO is a population-based, longitudinal cohort study of individuals at high risk for diabetes. 16,136 eligible individuals were identified at high risk following participation in a stepwise screening programme in Danish general practice between 2001 and 2006....... All individuals with impaired glucose regulation at screening, those who developed diabetes following screening, and a random sub-sample of those at lower levels of diabetes risk were invited to attend a follow-up health assessment in 2009-2011 (n=4,188), of whom 2,082 (50%) attended. The health...

  8. Additive theory of prime numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Hua, L K

    2009-01-01

    Loo-Keng Hua was a master mathematician, best known for his work using analytic methods in number theory. In particular, Hua is remembered for his contributions to Waring's Problem and his estimates of trigonometric sums. Additive Theory of Prime Numbers is an exposition of the classic methods as well as Hua's own techniques, many of which have now also become classic. An essential starting point is Vinogradov's mean-value theorem for trigonometric sums, which Hua usefully rephrases and improves. Hua states a generalized version of the Waring-Goldbach problem and gives asymptotic formulas for the number of solutions in Waring's Problem when the monomial x^k is replaced by an arbitrary polynomial of degree k. The book is an excellent entry point for readers interested in additive number theory. It will also be of value to those interested in the development of the now classic methods of the subject.

  9. Dolomitic lime containing hydraulic additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagzdina, S.; Sedmalis, U.; Bidermanis, L.; Liepins, J.; Grosvalds, I.

    1997-01-01

    To obtain qualitative dolomitic lime the optimum calcination temperature of dolomite containing about 9 % of clayey substances is 900 deg C. The mechanical strength of dolomitic lime containing 30 % of brick waste additive after 6-9 months of hardening is 1.4-1.5 times higher than that of samples without hydraulic additive, for calcium lime - 2.2-2.6 times higher. Generally the mechanical strength of dolomitic lime is higher than that one of calcium lime. It can be explained by the active role of MgO in the hydration and hardening processes of dolomitic lime. Xray diffraction phase analysis was performed by X-ray diffractometer DPON-3M with Cu-K α emission filter

  10. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  11. The Frontiers of Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-03

    Additive manufacturing, more commonly known as 3-D printing, has become a ubiquitous tool in science for its precise control over mechanical design. For additive manufacturing to work, a 3-D structure is split into thin 2D slices, and then different physical properties, such as photo-polymerization or melting, are used to grow the sequential layers. The level of control allows not only for devices to be made with a variety of materials: e.g. plastics, metals, and quantum dots, but to also have finely controlled structures leading to other novel properties. While 3-D printing is widely used by hobbyists for making models, it also has industrial applications in structural engineering, biological tissue scaffolding, customized electric circuitry, fuel cells, security, and more.

  12. Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    In the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization(MAWS) concept, actual waste streams are utilized as additive resources for vitrification, which may contain the basic components (glass formers and fluxes) for making a suitable glass or glassy slag. If too much glass former is present, then the melt viscosity or temperature will be too high for processing; while if there is too much flux, then the durability may suffer. Therefore, there are optimum combinations of these two important classes of constituents depending on the criteria required. The challenge is to combine these resources in such a way that minimizes the use of non-waste additives yet yields a processable and durable final waste form for disposal. The benefit to this approach is that the volume of the final waste form is minimized (waste loading maximized) since little or no additives are used and vitrification itself results in volume reduction through evaporation of water, combustion of organics, and compaction of the solids into a non-porous glass. This implies a significant reduction in disposal costs due to volume reduction alone, and minimizes future risks/costs due to the long term durability and leach resistance of glass. This is accomplished by using integrated systems that are both cost-effective and produce an environmentally sound waste form for disposal. individual component technologies may include: vitrification; thermal destruction; soil washing; gas scrubbing/filtration; and, ion-exchange wastewater treatment. The particular combination of technologies will depend on the waste streams to be treated. At the heart of MAWS is vitrification technology, which incorporates all primary and secondary waste streams into a final, long-term, stabilized glass wasteform. The integrated technology approach, and view of waste streams as resources, is innovative yet practical to cost effectively treat a broad range of DOE mixed and low-level wastes

  13. Trust Trust Me (The Additivity)

    OpenAIRE

    Mano , Ken; Sakurada , Hideki; Tsukada , Yasuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Part 4: Trust Metrics; International audience; We present a mathematical formulation of a trust metric using a quality and quantity pair. Under a certain assumption, we regard trust as an additive value and define the soundness of a trust computation as not to exceed the total sum. Moreover, we point out the importance of not only soundness of each computed trust but also the stability of the trust computation procedure against changes in trust value assignment. In this setting, we define tru...

  14. A manual on using additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bong Hoon

    1991-10-01

    This book consists of five chapters, which describe plasticizer ; summary, synthesis of plasticizer, basic notion, analysis and test on plasticizer, stabilizer ; stabilizer for plastic, an antioxidant, phosphorous acid estelle, ultraviolet ray absorbent, performance of stabilizer, influence on another additives, mix case of PVC production and analysis method for stabilizer, ultraviolet ray absorbent ; basic property and ultraviolet ray absorbent maker, anti-static agent ; basics, anti-static agent of a high molecule and analysis of anti-static agent, flame retardant of plastic.

  15. Additive property of separative power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Ichiro; Kanagawa, Akira

    1980-01-01

    A separative power of a separating element, whose heads and tails separation factors are α and β, is expressed by phi sub(b)(α, β) = [α(β - 1)1n α - (α - 1)1n β]/(αβ - 1) for the unit flow of the desired material and phi sub(a)(α, β) (= phi sub(b)(β, α)) for that of undesired material. The additive properties of the functions phi sub(b) and phi sub(a) were demonstrated by calculations of various types of ideal cascades, but the origin of the property is not obvious. The present study has furnished the mathematical basis of the additivity based on the special functional equation. First, for symmetric processes (α = β), the functional equation which describes the function representing the quality of separation f(α, α) concerning the desired material was obtained and solved to give the functional form of f(α, α). The result was extented to the function f(α, β) representing the quality of asymmetric separation (α not equal β). The derived function f(α, β) was demonstrated to be equal to phi sub(b)(α, β), and it was verified that functions phi sub(b)(α, β) and phi sub(a)(α, β) have the additive property in themselves. (author)

  16. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives (in particular, flavouring agents). A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives (asparaginase from Aspergillus niger expressed in A. niger, calcium lignosulfonate (40-65), ethyl lauroyl arginate, paprika extract, phospholipase C expressed in Pichia pastoris, phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters, polydimethylsiloxane, steviol glycosides and sulfites [assessment of dietary exposure]) and 10 groups of related flavouring agents (aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; alkoxy-substituted allylbenzenes present in foods and essential oils and used as flavouring agents; esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with aliphatic linear saturated carboxylic acids; furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives; and substances structurally related to menthol). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: canthaxanthin; carob bean gum and carob bean gum (clarified); chlorophyllin copper complexes, sodium and potassium salts; Fast Green FCF; guar gum and guar gum (clarified

  17. Additive Manufacturing of Porous Metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehoff, Ryan R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kirka, Michael M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Currently, helium is obtained through separation from natural gas. The current industrial process incurs significant costs and requires large energy resources to successfully achieve separation. Through utilizing Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies it is possible to reduce both of these burdens when refining helium gas. The ability to engineer porosity levels within Inconel 718 discs for controlled separation of helium from natural gas was investigated. Arrays of samples fabricated using the electron beam melting process were analyzed for their relative porosity density. Based upon the measurements, full scale discs were fabricated, and subsequently tested to determine their effectiveness in separating helium from liquefied natural gas.

  18. Additive manufacturing of RF absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Matthew S.

    The ability of additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate integrated electromagnetic absorbers tuned for specific radio frequency bands within structural composites allows for unique combinations of mechanical and electromagnetic properties. These composites and films can be used for RF shielding of sensitive electromagnetic components through in-plane and out-of-plane RF absorption. Structural composites are a common building block of many commercial platforms. These platforms may be placed in situations in which there is a need for embedded RF absorbing properties along with structural properties. Instead of adding radar absorbing treatments to the external surface of existing structures, which adds increased size, weight and cost; it could prove to be advantageous to integrate the microwave absorbing properties directly into the composite during the fabrication process. In this thesis, a method based on additive manufacturing techniques of composites structures with prescribed electromagnetic loss, within the frequency range 1 to 26GHz, is presented. This method utilizes screen printing and nScrypt micro dispensing to pattern a carbon based ink onto low loss substrates. The materials chosen for this study will be presented, and the fabrication technique that these materials went through to create RF absorbing structures will be described. The calibration methods used, the modeling of the RF structures, and the applications in which this technology can be utilized will also be presented.

  19. Mechanics of additively manufactured biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadpoor, Amir A

    2017-06-01

    Additive manufacturing (3D printing) has found many applications in healthcare including fabrication of biomaterials as well as bioprinting of tissues and organs. Additively manufactured (AM) biomaterials may possess arbitrarily complex micro-architectures that give rise to novel mechanical, physical, and biological properties. The mechanical behavior of such porous biomaterials including their quasi-static mechanical properties and fatigue resistance is not yet well understood. It is particularly important to understand the relationship between the designed micro-architecture (topology) and the resulting mechanical properties. The current special issue is dedicated to understanding the mechanical behavior of AM biomaterials. Although various types of AM biomaterials are represented in the special issue, the primary focus is on AM porous metallic biomaterials. As a prelude to this special issue, this editorial reviews some of the latest findings in the mechanical behavior of AM porous metallic biomaterials so as to describe the current state-of-the-art and set the stage for the other studies appearing in the issue. Some areas that are important for future research are also briefly mentioned. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Retinitis Pigmentosa Mutations of SNRNP200 Enhance Cryptic Splice-Site Recognition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cvačková, Zuzana; Matějů, Daniel; Staněk, David

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 3 (2014), s. 308-317 ISSN 1059-7794 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP301/12/P425; GA ČR GAP302/11/1910; GA AV ČR KAN200520801 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Retinitis pigmentosa * pre-mRNA splicing * fidelity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.144, year: 2014

  1. Additive versus multiplicative muon conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemethy, P.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental elucidation of the question of muon conservation is reviewed. It is shown that neutral-current experiments have not yet yielded information about muonium-antimuonium conversion at the weak-interaction level and that all the charged-current experiments agree that there is no evidence for a multiplicative law. The best limits, from the muon-decay neutrino experiment at LAMPF and from the inverse muon-decay experiment in the CERN neutrino beam, definitely exclude multiplicative law schemes with a branching ratio R approximately 1/2. It is concluded that unless the dynamics conspire to make a multiplicative law with very small R it would appear that muon conservation obeys conserved additive lepton flavor law. (U.K.)

  2. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  3. Business models for additive manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadar, Ronen; Bilberg, Arne; Bogers, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Digital fabrication — including additive manufacturing (AM), rapid prototyping and 3D printing — has the potential to revolutionize the way in which products are produced and delivered to the customer. Therefore, it challenges companies to reinvent their business model — describing the logic...... of creating and capturing value. In this paper, we explore the implications that AM technologies have for manufacturing systems in the new business models that they enable. In particular, we consider how a consumer goods manufacturer can organize the operations of a more open business model when moving from...... a manufacturer-centric to a consumer-centric value logic. A major shift includes a move from centralized to decentralized supply chains, where consumer goods manufacturers can implement a “hybrid” approach with a focus on localization and accessibility or develop a fully personalized model where the consumer...

  4. Additive manufacturing with polypropylene microfibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Jodie N; Dargaville, Tim R; Dalton, Paul D

    2017-08-01

    The additive manufacturing of small diameter polypropylene microfibers is described, achieved using a technique termed melt electrospinning writing. Sequential fiber layering, which is important for accurate three-dimensional fabrication, was achieved with the smallest fiber diameter of 16.4±0.2μm obtained. The collector speed, temperature and melt flow rate to the nozzle were optimized for quality and minimal fiber pulsing. Of particular importance to the success of this method is appropriate heating of the collector plate, so that the electrostatically drawn filament adheres during the direct-writing process. By demonstrating the direct-writing of polypropylene, new applications exploiting the favorable mechanical, stability and biocompatible properties of this polymer are envisaged. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Additivity of entropic uncertainty relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Schwonnek

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We consider the uncertainty between two pairs of local projective measurements performed on a multipartite system. We show that the optimal bound in any linear uncertainty relation, formulated in terms of the Shannon entropy, is additive. This directly implies, against naive intuition, that the minimal entropic uncertainty can always be realized by fully separable states. Hence, in contradiction to proposals by other authors, no entanglement witness can be constructed solely by comparing the attainable uncertainties of entangled and separable states. However, our result gives rise to a huge simplification for computing global uncertainty bounds as they now can be deduced from local ones. Furthermore, we provide the natural generalization of the Maassen and Uffink inequality for linear uncertainty relations with arbitrary positive coefficients.

  6. Additional Equipment for Soil Biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondráčková, Terezie; Kraus, Michal; Šál, Jiří

    2017-12-01

    Intensification of industrial production, increasing citizens’ living standards, expanding the consumer assortment mean in the production - consumption cycle a constantly increasing occurrence of waste material, which by its very nature must be considered as a source of useful raw materials in all branches of human activity. In addition to strict legislative requirements, a number of circumstances characterize waste management. It is mainly extensive transport associated with the handling and storage of large volumes of substances with a large assortment of materials (substances of all possible physical and chemical properties) and high demands on reliability and time coordination of follow-up processes. Considerable differences in transport distances, a large number of sources, processors and customers, and not least seasonal fluctuations in waste and strong price pressures cannot be overlooked. This highlights the importance of logistics in waste management. Soils that are contaminated with oil and petroleum products are hazardous industrial waste. Methods of industrial waste disposal are landfilling, biological processes, thermal processes and physical and chemical methods. The paper focuses on the possibilities of degradation of oil pollution, in particular biodegradation by bacteria, which is relatively low-cost among technologies. It is necessary to win the fight with time so that no ground water is contaminated. We have developed two additional devices to help reduce oil accident of smaller ranges. In the case of such an oil accident, it is necessary to carry out the permeability test of contaminated soil in time and, on this basis, to choose the technology appropriate to the accident - either in-sit biodegradation - at the site of the accident, or on-sit - to remove the soil and biodegrade it on the designated deposits. A special injection drill was developed for in-sit biodegradation, tossing and aeration equipment of the extracted soil was developed for

  7. Study of phase transformation of U-2,5Zr-7,5Nb e U-3Zr-9Nb alloys for application in advanced nuclear fuel; Estudo das transformacoes de fases nas ligas U-2,5Zr-7,5Nb e U-3Zr-9Nb para aplicacao em combustivel nuclear avancado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pais, Rafael Witter Dias

    2015-07-01

    Metal fuels are relevant in the nuclear area due to the versatility of its use in the nuclear fuel cycle. Among the alloys of uranium investigated with high potential for use in nuclear power reactors, U-Zr-Nb alloys appear as an important alternative because of their superior physico-chemical and metallurgical properties. These alloys have also potential for use in nuclear testing, research and production radioisotopes of high performance nuclear reactors. Therefore, the development of these alloys is strategic since they are planned to be used in national reactors as RMB (Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor) and LABGENE (Electrical Generation Core Laboratory), currently under development in Brazil. In this work it was realized a extensive study in the scope of the manufacturing, heat treatment and phase transformations of U-2,5Zr-7,5Nb (m/m%) and U-3ZR-9NB (m/m%) fuel alloys. Ingots of both alloys were produced employing a specific methodology developed in this study. This methodology comprised the melting process in a vacuum induction furnace at high temperatures (1500 °C) and thermal-mechanical processing to break the as-cast structure. Samples with typical dimensions (17 x 7 x 2.5 mm) free from macrostructural defects were homogenized at 1000 °C in vacuum of 10{sup -5} torr for 17.5 hours with a 10°C/min cooling rate until to 820 °C and, subsequently, quenched in water. The samples, randomly selected, were subjected to isothermal treatment tests under different conditions of time and temperature. Isothermal treatments for transformation and retention phases were carried out in a special assembly designed for this work. After the tests, the samples were characterized by the usual phase characterization techniques with particular emphasis for the X-ray diffraction technique. In this way, the Rietveld refinement method was applied. In the case of uranium based alloys it is quite challenging due to the lack of data in the literature. In this work a strategy for the

  8. Incommensurate crystallography without additional dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocian, Philippe

    2013-07-01

    It is shown that the Euclidean group of translations, when treated as a Lie group, generates translations not only in Euclidean space but on any space, curved or not. Translations are then not necessarily vectors (straight lines); they can be any curve compatible with the parameterization of the considered space. In particular, attention is drawn to the fact that one and only one finite and free module of the Lie algebra of the group of translations can generate both modulated and non-modulated lattices, the modulated character being given only by the parameterization of the space in which the lattice is generated. Moreover, it is shown that the diffraction pattern of a structure is directly linked to the action of that free and finite module. In the Fourier transform of a whole structure, the Fourier transform of the electron density of one unit cell (i.e. the structure factor) appears concretely, whether the structure is modulated or not. Thus, there exists a neat separation: the geometrical aspect on the one hand and the action of the group on the other, without requiring additional dimensions.

  9. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, S K

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts.

  10. Dynamics of ultrasonic additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehr, Adam; Dapino, Marcelo J

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a solid-state technology for joining similar and dissimilar metal foils near room temperature by scrubbing them together with ultrasonic vibrations under pressure. Structural dynamics of the welding assembly and work piece influence how energy is transferred during the process and ultimately, part quality. To understand the effect of structural dynamics during UAM, a linear time-invariant model is proposed to relate the inputs of shear force and electric current to resultant welder velocity and voltage. Measured frequency response and operating performance of the welder under no load is used to identify model parameters. Using this model and in-situ measurements, shear force and welder efficiency are estimated to be near 2000N and 80% when welding Al 6061-H18 weld foil, respectively. Shear force and welder efficiency have never been estimated before in UAM. The influence of processing conditions, i.e., welder amplitude, normal force, and weld speed, on shear force and welder efficiency are investigated. Welder velocity was found to strongly influence the shear force magnitude and efficiency while normal force and weld speed showed little to no influence. The proposed model is used to describe high frequency harmonic content in the velocity response of the welder during welding operations and coupling of the UAM build with the welder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Dimensionless numbers in additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, T.; Manvatkar, V.; De, A.; DebRoy, T.

    2017-02-01

    The effects of many process variables and alloy properties on the structure and properties of additively manufactured parts are examined using four dimensionless numbers. The structure and properties of components made from 316 Stainless steel, Ti-6Al-4V, and Inconel 718 powders for various dimensionless heat inputs, Peclet numbers, Marangoni numbers, and Fourier numbers are studied. Temperature fields, cooling rates, solidification parameters, lack of fusion defects, and thermal strains are examined using a well-tested three-dimensional transient heat transfer and fluid flow model. The results show that lack of fusion defects in the fabricated parts can be minimized by strengthening interlayer bonding using high values of dimensionless heat input. The formation of harmful intermetallics such as laves phases in Inconel 718 can be suppressed using low heat input that results in a small molten pool, a steep temperature gradient, and a fast cooling rate. Improved interlayer bonding can be achieved at high Marangoni numbers, which results in vigorous circulation of liquid metal, larger pool dimensions, and greater depth of penetration. A high Fourier number ensures rapid cooling, low thermal distortion, and a high ratio of temperature gradient to the solidification growth rate with a greater tendency of plane front solidification.

  12. Additive Manufacturing of Fuel Injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadek Tadros, Dr. Alber Alphonse [Edison Welding Institute, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States); Ritter, Dr. George W. [Edison Welding Institute, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States); Drews, Charles Donald [Edison Welding Institute, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States); Ryan, Daniel [Solar Turbines Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2017-10-24

    Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D-printing, has been shifting from a novelty prototyping paradigm to a legitimate manufacturing tool capable of creating components for highly complex engineered products. An emerging AM technology for producing metal parts is the laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) process; however, industry manufacturing specifications and component design practices for L-PBF have not yet been established. Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), an industrial gas turbine manufacturer, has been evaluating AM technology for development and production applications with the desire to enable accelerated product development cycle times, overall turbine efficiency improvements, and supply chain flexibility relative to conventional manufacturing processes (casting, brazing, welding). Accordingly, Solar teamed with EWI on a joint two-and-a-half-year project with the goal of developing a production L-PBF AM process capable of consistently producing high-nickel alloy material suitable for high temperature gas turbine engine fuel injector components. The project plan tasks were designed to understand the interaction of the process variables and their combined impact on the resultant AM material quality. The composition of the high-nickel alloy powders selected for this program met the conventional cast Hastelloy X compositional limits and were commercially available in different particle size distributions (PSD) from two suppliers. Solar produced all the test articles and both EWI and Solar shared responsibility for analyzing them. The effects of powder metal input stock, laser parameters, heat treatments, and post-finishing methods were evaluated. This process knowledge was then used to generate tensile, fatigue, and creep material properties data curves suitable for component design activities. The key process controls for ensuring consistent material properties were documented in AM powder and process specifications. The basic components of the project

  13. Abnormal specific heat enhancement and non-Fermi-liquid behavior in the heavy-fermion system U2Cu17 -xGax (5 ≤x ≤8 )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanidze, E.; Amon, A.; Prots, Yu.; Leithe-Jasper, A.; Grin, Yu.

    2018-03-01

    In the antiferromagnetic heavy-fermion compound U2Zn17 , the Sommerfeld coefficient γ can be enhanced if all Zn atoms are replaced by a combination of Cu and Al or Cu and Ga. In the former ternary phase, glassy behavior was observed, while for the latter, conflicting ground-state reports suggest material quality issues. In this work, we investigate the U2Cu17 -xGax substitutional series for 4.5 ≤x ≤9.5 . In the homogeneity range of the phase with the Th2Zn17 -type of crystal structure, all samples exhibit glassy behavior with 0.6 K ≤Tf≤1.8 K . The value of the electronic specific heat coefficient γ in this system exceeds 900 mJ/molUK2. Such a drastic effective-mass enhancement can possibly be attributed to the effects of structural disorder, since the role of electron concentration and lattice compression is likely minimal. Crystallographic disorder is also responsible for the emergence of non-Fermi-liquid behavior in these spin-glass materials, as evidenced by logarithmic divergence of magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, and electrical resistivity.

  14. Determination of uranium concentrations and "2"3"4U/"2"3"8U activity ratio in some granitic rock samples by alpha spectrometry: application of a radiochemical procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, Mahmoud R.

    2016-01-01

    The present study is an application of a radiochemical procedure using alpha spectrometry technique for determination of uranium isotopes "2"3"8U, "2"3"4U and "2"3"5U on 13 granitic samples. These samples were collected from Gabal Gattar area, Northeastern Desert, Egypt. The collected samples were digested using microwave technique with aqua regia and spiked with "2"3"2U for chemical yield and activity calculation. Separation of uranium isotopes from the samples was done by Dowex 1 x 4 (50-100 mesh) resin followed by source preparation using microprecipitation technique. The concentrations of "2"3"8U were ranged between 28.9±0.9 and 134.8±1.8 Bq/g, and the "2"3"4U concentrations were between 24±0.6 and 147.7±2.2 Bq/g. For the "2"3"5U, the activity concentrations were between 1.3±0.2 and 6.7±1.2 Bq/g. The activity ratio of "2"3"4U/"2"3"8U was calculated and varied from 0.80 to 1.30. (author)

  15. Efficient production of lignocellulolytic enzymes xylanase, β-xylosidase, ferulic acid esterase and β-glucosidase by the mutant strain Aspergillus awamori 2B.361 U2/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda Maria Fortes Gottschalk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of xylanase, β-xylosidase, ferulic acid esterase and β-glucosidase by Aspergillus awamori 2B.361 U2/1, a hyper producer of glucoamylase and pectinase, was evaluated using selected conditions regarding nitrogen nutrition. Submerged cultivations were carried out at 30 ºC and 200 rpm in growth media containing 30 g wheat bran/L as main carbon source and either yeast extract, ammonium sulfate, sodium nitrate or urea, as nitrogen sources; in all cases it was used a fixed molar carbon to molar nitrogen concentration of 10.3. The use of poor nitrogen sources favored the accumulation of xylanase, β-xylosidase and ferulic acid esterase to a peak concentrations of 44,880; 640 and 118 U/L, respectively, for sodium nitrate and of 34,580, 685 and 170 U/L, respectively, for urea. However, the highest β-glucosidase accumulation of 10,470 U/L was observed when the rich organic nitrogen source yeast extract was used. The maxima accumulation of filter paper activity, xylanase, β-xylosidase, ferulic acid esterase and β-glucosidase by A. awamori 2B.361 U2/1 was compared to that produced by Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30. The level of β-glucosidase was over 17-fold higher for the Aspergillus strain, whereas the levels of xylanase and β-xylosidase were over 2-fold higher. This strain also produced ferulic acid esterase (170 U/L, which was not detected in the T. reesei culture.

  16. Dynamic Contacts of U2, RES, Cwc25, Prp8 and Prp45 Proteins with the Pre-mRNA Branch-Site and 3' Splice Site during Catalytic Activation and Step 1 Catalysis in Yeast Spliceosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius Schneider

    Full Text Available Little is known about contacts in the spliceosome between proteins and intron nucleotides surrounding the pre-mRNA branch-site and their dynamics during splicing. We investigated protein-pre-mRNA interactions by UV-induced crosslinking of purified yeast B(act spliceosomes formed on site-specifically labeled pre-mRNA, and analyzed their changes after conversion to catalytically-activated B* and step 1 C complexes, using a purified splicing system. Contacts between nucleotides upstream and downstream of the branch-site and the U2 SF3a/b proteins Prp9, Prp11, Hsh49, Cus1 and Hsh155 were detected, demonstrating that these interactions are evolutionarily conserved. The RES proteins Pml1 and Bud13 were shown to contact the intron downstream of the branch-site. A comparison of the B(act crosslinking pattern versus that of B* and C complexes revealed that U2 and RES protein interactions with the intron are dynamic. Upon step 1 catalysis, Cwc25 contacts with the branch-site region, and enhanced crosslinks of Prp8 and Prp45 with nucleotides surrounding the branch-site were observed. Cwc25's step 1 promoting activity was not dependent on its interaction with pre-mRNA, indicating it acts via protein-protein interactions. These studies provide important insights into the spliceosome's protein-pre-mRNA network and reveal novel RNP remodeling events during the catalytic activation of the spliceosome and step 1 of splicing.

  17. Septic tank additive impacts on microbial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, S; Hoover, M T; Clark, G H; Gumpertz, M; Wollum, A G; Cobb, C; Strock, J

    2008-01-01

    Environmental health specialists, other onsite wastewater professionals, scientists, and homeowners have questioned the effectiveness of septic tank additives. This paper describes an independent, third-party, field scale, research study of the effects of three liquid bacterial septic tank additives and a control (no additive) on septic tank microbial populations. Microbial populations were measured quarterly in a field study for 12 months in 48 full-size, functioning septic tanks. Bacterial populations in the 48 septic tanks were statistically analyzed with a mixed linear model. Additive effects were assessed for three septic tank maintenance levels (low, intermediate, and high). Dunnett's t-test for tank bacteria (alpha = .05) indicated that none of the treatments were significantly different, overall, from the control at the statistical level tested. In addition, the additives had no significant effects on septic tank bacterial populations at any of the septic tank maintenance levels. Additional controlled, field-based research iswarranted, however, to address additional additives and experimental conditions.

  18. Additive conjoint measurement for multiattribute utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, A.; Wakker, P.P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper shows that multiattribute utility can be simplified by methods from additive conjoint measurement. Given additive conjoint measurability under certainty, axiomatizations can be simplified, and implementation and reliability of elicitation can be improved. This also contributes to the

  19. Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Propulsion Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Grady, Joseph E.; Carter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will provide an overview of ongoing activities on additive manufacturing of aerospace propulsion components, which included rocket propulsion and gas turbine engines. Future opportunities on additive manufacturing of hybrid electric propulsion components will be discussed.

  20. The Philosophical Consideration about Food Additives

    OpenAIRE

    Baoyu Ma

    2015-01-01

    This study mainly analyzes the essential features of food additives technology from the angle of philosophy, explaining the essential characteristics of food additives technology. As for the attitude towards the application of food additives, it is influenced by the public's gender, age, educational level, occupation and monthly expenditure for buying non-staple food and other variables, thus, the attitude towards food additives and green food, as well as the attitude towards using artificial...

  1. The dilemma of allergy to food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahna, Sami L; Burkhardt, Joshua G

    2018-01-01

    To provide a brief summary on food additives and to outline a practical approach for evaluating subjects suspected of having reactions to food additives. Information was derived from selected reviews and original articles published in peer-reviewed journals, supplemented by the clinical experience of the authors. Priority was given to studies that used blinded, placebo controlled, oral challenges to confirm adverse reactions to food additives. In addition, selected, appropriately evaluated case reports were included. A large number of food additives are widely used in the food industry. Allergic reactions to additives seem to be rare but are very likely underdiagnosed, primarily due to a low index of suspicion. A wide variety of symptoms to food additives have been reported, but a cause-and-effect relationship has not been well documented in the majority of cases. Reactions to food additives should be suspected in patients who report symptoms related to multiple foods or to a certain food when commercially prepared but not when home made. It is also prudent to investigate food additives in subjects considered to have "idiopathic" reactions. Except for a limited number of natural additives, there is a small role for skin tests or in vitro testing. Oral challenge, in stages, with commonly used additives is the definitive procedure for detecting the offending agent. Once the specific additive is identified, management is strict avoidance, which can be difficult.

