WorldWideScience

Sample records for type working strategy

  1. Skip cycle system for spark ignition engines: An experimental investigation of a new type working strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutlar, Osman Akin; Arslan, Hikmet; Calik, Alper T.

    2007-01-01

    A new type working strategy for spark ignition engine, named skip cycle, is examined. The main idea is to reduce the effective stroke volume of an engine by cutting off fuel injection and spark ignition in some of the classical four stroke cycles. When the cycle is skipped, additionally, a rotary valve is used in the intake to reduce pumping losses in part load conditions. The effect of this strategy is similar to that of variable displacement engines. Alternative power stroke fractions in one cycle and applicability in single cylinder engines are specific advantageous properties of the proposed system. A thermodynamic model, besides experimental results, is used to explain the skip cycle strategy in more detail. This theoretical investigation shows considerable potential to increase the efficiency at part load conditions. Experimental results obtained with this novel strategy show that the throttle valve of the engine opens wider and the minimum spark advance for maximum brake torque decreases in comparison to those of the classical operation system. The brake specific fuel consumption decreases at very low speed and load, while it increases at higher speed and load due to the increased fuel loss within the skipped cycles. In this working mode, the engine operates at lower idle speed without any stability problem; and moreover with less fuel consumption

  2. Types of work-related behavior and experiences and stress coping strategies among single mothers and mothers in relationships differentiating role of work satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napora, Elżbieta; Andruszkiewicz, Anna; Basińska, Małgorzata Anna

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the study has been to describe functioning of single and mothers in relationships (married or in informal relationships) at work and verify if the declared degree of work satisfaction differentiates types of behavior at work and stress coping strategies in both groups of mothers. The study was conducted on equal samples of single mothers (N = 186) and mothers from 2-parent families (N = 186) using Latack Coping Scale that measures work-related stress coping strategies, the AVEM (Arbeitsbezogenes Verhaltens- und Erlebensmuster - Work-Related Behavior and Experience Pattern) questionnaire, and a survey. It showed similarity between the studied groups in terms of the measured variables. There were considerable differences between single and married mothers in terms of support seeking strategies. The interaction of work satisfaction and the type of motherhood significantly differentiates (p = 0.03) the avoidance strategy of resignation. That strategy of resignation was more frequently used by single mothers with lower work satisfaction, who were distinctly different from those whose work satisfaction was higher, and from the mothers in relationships (married or in informal relationships) (regardless of the level of their work satisfaction). Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2018;31(1):55-69. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  3. Social strategies that work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskorski, Mikołaj Jan

    2011-11-01

    Although most companies have collected lots of friends and followers on social platforms such as Facebook, few have succeeded in generating profits there. That's because they merely port their digital strategies into social environments by broadcasting their commercial messages or seeking customer feedback. To succeed on social platforms, says Harvard Business School's Piskorski, businesses need to devise social strategies that are consistent with users' expectations and behavior in these venues--namely, people want to connect with other people, not with companies. The author defines successful social strategies as those that reduce costs or increase customers' willingness to pay by helping people establish or strengthen relationships through doing free work on a company's behalf. Citing successes at Zynga, eBay, American Express, and Yelp, Piskorski shows that social strategies can generate profits by helping people connect in exchange for tasks that benefit the company such as customer acquisition, marketing, and content creation. He lays out a systematic way to build a social strategy and shows how a major credit card company he advised used the method to roll out its own strategy.

  4. [Relationship between Worktype of congenital first branchial cleft anomaly and facial nerve and surgical strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B; Chen, L S; Huang, S L; Liang, L; Gong, X X; Wu, P N; Zhang, S Y; Luo, X N; Zhan, J D; Sheng, X L; Lu, Z M

    2017-10-07

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between Worktype of congenital first branchial cleft anomaly (CFBCA) and facial nerve and discuss surgical strategies. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 37 patients with CFBCA who were treated from May 2005 to September 2016. Among 37 cases with CFBCA, 12 males and 25 females; 24 in the left and 13 in the right; the age at diagnosis was from 1 to 76 ( years, with a median age of 20, 24 cases with age of 18 years or less and 13 with age more than 18 years; duration of disease ranged from 1 to 10 years (median of 6 years); 4 cases were recurren after fistula resection. According to the classification of Olsen, all 37 cases were non-cyst (sinus or fistula). External fistula located over the mandibular angle in 28 (75.7%) cases and below the angle in 9 (24.3%) cases. Results: Surgeries were performed successfully in all the 37 cases. It was found that lesions located at anterior of the facial nerve in 13 (35.1%) cases, coursed between the branches in 3 cases (8.1%), and lied in the deep of the facial nerve in 21 (56.8%) cases. CFBCA in female with external fistula below mandibular angle and membranous band was more likely to lie deep of the facial nerve than in male with external fistula over the mandibular angle but without myringeal web. Conclusions: CFBCA in female patients with a external fistula located below the mandibular angle, non-cyst of Olsen or a myringeal web is more likely to lie deep of the facial nerve. Surgeons should particularly take care of the protection of facial nerve in these patients, if necessary, facial nerve monitoring technology can be used during surgery to complete resection of lesions.

  5. Five types of organizational strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensen, Elmer Fly

    2014-01-01

    Models in the strategy field defining the strategy concept emphasize schools of thought or strategy perspectives, but not how to define the idiosyncratic composition of an organization’s strategy content. Based on a literature review in which meanings have been attached to the concept, this paper...... presents a new model including five types of organizational strategy. The model emphasizes that key influencers may make heterogeneous contributions to an organization’s strategy and also that significant effects may result from interaction between types of strategy....

  6. Life history types and strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boel, Mikkel

    strategies and types in migratory freshwater fish, using brown trout and alewife as study organisms. Firstly, we investigated underlying mechanisms of resident and migratory life history strategies of salmonids, using indicators for nutritional status, stress, tissue damage and smoltification. Secondly...... III the minimum predation from cormorants and herons was estimated over a three year period on the brown trout population of of Lake Hald. The magnitude of the predation pressure from both bird species were very similar and when summed up, the avian predation accounted for an average minimum of 37.......2 % of the annual brown trout mortality in the lake and 10.1 % in the tributaries. This result illustrates that avian predation in the lake can be quite substantial and potentially plays an important role in the population dynamics of brown trout. Cormorants alone were responsible 21.2% in the lake and the arrival...

  7. Identity at work: Exploring strategies for Identity Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron G. Adams

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This study explored strategies for identity work that are central to the negotiation and regulation of employee work identity.Research purpose: The main aim of this study was to explore employee narratives and identify the strategies available to them in the process of identity work, as they defined themselves at work.Motivation for the study: As there is a scarcity of research on identity work in South Africa, this study wanted to advance knowledge about identity work and the strategies used for regulating and negotiating an identity at work by exploring these constructs in this context.Research design, approach and method: A qualitative research process formed the basis for this study. Nineteen employees from a global manufacturing company participated in two semi-structured in-depth interviews. Grounded theory was applied to analyse and interpret the data.Main findings: Nine strategies for identity work were identified and categorised into four broad themes (personal philosophies; relationships; career management and negotiating balance.Practical/managerial implications: Employees followed various strategies for defining themselves at work and this may have some implications for employee work engagement and productivity.Contribution/value-add: This study expands on current theoretical knowledge of identity work, and provides insights into the strategies people use to regulate and negotiate their identities at work

  8. Identity at work: Exploring strategies for Identity Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron G. Adams

    2012-09-01

    Research purpose: The main aim of this study was to explore employee narratives and identify the strategies available to them in the process of identity work, as they defined themselves at work. Motivation for the study: As there is a scarcity of research on identity work in South Africa, this study wanted to advance knowledge about identity work and the strategies used for regulating and negotiating an identity at work by exploring these constructs in this context. Research design, approach and method: A qualitative research process formed the basis for this study. Nineteen employees from a global manufacturing company participated in two semi-structured in-depth interviews. Grounded theory was applied to analyse and interpret the data. Main findings: Nine strategies for identity work were identified and categorised into four broad themes (personal philosophies; relationships; career management and negotiating balance. Practical/managerial implications: Employees followed various strategies for defining themselves at work and this may have some implications for employee work engagement and productivity. Contribution/value-add: This study expands on current theoretical knowledge of identity work, and provides insights into the strategies people use to regulate and negotiate their identities at work.

  9. Learning Strategies at Work and Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haemer, Hannah Deborah; Borges-Andrade, Jairo Eduardo; Cassiano, Simone Kelli

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the prediction of current and evolutionary perceptions of professional development through five learning strategies at work and through training and how individual and job characteristics predict those strategies. Design/methodology/approach: Variables were measured in a cross-sectional survey, with 962…

  10. Working Memory Strategies during Rational Number Magnitude Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Michelle; Cordes, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Rational number understanding is a critical building block for success in more advanced mathematics; however, how rational number magnitudes are conceptualized is not fully understood. In the current study, we used a dual-task working memory (WM) interference paradigm to investigate the dominant type of strategy (i.e., requiring verbal WM…

  11. Work-life balancing: challenges and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittenden, Eva H; Ritchie, Christine S

    2011-07-01

    Balancing the personal and the professional is an ongoing struggle for most professionals, and palliative care clinicians are no exception. A sustained lack of balance can lead to feelings of frustration, inadequacy, and guilt. Palliative care physicians may find this balance particularly difficult due to the nature of their work: caring for patients and families who are often suffering and in crisis. In this article, we describe challenges to work-life balancing and strategies that may promote balance, including "timeshifting," goal setting, cognitive reframing, and self-care. We argue that the search for balance is a lifelong endeavor that entails self-reflection and continuing examination of one's values and goals.

  12. Nutritional strategies in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Nichola; Forbes, Bernice; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2009-06-01

    Weight loss is a key goal in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. There are conflicting weight-loss strategies, including low-carbohydrate diets, low glycemic-index diets, low-fat vegan diets, conventional low-fat diets, and high-protein and high-monounsaturated fat diets. There is no evidence to suggest that 1 nutritional strategy is clearly the best. The most successful strategy is one that the patient can adopt and follow in the long term. (c) 2009 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  13. [Therapeutic strategy for different types of epicanthus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaofeng, Li; Jun, Tan; Zihan, Wu; Wei, Ding; Huawei, Ouyang; Fan, Zhang; Mingcan, Luo

    2015-11-01

    To explore the reasonable therapeutic strategy for different types of epicanthus. Patients with epicanthus were classificated according to the shape, extent and inner canthal distance and treated with different methods appropriately. Modified asymmetric Z plasty with two curve method was used in lower eyelid type epicanthus, inner canthus type epicanthus and severe upper eyelid type epicanthus. Moderate upper epicanthus underwent '-' shape method. Mild Upper epicanthus in two conditions which underwent nasal augumentation and double eyelid formation with normal inner canthal distance need no correction surgery. The other mild epicanthus underwent '-' shape method. A total of 66 cases underwent the classification and the appropriate treatment. All wounds healed well. During 3 to 12 months follow-up period, all epicanthus were corrected completely with natural contour and unconspicuous scars. All patients were satisfied with the results. Classification of epicanthus hosed on the shape, extent and inner canthal distance and correction with appropriate methods is a reasonable therapeutic strategy.

  14. Strategies of development of reactor types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, P.

    2004-01-01

    The development of nuclear energy in the coming decades will depend on the goals followed, on the available technologies and on the strategies implemented in the world in agreement with public acceptation. This article is limited to the technical aspects of the strategies of development of reactor types: 1 - objectives; 2 - common constraints to all reactor types: safety and terrorism risks, wastes, non-proliferation, economics; 3 - different reactor types: general considerations, proven technologies (PWR, BWR, Candu), non-proven technologies but having an important experience, technologies at the design stage; 4 - energy systems and 'Generation IV forum': systems based on thermal neutron reactors and low enrichment, systems for the valorization of 238 U, systems for Pu burning, systems allowing the destruction of minor actinides, thorium-based systems, the Gen IV international forum; 5 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  15. Managing work and family: Do control strategies help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versey, H Shellae

    2015-11-01

    How can we effectively manage competing obligations from work and family without becoming overwhelmed? This question inspires the current study by examining control strategies that may facilitate better work-life balance, with a specific focus on the role of lowered aspirations and positive reappraisals, attitudes that underlie adaptive coping behaviors. Data from the Midlife in the United States Survey (MIDUS II) were used to explore the relationship between negative spillover, control strategies, and well-being among full-time working men and women (N = 2,091). In this nationally representative sample, findings indicate that while positive reappraisals function as a protective buffer, lowering aspirations exacerbate the relationship between work-family spillover and well-being, with moderating effects stronger among women. This study extends prior research tying work-life conflict to health and mental health, and suggests further investigation is needed to consider types of resources that may be effective coping strategies in balancing work and family. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Managerial strategies for creating an effective work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luse, Kimberly A

    2013-01-01

    To create a highly functioning medical imaging team, radiology managers must be able to analyze their departments and identify areas for improvement. This type of analysis means assessing front-line personnel who already work in the department, along with identifying staffing needs and recruiting talented new employees. In addition, managers must develop effective retention tools such as career ladders and mentorship programs to improve the overall working environment. This article discusses a variety of different strategies to help managers develop a more effective department.

  17. Determinants of procurement strategy for construction works: quantity surveyors’ perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju AbdulLateef

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The selection of the ‘appropriate’ procurement strategy is a prerequisite to the success or failure of a construction project. This paper investigates the factors determining the selection of appropriate procurement strategy for construction works in Nigeria. Data for the study was collected through an online survey questionnaire. The survey administration involves only quantity surveyors. Quantity surveyors were targeted because they advise clients and other stakeholders on procurement and contractual issues on construction works. A total of 33 usable responses were received and analysed for this study. On the basis of the results, it is concluded that the selection of procurement strategies for construction depend on complex interrelated factors. The study could not detect a particular factor or few factors responsible for a procurement strategy selection. The findings of this study is useful because it argues that the construction sector needs to broaden its considerations on the procurement strategy’s determinants rather than focusing solely on the client’s type and nature of projects as is often cited. Future research could segment these factors in terms of class of construction works or increase the sample size, which might lead to different findings.

  18. [Type 2 diabetes: what therapeutic strategy?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, A; Hartemann-Heurtier, A

    2001-02-17

    GOAL OF TREATMENT: Prevention of diabetic micro and macroangiopathy is the goal of treatment in type 2 diabetes mellitus. A well-controlled glucose level is the key to prevention of microangiopathy; there is no threshold level. Antihypertensive treatment, with the goal of blood pressure below 130/80 mmHg is also beneficial in preventing aggravation of microangiopathy. For macroangiopathy, prevention is based in priority on treatment of other risk factors for cardiovascular disease; the threshold level for drug treatment and the therapeutic objective are those defined for secondary prevention in non-diabetic patients, i.e. blood pressure below 140/80 mmHg and LDL cholesterol under 1.30 g/l. The beneficial effect of lower glucose levels on preventing macrovascular risk was not formally demonstrated by the UKPDS, probably because the difference between the control and the treatment group HbA1c levels was minimal, 0.9 points. REVISITING STRATEGY: It is thus time to revisit the preventive strategy for type 2 diabetes mellitus, i.e. step-by-step increments, as currently proposed for worsening glucose levels. Metformine should be prescribed if the HbA1c is above normal in order to achieve the demonstrated benefit in prevention of microangiopathy and in the hope, motivated by pathophysiology data, of preventing insulin failure. Slow-release insulin at bedtime should be added to the oral hypoglycemiants if fasting glucose exceeds 1.60 or 1.80 g/l, even if the HbA1c remains below 8%. NEW HYPOGLYCEMIANTS: The role of these new agents in this more "aggressive" strategy remains to be defined. Glinides will have to demonstrate their superiority over sulfamides (fewer episodes of hypoglycemia with comparable efficacy) to justify their high cost. Glitazones will have to demonstrate a beneficial effect in second intention combination with metformine on cardiovascular morbidity mortality in type 2 diabetes patients with a metabolic insulin-resistance syndrome and visceral obesity

  19. How Entrepreneurs Craft Strategies That Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhide, Amar

    1994-01-01

    Argues that entrepreneurs cannot use the same strategies as big businesses. Too much analysis can be harmful; by the time an opportunity is fully researched, it may no longer exist. Offers suggestion for screening losers, focusing on important issues, and integrating action and analysis. (JOW)

  20. Do Momentum Strategies Work?: - Australian Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Michael E. Drew; Madhu Veeraraghavan; Min Ye

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the profitability of momentum investment strategy and the predictive power of trading volume for equities listed in the Australian Stock Exchange. Recent research finds that momentum and trading volume appear to predict subsequent returns in U.S. market and past volume helps to reconcile intermediate-horizon “under reaction” and long-horizon “overreaction” effects. However, bulk of the evidence on this important relationship between past returns and future returns is l...

  1. RTI Strategies That Work in the K-2 Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eli; Karns, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Targeted specifically to K-2 classrooms, the 25 Response-to-Intervention (RTI) strategies in this book are research-based and perfect for teachers who want to expand their toolbox of classroom interventions that work! Contents include: (1) Listening Strategies--Help students focus and understand; (2) Reading Strategies--Help students comprehend…

  2. Alternative Strategies for Pricing Home Work Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zick, Cathleen D.; Bryant, W. Keith

    1983-01-01

    Discusses techniques for measuring the value of home work time. Estimates obtained using the reservation wage technique are contrasted with market alternative estimates derived with the same data set. Findings suggest that the market alternative cost method understates the true value of a woman's home time to the household. (JOW)

  3. How well do radon mitigation strategies work?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matson, N.

    1992-01-01

    Naturally occurring radon in homes can't be completely avoided, but it can be minimized. Indoor air quality researchers compared results of six popular ways to mitigate radon in houses in the Spokane River Valley and New Jersey. Over the course of the past decade, Americans have become aware of the health hazards from radon, a naturally occurring gas that can enter a home through a variety of pathways from the surrounding terrain. Recent research carried out at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and elsewhere suggests that radon mitigation is feasible but requires long-term monitoring to ensure lasting effectiveness. These studies compare the selection, installation, and performance evaluations of several common radon mitigation strategies

  4. Coping Work Strategies and Job Satisfaction Among Iranian Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad; Adera Gebra, Addis

    2014-01-01

    Context: Nursing is a stressful job that could create physical and psychological disorders. Many studies presented information on stress, effects of coping strategies, and job satisfaction of nurses within health setting. We aimed to identify and describe nursing stresses, coping strategies and job satisfaction of Iranian nurses who are working or worked in different wards. Evidence Acquisition: In this review, we studied peer-reviewed journal articles on the field of stress, coping strategie...

  5. The Effect of Union Type on Work-Life Conflict in Five European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasearu, Kairi

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the strategies for reconciling family and work in different union types. The focus here is on investigating how cohabiting and married individuals perceive the work-life conflict in different European countries. To test the union type impact on work-life balance in the context of different societal conditions, this paper draws…

  6. Working Memory and Strategy Use Contribute to Gender Differences in Spatial Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Carr, Martha

    2014-01-01

    In this review, a new model that is grounded in information-processing theory is proposed to account for gender differences in spatial ability. The proposed model assumes that the relative strength of working memory, as expressed by the ratio of visuospatial working memory to verbal working memory, influences the type of strategies used on spatial…

  7. Achievement strategies at school: types and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttä, Sami; Stattin, Häkan; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2002-02-01

    In this study we made an effort to identify the kinds of strategies adolescents deploy in achievement context in an unselected sample of Swedish adolescents. The participants were 880 14-15-year-old comprehensive school students (399 boys and 481 girls) from a middle-sized town in central Sweden. Six groups of adolescents were identified according to the strategies they deployed. Four of them, i.e. optimistic, defensive pessimistic, self-handicapping and learned helplessness strategies, were similar to those described previously in the literature. The results showed that membership in the functional strategy groups, such as in mastery-oriented and defensive pessimist groups, was associated with well-being, school adjustment and achievement, and low levels of norm-breaking behaviour. By contrast, membership in the dysfunctional, for example self-handicapping and learned helplessness strategy groups, was associated with low levels of well-being, and of school adjustment, and a higher level of norm-breaking behaviour. Copyright 2002 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Black Ocean Strategy - A Probe into a New type of Strategy used for Organizational Success

    OpenAIRE

    Sreeramana Aithal; Suresh KumarP. M.; Shailashree V. T.

    2015-01-01

    Strategic planning and decision making have an important role in organizational development and sustainability. Various types of strategies are used in strategic management such as Red ocean strategy, Blue ocean strategy, Green ocean strategy and Purple ocean strategy. These strategies are used in organizations by top level executive managers for long-term organizational sustainability and to face or deviate from the competition. Based on organizational analysis, it is observed that some of t...

  9. Doing what works literacy strategies for the next level

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, Judy Tilton

    2013-01-01

    Doing What Works: Literacy Strategies for the Next Level will assist educators as they support students in the mastery of vocabulary, comprehension, and study skills required by the Common Core State Standards.

  10. The Working Capital Funds Interim Migratory Accounting Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    ... Operations Fund Corporate Board. We reviewed the completeness of the strategy and the reasonableness of the time frames and cost estimates for achieving auditable Working Capital Funds financial statements that comply with the Chief...

  11. Revising strategies for different text types

    OpenAIRE

    Roussey, JY; Piolat, A; Guercin, F

    1990-01-01

    Forty-eight children and forty-eight adults of contrasting degrees of expertise made a series of corrections in order to improve a text (narrative or description) in which three within-statement errors and three between-statement errors had been inserted. Subjects used a simplified word processor (SCRIPREV) which recorded all movements of linguistic units. The purpose of this research was to study revising strategies by examining the correction-sequencing procedures implemented by these subje...

  12. Inner strategies of coping with operational work amongst SAPS officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masefako A. Gumani

    2013-11-01

    Research purpose: The objective of this study was to describe inner coping strategies used by officers in the Vhembe district (South Africa to reconstruct stressful and traumatic experiences at work. Motivation for the study: Most studies on coping amongst SAPS officers focus on organisational stress and not on the impact of the officers’ operational work. Research design, approach and method: An exploratory design was used and 20 SAPS officers were selected through purposive sampling. In-depth face-to-face and telephone interviews, as well as diaries were used to collect data, which were analysed using content thematic data analysis. Main findings: The results showed that the main categories of coping strategies that led to management of the impact of operational work amongst the selected sample were centred around problem-focused and emotion-focused strategies, with some use of reappraisal and minimal use of avoidance. Considering the context of the officers’ work, the list of dimensions of inner coping strategies amongst SAPS officers should be extended. Practical/managerial implications: Intervention programmes designed for the SAPS, including critical incident stress debriefing, should take the operational officers’ inner strategies into account to improve the management of the impact of their work. Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to the body of knowledge on the inner coping strategies amongst SAPS officers, with special reference to operational work in a specific setting.

  13. TYPES OF LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES USED BY TERTIARY ENGLISH MAJORS

    OpenAIRE

    TAN KHYE CHUIN; SARJIT KAUR

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the types of language learning strategies used by 73 English majors from the School of Humanities in Universiti Sains Malaysia. Using questionnaires adopted from Oxford’s (1990) Strategy Inventory of Language Learning (SILL) and focus group interviews, the study also examined the English major students’ perceptions of using language learning strategies while learning English. The results revealed that the English majors were generally high users of all six types of lan...

  14. Managing Work and Family: Do Control Strategies Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versey, H. Shellae

    2015-01-01

    How can we effectively manage competing obligations from work and family without becoming overwhelmed? This question inspires the current study by examining control strategies that may facilitate better work-life balance, with a specific focus on the role of lowered aspirations and positive reappraisals, attitudes that underlie adaptive coping…

  15. Empowering Youth Work Supervisors with Action Research Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Margo

    2012-01-01

    Supervising youth workers is a challenging, demanding job in a complex field. Too frequently youth workers get mired in reacting to the everyday crises that dominate their work, finding it difficult to rise above the daily demands to reach a place where reflection can help guide their work. Strategies based in action research can empower youth…

  16. Work-Plan Heroes: Student Strategies in Lower-Secondary Norwegian Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalland, Cecilie P.; Klette, Kirsti

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how individualized teaching methods, such as the use of work plans, create new student strategies in Norwegian lower secondary classrooms. Work plans, which are frequently set up as instructional tools in Norwegian classrooms, outline different types of tasks and requirements that the students are supposed to do during a…

  17. Coping work strategies and job satisfaction among Iranian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad; Adera Gebra, Addis

    2014-06-01

    Nursing is a stressful job that could create physical and psychological disorders. Many studies presented information on stress, effects of coping strategies, and job satisfaction of nurses within health setting. We aimed to identify and describe nursing stresses, coping strategies and job satisfaction of Iranian nurses who are working or worked in different wards. In this review, we studied peer-reviewed journal articles on the field of stress, coping strategies and job satisfaction in nursing practice, especially Iranian nurses, which were published between 2000 and 2013. In this regard, we searched databases of PubMed, Elsevier, Google, BMJ, PMC, and MEDLINE. The majority of the studies (60%) had analyzed the effect of coping strategies, experiences and perception of job-related stresses in Iranian nurses working in hospitals. In some of the reviewed studies (60%), the majority of the samples enrolled Iranian nurses. Forty percent of studies selected a maximum sample size of 565 (44%) participants in 2011. Nursing stress scale employed at 30% of the studies was the most commonly used strategy. This reviewed studies also revealed a combined measurement (60% of studies), based on categorical stress measurement, effects of coping strategies, and job satisfaction methods. Three studies explored the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction. For instance, the majority (74.4%) of nurses reported job satisfaction. Effect of coping strategies and job satisfaction on Iranian nurses is a well-accepted issue and has important positive outcomes on several areas of health discipline.

  18. How Reading Strategy Use and Personality Types Are Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdarian, Zahra; Ghyasi, Majid; Farsani, Mohammad Amini

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to uncover the reading strategies utilized by Iranian undergraduate English Foreign Language (EFL) learners and their relationship with personality types. To this end, 194 university EFL learners were asked to fill out the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) to identify their personality types and answer a reading strategy…

  19. Effects of strategy on visual working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengson, Jesse J; Luck, Steven J

    2016-02-01

    Substantial evidence suggests that individual differences in estimates of working memory capacity reflect differences in how effectively people use their intrinsic storage capacity. This suggests that estimated capacity could be increased by instructions that encourage more effective encoding strategies. The present study tested this by giving different participants explicit strategy instructions in a change detection task. Compared to a condition in which participants were simply told to do their best, we found that estimated capacity was increased for participants who were instructed to remember the entire visual display, even at set sizes beyond their capacity. However, no increase in estimated capacity was found for a group that was told to focus on a subset of the items in supracapacity arrays. This finding confirms the hypothesis that encoding strategies may influence visual working memory performance, and it is contrary to the hypothesis that the optimal strategy is to filter out any items beyond the storage capacity.

  20. STRATEGI KONVERSI ENERGI DI PT. LION METAL WORKS Tbk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daud Sudradjad

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} PT Lion Metal Works is a company producing office equipment, racking system, building material, security and fireproof safe, and cold forming. The production activity has high dependence on the usage of diesel, which influences the quality of the product and the cost of total business. The price fluctuation is one of the reasons for the company to convert the usage of diesel to some energy alternatives. Gas is the best alternative to replace diesel due to some advantages such as price, installation cost, distribution issue, calorie level, and environmental issue. There are some resistances from internal organization emerge in the implementation of the conversion. The alternatives strategy has been explored to reduce the resistances considering the goal of the organization, the actors (department in the company, and the type of resistance using analytical hierarchy process method. The priority strategy is establishing a new division for handling the conversion program and installing the gas facility gradually.

  1. The Action Plan Against Repetitive Work - An Industrial Relation Strategy for Improving the Working Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Møller, Niels

    2001-01-01

    The Danish Action Plan against Repetitive Work is presented and discussed as a possible new strategy for regulating repetitive work as well as other complicated working environment problems. The article is based on an empirical evaluation ot the Action Plan. The asseessment of the Action Plan...... indicates that a measurable reduction of repetitive work has been achieved, while recognizing the the new management strategies focusing on human resources development have also played an important role. These results are used to suggest that - under certain conditions - a combination of state regulation...... and industrial relation agreements can be used to regulate other working environment problems....

  2. Types of Language Learning Strategies Used by Tertiary English Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuin, Tan Khye; Kaur, Sarjit

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the types of language learning strategies used by 73 English majors from the School of Humanities in Universiti Sains Malaysia. Using questionnaires adopted from Oxford's (1990) Strategy Inventory of Language Learning (SILL) and focus group interviews, the study also examined the English major students' perceptions of using…

  3. Citizen-based Strategies to Improve Community Security: Working ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Citizen-based Strategies to Improve Community Security: Working with Vulnerable Populations to Address Urban Violence in Medellin ... Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, is holding a webinar titled “Climate change and adaptive water management: Innovative solutions from the Global South”.

  4. Five Strategies of Successful Part-Time Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, Vivien; Lawrence, Thomas B.; Frost, Peter J.

    2001-01-01

    Identifies commonalities in the approaches of successful part-time professionals. Discusses five strategies for success: (1) communicating work-life priorities and schedules to the organization; (2) making the business case for part-time arrangements; (3) establishing time management routines; (4) cultivating advocates in senior management; and…

  5. Work-Related Stress and Coping Strategies of Professional Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Bonita C.

    1988-01-01

    Interviewed 20 professional women on their work-related stress and coping processes to identify those who were good and poor at coping. Found that more effective copers seemed to have used problem-focused coping such as seeking information or advice or taking problem-solving action, whereas less effective copers seemed to have used strategies such…

  6. When is working memory important for arithmetic? The impact of strategy and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragg, Lucy; Richardson, Sophie; Hubber, Paula J; Keeble, Sarah; Gilmore, Camilla

    2017-01-01

    Our ability to perform arithmetic relies heavily on working memory, the manipulation and maintenance of information in mind. Previous research has found that in adults, procedural strategies, particularly counting, rely on working memory to a greater extent than retrieval strategies. During childhood there are changes in the types of strategies employed, as well as an increase in the accuracy and efficiency of strategy execution. As such it seems likely that the role of working memory in arithmetic may also change, however children and adults have never been directly compared. This study used traditional dual-task methodology, with the addition of a control load condition, to investigate the extent to which working memory requirements for different arithmetic strategies change with age between 9-11 years, 12-14 years and young adulthood. We showed that both children and adults employ working memory when solving arithmetic problems, no matter what strategy they choose. This study highlights the importance of considering working memory in understanding the difficulties that some children and adults have with mathematics, as well as the need to include working memory in theoretical models of mathematical cognition.

  7. Postural responses to specific types of working memory tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramenzoni, V.C.; Riley, M.A.; Shockley, K.; Chiu, C.Y.P.

    2007-01-01

    Standing participants performed working memory tasks that varied along three dimensions: (1) type of information presented (verbal or visual); (2) the primary cognitive process engaged (encoding or rehearsal); and (3) interference that targeted the working memory components (phonological loop and

  8. Making work fit care: reconciliation strategies used by working mothers of adults with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Fu, Li-yeh; Chang, Heng-Hao

    2013-03-01

    This study explored the experiences of working mothers with an adult child with intellectual disabilities to understand how they reconcile paid work and care responsibilities. Fifteen working mothers in Taiwan with an adult child with intellectual disabilities were interviewed, and an interpretative phenomenological approach was adopted for data collection and analysis. All included mothers prioritized their caregiving role over paid work. The strategies used by these mothers to make paid work fit with caregiving included having strong social networks and informal support for their care work, use of formal services, personal religious beliefs and positive attitudes towards care, as well as having flexible working hours due to self-employment, good relations with employers, working positions and work locations. Formal systems, which include both welfare and labour policies, need to be responsive to and involved in supporting these working mothers, especially those who lack good personal networks. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Working memory, strategy knowledge, and strategy instruction in children with reading disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, H Lee; Kehler, Pam; Jerman, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the effects of strategy knowledge and strategy training on the working memory (WM) performance in children (ages 10-11) with and without reading disabilities (RD). Experiment 1 examined the relationship between strategy knowledge (stability of strategy choices) and WM performance as a function of initial, gain (cued), and maintenance conditions. WM performance was significantly improved for both groups under cued conditions; however, the performances of children with RD were inferior to those of children without RD across all memory conditions. Measures of WM capacity rather than strategy stability or processing efficiency best predicted reading comprehension performance. Experiment 2 assessed the effects of strategy training on WM performance by randomly assigning children to strategy instruction or control conditions. Significant improvements in WM performance occurred as a function of training conditions, but the residual WM differences between the reading groups remained. Although the results showed that stable strategy choices, cued performance, and strategy instruction significantly bolstered WM performance in children with RD, their overall WM performance, however, was constrained by capacity limitations.

  10. [Didactic psychodrama: strategy for the humanization of work relations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Toyoko; Corrêa, Adriana Kátia; de Mello Souza, Maria Conceição Bernardo; Zanetti, Maria Lúcia

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the use of pedagogical psychodrama as a strategy for reflecting on the humanization of health care. Five meetings were held from May to June 2000. In these meetings the following themes were developed: context of work in emergencies; updating of the personal and professional, individual and group reference, and acknowledgement of users. In view of the need of rethinking humanization in emergency care, we consider that the psychodrama approach alerted health professionals for the necessary commitment and responsibility in their work.

  11. Engaging workplace representatives in research: what recruitment strategies work best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coole, C; Nouri, F; Narayanasamy, M; Baker, P; Khan, S; Drummond, A

    2018-05-23

    Workplaces are key stakeholders in work and health but little is known about the methods used to recruit workplace representatives (WRs), including managers, occupational health advisers and colleagues, to externally funded healthcare research studies. To detail the strategies used in recruiting WRs from three areas of the UK to a qualitative study concerning their experience of employees undergoing hip or knee replacement, to compare the strategies and inform recruitment methods for future studies. Six strategies were used to recruit WRs from organizations of different sizes and sectors. Data on numbers approached and responses received were analysed descriptively. Twenty-five WRs were recruited. Recruitment had to be extended outside the main three study areas, and took several months. It proved more difficult to recruit from non-service sectors and small- and medium-sized enterprises. The most successful strategies were approaching organizations that had participated in previous research studies, or known professionally or personally to team members. Recruiting a diverse sample of WRs to healthcare research requires considerable resources and persistence, and a range of strategies. Recruitment is easier where local relationships already exist; the importance of building and maintaining these relationships cannot be underestimated. However, the potential risks of bias and participant fatigue need to be acknowledged and managed. Further studies are needed to explore how WRs can be recruited to health research, and to identify the researcher effort and costs involved in achieving unbiased and representative samples.

  12. THE TASK TYPE EFFECT ON THE USE OF COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvir Shtavica

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An argument that many foreign language students encounter oral communication problems while they try to express their meaning to their partners has encouraged a number of eminent scholars to analyze the use of communication strategies based on the type of the task activity and the level of proficiency. In this paper, the task type effect and the students’ proficiency levels on the communication strategies employed by Kosovan and Bosnian speakers of English were investigated. The purpose of the study was to determine if the students’ proficiency levels and the task type influenced the choice and the number of communication strategies at lexical degree in verbal communication. The study numbered 20 participants in total; Kosovan and Bosnian languages that use English as a foreign language. The subjects were selected upon their degree of proficiency (i.e. Elementary and Intermediate levels and were asked to carry out three different types of the tasks: ten minutes of oral communication, picture story narration and photographic description. The data of the assigned tasks came from audio and video-recording. Thus, the current study used the taxonomy of communication strategies employed by Tarone (1977. Likewise, the communication strategies used by both levels of the students were observed and compared in special instances. It was summarized that the task type and the level of proficiency influenced the number and the choice of different communication strategies in verbal performances. To indicate the present observable facts, two main aspects of the nature of the given tasks were pointed out: context in the task and task demands, respectively.

  13. Reducing social inequalities in health: work-related strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Johannes

    2002-01-01

    Despite reduced health risks in terms of physical and chemical hazards current trends in occupational life continue to contribute to ill health and disease among economically active people. Stress at work plays a crucial role in this respect, as evidenced by recent scientific progress. This paper discusses two leading theoretical models of work-related stress, the demand-control model and the model of effort-reward imbalance, and it summarizes available evidence on adverse health effects. As work stress in terms of these models is more prevalent among lower socioeconomic status groups, these conditions contribute to the explanation of socially graded risks of morbidity and mortality in midlife. Implications of this new knowledge for the design and implementation of worksite health-promotion measures are elaborated. In conclusion, it is argued that workplace strategies deserve high priority on any agenda that aims at reducing social inequalities in health.

  14. Shodagor Family Strategies : Balancing Work and Family on the Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkweather, Kathrine E

    2017-06-01

    The Shodagor of Matlab, Bangladesh, are a seminomadic community of people who live and work on small wooden boats, within the extensive system of rivers and canals that traverse the country. This unique ecology places particular constraints on family and economic life and leads to Shodagor parents employing one of four distinct strategies to balance childcare and provisioning needs. The purpose of this paper is to understand the conditions that lead a family to choose one strategy over another by testing predictions about socioecological factors that impact the sexual division of labor, including a family's stage in the domestic cycle, aspects of the local ecology, and the availability of alloparents. Results show that although each factor has an impact on the division of labor individually, a confluence of these factors best explains within-group, between-family differences in how mothers and fathers divide subsistence and childcare labor. These factors also interact in particular ways for Shodagor families, and it appears that families choose their economic strategies based on the constellation of constraints that they face. The results of these analyses have implications for theory regarding the sexual division of labor across cultures and inform how Shodagor family economic and parenting strategies should be contextualized in future studies.

  15. Music as a Therapeutic Assistant: Strategy to Reduce Work Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dereck Sena de Lima

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to understand the influence of music as a therapeutic assistant in reducing work stress of nursing professionals in a basic health unit. Method: it is an exploratory and descriptive research with a quantitative approach, developed with 9 nursing professionals from UBS Integrated Nova Esperança in João Pessoa, Paraíba. Data collection began after approval of the Research Ethics Committee of the Health Sciences Center of the Federal University of Paraíba, nº. 0508/16, CAAE: 58741916.6.0000.5188. Results: we identified that 33.3% of nursing professionals presented signs of stress, of the 33.3% who presented stress, 100% demonstrated to be in the resistance phase, 100% of the nursing professionals evaluated the musical strategy in a positive way. Conclusion: the musical strategy received extremely positive evaluations by the participants of the research, about 100% of professionals said that listening to music can reduce work stress.

  16. Treatment strategies for different types of teacher burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, B A

    2000-05-01

    Using teachers as a prototype, this article suggests that there are three types of burnout: "wearout," wherein an individual gives up, feeling depleted in confronting stress; "classic" burnout, wherein an individual works increasingly hard in the face of stress; and an "underchallenged" type, wherein an individual is faced not with excessive degrees of stress per se (e.g., overload), but rather with monotonous and unstimulating work conditions. The major arguments put forward are that: a) clinicians should avoid treating teacher burnout as if it were a single phenomenon, and instead tailor their treatment to the specific type of burnout manifested by their client; and b) these treatments, while embodying different elements, should be essentially integrative in nature. Psychoanalytic insight, cognitive restructuring, empathic concern, and stress-reduction techniques may all be necessary, albeit in different combinations, to treat successfully burnout of each type.