  2. Enabling Technologies for Medium Additive Manufacturing (MAAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, Bradley S. [ORNL; Love, Lonnie J. [ORNL; Chesser, Phillip C. [ORNL; Miller, Jason [Cosine Additive, Inc.; McCalip, Andrew [Cosine Additive, Inc.

    2018-02-01

    ORNL has worked with Cosine Additive, Inc. on the design of MAAM extrusion components. The objective is to improve the print speed and part quality. A pellet extruder has been procured and integrated into the MAAM printer. Print speed has been greatly enhanced. In addition, ORNL and Cosine Additive have worked on alternative designs for a pellet drying and feed system.

  3. Use of Lysozyme as a Feed Additive on Rumen Fermentation and Methane Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf A. Biswas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of lysozyme addition on in vitro rumen fermentation and to identify the lysozyme inclusion rate for abating methane (CH4 production. An in vitro ruminal fermentation technique was done using a commercial concentrate to rice straw ratio of 8:2 as substrate. The following treatments were applied wherein lysozyme was added into 1 mg dry matter substrate at different levels of inclusion: Without lysozyme, 2,000, 4,000, and 8,000 U lysozyme. Results revealed that, lysozyme addition had a significant effect on pH after 24 h of incubation, with the highest pH (p<0.01 observed in 8,000 U lysozyme, followed by the 4,000 U, 2,000 U, and without lysozyme. The highest amounts of acetic acid, propionic acid (p<0.01 and total volatile fatty acid (TVFA (p<0.05 were found in 8,000 U after 24 h of incubation. The CH4 concentration was the lowest in the 8,000 U and the highest in the without lysozyme addition after 24 h of incubation. There was no significant differences in general bacteria, methanogen, or protozoan DNA copy number. So far, addition of lysozyme increased the acetate, propionate, TVFA, and decreased CH4 concentration. These results suggest that lysozyme supplementation may improve in vitro rumen fermentation and reduce CH4 emission.

  4. Monte Carlo analysis of the oxygen knock-on effects induced by synchrotron x-ray radiation in the B i2S r2CaC u2O8 +δ superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torsello, Daniele; Mino, Lorenzo; Bonino, Valentina; Agostino, Angelo; Operti, Lorenza; Borfecchia, Elisa; Vittone, Ettore; Lamberti, Carlo; Truccato, Marco

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the microscopic mechanism responsible for the change of macroscopic electrical properties of the B i2S r2CaC u2O8 +δ high-temperature superconductor induced by intense synchrotron hard x-ray beams. The possible effects of secondary electrons on the oxygen content via the knock-on interaction are studied by Monte Carlo simulations. The change in the oxygen content expected from the knock-on model is computed convoluting the fluence of photogenerated electrons in the material with the Seitz-Koehler cross section. This approach has been adopted to analyze several experimental irradiation sessions with increasing x-ray fluences. A close comparison between the expected variations in oxygen content and the experimental results allows determining the irradiation regime in which the knock-on mechanism can satisfactorily explain the observed changes. Finally, we estimate the threshold displacement energy of loosely bound oxygen atoms in this material Td=0 .15-0.01+0.025eV .

  5. Additive operator-difference schemes splitting schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Vabishchevich, Petr N

    2013-01-01

    Applied mathematical modeling isconcerned with solving unsteady problems. This bookshows how toconstruct additive difference schemes to solve approximately unsteady multi-dimensional problems for PDEs. Two classes of schemes are highlighted: methods of splitting with respect to spatial variables (alternating direction methods) and schemes of splitting into physical processes. Also regionally additive schemes (domain decomposition methods)and unconditionally stable additive schemes of multi-component splitting are considered for evolutionary equations of first and second order as well as for sy

  6. Biocompatibility of photopolymers for additive manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Leonhardt Stefan; Klare Martin; Scheer Maurice; Fischer Theresa; Cordes Burghard; Eblenkamp Markus

    2016-01-01

    To establish photopolymers for the production of class II or class III medical products by additive manufacturing it is essential to know which components of photopolymeric systems, consisting of monomers, photoinitiators and additives, are the determining factors on their biocompatible properties. In this study the leachable substances of a cured photopolymeric system were eluted and identified by HPLC-MS detection. In addition the cured photopolymer was testes for cytotoxicity and genotoxic...

  7. Harnessing the Potential of Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    31 Defense AT&L: November-December 2016 Harnessing the Potential of Additive Manufacturing Bill Decker Decker is director of Technology...achieve its goal of competition throughout the acquisition life cycle. When we look at additive manufacturing , we have a much different environment. To...Titanium-6 Aluminum-4 Vanadium with Powder Bed Fusion. This specification covers additively manufactured titanium-6 aluminum-4 vanadium (Ti-6Al-4V

  8. Additives in food and their properties

    OpenAIRE

    TYLOVÁ, Kristýna

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to deepen the knowledge about additives in foods, the importance of technological additives in foods, their properties and effects on human health. The aim of this work is a study of technical and scientific literature on the topic: "additives in foods and their properties" and review of the literature. Also in the practical part, implementation and evaluation of a questionnaire survey of the experimental group related to the topic: "Validation and comparison of knowle...

  9. Merits and Demerits of Food Additives

    OpenAIRE

    YANG, Xuening; ZHAN, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Food additive is a double-edged sword. It has merits and demerits. Food additives have such merits as improving sensory properties of foods, preventing deterioration and extending the shelf life, increasing varieties of foods, enhancing convenience of foods, facilitating food processing, and satisfying other demands. However, excessive and illegal use of food additives will exert adverse influence on food security. Therefore, it is required to take proper measures to bring merits of food addi...

  10. Merits and Demerits of Food Additives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuening; YANG; Yong; ZHAN

    2014-01-01

    Food additive is a double-edged sword. It has merits and demerits. Food additives have such merits as improving sensory properties of foods,preventing deterioration and extending the shelf life,increasing varieties of foods,enhancing convenience of foods,facilitating food processing,and satisfying other demands. However,excessive and illegal use of food additives will exert adverse influence on food security.Therefore,it is required to take proper measures to bring merits of food additives into full play,and get rid of their demerits.

  11. Allergic and immunologic reactions to food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultekin, Fatih; Doguc, Duygu Kumbul

    2013-08-01

    For centuries, food additives have been used for flavouring, colouring and extension of the useful shelf life of food, as well as the promotion of food safety. During the last 20 years, the studies implicating the additives contained in foods and medicine as a causative factor of allergic reactions have been proliferated considerably. In this review, we aimed to overview all of the food additives which were approved to consume in EU and find out how common and serious allergic reactions come into existence following the consuming of food additives.

  12. 78 FR 34351 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    .... ADDRESSES: Committee for Purchase from People Who are Blind or Severely Disabled, 1401 S. Clark Street... COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase from People Who are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the...

  13. Additive Manufacturing for Low Volume Bearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tate, John G. [Schaeffler Group USA, Spartanburg, SC (United States); Richardson, Bradley S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Love, Lonnie J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-01

    ORNL worked with the Schaeffler Group USA to explore additive manufacturing techniques that might be appropriate for prototyping of bearing cages. Multiple additive manufacturing techniques were investigated, including e-beam, binder jet and multiple laser based processes. The binder jet process worked best for the thin, detailed cages printed.

  14. 48 CFR 1603.7002 - Additional guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Additional guidelines. 1603.7002 Section 1603.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL... OF INTEREST Misleading, Deceptive, or Unfair Advertising 1603.7002 Additional guidelines. Any...

  15. 18 CFR 33.10 - Additional information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information. 33.10 Section 33.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... § 33.10 Additional information. The Director of the Office of Energy Market Regulation, or his designee...

  16. Additives In Meat and Poultry Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fact Sheets / Additives in Meat and Poultry Products / Additives in Meat and Poultry Products Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 ... Affairs Recalls and Public Health Alerts Regulatory Compliance Regulations, Directives and Notices Rulemaking ...

  17. Feed Additives for Aquaculture and Aquarium Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Barata, Eduardo N.; Velez, Zélia

    2011-01-01

    The presente invention refers of feed additives for aquaculture and aquarium culture. These additives comprise the amino acid, 1-methyl-L-tryptophane, or its isomers with the objective of improving the attractiveness of feeds used in aquaculture and aquaria for fish, as well as other aquatic organisms, under culture conditions. Therefore, this invention has applications in the agriculture-food industry.

  18. 77 FR 41899 - Indirect Food Additives: Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 177 [Docket No. FDA-2012-F-0031] Indirect Food Additives: Polymers AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... CFR part 177 is amended as follows: PART 177--INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS 0 1. The authority...

  19. Photoactive devices including porphyrinoids with coordinating additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Yu, Eric K; Thompson, Mark E; Trinh, Cong; Whited, Matthew; Diev, Vlacheslav

    2015-05-12

    Coordinating additives are included in porphyrinoid-based materials to promote intermolecular organization and improve one or more photoelectric characteristics of the materials. The coordinating additives are selected from fullerene compounds and organic compounds having free electron pairs. Combinations of different coordinating additives can be used to tailor the characteristic properties of such porphyrinoid-based materials, including porphyrin oligomers. Bidentate ligands are one type of coordinating additive that can form coordination bonds with a central metal ion of two different porphyrinoid compounds to promote porphyrinoid alignment and/or pi-stacking. The coordinating additives can shift the absorption spectrum of a photoactive material toward higher wavelengths, increase the external quantum efficiency of the material, or both.

  20. Implementation of the Additional Protocol in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, T.

    2001-01-01

    The Additional Protocol between Japan and the IAEA entered into force in December 1999. To come into force a series of implementation trials of Additional Protocol was carried out at two Japanese representative nuclear research centers, i.e. Tokai Research Establishment of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Oarai Engineering Center of Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Institute (JNC). These trials were proposed by Japan and were conducted in cooperation with the IAEA Secretariat. In addition, Japan amended 'the Law for the Regulation of Reactors etc.', to collect adequate information to submit to the IAEA, to arrange the surrounding for the complementary access, etc. In addition, Japan Submitted the Initial Declaration of the Additional Protocol within 180 days of the entry into force of the Protocol, in the middle of June, 2000

  1. [Effect of biochar addition on soil evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Niu, Wen Quan; Zhang, Ming Zhi; Li, Yuan; Lyu, Wang; Li, Kang-Yong; Zou, Xiao-Yang; Liang, Bo-Hui

    2016-11-18

    In order to determine the rational amount of biochar application and its effect on soil hydrological processes in arid area, soil column experiments were conducted in the laboratory using three biochar additions (5%, 10% and 15%) and four different biochar types (devaporation. The results showed that the addition of biochar could change the phreatic water recharge, soil water-holding capacity, capillary water upward movement and soil evaporation obviously. But the effects were different depending on the type of biochar raw material and the size of particle. The phreatic water recharge increased with the increasing amount of biochar addition. The addition of biochar could obviously enlarge the soil water-holding capacity and promote the capillary water upward movement rate. This effect was greater when using the material of bamboo charcoal compared with using wood charcoal, while biochar with small particle size had greater impact than that with big particle size. The biochar could effectively restrain the soil evaporation at a low addition amount (5%). But it definitely promoted the soil evaporation if the addition amount was very high. In arid area, biochar addition in appropriate amount could improve soil water retention capacity.

  2. Evaluation of the electrochemical behavior of U2.5Zr7.5Nb and U3Zr9Nb uranium alloys in relation to the pH and the solution aeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansur, Fabio Abud; Santos, Ana Maria Matildes dos; Ferraz, Wilmar Barbosa; Figueiredo, Celia de Araujo

    2011-01-01

    The Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN) is developing, in cooperation with the Centro Tecnologico da Marinha (CTMSP), the advanced nuclear plate type fuel for the second core of the land-based reactor prototype of the Laboratorio de Geracao Nucleo-Eletrica (LABGENE). Recent investigations have shown that the fuel made of uranium-based niobium and zirconium alloys reaches the best performance relative to other fuels, e.g. UO 2 . Niobium and Zirconium also increase the corrosion resistance and the mechanical strength of the uranium alloys. By means of electrochemical techniques the corrosion behavior of alloys U 2 . 5 Zr 7.5 Nb and U 3 Zr 9 Nb, developed at CDTN and heat treated in the temperature range of 200 deg C to 600 deg C, was assessed. The effect of the parameters pH and solution aeration was studied as well as the influence of zirconium and niobium alloying elements in the corrosion of uranium. The techniques used were open circuit potential, electrochemical impedance and potentiodynamic anodic polarization at room temperature. The tests were performed in a three-electrode electrochemical cell with Ag/AgCl (3M KCl) as the reference electrode and a platinum plate as the auxiliary electrode. The potentiodynamic polarization curves of uranium and its alloys in acidic solutions showed regions with anodic currents limited by a passive film. The presence of niobium and zirconium contributed for the formation of this film. The impedance data showed the presence of two semicircles in the Bode diagram, indicating the occurrence of two distinct electrochemical processes. The data were fitted to an equivalent circuit model in order to obtain parameters of the electrochemical processes and evaluate the effect of the studied variables. (author)

  3. Rare earth ruthenium gallides with the ideal composition Ln_2Ru_3Ga_5 (Ln = La-Nd, Sm) crystallizing with U_2Mn_3Si_5 (Sc_2Fe_3Si_5) type structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeitschko, Wolfgang; Schlueter, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The rare earth ruthenium gallides Ln_2Ru_3Ga_5 (Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm) were prepared by arc-melting of cold-pressed pellets of the elemental components. They crystallize with a tetragonal structure (P4/mnc, Z = 4) first reported for U_2Mn_3Si_5. The crystal structures of the cerium and samarium compounds were refined from single-crystal X-ray data, resulting in significant deviations from the ideal compositions: Ce_2Ru_2_._3_1_(_1_)Ga_5_._6_9_(_1_), a = 1135.10(8) pm, c = 580.58(6) pm, R_F = 0.022 for 742 structure factors; Sm_2Ru_2_._7_3_(_2_)Ga_5_._2_7_(_2_), a = 1132.95(9) pm, c = 562.71(6) pm, R_F = 0.026 for 566 structure factors and 32 variable parameters each. The deviations from the ideal compositions 2:3:5 are discussed. A mixed Ru/Ga occupancy occurs only for one atomic site. The displacement parameters are relatively large for atoms with mixed occupancy within their coordination shell and small for atoms with no neighboring sites of mixed occupancy. Chemical bonding is analyzed on the basis of interatomic distances. Ln-Ga bonding is stronger than Ln-Ru bonding. Ru-Ga bonding is strong and Ru-Ru bonding is weak. The Ga-Ga interactions are of similar strength as in elemental gallium. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. Graphite and Hybrid Nanomaterials as Lubricant Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu J. Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lubricant additives, based on inorganic nanoparticles coated with organic outer layer, can reduce wear and increase load-carrying capacity of base oil remarkably, indicating the great potential of hybrid nanoparticles as anti-wear and extreme-pressure additives with excellent levels of performance. The organic part in the hybrid materials improves their flexibility and stability, while the inorganic part is responsible for hardness. The relationship between the design parameters of the organic coatings, such as molecular architecture and the lubrication performance, however, remains to be fully elucidated. A survey of current understanding of hybrid nanoparticles as lubricant additives is presented in this review.

  5. Additional symmetries of supersymmetric KP hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanciu, S.

    1993-09-01

    We investigate the additional symmetries of several supersymmetric KP hierarchies: The SKP hierarchy of Manin and Radul, the SKP 2 hierarchy, and the Jacobian SKP hierarchy. The main technical tool is the supersymmetric generalisation of a map originally due to Radul between the Lie algebra of superdifferential operators and the Lie algebra of vector fields on the space of supersymmetric Lax operators. In the case of the Manin-Radul SKP hierarchy we identify additional symmetries which form an algebra isomorphic to a subalgebra of superdifferential operators; whereas in the case of the Jacobian SKP, the (additional) symmetries are identified with the algebra itself. (orig.)

  6. 78 FR 38953 - Procurement List Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... Blind or Severely Disabled published notices of proposed additions to the Procurement List. After... Punch, Paper, Desktop, 3-Hole, Adjustable, 11 sheet capacity, Metallic Base, Black Grip. Coverage: A...

  7. 78 FR 12295 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... published notices of proposed additions to the Procurement List. After consideration of the material..., 508 Compliant, 12 Digit, Portable, Desktop, Battery Operated NPA: MidWest Enterprises for the Blind...

  8. Laser-based additive manufacturing of metals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available For making metallic products through Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes, laser-based systems play very significant roles. Laser-based processes such as Selective Laser Melting (SLM) and Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS) are dominating processes...

  9. Additively Manufactured Ceramic Rocket Engine Components

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — HRL Laboratories, LLC, with Vector Space Systems (VSS) as subcontractor, has a 24-month effort to develop additive manufacturing technology for reinforced ceramic...

  10. 7 CFR 955.91 - Additional parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Marketing Agreement § 955.91 Additional parties. After the effective date thereof, any handler may become a... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... then be effective as to such new contracting party. ...

  11. Non-additive measure and integral

    CERN Document Server

    Denneberg, Dieter

    1994-01-01

    Non-Additive Measure and Integral is the first systematic approach to the subject. Much of the additive theory (convergence theorems, Lebesgue spaces, representation theorems) is generalized, at least for submodular measures which are characterized by having a subadditive integral. The theory is of interest for applications to economic decision theory (decisions under risk and uncertainty), to statistics (including belief functions, fuzzy measures) to cooperative game theory, artificial intelligence, insurance, etc. Non-Additive Measure and Integral collects the results of scattered and often isolated approaches to non-additive measures and their integrals which originate in pure mathematics, potential theory, statistics, game theory, economic decision theory and other fields of application. It unifies, simplifies and generalizes known results and supplements the theory with new results, thus providing a sound basis for applications and further research in this growing field of increasing interest. It also co...

  12. Nonparametric additive regression for repeatedly measured data

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, R. J.; Maity, A.; Mammen, E.; Yu, K.

    2009-01-01

    We develop an easily computed smooth backfitting algorithm for additive model fitting in repeated measures problems. Our methodology easily copes with various settings, such as when some covariates are the same over repeated response measurements

  13. Caustic addition system operability test procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parazin, R.E.

    1994-11-01

    This test procedure provides instructions for performing operational testing of the major components of the 241-AN-107 Caustic Addition System by WHC and Kaiser personnel at the Rotating Equipment Shop run-in pit (Bldg. 272E).

  14. Caustic addition system operability test procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parazin, R.E.

    1994-11-01

    This test procedure provides instructions for performing operational testing of the major components of the 241-AN-107 Caustic Addition System by WHC and Kaiser personnel at the Rotating Equipment Shop run-in pit (Bldg. 272E)

  15. 78 FR 40727 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... for addition to the Procurement List for production by the nonprofit agencies listed: Products Towel.... 12/BX Cleaner, Brake Parts NSN: 6850-01-167-0678--17 oz. NPA: The Lighthouse for the Blind, St. Louis...

  16. 78 FR 35874 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... proposed for addition to the Procurement List for production by the nonprofit agencies listed: Products... Cleaner NPA: Winston-Salem Industries for the Blind, Inc., Winston-Salem, NC Contracting Activity: Defense...

  17. Characterizing Polymer Powders used in Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajric, Sendin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-16

    These are a set of slides that give the personal background of the author, information about his LANL organization, and information about his internship project at LANL about additive manufacturing and selective laser sintering (SLS).

  18. Additive Manufacturing of Magnesium (Mg) Alloys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed work is to investigate additive manufacturing techniques for Mg alloys.  It will leverage off research being conducted at University of Florida and...

  19. 78 FR 9386 - Procurement List; Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled published notice of proposed addition to the...: Enterprise Professional Services, Inc., Austin, TX Contracting Activity: Dept of the Army, W40M USA MEDCOM...

  20. 77 FR 55195 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled published notice of proposed additions to the... Harmon Avenue, Fort Stewart, GA. NPA: Professional Contract Services, Inc., Austin, TX. Contracting...

  1. Additional symmetries of supersymmetric KP hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanciu, S.

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the additional symmetries of several supersymmetric KP hierarchies: the SKP hierarchy of Manin and Radul, the SKP 2 hierarchy, and the Jacobian SKP hierarchy. In all three cases we find that the algebra of symmetries is isomorphic to the algebra of superdifferential operators, or equivalently SW 1+∞ . These results seem to suggest that despite their realization depending on the dynamics, the additional symmetries are kinematical in nature. (orig.)

  2. Additive Manufacturing in the Marine Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    TERMS additive manufacturing, 3D printing, improving logistics 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 123 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT...One such method is ultrasonic agglomeration. The process produces compact snack items that are nutrient-dense and shelf-stable. Currently Army...possess outdated technology. Additionally, prices for the printers are dropping significantly.202 Therefore, the Marine Corps will not only have outdated

  3. Finding phosphorus containing additives in manufactured foods

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, Lyn; Gillanders, Lyn

    2012-01-01

    Dietary phosphorous (P) intake is associated with an increased serum phosphate level which is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and increased mortality for people with chronic kidney disease. Dietary restriction of P is an important nutrition intervention as about 50% of daily intake of P is from P–containing food additives. Educating patients on P additives can effectively reduce serum P values over standard care. Avoidance can be achieved by reading the ingredient list to check for o...

  4. Challenges in Additive Manufacturing of Alumina

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is seen by many as the holy grail of manufacturing, the ability to produce parts nearly autonomously. Adding material rather than removing it would eliminate the need for expensive resources and machining. The recent expiration of key 3D printing patents has led to many advances in the field and has dramatically lowered the prices of 3D printers, making them accessible to the average individual. The one area where additive manufacturing is still in its infancy is in cer...

  5. Design and additive manufacture for flow chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capel, Andrew J; Edmondson, Steve; Christie, Steven D R; Goodridge, Ruth D; Bibb, Richard J; Thurstans, Matthew

    2013-12-07

    We review the use of additive manufacturing (AM) as a novel manufacturing technique for the production of milli-scale reactor systems. Five well-developed additive manufacturing techniques: stereolithography (SL), multi-jet modelling (MJM), selective laser melting (SLM), laser sintering (LS) and fused deposition modelling (FDM) were used to manufacture a number of miniaturised reactors which were tested using a range of organic and inorganic reactions.

  6. Material Database for Additive Manufacturing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    components in the field. II. BACKGROUND Additive manufacturing is a rapidly maturing process by which digital 3-D design data are used to build up...improves readiness by offering on-demand low-rate production [8, 9]. 3-D printing also enables rapid design iterations and complexity, which improve...abundant in additive manufacturing , allowing design freedom that is only limited by the material strength requirements. A set of eight conductive

  7. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives and a food contaminant with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for seven food additives (advantame; glucoamylase from Trichoderma reesei expressed in Trichoderma reesei; glycerol ester of gum rosin; glycerol ester of tall oil rosin; glycerol ester of wood rosin; nisin; and octenyl succinic acid modified gum arabic) and an assessment of dietary exposure to cadmium from cocoa and cocoa products. Specifications for the following food additives were revised: annatto extracts (solvent-extracted bixin and solvent-extracted norbixin); Benzoe tonkinensis; food additives containing aluminium and/or silicon; mineral oil (medium viscosity); modified starches; paprika extract; phosphates (analytical methods for the determination of phosphorus and revision of specifications); 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; potassium aluminium silicate; and potassium aluminium silicate-based pearlescent pigments. Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of the food additives and contaminant considered.

  8. The Development of Korea Additional Protocol System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Hye Won; Yeo, Jin Kyun

    2008-01-01

    The Agreement between the Republic of Korea (ROK) and the IAEA for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (the Safeguards Agreement) entered into force on 14 November 1975. The Additional Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement (the Additional Protocol) was signed on 21 June 1999 and entered into force on 19 February 2004. ROK has been submitting annual updated reports of initial declaration on every May 15th since August 2004. Additional protocol reports were submitted through Protocol Reporter provided by IAEA. Annual declarations were simply uploaded and stored in the Accounting Information Treatment System of KINAC, which did not provide data analysis and management function. There have been demands for improvement to handle ever-increasing information. KAPS (Korea Additional Protocol System) has been developed to assist and administrate the additional protocol related works effectively. The new system enables integrated management including composition of additional protocol report and version control, periodical update of related information, results of IAEA complementary access to each facility

  9. Additive effects in radiation grafting and curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viengkhou, V.; Ng, L.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: Detailed studies on the accelerative effect of novel additives in radiation grafting and curing using acrylated monomer/oligomer systems have been performed in the presence of ionising radiation and UV as sources. Methyl methacrylate (MMA) is used as typical monomer for these grafting studies in the presence of the additives with model backbone polymers, cellulose and propropylene. Additives which have been found to accelerate these grafting processes are: mineral acid, occlusion compounds like urea, thermal initiators and photoinitiators as well as multifunctional monomers such as multifunctional acrylates. The results from irradiation with gamma rays have also been compared with irradiation from a 90W UV lamp. The role of the above additives in accelerating the analogous process of radiation curing has been investigated. Acrylated urethanes, epoxies and polyesters are used as oligomers together with acrylated monomers in this work with uv lamps of 300 watts/inch as radiation source. In the UV curing process bonding between film and substrate is usually due to physical forces. In the present work the presence of additives are shown to influence the occurrence of concurrent grafting during cure thus affecting the nature of the bonding of the cured film. The conditions under which concurrent grafting with UV can occur will be examined. A mechanism for accelerative effect of these additives in both grafting and curing processes has been proposed involving radiation effects and partitioning phenomena

  10. BFR Electrolyte Additive Safety and Flammability Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allcorn, Eric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-13

    Lithium-ion battery safety is a critical issue in the adoption of the chemistry to larger scale applications such as transportation and stationary storage. One of the critical components impacting the safety of lithium-ion batteries is their use of highly flammable organic electrolytes. In this work, brominated flame retardants (BFR’s) – an existing class of flame retardant materials – are incorporated as additives to lithium-ion battery electrolytes with the intention to reduce the electrolyte flammability and thereby improve safety. There are a few critical needs for a successful electrolyte additive: solubility in the electrolyte, electrochemical stability over the range of battery operation, and minimal detrimental effects on battery performance. Those detrimental effects can take the form of electrolyte specific impacts, such as a reduction in conductivity, or electrode impacts, such as SEI-layer modification or chemical instability to the active material. In addition to these needs, the electrolyte additive also needs to achieve its intended purpose, which in this case is to reduce the flammability of the electrolyte. For the work conducted as part of this SPP agreement three separate BFR materials were provided by Albemarle to be tested by Sandia as additives in a traditional lithium-ion battery electrolyte. The provided BFR materials were tribromo-neopentyl alcohol, tetrabromo bisphenol A, and tribromoethylene. These materials were incorporated as separate 4 wt.% additives into a traditional lithium-ion battery electrolyte and compared to said traditional electrolyte, designated Gen2.

  11. Additive manufacturing in production: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Bhrigu; Karg, Michael; Schmidt, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing, characterized by its inherent layer by layer fabrication methodology has been coined by many as the latest revolution in the manufacturing industry. Due to its diversification of Materials, processes, system technology and applications, Additive Manufacturing has been synonymized with terminology such as Rapid prototyping, 3D printing, free-form fabrication, Additive Layer Manufacturing, etc. A huge media and public interest in the technology has led to an innovative attempt of exploring the technology for applications beyond the scope of the traditional engineering industry. Nevertheless, it is believed that a critical factor for the long-term success of Additive Manufacturing would be its ability to fulfill the requirements defined by the traditional manufacturing industry. A parallel development in market trends and product requirements has also lead to a wider scope of opportunities for Additive Manufacturing. The presented paper discusses some of the key challenges which are critical to ensure that Additive Manufacturing is truly accepted as a mainstream production technology in the industry. These challenges would highlight on various aspects of production such as product requirements, process management, data management, intellectual property, work flow management, quality assurance, resource planning, etc. In Addition, changing market trends such as product life cycle, mass customization, sustainability, environmental impact and localized production will form the foundation for the follow up discussion on the current limitations and the corresponding research opportunities. A discussion on ongoing research to address these challenges would include topics like process monitoring, design complexity, process standardization, multi-material and hybrid fabrication, new material development, etc.

  12. Study of zirconium-addition binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wozniakova, B.; Kuchar, L.

    1975-01-01

    The curves are given of the solid and the liquid of binary zirconium-addition systems. Most additions reduce the melting temperature of zirconium. The only known additions to increase the melting temperature are nitrogen, oxygen and hafnium. Also given are the transformation curves of the systems and the elements are given which reduce or raise the temperature of α-β transformation. From the Mendeleev table into which are plotted the curves of the solid and the liquid of binary systems it is possible to predict the properties of unknown binary systems. For the calculations of the curves of the solid and the liquid, 1860 degC was taken as the temperature of zirconium melting. For the calculations of transformation curves, 865 degC was taken as the temperature of α-β transformation. The equations are given of the curves of the solid and the liquid and of the transformation curves of some Zr-addition systems. Also given are the calculated equilibrium distribution coefficients and the equilibrium distribution coefficients of the transformation of additions in Zr and their limit values for temperatures approximating the melting point or the temperature of the transformation of pure Zr, and the values pertaining to eutectic and peritectic or eutectoid and peritectoid temperatures. (J.B.)