  17. The Educational Strategies of Danish University Students from Professional and Working-Class Backgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jens Peter; Munk, Martin D.; Eiberg, Misja

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the various educational strategies, attitudes and behaviors adopted and displayed by Danish university students from professional class and working-class backgrounds. While access to universities in Denmark remains unequal, certain types of universities and fields of study h...... have wider participation among working-class students than others. At the same time a range of qualitative studies show that working-class students tend to be more risk aversive when it comes to job security and to the economic costs of studying. They tend to lack a sense of belonging...... grants and have no tuition fees, and because the social democratic welfare regime gives a central place to the notion of equality of opportunity in the education system. We ask how and to what extent Danish students’ choice of university program, their educational strategies and attitudes and behaviors...

  18. Personality at Work: A Study of Type A-B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Raza

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to measure the impact of stressors on personality types in Call Centers. Based on literature survey five potential workplace stressors were identified, namely (1 Task Demands, (2 Role Demands, (3 Interpersonal Demands, (4 Organizational Structure and (5 Organizational Leadership. Based on the literature survey, a relationship model was developed that was inclusive of the above stressors, and three personality types, which were Type A, Type AB and Type B.The sample size for the study was 100. The subjects were supervisors and agents drawn non-randomly from various Call Centers of Karachi. All the subjects completed a questionnaire comprised of 27 questions based on occupational stress index (Srivasta and Singh 1981 and AB Personality Continuum (National Institute of Safety and Health 1975. The three personality types A, B & AB all go through stress, however it is the Type A, which thrives on stress. The sources of stress measured in the study were Task Demand, Role Demand, Interpersonal Demands, Organizational Structure and Organizational Leadership.The stressor that most contributed to the Personality type A’s stress in the study was Interpersonal Demand (0.38, which is justified by the literature review as Personality type A are not team players and prefer to work alone.Whereas Personality type B was stressed because of Role Demand (0.38 which is also proved by the literature review as personality type B are laid back and do not take there roles seriously. Hence it can be concluded that it type A tends to cope well with stress as compared to type AB and type B. The performance of the respondents can be made better if the supervisors are aware of the personality types and thereby motivate them according.

  19. [Return to Work Strategies of Employees who Experienced Depression: Employers and HR's Perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbière, Marc; Lecomte, Tania; Lachance, Jean-Philippe; Coutu, Marie-France; Negrini, Alessia; Laberon, Sonia

    Major depression is one of the leading causes of work disability across the world. In Canada, the lifetime prevalence of depression varies from 10 to 12%. Depression impacts not only the employee who is often stigmatized and can lose his professional identity, but also has consequences on colleagues and supervisors in organizations. In the literature, four models are described from which employers and managers use in their organizations to make decisions regarding the work disability of employees on sick leave: biomedical, financial management, personnel management, and organizational development. These models can also be supported by economic, legal and ethical interests. Even though these models are essential to better understand the decision of employers and HR regarding work disability, information remains scarce regarding the concrete strategies used by these stakeholders to facilitate the return to work for employees on sick leave due to depression.Objectives the aim of this paper is to document, considering employers' and human resources' perspectives, the best strategies to put in place to facilitate the return to work of employees on sick leave due to depression.Method This study was part of a larger study carried out in Canada to assess factors influencing the return to work after a depression-related sick leave, taking into account the viewpoint of four types of stakeholders: employers/human resources, supervisors, unions and people diagnosed with depression. 219 employers (68.5%) and human resources directors (31.5%) from 82.6% organizations having more than 100 employees accepted to answer a telephone semi-structured interview. The question of interest in this study is: In your opinion, what are the best strategies to help an employee who has had a depression to return to work? Coding was influenced by empirical findings and theories related to psychosocial risk factors that the authors use in their respective disciplines as well as return to work

  20. Work ability among Finnish workers with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkarainen, P; Moilanen, L; Hänninen, V; Heikkinen, J; Räsänen, K

    2016-08-01

    Work ability represents the balance between individual resources, health status and job demands. As far as we are aware, these issues have not been examined in working people with type 1 diabetes (T1D). To examine how work-related and diabetes-related factors are associated with work ability among male and female workers. Questionnaires were mailed to a random sample of 2500 people with T1D from the Medication Reimbursement Register of The Social Insurance Institution of Finland. The associations of the predictors of poor work ability were examined in a logistic regression analysis. The final sample comprised 767 working people aged 18-64 with T1D; overall response rate 49%. One in every three working men and women with T1D had poor work ability. High job demands and low job control were associated with poor work ability in both genders. Physical work and low worktime control were significantly associated with poor work ability in men but not in women with T1D. A self-reported high value of glycosylated haemoglobin was the only diabetes-related variable associated with poor work ability in both men and women. Work-related factors and poor glycaemic control were associated with poor work ability in individuals with T1D. Thus, job control and worktime control should be taken into account in supporting the work ability of workers with T1D. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Misleading or Falsification? Inferring Deceptive Strategies and Types in Online News and Social Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkova, Svitlana; Jang, Jin Yea

    2018-04-27

    Deceptive information in online news and social media has had dramatic effect on our society in recent years. This study is the first to gain deeper insights into writers' intent behind digital misinformation by analyzing psycholinguistic signals: moral foundations and connotations extracted from different types of deceptive news ranging from strategic disinformation to propaganda and hoaxes. To ensure consistency of our findings and generalizability across domains, we experiment with data from: (1) confirmed cases of disinformation in news summaries, (2) {propaganda}, hoax, and disinformation news pages, and (3) social media news. We first contrast lexical markers of biased language, syntactic and stylistic signals, and connotations across deceptive news types including disinformation, propaganda, and hoaxes, and {deceptive} strategies including misleading or falsification. We then incorporate these insights to build machine learning and deep learning predictive models to infer deception strategies and deceptive news types. Our experimental results demonstrate that unlike earlier work on deception detection, content combined with biased language markers, moral foundations, and connotations leads to better predictive performance of deception strategies compared to syntactic and stylistic signals (as reported in earlier work on deceptive reviews). Falsification strategy is easier to identify than misleading strategy. Disinformation is more difficult to predict than to propaganda or hoaxes. Deceptive news types (disinformation, propaganda, and hoaxes), unlike deceptive strategies (falsification and misleading), are more salient, and thus easier to identify in tweets than in news reports. Finally, our novel connotation analysis across deception types provides deeper understanding of writers' perspectives and therefore reveals the intentions behind digital misinformation.

  2. Exposure assessment strategies for non-routine work operations (NORWO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew, V.; Cohen, J.; Chiusano, S.; McGann, C.; McLouth, L.

    1993-09-01

    The DOE Office of Health and Office of Safety and Health Oversight are collaborating to address special problems related to assessment of worker exposures associated with nonroutine work operations (NORWO), such as hazardous waste operations. Both off ices have formed a single working group of industrial hygiene specialists from the DOE, fts contractors, and other interested organizations which held its first meeting July 1993. The DOE Canter of Excellence for Exposure Assessment, maintained at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, is assisting in developing reasonable policies and guidance on exposure assessment strategies for NORWO. The DOE EA Center will research this subject to assist the DOE in formulating guidance documents for conduct of EA for NORWO that are consistent with the DOE draft EAS technical standard. This report presents an outline for a section on NORWO intended for inclusion in the DOE technical guidance documents for EAS and Hazardous Waste Operations Emergency Response (HAZWOPER) currently under development by the DOE Industrial Hygiene Division (EH-412), and EM-23. Also presented is a review of the July 21--23 meeting and a proposed workplan for developing NORWO exposure assessment procedures. Appendices include: (A) David Weitzman's memo on NORWO, (B) Draft annotated outline of the technical standard for the Assessment of Employee Exposure to Hazardous Chemical Agents, (C) ORC proposed EAS standard, (D) program for the October 31--November 3, 1993 ACGIH Conference on Occupational Exposure Databases, (E) agenda for the July 15, 1993 DOE meeting on NORWO, (F) viewgraphs used in formal presentations at this meeting, (G) Hanford Exposure Assessment Program Plan, and (H) a list of attendees and invitees to the July DOE -- NORWO meeting

  3. Working with Persistent Pain: An Exploration of Strategies Utilised to Stay Productive at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakman, Jodi; Kinsman, Natasha; Briggs, Andrew M

    2017-03-01

    Purpose Maintaining productive employment for people with persistent pain conditions is challenging. This study aims to explore supports-work and non-work- used by employees to assist them in maintaining productive employment. Methods An exploratory, mixed-methods study comprising a questionnaire battery followed by semi-structured interviews to collect in-depth qualitative data was undertaken. The questionnaires measured descriptive variables used to select participants for interviews based on maximum heterogeneity sampling. Thirty-five semi-structured interviews were undertaken (14 males; 21 females). The interview schedule covered: employment situation, workplace challenges, workplace supports, coping strategies, motivations, future employment options and any other resources utilised. Inductive content analysis was undertaken using a grounded theory approach to systematically explore the data. Results Three key themes were identified: barriers to working productively, enablers to working productively, disclosing my condition at work. A key determinant of maintaining productive employment was a supportive employer. In addition, flexibility in the work organisation was also pivotal in maintaining sustainable, productive employment. An important issue emerged with regard to disclosure of one's condition to an employer. For some, this was a significant barrier to employment. Conclusions To ensure sustainable employment is attainable for those with persistent pain conditions, a good match is required between an employee and their work. Workplace accommodations may assist with improving job fit but this requires disclosure of a condition to an employer. Weighing up the risks and benefits of disclosure is difficult, and may be assisted by knowledge of available supports to assist with maintaining ongoing employment.

  4. Working Memory Capacity and Reading Skill Moderate the Effectiveness of Strategy Training in Learning from Hypertext

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Johannes; Richter, Tobias; Christmann, Ursula; Groeben, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive and metacognitive strategies are particularly important for learning with hypertext. The effectiveness of strategy training, however, depends on available working memory resources. Thus, especially learners high on working memory capacity can profit from strategy training, while learners low on working memory capacity might easily be…

  5. Leadership strategies for a multicultural work environment in hotels in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksson, Anna

    2013-01-01

    This research focuses on determining what kind of leadership strategies are used in hotels in Helsinki for managing a multicultural work environment. Do the hotels have multicultural leadership strategies on the management level or can some kind of overall strategy be found only at the corporate level? Also, this thesis examines how the strategies are implemented in the everyday work. Furthermore, do the managers think there is need for a more precise multicultural management strategy in orde...

  6. Reading Motivation: 10 Elements for Success. Motivational Strategies That Work!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbig, Kori M.

    2009-01-01

    Motivational processes are the foundation for coordinating cognitive goals and strategies in reading. Becoming an excellent, active reader involves attunement of motivational processes with cognitive and language processes in reading. This article presents K-12 strategies for motivating reading success. It describes 10 instructional elements that…

  7. Self-Regulated Strategy Development. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2017

    2017-01-01

    "Self-Regulated Strategy Development" ("SRSD") is an intervention designed to improve students' academic skills through a six-step process that teaches students specific academic strategies and self-regulation skills. The practice is especially appropriate for students with learning disabilities, the focal population of the…

  8. Working for the future : elite women's strategies in Brazzaville

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paravano, P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the strategies applied by elite women in Brazzaville, Congo, to achieve lifelong financial security and independence for themselves and their children. Amongst these strategies are a woman's position in the household and women's ways of identifying themselves socially. Women's

  9. Strategies for glucose control in people with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiroux, Dimitri; Finan, Daniel Aaron; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2011-01-01

    the patient. We minimize the risk of hypoglycemia by introducing a time-varying glucose setpoint based on the announced meal size and the physiological model of the patient. The simulation results are based on a virtual patient simulated by the Hovorka model. They include the cases where the insulin...... sensitivity changes, and mismatches in meal estimation. They demonstrate that the designed controller is able to achieve offset-free control when the insulin sensitivity change, and that having a time-varying reference signal enables more robust control of blood glucose in the cases where the meal size......In this paper we apply a robust feedforward-feedback control strategy to people with type 1 diabetes. The feedforward controller consists of a bolus calculator which compensates the disturbance coming from meals. The feedback controller is based on a linearized description of the model describing...

  10. Job characteristics, work-nonwork interference and the role of recovery strategies amongst employees in a tertiary institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Oosthuizen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Although work characteristics and recovery strategies are associated with work- family interference, the influence on specific types of work-nonwork interference (W-NWI has not been investigated. Research purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of work characteristics and recovery strategies on four types of W-NWI. Motivation for the study: It is clear from the literature that job characteristics and W-NWI have adverse effects on employees’ health and well-being. It is therefore important to identify work characteristics and recovery strategies associated with W-NWI. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was used in this study. The target population was married employees with children working at a Tertiary Education Institution (TEI in the North West Province (N = 366. Main findings: Work pressure and emotional demands significantly predicted all the work-nonwork role interference dimensions. A lack of autonomy predicted work-parent interference and work-religion and/or spirituality interference, whilst a lack of development possibilities predicted work-religion and/or spirituality interference. Relaxation and mastery recovery experiences significantly predicted lower work-parent interference. A lack of psychological detachment and relaxation were significantly associated with lower work- spouse interference. Relaxation and control significantly predicted lower work-domestic interference, whilst psychological detachment significantly predicted lower work-religion and/or spirituality interference. Practical/managerial implications: The results give managers insight into the specific work characteristics and recovery experiences that play a role in W-NWI, upon which interventions can be based to address these issues. Contribution/value-add: This study provides information on the relationship between work characteristics, recovery experiences and the effect on different types of W-NWI.

  11. Design of strategies to assess lumbar posture during work.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burdorf, A.; Riel, van M.

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative characterization of postural load on the back should describe exposure patterns among workers and factors affecting these exposure patterns. This article presents general guidelines for designing appropriate measurement strategies; how to obtain detailed data with an applicable

  12. Work Strategies: The Development and Testing of a Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    strategies (e.g., Craik & Lockhart , 1972); hemispheric process - -7 ing differences (e.g., Seamon & Gazzaniga, 1973); problem-solving strategies (e.g...Charness, N. (1931). Aging and skilled problem solving. 3ournal of Experimental Psychology: General, 110, 21-38. Craik , F. I. \\., & Lockhart , R. S...1972). Levels of processing : A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, L1, 671-684. 3ansereau, D. F., McDonald

  13. Goal orientation and work role performance: predicting adaptive and proactive work role performance through self-leadership strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Quinteiro, Pedro; Curral, Luís Alberto

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between goal orientation, self-leadership dimensions, and adaptive and proactive work role performances. The authors hypothesize that learning orientation, in contrast to performance orientation, positively predicts proactive and adaptive work role performances and that this relationship is mediated by self-leadership behavior-focused strategies. It is posited that self-leadership natural reward strategies and thought pattern strategies are expected to moderate this relationship. Workers (N = 108) from a software company participated in this study. As expected, learning orientation did predict adaptive and proactive work role performance. Moreover, in the relationship between learning orientation and proactive work role performance through self-leadership behavior-focused strategies, a moderated mediation effect was found for self-leadership natural reward and thought pattern strategies. In the end, the authors discuss the results and implications are discussed and future research directions are proposed.

  14. Coping strategies and psychological readiness of students for professional work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichurin V.V.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to find out the current trends regarding the use of students coping strategies. Objectives of the study were to identify the coping strategies that are used by students in the cognitive, emotional and behavioral areas, as well as the identification of adaptive, non-adaptive and adaptive choices regarding their coping behavior. Material: the study involved 600 students (300 - boys, 300 - girls. Age of study participants was 17 - 19 years. Results: the level of students using a number of cognitive, emotional and behavioral strategies has been identified according to the method of E.Heim. The tendencies for the use of students of adaptive, maladaptive and adaptive coping relatively fundamental idea lies behind. Conclusions: the most common coping strategy for students in the cognitive sphere is "self-preservation" in the emotional sphere is "optimism" in the behavioral field is "a distraction." The use of adaptive strategies of students quantify exceedes the use of maladaptive and relatively adaptive (except for behavioral adaptive strategies of boys and girls.

  15. The Impact of Listening Strategy Training on the Meta-Cognitive Listening Strategies Awareness of Different Learner Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrabi, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the effectiveness of listening strategy instruction on the metacognitive listening strategies awareness of different EFL learner types (LTs). To achieve this goal, 150 EFL students took part in the study and were taught based on a guided lesson plan regarding listening strategies and a pre-test/post-test design was…

  16. Power flow control strategy in distribution network for dc type distributed energy resource at load bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, A.; Choudhry, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This research work presents a feed forward power flow control strategy in the secondary distribution network working in parallel with a DC type distributed energy resource (DER) unit with SPWM-IGBT Voltage Source Converter (VSC). The developed control strategy enables the VSC to be used as power flow controller at the load bus in the presence of utility supply. Due to the investigated control strategy, power flow control from distributed energy resource (DER) to common load bus is such that power flows to the load without facing any power quality problem. The technique has an added advantage of controlling power flow without having a dedicated power flow controller. The SPWM-IGBT VSC is serving the purpose of dc-ac converter as well as power flow controller. Simulations for a test system using proposed power flow control strategy are carried out using SimPower Systems toolbox of MATLAB at the rate and Simulink at the rate. The results show that a reliable, effective and efficient operation of DC type DER unit in coordination with main utility network can be achieved. (author)

  17. The Relationship Between Types of Conflict, Conflict Handling Strategies and Group Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Marques

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to analyze a if the frequency with which group choose to use a certain strategy is associated with the type of conflict represented in a given situation and b if, for different types of conflict, different conflict handling patterns (the frequency of their use could be considered significant predictors of group effectiveness, measured through group performance and satisfaction. We developed a correlational empirical study with a sample composed of 73 work groups, taken from 14 organizations in the industrial and service sectors. The results showed that groups in task conflict situations choose integrative strategies more often than when in relational conflict situations. Moreover, avoiding strategies were more likely to be used in relational conflict situations than in task conflict situations. On the other hand, our results showed that the frequency with which a group uses an integrative strategy can be considered a significant (positive predictor of group satisfaction for both types of conflict situations (task and relationship. Our results are discussed and compared with our previous literature review, as well as the implications and limitations of the study, along with some thoughts on further investigation.

  18. Social Work Students’ Use of Knowledge in Direct Practice – Reasons, Strategies and Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a study of Swedish social work students’ use of knowledge during their field practice. Data was collected by using short written narratives, where the students reflect on situations from practice, situations they experienced as critical or problematic. The narratives were analysed with a method inspired by the interpretation theory of Paul Ricoeur. The article starts with a discussion adhering to the present trend of evidence-based social work practice. This is followed by a study of 144 narratives from social work students containing critical or problematic events. A quantitative description of the material as well as qualitative model of two type-strategies, that social work students use, is presented. The results show, among other things, that students use several forms of knowledge, where facts/evidence is one of several. The study also shows that there is a strong adaptation to varying critical situations. A conclusion is that it is difficult to a priori define the types and proportions of knowledge to use in social work practice.

  19. Using historical crash data as part of traffic work zone safety planning and project management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This funding enabled the project entitled, USING HISTORICAL CRASH DATA AS PART OF TRAFFIC WORK ZONE SAFETY : PLANNING AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES to address the following: : Evaluate current organizational strategies with respect to w...

  20. Labour inspection strategies addressing the psychosocial work environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starheim, Liv; Bøgehus, Mette

    2014-01-01

    ' to be part of the situation. The inspectors use time and space strategies as a way of coping with the double purpose of the inspection visit: to control and motivate. Time and space strategies are also used as a way of handling the emotions of control, which are an inevitable part of the inspection process......The purpose of this paper is to show how face-to-face meetings between inspectors and workplace members can be understood as a complex, strategic, motivational and emotionalised process, and hence to involve more than just a question of 'pursuing or persuading'. The paper illustrates the Danish...

  1. Welfare and Work: Complementary Strategies for Low-Income Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Judith R.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeane; Klebanov, Pamela K.; Lee, Kyunghee

    2000-01-01

    Examines the effects of mothers' strategies of combining employment and welfare receipt during the first three years of their child's life on the child's cognitive development, behavior problems, and home learning environment at ages five and six. No negative association was found on most child outcomes with a mother's employment whether or not it…

  2. Delivering Training Strategies: The Balanced Scorecard at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraldi, Stefano; Cifalinò, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Aligning the value of training to organizational goals is an emerging need in human resource management. This study, aiming at expanding the research on training evaluation from a strategic management perspective, examines whether the use of the Balanced Scorecard approach can enable an effective delivery of training strategies, thus strengthening…

  3. Determining the Main Idea: Instructional Strategies That Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to identify the main idea through close reading of informational text is a higher-level skill students develop in elementary grades as a foundation for the acquisition of other critical skills in later grades. This article provides instructional strategies for this important skill as well as for improving reading comprehension.

  4. Does Input Enhancement Work for Learning Politeness Strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, Mohammad; Safari, Mahmood

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of input enhancement on the acquisition of English politeness strategies by intermediate EFL learners. Two groups of freshman English majors were randomly assigned to the experimental (enhanced input) group and the control (mere exposure) group. Initially, a TOEFL test and a discourse completion test (DCT)…

  5. Family Communication: Strategies for Building Effective Partnerships and Working Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamash, Emily R.; Martin, Alyson M.

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a variety of strategies for pre-service and beginning teachers to utilize in order to create positive and effective relationships with families that are built on clear communication and trust. It is crucial for new and veteran teachers to understand the importance of successful communication with parents and families of…

  6. PAQ Types and Power Strategies Used in Intimate Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falbo, Toni

    1982-01-01

    Examined kinds of power strategies used by masculine, feminine, androgynous, and undifferentiated people in their intimate relationships. Androgynous people reported using primarily bilateral strategies, such as persuasion. Undifferentiated people reported using primarily unilateral strategies, such as doing what they wanted, regardless of their…

  7. The Social Work Ethics Audit: A Risk-Management Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reamer, Frederic G.

    2000-01-01

    Article integrates current knowledge on social work ethics and introduces the concept of a social work ethics audit to aid social workers in their efforts to identify pertinent ethical issues; review and assess the adequacy of their current ethics-related practices; modify their practices as needed; and monitor the implementation of these changes.…

  8. COOPERATIVE LEARNING STRATEGY TYPE STAD IN TEACHING ISLAMIC EDUCATION SUBJECT (PAI AT SMPN 3 LENGAYANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulvia Evi Trinova

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available SMPN 3 Lengayang has applied STAD as a type of cooperative learning to improve students’ passiveness. The learning is initiated by forming study groups and assigning tasks to be discussed together. However, in fact the learning is not effective that the students still can not understand the materials properly. It is noticable that the tasks given have been done by one student only, meanwhile the others are less serious and rely on those who are willing to do the group work. This is a field reasearch which describes the implementation of STAD in teaching PAI qualitatively. Data collection techniques used are in the form of observation, interviews, and documentation. As the result; 1 the planning of STAD strategy in teaching PAI at SMPN 3 Lengayang does not yet fulfill the requirement such as in organizing teaching materials (systematic/systematic demands with unsuitable time allocation, and detail of learning scenario (strategy step / method at each stage not clearly illustrated. 2 the implementation of STAD type in teaching PAI at SMPN 3 Lengayang is not fully implemented from the six STAD type cooperative learning steps, namely on teamwork and quiz, and 3 the evaluation in STAD type co-operative learning at SMPN 3 Lengayang is a written test or in the form of quiz. In addition, a test through a special quiz for individual assessment while group assessment is taken from group work. Especially the group with the highest score is given an additional mark.

  9. Modelling of series of types of automated trenchless works tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendarz, P.; Rzasinski, R.

    2016-08-01

    Microtunneling is the newest method for making underground installations. Show method is the result of experience and methods applied in other, previous methods of trenchless underground works. It is considered reasonable to elaborate a series of types of construction of tunneling machines, to develop this particular earthworks method. There are many design solutions of machines, but the current goal is to develop non - excavation robotized machine. Erosion machines with main dimensions of the tunnels which are: 1600, 2000, 2500, 3150 are design with use of the computer aided methods. Series of types of construction of tunneling machines creating process was preceded by analysis of current state. The verification of practical methodology of creating the systematic part series was based on the designed erosion machines series of types. There were developed: method of construction similarity of the erosion machines, algorithmic methods of quantitative construction attributes variant analyzes in the I-DEAS advanced graphical program, relational and program parameterization. There manufacturing process of the parts will be created, which allows to verify the technological process on the CNC machines. The models of designed will be modified and the construction will be consulted with erosion machine users and manufacturers like: Tauber Rohrbau GmbH & Co.KG from Minster, OHL ZS a.s. from Brna,. The companies’ acceptance will result in practical verification by JUMARPOL company.

  10. Exposure assessment strategies for non-routine work operations (NORWO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew, V.; Johnson, J.; Chiusano, S.; McLouth, L.

    1993-01-01

    This meeting is the second in a series of a cooperative effort between the Industrial Hygiene Division of the Office of Health (EH-40) and the Office of Oversight (EM-23) to gain input for the development of a section on NORWO exposure assessment in the Exposure Assessment Strategies and HAZWOPER technical guidance manuals. The first day of the meeting was dedicated to a seminar relating to AIHA Strategy for Occupational Exposure Assessment to NORWO situations. Jeff Miller and Tom Weeda of Radian were the course instructors. The course covered how the elements of basic characterization, prioritization, monitoring and decision making could apply to NORWO situations. Several examples of applications of statistical analysis for decision making were illustrated. In addition, the seminar brought forth some points that need additional examination before the strategy can be applied to NORWO. They are: should qualitative and semi-quantitative data be applied to statistical decision making; should professional judgment be balanced with an acceptable degree of statistical certainty; and the need for development of a standardized application of statistics for the DOE Health ampersand Safety community. The remaining two days of the meeting were devoted to the continued development of guidelines to measure and document, in a technically correct and consistent manner, the exposures DOE environmental restoration and waste management (ERWM) workers receive during NORWO and reflects the perspectives and experiences of the attendees. Formal presentations were given by representatives from Hanford and INEL

  11. Effective Strategy Implementation: Best Practice that Really Works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howsley, R.; Gradt, V.; Delgado, R.

    2015-01-01

    The application of Business Performance Management (BPM) was traditionally associated with the Balanced Scorecard developed by Keppler and Norton over 20 years ago and used primarily in commercial organizations where Shareholder value was the priority. The presentation describes how this approach has evolved to focus on Stakeholder priorities rather than profit, how it has been applied successfully to the management of nuclear security performance and how it can be applied to any organization whether in the public or private sector. Strategy Mapping clarifies organizational priorities, allows staff to understand their role and contribution much more clearly and has a significant motivational impact on most organizations to which it is applied. (author)

  12. Examining Behavioural Coping Strategies as Mediators between Work-Family Conflict and Psychological Distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Aazami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the mediating role of behavioral coping strategies in the association between work-family conflict and psychological distress. In particular, we examined the two directions of work-family conflict, namely, work interference into family and family interference into work. Furthermore, two coping styles in this study were adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 429 Malaysian working women using self-reported data. The results of mediational analysis in the present study showed that adaptive coping strategy does not significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. However, maladaptive coping strategies significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. These results show that adaptive coping strategies, which aimed to improve the stressful situation, are not effective in managing stressor such as work-family conflict. We found that experiencing interrole conflict steers employees toward frequent use of maladaptive coping strategies which in turn lead to psychological distress. Interventions targeted at improvement of coping skills which are according to individual’s needs and expectation may help working women to balance work and family demands. The important issue is to keep in mind that effective coping strategies are to control the situations not to eliminate work-family conflict.

  13. Examining behavioural coping strategies as mediators between work-family conflict and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aazami, Sanaz; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Akmal, Syaqirah

    2015-01-01

    We examined the mediating role of behavioral coping strategies in the association between work-family conflict and psychological distress. In particular, we examined the two directions of work-family conflict, namely, work interference into family and family interference into work. Furthermore, two coping styles in this study were adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 429 Malaysian working women using self-reported data. The results of mediational analysis in the present study showed that adaptive coping strategy does not significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. However, maladaptive coping strategies significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. These results show that adaptive coping strategies, which aimed to improve the stressful situation, are not effective in managing stressor such as work-family conflict. We found that experiencing interrole conflict steers employees toward frequent use of maladaptive coping strategies which in turn lead to psychological distress. Interventions targeted at improvement of coping skills which are according to individual's needs and expectation may help working women to balance work and family demands. The important issue is to keep in mind that effective coping strategies are to control the situations not to eliminate work-family conflict.

  14. Developmental Improvement in Strategies to Maintain Verbal Information in Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oftinger, Anne-Laure; Camos, Valérie

    2018-01-01

    Although it has been proposed that maintenance of verbal information in adults' working memory relies on two strategies, articulatory rehearsal and attentional refreshing, little is known about the interplay of these strategies in children. To examine strategy changes around the age of seven, children were asked to maintain digits during a…

  15. Rotating Night Shift Work and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: Two Prospective Cohort Studies in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, An; Schernhammer, Eva S.; Sun, Qi; Hu, Frank B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Rotating night shift work disrupts circadian rhythms and has been associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and glucose dysregulation. However, its association with type 2 diabetes remains unclear. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate this association in two cohorts of US women. Methods and Findings We followed 69,269 women aged 42–67 in Nurses' Health Study I (NHS I, 1988–2008), and 107,915 women aged 25–42 in NHS II (1989–2007) without diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline. Participants were asked how long they had worked rotating night shifts (defined as at least three nights/month in addition to days and evenings in that month) at baseline. This information was updated every 2–4 years in NHS II. Self-reported type 2 diabetes was confirmed by a validated supplementary questionnaire. We documented 6,165 (NHS I) and 3,961 (NHS II) incident type 2 diabetes cases during the 18–20 years of follow-up. In the Cox proportional models adjusted for diabetes risk factors, duration of shift work was monotonically associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in both cohorts. Compared with women who reported no shift work, the pooled hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for participants with 1–2, 3–9, 10–19, and ≥20 years of shift work were 1.05 (1.00–1.11), 1.20 (1.14–1.26), 1.40 (1.30–1.51), and 1.58 (1.43–1.74, p-value for trend night shift work is associated with a modestly increased risk of type 2 diabetes in women, which appears to be partly mediated through body weight. Proper screening and intervention strategies in rotating night shift workers are needed for prevention of diabetes. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:22162955

  16. [Personal resources and nursing work: a research on coping strategies and job satisfaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formentin, Silvia; Dallago, Lorenza; Negrisolo, Adriana

    2009-01-01

    The coping (ability to face a difficult situation), is an essential resource for nurses, because it increases the effective functioning in the working environment, job satisfaction and individual level of wellness. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between coping strategies and job satisfaction. A self report questionnaire was administered to all the nurses working in health services and hospitals of Padua province and to free lance nurses members of the College of Nurses, to collect information on coping strategies and job satisfaction. 2264 questionnaires were returned (71%). Active coping strategies are adopted mainly from older nurses while avoiding strategies are prevalent among younger. An association was observed between job satisfaction and active coping strategies, aimed at problem solving: active strategies increase job satisfaction while avoiding strategies descrease it. Individual coping strategies implemented to face difficult situations are associated to job satisfaction.

  17. Influence Strategies Used When Couples Make Work-Family Decisions and Their Importance for Marital Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvonkovic, Anisa M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigated how marital partners influenced each other concerning work and family decisions and connected influence strategies to martial satisfaction in 61 married couples who had faced work-family decisions in past 6 months. Found that gender role ideology and indirect influence strategies were related to marital satisfaction. Variables related…

  18. Social Strategies during University Studies Predict Early Career Work Burnout and Engagement: 18-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study spanning 18 years examined the role of social strategies in early career adaptation. The aim was to find out whether individuals' social strategies measured during their university studies had an impact on work burnout and work engagement measured 10-18 years later. A sample of 292 university students completed the SAQ…

  19. Adaptive Strategies, Gender Ideology, and Work-Family Balance among Dutch Dual Earners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierda-Boer, Hilde H.; Gerris, Jan R. M.; Vermulst, Ad A.

    2008-01-01

    Using questionnaire data on 149 Dutch dual-earner couples with young children participating in the European Famwork study, we examine how adaptive strategies and gender ideology relate to parents' perceived success in balancing work and family. Path analysis indicates that some adaptive strategies may harm individuals' work-family balance,…

  20. The Development of Strategy Use in Elementary School Children: Working Memory and Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbo, Ineke; Vandierendonck, Andre

    2007-01-01

    The current study tested the development of working memory involvement in children's arithmetic strategy selection and strategy efficiency. To this end, an experiment in which the dual-task method and the choice/no-choice method were combined was administered to 10- to 12-year-olds. Working memory was needed in retrieval, transformation, and…

  1. Development Strategy of Microtakaful Institutions: Case Study Working Group Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aam Slamet Rusydiana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is becoming one of potential countries in microtakaful institutions development. One of the expert in microtakaful is Takmin Working Group. TWG is a group of initiators who have commitment to develop micro takaful in Indonesia. Its members consist ofexperts in Islamic insurance, micro finance and accounting. The research objectives of this study are to identify and analyze the problems faced by TWG in developing of microtakaful institutions and identify the solutions to solve those kinds of problems, by using AnalticHierarchy Process (AHP method. The finding of this study shows the most priority solutions that can be undertake by Takmin Working Group to solve these both internal and external problem is information system development, and then followed by innovative product development. Communication & visitation to Islamic micro finance institutions and socialization about micro takaful product to society are being less priority on this matter.DOI: 10.15408/etk.v16i2.5267

  2. Effects of Type of Exploratory Strategy and Prior Knowledge on Middle School Students' Learning of Chemical Formulas from a 3D Role-Playing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Puu; Wong, Yu-Ting; Wang, Li-Chun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the type of exploratory strategy and level of prior knowledge on middle school students' performance and motivation in learning chemical formulas via a 3D role-playing game (RPG). Two types of exploratory strategies-RPG exploratory with worked-example and RPG exploratory without…

  3. Strategies to keep working among workers with common mental disorders - a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, Louise; Elf, Mikael; Hensing, Gunnel

    2017-11-28

    Most people with common mental disorders (CMDs) are employed and working, but few studies have looked into how they manage their jobs while ill. This study explores workers' experiences of strategies to keep working while suffering from CMDs. In this grounded theory study, we interviewed 19 women and eight men with depression or anxiety disorders. They were 19-65 years old and had different occupations. Constant comparison method was used in the analysis. We identified a core pattern in the depressed and anxious workers' attempts to sustain their capacities, defined as Managing work space. The core pattern comprised four categories describing different cognitive, behavioral, and social strategies. The categories relate to a process of sustainability. Two categories reflected more reactive and temporary strategies, occurring mainly in the onset phase of illness: Forcing the work role and Warding off work strain. The third category, Recuperating from work, reflected strategies during both onset and recovery phases. The fourth category, Reflexive adaptation, was present mainly in the recovery phase and involved reflective strategies interpreted as more sustainable over time. The results can deepen understanding among rehabilitation professionals about different work-related strategies in depressed and anxious workers. Increased awareness of the meaning and characteristics of strategies can inform a person-oriented approach in rehabilitation. The knowledge can be used in clinical encounters to reflect together with the patient, exploring present options and introducing modifications to their particular work and life context. Implications for rehabilitation Self-managed work functioning in common mental disorders involves diverse strategies. Strategies interpreted as sustainable over time, seem to be reflective in the sense that the worker consciously applies and adapts the strategies. However, at the onset of illness, such reflection is difficult to develop as the

  4. Work stress, health behaviours and coping strategies of dentists from Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, Cristian; Colosi, Horaţiu Alexandru

    2018-06-01

    The recognition of work stressors and their links to sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviours and coping strategies is important for enhancing the working conditions of dentists. The aim of our study was to identify and rank work stressors in dentists from Cluj-Napoca, Romania, and to investigate their potential links to sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviours and coping strategies. A questionnaire based on the Work Stress Inventory for Dentists (WSID) was delivered to a cross-sectional sample of 250 dentists working in six neighborhoods across Cluj-Napoca, Romania, as well as at the local Faculty of Dentistry. We collected and analysed information on sociodemographic characteristics, work stressors, health behaviours and coping strategies. Time and scheduling pressure, concerns about the future and pay-related work stressors were found to rank highest among the categories of work stressors investigated. Higher work stress was significantly linked to higher workloads, lower job satisfaction, poorer eating and exercise habits, higher work pain and discomfort, lower perceived health and less sleep. Job satisfaction was the single best predictor variable of work stress scores. The most frequently used coping strategy to deal with work stress was resting and taking breaks. Only one-quarter of respondents used active coping strategies. Our findings suggest that work stress is linked to a number of detrimental attitudes in dentists and that there is room for dentists to make lifestyle improvements. © 2018 FDI World Dental Federation.

  5. Risk assessment: A regulatory strategy for stimulating working environment activities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Langaa

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyses the Danish approach to workplace assessment (WPA) following European requirements to establish legislation on occupational health and safety. Quantitative studies show that WPA can be interpreted as a success within the larger Danish firms. However, data from qualitative studies...... modify this picture by showing how attention has been focussed on physical working environment problems whilst wider psycho-social problems have been ignored. The paper claims there is no evidence from either the quantitative or the qualitative studies that workplace assessment - even though positively...