  13. Laser polishing of additive manufactured Ti alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, C. P.; Guan, Y. C.; Zhou, W.

    2017-06-01

    Laser-based additive manufacturing has attracted much attention as a promising 3D printing method for metallic components in recent years. However, surface roughness of additive manufactured components has been considered as a challenge to achieve high performance. In this work, we demonstrate the capability of fiber laser in polishing rough surface of additive manufactured Ti-based alloys as Ti-6Al-4V and TC11. Both as-received surface and laser-polished surfaces as well as cross-section subsurfaces were analyzed carefully by White-Light Interference, Confocal Microscope, Focus Ion Beam, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectrometer, and X-ray Diffraction. Results revealed that as-received Ti-based alloys with surface roughness more than 5 μm could be reduce to less than 1 μm through laser polishing process. Moreover, microstructure, microhardness and wear resistance of laser-polished zone was investigated in order to examine the thermal effect of laser polishing processing on the substrate of additive manufactured Ti alloys. This proof-of-concept process has the potential to effectively improve the surface roughness of additive manufactured metallic alloy by local polishing method without damage to the substrate.

  14. Terminal addition in a cellular world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torday, J S; Miller, William B

    2018-07-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of evolutionary development permit a reframed appraisal of Terminal Addition as a continuous historical process of cellular-environmental complementarity. Within this frame of reference, evolutionary terminal additions can be identified as environmental induction of episodic adjustments to cell-cell signaling patterns that yield the cellular-molecular pathways that lead to differing developmental forms. Phenotypes derive, thereby, through cellular mutualistic/competitive niche constructions in reciprocating responsiveness to environmental stresses and epigenetic impacts. In such terms, Terminal Addition flows according to a logic of cellular needs confronting environmental challenges over space-time. A reconciliation of evolutionary development and Terminal Addition can be achieved through a combined focus on cell-cell signaling, molecular phylogenies and a broader understanding of epigenetic phenomena among eukaryotic organisms. When understood in this manner, Terminal Addition has an important role in evolutionary development, and chronic disease might be considered as a form of 'reverse evolution' of the self-same processes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Non-additive Effects in Genomic Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Varona

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, genomic selection has become a standard in the genetic evaluation of livestock populations. However, most procedures for the implementation of genomic selection only consider the additive effects associated with SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism markers used to calculate the prediction of the breeding values of candidates for selection. Nevertheless, the availability of estimates of non-additive effects is of interest because: (i they contribute to an increase in the accuracy of the prediction of breeding values and the genetic response; (ii they allow the definition of mate allocation procedures between candidates for selection; and (iii they can be used to enhance non-additive genetic variation through the definition of appropriate crossbreeding or purebred breeding schemes. This study presents a review of methods for the incorporation of non-additive genetic effects into genomic selection procedures and their potential applications in the prediction of future performance, mate allocation, crossbreeding, and purebred selection. The work concludes with a brief outline of some ideas for future lines of that may help the standard inclusion of non-additive effects in genomic selection.

  16. Additive Manufacturing of Metastable Beta Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannetta, Christopher J.

    Additive manufacturing processes of many alloys are known to develop texture during the deposition process due to the rapid reheating and the directionality of the dissipation of heat. Titanium alloys and with respect to this study beta titanium alloys are especially susceptible to these effects. This work examines Ti-20wt%V and Ti-12wt%Mo deposited under normal additive manufacturing process parameters to examine the texture of these beta-stabilized alloys. Both microstructures contained columnar prior beta grains 1-2 mm in length beginning at the substrate with no visible equiaxed grains. This microstructure remained constant in the vanadium system throughout the build. The microstructure of the alloy containing molybdenum changed from a columnar to an equiaxed structure as the build height increased. Eighteen additional samples of the Ti-Mo system were created under different processing parameters to identify what role laser power and travel speed have on the microstructure. There appears to be a correlation in alpha lath size and power density. The two binary alloys were again deposited under the same conditions with the addition of 0.5wt% boron to investigate the effects an insoluble interstitial alloying element would have on the microstructure. The size of the prior beta grains in these two alloys were reduced with the addition of boron by approximately 50 (V) and 100 (Mo) times.

  17. Fuel and Additive Characterization for HCCI Combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aceves, S M; Flowers, D; Martinez-Frias, J; Espinosa-Loza, F; Pitz, W J; Dibble, R

    2003-01-01

    This paper shows a numerical evaluation of fuels and additives for HCCl combustion. First, a long list of candidate HCCl fuels is selected. For all the fuels in the list, operating conditions (compression ratio, equivalence ratio and intake temperature) are determined that result in optimum performance under typical operation for a heavy-duty engine. Fuels are also characterized by presenting Log(p)-Log(T) maps for multiple fuels under HCCl conditions. Log(p)-Log(T) maps illustrate important processes during HCCl engine operation, including compression, low temperature heat release and ignition. Log(p)-Log(T) diagrams can be used for visualizing these processes and can be used as a tool for detailed analysis of HCCl combustion. The paper also includes a ranking of many potential additives. Experiments and analyses have indicated that small amounts (a few parts per million) of secondary fuels (additives) may considerably affect HCCl combustion and may play a significant role in controlling HCCl combustion. Additives are ranked according to their capability to advance HCCl ignition. The best additives are listed and an explanation of their effect on HCCl combustion is included

  18. Excessive Additive Effect On Engine Oil Viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Kumbár

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is excessive additive (for oil filling effect on engine oil dynamic viscosity. Research is focused to commercially distribute automotive engine oil with viscosity class 15W–40 designed for vans. There were prepared blends of new and used engine oil without and with oil additive in specific ratio according manufacturer’s recommendations. Dynamic viscosity of blends with additive was compared with pure new and pure used engine oil. The temperature dependence dynamic viscosity of samples was evaluated by using rotary viscometer with standard spindle. Concern was that the oil additive can moves engine oil of several viscosity grades up. It is able to lead to failure in the engine. Mathematical models were used for fitting experimental values of dynamic viscosity. Exponential fit function was selected, which was very accurate because the coefficient of determination R2 achieved high values (0.98–0.99. These models are able to predict viscosity behaviour blends of engine oil and additive.

  19. Biocompatibility of photopolymers for additive manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonhardt Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To establish photopolymers for the production of class II or class III medical products by additive manufacturing it is essential to know which components of photopolymeric systems, consisting of monomers, photoinitiators and additives, are the determining factors on their biocompatible properties. In this study the leachable substances of a cured photopolymeric system were eluted and identified by HPLC-MS detection. In addition the cured photopolymer was testes for cytotoxicity and genotoxicity according to DIN EN ISO 10993 for long time applications. The results showed that uncured residual monomers are the determining factor on the biocompatible properties of the photopolymeric system. Strategies to reduce these residual monomers in the cured photopolymer are presented.

  20. Non-additive measures theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Narukawa, Yasuo; Sugeno, Michio; 9th International Conference on Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence (MDAI 2012)

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive and timely report in the area of non-additive measures and integrals. It is based on a panel session on fuzzy measures, fuzzy integrals and aggregation operators held during the 9th International Conference on Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence (MDAI 2012) in Girona, Spain, November 21-23, 2012. The book complements the MDAI 2012 proceedings book, published in Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) in 2012. The individual chapters, written by key researchers in the field, cover fundamental concepts and important definitions (e.g. the Sugeno integral, definition of entropy for non-additive measures) as well some important applications (e.g. to economics and game theory) of non-additive measures and integrals. The book addresses students, researchers and practitioners working at the forefront of their field.  

  1. Additive Manufacturing of Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Humbeeck, Jan

    2018-04-01

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing production process, also called 3D printing, in which functional, complex parts are produced by selectively melting patterns in consecutive layers of powder with a laser beam. The pattern the laser beam is following is controlled by software that calculates the pattern by slicing a 3D CAD model of the part to be constructed. Apart from SLM, also other additive manufacturing techniques such as EBM (Electron Beam Melting), FDM (Fused Deposition Modelling), WAAM (Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing), LENS (Laser Engineered Net Shaping such as Laser Cladding) and binder jetting allow to construct complete parts layer upon layer. But since more experience of AM of shape memory alloys is collected by SLM, this paper will overview the potentials, limits and problems of producing NiTi parts by SLM.

  2. Effects from additives on deacetylation of chitin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana Filho, Sergio P.; Signini, Roberta

    2001-01-01

    Deacetylation reactions of commercial chitin were carried out in aqueous sodium hydroxide solution at 115 deg C for 6 hours. The effect from additives (sodium borohydride or anthraquinone) and of bubbling inert gas (nitrogen or argon) on the characteristics of deacetylated samples were evaluated. Average degrees of acetylation and intrinsic viscosity were determined by 1 H NMR spectroscopy and capillary viscometry, respectively. X-ray diffraction was employed to evaluate changes in crystallinity and infrared spectroscopy was used to monitor structural changes due to deacetylation. The bubbling of inert gas during the deacetylation reaction resulted in more crystalline samples of chitosan. Deacetylation carried out without any additive produced slightly more deacetylated chitosan but they were severely depolymerized. The depolymerization process was much less important when sodium borohydride was added to the reaction medium but the addition of anthraquinone and the bubbling of nitrogen, or argon, did not have any effect, this suggests that oxygen is not required for depolymerization. (author)

  3. Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, John

    2015-01-01

    The Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) project is developing technology to build structures on planetary surfaces using in-situ resources. The project focuses on the construction of both 2D (landing pads, roads, and structure foundations) and 3D (habitats, garages, radiation shelters, and other structures) infrastructure needs for planetary surface missions. The ACME project seeks to raise the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of two components needed for planetary surface habitation and exploration: 3D additive construction (e.g., contour crafting), and excavation and handling technologies (to effectively and continuously produce in-situ feedstock). Additionally, the ACME project supports the research and development of new materials for planetary surface construction, with the goal of reducing the amount of material to be launched from Earth.

  4. Evaluation of Advanced Polymers for Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Orlando [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carter, William G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kutchko, Cindy [PPG Industries, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Fenn, David [PPG Industries, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Olson, Kurt [PPG Industries, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-09-08

    The goal of this Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) technical collaboration project between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and PPG Industries, Inc. (PPG) was to evaluate the feasibility of using conventional coatings chemistry and technology to build up material layer-by-layer. The PPG-ORNL study successfully demonstrated that polymeric coatings formulations may overcome many limitations of common thermoplastics used in additive manufacturing (AM), allow lightweight nozzle design for material deposition, and increase build rate. The materials effort focused on layer-by-layer deposition of coatings with each layer fusing together. The combination of materials and deposition results in an additively manufactured build that has sufficient mechanical properties to bear the load of additional layers, yet is capable of bonding across the z-layers to improve build direction strength. The formulation properties were tuned to enable a novel, high-throughput deposition method that is highly scalable, compatible with high loading of reinforcing fillers, and inherently low-cost.

  5. Transfer of Training in Simple Addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yalin; Campbell, Jamie I D

    2017-04-18

    In recent years several researchers have proposed that skilled adults may solve single-digit addition problems (e.g. 3 + 1 = 4, 4 + 3 = 7) using a fast counting procedure. Practicing a procedure, often leads to transfer of learning and faster performance of unpracticed items. Such transfer has been demonstrated using a counting-based alphabet arithmetic task (e.g., B + 4 = C D E F) that indicated robust generalization of practice (i.e., RT gains) when untrained transfer problems at test had been implicitly practiced (e.g., practice B + 3, test B + 2 or B + 1). Here we constructed analogous simple addition problems (practice 4 + 3, test 4 + 2 or 4 + 1). In each of three experiments (total n = 108) participants received six practice blocks followed by two test blocks of new problems to examine generalization effects. Practice of addition identity-rule problems (i.e., 0 + N = N) showed complete transfer of RT gains made during practice to unpracticed items at test. In contrast, the addition ties (2 + 2, 3 + 3, etc.) presented large RT costs for unpracticed problems at test, but sped up substantially in the second test block. This pattern is consistent with item-specific strengthening of associative memory. The critical items were small non-tie additions (sum ≤ 10) for which the test problems would be implicitly practiced if counting was employed during practice. In all three experiments (and collectively) there was no evidence of generalization for these items in the first test block, but there was robust speed up when the items were repeated in the second test block. Thus, there was no evidence of the generalization of practice that would be expected if counting procedures mediated our participants' performance on small non-tie addition problems.

  6. Studies of alumina additions in zirconia - magnesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muccillo, R.

    1987-01-01

    Ionic conductivity measurements have been carried out in the 500 0 C - 1000 0 C temperature range in Mg - PSZ (Partially Stabilized Zirconia) with 0.5 to 10 mol % alumina additions. All specimens were prepared by pressing followed by pre - and sintering at 1000 0 C/2h and1450 0 C/4h, respectively. Thermal histerysis of the ionic conductivity have been detected, probably due to phase changes in the Mg-PSZ samples. The results show that alumina additions up to 2.1% enhances densification with no major variations in electrical resistivity values. (Author) [pt

  7. Effusion plate using additive manufacturing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul; Ostebee, Heath Michael; Wegerif, Daniel Gerritt

    2016-04-12

    Additive manufacturing techniques may be utilized to construct effusion plates. Such additive manufacturing techniques may include defining a configuration for an effusion plate having one or more internal cooling channels. The manufacturing techniques may further include depositing a powder into a chamber, applying an energy source to the deposited powder, and consolidating the powder into a cross-sectional shape corresponding to the defined configuration. Such methods may be implemented to construct an effusion plate having one or more channels with a curved cross-sectional geometry.

  8. Photogrammetry for Repositioning in Additive Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janus Nørtoft; Lyngby, Rasmus Ahrenkiel; Aanæs, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    In this preliminary work, we present our current status on how to use single camera photogrammetry to determine the orientation of an additively manufactured partly finished object that has been repositioned in the printing chamber, from a single image taken with a calibrated camera, and comparing...... this to the CAD model of the object. We describe how this knowledge can be used to update the machine code of the printer such that printing of the object can be resumed in the new location. This opens possibilities for embedding and assembling foreign parts into the additive manufacturing pipeline, adding...

  9. The structure of additive conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmut Reen

    1979-01-01

    All additive conserved quantities are listed for a system with short range central force interaction between the particles: a special case shows up in Boltzmann H-theorem and his derivation of the Maxwell velocity distribution. It is concluded that in classical mechanics of mass points there are no other additive conservation laws besides of energy, momentum, angular momentum and center of mass motion. A generator is considered of a symmetry transformation defined as integral over a conserved local current density where the latter, in general, needs not be covariant under translations

  10. Quantification of "2"3"2Th, "2"3"4U, "2"3"5U and "2"3"8U in river mollusks by magnetic sector mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma source (Icp-SFMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arevalo R, D. L.; Hernandez M, H.; Romero G, E. T.; Lara A, N.; Alfaro de la T, M. C.

    2016-09-01

    The present work deals with the methodology established for the quantification of "2"3"2Th, "2"3"4U, "2"3"8U and "2"3"5U in the shell of gastropod mollusks collected in the rivers Valles, Coy and Axtla of San Luis Potosi, Mexico, which belong to the Panuco River basin; these rivers have as main source of pollution the discharge of municipal sewage, waste from small industries, agricultural and cattle residues and from natural sources. Conventional methods for measuring radio-nuclides are confronted with certain conditions related to the requirement in measurement, basically in the characterization that is related to the concepts of precision and accuracy. The analysis of the gastropod mollusk shell was performed by the Icp-SFMS technique; the main advantages of this technique lie in the isotope quantification capacity, the high precision and the low limits of detection, in this study are very important because these elements are in concentrations between ppb and ppt. This technique allowed the analysis of the samples having a complex matrix by the presence CaCO_3 minimizing the interferences thanks to the ionization efficiency of the Ar plasma. For the species Pachychilus monachus were found concentrations of "2"3"2Th of 0.16-5.37 μg/g and of total U of 0.101-4.081 μg/g being this species where the highest values of total U were found. For Thiara (melanoids) tuberculata the lowest values were found among the different species ("2"3"2Th 0.61-3.61 μg/g and total U 0.006-0.042 μg/g), for Pachychilus suturalis, values of "2"3"2Th of 0.58-6.4 μg/g and for Pachychilus sp. were found between 0.26-7.62 μg/g and for total U values between 0.28-3.33 μg/g. The method offers several advantages: speed, good precision, low values of quantification limits and high sensitivity in the measurement of radio-nuclides and heavy metals. (Author)

  11. 77 FR 13009 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel Pathways Under the Renewable Fuel Standard Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Withdrawal... Renewable Fuel Standard program regulations. Because EPA received adverse comment, we are withdrawing the...

  12. 42 CFR 86.20 - Additional conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional conditions. 86.20 Section 86.20 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES GRANTS FOR EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH Occupational Safety and Health Training Grants § 86.2...

  13. 17 CFR 37.7 - Additional requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional requirements. 37.7 Section 37.7 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES... of section 5c(c) of the Act and § 40.2 of this chapter, derivatives transaction execution facilities...

  14. Additional reactor protection system of RBMK-1500

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of anticipated transients without scram of RBMK-1500 reactor showed that additional reactor protection system is required. Data of accident analysis in the case of loose of external electric power and loose of vacuum in condensers of turbines are provided

  15. Neue Werkstoffe über additive Fertigung

    OpenAIRE

    Günther, Johannes; Niendorf, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Über die additive Fertigung, oftmals bezeichnet als 3D-Druck, lassen sich Bauteile nahezu beliebiger geometrischer Komplexität herstellen. Gleichzeitig lassen die Prozessrandbedingungen die direkte Einstellung der Mikrostruktur in den verwendeten metallischen Werkstoffen zu. Hieraus ergeben sich weitreichende Möglichkeiten bezüglich der Eigenschaftsoptimierung aktueller Hochleistungswerkstoffe.

  16. Additive Manufacturing of Biomaterials, Tissues, and Organs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadpoor, Amir A; Malda, Jos

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of additive manufacturing (AM), often referred to as three-dimensional (3D) printing, has initiated what some believe to be a manufacturing revolution, and has expedited the development of the field of biofabrication. Moreover, recent advances in AM have facilitated further

  17. Additive Manufacturing of Biomaterials, Tissues, and Organs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadpoor, Amir A; Malda, Jos|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412461099

    The introduction of additive manufacturing (AM), often referred to as three-dimensional (3D) printing, has initiated what some believe to be a manufacturing revolution, and has expedited the development of the field of biofabrication. Moreover, recent advances in AM have facilitated further

  18. Probabilistic fuzzy systems as additive fuzzy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida, R.J.; Verbeek, N.; Kaymak, U.; Costa Sousa, da J.M.; Laurent, A.; Strauss, O.; Bouchon-Meunier, B.; Yager, R.

    2014-01-01

    Probabilistic fuzzy systems combine a linguistic description of the system behaviour with statistical properties of data. It was originally derived based on Zadeh’s concept of probability of a fuzzy event. Two possible and equivalent additive reasoning schemes were proposed, that lead to the

  19. Leaching of Plastic Additives to Marine Organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Besseling, E.; Foekema, E.M.

    2014-01-01

    It is often assumed that ingestion of microplastics by aquatic species leads to increased exposure to plastic additives. However, experimental data or model based evidence is lacking. Here we assess the potential of leaching of nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) in the intestinal tracts of

  20. Overview of Food Ingredients, Additives and Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In addition to maintaining the quality of the food, they help control contamination that can cause foodborne illness, including life-threatening ... still be considered safe. Regulations known as Good Manufacturing ... limit the amount of food ingredients used in foods to the amount necessary ...

  1. Polymeric additive performance in closed whitewater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. H. Wegner

    1984-01-01

    “With more stringent requirements on discharge water quality and with escalating water treatment costs, water recycling within the paper mill is of growing importance. A serious problem resulting from more white-water recycling is reduced drainage and fiber or fines retention because of diminished polymeric additive performance. To provide better insight for overcoming...

  2. 76 FR 80345 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... ARMY, W6QL ECC MIAMI DIV, MIAMI, FL. Service Type/Location: Industrial Laundry Service, Bureau of... Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds services to the Procurement List that will be provided by... concerning capability of qualified nonprofit agencies to provide the services and impact of the additions on...

  3. 78 FR 48656 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO. Service Type/Location: Laundry Service, US Coast... Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add products and services to the... required to procure the products and services listed below from nonprofit agencies employing persons who...

  4. 77 FR 27736 - Procurement List Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... Research Laboratory, Washington, DC. Service Type/Location: Laundry, Refurbishment, and Warehouse Services... Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds products and services to the Procurement List that will be... products and services and impact of the additions on the current or most recent contractors, the Committee...

  5. 77 FR 29596 - Procurement List Proposed Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    .../Location: Laundry Service, Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC), (offsite: 1809 W 2nd Avenue... Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add products and services to the... identified in this notice will be required to procure the products and services listed below from nonprofit...

  6. 75 FR 14576 - Procurement List Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... Inspection Service, Minneapolis, MN. M.R. Laundry Products NSN: MR 1103--Heavy Duty Laundry Bag. NSN: MR 1104... procurement list. SUMMARY: This action adds to the Procurement List products and services to be furnished by... products and services and impact of the additions on the current or most recent contractors, the Committee...

  7. Powder Characterization and Optimization for Additive Manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordova, Laura; Campos, Mónica; Tinga, Tiedo

    2017-01-01

    Achieving the optimal quality for Additive Manufactured (AM) parts does not only depend on setting the right process parameters. Material feedstock also plays an important role when aiming for high performance products. The metal AM processes that are most applicable to industry, Powder Bed Fusion

  8. Augmented Reality Interfaces for Additive Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiríksson, Eyþór Rúnar; Pedersen, David Bue; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores potential use cases for using augmented reality (AR) as a tool to operate industrial machines. As a baseline we use an additive manufacturing system, more commonly known as a 3D printer. We implement novel augmented interfaces and controls using readily available open source...

  9. Designing for Color in Additive Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiríksson, Eyþór Rúnar; Luongo, Andrea; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a color design pipeline for 3D printed or additively manufactured parts. We demonstrate how to characterize and calibrate a commercial printer and how to obtain its forward and backward color transformation models. We present results from our assistive color design tool...

  10. Additive Manufacturing: From Rapid Prototyping to Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, Tracie

    2015-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers tremendous promise for the rocket propulsion community. Foundational work must be performed to ensure the safe performance of AM parts. Government, industry, and academia must collaborate in the characterization, design, modeling, and process control to accelerate the certification of AM parts for human-rated flight.

  11. Predicting Color Output of Additive Manufactured Parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiríksson, Eyþór Rúnar; Pedersen, David Bue; Aanæs, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we address the colorimetric performance of a multicolor additive manufacturing process. A method on how to measure and characterize color performance of said process is presented. Furthermore, a method on predicting the color output is demonstrated, allowing for previsualization...

  12. 78 FR 53734 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ...: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled, 1401 S Clark Street, Suite 10800... COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed...

  13. 78 FR 77105 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled, 1401 S. Clark Street, Suite 10800, Arlington, Virginia, 22202... COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed...

  14. 78 FR 50040 - Procurement List, Proposed Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled, 1401 S Clark Street, Suite 10800, Arlington, Virginia, 22202... COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List, Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed...

  15. 78 FR 19248 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled, 1401 S. Clark Street, Suite 10800, Arlington... COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed...

  16. Power transformer additional load losses separation procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Miloje M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The proposed procedure is based on the fact that total transformer losses (PLL1,n, determined by short circuit test, can be separated into two components: the eddy current losses in the windings (PEC1,n and stray flux losses (PSL1,n in iron parts of construction as well as in the transformer tank walls. The total additional load losses, PLLd1 and PLLdh, are determined by short circuit test results, conducted at rated frequency (f1 and at increased harmonic frequency (fh=h*f1. Using so obtained total additional load losses, PLLd1 and PLLdh, which can be expressed in the form PLLdh=PEC1,n*h2 + PSL1,n*h, the corresponding rate additional load losses values PEC1,n and PSL1,n are derived. At the end, for given load with predefined high harmonics content, (Ih/I1n, relative to rated current, the total additional load losses value ΣPLLdh > PLLd1, is found. In such a way all harmonics up to hmax are taken into account.

  17. 19 CFR 191.103 - Additional requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... which the alcohol was withdrawn; (iv) Date of withdrawal; (v) Serial number of the tax-paid stamp or... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional requirements. 191.103 Section 191.103 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  18. Acid Rain Analysis by Standard Addition Titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ophardt, Charles E.

    1985-01-01

    The standard addition titration is a precise and rapid method for the determination of the acidity in rain or snow samples. The method requires use of a standard buret, a pH meter, and Gran's plot to determine the equivalence point. Experimental procedures used and typical results obtained are presented. (JN)

  19. Additivity properties of a Gaussian channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovannetti, Vittorio; Lloyd, Seth

    2004-01-01

    The Amosov-Holevo-Werner conjecture implies the additivity of the minimum Renyi entropies at the output of a channel. The conjecture is proven true for all Renyi entropies of integer order greater than two in a class of Gaussian bosonic channel where the input signal is randomly displaced or where it is coupled linearly to an external environment

  20. Finding phosphorus containing additives in manufactured foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyn Lloyd

    2012-06-01

    This reflects manufactured foods in NZ and it is likely that these results could be generalized to countries with similar food patterns and supplies. Quantitative data in manufactured foods is unlikely to be available to guide patient choice so qualitative information of where to find P additives can be helpful.

  1. ADHD Diet: Do Food Additives Cause Hyperactivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3 fatty acids found in certain types of fish, flaxseed and other foods. With David C. Agerter, M.D Food colours and hyperactivity. NHS Choices. http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/food-additive-intolerance/Pages/Introduction.aspx. Accessed Sept. 18, 2017. ...

  2. Additivity of quark masses in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scadron, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that, in spite of the confinement of quarks in (color-singlet) hadrons, effective quark masses of all types (dynamically generated, constituent and current masses), naturally form hadron masses in an additivity fashion. For the purposes of brevity, the discussion is limited primarily to the nonstrange flavor sector

  3. 76 FR 57719 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... proposed for addition to the Procurement List for production by the nonprofit agencies listed: Products NSN: 7930-00-NIB-0583--Refills, Bathroom Cleaner and Deodorizer, Cartridge Concentrate. NSN: 7930-00-NIB-0584--Starter Kit, Bathroom Cleaner and Deodorizer, Cartridge Concentrate. NSN: 7930-00-NIB-0585...

  4. 78 FR 12296 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... services are proposed for addition to the Procurement List for production by the nonprofit agencies listed... and Trailer Wash, 55 GL NSN: 7930-00-NIB-0649--Cleaner/Degreaser, Heavy Duty, Biodegradable, Car and Trucks, 5 GL NSN: 7930-00-NIB-0650--Cleaner/Degreaser, Heavy Duty, Biodegradable, Car and Trucks, 55 GL...

  5. Additive manufacturing: From implants to organs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Additive manufacturing (AM) constructs 3D objects layer by layer under computer control from 3D models. 3D printing is one ... anatomical models for surgery planning, and design and construction ... production of implants, particularly to replace bony structures, is ... Manufactured organs are, however, an elusive goal.

  6. Application of Natural Mineral Additives in Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linek, Malgorzata; Nita, Piotr; Wolka, Paweł; Zebrowski, Wojciech

    2017-12-01

    The article concerns the idea of using selected mineral additives in the pavement quality concrete composition. The basis of the research paper was the modification of cement concrete intended for airfield pavements. The application of the additives: metakaolonite and natural zeolite was suggested. Analyses included the assessment of basic physical properties of modifiers. Screening analysis, assessment of micro structure and chemical microanalysis were conducted in case of these materials. The influence of the applied additives on the change of concrete mix parameters was also presented. The impact of zeolite and metakaolinite on the mix density, oxygen content and consistency class was analysed. The influence of modifiers on physical and mechanical changes of the hardened cement concrete was discussed (concrete density, compressive strength and bending strength during fracturing) in diversified research periods. The impact of the applied additives on the changes of internal structure of cement concrete was discussed. Observation of concrete micro structure was conducted using the scanning electron microscope. According to the obtained lab test results, parameters of the applied modifiers and their influence on changes of internal structure of cement concrete are reflected in the increase of mechanical properties of pavement quality concrete. The increase of compressive and bending strength in case of all analysed research periods was proved.

  7. 76 FR 43988 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... this work, based on applicable experience. Finally, the purpose of the JWOD Act and the responsibility... COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions... Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds products and services to the Procurement List that will be...

  8. 7 CFR 1735.18 - Additional equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE GENERAL POLICIES, TYPES OF LOANS, LOAN REQUIREMENTS-TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROGRAM Loan Purposes and Basic Policies § 1735.18 Additional equity. If determined by the Administrator to be necessary for loan security, a borrower applying for an initial loan shall increase its net worth as a percentage of assets to...

  9. Sintering of magnesia: effect of additives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of different additives, namely Cr2O3, Fe2O3 and TiO2, up to 2 wt% was studied on the sinter- ing and .... mental distribution of the components is shown in figure 7. It shows ... Chiang Y M, Birniand D and Kingery W 1996 Physical ceram-.

  10. 77 FR 34026 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... provide interested persons an opportunity to submit comments on the proposed actions. Additions If the..., Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), Office of Chief Counsel... Institute, Inc., San Antonio, TX. Contracting Activity: Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Immigration...