  6. Work of community health agents in the Family Health Strategy: meta-synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Maria do Carmo Alonso

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To systematize and analyze the evidence from qualitative studies that address the perception of Brazilian Community Health Agents about their work. METHODS This is a systematic review of the meta-synthesis type on the work of community health agents, carried out from the Virtual Health Library using the descriptors “Agente Comunitário de Saúde” and “Trabalho”, in Portuguese. The strategy was constructed by crossing descriptors, using the Boolean operator “AND”, and filtering Brazilian articles, published from 2004 to 2014, which resulted in 129 identified articles. We removed quantitative or quanti-qualitative research articles, essays, debates, literature reviews, reports of experiences, and research that did not include Brazilian Community Health Agents as subjects. Using these criteria, we selected and analyzed 33 studies that allowed us to identify common subjects and differences between them, to group the main conclusions, to classify subjects, and to interpret the content. RESULTS The analysis resulted in three thematic units: characteristics of the work of community health agents, problems related to the work of community health agents, and positive aspects of the work of community health agents. On the characteristics, we could see that the work of the community health agents is permeated by the political and social dimensions of the health work with predominant use of light technologies. The main input is the knowledge that this professional obtains with the contact with families, which is developed with home visits. On the problems in the work of community health agents, we could identify the lack of limits in their attributions, poor conditions, obstacles in the relationship with the community and teams, weak professional training, and bureaucracy. The positive aspects we identified were the recognition of the work by families, resolution, bonding, work with peers, and work close to home. CONCLUSIONS

  7. The effect of information types on diagnostic strategies in the information aid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2007-01-01

    Through experiments, this paper investigates the compatibility of information types with the diagnostic strategy in information aid. Compatibility with operator strategies is an important requirement for information aiding systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs). This paper used three typical types of information aids for MCR operators to investigate the effect of the aids on diagnostic strategies: 'alarm (A),' 'hypothesis on faults (H),' and 'hypothesis on faults and expected symptoms (HS).' The experimental results indicate that the effectiveness of information aid types can vary, dependent on the strategies subjects employ. The results also show that the HS aid improved the diagnosis performance in the hypothesis-and-test strategy

  8. Making Work Fit Care: Reconciliation Strategies Used by Working Mothers of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Fu, Li-yeh; Chang, Heng-Hao

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study explored the experiences of working mothers with an adult child with intellectual disabilities to understand how they reconcile paid work and care responsibilities. Methods: Fifteen working mothers in Taiwan with an adult child with intellectual disabilities were interviewed, and an interpretative phenomenological approach…

  9. Protected area types, strategies and impacts in Brazil's Amazon: public protected area strategies do not yield a consistent ranking of protected area types by impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Alexander; Robalino, Juan; Sandoval, Catalina; Herrera, Diego

    2015-11-05

    The leading policy to conserve forest is protected areas (PAs). Yet, PAs are not a single tool: land users and uses vary by PA type; and public PA strategies vary in the extent of each type and in the determinants of impact for each type, i.e. siting and internal deforestation. Further, across regions and time, strategies respond to pressures (deforestation and political). We estimate deforestation impacts of PA types for a critical frontier, the Brazilian Amazon. We separate regions and time periods that differ in their deforestation and political pressures and document considerable variation in PA strategies across regions, time periods and types. The siting of PAs varies across regions. For example, all else being equal, PAs in the arc of deforestation are relatively far from non-forest, while in other states they are relatively near. Internal deforestation varies across time periods, e.g. it is more similar across the PA types for PAs after 2000. By contrast, after 2000, PA extent is less similar across PA types with little non-indigenous area created inside the arc. PA strategies generate a range of impacts for PA types--always far higher within the arc--but not a consistent ranking of PA types by impact. © 2015 The Author(s).

  10. A Novel Reconfiguration Strategy of a Delta-Type Parallel Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Lester Balmaceda-Santamaría

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This work introduces a novel reconfiguration strategy for a Delta-type parallel robot. The robot at hand, whose patent is pending, is equipped with an intermediate mechanism that allows for modifying the operational Cartesian workspace. Furthermore, singularities of the robot may be ameliorated owing to the inherent kinematic redundancy introduced by four actuable kinematic joints. The velocity and acceleration analyses of the parallel manipulator are carried out by resorting to reciprocal-screw theory. Finally, the manipulability of the new robot is investigated based on the computation of the condition number associated with the active Jacobian matrix, a well-known procedure. The results obtained show improved performance of the robot introduced when compared with results generated for another Delta-type robot.

  11. Causes of work-related stress and individual strategies in knowledge work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine; Jensen, Per Langaa

    Recent studies point to work-related stress as an increasing problem for knowledge workers. This is a critical and not fully uncovered problem. The working life in knowledge-intensive companies is often described as good and stimulating. This study shows that some aspects of knowledge work can have...... a negative impact on daily activities and cause frustration and work-related stress. The study also finds that few primary preventive activities have been initiated. Based on an empirical study, the authors outline the characteristics of the job as knowledge worker and how it is being experienced. The study...... to the individual for his or her working life. Self-managed knowledge workers thus experience that they stand alone when it comes to work-related problems and stress. The stress intervention applied is characteristically short-term and focused on the individual. The individual perspective consequently affects...

  12. Work-Life Balance: Strategies for Attaining and Maintaining Work-Life Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Josette Chinchiolo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: It was the purpose of this study (a) to identify and describe the elements of balance that elementary principals perceive as most important to their personal and professional lives; (b) to identify the strategies elementary principals perceive as most important to maintain balance in their personal and professional lives; (c) to determine…

  13. Protected area types, strategies and impacts in Brazil's Amazon: public protected area strategies do not yield a consistent ranking of protected area types by impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Alexander; Robalino, Juan; Sandoval, Catalina; Herrera, Diego

    2015-01-01

    The leading policy to conserve forest is protected areas (PAs). Yet, PAs are not a single tool: land users and uses vary by PA type; and public PA strategies vary in the extent of each type and in the determinants of impact for each type, i.e. siting and internal deforestation. Further, across regions and time, strategies respond to pressures (deforestation and political). We estimate deforestation impacts of PA types for a critical frontier, the Brazilian Amazon. We separate regions and time periods that differ in their deforestation and political pressures and document considerable variation in PA strategies across regions, time periods and types. The siting of PAs varies across regions. For example, all else being equal, PAs in the arc of deforestation are relatively far from non-forest, while in other states they are relatively near. Internal deforestation varies across time periods, e.g. it is more similar across the PA types for PAs after 2000. By contrast, after 2000, PA extent is less similar across PA types with little non-indigenous area created inside the arc. PA strategies generate a range of impacts for PA types—always far higher within the arc—but not a consistent ranking of PA types by impact. PMID:26460126

  14. Heat Stress and feeding strategies in meat-type chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syafwan, W.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2011-01-01

    Heat stress can induce hyperthermia in poultry. A reduction in heat load can be achieved by increasing the possibilities for dissipation, decreasing the level of heat production or by changing the thermal production pattern within a day. Strategies to reduce the negative effects of heat stress can

  15. Cognitive strategy interventions improve word problem solving and working memory in children with math disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, H Lee

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the role of strategy instruction and working memory capacity (WMC) on problem solving solution accuracy in children with and without math disabilities (MD). Children in grade 3 (N = 204) with and without MD subdivided into high and low WMC were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: verbal strategies (e.g., underlining question sentence), visual strategies (e.g., correctly placing numbers in diagrams), verbal + visual strategies, and an untreated control. The dependent measures for training were problem solving accuracy and two working memory transfer measures (operation span and visual-spatial span). Three major findings emerged: (1) strategy instruction facilitated solution accuracy but the effects of strategy instruction were moderated by WMC, (2) some strategies yielded higher post-test scores than others, but these findings were qualified as to whether children were at risk for MD, and (3) strategy training on problem solving measures facilitated transfer to working memory measures. The main findings were that children with MD, but high WM spans, were more likely to benefit from strategy conditions on target and transfer measures than children with lower WMC. The results suggest that WMC moderates the influence of cognitive strategies on both the targeted and non-targeted measures.

  16. Comparison of the Effects of Seated, Supine, and Walking Interset Rest Strategies on Work Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellette, Kristen A; Brusseau, Timothy A; Davidson, Lance E; Ford, Candus N; Hatfield, Disa L; Shaw, Janet M; Eisenman, Patricia A

    2016-12-01

    Ouellette, KA, Brusseau, TA, Davidson, LE, Ford, CN, Hatfield, DL, Shaw, JM, and Eisenman, PA. Comparison of the effects of seated, supine, and walking interset rest strategies on work rate. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3396-3404, 2016-The idea that an upright posture should be maintained during the interset rest periods of training sessions is pervasive. The primary aim of this study was to determine differences in work rate associated with 3 interset rest strategies. Male and female members of the CrossFit community (male n = 5, female n = 10) were recruited to perform a strenuous training session designed to enhance work capacity that involved both cardiovascular and muscular endurance exercises. The training session was repeated on 3 separate occasions to evaluate 3 interset rest strategies, which included lying supine on the floor, sitting on a flat bench, and walking on a treadmill (0.67 m·s). Work rate was calculated for each training session by summing session joules of work and dividing by the time to complete the training session (joules of work per second). Data were also collected during the interset rest periods (heart rate [HR], respiratory rate [RR], and volume of oxygen consumed) and were used to explain why one rest strategy may positively impact work rate compared with another. Statistical analyses revealed significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) between the passive and active rest strategies, with the passive strategies allowing for improved work rate (supine = 62.77 ± 7.32, seated = 63.66 ± 8.37, and walking = 60.61 ± 6.42 average joules of work per second). Results also suggest that the passive strategies resulted in superior HR, RR, and oxygen consumption recovery. In conclusion, work rate and physiological recovery were enhanced when supine and seated interset rest strategies were used compared with walking interset rest.

  17. "Academic Strategy: The Management Revolution in American Higher Education," by George Keller (1983) Can Strategy Work in Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Keller's book was one of the first works to suggest strategic approaches to the management of higher education institutions. His case study method proved popular with readers. However, the limitations of his approach to strategy grew more apparent over time, although many of his insights remain valid today.

  18. The Effects of Relationship Type, Partner Intent, and Gender on the Selection of Relationship Maintenance Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, B. Christine; Pearson, Judy C.

    1986-01-01

    Indicates that relationship type did not affect the maintenance strategies that partners chose; however, the partners' relationship intent and the sex-composition of the dyad had a significant impact on the selection of directness strategies. Suggests that individuals are not necessarily more likely to select directness strategies than balance or…

  19. Occupational Stress and Mental Health Symptoms: Examining the Moderating Effect of Work Recovery Strategies in Firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhney, Gargi; Jennings, Kristen S; Britt, Thomas W; Sliter, Michael T

    2017-06-12

    The goal of this research was to examine the moderating effect of work recovery strategies on the relationship between occupational stress experienced by firefighters and mental health symptoms. Work recovery strategies were identified through semistructured interviews with 20 firefighters and a literature search on recovery strategies. A total of 7 work recovery strategies emerged using the 2 methods: work-related talks, stress-related talks, time with coworkers/supervisor, exercise, recreational activities, relaxation, and mastery experiences. Using a prospective study design with a 1-month time interval in a sample of 268 firefighters, experienced occupational stress at Time 1 was positively related to mental health symptoms at Time 2. In addition, with the exception of spending time with coworkers/supervisor, exercise and mastery experiences, recovery strategies at Time 1 were negatively related to mental health symptoms at Time 2. Lastly, all work recovery strategies, except stress-related talks and relaxation, moderated the relationship between experienced occupational stress at Time 1 and mental health symptoms at Time 2. Specifically, the positive relationship between experienced occupational stress and mental health symptoms was stronger when firefighters engaged in low, rather than high, work recovery strategies. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. LEARNING STRATEGIES FOR EMPLOYABILITY IN RECENT GRADUATED PROFESSIONALS AT MARKET OF WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÁLVARO ENRÍQUEZ MARTÍNEZ

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Transformations of work world imply the diminishment of structural employment and consolidation of otherforms of work with psycho-sociological implications for employability. The research explore learning strategiesthat in version of professionals (successed and control and employers facilitate employability at 5 Colombiancities. Deep interviews were used. Results show that learning strategies are not necessarily consciousness. Successprofessionals use Cognitive strategies of elaboration and transferece; relational strategies for visibility andpromoting knowledge in inter-relation; and meta-cognitive strategies of regulation in this order. Control groupprofessionals use cognitive-elaboration and transference strategies without converting them into behaviors.Employers empathized on cognitive strategies of elaboration, metacognitives of regulation, and relationals ofvisibility and the establishment of relations.

  1. Examining Generic Competitive Strategy Types in U.S. and European Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Susan P Douglas; Dong Kee Rhee

    1989-01-01

    Identification of generic competitive strategy types has recently attracted considerable attention. Most of this research has, however, focused on competitive strategy of U.S. businesses in their domestic market. The present study extends these findings to markets outside the United States, and more specifically Europe, based on a sample of industrial businesses drawn from the PIMS database. Similar dimensions underlying competitive strategy, and similar generic types are found among business...

  2. Effects of work-family conflict on employees' well-being: the moderating role of recovery strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Jiménez, Bernardo; Mayo, Margarita; Sanz-Vergel, Ana Isabel; Geurts, Sabine; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Alfredo; Garrosa, Eva

    2009-10-01

    Based on the effort-recovery model, this study links work-family conflict (WFC) and family-work conflict (FWC) with the concept of recovery. The authors hypothesize that 2 recovery strategies-psychological detachment from work and verbal expression of emotions-moderate the relationship of these 2 types of conflict with 2 indicators of well-being, namely psychological strain and life satisfaction. For our sample of 128 emergency professionals from Spain, psychological detachment from work moderated the relationship between WFC and psychological strain, and between FWC and life satisfaction. Verbal expression of emotions moderated the relationship between both types of conflict and psychological strain. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Coping strategies used by nurses before, during and after work to deal with work stress: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Manomenidis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The nursing profession is characterized by high levels of work stress and serious associated health problems. The aim of the present study was to explore the strategies nurses employ before, during and after work to cope with every day work stress. The literature review indicated that nurses use mechanisms which at the beginning of shift work as preparation mechanisms, during work as stress controllers and after the end of it as an opportunity for nursing staff’s emotional recovery. In terms of effectiveness, the use of stress coping mechanisms not only reduces job burnout but also increases nurses’ job satisfaction and wellbeing. However, evidence show that their duration is short and their effectiveness may be limited. Changes mainly in organizational level are required to create a more positive working environment and advocate for nurses’ good level of health and wellbeing.

  4. World Gas Conference 1997. Working committee J. World gas prospects, strategies and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This volume of the proceedings contains the report of the International Gas Union's Working Committee J - World gas prospects, strategies and economics - and 7 oral papers dealing with natural gas supply and demand and transmission. (LN)

  5. Work conditions and the food choice coping strategies of employed parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carol M; Farrell, Tracy J; Blake, Christine E; Jastran, Margaret; Wethington, Elaine; Bisogni, Carole A

    2009-01-01

    How work conditions relate to parents' food choice coping strategies. Pilot telephone survey. City in the northeastern United States (US). Black, white, and Hispanic employed mothers (25) and fathers (25) randomly recruited from low-/moderate-income zip codes; 78% of those reached and eligible participated. Sociodemographic characteristics; work conditions (hours, shift, job schedule, security, satisfaction, food access); food choice coping strategies (22 behavioral items for managing food in response to work and family demands (ie, food prepared at/away from home, missing meals, individualizing meals, speeding up, planning). Two-tailed chi-square and Fisher exact tests (P restaurant meals, missed breakfast, and prepared entrees. Job security, satisfaction, and food access were also associated with gender-specific strategies. Structural work conditions among parents such as job hours, schedule, satisfaction, and food access are associated with food choice coping strategies with importance for dietary quality. Findings have implications for worksite interventions but need examination in a larger sample.

  6. Roles of Working Memory Performance and Instructional Strategy in Complex Cognitive Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevik, V.; Altun, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate how working memory (WM) performances and instructional strategy choices affect learners' complex cognitive task performance in online environments. Three different e-learning environments were designed based on Merrill's (2006a) model of instructional strategies. The lack of experimental research on his framework is…

  7. Strategy use fully mediates the relationship between working memory capacity and performance on Raven's matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonthier, Corentin; Thomassin, Noémylle

    2015-10-01

    Working memory capacity consistently correlates with fluid intelligence. It has been suggested that this relationship is partly attributable to strategy use: Participants with high working memory capacity would use more effective strategies, in turn leading to higher performance on fluid intelligence tasks. However, this idea has never been directly investigated. In 2 experiments, we tested this hypothesis by directly manipulating strategy use in a combined experimental-correlational approach (Experiment 1; N = 250) and by measuring strategy use with a self-report questionnaire (Experiment 2; N = 93). Inducing all participants to use an effective strategy in Raven's matrices decreased the correlation between working memory capacity and performance; the strategy use measure fully mediated the relationship between working memory capacity and performance on the matrices task. These findings indicate that individual differences in strategic behavior drive the predictive utility of working memory. We interpret the results within a theoretical framework integrating the multiple mediators of the relationship between working memory capacity and high-level cognition. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Strategies of operation cycles in BWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, D.; Sendino, F.

    1996-01-01

    The article analyzes the operation cycles in BWR type reactors. The cycle size of operation is the consequence on the optimization process of the costs with the technical characteristics of nuclear fuel and the characteristics of demand and production. The authors analyze the cases of Garona NP and Cofrentes NP, both with BWR reactors. (Author)

  9. New tools and strategies for the inspection of the psychosocial working environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette Bøgehus; Hansen, Tom; Nielsen, Klaus Tranetoft

    2011-01-01

    In 2007 the Danish Working Environment Authority launched a new strategy to strengthen and qualify primary prevention of work related stress. Part of the strategy consists of increased inspections of the psychosocial working environment as well as the development and implementation of a new...... improvement notices regarding work related stress and violence, and there has been an increasing number of notices issued on several risk factors. For some aspects, the tools have helped increase the clarity and comprehensibility of the improvement notices and reduce the WEA’s time consumption per enterprise....... The guidance tools seem to be a suitable and efficient way of assessing several health and safety risks concerning work related stress and violence thereby allowing the WEA to detect more of the existing problems. Future challenges projected for the strategy include continuously training all WEA inspectors...

  10. Working Sandwich Generation Women Utilize Strategies within and between Roles to Achieve Role Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girdler, Sonya J.

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, women simultaneously balance the roles of mother, parental carer and worker. However, individual role balance strategies among these working ‘sandwich’ generation women have not been thoroughly explored. Eighteen women combining these three roles were interviewed about their individual role balance strategies. Findings were identified through the framework analysis technique, underpinned by the Model of Juggling Occupations. Achieving and maintaining role balance was explained as a complex process accomplished through a range of strategies. Findings revealed the women used six within-role balance strategies: living with integrity, being the best you can, doing what you love, loving what you do, remembering why and searching for signs of success. The women also described six between-role balance strategies: maintaining health and wellbeing, repressing perfectionism, managing time and energy, releasing responsibility, nurturing social connection and reciprocating. These findings provide a basis for health care providers to understand and potentially support working ‘sandwich’ generation women. PMID:27305074

  11. Optimal Pharmacologic Treatment Strategies in Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Goswami, Gayotri; Shinkazh, Nataliya; Davis, Nichola

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased to pandemic levels worldwide and is related to increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Metabolic comorbidities are commonly associated with obesity and include metabolic syndrome, pre-diabetes, and type 2 diabetes. Even if the prevalence of obesity remains stable until 2030, the anticipated numbers of people with diabetes will more than double as a consequence of population aging and urbanization. Weight reduction is integral in the prevention of dia...

  12. Type 4 capitellum fractures: Diagnosis and treatment strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fractures of the capitellum are rare injuries of the elbow usually seen in the adolescents. This fracture is often missed in the emergency room if a proper radiograph is not available. Recent reports have described many modalities of treatment favoring headless screw for fixation. The facility for headless screw fixation, however, is not available in most centers. This paper presents the diagnosis and management of type 4 capituller fractures (Mckee with gadgets available in a district hospital. Materials and Methods: Between 2004 and 2007 three patients with right sided type IV capetullar fracture were treated in a district hospital. There were two boys aged 15 and 17 and one 33 years old lady. In one case, the fracture was missed in the emergency room. A double arc sign in the lateral views of the X-rays of the elbow was seen in all the cases. In each case a preoperative CT scan was done and a diagnosis of Mckee type IV fracture of the capitellum was made. Under tourniquet, using extended lateral approach, open reduction and internal fixation was done using 4mm partially threaded AO cancellous screws (n=2 and 2.7 mm AO screws (n=1, under vision from posterior to anterior direction from the posterior aspect of lateral condyle of humerus avoiding articular penetration. Results: All the fractures united uneventfully. At the end of one year follow-up, two cases had excellent elbow function; implants were removed and there were no signs of AVN or arthritis. The third case had good elbow ROM at 11 months without AVN. Conclusion: Double arc sign on lateral X-rays of the elbow along with pre-operative CT scan evaluation is important to avoid a missed diagnosis and analysis of type IV capitellur fracture. Fixation with non-cannulated ordinary AO screws using extended Kocher′s lateral approach has given good results.