  11. (ajst) additive main effects and multiplicative

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-08-02

    Aug 2, 2013 ... genotypes assessed by biplot analysis showed that the most stable ... biplot is a useful tool for the analysis of multi-environment trial (MET) data. ... multiplicative components, extracting first the additive ... The AMMI analysis of variance of cassava harvest index of the 8 .... wheat mega-environments in Iran.

  12. Stability issues in reconstitution by weapon addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-08-01

    Reconstitution of strategic forces by the unilateral uploading of additional weapons from initially symmetric modest force levels reduces first strike stability. These changes are quantified and traced to changes in first and second strike costs in a model of missile exchanges in which both strikes are optimized analytically.

  13. 76 FR 26279 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ...-service area; clean and sanitize food service equipment, utensil cleaning, and dishwashing; clean pots... additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add services to the Procurement... in this notice will be required to procure the services listed below from nonprofit agencies...

  14. 77 FR 60969 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... Are Blind or Severely Disabled published a notice for additions to the Procurement List with the... Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled published notices of proposed..., Phoenix, AZ. Service Type/Location: Custodial and Grounds Maintenance Services, Austin Courthouse, 501...

  15. 27 CFR 5.33 - Additional requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional requirements. 5.33 Section 5.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Labeling Requirements for...

  16. 76 FR 41687 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Hydroxypropyl Cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... Organization and the World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Expert Committee for Food Additives (JECFA) has... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 [Docket No. FDA-2010-F-0103] Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption...

  17. Additional Samples: Where They Should Be Located

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilger, G. G.; Costa, J. F. C. L.; Koppe, J. C.

    2001-01-01

    Information for mine planning requires to be close spaced, if compared to the grid used for exploration and resource assessment. The additional samples collected during quasimining usually are located in the same pattern of the original diamond drillholes net but closer spaced. This procedure is not the best in mathematical sense for selecting a location. The impact of an additional information to reduce the uncertainty about the parameter been modeled is not the same everywhere within the deposit. Some locations are more sensitive in reducing the local and global uncertainty than others. This study introduces a methodology to select additional sample locations based on stochastic simulation. The procedure takes into account data variability and their spatial location. Multiple equally probable models representing a geological attribute are generated via geostatistical simulation. These models share basically the same histogram and the same variogram obtained from the original data set. At each block belonging to the model a value is obtained from the n simulations and their combination allows one to access local variability. Variability is measured using an uncertainty index proposed. This index was used to map zones of high variability. A value extracted from a given simulation is added to the original data set from a zone identified as erratic in the previous maps. The process of adding samples and simulation is repeated and the benefit of the additional sample is evaluated. The benefit in terms of uncertainty reduction is measure locally and globally. The procedure showed to be robust and theoretically sound, mapping zones where the additional information is most beneficial. A case study in a coal mine using coal seam thickness illustrates the method

  18. Machinability of structural steels with calcium addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pytel, S.; Zadecki, M.

    2003-01-01

    The machinability of the plain carbon and low alloy structural steels with carbon content of 0.1-0.6% is briefly discussed in the first part of the paper. In the experimental part a dependence between the addition of calcium and some changes in sulphide and oxide inclusions morphology is presented. The Volvo test for measurement of machinability index B i has been applied. Using the multiple regression methods two relationships between machinability index B i and stereological parameters of non-metallic inclusions as well as hardness of the steels have been calculated. The authors have reached the conclusion that owing to the changes in inclusion chemical composition and geometry as result of calcium addition the machinability index of the steel can be higher. (author)

  19. [Total analysis of organic rubber additives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wen-Xuan; Robert, Shanks; You, Ye-Ming

    2010-03-01

    In the present paper, after middle pressure chromatograph separation using both positive phase and reversed-phase conditions, the organic additives in ethylene-propylene rubber were identified by infrared spectrometer. At the same time, by using solid phase extraction column to maintain the main component-fuel oil in organic additves to avoid its interfering with minor compounds, other organic additves were separated and analysed by GC/Ms. In addition, the remaining active compound such as benzoyl peroxide was identified by CC/Ms, through analyzing acetone extract directly. Using the above mentioned techniques, soften agents (fuel oil, plant oil and phthalte), curing agent (benzoylperoxide), vulcanizing accelerators (2-mercaptobenzothiazole, ethyl thiuram and butyl thiuram), and antiagers (2, 6-Di-tert-butyl-4-methyl phenol and styrenated phenol) in ethylene-propylene rubber were identified. Although the technique was established in ethylene-propylene rubber system, it can be used in other rubber system.

  20. Microbial biosurfactants as additives for food industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Jenyffer Medeiros; Stamford, Tânia Lúcia Montenegro; Sarubbo, Leonie Asfora; de Luna, Juliana Moura; Rufino, Raquel Diniz; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2013-01-01

    Microbial biosurfactants with high ability to reduce surface and interfacial surface tension and conferring important properties such as emulsification, detergency, solubilization, lubrication and phase dispersion have a wide range of potential applications in many industries. Significant interest in these compounds has been demonstrated by environmental, bioremediation, oil, petroleum, food, beverage, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries attracted by their low toxicity, biodegradability and sustainable production technologies. Despite having significant potentials associated with emulsion formation, stabilization, antiadhesive and antimicrobial activities, significantly less output and applications have been reported in food industry. This has been exacerbated by uneconomical or uncompetitive costing issues for their production when compared to plant or chemical counterparts. In this review, biosurfactants properties, present uses and potential future applications as food additives acting as thickening, emulsifying, dispersing or stabilising agents in addition to the use of sustainable economic processes utilising agro-industrial wastes as alternative substrates for their production are discussed. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  1. The teratology testing of food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Paul C; Spézia, François

    2013-01-01

    The developmental and reproductive toxicity testing (including teratogenicity) of new foods and food additives is performed worldwide according to the guidelines given in the FDA Redbook. These studies are not required for substances that are generally recognized as safe, according to the FDA inventory. The anticipated cumulated human exposure level above which developmental or reproduction studies are required depends on the structure-alert category. For food additives of concern, both developmental (prenatal) and reproduction (multigeneration) studies are required. The developmental studies are performed in two species, usually the rat and the rabbit. The reproduction study is generally performed in the rat. The two rat studies are preferably combined into a single experimental design, if possible. The test methods described in the FDA Redbook are similar to those specified by the OECD for the reproductive toxicity testing of chemicals.

  2. [Trends in the utilization of food additives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szűcs, Viktória; Bánáti, Diána

    2013-11-17

    The frequent media reports on food additives weakened consumers' trust in food producers and food control authorities as well. Furthermore, consumers' uncertainty is also raised by the fact that they obtain their information from inadequate, mistrustful sources and, therefore, consumers might avoid the consumption of certain foodstuffs. While food producers may react by replacing artificial components by natural ones, they try to emphasize the favourable characteristics of their products. The authors describe the main trends and efforts related to food additives. On the basis of the overview it can be concluded that - besides taking into consideration consumers' needs - product development and research directions are promising. Food producers' efforts may help to restore consumer confidence and trust and they may help them to have informed choice.

  3. Utilization of curve offsets in additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseltalab, Vahid; Yaman, Ulas; Dolen, Melik

    2018-05-01

    Curve offsets are utilized in different fields of engineering and science. Additive manufacturing, which lately becomes an explicit requirement in manufacturing industry, utilizes curve offsets widely. One of the necessities of offsetting is for scaling which is required if there is shrinkage after the fabrication or if the surface quality of the resulting part is unacceptable. Therefore, some post-processing is indispensable. But the major application of curve offsets in additive manufacturing processes is for generating head trajectories. In a point-wise AM process, a correct tool-path in each layer can reduce lots of costs and increase the surface quality of the fabricated parts. In this study, different curve offset generation algorithms are analyzed to show their capabilities and disadvantages through some test cases and improvements on their drawbacks are suggested.

  4. Evolution of solidification texture during additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, H. L.; Mazumder, J.; DebRoy, T.

    2015-01-01

    Striking differences in the solidification textures of a nickel based alloy owing to changes in laser scanning pattern during additive manufacturing are examined based on theory and experimental data. Understanding and controlling texture are important because it affects mechanical and chemical properties. Solidification texture depends on the local heat flow directions and competitive grain growth in one of the six preferred growth directions in face centered cubic alloys. Therefore, the heat flow directions are examined for various laser beam scanning patterns based on numerical modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in three dimensions. Here we show that numerical modeling can not only provide a deeper understanding of the solidification growth patterns during the additive manufacturing, it also serves as a basis for customizing solidification textures which are important for properties and performance of components. PMID:26553246

  5. Additional gleaning of fusion energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Kenzo; Koizumi, Koichi

    2002-09-01

    This report summarizes the major topics in the history of fusion energy development in Japan from its dawn to the tokamak fusion experimental reactor, ITER. The domestic circumstances and situation in foreign countries in those days, and the details of each decision and discussion, are described. Since my previous writing, 'Forty years for Nuclear Fusion Energy Development - Big Science in Japan (1997, ERC Press. Co. Ltd.)', was a book which briefly summarize a large quantity of documents on the history, there are many points, which require additional detail explanation. This time, I selected and extracted major topics in the fusion research history, and added additional descriptions and my comments so as to supplement my previous writing. (author)

  6. Additive manufacturing technology in reconstructive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Scott C; Moore, Michael G

    2016-10-01

    Technological advances have been part and parcel of modern reconstructive surgery, in that practitioners of this discipline are continually looking for innovative ways to perfect their craft and improve patient outcomes. We are currently in a technological climate wherein advances in computers, imaging, and science have coalesced with resulting innovative breakthroughs that are not merely limited to improved outcomes and enhanced patient care, but may provide novel approaches to training the next generation of reconstructive surgeons. New developments in software and modeling platforms, imaging modalities, tissue engineering, additive manufacturing, and customization of implants are poised to revolutionize the field of reconstructive surgery. The interface between technological advances and reconstructive surgery continues to expand. Additive manufacturing techniques continue to evolve in an effort to improve patient outcomes, decrease operative time, and serve as instructional tools for the training of reconstructive surgeons.

  7. Additive manufacturing of polymer-derived ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Zak C.; Zhou, Chaoyin; Martin, John H.; Jacobsen, Alan J.; Carter, William B.; Schaedler, Tobias A.

    2016-01-01

    The extremely high melting point of many ceramics adds challenges to additive manufacturing as compared with metals and polymers. Because ceramics cannot be cast or machined easily, three-dimensional (3D) printing enables a big leap in geometrical flexibility. We report preceramic monomers that are cured with ultraviolet light in a stereolithography 3D printer or through a patterned mask, forming 3D polymer structures that can have complex shape and cellular architecture. These polymer structures can be pyrolyzed to a ceramic with uniform shrinkage and virtually no porosity. Silicon oxycarbide microlattice and honeycomb cellular materials fabricated with this approach exhibit higher strength than ceramic foams of similar density. Additive manufacturing of such materials is of interest for propulsion components, thermal protection systems, porous burners, microelectromechanical systems, and electronic device packaging.

  8. Effects of additives on PVG dosifilm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenxiu, Chen; Liu, Aiguo [Beijing Normal Univ., BJ (China). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-03-01

    Dosifilm PVG is a new radiochromic film dosimeter composed of matrix material polyvinyl butyral (PVB), leuco malachite green (LMG) and additive halogenated organic compound (RX), etc. The control of the dose range on PVG dosifilm was examined. The addition of halogenated compounds played an important role in the radiation reaction of LMG beyond the concentration of LMG. Bromide is more effective than chloride in this system, the oxidative species are X {center_dot} and X{sub 2} {center_dot} {sup -}. PVB with N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) can induce the oxidation of LMG before irradiation. The reaction mechanism of PVG was discussed. Different linear ranges of radiation response on PVG dosifilm could be controlled by alternating the relative concentrations of halogenated compounds and LMG. (author).

  9. Laser-Based Additive Manufacturing of Zirconium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Sahasrabudhe

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufacturing of zirconium is attempted using commercial Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENSTM technique. A LENSTM-based approach towards processing coatings and bulk parts of zirconium, a reactive metal, aims to minimize the inconvenience of traditional metallurgical practices of handling and processing zirconium-based parts that are particularly suited to small volumes and one-of-a-kind parts. This is a single-step manufacturing approach for obtaining near net shape fabrication of components. In the current research, Zr metal powder was processed in the form of coating on Ti6Al4V alloy substrate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS as well as phase analysis via X-ray diffraction (XRD were studied on these coatings. In addition to coatings, bulk parts were also fabricated using LENS™ from Zr metal powders, and measured part accuracy.

  10. Additive derivations on algebras of measurable operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayupov, Sh.A.; Kudaybergenov, K.K.

    2009-08-01

    Given a von Neumann algebra M we introduce the so-called central extension mix(M) of M. We show that mix(M) is a *-subalgebra in the algebra LS(M) of all locally measurable operators with respect to M, and this algebra coincides with LS(M) if and only if M does not admit type II direct summands. We prove that if M is a properly infinite von Neumann algebra then every additive derivation on the algebra mix(M) is inner. This implies that on the algebra LS(M), where M is a type I ∞ or a type III von Neumann algebra, all additive derivations are inner derivations. (author)

  11. Effects of additives on PVG dosifilm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wenxiu; Liu, Aiguo

    1995-01-01

    Dosifilm PVG is a new radiochromic film dosimeter composed of matrix material polyvinyl butyral (PVB), leuco malachite green (LMG) and additive halogenated organic compound (RX), etc. The control of the dose range on PVG dosifilm was examined. The addition of halogenated compounds played an important role in the radiation reaction of LMG beyond the concentration of LMG. Bromide is more effective than chloride in this system, the oxidative species are X · and X 2 · - . PVB with N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) can induce the oxidation of LMG before irradiation. The reaction mechanism of PVG was discussed. Different linear ranges of radiation response on PVG dosifilm could be controlled by alternating the relative concentrations of halogenated compounds and LMG. (author)

  12. The addition of disilanes to cumulenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yiyuan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1997-10-08

    The syntheses of silicon-containing compounds and the studies of their rearrangements have been active research areas in the Barton research group. Previously, the addition of disilanes to acetylenes was studied in the group and an intramolecular 2S + 2A mechanism has been proposed. In this thesis, the work is focused on the addition of disilanes to cumulenes. The syntheses of the precursors are discussed and the possible mechanisms for their thermal, photochemical and catalytic rearrangements are proposed. Conjugated organic polymers have been studied in the group since 1985 because of their potential for exhibiting high electroconductivity, photoconductivity, strong non-linear optical response and intense fluorescence. In the second section of this dissertation, the synthesis and property studies of poly(phenylene vinylene) analogues are discussed.

  13. Electrolyte Additives for Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gang, Xiao; Hjuler, H.A.; Olsen, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    , as a fuel-cell performance with the modified electrolytes. Specific conductivity measurements of some of the modified phosphoric acid electrolytes are reported. At a given temperature, the conductivity of the C4F9SO3K-modified electrolyte decreases with an increasing amount of the additive; the conductivity...... of the remains at the same value as the conductivity of the pure phosphoric acid. At a given composition, the conductivity of any modified electrolyte increases with temperature. We conclude that the improved cell performance for modified electrolytes is not due to any increase in conductivity.......Electrochemical characteristics of a series of modified phosphoric acid electrolytes containing fluorinated car on compounds and silicone fluids as additives are presented. When used in phosphoric acid fuel cells, the modified electrolytes improve the performance due to the enhanced oxygen...

  14. Femtosecond laser additive manufacturing of YSZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jian; Bai, Shuang [PolarOnyx, Inc., San Jose, CA (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM) of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) is investigated using femtosecond (fs) fiber lasers. Various processing conditions are studied, which leads to desired characteristics in terms of morphology, porosity, hardness, microstructural and mechanical properties of the processed components. High-density (>99%) YSZ part with refined grain and increased hardness was obtained. Microstructure features of fabricated specimens were studied with SEM, EDX, the measured micro hardness is achieved as high as 18.84 GPa. (orig.)

  15. Selection of Additive Manufacturing (AM) Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    FOLLOW THE PROCEDURES IN DoD 5200.22-M, INDUSTRIAL SECURITY MANUAL, SECTION II-19 OR DoD 5200.1-R, INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM REGULATION...axis subtractive machining center. The hybrid approach is gaining interest in the traditionally subtractive machine tool industry as the additive...systems typically consists of a build vat, feedstock hoppers , a material spreading device, and an energy source. The material spreading device

  16. Addition of malodorants to lighter gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neela, Vasu; von Solms, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Relevant thermodynamic and phase behavior of mixtures created by adding malodorants to lighter gas to discourage its abuse have been studied. The influence of physical factors such as temperature, pressure and concentration of the selected substances with lighter gas is studied. This work represe......-Plus-Association (CPA) - an equation of state - to model the fluid phase and solubility behavior of the mixtures formed by the various additives with butane....

  17. Object attributes combine additively in visual search

    OpenAIRE

    Pramod, R. T.; Arun, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    We perceive objects as containing a variety of attributes: local features, relations between features, internal details, and global properties. But we know little about how they combine. Here, we report a remarkably simple additive rule that governs how these diverse object attributes combine in vision. The perceived dissimilarity between two objects was accurately explained as a sum of (a) spatially tuned local contour-matching processes modulated by part decomposition; (b) differences in in...

  18. Additive Manufacturing for Affordable Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Brian; Robertson, Elizabeth; Osborne, Robin; Calvert, Marty

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (also known as 3D printing) technology has the potential to drastically reduce costs and lead times associated with the development of complex liquid rocket engine systems. NASA is using 3D printing to manufacture rocket engine components including augmented spark igniters, injectors, turbopumps, and valves. NASA is advancing the process to certify these components for flight. Success Story: MSFC has been developing rocket 3D-printing technology using the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) process. Over the last several years, NASA has built and tested several injectors and combustion chambers. Recently, MSFC has 3D printed an augmented spark igniter for potential use the RS-25 engines that will be used on the Space Launch System. The new design is expected to reduce the cost of the igniter by a factor of four. MSFC has also 3D printed and tested a liquid hydrogen turbopump for potential use on an Upper Stage Engine. Additive manufacturing of the turbopump resulted in a 45% part count reduction. To understanding how the 3D printed parts perform and to certify them for flight, MSFC built a breadboard liquid rocket engine using additive manufactured components including injectors, turbomachinery, and valves. The liquid rocket engine was tested seven times in 2016 using liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In addition to exposing the hardware to harsh environments, engineers learned to design for the new manufacturing technique, taking advantage of its capabilities and gaining awareness of its limitations. Benefit: The 3D-printing technology promises reduced cost and schedule for rocket engines. Cost is a function of complexity, and the most complicated features provide the largest opportunities for cost reductions. This is especially true where brazes or welds can be eliminated. The drastic reduction in part count achievable with 3D printing creates a waterfall effect that reduces the number of processes and drawings, decreases the amount of touch

  19. Study of plutonium-addition systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchar, L.; Wozniakova, B.

    1976-11-01

    Steady state phase diagrams and calculated values of concentrations on the solid and liquid curves, the steady state distribution coefficient and thermodynamic control are presented for temperatures ranging from the eutectic reaction temperatures to the Pu melting point temperature for binary systems plutonium-addition (Mg, Al, Si, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Zr, Ru, Os, Th, U, Np). (J.P.)

  20. TECHNOLOGY OF PLANT FEED ADDITIVES FOR POULTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Koshchaeva O. V.; Kalyuzhniy S. A.; Khathakumov S. S.; Likhoman A. V.

    2014-01-01

    The work on the development of technology for production of feed additives from soybean seeds and fruits of pumpkin has shown that the use of sodium bisulfate and lactic acid bacteria provide a high content of carotene in pumpkin paste (948 mg / kg and 819 mg / kg, respectively), and grinding soy before drying protein and vitamin supplements raises safety of carotene without destroying the urease

  1. Supplier Selection Using Weighted Utility Additive Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karande, Prasad; Chakraborty, Shankar

    2015-10-01

    Supplier selection is a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem which mainly involves evaluating a number of available suppliers according to a set of common criteria for choosing the best one to meet the organizational needs. For any manufacturing or service organization, selecting the right upstream suppliers is a key success factor that will significantly reduce purchasing cost, increase downstream customer satisfaction and improve competitive ability. The past researchers have attempted to solve the supplier selection problem employing different MCDM techniques which involve active participation of the decision makers in the decision-making process. This paper deals with the application of weighted utility additive (WUTA) method for solving supplier selection problems. The WUTA method, an extension of utility additive approach, is based on ordinal regression and consists of building a piece-wise linear additive decision model from a preference structure using linear programming (LP). It adopts preference disaggregation principle and addresses the decision-making activities through operational models which need implicit preferences in the form of a preorder of reference alternatives or a subset of these alternatives present in the process. The preferential preorder provided by the decision maker is used as a restriction of a LP problem, which has its own objective function, minimization of the sum of the errors associated with the ranking of each alternative. Based on a given reference ranking of alternatives, one or more additive utility functions are derived. Using these utility functions, the weighted utilities for individual criterion values are combined into an overall weighted utility for a given alternative. It is observed that WUTA method, having a sound mathematical background, can provide accurate ranking to the candidate suppliers and choose the best one to fulfill the organizational requirements. Two real time examples are illustrated to prove

  2. MAFJ: some simple additions to MAFCO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finan, C.H. III; McNamara, B.

    1976-01-01

    MAFJ is a revision of the MAFCO code which generates magnetic fields (B) resulting from collections of current elements. In addition to the original MAFCO's capabilities, MAFJ follows field lines through a region of interest and calculates integrals of functions along these lines. It can also generate three-dimensional grids of B. MAFJ runs from eight to 15 times faster than MAFCO, depending on the types of current elements chosen. 2 tables

  3. LAVA: Large scale Automated Vulnerability Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-23

    LAVA: Large-scale Automated Vulnerability Addition Brendan Dolan -Gavitt∗, Patrick Hulin†, Tim Leek†, Fredrich Ulrich†, Ryan Whelan† (Authors listed...released, and thus rapidly become stale. We can expect tools to have been trained to detect bugs that have been released. Given the commercial price tag...low TCN) and dead (low liveness) program data is a powerful one for vulnera- bility injection. The DUAs it identifies are internal program quantities

  4. Additional chromosome abnormalities in chronic myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Hua Hsiao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Philadelphia (Ph chromosome and/or Breakpoint cluster region-Abelson leukemia virus oncogene transcript are unique markers for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML. However, CML demonstrates heterogeneous presentations and outcomes. We analyzed the cytogenetic and molecular results of CML patients to evaluate their correlation with clinical presentations and outcome. A total of 84 newly diagnosed CML patients were enrolled in the study. Patients were treated according to disease status. Bone marrow samples were obtained to perform cytogenetic and molecular studies. Clinical presentations, treatment courses, and survival were reviewed retrospectively. Among 84 patients, 72 had chronic phase and 12 had accelerated phase CML. Cytogenetic study showed 69 (82.1% with the classic Ph chromosome, 6 (7.2% with a variant Ph chromosome, and 9 (10.7% with additional chromosome abnormalities. Fifty-four (64.3% cases harbored b3a2 transcripts, 29 (34.5% had b2a2 transcript, and 1 had e19a2 transcript. There was no difference in clinical presentations between different cytogenetic and molecular groups; however, additional chromosome abnormalities were significantly associated with the accelerated phase. Imatinib therapy was an effective treatment, as measured by cytogenetic response, when administered as first- and second-line therapy in chronic phase patients. Survival analysis showed that old age, additional chromosome abnormalities, high Sokal score, and no cytogenetic response in second-line therapy had a significant poor impact (p<0.05. In conclusion, we presented the cytogenetic and molecular pattern of CML patients and demonstrated that the additional chromosome abnormality was associated with poor outcome.

  5. Thermal 18F atom addition to olefins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, P.J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The addition of thermal 18 F atoms to olefins was investigated using various substrate molecules. The 18 F atoms were produced by the 19 F(n,2n) 18 F nuclear reaction with >10 5 eV of energy which is removed by multiple collisions with SF 6 molecules before reaction occurs with an olefin. By varying the SF 6 /substrate mole ratio it was demonstrated that the fraction of non-thermal reactions is dependent upon the frequency of non-reactive energy reducing collisions with SF 6 . The rate constants for addition and abstraction reactions with propene, cis-1-chloropropene and trans-1-chloropropene were determined. The substitution of a C1 atom for the olefinic H atom in the C 1 position does not affect the rate of 18 F bond formation but it changes the orientation of attack. The 18 F atom prefers the terminal carbon-in propene and propene-d 6 by a factor of 1.35 while the preference is less than 0.5 for the terminal carbon in cis-1-chloropropene and trans-1-chloropropene. The addition of 18 F atoms to olefins creates vibrationally excited fluoroalkyl radicals which can either decompose or stabilize by collision with another molecule. The rate constants for decomposition of excited CH 3 CHCHC1F radicals formed by 18 F addition to cis-1-chloropropene and trans-1-chloropropene are competitive with C 1 -C 2 bond rotation. The 18 F atoms add to the parent molecule with retention of geometry and a memory of the geometry persists as demonstrated by the cis-1-fluoropropene/trans-1-fluoropropene decomposition product ratio

  6. Generalized Additive Models for Nowcasting Cloud Shading

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brabec, Marek; Paulescu, M.; Badescu, V.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 101, March (2014), s. 272-282 ISSN 0038-092X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12009 Grant - others:European Cooperation in Science and Technology(XE) COST ES1002 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : sunshine number * nowcasting * generalized additive model * Markov chain Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 3.469, year: 2014

  7. Conferences on Combinatorial and Additive Number Theory

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This proceedings volume is based on papers presented at the Workshops on Combinatorial and Additive Number Theory (CANT), which were held at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York in 2011 and 2012. The goal of the workshops is to survey recent progress in combinatorial number theory and related parts of mathematics. The workshop attracts researchers and students who discuss the state-of-the-art, open problems, and future challenges in number theory.

  8. Ionic liquids as lubricant additives: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yan; Qu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    In pursuit of energy efficiency and durability throughout human history, advances in lubricants have always played important roles. Ionic liquids (ILs) are room-temperature molten salts that possess unique physicochemical properties and have shown great potential in many applications with lubrication as one of the latest. While earlier work (2001–2011) primarily explored the feasibility of using ILs as neat or base lubricants, using ILs as lubricant additives has become the new focal research topic since the breakthrough in ILs’ miscibility in nonpolar hydrocarbon oils in early 2012. This work reviews the recent advances in developing ILs as additives for lubrication with an attempt to correlate among the cationic and anionic structures, oil-solubility, and other relevant physicochemical properties, and lubricating behavior. Effects of the concentration of ILs in lubricants and the compatibility between ILs and other additives in the lubricant formulation on the tribological performance are described followed by a discussion of wear protection mechanism based on tribofilm characterization. As a result, future research directions are suggested at the end.

  9. Additive Manufacturing of Biomaterials, Tissues, and Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadpoor, Amir A; Malda, Jos

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of additive manufacturing (AM), often referred to as three-dimensional (3D) printing, has initiated what some believe to be a manufacturing revolution, and has expedited the development of the field of biofabrication. Moreover, recent advances in AM have facilitated further development of patient-specific healthcare solutions. Customization of many healthcare products and services, such as implants, drug delivery devices, medical instruments, prosthetics, and in vitro models, would have been extremely challenging-if not impossible-without AM technologies. The current special issue of the Annals of Biomedical Engineering presents the latest trends in application of AM techniques to healthcare-related areas of research. As a prelude to this special issue, we review here the most important areas of biomedical research and clinical practice that have benefited from recent developments in additive manufacturing techniques. This editorial, therefore, aims to sketch the research landscape within which the other contributions of the special issue can be better understood and positioned. In what follows, we briefly review the application of additive manufacturing techniques in studies addressing biomaterials, (re)generation of tissues and organs, disease models, drug delivery systems, implants, medical instruments, prosthetics, orthotics, and AM objects used for medical visualization and communication.

  10. Laser Additive Manufacturing of Magnetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikler, C. V.; Chaudhary, V.; Borkar, T.; Soni, V.; Jaeger, D.; Chen, X.; Contieri, R.; Ramanujan, R. V.; Banerjee, R.

    2017-03-01

    While laser additive manufacturing is becoming increasingly important in the context of next-generation manufacturing technologies, most current research efforts focus on optimizing process parameters for the processing of mature alloys for structural applications (primarily stainless steels, titanium base, and nickel base alloys) from pre-alloyed powder feedstocks to achieve properties superior to conventionally processed counterparts. However, laser additive manufacturing or processing can also be applied to functional materials. This article focuses on the use of directed energy deposition-based additive manufacturing technologies, such as the laser engineered net shaping (LENS™) process, to deposit magnetic alloys. Three case studies are presented: Fe-30 at.%Ni, permalloys of the type Ni-Fe-V and Ni-Fe-Mo, and Fe-Si-B-Cu-Nb (derived from Finemet) alloys. All these alloys have been processed from a blend of elemental powders used as the feedstock, and their resultant microstructures, phase formation, and magnetic properties are discussed in this paper. Although these alloys were produced from a blend of elemental powders, they exhibited relatively uniform microstructures and comparable magnetic properties to those of their conventionally processed counterparts.

  11. Microbial analyses of cement and grouting additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallbeck, L.; Jaegevall, S.; Paeaejaervi, A.; Rabe, L.; Edlund, J.; Eriksson, S.