  13. Strategies used by breast cancer survivors to address work-related limitations during and after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Joanne C; Strom, Carla; Arcury, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this exploratory study was to delineate the broad range of adjustments women breast cancer survivors draw upon to minimize cancer-related limitations at the workplace. The study also analyzed whether survivors used strategies to address work-related limitations in isolation or in combination with other strategies, and whether they used formal or informal strategies. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 14 women who were employed at the time of diagnosis of breast cancer and who continued to work during treatment or returned to work. Interviews were conducted 3 to 24 months after diagnosis. An iterative process was used to systematically analyze the data (the transcripts) using qualitative methods. Participants who worked during or after treatment adjusted their work schedule, performed fewer or other tasks, modified or changed their work environment, reduced non-work activities at the workplace, used cognitive prompts, and acted preemptively to make work tasks manageable after their return to work. Survivors used multiple adjustments and drew upon both formal and informal tactics to minimize or prevent cancer- or treatment-related effects from negatively affecting job performance. Knowledge about the broad range of both formal and informal strategies identified in this study may enable health care and social services providers, as well as cancer survivors and employers, to identify a wide range of specific strategies that may reduce the negative effects of work-related limitations in specific work settings. Insights gained from this analysis should inform future research on work and cancer survivorship. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Rotating night shift work and risk of type 2 diabetes: two prospective cohort studies in women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Pan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Rotating night shift work disrupts circadian rhythms and has been associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and glucose dysregulation. However, its association with type 2 diabetes remains unclear. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate this association in two cohorts of US women.We followed 69,269 women aged 42-67 in Nurses' Health Study I (NHS I, 1988-2008, and 107,915 women aged 25-42 in NHS II (1989-2007 without diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline. Participants were asked how long they had worked rotating night shifts (defined as at least three nights/month in addition to days and evenings in that month at baseline. This information was updated every 2-4 years in NHS II. Self-reported type 2 diabetes was confirmed by a validated supplementary questionnaire. We documented 6,165 (NHS I and 3,961 (NHS II incident type 2 diabetes cases during the 18-20 years of follow-up. In the Cox proportional models adjusted for diabetes risk factors, duration of shift work was monotonically associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in both cohorts. Compared with women who reported no shift work, the pooled hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals for participants with 1-2, 3-9, 10-19, and ≥20 years of shift work were 1.05 (1.00-1.11, 1.20 (1.14-1.26, 1.40 (1.30-1.51, and 1.58 (1.43-1.74, p-value for trend <0.001, respectively. Further adjustment for updated body mass index attenuated the association, and the pooled hazard ratios were 1.03 (0.98-1.08, 1.06 (1.01-1.11, 1.10 (1.02-1.18, and 1.24 (1.13-1.37, p-value for trend <0.001.Our results suggest that an extended period of rotating night shift work is associated with a modestly increased risk of type 2 diabetes in women, which appears to be partly mediated through body weight. Proper screening and intervention strategies in rotating night shift workers are needed for prevention of diabetes.

  15. Food choices coping strategies of eating disorder patients' parents: what happens when both mother and father work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui-Lobera, I; Ruiz-Prieto, I; Bolaños-Ríos, P; Garrido-Casals, O

    2013-11-01

    Recently, it has been reported that food choices of relatives of eating disorder (ED) patients are not adequate having in mind a healthy model of eating habits. The aim of this study was to analyse how work conditions relate to parents' food choice coping strategies in both families with a member suffering from an ED and families with no sick members. In addition, the differences in those strategies between the two types of working parents were studied. A total of 80 employed fathers (n = 27) and mothers (n = 53) of patients with an ED (n =50) and healthy offsprings (n = 30) were interviewed. The mean age was 43.57 ± 5.69 and they had moderate incomes. Food choice coping strategies, used by working parents to integrate work and family demands, were measured by means of 22 items included in five categories. Considering the food choice coping strategies, ED patients' relatives show better skills than relatives of healthy offsprings do. The fact of preparing more meals at home and less fast food as main meal are good examples of those better strategies as well as to miss less number of breakfasts and lunches because of work-family conflict, grabbing less frequently and overeat less after missing a meal. The therapeutic effort to improve the food choices of ED patients' relatives, especially when both father and mother work, are a key point to improve the eating habits of ED patients, thus contributing to a better outcome. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. Supervisors’ Strategies to Facilitate Work Functioning among Employees with Musculoskeletal Complaints: A Focus Group Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tove Ask

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To explore what strategies the supervisors found beneficial to prevent or reduce sickness absence among employees with musculoskeletal complaints. Methods. Five focus groups were conducted and 26 supervisors from health and social sector participated. Commonly used strategies to prevent sickness absence and interdisciplinary cooperation in this work were discussed in the focus groups. Systematic text condensation was used to analyse the data. Results. The supervisors described five strategies for sick leave management: (1 promoting well-being and a healthy working environment, (2 providing early support and adjustments, (3 making employees more responsible, (4 using confrontational strategies in relation to employees on long-term sick leave, and (5 cooperation with general practitioners (GPs. Conclusions. Strategies of promoting a healthy working environment and facilitating early return to work were utilised in the follow-up of employees with musculoskeletal complaints. Supportive strategies were found most useful especially in the early phases, while finding a balance between being supportive, on one side, and confronting the employee, on the other, was endeavoured in cases of recurrent or long-term sick leave. Further, the supervisors requested a closer cooperation with the GPs, which they believed would facilitate return to work.

  17. Burnout and demographic characteristics of workers experiencing different types of work-home interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Merecz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore configurations of positive versus negative interactions between work and home (WHI and their relation to burnout and demographic characteristics. Material and Methods: Sample of 533 Polish workers were interviewed by means of self-administered questionnaires (SWING and MBI-GS. Demographic and work characteristics were also controlled. Results: Cluster analysis distinguished 5 types of WHIs: positive WHI (18%, negative WHI (15.9%, no interaction (29.3%, mutual positive interactions (15.4% and positive HWI (21.4%. The quality of WHI was associated with number of work hours and tenure at main place of employment. The effect of gender on the quality of work-home interaction was not significant. Configuration of WHIs affected the level of burnout. Again, there was no significant difference between men and women in terms of burnout and its sub-dimensions. The least burned-out were people from positive WHI, positive HWI and mutual positive interaction groups. The most burned-out were people who experienced negative WHI the most often. In this group, predominance of men working more than 10 h per day was observed. The majority of study group (71% experienced rather integration than segmentation of both spheres. Conclusions: Our results suggest that segmentation is not an universal and effective strategy of coping with work and home demands – it may prevent the positive home-work spillover, which can be buffer or remedy against stress or burnout. We consider cluster analysis the appropriate method in research on relation to work-family balance issue, which may be useful in unraveling relationships between this phenomenon and attitudes and behaviors.

  18. Burnout and demographic characteristics of workers experiencing different types of work-home interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merecz, Dorota; Andysz, Aleksandra

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore configurations of positive versus negative interactions between work and home (WHI) and their relation to burnout and demographic characteristics. Sample of 533 Polish workers were interviewed by means of self-administered questionnaires (SWING and MBI-GS). Demographic and work characteristics were also controlled. Cluster analysis distinguished 5 types of WHIs: positive WHI (18%), negative WHI (15.9%), no interaction (29.3%), mutual positive interactions (15.4%) and positive HWI (21.4%). The quality of WHI was associated with number of work hours and tenure at main place of employment. The effect of gender on the quality of work-home interaction was not significant. Configuration of WHIs affected the level of burnout. Again, there was no significant difference between men and women in terms of burnout and its sub-dimensions. The least burned-out were people from positive WHI, positive HWI and mutual positive interaction groups. The most burned-out were people who experienced negative WHI the most often. In this group, predominance of men working more than 10 h per day was observed. The majority of study group (71%) experienced rather integration than segmentation of both spheres. Our results suggest that segmentation is not an universal and effective strategy of coping with work and home demands - it may prevent the positive home-work spillover, which can be buffer or remedy against stress or burnout. We consider cluster analysis the appropriate method in research on relation to work-family balance issue, which may be useful in unraveling relationships between this phenomenon and attitudes and behaviors.

  19. Types of work-family interface: well-being correlates of negative and positive spillover between work and family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinnunen, U.; Feldt, T.; Geurts, S.A.E.; Pulkkinen, L.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the structure of the work-family interface measure, which was intended to take into account both the positive and negative spillover between work and family demands in both directions. In addition, the links among the types of work-family spillover and the

  20. Children's Use of Semantic Organizational Strategies Is Mediated by Working Memory Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleepen, Tamara M. J.; Jonkman, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    In adults, the ability to apply semantic grouping strategies has been found to depend on working memory. To investigate this relation in children, two sort-recall tasks (one without and one with a grouping instruction) were administered to 6-12-year-olds. The role of working memory was examined by means of mediation analyses and by assessing…

  1. A Study of Leadership Strategies and Their Impact on Teacher Working Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbalm, Elizabeth M.

    2012-01-01

    Throughout this study, the researcher sought to find the key strategies needed to improve school culture and working conditions. These findings were measured by the 2010 and 2012 North Carolina Teacher Working Conditions Survey (NC TWCS) data, as well as staff focus-group dialogue at three selected schools. The participant groups consisted of an…

  2. Harassment at work? Empowerment and autonomy as coping strategies of young workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turte, Samantha Lemos; Correa, Maria Eduarda Cavadinha; da Luz, Andrea Aparecida; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2012-01-01

    There is a considerable number of researches about workplace violence, but few relate young workers and work harassment. This study aimed to investigate the reported perceptions of young apprentices and trainees about moral harassment at work and related coping strategies. Forty adolescent workers (22 men and 18 women) between 15 and 20 years old who received training by a non-governmental organization in São Paulo, Brazil, participated in the study. Data collection included individual and collective interviews. It was used an in-depth semi structured interview protocol. The discourses were analyzed using the hermeneutic-dialectic frame. Results showed that young workers reported little or no knowledge of strategies to cope with moral harassment at work, showing vulnerability to the effects of aggression. Effective coping strategies at work should embrace two important concepts of health promotion: empowerment and autonomy.

  3. Integrating working level monitor EML Type TF-11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latner, N.; Watnick, S.; Graveson, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    A time-integrating working level radiation monitor is described. The purpose of the instrument is the evaluation of the alpha emission from radon and its daughter products. It has been designed to be virtually silent in operation, making it suitable for residential studies

  4. Integrating women into operator type work at N Reactor Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinther, A.P.

    1976-01-01

    The Affirmative Action Plan in place at the Hanford complex has the goal of filling jobs in all phases of the work force with qualified minority personnel. The paper deals with the special concern, adjustments, and results achieved within UNI as a result of integrating qualified women candidates into the operator and technologist training program

  5. Spontaneous strategy use protects against visual working memory deficits in older adults infected with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Steven Paul; Weber, Erica; Cameron, Marizela V; Dawson, Matthew S; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Bondi, Mark W; Grant, Igor

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that older human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults are at particular risk for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), including dementia. Deficits in attention/working memory are posited to play a central role in the development of HAND among older adults. The aim of the present study was to examine the possible protective benefits of spontaneous strategy use during a visual working memory task in 46 older and 42 younger adults infected with HIV. Results revealed a significant interaction between age and strategy use, with older adults who used a meta-cognitive strategy demonstrating superior working memory performance versus non-strategy users. This effect was not observed in the younger HIV-infected sample and was not better explained by possible confounding factors, such as education, comorbid medical conditions, or HIV disease severity. Within the older group, strategy use was associated with better executive functions and higher estimated verbal intelligence. Findings from this study suggest that working memory declines in older HIV-infected adults are moderated by the use of higher-level mnemonic strategies and may inform cognitive neurorehabilitation efforts to improve cognitive and everyday functioning outcomes in older persons living with HIV infection.

  6. Collaborative work as a didactic strategy for teaching/learning programming: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Revelo-Sanchez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of Collaborative Work into programming courses has been identified as a potential strategy that could maximize student participation and have a positive impact on learning. In the consulted sources, no study has been found to collect and analyze the results of research on this subject using a systematic method. To try to fill this gap, a systematic literature review was conducted with the aim of summarizing the studies on the use of Collaborative Work as a didactic strategy for teaching/learning programming. Initially, through a search in four (4 databases of scientific publications, 95 studies published in the last five (5 years were obtained. After careful analysis of each one of them, only 40 were found to meet the review requirements. This analysis resulted in the synthesis of eleven (11 Collaborative Learning Techniques (CLT that implement such strategy. Subsequently, they were grouped into 19 common names of strategies found in the documents, i.e. the collaborative strategies or techniques associated with each study. The review also showed a significant amount of contributions from the research community that constitute an important basis for future work. This demonstrates that Collaborative Work is increasingly consolidated as a valid and relevant didactic strategy, not only in programming teaching/learning, but also in other areas of knowledge including computer science.

  7. Work stressors, Chinese coping strategies, and job performance in Greater China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Luo; Kao, Shu-Fang; Siu, Oi-Ling; Lu, Chang-Qin

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this research was to jointly test effects of work stressors and coping strategies on job performance among employees in the Greater China region. A self-administered survey was conducted to collect data from three major cities in the region, namely Beijing, Hong Kong, and Taipei (N = 380). Four important work stressors were assessed: heavy workload, organizational constraints, lack of work autonomy, and interpersonal conflict. We used a four-factor model of Chinese coping strategies composed of hobbies/relaxation, active action, seeking social support, and passive adaptation. Job performance was indicated by both task performance (quantity of work, quality of work, job knowledge) and contextual performance (attendance, getting along with others). We found that: (1) work stressors were related to job performance. Specifically, workload had a positive relation with quantity of work, whereas organizational constraints had negative relations with quantity of work and attendance. In addition, interpersonal conflict had a negative relation with getting along with others. (2) Chinese positive coping strategies were positively related to job performance. Specifically, seeking social support had positive relations with quantity of work and getting along with others, whereas active action had positive relations with attendance and job knowledge. (3) Chinese passive adaptation coping behaviors were negatively related to job performance. Specifically, passive adaptation had negative relations with quantity of work, quality of work, and getting along with others. The present study thus found joint effects of work stressors and coping behaviors among Chinese employees in the Greater China region, encompassing three sub-societies of mainland China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan. Differential effects of Chinese positive and passive coping strategies were also noted. Most importantly, all these effects were demonstrated on multiple indicators of job performance, a rarely studied

  8. Management and policy: political strategies and instruments of the risk types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, O.; Klinke, A.

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of the risk classification is to gain an effective and feasible policy tool for the evaluation and the management or risks. The characterisation provides a platform for designing specific political strategies and measures for each risk type. The strategies pursue the goal to transform unacceptable into acceptable risks, i.e. the risks should not be reduced to zero, but they should be reduced to a level that routine risk management becomes sufficient to ensure safety and integrity. All strategies and respective measures are arranged according to priorities. In the normal case more than one strategy and more than one measure are naturally appropriate and necessary. If resources are limited, strategies and measures should be taken in line with the priority list. The following part lists the prior strategies and the prior measures recommended for each risk type. (authors)

  9. Producing infectious enterovirus type 71 in a rapid strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin E-De

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is an etiologic agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD, and recent HFMD epidemics worldwide have been associated with a severe form of brainstem encephalitis associated with pulmonary edema and high case-fatality rates. EV71 contains a positive-sense single-stranded genome RNA of approximately 7400 bp in length which encodes a polyprotein with a single open reading frame (ORF, which is flanked by untranslated regions at both the 5' and 3' ends. Results A long distance RT-PCR assay was developed to amplify the full length genome cDNA of EV71 by using specific primes carrying a SP6 promoter. Then the in vitro synthesized RNA transcripts from the RT-PCR amplicons were then transfected into RD cells to produce the rescued virus. The rescued virus was further characterized by RT-PCR and indirect fluorescent-antibody (IFA assay in comparison with the wild type virus. The rescued viruses were infectious on RD cells and neurovirulent when intracerebrally injected into suckling mice. Conclusions Thus, we established a rapid method to produce the infectious full length cDNA of EV71 directly from RNA preparations and specific mutations can be easily engineered into the rescued enterovirus genome by this method.

  10. What is the best strategy for retaining gestures in working memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenes, Guillaume; Pennequin, Valérie; Mercer, Tom

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to determine whether the recall of gestures in working memory could be enhanced by verbal or gestural strategies. We also attempted to examine whether these strategies could help resist verbal or gestural interference. Fifty-four participants were divided into three groups according to the content of the training session. This included a control group, a verbal strategy group (where gestures were associated with labels) and a gestural strategy group (where participants repeated gestures and were told to imagine reproducing the movements). During the experiment, the participants had to reproduce a series of gestures under three conditions: "no interference", gestural interference (gestural suppression) and verbal interference (articulatory suppression). The results showed that task performance was enhanced in the verbal strategy group, but there was no significant difference between the gestural strategy and control groups. Moreover, compared to the "no interference" condition, performance decreased in the presence of gestural interference, except within the verbal strategy group. Finally, verbal interference hindered performance in all groups. The discussion focuses on the use of labels to recall gestures and differentiates the induced strategies from self-initiated strategies.

  11. Contemporary Management Strategies for Chronic Type B Aortic Dissections: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamman, Arnoud V.; de Beaufort, Hector W. L.; van Bogerijen, Guido H W; Nauta, FJH; Heijmen, Robin H.; Moll, Frans L.; van Herwaarden, Joost A.; Trimarchi, Santi

    2016-01-01

    Background Currently, the optimal management strategy for chronic type B aortic dissections (CBAD) is unknown. Therefore, we systematically reviewed the literature to compare results of open surgical repair (OSR), standard thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) or branched and fenestrated TEVAR

  12. EFL Learners' Self-Perceived Strategy Use across Various Intelligence Types: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahriri, Abdorreza; Divsar, Hoda

    2011-01-01

    Increasing attention paid to learner-centered pedagogy in recent years has highlighted the examination of intelligence and language learning strategies (LLSs) among others. This study explores EFL learners' perceived use of language learning strategies across various intelligence types as reflected in Gardner's 1983 Multiple Intelligences Theory.…

  13. Improvement of workíng environment - from a grass-root strategy to institutionalized professionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Improvement of working environment as a tool to promote sustainable development - from a grass-root strategy to institutionalized professionalism. It is now more than 25 years since substitution of organic solvents started to be considered as a meaningful way in Denmark to reduce harmful effects...... on workers. During that period different groups of actors have been involved, new institutions to improve working environment have emerged, and legislation has been changed. The paper will describe the development from a grass-root strategy to improve working environment to a much more complex situation...... where working environment professionals play an important role, and where the concept of ‘cleaner technology’ is generally accepted as a tool to promote sustainable development in the Danish society. The paper will also discuss the necessity of incorporation of working environment considerations...

  14. Optimal strategy for a single-qubit gate and the trade-off between opposite types of decoherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alicki, Robert; Horodecki, Michal; Horodecki, Ryszard; Horodecki, Pawel; Jacak, Lucjan; Machnikowski, Pawel

    2004-01-01

    We study reliable quantum-information processing (QIP) under two different types of environment. The first type is Markovian exponential decay, and the appropriate elementary strategy of protection of qubit is to apply fast gates. The second one is strongly non-Markovian and occurs solely during operations on the qubit. The best strategy is then to work with slow gates. If the two types are both present, one has to optimize the speed of gate. We show that such a trade-off is present for a single-qubit operation in a semiconductor quantum dot implementation of QIP, where recombination of exciton (qubit) is Markovian, while phonon dressing gives rise to the non-Markovian contribution

  15. Occupational stress, coping strategies, and psychological-related outcomes of nurses working in psychiatric hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Abd Alhadi; Elsayed, Sonia; Tumah, Hussein

    2018-02-25

    Psychiatric nurses experience a wide range of stressful events, evolving from the care of violent, aggressive patients, recurrent relapse, and poor prognosis of mental disorders. The aim of the study was to assess workplace stress, coping strategies, and levels of depression among psychiatric nurses. A descriptive correlation design was conducted on psychiatric nurses working in mental health settings Port-Said, Egypt. Data were collected from 70 nurses at a mental health hospital. The results revealed that psychiatric nurses had moderate levels of work-related stress and depression, and exhibiting different coping strategies. Stress and depression are prevalent among psychiatric nurses. Implementing programs aimed at teaching them how to deal with stress at work and improving their coping strategies and problem-solving skills are recommended. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Exposure to Workplace Bullying: The Role of Coping Strategies in Dealing with Work Stressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney Van den Brande

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies investigating both work- and individual-related antecedents of workplace bullying are scarce. In reply, this study investigated the interaction between workload, job insecurity, role conflict, and role ambiguity (i.e., work-related antecedents, and problem- and emotion-focused coping strategies (i.e., individual-related antecedents in association with exposure to workplace bullying. Problem-focused coping strategies were hypothesised to decrease (i.e., buffer the associations between workload, job insecurity, role conflict, and role ambiguity and exposure to bullying, while emotion-focused coping strategies were hypothesised to increase (i.e., amplify these associations. Results for a heterogeneous sample (N = 3,105 did not provide evidence for problem-focused coping strategies as moderators. As expected, some emotion-focused coping strategies amplified the associations between work-related antecedents and bullying: employees using “focus on and venting of emotions” or “behavioural disengagement” in dealing with job insecurity, role conflict, or role ambiguity were more likely to be exposed to bullying. Similarly, “seeking social support for emotional reasons” and “mental disengagement” amplified the associations of role ambiguity and the associations of both role conflict and role ambiguity, respectively. To prevent bullying, organisations may train employees in tempering emotion-focused coping strategies, especially when experiencing job insecurity, role conflict, or role ambiguity.

  17. Exposure to Workplace Bullying: The Role of Coping Strategies in Dealing with Work Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillien, Elfi; Vander Elst, Tinne; De Witte, Hans; Van den Broeck, Anja

    2017-01-01

    Studies investigating both work- and individual-related antecedents of workplace bullying are scarce. In reply, this study investigated the interaction between workload, job insecurity, role conflict, and role ambiguity (i.e., work-related antecedents), and problem- and emotion-focused coping strategies (i.e., individual-related antecedents) in association with exposure to workplace bullying. Problem-focused coping strategies were hypothesised to decrease (i.e., buffer) the associations between workload, job insecurity, role conflict, and role ambiguity and exposure to bullying, while emotion-focused coping strategies were hypothesised to increase (i.e., amplify) these associations. Results for a heterogeneous sample (N = 3,105) did not provide evidence for problem-focused coping strategies as moderators. As expected, some emotion-focused coping strategies amplified the associations between work-related antecedents and bullying: employees using “focus on and venting of emotions” or “behavioural disengagement” in dealing with job insecurity, role conflict, or role ambiguity were more likely to be exposed to bullying. Similarly, “seeking social support for emotional reasons” and “mental disengagement” amplified the associations of role ambiguity and the associations of both role conflict and role ambiguity, respectively. To prevent bullying, organisations may train employees in tempering emotion-focused coping strategies, especially when experiencing job insecurity, role conflict, or role ambiguity. PMID:29270424

  18. Barriers perceived by teachers at work, coping strategies, self-efficacy and burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doménech Betoret, Fernando; Gómez Artiga, Amparo

    2010-11-01

    This study examines the relationships among stressors, coping strategies, self-efficacy and burnout in a sample of 724 Spanish primary and secondary teachers. We understood stressors as barriers perceived by teachers that interfere with their work meeting learning objectives and which cause them stress and burnout. An analysis of teacher responses using hierarchical regression revealed that pedagogical barriers had significant positive effects on the burnout dimensions. Furthermore, the results show not only the moderator role played by coping strategies in the pedagogical barriers-burnout dimensions relationship, but also the association between self-efficacy and the coping strategies used by teachers. Practical implications are discussed.

  19. Viewpoints of working sandwich generation women and occupational therapists on role balance strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kiah L; Girdler, Sonya J; Falkmer, Torbjorn; Richmond, Janet E; Wagman, Petra; Millsteed, Jeannine; Falkmer, Marita

    2017-09-01

    Occupational therapists need to be cognizant of evidence-based role balance advice and strategies that women with multigenerational caring responsibilities can implement independently or with minimal assistance, as role balance may not be the primary goal during many encounters with this population. Hence, this study aimed to identify the viewpoints on the most helpful role balance strategies for working sandwich generation women, both from their own perspectives and from the perspective of occupational therapists. This was achieved through a Q methodology study, where 54 statements were based on findings from interviews, sandwich generation literature and occupational therapy literature. In total, 31 working sandwich generation women and 42 occupational therapists completed the Q sort through either online or paper administration. The data were analysed using factor analysis with varimax rotation and were interpreted through collaboration with experts in the field. The findings revealed similarities between working sandwich generation women and occupational therapists, particularly in terms of advocating strategies related to sleep, rest and seeking practical assistance from support networks. Differences were also present, with working sandwich generation women viewpoints tending to emphasize strategies related to coping with a busy lifestyle attending to multiple responsibilities. In contrast, occupational therapy viewpoints prioritized strategies related to the occupational therapy process, such as goal setting, activity focused interventions, monitoring progress and facilitating sustainable outcomes.

  20. [Dimensions of work ethic as predictors of strategies to cope with stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Damian; Pollak, Anita; Czerw, Agnieszka

    2017-10-17

    The article presents the mutual relations between the components of work ethic and the strategies of coping with stress used by employees of different branches. Work ethic was presented as a syndrome of the following attitudes: perceiving work as a moral value, treating work as a central value in life, and the belief in the importance of hard work that leads to success. This ethic also consists of the following components: unwillingness to waste time, disapproval of spare time (anti-leisure), willingness to delay gratification, willingness to act honestly at work (morality/ethic), and being independent (self-reliance). Coping strategies were presented as 3 dimensions (obtained by application of factor analysis of the questionnaire scales COPE (Coping Orientations to Problems Experienced)): proactive cognitive operations, avoidance of action and seeking support. The study conducted on 360 employees of different branches shows that the dimensions of the work ethic are moderately related to strategies emphasizing proactive cognitive operations and poorly related to seeking support and avoidance of action. At the same time, the relations between work ethic and avoidance of action are negative (higher work ethic is linked with lower tendency to avoid action). Predictors of proactive cognitive operations are unwillingness to waste time, treating work as a central value in life, willingness to act honestly at work (morality/ethic) and being independent (self-reliance). Med Pr 2017;68(6):711-724. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  1. Managing multiple roles: development of the Work-Family Conciliation Strategies Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Marisa; Fontaine, Anne Marie

    2014-07-17

    Juggling the demands of work and family is becoming increasingly difficult in today's world. As dual-earners are now a majority and men and women's roles in both the workplace and at home have changed, questions have been raised regarding how individuals and couples can balance family and work. Nevertheless, research addressing work-family conciliation strategies is limited to a conflict-driven approach and context-specific instruments are scarce. This study develops an instrument for assessing how dual-earners manage their multiple roles detaching from a conflict point of view highlighting the work-family conciliation strategies put forward by these couples. Through qualitative and quantitative procedures the Work-Family Conciliation Strategies Scales was developed and is composed by 5 factors: Couple Coping; Positive Attitude Towards Multiple Roles, Planning and Management Skills, Professional Adjustments and Institutional Support; with good adjustment [χ2/df = 1.22; CFI = .90, RMSEA = .04, SRMR = .08.] and good reliability coefficients [from .67 to .87]. The developed scale contributes to research because of its specificity to the work-family framework and its focus on the proactive nature of balancing work and family roles. The results support further use of this instrument.

  2. A Strategy for Detection of Inconsistency in Evaluation of Essay Type Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Archana; Chaudhary, Banshi D.

    2014-01-01

    The quality of evaluation of essay type answer books involving multiple evaluators for courses with large number of enrollments is likely to be affected due to heterogeneity in experience, expertise and maturity of evaluators. In this paper, we present a strategy to detect anomalies in evaluation of essay type answers by multiple evaluators based…

  3. Quality of life and working context of nursing professionals of the Family Health Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Luísa Nunes Marques; Maria Beatriz Guimarães Ferreira; Joyce Mara Gabriel Duarte; Nara dos Santos Costa; Vanderlei José Haas; Ana Lúcia de Assis Simões

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to examine the relationship between working context and quality of life of nursing professionals of the FamilyHealth Strategy. Methods: observational, cross-sectional study with quantitative approach accomplished with 50 nursingprofessionals from urban and rural areas. Participants answered a questionnaire of socio-demographic and professionalcharacterization, the Work Context Assessment Scale and WHOQOL-brief. Data were submitted to exploratory and bivariateanalysis. Results: pred...

  4. Social and natural sciences differ in their research strategies, adapted to work for different knowledge landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Do different fields of knowledge require different research strategies? A numerical model exploring different virtual knowledge landscapes, revealed two diverging optimal search strategies. Trend following is maximized when the popularity of new discoveries determine the number of individuals researching it. This strategy works best when many researchers explore few large areas of knowledge. In contrast, individuals or small groups of researchers are better in discovering small bits of information in dispersed knowledge landscapes. Bibliometric data of scientific publications showed a continuous bipolar distribution of these strategies, ranging from natural sciences, with highly cited publications in journals containing a large number of articles, to the social sciences, with rarely cited publications in many journals containing a small number of articles. The natural sciences seem to adapt their research strategies to landscapes with large concentrated knowledge clusters, whereas social sciences seem to have adapted to search in landscapes with many small isolated knowledge clusters. Similar bipolar distributions were obtained when comparing levels of insularity estimated by indicators of international collaboration and levels of country-self citations: researchers in academic areas with many journals such as social sciences, arts and humanities, were the most isolated, and that was true in different regions of the world. The work shows that quantitative measures estimating differences between academic disciplines improve our understanding of different research strategies, eventually helping interdisciplinary research and may be also help improve science policies worldwide.

  5. Women in orthodontics and work-family balance: challenges and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Sarah; Major, Paul W; Flores-Mir, Carlos; Amin, Maryam; Keenan, Louanne

    2012-01-01

    The number of women entering the orthodontic profession over the past few decades has increased dramatically. A review of the literature revealed the lack of research on achieving a work-family balance among female dentists and dental specialists. Work-family balance has been researched more extensively in the field of medicine; however, despite some critical differences, parallels between these 2 professions exist. This study identified issues that Canadian female orthodontists face and strategies they use to achieve a work-family balance. A phenomenological qualitative study was used to analyze the results of semi-structured telephone interviews of a purposive sample of 13 Canadian female orthodontists. The results strongly support the role-conflict theory about the competing pressures of maternal and professional roles. Female orthodontists described their challenges and strategies to minimize role conflict in their attempt to achieve a work-family balance. The women defined balance as having success and satisfaction in both their family life and professional life. They identified specific challenges of achieving a work-family balance that are unique to orthodontic practice and strategies for adapting to their maternal and professional roles. Achieving a work-family balance is of paramount importance to female orthodontists, and the results of this study may be applied to other specialties in dentistry.

  6. Workers' strategies to cope with increasing deterioration of working conditions in the cleaning sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzeslo, Estelle; Lebeer, Guy; De Troyer, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Employees working for office-cleaning companies are directly affected by the growing competition in this sector. They face a heavier workload and heightened psychological pressure. A majority of these workers are less qualified women working part-time, with flexible and inconvenient schedules. The objective of the study is to highlight the workers' strategies to deal with fast work, schedule requirements and the consequent difficulties to reconcile their professional and private life commitments. This study is based on in-depth interviews. One hundred and twenty-five male and female workers responsible for cleaning offices. The themes generated from the results highlight a continued deterioration in working conditions in this sector. They also show that even approximate respect of the theoretical workload as calculated by the sub-contractor and the client company mainly depends on the workers' subjective strategies to accommodate increasingly fragmented work hours with their private lives. In conclusion, since these individual strategies are not enough to make up for the deterioration in work conditions, improving them requires sub-contractors and client companies to agree on organisational arrangements that take into account the reality of the employees' lives.

  7. Improved Control Strategy for T-type Isolated DC/DC Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dong; Deng, Fujin; Wang, Yanbo

    2017-01-01

    T-type isolated DC/DC converters have recently attracted attention due to their numerous advantages, including few components, low cost, and symmetrical operation of transformers. This study proposes an improved control strategy for increasing the efficiency of T-type isolated DC/DC converters....... Under the proposed strategy, the primary circulating current flows through the auxiliary switches (metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors) instead of their body diodes in free-wheeling periods. Such feature can reduce conduction losses, thereby improving the efficiency of T-type isolated DC...

  8. Differences in the Psychosocial Work Environment of Different Types of Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docker, John G.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the use of the Work Environment Scale (WES) to measure teachers' perceptions of psychosocial dimensions of their school environment. Describes an application of WES in which work climates of different school types were compared and contrasted. (RJC)

  9. 29 CFR 548.303 - Average earnings for each type of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... performs different types of work, each involving a different rate of pay such as different piece-rate, job... 40 hours works six 8-hour days in a workweek under an agreement or understanding reached pursuant to...

  10. Work Conditions and the Food Choice Coping Strategies of Employed Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carol M.; Farrell, Tracy J.; Blake, Christine E.; Jastran, Margaret; Wethington, Elaine; Bisogni, Carole A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: How work conditions relate to parents' food choice coping strategies. Design: Pilot telephone survey. Setting: City in the northeastern United States (US). Participants: Black, white, and Hispanic employed mothers (25) and fathers (25) randomly recruited from low-/moderate-income zip codes; 78% of those reached and eligible…

  11. Reading Time Allocation Strategies and Working Memory Using Rapid Serial Visual Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busler, Jessica N.; Lazarte, Alejandro A.

    2017-01-01

    Rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) is a useful method for controlling the timing of text presentations and studying how readers' characteristics, such as working memory (WM) and reading strategies for time allocation, influence text recall. In the current study, a modified version of RSVP (Moving Window RSVP [MW-RSVP]) was used to induce…

  12. Translanguaging as a strategy for group work: Summary writing as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Translanguaging as a strategy for group work: Summary writing as a measure for reading comprehension among university students. ... This paper reports on a research study conducted to ascertain the effectiveness of using a translanguaging approach to assist students in understanding texts. Through discussion of the ...

  13. The Levels of German Teacher Trainers Working in Turkey Regarding Reigeluth's Organizational Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batdi, Veli; Elaldi, Senel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the views of German teacher trainers working in Turkey about their level regarding Reigeluth's organizational strategies and to analyze their views in terms of gender, geographic region, seniority, and graduated high school variables. While the population of the study consisted of German teacher trainers…

  14. Incentivizing around the Globe: Educating for the Challenge of Developing Culturally Considerate Work Motivation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Maura J.

    2017-01-01

    Work motivation has long been considered a driving force behind optimal employee management. However, as the workscape continues its path toward increased globalization, today's managers must consider cultural influences on employee motivation to implement the most appropriate human capital management strategies within any given context. The…

  15. Work level related human factors for enterprise architecture as organisational strategy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gilliland, S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available organisational strategies, such as EA, if they know what behaviour to expect from stakeholders and why people act and react in a certain way. People react differently to strategic initiatives, such as the introduction of EA, depending on their work level and how...

  16. Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Ceri B.; Stone, BJ; Hubbell, Elizabeth; Pitler, Howard

    2012-01-01

    First published in 2001, "Classroom Instruction That Works" revolutionized teaching by linking classroom strategies to evidence of increased student learning. Now this landmark guide has been reenergized and reorganized for today's classroom with new evidence-based insights and a refined framework that strengthens instructional planning. Whether…

  17. Family-Work Conflict and Type-E Personality as Stress Inducers in Married Female Nigerian University Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobola, A. A.; Nwoha, P. C.

    2013-01-01

    This piece of article is culled from a larger study. The study investigated the relationship between family-work conflict, Type-E personality and stress in married female Nigerian University Administrators. The study adopted ex-post facto design. The sample consisted of 800 female administrators in the senior cadre of executive/administrative…

  18. What's work got to do with it? A qualitative study of work life among people with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleal, Bryan; Nexø, Mette Andersen; Willaing, Ingrid

    Background Epidemiological and health economic analyses highlight that lost productivity at work among people with diabetes represents a significant social and individual burden. The reasons for this have been investigated in relation to type 1 diabetes (T1D), but less is known about...... most extreme, one participant bemoaned walking a lot at work while having no feeling in his feet, simultaneously rejecting that diabetes had impacted on his work life. The challenging and negative experiences which did emerge were similar to those highlighted in relation to work and T1D e.g. medication......, food consumption, exercise. Discrimination and stigma were mentioned by a very small number of participants. In short, there was no indication of work-related challenges specific to T2D. Discussion In contrast to studies conducted among people with type 1 diabetes, people with T2D seemed generally less...

  19. Types of work-family interface: well-being correlates of negative and positive spillover between work and family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Ulla; Feldt, Taru; Geurts, Sabine; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2006-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the structure of the work-family interface measure, which was intended to take into account both the positive and negative spillover between work and family demands in both directions. In addition, the links among the types of work-family spillover and the subjects' general and domain-specific well-being were examined. The sample (n = 202) consisted of Finnish employees, aged 42, who had a spouse/partner. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that a four-factor model, including negative work-to-family spillover, negative family-to-work spillover, positive work-to-family spillover, and positive family-to-work spillover, was superior compared to the other factor models examined. Path analysis showed, as hypothesized, that the negative work-to-family spillover was most strongly related to low well-being at work (job exhaustion) and next strongly to low general well-being (psychological distress), whereas the negative family-to-work spillover was associated with low well-being in the domain of family (marital dissatisfaction). Positive work-to-family spillover was positively related both to well-being at work and general well-being. Inconsistent with our expectations, positive family-to-work spillover was not directly related to any of the well-being indicators examined.

  20. Ergonomic design intervention strategy for work tools development for women agro based workers in Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Debkumar; Bhattachheriya, Nandita

    2012-01-01

    Strategy for finding the appropriate strategy for work tool development has become a crucial issue in occupational wellness of varied nature of women workforce of Northeast India. This paper deals with ergonomics intervention through sustainable work tool design development process. Workers who frequently shift to different activities quite often in unorganised small-scale fruit processing units where productivity is directly related to the harvesting season require different work tools relevant to specific tasks and mostly workers themselves manage work tools of their own with available local resources. Whereas in contrast the tea-leaf pluckers are engaged in a single task throughout the year, and the work schedule and work equipment is decided and supplied to them based on the corporate decision where the workers do not have any individual control. Observations confirm the need for organising participatory workshops specific to trade based occupational well-being and different work tools for different tasks in mostly private owned unorganised sector. Implementation of single variety work tool development that supports a crucial component in tea-leaf plucking for which they are engaged in full time employment; and through a corporate decision a single design with its number of users makes a good effect.