    2012-01-01

    During sampling in the ONKALO tunnel in 2006, heavy growth of a slimy material was observed in connection with grouting. It was suggested to be microbial growth on organic additives leaching from the grout. Two sampling campaigns resulted in the isolation of several aerobic bacterial strains. Some of these strains were used in biodegradation studies of three solid cement powders, eight liquid grout additives, and six plastic drainage materials. Degradation was also studied using ONKALO groundwaters as inoculums. The isolated strains were most closely related to hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms. The biodegradation of seven of the products was tested using microorganisms isolated from the ONKALO slime in 2006; none of these strains could degrade the tested products. When ONKALO drillhole groundwaters were used as inoculums in the degradation studies, it was demonstrated that Structuro 111X, Mighty 150, and Super-Parmix supported growth of the groundwater microorganisms. Structuro 111X is a polycarboxylate condensate while Mighty 150 and Super-Parmix are condensates with formaldehyde and naphthalene. Some of the isolated microorganisms belonged to the genus Pseudomonas, many strains of which can degrade organic molecules. None of the plastic drainage materials supported growth during the degradation studies. Microorganisms were present in two of the liquid products when delivered, GroutAid and Super-Parmix. The potential of the organic compounds in grout additives to be degraded by microorganisms, increasing the risk of biofilm formation and complexing compound production, must be considered. Microbial growth will also increase the possibility of hydrogen sulphide formation. (orig.)

  12. Culture and neuroscience: additive or synergistic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapretto, Mirella; Iacoboni, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The investigation of cultural phenomena using neuroscientific methods—cultural neuroscience (CN)—is receiving increasing attention. Yet it is unclear whether the integration of cultural study and neuroscience is merely additive, providing additional evidence of neural plasticity in the human brain, or truly synergistic, yielding discoveries that neither discipline could have achieved alone. We discuss how the parent fields to CN: cross-cultural psychology, psychological anthropology and cognitive neuroscience inform the investigation of the role of cultural experience in shaping the brain. Drawing on well-established methodologies from cross-cultural psychology and cognitive neuroscience, we outline a set of guidelines for CN, evaluate 17 CN studies in terms of these guidelines, and provide a summary table of our results. We conclude that the combination of culture and neuroscience is both additive and synergistic; while some CN methodologies and findings will represent the direct union of information from parent fields, CN studies employing the methodological rigor required by this logistically challenging new field have the potential to transform existing methodologies and produce unique findings. PMID:20083533

  13. Managing water addition to a degraded core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuan, P.; Hanson, D.J.; Odar, F.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the authors present information that can be used in severe accident management by providing an improved understanding of the effects of water addition to a degraded core. This improved understanding is developed using a diagram showing a sequence of core damage states. Whenever possible, a temperature and a time after accident initiation are estimated for each damage state in the sequence diagram. This diagram can be used to anticipate the evolution of events during an accident. Possible responses of plant instruments are described to identify these damage states and the effects of water addition. The rate and amount of water addition needed (a) to remove energy from the core, (b) to stabilize the core or (c) to not adversely affect the damage progression, are estimated. Analysis of the capability to remove energy from large cohesive and particulate debris beds indicates that these beds may not be stabilized in the core region and they may partially relocate to the lower plenum of the reactor vessel

  14. How many food additives are rodent carcinogens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, F M

    2002-01-01

    One generally assumes that chemical agents added to foods are reasonably free of risks to human health, and practically everyone consumes some additives in his or her food daily throughout life. In the United States, the 1958 Food Additives Amendment to the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1938 requires food manufacturers to demonstrate the safety of food additives to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The Amendment contains a provision that prohibits approval of an additive if it is found to cause cancer in humans or animals. In the present study, data from the National Toxicology Program rodent bioassay (NTPRB) were used to identify a sample of approximately 50 rodent-tested additives and other chemicals added to food that had been evaluated independently of the FDA/food industry. Surprisingly, the sample shows more than 40% of these food chemicals to be carcinogenic in one or more rodent groups. If this percentage is extrapolated to all substances added to food in the United States, it would imply that more than 1000 of such substances are potential rodent carcinogens. The NTP and FDA test guidelines use similar, though not necessarily identical, rodent test procedures, including near lifetime exposures to the maximum tolerated dose. The FDA specifies that test chemicals should be administered by the oral route. However, the oral route includes three methods of delivering chemicals, that is, mixed in the food or water or delivered by stomach tube (gavage). The NTP data show only 1 of 18 food chemicals mixed in the food are rodent carcinogens, but 16 of 23 gavage-administered food chemicals are carcinogenic to rodents. The distribution suggests that among orally delivered chemicals, those administered in the feed will more likely prove to be noncarcinogens than chemicals given by gavage. The rodent data also reveal that effects may vary according to dose and genotype, as well as by route of administration, to further complicate extrapolation to humans

  15. Functional organization of the Sm core in the crystal structure of human U1 snRNP.

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, G.; Trowitzsch, S.; Kastner, B.; Lührmann, R.; Wahl, M.

    2010-01-01

    The U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein initiates the assembly of the spliceosome. Here, the structure of the natively purified U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle reveals the core Sm protein ring and its interactions with the Sm site in the small nuclear RNA.

  16. Mechanical properties of additively manufactured octagonal honeycombs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedayati, R., E-mail: rezahedayati@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Hafez Ave, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Biomechanical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Sadighi, M.; Mohammadi-Aghdam, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Hafez Ave, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zadpoor, A.A. [Department of Biomechanical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)

    2016-12-01

    Honeycomb structures have found numerous applications as structural and biomedical materials due to their favourable properties such as low weight, high stiffness, and porosity. Application of additive manufacturing and 3D printing techniques allows for manufacturing of honeycombs with arbitrary shape and wall thickness, opening the way for optimizing the mechanical and physical properties for specific applications. In this study, the mechanical properties of honeycomb structures with a new geometry, called octagonal honeycomb, were investigated using analytical, numerical, and experimental approaches. An additive manufacturing technique, namely fused deposition modelling, was used to fabricate the honeycomb from polylactic acid (PLA). The honeycombs structures were then mechanically tested under compression and the mechanical properties of the structures were determined. In addition, the Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam theories were used for deriving analytical relationships for elastic modulus, yield stress, Poisson's ratio, and buckling stress of this new design of honeycomb structures. Finite element models were also created to analyse the mechanical behaviour of the honeycombs computationally. The analytical solutions obtained using Timoshenko beam theory were close to computational results in terms of elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and yield stress, especially for relative densities smaller than 25%. The analytical solutions based on the Timoshenko analytical solution and the computational results were in good agreement with experimental observations. Finally, the elastic properties of the proposed honeycomb structure were compared to those of other honeycomb structures such as square, triangular, hexagonal, mixed, diamond, and Kagome. The octagonal honeycomb showed yield stress and elastic modulus values very close to those of regular hexagonal honeycombs and lower than the other considered honeycombs. - Highlights: • The octagonal

  17. Influence of Additives on Reinforced Concrete Durability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neverkovica Darja

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the research on carbonation and chloride induced corrosion mechanisms in reinforced concrete structures, based on three commercially available concrete admixtures: Xypex Admix C-1000, Penetron Admix and Elkem Microsilica. Carbonation takes place due to carbon dioxide diffusion, which in the required amount is present in the air. Chlorides penetrate concrete in case of the use of deicing salt or structure exploitation in marine atmosphere. Based on the implemented research, Elkem Microsilica is the recommended additive for the use in aggressive environmental conditions. Use of Xypex Admix C-1000 and Penetron Admix have only average resistance to the aggressive environmental impact.

  18. Enhanced additive manufacturing with a reciprocating platen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Randall F.; Blue, Craig A.; Love, Lonnie J.; Post, Brian K.; Lloyd, Peter D.

    2018-02-06

    An additive manufacturing extrusion head that includes a heated nozzle for accepting a feedstock and extruding the feedstock onto a substrate at a deposition plane, the nozzle having a longitudinal extrusion axis. A reciprocating platen surrounds the nozzle, the platen operable to reciprocate along the extrusion axis at or above the deposition plane as the nozzle extrudes feedstock onto the substrate; and wherein the platen flattens the extruded feedstock such that it does not protrude above the deposition plane as the extrusion head traverses over the substrate.

  19. Dust-Firing of Straw and Additives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Glarborg, Peter; Frandsen, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, the ash chemistry and deposition behavior during straw dust-firing were studied by performing experiments in an entrained flow reactor. The effect of using spent bleaching earth (SBE) as an additive in straw combustion was also investigated by comparing with kaolinite. During...... dust-firing of straw, the large (>∼2.5 μm) fly ash particles generated were primarily molten or partially molten spherical particles rich in K, Si, and Ca, supplemented by Si-rich flake-shaped particles. The smaller fly ash particles (...

  20. Mechanism and kinetics of addition polymerizations

    CERN Document Server

    Kucera, M

    1991-01-01

    This volume presents an up-to-date survey of knowledge concerning addition type polymerizations. It contains nine chapters, each of which covers a particular basic term. Whenever necessary, the phenomena are discussed from the viewpoint of both stationary and non-stationary state of radical, ionic (i.e. anionic and cationic) and coordination polymerization. Special attention has been paid to the propagation process. It provides not only a general overview but also information on important special cases (theoretical conditions of propagation, influence of external factors, controlled propagatio

  1. Metal-deactivating additives for liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boneva, M.I. [Institute of Organic Chemistry, Sofia (Bulgaria); Ivanov, S.K.; Kalitchin, Z.D. [SciBulCom, Ltd., Sofia (Bulgaria); Tanielyan, S.K. [Seton Hall Univ., South Orange, NJ (United States); Terebenina, A.; Todorova, O.I. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-05-01

    The metal-deactivating and the antioxidant properties of 1-phenyl-3-methylpyrazolone-5 derivatives have been investigated both in the model reaction of low temperature oxidation of ethylbenzene and in gasoline oxidation. The study of the ability of these derivatives to reduce the catalytic effect of copper naphthenate demonstrates that they are promising as metal deactivating additives for light fuels. Some of the pyrazolone compounds appear to be of special interest for the long-term storage of liquid fuels due to their action as multifunctional inhibitors.

  2. Additive Manufacturing of Hierarchical Porous Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division. Polymers and Coatings

    2016-08-30

    Additive manufacturing has become a tool of choice for the development of customizable components. Developments in this technology have led to a powerful array of printers that t serve a variety of needs. However, resin development plays a crucial role in leading the technology forward. This paper addresses the development and application of printing hierarchical porous structures. Beginning with the development of a porous scaffold, which can be functionalized with a variety of materials, and concluding with customized resins for metal, ceramic, and carbon structures.

  3. Additive measures of travel time variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelson, Leonid; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    This paper derives a measure of travel time variability for travellers equipped with scheduling preferences defined in terms of time-varying utility rates, and who choose departure time optimally. The corresponding value of travel time variability is a constant that depends only on preference...... parameters. The measure is unique in being additive with respect to independent parts of a trip. It has the variance of travel time as a special case. Extension is provided to the case of travellers who use a scheduled service with fixed headway....

  4. Additive Cellular Automata and Volume Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas B. Ward

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A class of dynamical systems associated to rings of S-integers in rational function fields is described. General results about these systems give a rather complete description of the well-known dynamics in one-dimensional additive cellular automata with prime alphabet, including simple formulæ for the topological entropy and the number of periodic configurations. For these systems the periodic points are uniformly distributed along some subsequence with respect to the maximal measure, and in particular are dense. Periodic points may be constructed arbitrarily close to a given configuration, and rationality of the dynamical zeta function is characterized. Throughout the emphasis is to place this particular family of cellular automata into the wider context of S-integer dynamical systems, and to show how the arithmetic of rational function fields determines their behaviour. Using a covering space the dynamics of additive cellular automata are related to a form of hyperbolicity in completions of rational function fields. This expresses the topological entropy of the automata directly in terms of volume growth in the covering space.

  5. Surface texture measurement for additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantaphyllou, Andrew; Giusca, Claudiu L.; Macaulay, Gavin D.; Roerig, Felix; Hoebel, Matthias; Leach, Richard K.; Tomita, Ben; Milne, Katherine A.

    2015-06-01

    The surface texture of additively manufactured metallic surfaces made by powder bed methods is affected by a number of factors, including the powder’s particle size distribution, the effect of the heat source, the thickness of the printed layers, the angle of the surface relative to the horizontal build bed and the effect of any post processing/finishing. The aim of the research reported here is to understand the way these surfaces should be measured in order to characterise them. In published research to date, the surface texture is generally reported as an Ra value, measured across the lay. The appropriateness of this method for such surfaces is investigated here. A preliminary investigation was carried out on two additive manufacturing processes—selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM)—focusing on the effect of build angle and post processing. The surfaces were measured using both tactile and optical methods and a range of profile and areal parameters were reported. Test coupons were manufactured at four angles relative to the horizontal plane of the powder bed using both SLM and EBM. The effect of lay—caused by the layered nature of the manufacturing process—was investigated, as was the required sample area for optical measurements. The surfaces were also measured before and after grit blasting.

  6. Additive manufacturing of tools for lapping glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wesley B.

    2013-09-01

    Additive manufacturing technologies have the ability to directly produce parts with complex geometries without the need for secondary processes, tooling or fixtures. This ability was used to produce concave lapping tools with a VFlash 3D printer from 3D Systems. The lapping tools were first designed in Creo Parametric with a defined constant radius and radial groove pattern. The models were converted to stereolithography files which the VFlash used in building the parts, layer by layer, from a UV curable resin. The tools were rotated at 60 rpm and used with 120 grit and 220 grit silicon carbide lapping paste to lap 0.750" diameter fused silica workpieces. The samples developed a matte appearance on the lapped surface that started as a ring at the edge of the workpiece and expanded to the center. This indicated that as material was removed, the workpiece radius was beginning to match the tool radius. The workpieces were then cleaned and lapped on a second tool (with equivalent geometry) using a 3000 grit corundum aluminum oxide lapping paste, until a near specular surface was achieved. By using lapping tools that have been additively manufactured, fused silica workpieces can be lapped to approach a specified convex geometry. This approach may enable more rapid lapping of near net shape workpieces that minimize the material removal required by subsequent polishing. This research may also enable development of new lapping tool geometry and groove patterns for improved loose abrasive finishing.

  7. Leaching of plastic additives to marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelmans, Albert A.; Besseling, Ellen; Foekema, Edwin M.

    2014-01-01

    It is often assumed that ingestion of microplastics by aquatic species leads to increased exposure to plastic additives. However, experimental data or model based evidence is lacking. Here we assess the potential of leaching of nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) in the intestinal tracts of Arenicola marina (lugworm) and Gadus morhua (North Sea cod). We use a biodynamic model that allows calculations of the relative contribution of plastic ingestion to total exposure of aquatic species to chemicals residing in the ingested plastic. Uncertainty in the most crucial parameters is accounted for by probabilistic modeling. Our conservative analysis shows that plastic ingestion by the lugworm yields NP and BPA concentrations that stay below the lower ends of global NP and BPA concentration ranges, and therefore are not likely to constitute a relevant exposure pathway. For cod, plastic ingestion appears to be a negligible pathway for exposure to NP and BPA. - Highlights: • Uptake of plastic additives after plastic ingestion was modeled for worms and fish. • This was done for bisphenol A and nonylphenol. • Uncertainty was accounted for by Monte Carlo simulations. • It appeared that exposure by plastic ingestion was negligible for fish. • Plastic ingestion may occasionally be relevant for marine worms. - Leaching of nonylphenol and bisphenol A from ingested microplastic may be relevant for the lugworm, but is irrelevant for fish like cod

  8. Surface texture measurement for additive manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triantaphyllou, Andrew; Tomita, Ben; Milne, Katherine A; Giusca, Claudiu L; Macaulay, Gavin D; Roerig, Felix; Hoebel, Matthias; Leach, Richard K

    2015-01-01

    The surface texture of additively manufactured metallic surfaces made by powder bed methods is affected by a number of factors, including the powder’s particle size distribution, the effect of the heat source, the thickness of the printed layers, the angle of the surface relative to the horizontal build bed and the effect of any post processing/finishing. The aim of the research reported here is to understand the way these surfaces should be measured in order to characterise them. In published research to date, the surface texture is generally reported as an Ra value, measured across the lay. The appropriateness of this method for such surfaces is investigated here. A preliminary investigation was carried out on two additive manufacturing processes—selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM)—focusing on the effect of build angle and post processing. The surfaces were measured using both tactile and optical methods and a range of profile and areal parameters were reported. Test coupons were manufactured at four angles relative to the horizontal plane of the powder bed using both SLM and EBM. The effect of lay—caused by the layered nature of the manufacturing process—was investigated, as was the required sample area for optical measurements. The surfaces were also measured before and after grit blasting. (paper)

  9. Surface-specific additive manufacturing test artefacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Andrew; Racasan, Radu; Blunt, Liam

    2018-06-01

    Many test artefact designs have been proposed for use with additive manufacturing (AM) systems. These test artefacts have primarily been designed for the evaluation of AM form and dimensional performance. A series of surface-specific measurement test artefacts designed for use in the verification of AM manufacturing processes are proposed here. Surface-specific test artefacts can be made more compact because they do not require the large dimensions needed for accurate dimensional and form measurements. The series of three test artefacts are designed to provide comprehensive information pertaining to the manufactured surface. Measurement possibilities include deviation analysis, surface texture parameter data generation, sub-surface analysis, layer step analysis and build resolution comparison. The test artefacts are designed to provide easy access for measurement using conventional surface measurement techniques, for example, focus variation microscopy, stylus profilometry, confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, the test artefacts may be simply visually inspected as a comparative tool, giving a fast indication of process variation between builds. The three test artefacts are small enough to be included in every build and include built-in manufacturing traceability information, making them a convenient physical record of the build.

  10. Emerging technologies in arthroplasty: additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Samik; Kulesha, Gene; Kester, Mark; Mont, Michael A

    2014-06-01

    Additive manufacturing is an industrial technology whereby three-dimensional visual computer models are fabricated into physical components by selectively curing, depositing, or consolidating various materials in consecutive layers. Although initially developed for production of simulated models, the technology has undergone vast improvements and is currently increasingly being used for the production of end-use components in various aerospace, automotive, and biomedical specialties. The ability of this technology to be used for the manufacture of solid-mesh-foam monolithic and coated components of complex geometries previously considered unmanufacturable has attracted the attention of implant manufacturers, bioengineers, and orthopedic surgeons. Currently, there is a paucity of reports describing this fabrication method in the orthopedic literature. Therefore, we aimed to briefly describe this technology, some of the applications in other orthopedic subspecialties, its present use in hip and knee arthroplasty, and concerns with the present form of the technology. As there are few reports of clinical trials presently available, the true benefits of this technology can only be realized when studies evaluating the clinical and radiographic outcomes of cementless implants manufactured with additive manufacturing report durable fixation, less stress shielding, and better implant survivorship. Nevertheless, the authors believe that this technology holds great promise and may potentially change the conventional methods of casting, machining, and tooling for implant manufacturing in the future. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. Characterizations of additive manufactured porous titanium implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basalah, Ahmad; Shanjani, Yaser; Esmaeili, Shahrzad; Toyserkani, Ehsan

    2012-10-01

    This article describes physical, chemical, and mechanical characterizations of porous titanium implants made by an additive manufacturing method to gain insight into the correlation of process parameters and final physical properties of implants used in orthopedics. For the manufacturing chain, the powder metallurgy technology was combined with the additive manufacturing to fabricate the porous structure from the pure tanium powder. A 3D printing machine was employed in this study to produce porous bar samples. A number of physical parameters such as titanium powder size, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) amount, sintering temperature and time were investigated to control the mechanical properties and porosity of the structures. The produced samples were characterized through porosity and shrinkage measurements, mechanical compression test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed a level of porosity in the samples in the range of 31-43%, which is within the range of the porosity of the cancelluous bone and approaches the range of the porosity of the cortical bone. The results of the mechanical test showed that the compressive strength is in the wide range of 56-509 MPa implying the effect of the process parameters on the mechanical strengths. This technique of manufacturing of Ti porous structures demonstrated a low level of shrinkage with the shrinkage percentage ranging from 1.5 to 5%. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Additive Manufacturing of Composites and Complex Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spowart, Jonathan E.; Gupta, Nikhil; Lehmhus, Dirk

    2018-03-01

    Advanced composite materials form an important class of high-performance industrial materials used in weight-sensitive applications such as aerospace structures, automotive structures and sports equipment. In many of these applications, parts are made in small production runs, are highly customized and involve long process development times. Developments in additive manufacturing (AM) methods have helped in overcoming many of these limitations. The special topic of Additive Manufacturing of Composites and Complex Materials captures the state of the art in this area by collecting nine papers that present much novel advancement in this field. The studies under this topic show advancement in the area of AM of carbon fiber and graphene-reinforced composites with high thermal and electrical conductivities, development of new hollow glass particle-filled syntactic foam filaments for printing lightweight structures and integration of sensors or actuators during AM of metallic parts. Some of the studies are focused on process optimization or modification to increase the manufacturing speed or tuning manufacturing techniques to enable AM of new materials.

  13. Preparation of additional supplies of 244Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigelow, J.E.; Newman, E.; Alexander, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    In the mid-1970s, gram quantities of the man-made isotope 244 Pu were produced in high purity for basic research as a by-product of a program to prepare gram quantities of 252 Cf. Because 244 Pu is not produced in appreciable quantities in standard power reactor fuel, this nuclide has become extremely useful in the application of isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS), a high-precision analytical technique, to problems of plutonium accountability in support of international safeguards agreements. Although only a small amount (a fraction of a microgram) is needed for each analysis, the present supply of certified nuclear reference standard SRM-996 is expected to last only an additional 3 to 5 years. Three options for producing additional supplies of this rare and valuable material were examined. The options encompassed the production of from 1 to 8.5 g during time spans of from 3 to 10 years. Unit costs ranged from $2300 to $7200 per mg of plutonium of >97% 244 Pu. While the paper concludes that the short-term option can be pursued along with further study of the longer-term options, this should not be regarded as an offer or a commitment on the part of the US Department of Energy (USDOE) to furnish the described material

  14. Variant Carvajal syndrome with additional dental anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sophy; Day, Peter; Judge, Mary; Toole, Edell O'; Fayle, Stephen

    2012-09-01

    This paper aims to review the case of a girl who presented with a number of dental anomalies, in addition to unusual skin, nail and hair conditions. Tragically an undiagnosed cardiomyopathy caused unexpected sudden death. The case is discussed with reference to a number of dermatological and oral conditions which were considered as possible diagnoses. AW had been under long term dental care for prepubertal periodontitis, premature root resorption of primary teeth, soft tissue and dental anomalies, and angular cheilitis. Separately she had also been seen by several dermatologists with respect to palmar plantar keratosis, striae keratoderma, wiry hair and abnormal finger nails. Tragically the patient suffered a sudden unexpected death and the subsequent post mortem identified an undiagnosed dilated cardiomyopathy. The most likely diagnosis is that this case is a variant of Carvajal Syndrome with additional dental anomalies. To date we have been unable to identify mutations in the desoplakin gene. We aim to emphasise the importance of recognising these dental and dermatological signs when they present together as a potential risk factor for cardiac abnormalities. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2012 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Sending more process data without additional cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licht, H.; Roiha, R.; Rodych, M.

    1997-01-01

    The as-built data transmission capability in CANDU plants is fully employed. Long delays and high cost make it often not feasible to retrofit plant equipment with additional sensors and bring the data to the office. One of the reasons is the unavoidable addition of data transmission cables. This presentation describes the results of work performed in 1996/97 to network sensors using existing plant infrastructure. To provide an alternative solution, a general purpose data transmission system is being developed. It sends data over existing plant infrastructure such as power wiring and the telephone system. Its components are based on PC technology packaged in a 'black box', using special hardware and software to appear to the user as a very simple, low cost, device. Its drawback is its rather limited transmission speed. This design is in marked contrast to the complexity of present commercial data transmission systems. A point-to-point system has been demonstrated. A networked system is under development. (author)

  16. Value addition - a marketing strategy for MCL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagar, C.K.; Mishra, P.K.; Baranwal, P.K. [Central Mine Planning and Design Institute, Ranchi (India)

    2002-07-01

    The energy sector will remain dependent on coal because of depletion of oil reserves. With deterioration of power grade coal, the emission of greenhouse gas is going to increase thereby stressing the need of using prepared low ash coal for protection of global environment. Further, recent stipulation of MOEF imposing restriction on use of high ash coal at distant power houses and those at sensitive localities and critically polluted areas have made the aspect of marketing of coal more challenging. This has necessitated a long-term strategy for improving the quality of coal in light of national environment policy. This is more relevant in the present scenario of open market, where we need to market our coal rather simply supplying r.o.m. coal to the linked users. Mahanadi Coalfields, Limited (MCL), the youngest subsidiary of Coal India Limited bestowed with a huge reserve of inferior grade and mainly linked to power sector, is taken as a sample case study. To fulfil the demand of coal with due regard to the national environmental policy, there is need of value addition as strategy of marketing for power coal of MCL. Value addition of coal can be achieved by two distinct different ways i.e. beneficiating high ash coal at pit head or blending high ash coal with low ash coal which is a less preferred option due to non-availability of low ash coal in MCL. 7 refs., 7 tabs.

  17. Preparation of additional supplies of 244Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigelow, J.E.; Newman, E.; Alexander, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    In the mid-1970s, gram quantities of the man-made isotope 244 Pu were produced in high purity for basic research as a by-product of a program to prepare gram quantities of 252 Cf. Because 244 Pu is not produced in appreciable quantities in standard power reactor fuel, this nuclide has become extremely useful in the application of isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS), a high-precision analytical technique, to problems of plutonium accountability in support of international safeguards agreements. Although only a small amount (a fraction of a microgram) is needed for each analysis, the present supply of certified nuclear reference standard SRM-996 is expected to last only an additional 3 to 5 years. Three options for producing additional supplies of this rare and valuable material were examined. The options encompassed the production of from 1 to 8.5 g during time spans of from 3 to 10 years. Unit costs ranged from $2300 to $7200 per mg of plutonium of >97% 244 Pu. While the paper concludes that the short-term option can be pursued along with further study of the longer-term options, this should not be regarded as an offer or a commitment on the part of the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) to furnish the described material. (author)

  18. Additives as corrosion inhibitors in reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venegas, Ricardo; Vera, Rosa; Carvajal, Ana Maria; Villarroel, Maria; Vera, Enrique; Ortiz, Cesar

    2008-01-01

    This work studies the behavior of two additives as inhibitors of corrosion in reinforced concrete. The presence of Microsilica, a physical inhibitor, in the mixture decreases pore size in structures and improves compression. Calcium Nitrite, a chemical inhibitor, is an oxidizing agent and allows a more homogenous film to form over the steel that becomes more resistant to attacks from aggressive ions like anion chloride and others. Three pairs of concrete test pieces were used without additives and with additives with a/c ration of 0.55. The samples were exposed to an accelerated attack of chlorides, submerging them in a 4.27 M solution of NaCl for 24 hours and then drying them at room temperature for another 24 hours, completing a cycle every 48 hours. The tests were carried out at 1 cycle and 5 cycles of partial moistening and drying. The steel corrosion was evaluated with corrosion potential measurements. Conductivity, pH, chlorides and sulfate profiles were defined depending on the depth of the concrete. The composition of the corrosion products was determined using X-ray diffraction and the morphology of the film by scanning electron microscopy. The results show that for 1 test cycle, the corrosion potential of the steel in the sample with calcium nitrite was -54mV, which was a higher value than that measured in the sample with microsilica (-217.3mV) and without an additive (-159.1mV), corroborating its inhibitory power. The content of the free chlorides in the sample with micros ice allows greater capillary suction by adding high amounts of chloride to the structure (2.6% on the outside up to 2.20% near the steel); while the test pieces with calcium nitrite and without an additive had concentrations lower than 2% in all the evaluated points. After five cycles of exposing the samples to the saline solution the behavior is inverted. The measures of conductivity agreed with the previous results. Meanwhile, the pH of the solutions obtained from the powder from the

  19. Addition Table of Colours: Additive and Subtractive Mixtures Described Using a Single Reasoning Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, A. R.; Lopes dos Santos, J. M. B.

    2014-01-01

    Students' misconceptions concerning colour phenomena and the apparent complexity of the underlying concepts--due to the different domains of knowledge involved--make its teaching very difficult. We have developed and tested a teaching device, the addition table of colours (ATC), that encompasses additive and subtractive mixtures in a single…

  20. 76 FR 16285 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Bacteriophage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... mammalian cells. (See discussion at 71 FR 47729 at 47730). As such, traditional animal testing of the... 51758 at 51759, August 25, 2000). Suitability relates to the effectiveness of the ingredient in... additive be shown to be safe prior to marketing. Under Sec. 170.3(i), a food additive is ``safe'' if...

  1. Additive phosphaturic action of parathyrin and calcitonin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberleitner, H.; Lang, F.; Greger, P.; Sporer, H.; Deetjen, P.

    1980-01-01

    Parathyrin and calcitonin exert their effects on phosphate metabolism by influencing the functions of at least three organ systems, i.e. bone, gut and kidneys. To study the renal effects of these hormones under exclusion of systemic effects microinfusion studies were performed in anesthetised rats. After thyroparathyroidectomy radioactively labelled phosphate containing solutions were microinfused into single proximal convoluted tubules. The tracer recovery in the urine allowed calculation of phosphate reabsorption in the nephron segments beyond the micropuncture site. After a control period of 6 minutes the hormones were superfused to the nephron surface and tracer recovery measured during the following 36 minutes. Within few minutes both, parathyrin and calcitonin, clearly reduced phosphate reabsorption. Infusions of supramaximal doses of either hormone abolished the local action of this hormone but did not influence the effect of the other. Thus the phosphaturic actions of parathyrin and calcitonin are additive, indicating that the hormones involve different mechanisms and/or nephron sites. (author)

  2. Object attributes combine additively in visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramod, R T; Arun, S P

    2016-01-01

    We perceive objects as containing a variety of attributes: local features, relations between features, internal details, and global properties. But we know little about how they combine. Here, we report a remarkably simple additive rule that governs how these diverse object attributes combine in vision. The perceived dissimilarity between two objects was accurately explained as a sum of (a) spatially tuned local contour-matching processes modulated by part decomposition; (b) differences in internal details, such as texture; (c) differences in emergent attributes, such as symmetry; and (d) differences in global properties, such as orientation or overall configuration of parts. Our results elucidate an enduring question in object vision by showing that the whole object is not a sum of its parts but a sum of its many attributes.

  3. Nonparametric additive regression for repeatedly measured data

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, R. J.

    2009-05-20

    We develop an easily computed smooth backfitting algorithm for additive model fitting in repeated measures problems. Our methodology easily copes with various settings, such as when some covariates are the same over repeated response measurements. We allow for a working covariance matrix for the regression errors, showing that our method is most efficient when the correct covariance matrix is used. The component functions achieve the known asymptotic variance lower bound for the scalar argument case. Smooth backfitting also leads directly to design-independent biases in the local linear case. Simulations show our estimator has smaller variance than the usual kernel estimator. This is also illustrated by an example from nutritional epidemiology. © 2009 Biometrika Trust.

  4. Additive manufacturing techniques and their biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujing Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufacturing (AM, also known as three-dimensional (3D printing, is gaining increasing attention in medical fields, especially in dental and implant areas. Because AM technologies have many advantages in comparison with traditional technologies, such as the ability to manufacture patient-specific complex components, high material utilization, support of tissue growth, and a unique customized service for individual patients, AM is considered to have a large potential market in medical fields. This brief review presents the recent progress of 3D-printed biomedical materials for bone applications, mainly for metallic materials, including multifunctional alloys with high strength and low Young’s modulus, shape memory alloys, and their 3D fabrication by AM technologies. It describes the potential of 3D printing techniques in precision medicine and community health.

  5. Additive Feed Forward Control with Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, O.

    1999-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a method to control a non-linear, multivariable, noisy process using trained neural networks. The basis for the method is a trained neural network controller acting as the inverse process model. A training method for obtaining such an inverse process model is applied....... A suitable 'shaped' (low-pass filtered) reference is used to overcome problems with excessive control action when using a controller acting as the inverse process model. The control concept is Additive Feed Forward Control, where the trained neural network controller, acting as the inverse process model......, is placed in a supplementary pure feed-forward path to an existing feedback controller. This concept benefits from the fact, that an existing, traditional designed, feedback controller can be retained without any modifications, and after training the connection of the neural network feed-forward controller...

  6. Additional investigations on the consequences of accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhardt, J.; Bayer, A.; Burkart, K.

    1982-01-01

    As a first step to improve the accident consequence model of the German Risk Study within the Phase B, additional investigations on special problems and questions were performed. In detail attention is given to the following topics: emergency protective actions in the vicinity of the site; latent cancer fatalities - allocated to the population living during the nuclear accident and to persons born afterwards, within and beyond a distance of 540 km from the site, caused by radiation doses below the dose limits of the German radiation protection regulations estimated assuming a nonlinear dose response function; risk assessments of nuclear power plants with lower capacities; loss of life expectancy after accidental radiation exposure. All results are presented separately for the 8 release categories of the German Risk Study. (orig.) [de

  7. Additive functionals and excursions of Kuznetsov processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacène Boutabia

    2005-01-01

    semigroup of transition. In this paper, we give the excursion laws of (Xtt∈ℝ+ conditioned on the strict past and future without duality hypothesis. We study excursions of a general regenerative system and of a regenerative system consisting of the closure of the set of times the regular points of B are visited. In both cases, those conditioned excursion laws depend only on two points Xg− and Xd, where ]g,d[ is an excursion interval of the regenerative set M. We use the (FDt-predictable exit system to bring together the isolated points of M and its perfect part and replace the classical optional exit system. This has been a subject in literature before (e.g., Kaspi (1988 under the classical duality hypothesis. We define an “additive functional” for (Ytt∈ℝ with B, we generalize the laws cited before to (Ytt∈ℝ, and we express laws of pairs of excursions.

  8. Xenon plasma with caesium as additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojilkovic, S.M.; Novakovic, N.V.; Zivkovic, L.M.

    1986-01-01

    The concentration dependence of xenon plasma with cesium as additive in the temperature range of 2000 K to 20,000 K is analyzed. Plasma is considered as weakly nonideal in complete local thermodynamic equilibrium and the interaction between plasma and vessel walls is not taken into account. The values of some of the parameters for nonideality of plasma with 1% of cesium (γ=0.01010) and 10% of cesium (γ=0.11111) are computed, for an initial pressure in plasma of p 0 =13,000 Pa and initial temperature T 0 =1000 K. The ratio of electric conductivity of plasma computed by Lorentz's formula and electric conductivity computed by Spitzer's formula in the same temperature interval is also analyzed. (author) 5 figs., 2 tabs., 16 refs

  9. Xenon plasma with caesium as additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojilkovic, S M; Novakovic, N V; Zivkovic, L M

    1986-01-01

    The concentration dependence of xenon plasma with cesium as additive in the temperature range of 2000 K to 20,000 K is analyzed. Plasma is considered as weakly nonideal in complete local thermodynamic equilibrium and the interaction between plasma and vessel walls is not taken into account. The values of some of the parameters for nonideality of plasma with 1% of cesium (..gamma..=0.01010) and 10% of cesium (..gamma..=0.11111) are computed, for an initial pressure in plasma of p/sub 0/=13,000 Pa and initial temperature T/sub 0/=1000 K. The ratio of electric conductivity of plasma computed by Lorentz's formula and electric conductivity computed by Spitzer's formula in the same temperature interval is also analyzed. (author) 5 figs., 2 tabs., 16 refs.

  10. Breastfeeding peer support: are there additional benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Deborah; Haining, Shona; Day, Ann

    2009-12-01

    Anecdotal discussion among breastfeeding peer supporters and the infant-feeding co-ordinator suggested that breastfeeding peer support provided by breastfeeding peer supporters may offer benefits to breastfeeding women and their families other than increasing breastfeeding initiation and sustainability. The aim of this research was to determine whether there was evidence to support this. The research team used focus groups to obtain information from 16 local women who had received breastfeeding peer support from breastfeeding peer supporters. The key themes that emerged were--improved mental health, increased self-esteem or confidence, parenting skills, improved family diet, breastfeeding sustainability and poor hospital experience.The findings suggest that breastfeeding peer supporters supporting mothers to breastfeed, with the intention of increasing both breastfeeding rates and sustainability, may have additional benefits in several aspects of families' lives. Breastfeeding peer support may play an important role in helping to attain targets such as reducing obesity and postnatal depression.

  11. Additional Security Considerations for Grid Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidson, Thomas M.

    2003-01-01

    The use of Grid computing environments is growing in popularity. A Grid computing environment is primarily a wide area network that encompasses multiple local area networks, where some of the local area networks are managed by different organizations. A Grid computing environment also includes common interfaces for distributed computing software so that the heterogeneous set of machines that make up the Grid can be used more easily. The other key feature of a Grid is that the distributed computing software includes appropriate security technology. The focus of most Grid software is on the security involved with application execution, file transfers, and other remote computing procedures. However, there are other important security issues related to the management of a Grid and the users who use that Grid. This note discusses these additional security issues and makes several suggestions as how they can be managed.

  12. Additive manufacturing for steels: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadi-Maad, A.; Rohib, R.; Irawan, A.

    2018-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) of steels involves the layer by layer consolidation of powder or wire feedstock using a heating beam to form near net shape products. For the past decades, the AM technique reaches the maturation of both research grade and commercial production due to significant research work from academic, government and industrial research organization worldwide. AM process has been implemented to replace the conventional process of steel fabrication due to its potentially lower cost and flexibility manufacturing. This paper provides a review of previous research related to the AM methods followed by current challenges issues. The relationship between microstructure, mechanical properties, and process parameters will be discussed. Future trends and recommendation for further works are also provided.

  13. Additives for high-temperature liquid lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Emil A.; Yavrouian, Andre H.; Repar, John

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary research program was conducted to demonstrate a new concept for additives to liquid lubricants. It was demonstrated that suspensions of o-phthalonitrile and a substituted 1,2-maleonitrile in mineral oil and dilute solutions of o-phthalonitrile and tetrafluoro-o-phthalonitrile extended the lifetime of bearings under boundary lubricating conditions. The solutions exhibited coefficients of friction under high loads of 0.02-0.03. These results were consistent with the hypothesis that these compounds react with the hot metal surface to form a planar lubricating film by means of a metal or metal oxide template reaction. Also, the adherence was very strong due to the chelating action of the planar macrocycles postulated to form under the experimental conditions.

  14. Cerus process modified with glass addition (Vitrocerus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arboleda, P.A.; Rodriguez, D.S.; Prado, M.O.

    2009-01-01

    A processing method for spent fuels type Mtr from research reactors has developed in Nuclear Materials Division of Bariloche Atomic Center, this process involved the creation of ceramic matrix containing fuel and natural uranium in an isotopic solution, this project has named CERUS (Spanish acronym of 'Ceramización de Elementos Radioactivos en Uranio Sinterizado': Ceramming of radioactive elements with sintered uranium ). This process works with reduced volumes than a conventional vitrification, however because of some issues on the material resistance; we propose the addition of small amounts of glass with the idea to enhance the lixiviation properties of the final material. In this process is not considered the reprocessing possibility of the spent fuel. (author)

  15. Additive Manufacturing of Wind Turbine Molds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Brian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Richardson, Bradley [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lloyd, Peter [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Love, Lonnie [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nolet, Stephen [TPI Composites, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Hannan, James [TPI Composites, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this project was to explore the utility of Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) for low cost manufacturing of wind turbine molds. Engineers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and TPI Composites (TPI) collaborated to design and manufacture a printed mold that can be used for resin infusion of wind turbine components. Specific focus was on required material properties (operating temperatures and pressures, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), thermal conductivity), surface finish (accuracy and coatings) and system integration (integrated vacuum ports, and heating element). The project began with a simple proof of principle components, targeting surface coatings and material properties for printing a small section (approximately 4’ x 4’ x 2’) of a mold. Next, the second phase scaled up and integrated with the objective of capturing all of the necessary components (integrated heating to accelerate cure time, and vacuum, sealing) for resin infusion on a mold of significant size (8’ x 20’ x 6’).

  16. Additive subgroups of topological vector spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Banaszczyk, Wojciech

    1991-01-01

    The Pontryagin-van Kampen duality theorem and the Bochner theorem on positive-definite functions are known to be true for certain abelian topological groups that are not locally compact. The book sets out to present in a systematic way the existing material. It is based on the original notion of a nuclear group, which includes LCA groups and nuclear locally convex spaces together with their additive subgroups, quotient groups and products. For (metrizable, complete) nuclear groups one obtains analogues of the Pontryagin duality theorem, of the Bochner theorem and of the Lévy-Steinitz theorem on rearrangement of series (an answer to an old question of S. Ulam). The book is written in the language of functional analysis. The methods used are taken mainly from geometry of numbers, geometry of Banach spaces and topological algebra. The reader is expected only to know the basics of functional analysis and abstract harmonic analysis.

  17. Simple Additive Weighting to Diagnose Rabbit Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadiani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit is one of the many pets maintained by the general public in Indonesia. Like other pet, rabbits are also susceptible to various diseases. Society in general does not understand correctly the type of rabbit disease and the way of treatment. To help care for sick rabbits it is necessary a decision support system recommendation diagnosis of rabbit disease. The purpose of this research is to make the application of rabbit disease diagnosis system so that can help user in taking care of rabbit. This application diagnoses the disease by tracing the symptoms and calculating the recommendation of the disease using Simple Additive Weighting method. This research produces a web-based decision support system that is used to help rabbit breeders and the general public.

  18. Simple Additive Weighting to Diagnose Rabbit Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadiani; Marissa, Dyna; Jundillah, Muhammad Labib; Azainil; Hatta, Heliza Rahmania

    2018-02-01

    Rabbit is one of the many pets maintained by the general public in Indonesia. Like other pet, rabbits are also susceptible to various diseases. Society in general does not understand correctly the type of rabbit disease and the way of treatment. To help care for sick rabbits it is necessary a decision support system recommendation diagnosis of rabbit disease. The purpose of this research is to make the application of rabbit disease diagnosis system so that can help user in taking care of rabbit. This application diagnoses the disease by tracing the symptoms and calculating the recommendation of the disease using Simple Additive Weighting method. This research produces a web-based decision support system that is used to help rabbit breeders and the general public.

  19. Erbium: alternative poison? stabilisation additive? what future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porta, J.; Asou, M.

    2001-01-01

    Erbium was proposed as alternative poison to gadolinium at a very early stage. The potential interest of this poison compared to gadolinium is that it presents a relatively low ( 167 Er) absorption cross section in the thermal range and a non-negligible resonance integral that lead to a relatively slow consumption kinetic rather adapted to long or even very long cycles. The poisoning mode adapted to this poison, homogeneous in low concentration (< 3 %), does not downgrade the power distribution, on the one hand, as the absorption is low and spatially homogeneous, and the thermal conductivity, on the other hand, as the addition in the fuel oxide is in low quantity. A review of knowledge acquired as regards Er, from the 1960's to now, is presented. (authors)

  20. High-Efficient Circuits for Ternary Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Faghih Mirzaee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New ternary adders, which are fundamental components of ternary addition, are presented in this paper. They are on the basis of a logic style which mostly generates binary signals. Therefore, static power dissipation reaches its minimum extent. Extensive different analyses are carried out to examine how efficient the new designs are. For instance, the ternary ripple adder constructed by the proposed ternary half and full adders consumes 2.33 μW less power than the one implemented by the previous adder cells. It is almost twice faster as well. Due to their unique superior characteristics for ternary circuitry, carbon nanotube field-effect transistors are used to form the novel circuits, which are entirely suitable for practical applications.

  1. Feasibility and Testing of Additive Manufactured Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehoff, Ryan R [ORNL; Hummelt, Ed [Eaton Corporation; Solovyeva, Lyudmila [Eaton Corporation

    2016-09-01

    This project focused on demonstrating the ability to fabricate two parts with different geometry: an arc flash interrupter and a hydraulic manifold. Eaton Corporation provided ORNL solid models, information related to tolerances and sensitive parameters of the parts and provided testing and evaluation. ORNL successfully manufactured both components, provided cost models of the manufacturing (materials, labor, time and post processing) and delivered test components for Eaton evaluation. The arc flash suppressor was fabricated using the Renishaw laser powder bed technology in CoCrMo while the manifold was produced from Ti-6Al-4V using the Arcam electron beam melting technology. These manufacturing techniques were selected based on the design and geometrical tolerances required. A full-scale manifold was produced on the Arcam A2 system (nearly 12 inches tall). A portion of the manifold was also produced in the Arcam Q10 system. Although a full scale manifold could not be produced in the system, a full scale manifold is expected to have similar material properties, geometric accuracy, and surface finish as could be fabricated on an Arcam Q20 system that is capable of producing four full scale manifolds in a production environment. In addition to the manifold, mechanical test specimens, geometric tolerance artifacts, and microstructure samples were produced alongside the manifold. The development and demonstration of these two key components helped Eaton understand the impact additive manufacturing can have on many of their existing products. By working within the MDF and leveraging ORNL’s manufacturing and characterization capabilities, the work will ensure the rapid insertion and commercialization of this technology.

  2. Mechanical Properties of Additively Manufactured Thick Honeycombs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Hedayati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Honeycombs resemble the structure of a number of natural and biological materials such as cancellous bone, wood, and cork. Thick honeycomb could be also used for energy absorption applications. Moreover, studying the mechanical behavior of honeycombs under in-plane loading could help understanding the mechanical behavior of more complex 3D tessellated structures such as porous biomaterials. In this paper, we study the mechanical behavior of thick honeycombs made using additive manufacturing techniques that allow for fabrication of honeycombs with arbitrary and precisely controlled thickness. Thick honeycombs with different wall thicknesses were produced from polylactic acid (PLA using fused deposition modelling, i.e., an additive manufacturing technique. The samples were mechanically tested in-plane under compression to determine their mechanical properties. We also obtained exact analytical solutions for the stiffness matrix of thick hexagonal honeycombs using both Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam theories. The stiffness matrix was then used to derive analytical relationships that describe the elastic modulus, yield stress, and Poisson’s ratio of thick honeycombs. Finite element models were also built for computational analysis of the mechanical behavior of thick honeycombs under compression. The mechanical properties obtained using our analytical relationships were compared with experimental observations and computational results as well as with analytical solutions available in the literature. It was found that the analytical solutions presented here are in good agreement with experimental and computational results even for very thick honeycombs, whereas the analytical solutions available in the literature show a large deviation from experimental observation, computational results, and our analytical solutions.

  3. Utility of noise addition image made by using water phantom and image addition and subtraction software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Ryo; Aoki, Takahiro; Hayano, Mizuho; Ogawa, Masato; Mituzono, Hiroki; Watanabe, Yuka

    2010-01-01

    In optimizing exposures, it is very important to evaluate the impact of image noise on image quality. To realize this, there is a need to evaluate how much image noise will make the subject disease invisible. But generally it is very difficult to shoot images of different quality in a clinical examination. Thus, a method to create a noise addition image by adding the image noise to raw data has been reported. However, this approach requires a special system, so it is difficult to implement in many facilities. We have invented a method to easily create a noise addition image by using the water phantom and image add-subtract software that accompanies the device. To create a noise addition image, first we made a noise image by subtracting the water phantom with different standard deviation (SD). A noise addition image was then created by adding the noise image to the original image. By using this method, a simulation image with intergraded SD can be created from the original. Moreover, the noise frequency component of the created noise addition image is as same as the real image. Thus, the relationship of image quality to SD in the clinical image can be evaluated. Although this method is an easy method of LDSI creation on image data, a noise addition image can be easily created by using image addition and subtraction software and water phantom, and this can be implemented in many facilities. (author)

  4. Additive Construction using Basalt Regolith Fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Sibille, Laurent; Hintze, Paul E.; Lippitt, Thomas C.; Mantovani, James G.; Nugent, Matthew W.; Townsend, Ivan I.

    2014-01-01

    Planetary surfaces are often covered in regolith (crushed rock), whose geologic origin is largely basalt. The lunar surface is made of small-particulate regolith and areas of boulders located in the vicinity of craters. Regolith composition also varies with location, reflecting the local bedrock geology and the nature and efficiency of the micrometeorite-impact processes. In the lowland mare areas (suitable for habitation), the regolith is composed of small granules (20 - 100 microns average size) of mare basalt and volcanic glass. Impacting micrometeorites may cause local melting, and the formation of larger glassy particles, and this regolith may contain 10-80% glass. Studies of lunar regolith are traditionally conducted with lunar regolith simulant (reconstructed soil with compositions patterned after the lunar samples returned by Apollo). The NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Granular Mechanics & Regolith Operations (GMRO) lab has identified a low fidelity but economical geo-technical simulant designated as Black Point-1 (BP-1). It was found at the site of the Arizona Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS) analog field test site at the Black Point lava flow in adjacent basalt quarry spoil mounds. This paper summarizes activities at KSC regarding the utilization of BP-1 basalt regolith and comparative work with lunar basalt simulant JSC-1A as a building material for robotic additive construction of large structures. In an effort to reduce the import or in-situ fabrication of binder additives, we focused this work on in-situ processing of regolith for construction in a single-step process after its excavation. High-temperature melting of regolith involves techniques used in glassmaking and casting (with melts of lower density and higher viscosity than those of metals), producing basaltic glass with high durability and low abrasive wear. Most Lunar simulants melt at temperatures above 1100 C, although melt processing of terrestrial regolith at 1500 C is not

  5. Drag reduction by natural polymeric additives in PMDS microchannel: Effect of types of additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Fiona W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Drag reduction technology was used in medical applications to enhance the blood flow in semiclogged blood streams which can be an alternative treatment for atherosclerosis. In this present study, natural polymeric drag reducing additives (DRA was introduced to replace synthetic polymer which has the possibility of bringing side effects to human health. Three different sources, namely okra, aloe vera and hibiscus were utilized to extract the natural polymeric additives which were then tested in custom made microchannel simulating human heart blood vessels. The performance of different types of additives was evaluated using pressure measurements. The maximum drag reduction up to 63.48% is achieved using 300 ppm of hibiscus mucilage at operating pressure of 50 mbar. In this present work, hibiscus showed the best drag reduction performance, giving the highest %FI in most of the cases. This experimental results proved that these natural polymeric additives could be utilized as DRA in enhancing the blood flow in semiclogged blood streams.

  6. Behaviors of Polymer Additives Under EHL and Influences of Interactions Between Additives on Friction Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, T.

    1984-01-01

    Polymer additives have become requisite for the formulation of multigrade engine oils. The behavior of polymethacrylate (PMA)-thickened oils as lubricants in concentrated contacts under nominal rolling and pure sliding conditions was investigated by conventional optical interferometry. The PMA thickened oils behaved differently from the base oil in the formation of elastohydrodynamic (EHL) films. The higher the elastohydrodynamic molecular weight of the PMA contained in the lubricant, the thinner was the oil film under EHL conditions. The film thickness of shear-degraded PMA-thickened oils was also investigated. The behavior of graphite particles dispersed in both the base oil and the PMA-thickened oil was studied under pure sliding by taking photomicrographs. Many kinds of additives are contained in lubricating oil and the interactions between additives are considered. The interactions of zinc-organodithiophosphates (ZDP) with other additives is discussed.

  7. Additive action model for mixed irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, G.K.Y.

    1984-01-01

    Recent experimental results indicate that a mixture of high and low LET radiation may have some beneficial features (such as lower OER but with skin sparing) for clinical use, and interest has been renewed in the study of mixtures of high and low LET radiation. Several standard radiation inactivation models can readily accommodate interaction between two mixed radiations, however, this is usually handled by postulating extra free parameters, which can only be determined by fitting to experimental data. A model without any free parameter is proposed to explain the biological effect of mixed radiations, based on the following two assumptions: (a) The combined biological action due to two radiations is additive, assuming no repair has taken place during the interval between the two irradiations; and (b) The initial physical damage induced by radiation develops into final biological effect (e.g. cell killing) over a relatively long period (hours) after irradiation. This model has been shown to provide satisfactory fit to the experiment results of previous studies

  8. Introduction to IGRT and additional components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mijnheer, Ben

    2008-01-01

    Image-guided radiation therapy is 'Any use of planar imaging, volumetric imaging or volumetric cine imaging, marker localization, marker tracking, patient surface imaging or patient surface tracking to improve the precision of radiation-therapy delivery' , or 'Frequent imaging in the treatment room during a course of radiotherapy to guide the treatment process'. Purpose: To verify if the correct volume in a patient is irradiated by imaging the target and/or healthy tissue prior to or during treatment. Imaging modalities include: Electronic Portal Imaging Devices (EPIDs); (Portal) imaging of implanted markers; Imaging of external markers; Ultrasound; X-ray fluoroscopy; and CT (MR) scanner in treatment room. Final remarks are as follows: The introduction of various IGRT techniques allowed 3D verification of the position of target volumes and organs at risk just before or during treatment. Because the information is in 3D, or sometimes even in 4D, in principle these IGRT approaches provide more information compared to the use of 2D verification methods (e.g. EPIDs). Clinical data are becoming available to assess quantitatively for which treatment techniques IGRT approaches are advantageous compared to the use of conventional verification methods taking the additional resources (time, money, manpower) into account. (P.A.)

  9. Additional EIPC Study Analysis. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, Stanton W [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gotham, Douglas J. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Luciani, Ralph L. [Navigant Consultant Inc., Suwanee, GA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Between 2010 and 2012 the Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) conducted a major long-term resource and transmission study of the Eastern Interconnection (EI). With guidance from a Stakeholder Steering Committee (SSC) that included representatives from the Eastern Interconnection States Planning Council (EISPC) among others, the project was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 involved a long-term capacity expansion analysis that involved creation of eight major futures plus 72 sensitivities. Three scenarios were selected for more extensive transmission- focused evaluation in Phase 2. Five power flow analyses, nine production cost model runs (including six sensitivities), and three capital cost estimations were developed during this second phase. The results from Phase 1 and 2 provided a wealth of data that could be examined further to address energy-related questions. A list of 14 topics was developed for further analysis. This paper brings together the earlier interim reports of the first 13 topics plus one additional topic into a single final report.

  10. Yttrium addition for high temperatures stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furtado, Nelson Cesar Chaves Pinto

    1997-07-01

    The current work studied the effect of Yttrium on the microstructure of 2% Nb, modified - HP steel, with respect to its mechanical properties. Alloys were prepared with nominal Yttrium additions of 0,1% and 0,25%. Microstructural analyses and mechanical tests were undertaken in the as-cast condition and after ageing for 100 h at 700 deg C, 900 deg C and 1100 deg C. Structural characterization was performed by optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM/EDS), X-ray diffractometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Tensile testing was performed at room temperature and 871 deg C and creep testing at 925 deg C at a loading of 55 MPa. The material produced exhibited superior mechanical properties and surface oxidation resistance than traditional alloys of this class, even through gravity cast in a magnetic furnace. Agglomerates of Yttrium-rich phases were identifies in both as-cast and aged specimens, always associated with chromium carbides of characteristic morphologies. These morphologies, combined with the microstructural constituents, may have established the factors which resulted in the improved metallurgical stability of these alloys under the experimental testing conditions and temperatures which simulated real industrial service conditions and temperatures. (author)

  11. IN718 Additive Manufacturing Properties and Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Dennis M.

    2015-01-01

    The results of tensile, fracture, and fatigue testing of IN718 coupons produced using the selective laser melting (SLM) additive manufacturing technique are presented. The data have been "sanitized" to remove the numerical values, although certain references to material standards are provided. This document provides some knowledge of the effect of variation of controlled build parameters used in the SLM process, a snapshot of the capabilities of SLM in industry at present, and shares some of the lessons learned along the way. For the build parameter characterization, the parameters were varied over a range that was centered about the machine manufacturer's recommended value, and in each case they were varied individually, although some co-variance of those parameters would be expected. Tensile, fracture, and high-cycle fatigue properties equivalent to wrought IN718 are achievable with SLM-produced IN718. Build and post-build processes need to be determined and then controlled to established limits to accomplish this. It is recommended that a multi-variable evaluation, e.g., design-of experiment (DOE), of the build parameters be performed to better evaluate the co-variance of the parameters.

  12. Additive Manufacturing of Ultem Polymers and Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Grady, Joseph E.; Draper, Robert D.; Shin, Euy-Sik E.; Patterson, Clark; Santelle, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this project was to conduct additive manufacturing to produce aircraft engine components by Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), using commercially available polyetherimdes Ultem 9085 and experimental Ultem 1000 filled with 10 chopped carbon fiber. A property comparison between FDM-printed and injection molded coupons for Ultem 9085, Ultem 1000 resin and the fiber-filled composite Ultem 1000 was carried out. Furthermore, an acoustic liner was printed from Ultem 9085 simulating conventional honeycomb structured liners and tested in a wind tunnel. Composite compressor inlet guide vanes were also printed using fiber-filled Ultem 1000 filaments and tested in a cascade rig. The fiber-filled Ultem 1000 filaments and composite vanes were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and acid digestion to determine the porosity of FDM-printed articles which ranged from 25-31. Coupons of Ultem 9085, experimental Ultem 1000 composites and XH6050 resin were tested at room temperature and 400F to evaluate their corresponding mechanical properties.

  13. Computational Process Modeling for Additive Manufacturing (OSU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagg, Stacey; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Powder-Bed Additive Manufacturing (AM) through Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) or Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is being used by NASA and the Aerospace industry to "print" parts that traditionally are very complex, high cost, or long schedule lead items. The process spreads a thin layer of metal powder over a build platform, then melts the powder in a series of welds in a desired shape. The next layer of powder is applied, and the process is repeated until layer-by-layer, a very complex part can be built. This reduces cost and schedule by eliminating very complex tooling and processes traditionally used in aerospace component manufacturing. To use the process to print end-use items, NASA seeks to understand SLM material well enough to develop a method of qualifying parts for space flight operation. Traditionally, a new material process takes many years and high investment to generate statistical databases and experiential knowledge, but computational modeling can truncate the schedule and cost -many experiments can be run quickly in a model, which would take years and a high material cost to run empirically. This project seeks to optimize material build parameters with reduced time and cost through modeling.

  14. Additive Manufacturing of Catalytically Active Living Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Abhijit; Johnston, Trevor G; Shafranek, Ryan T; Goodman, Cassandra J; Zalatan, Jesse G; Storti, Duane W; Ganter, Mark A; Nelson, Alshakim

    2018-04-25

    Living materials, which are composites of living cells residing in a polymeric matrix, are designed to utilize the innate functionalities of the cells to address a broad range of applications such as fermentation and biosensing. Herein, we demonstrate the additive manufacturing of catalytically active living materials (AMCALM) for continuous fermentation. A multi-stimuli-responsive yeast-laden hydrogel ink, based on F127-dimethacrylate, was developed and printed using a direct-write 3D printer. The reversible stimuli-responsive behaviors of the polymer hydrogel inks to temperature and pressure are critical, as they enabled the facile incorporation of yeast cells and subsequent fabrication of 3D lattice constructs. Subsequent photo-cross-linking of the printed polymer hydrogel afforded a robust elastic material. These yeast-laden living materials were metabolically active in the fermentation of glucose into ethanol for 2 weeks in a continuous batch process without significant reduction in efficiency (∼90% yield of ethanol). This cell immobilization platform may potentially be applicable toward other genetically modified yeast strains to produce other high-value chemicals in a continuous biofermentation process.

  15. Additive Layer Manufacturing for Launcher's Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilanova, J.; Romera, P.; Lasagni, F.; Zorrilla, A.; Perinan, A.

    2014-06-01

    In the next years the European space industry has the challenge of maintaining its competitiveness in launch vehicles (LV) production, due to the growth of competition worldwide. It has to assure its position developing new applied technologies. In this field the effort is focussed on the production of short series of customized products, like payloads, flight components or launcher parts. ALM (Additive Layer Manufacturing) could be a powerful tool that offers new competitiveness factors for this industry, comprising a set of emerging technologies that are becoming a competitor to forming, casting and machining as well as being utilised directly as a complementary alternative.Originally used for prototypes and models, now ALM becomes a very useful technology capable to fabricate functional parts for the space industrial sector. Its demands on rapid technologies are different to "earth" industries, and they aren't so easily satisfied because space is a field with different requirements depending on its application: launchers, reusable vehicles, satellites, probes, low gravity researches, manned spacecraft, or even moon and planetary exploration.This paper reports on the ALM potential applications, under ESA requirements, exploring the challenges and possibilities for its use in the launchers market, trying to answer two basic questions: the first one, whether ALM is a mature technology to be ready for its use as flight hardware; and the second one, if it can be used to reduce the product cycle, and consequently, the development, production and operational costs.

  16. Stabilized zirconia with cerium and neodymium addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, I.M. de; Pessoa, R.C.; Nasar, M.C.; Nasar, R.S.; Rodriques, M.K.C.; Oliveira, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Zr 0,9 Ce 0,05 Nd 0,05 O 1,975 system was synthesized with the use of the Pechini method. The polymeric resin was calcined at 350 deg C/3 h and analysed by FTIR that show bands relative to organic. Radicals esther type. The TGA curve indicated the polymeric decomposition occurring from 30 deg C to 740 deg C. DTA analysis show a exothermic peak in 100 deg C due to loss of water of material. From 500 deg C to 800 deg C was observed a intense peak due to polymer decomposition and the zirconia crystallization. The calcined powder from 350 deg C/3 h e 30 min to 900 deg/3 h were analysed by XRD that show the crystalline phase formation with the increase of temperature. The X-ray diffraction pattern show the presence of two phases, such as tetragonal and cubic of zirconia demonstrating that neodymium and cerium additions led to zirconia stabilization. (author)

  17. Structure Property Studies for Additively Manufactured Parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milenski, Helen M [Univ. of Mexico, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Schmalzer, Andrew Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelly, Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-17

    Since the invention of modern Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes engineers and designers have worked hard to capitalize on the unique building capabilities that AM allows. By being able to customize the interior fill of parts it is now possible to design components with a controlled density and customized internal structure. The creation of new polymers and polymer composites allow for even greater control over the mechanical properties of AM parts. One of the key reasons to explore AM, is to bring about a new paradigm in part design, where materials can be strategically optimized in a way that conventional subtractive methods cannot achieve. The two processes investigated in my research were the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) process and the Direct Ink Write (DIW) process. The objectives of the research were to determine the impact of in-fill density and morphology on the mechanical properties of FDM parts, and to determine if DIW printed samples could be produced where the filament diameter was varied while the overall density remained constant.

  18. Additional heating experiments of FRC plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, S.; Asai, T.; Kodera, F.; Kitano, K.; Suzuki, T.; Yamanaka, K.; Kanki, T.; Inomoto, M.; Yoshimura, S.; Okubo, M.; Sugimoto, S.; Ohi, S.; Goto, S.

    2001-01-01

    Additional heating experiments of neutral beam (NB) injection and application of low frequency wave on a plasma with extremely high averaged beta value of about 90% - a field reversed configuration (FRC) plasma - are carried out on the FRC Injection experiment (FIX) apparatus. These experiments are made possible by translating the FRC plasma produced in a formation region of a theta pinch to a confinement region in order to secure better accessibility to heating facilities and to control plasma density. By appropriate choice of injection geometry and the mirror ratio of the confinement region, the NB with the energy of 14keV and the current of 23A is enabled to be injected into the FRC in the solenoidal confining field of only 0.04-0.05T. Confinement is improved by this experiment. Ion heating is observed by the application of low frequency (80kHz ; about 1/4 of the ion gyro frequency) compressional wave. A shear wave, probably mode converted from the compressional wave, is detected to propagate axially. (author)

  19. Additive manufacturing of transparent fused quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Junjie; Hostetler, John M.; Gilbert, Luke; Goldstein, Jonathan T.; Urbas, Augustine M.; Bristow, Douglas A.; Landers, Robert G.; Kinzel, Edward C.

    2018-04-01

    This paper investigates a filament-fed process for additive manufacturing (AM) of fused quartz. Glasses such as fused quartz have significant scientific and engineering applications, which include optics, communications, electronics, and hermetic seals. AM has several attractive benefits such as increased design freedom, faster prototyping, and lower processing costs for small production volumes. However, current research into glass AM has focused primarily on nonoptical applications. Fused quartz is studied here because of its desirability for use in high-quality optics due to its high transmissivity and thermal stability. Fused quartz filaments are fed into a CO2 laser-generated molten region, smoothly depositing material onto the workpiece. Spectroscopy and pyrometry are used to measure the thermal radiation incandescently emitted from the molten region. The effects of the laser power and scan speed are determined by measuring the morphology of single tracks. Thin walls are printed to study the effects of layer-to-layer height. This information is used to deposit solid pieces including a cylindrical-convex shape capable of focusing visible light. The transmittance and index homogeneity of the printed fused quartz are measured. These results show that the filament-fed process has the potential to print transmissive optics.

  20. IN718 Additive Manufacturing Properties and Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Dennis M.

    2015-01-01

    The results of tensile, fracture, and fatigue testing of IN718 coupons produced using the selective laser melting (SLM) additive manufacturing technique are presented. The data has been "generalized" to remove the numerical values, although certain references to material standards are provided. This document provides some knowledge of the effect of variation of controlled build parameters used in the SLM process, a snapshot of the capabilities of SLM in industry at present, and shares some of the lessons learned along the way. For the build parameter characterization, the parameters were varied over a range about the machine manufacturer's recommended value, and in each case they were varied individually, although some co-variance of those parameters would be expected. SLM-produced IN718, tensile, fracture, and high-cycle fatigue properties equivalent to wrought IN718 are achievable. Build and post-build processes need to be determined and then controlled to established limits to accomplish this. It is recommended that a multi-variable evaluation, e.g., design-of-experiment (DOE), of the build parameters be performed to better evaluate the co-variance of the parameters.

  1. Drag reduction by natural polymeric additives in PMDS microchannel: Effect of types of additives

    OpenAIRE

    Ling Fiona W.M.; Abdulbari Hayder A.

    2017-01-01

    Drag reduction technology was used in medical applications to enhance the blood flow in semiclogged blood streams which can be an alternative treatment for atherosclerosis. In this present study, natural polymeric drag reducing additives (DRA) was introduced to replace synthetic polymer which has the possibility of bringing side effects to human health. Three different sources, namely okra, aloe vera and hibiscus were utilized to extract the natural polymeric additives which were then tested ...

  2. Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Folic Acid. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-15

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is amending the food additive regulations to provide for the safe use of folic acid in corn masa flour. We are taking this action in response to a food additive petition filed jointly by Gruma Corporation, Spina Bifida Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of Pediatrics, Royal DSM N.V., and National Council of La Raza.

  3. Additionality of global benefits and financial additionality in the context of the AIJ negotiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puhl, I.

    1996-12-31

    The Conference of the Party at their first meeting (COP1) took a decision regarding criteria for joint implementation as indicated in Art. 4.2 (a) of the FCCC which established a pilot phase for activities implemented jointly (AIJ) under the pilot phase. Besides some more technical issues this decision specified that such measures should bring about real, measurable and long-term environmental benefits related to the mitigation of climate change that would not have occurred in the absence of such activities. It also established that the financing of AIJ shall be additional to the financial obligations of developed country parties. These two requirements are called the additionality criteria for AIJ. The first refers to the realness of GHG emission abatement (which means reduction compared to a baseline) whereas the second describes that funds earmarked for AIJ have no other objective (i.e. profit making, export promotion) but to reduce GHG emissions to avoid the free-riding of investors and subsequently developed country parties. The reporting framework as well as the reporting requirements under national programs do not specify further the two types of additionality and even though research focuses on issues like baseline determination there has been no attempt so far to identify approaches which contribute towards defining strict and practicable methods and guidelines to frame additionality criteria. The first FCCC assessment of pilot project reporting revealed that in the reporting of activities, emissions additionality often remained unclear, especially in cases where AIJ was only a portion of an existing or already planned project, and that there is a point about how to account for financial additionality. It subsequently proposed to develop a uniform approach to baseline determination and the assessment of emission (reduction) additionality and financial additionality.

  4. Additive manufacturing technologies of porous metal implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Quanzhan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical metal materials with good corrosion resistance and mechanical properties are widely used in orthopedic surgery and dental implant materials, but they can easily cause stress shielding due to the significant difference in elastic modulus between the implant and human bones. The elastic modulus of porous metals is lower than that of dense metals. Therefore, it is possible to adjust the pore parameters to make the elastic modulus of porous metals match or be comparable with that of the bone tissue. At the same time, the open porous metals with pores connected to each other could provide the structural condition for bone ingrowth, which is helpful in strengthening the biological combination of bone tissue with the implants. Therefore, the preparation technologies of porous metal implants and related research have been drawing more and more attention due to the excellent features of porous metals. Selective laser melting (SLM and electron beam melting technology (EBM are important research fields of additive manufacturing. They have the advantages of directly forming arbitrarily complex shaped metal parts which are suitable for the preparation of porous metal implants with complex shape and fine structure. As new manufacturing technologies, the applications of SLM and EBM for porous metal implants have just begun. This paper aims to understand the technology status of SLM and EBM, the research progress of porous metal implants preparation by using SLM and EBM, and the biological compatibility of the materials, individual design and manufacturing requirements. The existing problems and future research directions for porous metal implants prepared by SLM and EBM methods are discussed in the last paragraph.

  5. Transparent Conductive Ink for Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlan, X. J.; Rolin, T. D.

    2017-01-01

    NASA analyzes, tests, packages, and fabricates electrical, electronic, and electromechanical (EEE) parts. Nanotechnology is listed in NASA's Technology Roadmap as a key area to invest for further development.1 This research project focused on using nanotechnology to improve electroluminescent lighting in terms of additive manufacturing and to increase energy efficiency. Specifically, this project's goal was to produce a conductive but transparent printable ink that can be sprayed on any surface for use as one of the electrodes in electroluminescent device design. This innovative work is known as thick film dielectric electroluminescent (TDEL) technology. TDEL devices are used for "backlighting, illumination, and identification due to their tunable color output, scalability, and efficiency" (I.K. Small, T.D. Rolin, and A.D. Shields, "3D Printed Electroluminescent Light Panels," NASA Fiscal Year 2017 Center Innovation Fund Proposal, unpublished data, 2017). These devices use a 'front-to-back' printing method, where the substrate is the transparent layer, and the dielectric and phosphor are layered on top. This project is a first step in the process of creating a 3D printable 'back-to-front' electroluminescent device. Back-to-front 3D-printed devices are beneficial because they can be printed onto different substrates and embedded in different surfaces, and the substrate is not required to be transparent, all because the light is emitted from the top surface through the transparent conductor. Advances in this area will help further development of printing TDEL devices on an array of different surfaces. Figure 1 demonstrates the layering of the two electrodes that are aligned in a parallel plate capacitor structure (I.K. Small, T.D. Rolin, and A.D. Shields, "3D Printed Electroluminescent Light Panels," NASA Fiscal Year 2017 Center Innovation Fund Proposal, unpublished data, 2017). Voltage is applied across the device, and the subsequent electron excitation results in

  6. Grassland Soil Carbon Responses to Nitrogen Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmockel, K. S.; Tfailly, M.; Callister, S.; Bramer, L.; Thompson, A.

    2017-12-01

    Using a long-term continental scale experiment, we tested if increases in nitrogen (N) inputs augment the accumulation of plant and microbial residues onto mineral soil surfaces. This research investigates N effects on molecular biogeochemistry across six sites from the Nutrient Network (NutNet) experiment. The coupling between concurrently changing carbon (C) and N cycles remains a key uncertainty in understanding feedbacks between the terrestrial C cycle and climate change. Existing models do not consider the full suite of linked C-N processes, particularly belowground, that could drive future C-climate feedbacks. Soil harbors a wealth of diverse organic molecules, most of which have not been measured in hypothesis driven field research. For the first time we systematically assess the chemical composition of soil organic matter (SOM) and functional characteristics of the soil microbiome, to enhance our understanding of the molecular underpinnings of ecosystem C and N cycling. We have acquired soils from 5 ecosystem experiments across the US that have been subjected to 8 years of N addition treatments. These soils have been analyzed for chemical composition to identify how the soil fertility and stability is altered by N fertilization. We found distinct SOM signatures from our field experiments and shifts in soil chemistry in response to 8 years of N fertilization. Across all sites, we found the molecular composition of SOM varied with clay content, supporting the importance of soil mineralogy in the accumulation of specific chemical classes of SOM. While many molecules were common across sites, we discovered a suite of molecules that were site specific. N fertilization had a significant effect on SOM composition. Differences between control and N amended plots were greater in sites rich in lipids and more complex molecules, compared to sites with SOM rich in amino-sugar and protein like substances. Our results have important implications for how SOM is

  7. Helicon plasma with additional immersed antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aanesland, A; Charles, C; Boswell, R W; Fredriksen, A

    2004-01-01

    A 'primary' RF power (H-power) at 13.56 MHz is coupled to a plasma source excited by an external double saddle field Helicon antenna. A 'secondary' RF power (S-power), also at 13.56 MHz but with variable phase, is additionally coupled by inserting a second antenna in contact with the plasma through one end of the source. The immersed antenna can be grounded or floating, allowing a self-bias to form in the latter case. Changes in the plasma density and electron temperature are measured in both cases with varying power on the immersed antenna. The plasma potential increases dramatically with S-power in the grounded case, and is found to be similar in size to the sum of the plasma potential and the self-bias formed in the floating case for all powers. Hence, the sheath between the immersed antenna and the plasma is shown to be equal in both the grounded and floating cases. Although the power efficiency does not vary significantly as a function of the S-power, it is consistently lower for the grounded case possibly as a result of a dc current to ground. The plasma parameters are drastically changed as the phase between the two antennae are varied (floating case), and a sinusoidal function was fitted to the plasma parameters as a function of the phase shift. The calculated power loss to the antenna indicates that the power efficiency of the immersed antenna, as the phase is changed, is altered from 80% to 10%

  8. Fatigue crack growth in additive manufactured products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Riemer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Additive Manufacturing (AM is a new innovative technique that allows the direct fabrication of complex, individual, delicate and high-strength products, based on their 3D data. Selective Laser Melting (SLM is one of the AM processes that generates metallic components layer by layer using powder-bed technique. The irradiation and consequent melting of metallic powder is realised by the laser source. Employing SLM, especially complex and individual products, such as implants or aerospace parts, are well suited for economic production in small batches. The first important issue in this work was to analyse the fatigue crack growth (FCG in titanium alloy Ti-6-4 and stainless steel 316L processed by SLM. As a first step, stress intensity range decreasing tests were performed on SLM samples in their “as-built” condition. The next step was to adopt measures for optimisation of fatigue crack growth performance of SLM parts. For this purpose various heat treatments such as stress relief annealing and hot isostatic pressing (HIP were applied to the CT specimens. Finally, the strong impact of heat treatment on the residual lifetime was demonstrated by numerical fatigue crack growth simulations. For this purpose, the hip joint implant consisting of Ti-6-4 and processed by SLM was taken into account. It was found that residual stresses have a strong influence on the crack growth in Ti-6-4, while the influence of the micro-pores on the threshold values remains low. In contrast the results for 316L show that its fracturemechanical behaviour is not affected by residual stresses, whereas the microstructural features lead to modification in the da/dN-K-data. The second fundamental aim of this work was to demonstrate the possibilities of the SLM process. For that reason, the individually tailored bicycle crank was optimised regarding its weight and local stresses and finally manufactured using the SLM system. The iterative optimisation procedure was based on

  9. Competency Based Hospital Radiopharmacy Training. Additional Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Quality management systems in nuclear medicine are vital to a high level of nuclear medicine (NM) practice. Trained and competent staffs are essential for achieving high standards and growth in NM. One of the key bottlenecks for NM is the shortfall in human resources, especially of radiopharmacists. There is an acute shortage in most Member States and in some countries an absence of nationally registered pharmacists with radiopharmacy experience. Most nuclear medicine facilities operate their radiopharmacies (commonly referred to as the hot laboratories) with the support of technologists and radiographers. Recent surveys have found the level of training amongst technologists to be extremely variable. Most had little or no training in hot laboratory practices. The survey also indicated the poor state of hot laboratories in many countries. Basic quality systems in the hot laboratory could be improved significantly with better training. This competency-based education manual is designed with those radiopharmacy practitioners in mind. This competency-based trainer's manual provides trainers in each of the IAEA regions with the essentials of a training programme for all radiopharmacy practitioners. The competency-based training is a two week programme followed up with three months of practice achievements. The syllabus provides a standardized approach to lectures, practical sessions, and interactive workshops focusing on critical aspects of hot laboratory practices. The trainers, with the assistance of this manual, can deliver essential skills, competencies, and underpinning knowledge to operate safely and effectively in their hot laboratory. The course focuses on simple but practical steps that could be undertaken to improve staff performance. In addition, a basic framework of quality management principles related to radiopharmacy practices is also covered. Further, the syllabus can be adapted to the particular needs and characteristics of any training centre, country

  10. Oxidation kinetic changes of UO2 by additive addition and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Gil-Sung; Kim, Keon-Sik; Min, Duck-Kee; Ro, Seung-Gy

    2000-01-01

    The kinetic changes of air-oxidation of UO 2 by additive addition and irradiation were investigated. Several kinds of specimens, such as unirradiated-UO 2 , simulated-UO 2 for spent PWR fuel (SIMFUEL), unirradiated-Gd-doped UO 2 , irradiated-UO 2 and -Gd-doped UO 2 , were used for these experiments. The oxidation results represented that the kinetic patterns among those samples are remarkably different. It was also revealed that the oxidation kinetics of irradiated-UO 2 seems to be more similar to that of unirradiated-Gd-doped UO 2 than that of SIMFUEL

  11. 21 CFR 25.32 - Foods, food additives, and color additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... use in food, drugs, devices, or cosmetics. (d) Testing and certification of batches of a color... for humans or animals on FDA's initiative or in response to a petition, under parts 182, 184, 186, or... for humans or animals to use as animal feeds. (i) Approval of a food additive petition or GRAS...

  12. Comparison of Various Dynamic Balancing Principles Regarding Additional Mass and Additional Inertia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wijk, V.; Demeulenaere, Bram; Herder, Justus Laurens

    2009-01-01

    The major disadvantage of existing dynamic balancing principles is that a considerable amount of mass and inertia is added to the system. The objectives of this article are to summarize, to compare, and to evaluate existing complete balancing principles regarding the addition of mass and the

  13. The retro Grignard addition reaction revisited: the reversible addition of benzyl reagents to ketones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Stig Holden; Holm, Torkil; Madsen, Robert

    2014-01-01

    transformation. The retro benzyl reaction was shown by the addition of benzylmagnesium chloride to di-tert-butyl ketone followed by exchange of both the benzyl and the ketone moiety with another substrate. Similar experiments were performed with phenylmagnesium bromide and tert-butylmagnesium chloride...

  14. Co-occurring nonnative woody shrubs have additive and non-additive soil legacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuebbing, Sara E; Patterson, Courtney M; Classen, Aimée T; Simberloff, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    To maximize limited conservation funds and prioritize management projects that are likely to succeed, accurate assessment of invasive nonnative species impacts is essential. A common challenge to prioritization is a limited knowledge of the difference between the impacts of a single nonnative species compared to the impacts of nonnative species when they co-occur, and in particular predicting when impacts of co-occurring nonnative species will be non-additive. Understanding non-additivity is important for management decisions because the management of only one co-occurring invader will not necessarily lead to a predictable reduction in the impact or growth of the other nonnative plant. Nonnative plants are frequently associated with changes in soil biotic and abiotic characteristics, which lead to plant-soil interactions that influence the performance of other species grown in those soils. Whether co-occurring nonnative plants alter soil properties additively or non-additively relative to their effects on soils when they grow in monoculture is rarely addressed. We use a greenhouse plant-soil feedback experiment to test for non-additive soil impacts of two common invasive nonnative woody shrubs, Lonicera maackii and Ligustrum sinense, in deciduous forests of the southeastern United States. We measured the performance of each nonnative shrub, a native herbaceous community, and a nonnative woody vine in soils conditioned by each shrub singly or together in polyculture. Soils conditioned by both nonnative shrubs had non-additive impacts on native and nonnative performance. Root mass of the native herbaceous community was 1.5 times lower and the root mass of the nonnative L. sinense was 1.8 times higher in soils conditioned by both L. maackii and L. sinense than expected based upon growth in soils conditioned by either shrub singly. This result indicates that when these two nonnative shrubs co-occur, their influence on soils disproportionally favors persistence

  15. 37 CFR 1.776 - Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... extension for a food additive or color additive. 1.776 Section 1.776 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... Calculation of patent term extension for a food additive or color additive. (a) If a determination is made pursuant to § 1.750 that a patent for a food additive or color additive is eligible for extension, the term...

  16. Addition of electric arc furnace dust in hot metal changing the form of addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques Sobrinho, Vicente de Paulo Ferreira; Oliveira, Jose Roberto de; Vieira, Estefano Aparecido; Telles, Victor Bridi; Grillo, Felipe Fardin; Tenorio, Jorge Alberto Soares; Espinosa, Denise Crocce Romano

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to study the incorporation of the mass of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD), by addition in hot metal (1.78% Si) at a temperature of 1,400 degrees Celsius. The EAFD is from a steel plant producing long steel. The addition of the EAFD was as received, in the form of briquettes without agitation of the hot metal and in the form of briquettes with agitation of the hot metal. Previously, the EAFD was characterized using the following techniques: chemical analysis, size analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) microanalysis. The achievement of fusion experiments in laboratory scale, took place in a vertical tubular furnace with temperature control. The fusion experiments to assess the incorporation of EAFD mass used graphite crucibles. After cooling, the hot metal and the slag, remaining in the crucible, were weighed to do a mass balance. A flow of inert gas (argon) was maintained inside the furnace during the experiments. Results show that the experiment with addition of EAFD as received presents the best result of incorporating the mass of the final hot metal (1.73%) combined with the lowest percentage of volatilized mass of EAFD (46.52%). The experiment addition of EAFD in the form of briquette with agitation of hot metal presents the lowest percentage of slag mass (4.58%). The zinc content of volatilized EAFD (64.30%) is higher than the zinc content of the imported ore concentrate (52%) and zinc content of the national ore concentrate (12% to 39%). The presence of lead and cadmium in the slag characterizing it as a hazardous solid waste. (author)

  17. Additional safety assessment of ITER - Addition safety investigation of the INB ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This assessment aims at re-assessing safety margins in the light of events which occurred in Fukushima Daiichi, i.e. extreme natural events challenging the safety of installations. After a presentation of some characteristics of the ITER installation (location, activities, buildings, premise detritiation systems, electric supply, handling means, radioactive materials, chemical products, nuclear risks, specific risks), the report addresses the installation robustness by identifying cliff-edge effect risks which can be related to a loss of confinement of radioactive materials, explosions, a significant increase of exposure level, a possible effect on water sheets, and so on. The next part addresses the various aspects related to a seismic risk: installation sizing (assessment methodology, seismic risk characterization in Cadarache), sizing protection measures, installation compliance, and margin assessment. External flooding is the next addressed risk: installation sizing with respect to this specific risk, protection measures, installation compliance, margin assessment, and studied additional measures. Other extreme natural phenomena are considered (meteorological conditions, earthquake and flood) which may have effects on other installations (dam, canal). Then, the report addresses technical risks like the loss of electric supplies and cooling systems, the way a crisis is managed in terms of technical and human means and organization in different typical accidental cases. Subcontracting practices are also discussed. A synthesis proposes an overview of this additional safety assessment and discusses the impact which could have additional measures which could be implemented

  18. Estimation of the additive and dominance variances in SA Landrace ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NORRIS

    South African Journal of Animal Science 2006, 36 (4) ... Fuerst (1996) simulated a genetic model with different levels of additive, dominance and additive by additive genetic effects to .... However, a simulation study by Norris et al. (2002) ...

  19. Additive Biotech-Chances, challenges, and recent applications of additive manufacturing technologies in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krujatz, Felix; Lode, Anja; Seidel, Julia; Bley, Thomas; Gelinsky, Michael; Steingroewer, Juliane

    2017-10-25

    The diversity and complexity of biotechnological applications are constantly increasing, with ever expanding ranges of production hosts, cultivation conditions and measurement tasks. Consequently, many analytical and cultivation systems for biotechnology and bioprocess engineering, such as microfluidic devices or bioreactors, are tailor-made to precisely satisfy the requirements of specific measurements or cultivation tasks. Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies offer the possibility of fabricating tailor-made 3D laboratory equipment directly from CAD designs with previously inaccessible levels of freedom in terms of structural complexity. This review discusses the historical background of these technologies, their most promising current implementations and the associated workflows, fabrication processes and material specifications, together with some of the major challenges associated with using AM in biotechnology/bioprocess engineering. To illustrate the great potential of AM, selected examples in microfluidic devices, 3D-bioprinting/biofabrication and bioprocess engineering are highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Co-occurring nonnative woody shrubs have additive and non-additive soil legacies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuebbing, Sara E.; Patterson, Courtney M.; Classen, Aimee Taylor

    2016-01-01

    shrubs, Lonicera maackii and Ligustrum sinense, in deciduous forests of the southeastern United States. We measured the performance of each nonnative shrub, a native herbaceous community, and a nonnative woody vine in soils conditioned by each shrub singly or together in polyculture. Soils conditioned...... by both nonnative shrubs had non-additive impacts on native and nonnative performance. Root mass of the native herbaceous community was 1.5 times lower and the root mass of the nonnative L. sinense was 1.8 times higher in soils conditioned by both L. maackii and L. sinense than expected based upon growth...... in soils conditioned by either shrub singly. This result indicates that when these two nonnative shrubs co-occur, their influence on soils disproportionally favors persistence of the nonnative L. sinense relative to this native herbaceous community, and could provide an explanation of why native species...

  1. Fluxional additives: a second generation control in enantioselective catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, Mukund P; Manyem, Shankar; Palencia, Hector

    2006-10-25

    The concept of "fluxional additives", additives that can adopt enantiomeric conformations depending on the chiral information in the ligand, is demonstrated in enantioselective Diels-Alder and nitrone cycloaddition reactions. The additive design is modular, and diverse structures are accessible in three steps. Chiral Lewis acids from main group and transition metals show enhancements in enantioselectivity in the presence of these additives.

  2. 21 CFR 170.38 - Determination of food additive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Determination of food additive status. 170.38... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.38 Determination of food additive status. (a) The Commissioner may, in accordance with § 170.35(b)(4) or (c)(5...

  3. 21 CFR 570.38 - Determination of food additive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of food additive status. 570.38... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 570.38 Determination of food additive status. (a) The Commissioner may, in accordance with § 570.35 (b)(4) or (c)(5...

  4. 77 FR 53801 - Nexira; Filing of Food Additive Petition; Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    .... FDA-2011-F-0765] Nexira; Filing of Food Additive Petition; Amendment AGENCY: Food and Drug... filing notice for a food additive petition filed by Nexira proposing that the food additive regulations... Register on December 20, 2011 (76 FR 78866), FDA announced that a food additive petition (FAP 1A4784) had...

  5. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food additives... the Act, which proposes the inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of identity...

  6. 21 CFR 170.18 - Tolerances for related food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tolerances for related food additives. 170.18... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.18 Tolerances for related food additives. (a) Food additives that cause similar or related pharmacological effects will be...

  7. Prevalence of phosphorus containing food additives in grocery stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeen B. Leon

    2012-06-01

    In conclusion, phosphorus additives are commonly present in groceries and contribute significantly to the phosphorus content of foods. Moreover, phosphorus additive foods are less costly than additive-free foods. As a result, phosphorus additives may be an important contributor to hyperphosphatemia among persons with chronic kidney disease

  8. A generalized additive regression model for survival times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas H.

    2001-01-01

    Additive Aalen model; counting process; disability model; illness-death model; generalized additive models; multiple time-scales; non-parametric estimation; survival data; varying-coefficient models......Additive Aalen model; counting process; disability model; illness-death model; generalized additive models; multiple time-scales; non-parametric estimation; survival data; varying-coefficient models...

  9. 21 CFR 81.1 - Provisional lists of color additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS AND GENERAL RESTRICTIONS FOR PROVISIONAL COLOR ADDITIVES FOR USE IN FOODS, DRUGS... not to be construed as a listing for surgical suture use unless color additive petitions have been... the color additive for such use. The color additives listed in paragraphs (a), (b), and (c) of this...

  10. 76 FR 47210 - Notices of Filing of Petitions for Food Additives and Color Additives; Relocation in the Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0518] Notices of Filing of Petitions for Food Additives and Color Additives; Relocation in the Federal Register...) is notifying the public that notices of filing of petitions for food additives and color additives...

  11. An Additive-Multiplicative Cox-Aalen Regression Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas H.; Zhang, Mei-Jie

    2002-01-01

    Aalen model; additive risk model; counting processes; Cox regression; survival analysis; time-varying effects......Aalen model; additive risk model; counting processes; Cox regression; survival analysis; time-varying effects...

  12. Facts about food irradiation: Irradiation and food additives and residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet considers the issue of the irradiation of food containing food additives or pesticide residues. The conclusion is that there is no health hazard posed by radiolytic products of pesticides or food additives. 1 ref

  13. A ¤flexible additive multiplicative hazard model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, T.; Scheike, T. H.

    2002-01-01

    Aalen's additive model; Counting process; Cox regression; Hazard model; Proportional excess harzard model; Time-varying effect......Aalen's additive model; Counting process; Cox regression; Hazard model; Proportional excess harzard model; Time-varying effect...

  14. Effect of Additives on the Physicochemical and Drug Release ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To prepare and evaluate spherical agglomerates of pioglitazone hydrochloride (PGH) for direct compression with different additives. Method: Spherical agglomerates of pioglitazone hydrochloride were prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion method with and without additives (polyethylene glycol 6000, polyvinyl ...

  15. An Additively Manufactured Torch Igniter for Liquid Propellants

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Consistent and reliable rocket engine ignition has yet to be proven through an additively manufactured torch igniter for liquid propellants. The coupling of additive...

  16. USABILITY OF ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING (THREEDIMENSIONAL PRINTING) TECHNOLOGIES IN EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZSOY, KORAY; DUMAN, BURHAN

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing technologies which are emerge in 1980’s years, they are using for prototip production in first time for that reason their denomination rapid prototyping . Nowadays it called additive manufacturing because of it using for end use functional part’s production. In additive manufacturing, the basic rationales the same, but many different technologies have been developed to manufacture with different approaches. The most common additive manufacturing technologies are stereol...

  17. Entropies of the automata networks with additive rule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-qingGU; GeCHEN; 等

    1996-01-01

    The matrix presentation for automata networks with additive rule are described.A set of entropy theorems of additive automata network are proved and an analytic formula of its entropy is built.For example,we proved that the topological entropy is identically equal to metric entropy for an additive antomata network.

  18. 78 FR 6272 - Rules Relating to Additional Medicare Tax; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... Rules Relating to Additional Medicare Tax; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury... regulations are relating to Additional Hospital Insurance Tax on income above threshold amounts (``Additional Medicare Tax''), as added by the Affordable Care Act. Specifically, these proposed regulations provide...

  19. 75 FR 17145 - Food Additives; Bisphenol A; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ...] Food Additives; Bisphenol A; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... contact materials. Uses of BPA were approved by FDA under its food additive regulations in the early 1960s..., Division of 2009 Food Contact Notifications, Office of Food Additive Safety, Center for Food Safety and...

  20. 76 FR 78866 - Nexira; Filing of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    .... FDA-2011-F-0765] Nexira; Filing of Food Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... filed a petition proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the expanded... Cosmetic Act (section 409(b)(5) (21 U.S.C. 348(b)(5))), notice is given that a food additive petition (FAP...

  1. 77 FR 5201 - Ecolab, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    .... FDA-2011-F-0853] Ecolab, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... Ecolab, Inc., has filed a petition proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for...-1390. The petition proposes to amend the food additive regulations in 21 CFR part 173, Secondary Direct...

  2. Development of Cranial Bone Surrogate Structures Using Stereolithographic Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-29

    Additive Manufacturing by Jared M Gardner and Thomas A Plaisted Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited...Laboratory Development of Cranial Bone Surrogate Structures Using Stereolithographic Additive Manufacturing by Thomas A Plaisted Weapons...Structures Using Stereolithographic Additive Manufacturing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Jared

  3. Process chain modeling and selection in an additive manufacturing context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Stolfi, Alessandro; Mischkot, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a new two-dimensional approach to modeling manufacturing process chains. This approach is used to consider the role of additive manufacturing technologies in process chains for a part with micro scale features and no internal geometry. It is shown that additive manufacturing...... evolving fields like additive manufacturing....

  4. 7 CFR 27.25 - Additional samples of cotton; drawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional samples of cotton; drawing. 27.25 Section... Samples § 27.25 Additional samples of cotton; drawing. In addition to the samples hereinbefore prescribed, separate samples, if desired, may be drawn and furnished to the owner of the cotton. ...

  5. An evaluation of estimation methods for determining addition in presbyopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Leonardo Catunda; Alves, Milton Ruiz; Dantas, Daniel Oliveira; Rodrigues, Pablo Felipe; Santos-Neto, Edson dos

    2013-01-01

    The optical correction of presbyopia must be handled individually. Our aim was to compare the methods used in addition to the refractive near vision, with the final addition used in presbyopic patients. Eighty healthy subjects with a mean age of 49.7 years (range 40 to 60 years) were studied. Tentative near additions were determined using four different techniques: one-half amplitude accommodation with minus lenses (AAL); one-third accommodative demand with positive lens (ADL); balanced range of accommodation with minus and positive lenses (BRA) and crossed cylinder test with initial myopisation (CCT). The power of the addition was then refined to arrive at the final addition. The mean tentative near additions were lower than the final addition for ADL and BRA addition methods. The mean differences between tentative and final additions were low for all the tests examined (less than 0.25 D). The intervals between the 95% limits of agreement differed substantially and were always higher than ±0.50 D. All the methods used displayed similar behavior and provided a tentative addition close to the final addition. The coefficient of agreements (COA) detected suggests that every tentative addition should be adjusted according to the particular needs of the patient.

  6. An evaluation of estimation methods for determining addition in presbyopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Catunda Bittencourt

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The optical correction of presbyopia must be handled individually. Our aim was to compare the methods used in addition to the refractive near vision, with the final addition used in presbyopic patients. METHODS: Eighty healthy subjects with a mean age of 49.7 years (range 40 to 60 years were studied. Tentative near additions were determined using four different techniques: one-half amplitude accommodation with minus lenses (AAL; one-third accommodative demand with positive lens (ADL; balanced range of accommodation with minus and positive lenses (BRA and crossed cylinder test with initial myopisation (CCT. The power of the addition was then refined to arrive at the final addition. RESULTS: The mean tentative near additions were lower than the final addition for ADL and BRA addition methods. The mean differences between tentative and final additions were low for all the tests examined (less than 0.25 D. The intervals between the 95% limits of agreement differed substantially and were always higher than ±0.50 D. CONCLUSION: All the methods used displayed similar behavior and provided a tentative addition close to the final addition. The coefficient of agreements (COA detected suggests that every tentative addition should be adjusted according to the particular needs of the patient.

  7. 77 FR 13232 - Abbott Laboratories; Filing of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    .... FDA-2012-F-0138] Abbott Laboratories; Filing of Food Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug... that Abbott Laboratories has filed a petition proposing that the food additive regulations be amended... given that a food additive petition (FAP 2A4788) has been filed by Abbott Laboratories, 3300 Stelzer Rd...

  8. 77 FR 2935 - Mars, Inc.; Filing of Color Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... 73) Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification to provide for the safe use of spirulina.... FDA-2011-C-0878] Mars, Inc.; Filing of Color Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... Mars, Inc., has filed a petition proposing that the color additive regulations be amended to provide...

  9. 40 CFR 51.117 - Additional provisions for lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional provisions for lead. 51.117... Additional provisions for lead. In addition to other requirements in §§ 51.100 through 51.116 the following requirements apply to lead. To the extent they conflict, there requirements are controlling over those of the...

  10. 48 CFR 3452.216-70 - Additional cost principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional cost principles... Clauses 3452.216-70 Additional cost principles. Insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts as prescribed in 3416.307(b): Additional Cost Principles (AUG 1987) (a) Bid and Proposal Costs. Bid...

  11. 48 CFR 352.216-70 - Additional cost principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional cost principles... Additional cost principles. As prescribed in 316.307(j), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Additional Cost Principles (January 2006) (a) Bid and proposal (B & P) costs. (1) B & P costs are...

  12. 40 CFR 80.162 - Additive compositional data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... detergent production quality control. EPA will respond to such requests in writing; the additional... variability is required, and provide evidence that the production detergent will perform adequately throughout... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.162 Additive compositional data...

  13. 27 CFR 24.233 - Addition of spirits to wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wine. 24.233 Section 24.233 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.233 Addition of spirits to wine. (a) Prior to the addition of spirits. Wine will be placed in tanks approved for the addition of spirits. The...

  14. U1/U2 crib groundwater biological treatment demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koegler, S.S.; Brouns, T.M.; Heath, W.O.

    1989-11-01

    The primary objective of the biological treatment project is to develop and demonstrate a process for Hanford groundwater remediation. Biodenitrification using facultative anaerobic microorganisms is a promising technology for the simultaneous removal of nitrates and organics from contaminated aqueous streams. During FY 1988, a consortium of Hanford groundwater microorganisms was shown to degrade both nitrates and carbon tetrachloride (CC1 4 ). A pilot-scale treatment system was designed and constructed based on the results of laboratory-and-bench-scale testing. This report summarizes the results of biological groundwater treatment studies performed during FY 1989 at the pilot-scale. These tests were conducted using a simulated Hanford groundwater with a continuous stirred-tank bioreactor, and a fluidized-bed bioreactor that was added to the pilot-scale treatment system in FY 1989. The pilot-scale system demonstrated continuous degradation of nitrates and CC1 4 in a simulated groundwater. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  15. U-2g0 cyclotron operational experience and improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gigal, B.N.; Gul'bekyan, G.G.; Kozlov, S.I.; Oganesyan, R.Ts.

    1983-01-01

    Brief description of main syste's of the U-200 isochronous 2-m cyclotron put into opera ion in 1968 is given and its operational characteristics a e presented. The cyclotron is used for conducting inve tigations in the field of nuclear physics. Ions from d uterium to argon have been accelerated in the cyclotro'. Annual time of target irradiation constitutes 2000-4000. The specific features of the cyclotron are: high l vel of a magnetic field (of about 20 kOe), possibili y of acceleration of ions with different mass-to-charge ratio a low correcting winding power, simple and high-e fective beam extraction by the method of charge exchange on a thin target allowing to vary smoothly energy of extracted ons. An experience in the U-200 cyclotron development and o eration is used as the basis for designing and choosing basic parameters of the U-200P, U-250, U-400 heavy ion cyclotrons

  16. Pro-apoptotic and pro-autophagic effects of the Aurora kinase A inhibitor alisertib (MLN8237 on human osteosarcoma U-2 OS and MG-63 cells through the activation of mitochondria-mediated pathway and inhibition of p38 MAPK/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu NK

    2015-03-01

    mesenchymal transition (EMT and the underlying mechanisms in two human OS cell lines U-2 OS and MG-63. The results showed that ALS had potent growth inhibitory, pro-apoptotic, pro-autophagic, and EMT inhibitory effects on U-2 OS and MG-63 cells. ALS remarkably induced G2/M arrest and down-regulated the expression levels of cyclin-dependent kinases 1 and 2 and cyclin B1 in both U-2 OS and MG-63 cells. ALS markedly induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis with a significant increase in the expression of key pro-apoptotic proteins and a decrease in main anti-apoptotic proteins. Furthermore, ALS promoted autophagic cell death via the inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/protein kinase B (Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK signaling pathways, and activation of 5'-AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK signaling pathway. Inducers or inhibitors of apoptosis or autophagy simultaneously altered ALS-induced apoptotic and autophagic death in both U-2 OS and MG-63 cells, suggesting a crosstalk between these two primary modes of programmed cell death. Moreover, ALS suppressed EMT-like phenotypes with a marked increase in the expression of E-cadherin but a decrease in N-cadherin in U-2 OS and MG-63 cells. ALS treatment also induced reactive oxygen species (ROS generation but inhibited the expression levels of sirtuin 1 and nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 in both cell lines. Taken together, these findings show that ALS promotes apoptosis and autophagy but inhibits EMT via PI3K/Akt/mTOR, p38 MAPK, and AMPK signaling pathways with involvement of ROS- and sirtuin 1-associated pathways in U-2 OS and MG-63 cells. ALS is a promising anticancer agent in OS treatment and further studies are needed to confirm its efficacy and safety in OS chemotherapy. Keywords: ALS, autophagy, apoptosis, osteosarcoma, PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, EMT

  17. Adverse reactions to food additives in children with atopic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, G; Madsen, G; Halken, S

    1994-01-01

    , rhinitis, or urticaria. After a 2-week period on an additive-free diet, the children were challenged with the eliminated additives. The food additives investigated were coloring agents, preservatives, citric acid, and flavoring agents. Carbonated "lemonade" containing the dissolved additives was used...... dermatitis, asthma, urticaria, gastrointestinal symptoms), and citric acid (atopic dermatitis, gastrointestinal symptoms). The incidence of intolerance of food additives was 2% (6/335), as based on the double-blind challenge, and 7% (23/335), as based on the open challenge with lemonade. Children with atopic...

  18. Sol-gel additive for systems with inorganic binders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akstinat, M.; Antenen, D.; Suter, W.

    1996-01-01

    A sol-gel additive for inorganic binder systems and sol-gel process for producing air-placed concrete and mortar by using such sol-gel additives are disclosed. Sol-gel additives for gel-derived inorganic binder systems (for example plaster, cement, lime, special slags, etc.) marked improve the consistency of such binder systems during processing or allow their consistency to be regulated. In addition, these sol-gel additives regulate setting times and substantially improve durability (chemical resistance, reduced permeability) and the mechanical properties of the set binder system. (author)

  19. Advanced Material Strategies for Next-Generation Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jinke; He, Jiankang; Zhou, Wenxing; Lei, Qi; Li, Xiao; Li, Dichen

    2018-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has drawn tremendous attention in various fields. In recent years, great efforts have been made to develop novel additive manufacturing processes such as micro-/nano-scale 3D printing, bioprinting, and 4D printing for the fabrication of complex 3D structures with high resolution, living components, and multimaterials. The development of advanced functional materials is important for the implementation of these novel additive manufacturing processes. Here, a state-of-the-art review on advanced material strategies for novel additive manufacturing processes is provided, mainly including conductive materials, biomaterials, and smart materials. The advantages, limitations, and future perspectives of these materials for additive manufacturing are discussed. It is believed that the innovations of material strategies in parallel with the evolution of additive manufacturing processes will provide numerous possibilities for the fabrication of complex smart constructs with multiple functions, which will significantly widen the application fields of next-generation additive manufacturing. PMID:29361754

  20. An implementation framework for additive manufacturing in supply chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed Handal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufacturing has become one of the most important technologies in the manufacturing field. Full implementation of additive manufacturing will change many well-known management practices in the production sector. However, theoretical development in the field of additive manufacturing with regard to its impact on supply chain management is rare. While additive manufacturing is believed to revolutionize and enhance traditional manufacturing, there is no comprehensive toolset developed in the manufacturing field to assess the impact of additive manufacturing and determine the best production method that suits the applied supply chain strategy. A significant portion of the existing supply chain methods and frameworks were adopted in this study to examine the implementation of additive manufacturing in supply chain management. The aim of this study is to develop a framework to explain when additive manufacturing impacts supply chain management efficiently.

  1. Advanced Material Strategies for Next-Generation Additive Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jinke; He, Jiankang; Mao, Mao; Zhou, Wenxing; Lei, Qi; Li, Xiao; Li, Dichen; Chua, Chee-Kai; Zhao, Xin

    2018-01-22

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has drawn tremendous attention in various fields. In recent years, great efforts have been made to develop novel additive manufacturing processes such as micro-/nano-scale 3D printing, bioprinting, and 4D printing for the fabrication of complex 3D structures with high resolution, living components, and multimaterials. The development of advanced functional materials is important for the implementation of these novel additive manufacturing processes. Here, a state-of-the-art review on advanced material strategies for novel additive manufacturing processes is provided, mainly including conductive materials, biomaterials, and smart materials. The advantages, limitations, and future perspectives of these materials for additive manufacturing are discussed. It is believed that the innovations of material strategies in parallel with the evolution of additive manufacturing processes will provide numerous possibilities for the fabrication of complex smart constructs with multiple functions, which will significantly widen the application fields of next-generation additive manufacturing.

  2. Advanced Material Strategies for Next-Generation Additive Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinke Chang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufacturing (AM has drawn tremendous attention in various fields. In recent years, great efforts have been made to develop novel additive manufacturing processes such as micro-/nano-scale 3D printing, bioprinting, and 4D printing for the fabrication of complex 3D structures with high resolution, living components, and multimaterials. The development of advanced functional materials is important for the implementation of these novel additive manufacturing processes. Here, a state-of-the-art review on advanced material strategies for novel additive manufacturing processes is provided, mainly including conductive materials, biomaterials, and smart materials. The advantages, limitations, and future perspectives of these materials for additive manufacturing are discussed. It is believed that the innovations of material strategies in parallel with the evolution of additive manufacturing processes will provide numerous possibilities for the fabrication of complex smart constructs with multiple functions, which will significantly widen the application fields of next-generation additive manufacturing.

  3. 27 CFR 19.343 - Addition of oak chips to spirits and addition of caramel to brandy and rum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits and addition of caramel to brandy and rum. 19.343 Section 19.343 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... PLANTS Storage § 19.343 Addition of oak chips to spirits and addition of caramel to brandy and rum. Oak... records. Caramel possessing no material sweetening properties may be added to rum or brandy in packages or...

  4. 27 CFR 19.318 - Addition of caramel to rum or brandy and addition of oak chips to spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... or brandy and addition of oak chips to spirits. 19.318 Section 19.318 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... PLANTS Production § 19.318 Addition of caramel to rum or brandy and addition of oak chips to spirits. Caramel possessing no material sweetening properties may be added to rum or brandy on bonded premises...

  5. INFLUENCE OF NATURAL ADDITIVES ON PROTEIN COMPLEX OF BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Urminská

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on researching the influence of natural additives on certain technological characteristics of mixtures used for bread production, more particularly the influence of N substances in used raw material on selected qualitative parameters of bread. The blends for bread production to be analysed were prepared by mixing wheat flour with an addition of oat, buckwheat, lentil and chickpea wholegrain flour in different portions (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 %. The experiment showed that the addition of natural additives worsened the protein complex of the blends used in bread production (worsening also qualitative parameters known as product volume. The loaves prepared with an addition of buckwheat, oat, lentil and chickpea were evaluated to be of a lesser quality from a technological viewpoint when compared with pure wheat loaves. The lower content of gluten forming proteins and the generally changed protein composition of blends due to additives caused a lower percentage of wet gluten content, its lower extensibility and swelling capacity. The sedimentation value (Zeleny index decreased proportionally with the increase of addition until the level was unsatisfactory for raw material intended for bakery purposes. The N content in experimental loaves was higher than in the reference loaves and it increased according to the selected additive and its portion in the blend (more with the addition of lentil and chickpea, less in case of buckwheat and oat which is considered as positive from a nutritional point of view. But from the technological point of view the additives did not show any positive influence and caused a lower loaf bread volume. The most significant decrease of the loaf bread volume was found with the addition of 50 % of buckwheat (- 45.6 %. Better results were obtained with a lower portion of the additive: loaf with an addition of 30 % of chickpea (volume decreased by 12.8 % > loaf with an addition of 30 % of lentil (volume

  6. Versatility of cooperative transcriptional activation: a thermodynamical modeling analysis for greater-than-additive and less-than-additive effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till D Frank

    Full Text Available We derive a statistical model of transcriptional activation using equilibrium thermodynamics of chemical reactions. We examine to what extent this statistical model predicts synergy effects of cooperative activation of gene expression. We determine parameter domains in which greater-than-additive and less-than-additive effects are predicted for cooperative regulation by two activators. We show that the statistical approach can be used to identify different causes of synergistic greater-than-additive effects: nonlinearities of the thermostatistical transcriptional machinery and three-body interactions between RNA polymerase and two activators. In particular, our model-based analysis suggests that at low transcription factor concentrations cooperative activation cannot yield synergistic greater-than-additive effects, i.e., DNA transcription can only exhibit less-than-additive effects. Accordingly, transcriptional activity turns from synergistic greater-than-additive responses at relatively high transcription factor concentrations into less-than-additive responses at relatively low concentrations. In addition, two types of re-entrant phenomena are predicted. First, our analysis predicts that under particular circumstances transcriptional activity will feature a sequence of less-than-additive, greater-than-additive, and eventually less-than-additive effects when for fixed activator concentrations the regulatory impact of activators on the binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter increases from weak, to moderate, to strong. Second, for appropriate promoter conditions when activator concentrations are increased then the aforementioned re-entrant sequence of less-than-additive, greater-than-additive, and less-than-additive effects is predicted as well. Finally, our model-based analysis suggests that even for weak activators that individually induce only negligible increases in promoter activity, promoter activity can exhibit greater-than-additive

  7. Additive influence of extracellular pH, oxygen tension, and pressure on invasiveness and survival of human osteosarcoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao eMatsubara

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/PURPOSE:The effects of chemical and physical interactions in the microenvironment of solid tumors have not been fully elucidated. We hypothesized that acidosis, hypoxia, and elevated interstitial fluid pressure (eIFP have additive effects on tumor cell biology and lead to more aggressive behavior during tumor progression. We investigated this phenomenon using 3 human osteosarcoma cell lines and a novel in vitro cell culture apparatus. MATERIALS AND METHODS:U2OS, SaOS, and MG63 cell lines were cultured in media adjusted to various pH levels, oxygen tension (hypoxia 2% O2, normoxia 20% O2, and hydrostatic gauge pressure (0 or 50 mm Hg. Growth rate, apoptosis, cell cycle parameters, and expression of mRNA for proteins associated with invasiveness and tumor microenvironment (CA IX, VEGF-A, HIF-1A, MMP-9, and TIMP-2 were analyzed. Levels of CA IX, HIF-1α, and MMP-9 were measured using immunofluorescence. The effect of pH on invasiveness was evaluated in a Matrigel chamber assay.RESULTS: Within the acidic–hypoxic–pressurized conditions that simulate the microenvironment at a tumor’s center, invasive genes were upregulated, but the cell cycle was downregulated. The combined influence of acidosis, hypoxia, and IFP promoted invasiveness and angiogenesis to a greater extent than did pH, pO2, or eIFP individually. Significant cell death after brief exposure to acidic conditions occurred in each cell line during acclimation to acidic media, while prolonged exposure to acidic media resulted in reduced cell death. Furthermore, 48-hour exposure to acidic conditions promoted tumor invasiveness in the Matrigel assay. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that tumor microenvironmental parameters—particularly pH, pO2, and eIFP—additively influence tumor proliferation, invasion, metabolism, and viability to enhance cell survival.

  8. Adverse reactions to food additives in children with atopic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, G; Madsen, G; Halken, S

    1994-01-01

    In a multicenter study conducted at four Danish hospital pediatric departments, the parents of 472 consecutive children were informed of this project to determine the incidence of intolerance of food additives among children referred to an allergy clinic with symptoms of asthma, atopic dermatitis......, rhinitis, or urticaria. After a 2-week period on an additive-free diet, the children were challenged with the eliminated additives. The food additives investigated were coloring agents, preservatives, citric acid, and flavoring agents. Carbonated "lemonade" containing the dissolved additives was used...... dermatitis, asthma, urticaria, gastrointestinal symptoms), and citric acid (atopic dermatitis, gastrointestinal symptoms). The incidence of intolerance of food additives was 2% (6/335), as based on the double-blind challenge, and 7% (23/335), as based on the open challenge with lemonade. Children with atopic...

  9. Analysis of consumer preferences focused on food additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Kozelová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed to evaluate the role of additives in food production and to identify how these additives are known and used by consumers in their households. The questionnaire technique was used, the research involved 220 respondents. It was found that the respondents are perceptive to adding of additives into food. Cluster analysis confirmed that the majority of respondents is about the incidence of food additives only partially informed, although 87% of respondents knew what the (E letter of additive means. The correct answers for each question depended on the age and education of respondents and were not dependent on gender of respondents. We recommend to enhance public knowledge about nutrition, diet and food composition, functions, benefits and safety of food additives.

  10. Is there a cosmological evidence for additional particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirilova, D.P.; Chizhov, M.V.

    1998-05-01

    An extended cosmological model of the early Universe with additional antisymmetric tensor particles is described. The cosmological effects of the additional particles, namely additional interactions of the early Universe plasma with the tensor particles, a shift of the early Universe temperature-time dependence and the total energy density increase are discussed. The efficiency of the tensor particles interactions with the early Universe plasma components and their corresponding cosmological time and temperature are determined. (author)

  11. Enantioselective conjugate radical addition to alpha'-hydroxy enones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunggi; Lim, Chae Jo; Kim, Sunggak; Subramaniam, Rajesh; Zimmerman, Jake; Sibi, Mukund P

    2006-09-14

    Enantioselective conjugate radical addition to alpha'-hydroxy alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones, compounds containing bidentate donors, has been investigated. It has been found that radical additions to alpha'-hydroxy alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones in the presence of Mg(NTf2)2 and bisoxazoline ligand 5a proceeded cleanly, yielding the addition products in high chemical yields and good enantiomeric excesses.

  12. Fracture toughness of Al-Cr alloys with minor additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, S.; Banerjee, M.K.

    2000-01-01

    Fracture toughness behavior of aluminium chromium alloys with minor additions is studied to determine its relation with microstructure and ageing conditions. The effect of the minor additions on the fracture toughness property of the alloys is also studied. Fracture toughness of Al-Cr alloys has been improved by selected minor additions. Also, the fracture toughness of the investigated alloys is found to be sensitive to ageing conditions. (author)

  13. Jauch-Piron States and σ-Additivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunce, L. J.; Hamhalter, Jan

    We study σ-additivity of the physically plausible Jauch-Piron states on a von Neumann algebra M. Amongst other consequences we extend our earlier results [5] by showing that geometric conditions much weaker than pureness imply σ-additivity for a Jauch-Piron state and, further, that if M is properly infinite and the continuum hypothesis is assumed to be true then all Jauch-Piron factor states are σ-additive.

  14. Legal assumptions for private company claim for additional (supplementary payment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šogorov Stevan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject matter of analyze in this article are legal assumptions which must be met in order to enable private company to call for additional payment. After introductory remarks discussion is focused on existence of provisions regarding additional payment in formation contract, or in shareholders meeting general resolution, as starting point for company's claim. Second assumption is concrete resolution of shareholders meeting which creates individual obligations for additional payments. Third assumption is defined as distinctness regarding sum of payment and due date. Sending of claim by relevant company body is set as fourth legal assumption for realization of company's right to claim additional payments from member of private company.

  15. 77 FR 17492 - Expansion of Global Entry to Additional Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ...--Logan International Airport, Boston, Massachusetts (BOS); Las Vegas--McCarran International Airport, Las... following four additional airports: St. Paul International Airport, Minneapolis, Minnesota (MSP); Charlotte...

  16. 28 CFR 66.6 - Additions and exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additions and exceptions. 66.6 Section 66.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR... additional administrative requirements except in codified regulations published in the Federal Register. (b...

  17. 20 CFR 416.2035 - Optional supplementation: Additional State options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optional supplementation: Additional State options. 416.2035 Section 416.2035 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL... § 416.2035 Optional supplementation: Additional State options. (a) Residency requirement. A State or...

  18. 24 CFR 990.155 - Addition and deletion of units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Addition and deletion of units. 990.155 Section 990.155 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...; Computation of Eligible Unit Months § 990.155 Addition and deletion of units. (a) Changes in public housing...

  19. 75 FR 56995 - Procurement List Proposed Additions and Deletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... Additions and Deletion AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to and Deletion From the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add... aggregated by the Defense Logistics Agency Troop Support, Philadelphia, PA. Deletion Regulatory Flexibility...

  20. 75 FR 7450 - Procurement List: Proposed Addition and Deletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... Addition and Deletion AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed addition to and deletion from Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add to the... W6BA ACA, FT CARSON, COLORADO. Deletion Regulatory Flexibility Act Certification I certify that the...