  1. Strategies to accommodate resident work-hour restrictions: impact on surgical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiburg, Carter; James, Ted; Ashikaga, Takamura; Moalem, Jacob; Cherr, Greg

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of duty-hour restrictions has impacted surgical training. Several strategies were introduced by training programs in response to these restrictions. The purpose of this study was to assess the various strategies employed by residency programs to comply with work-hour restrictions with respect to the impact on the quality of surgical education. A national survey was developed and distributed to resident members of the Resident and Associate Society of the American College of Surgeons in all accredited residency programs across North America. Questions in the survey addressed 10 separate accommodation strategies used by training programs to adhere to resident work-hour restrictions. Resident respondents completed a 5-point Likert scale rating each strategy according to its impact on surgical education (detrimental, not very helpful, neutral, somewhat helpful, and very helpful). A total of 599 (9.7%) responses were received from 6186 members of the Resident Associate Society. The use of health information technology (IT), nurse practitioners, and physician assistants were most highly rated. Hiring clinical fellows, establishing nonteaching services, and shift-work scheduling were the three most poorly rated accommodations to work-hour restrictions with respect to resident education. Hospital IT and nonphysician care providers were rated by residents to optimize surgical education in the current work-hour limitation environment. We infer that strategies which lead to increased efficiency and redistribution of resident workload allow surgical trainees to spend more time on activities perceived to have higher educational value. Copyright © 2011 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sustainable employability in shiftwork: related to types of work schedule rather than age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Velibor; Engels, Josephine A; de Rijk, Angelique E; Nijhuis, Frans J N

    2015-10-01

    There is scarce research on age and sustainable employability of nurses working in various types of work schedules. Earlier research showed that nurses working in work schedules differ regarding age. Different operationalisations of age might explain variations in sustainable employability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate how nurses working in various types of work schedule differ regarding sustainable employability, and the role that age plays in these differences. Age was defined as chronological age, organisational age, life-span age, and functional age. Questionnaires were distributed to 974 Dutch nurses in residential elder care (response rate 51 %) with questions about the type of work schedule, aspects of sustainable employability, various operationalisations of age, and registered sickness absence data were used. Nurses working in various types of work schedules differed regarding aspects of sustainable employability, also when operationalisations of age were added. The 'life-span age' was directly related to aspects of sustainable employability. Statistically, work ability and job satisfaction were only explained by varying operationalisations of age. Nurses' sustainable employability appeared to be mainly related to differences between the types of work schedule rather than age. Fixed early shifts are characterised by the most positive aspects of sustainable employability, and three rotating schedules score worst. To improve sustainable employability, organisations should implement a system in which nurses with different types of work schedule are monitored in combination with their life-span perspective.

  3. Property types diversification strategy of Malaysian real estate investment trust (M-REITs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Tiong Chai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review the property types diversification strategy of Malaysian REITs. Previous study has found that Malaysian REITs received poor response form investors both local and international. Furthermore, the underperformance of Malaysian REITs was linked to the characteristics of REITs’ property types and REITs’ portfolio influenced its financial performance. The lack of local study on both of these determinants of influence on performance of Malaysian REITs is a research gap, which needs to be explored that can provide more insight of it. This study showed that the property types such as office space, commercial lot, industrial, hotel and specialized property type are the important determinants, which can influence the performance of REITs. The study comprised of REITs data from 2010 until 2014, and through Multiple Regression Analysis (MRA reveals there is little influence of property types diversification strategy toward Malaysian REITs’ performance. Nevertheless, by employ correlation analysis between each of the five property types with expected return and dividend yield, this study shows Malaysian REITs’ performance of dividend yield(DY has a positive correlation value with commercial lot property type and Malaysian REITs’ performance of expected return(ER have a highest positive correlation value with industrial property types. Also, this study suggests that property type diversification play a significant role in Malaysia REITs. Other determinants such as location of property, market capitalization and REITs’ quality of advisory style that might influence the diversification strategy and financial performance of Malaysian REITs.

  4. Understanding and preventing type 1 diabetes through the unique working model of TrialNet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Manuela; Anderson, Mark S; Buckner, Jane H; Geyer, Susan M; Gottlieb, Peter A; Kay, Thomas W H; Lernmark, Åke; Muller, Sarah; Pugliese, Alberto; Roep, Bart O; Greenbaum, Carla J; Peakman, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease arising from the destruction of pancreatic insulin-producing beta cells. The disease represents a continuum, progressing sequentially at variable rates through identifiable stages prior to the onset of symptoms, through diagnosis and into the critical periods that follow, culminating in a variable depth of beta cell depletion. The ability to identify the very earliest of these presymptomatic stages has provided a setting in which prevention strategies can be trialled, as well as furnishing an unprecedented opportunity to study disease evolution, including intrinsic and extrinsic initiators and drivers. This niche opportunity is occupied by Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet, an international consortium of clinical trial centres that leads the field in intervention and prevention studies, accompanied by deep longitudinal bio-sampling. In this review, we focus on discoveries arising from this unique bioresource, comprising more than 70,000 samples, and outline the processes and science that have led to new biomarkers and mechanistic insights, as well as identifying new challenges and opportunities. We conclude that via integration of clinical trials and mechanistic studies, drawing in clinicians and scientists and developing partnership with industry, TrialNet embodies an enviable and unique working model for understanding a disease that to date has no cure and for designing new therapeutic approaches.

  5. Computer use problems and accommodation strategies at work and home for people with systemic sclerosis: a needs assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Nancy A; Aufman, Elyse L; Poole, Janet L

    2012-01-01

    We identified the extent of the need for interventions and assistive technology to prevent computer use problems in people with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and the accommodation strategies they use to alleviate such problems. Respondents were recruited through the Scleroderma Foundation. Twenty-seven people with SSc who used a computer and reported difficulty in working completed the Computer Problems Survey. All but 1 of the respondents reported one problem with at least one equipment type. The highest number of respondents reported problems with keyboards (88%) and chairs (85%). More than half reported discomfort in the past month associated with the chair, keyboard, and mouse. Respondents used a variety of accommodation strategies. Many respondents experienced problems and discomfort related to computer use. The characteristic symptoms of SSc may contribute to these problems. Occupational therapy interventions for computer use problems in clients with SSc need to be tested. Copyright © 2012 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  6. Strategies in disability management. Corporate disability management programs implemented at the work site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalina, C M

    1999-10-30

    Managers are challenged to demonstrate all programs as economically essential to the business, generating an appreciable return on investment. Further challenge exists to blend and integrate clinical and business objectives in program development. Disability management programs must be viewed as economically essential to the financial success of the business to assure management support for clinical interventions and return-to-work strategies essential for a successful program. This paper discusses a disability management program integrating clinical and business goals and objectives in return-to-work strategies to effect positive clinical, social-cultural, and business results. Clinical, educational, social, and economic challenges in the development, implementation, and continued management of a disability program at a large corporation with multiple global work sites are defined. Continued discussion addresses the effective clinical interventions and educational strategies utilized successfully within the workplace environment in response to each defined challenge. A multiple disciplinary team approach, clinical and business outcome measures, and quality assurance indicators are discussed as major program components. This article discusses a successful program approach focusing on business process and methodology. These parameters are used to link resources to strategy, developing a product for implementing and managing a program demonstrating economic value added through effective clinical medical case management.

  7. Teacher-employed Communication Strategies: Investigating Function Type Occurrence in Iranian EFL Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massoud Yaghoubi Notash

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Communication strategies, as goal-oriented lines of action to obviate breakdowns in the flow of communication, have been the subject of extensive studies in SLA. While student-employed strategies have been duly investigated in the literature, those employed by teachers in the classroom context continue to be inadequately addressed. Moreover, characterizing functions of communication strategies (CSs rather than their types as a research interest can offer new insights for research. Accordingly, the present study concentrated on the function of CSs employed by 16 teachers across elementary (8 and advanced levels (8 teaching spoken English in private institutes in Tabriz, Iran. A modified version of Jamshidnejad’s (2011 functions of communication strategies was employed as the framework for defining functions. T-test results indicated a significant difference regarding ‘maintaining the flow of conversation’ between elementary and advanced level teachers. As with other function types, no significant differences could be revealed.

  8. Proposed national strategies for the prevention of leading work-related diseases and injuries. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary strategies developed at the National Symposium on the Prevention of Leading Work Related Diseases and Injuries, held in Atlanta, Georgia on May 1 to 3, 1985 were revised, elaborated, and further developed. Strategies were developed for the prevention of occupational lung diseases, musculoskeletal injuries, occupational cancers, severe occupational traumatic injuries, and occupational cardiovascular diseases. Lung diseases considered included silicosis, asbestosis, lung cancer mesothelioma, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, byssinosis, occupational asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, asphyxiation, irritation, pulmonary edema, brucellosis, psitticosis, anthrax, mycobacterioses, histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and coccidioidomycosis. Occupational cancers were discussed as they occur in the lung, pleura, peritoneum, bladder, kidneys, blood, nasal cavity, skin, nasal sinuses, and liver.

  9. Cognitive Strategies, Working Memory, and Growth in Word Problem Solving in Children With Math Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, H Lee; Lussier, Catherine M; Orosco, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the role of strategy instruction and working memory capacity (WMC) on word problem solving accuracy in children with (n = 100) and without (n = 92) math difficulties (MD). Within classrooms, children in Grades 2 and 3 were randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions: verbal-only strategies (e.g., underlining question sentence), verbal + visual strategies, visual-only strategies (e.g., correctly placing numbers in diagrams), or untreated control. Strategy interventions included 20 sessions in both Year 1 and Year 2. The intent-to-treat as well as the "as-treated" analyses showed that treatment effects were significantly moderated by WMC. In general, treatment outcomes were higher when WMC was set to a high rather than low level. When set to a relatively high WMC level, children with MD performed significantly better under visual-only strategy conditions and children without MD performed better under verbal + visual conditions when compared to control conditions. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.

  10. Night Shift Work, Genetic Risk, and Type 2 Diabetes in the UK Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Céline; Dashti, Hassan S; Lane, Jacqueline M; Anderson, Simon G; Schernhammer, Eva S; Rutter, Martin K; Saxena, Richa; Scheer, Frank A J L

    2018-04-01

    To examine the effects of past and current night shift work and genetic type 2 diabetes vulnerability on type 2 diabetes odds. In the UK Biobank, we examined associations of current ( N = 272,214) and lifetime ( N = 70,480) night shift work exposure with type 2 diabetes risk (6,770 and 1,191 prevalent cases, respectively). For 180,704 and 44,141 unrelated participants of European ancestry (4,002 and 726 cases, respectively) with genetic data, we assessed whether shift work exposure modified the relationship between a genetic risk score (comprising 110 single-nucleotide polymorphisms) for type 2 diabetes and prevalent diabetes. Compared with day workers, all current night shift workers were at higher multivariable-adjusted odds for type 2 diabetes (none or rare night shifts: odds ratio [OR] 1.15 [95% CI 1.05-1.26]; some nights: OR 1.18 [95% CI 1.05-1.32]; and usual nights: OR 1.44 [95% CI 1.19-1.73]), except current permanent night shift workers (OR 1.09 [95% CI 0.93-1.27]). Considering a person's lifetime work schedule and compared with never shift workers, working more night shifts per month was associated with higher type 2 diabetes odds (8/month: OR 1.36 [95% CI 1.14-1.62]; P trend = 0.001). The association between genetic type 2 diabetes predisposition and type 2 diabetes odds was not modified by shift work exposure. Our findings show that night shift work, especially rotating shift work including night shifts, is associated with higher type 2 diabetes odds and that the number of night shifts worked per month appears most relevant for type 2 diabetes odds. Also, shift work exposure does not modify genetic risk for type 2 diabetes, a novel finding that warrants replication. © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.

  11. Types of conflict, types of relationships and preferred conflict resolution strategies: Implications for constructive conflict resolution programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Danijela S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Constructive conflict resolution programmes are based on the idea that children and youth do no have sufficient knowledge of the procedures and skills for conflict resolution, which is why the conflicts they take part in soon become destructive. Notwithstanding the indubitable practical significance of the constructive conflict resolution programmes, it can be objected that they are not sufficiently based on empirical findings about the characteristics of conflicts in childhood and adolescence. Hence, this paper explores different types of conflict with peers and friends with the aim of determining the preferred conflict resolution strategies and using the obtained results to consider the implications for the improvement of constructive conflict resolution programmes. The research was conducted on the sample of 286 adolescents. The method of hypothetical conflict situations was used for studying the preferred conflict resolution strategies. The key results, which should be taken into account when developing constructive conflict resolution programmes, indicate that the preference for a conflict resolution strategy varies depending on conflict type (problem solving is mostly used in conflicts occurring due to opinion differences and disrespect of agreement, unlike the conflicts arising due to provocations, stubbornness and dishonesty and relationship types (in conflicts with friends, adolescents prefer problem solving, while in peer conflicts they more frequently opt for competition. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018: Identifikacija, merenje i razvoj kognitivnih i emocionalnih kompetencija važnih društvu orijentisanom na evropske integracije

  12. Virtual strategies to improve transversal competences, using wikis in a collaborative work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinau, Marta; Playa, Elisabet

    2016-04-01

    A major educational aim in university degrees since the implementation of the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) on the European universities is the work based on transversal competences. However, the first course students arrive at the Spanish universities with important deficiencies on some of these competences, especially regarding on oral and written expression, time management and collaborative work. The experience of the teachers involved in this work has revealed the coordination difficulty between the students to work in group, important deficiencies on information management and the stress caused by the oral presentations. The results presented here correspond to a teaching innovation project. It is based on: a) the development of works in groups of 3 or 4 students, proposed as flipped classrooms strategy and b) the implementation of a virtual tool (a wiki). This tool helps the students with scientific information management and facilitates the access of all the students belonging to the work group at the information provided by colleagues. The wiki also improves the monitoring and evaluation of the work and contributions of each student by teachers. Each group must develop a topic related to the subject - General Geology and Geochemistry - that the group chose from a list of earth sciences topics proposed by teachers. The resulting works are presented in poster and oral presentations (10 min. per group and 5 min. for questions). Each work is evaluated by teachers using the evidences provided on the wiki and by means of evaluation guides. Moreover, the students must self and co-evaluate the presented works. The implementation of this project has provided information to analyze the impact of these strategies and to quantify it in terms of 'Learning Analytics'.

  13. Working Effectively with Different Personality Types: A Look at the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanagov, Diana

    2007-01-01

    In 1921, Carl Jung wrote about four different types of personality, identified 24 centuries ago by Hippocrates. He theorized that these differences were not abnormalities in personality. Instead, he maintained that human behavior is predictable and classifiable that everyone has and acts upon personal preferences, established in early childhood.…

  14. Decommissioning strategy of the operating WWER type units in the Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinsky, L.L.; Lobach, Yu.N.; Skripov, A.E.

    2002-01-01

    At present in Ukraine, 13 WWER type units are in operation and two other ones are in the final stage of construction. Decommissioning of these units is expected after the year 2010. General planning of their decommissioning is developed in the framework of the decommissioning strategy of operating WWER type units. The strategy contains the objectives, principles and main tasks of the decommissioning as well as the activities at each phase of decommissioning. It is considered a broad range of factors important for the planning and implementation of decommissioning. (author)

  15. Aerosol monitoring during work inside the 'object shelter': Analysis of dispersion and concentration for different work types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aryasov, P.; Nechaev, S.; Tsygankov, N.; Dmitrienko, A.

    2007-01-01

    Results of aerosol monitoring during work inside the object shelter (OS) are presented. Taking into account the fact that dispersion of the aerosol is one of the main factors affecting internal dose [Annals of the ICRP, ICRP Publication 66, Human Respiratory Tract Model for Radiological Protection, Pergamon Press, 1993], principal task of the investigation was the determination of the aerodynamic diameter (AD) distribution of the radioactive aerosol. Special attention was paid to transuranium elements' content in the aerosol since they are the major dose-producing radionuclides for the OS conditions. At present, work on stabilization of unstable constructions of the OS is in the active stage. Most of the work inside the OS leads to increased generation of radioactive aerosols. This work is carried out in the highly contaminated premises of the OS, where radioactive situation has been formed during the accident. Present work contains earliest results of the aerosol monitoring program for the period from September 2005 untill February 2006. Data obtained shows that for most types of work, radionuclides mainly located in the coarse aerosol fraction, activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) range 8-12 μm. Work on the program continues at present time (actual data accumulation and analysis). Further widening of the program with the goal of type of material determination is described

  16. Work-related stress and Type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, M P; Sargeant, L A; Caleyachetty, R; Griffin, S J

    2012-04-01

    Work-related psychosocial stress has been hypothesized to increase the individual risk of Type 2 diabetes; however, observational epidemiological studies investigating the association between work-related psychosocial stress and Type 2 diabetes have provided an inconsistent picture. To evaluate whether work-related psychosocial stress (defined by a work-related stress model or by long work hours) is associated with the risk of Type 2 diabetes. A systematic review of the literature was conducted until March 2010. Studies eligible for inclusion were published observational epidemiological studies of adult participants in community or occupational settings if they had a measure of work-related stress on a validated scale or a measure of work hours or overtime assessed prior to, or at the same time as, assessment of Type 2 diabetes status. Where possible, meta-analysis was conducted to obtain summary odds ratios of the association. We located nine studies (four prospective, one case-control and four cross-sectional). The meta-analyses did not show any statistically significant associations between any individual aspect of work-related psychosocial stress or job strain and risk of Type 2 diabetes. The specific hypothesis that a working environment characterized by high psychosocial stress is directly associated with increased risk of Type 2 diabetes could not be supported from the meta-analysis.

  17. Remember some or remember all? Ageing and strategy effects in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Amy L; Baddeley, Alan D; Allen, Richard J

    2017-08-16

    Recent research (Bengson & Luck, 2015) has indicated that visual working memory capacity for unidimensional items might be boosted by focusing on all presented items, as opposed to a subset of them. However, it is not clear whether the same outcomes would be observed if more complex items were used which require feature binding, a potentially more demanding task. The current experiments therefore examined the effects of encoding strategy using multidimensional items in tasks that required feature binding. Effects were explored across a range of different age groups (Experiment 1) and task conditions (Experiment 2). In both experiments, participants performed significantly better when focusing on a subset of items, regardless of age or methodological variations, suggesting this is the optimal strategy to employ when several multidimensional items are presented and binding is required. Implications for task interpretation and visual working memory function are discussed.

  18. [Network Prevention of Accidents at Work: a strategy for distance education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marziale, Maria Helena; Zapparoli, Amanda dos Santos; Felli, Vanda Elisa; Anabuki, Marina Hideko

    2010-01-01

    Quasi-experimental study that aimed at evaluating the proposed interactive training, as a strategy for change in the behavior of workers, seeking the appropriate use of gloves in the administration of intravenous drugs. The interactive training was structured in the Model of Health Promotion of Pender, conducted through access to the web site of the Network Prevention of Accidents at Work (REPAT) available from: http://repat.eerp.usp.br/estrategia/index.php and applied in 60 workers nursing from two hospitals in the state of Sao Paulo. On the week before the training 58.3% of the workers were wearing gloves to administrate intravenous drugs and 83.3% of the workers informed the intention of wearing gloves after the training. the use of interactive tool facilitated the implementation of educational strategy in work and showed that training can help in changing behavior.

  19. The importance of work environment: evidence-based strategies for enhancing nurse retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Linda

    2005-06-01

    As the nation faces a growing nursing shortage, it is imperative that home care leaders implement evidence-based strategies to improve nurse recruitment and retention. Previous research indicates that characteristics of the work environment that support nursing practice enhance nurses' job satisfaction and reduce turnover. Yet, there is little evidence to assist in prioritizing initiatives to improve the work environment of nurses. In this nationwide survey, home care nurses were asked to rate the importance of specific agency work environment traits, as listed on the Nursing Work Index-Revised, in supporting their home care practice. The 10 agency traits rated as most important are presented, and evidence-based recommendations for creating a culture of nurse retention are discussed.

  20. Quality of life and working context of nursing professionals of the Family Health Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luísa Nunes Marques

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to examine the relationship between working context and quality of life of nursing professionals of the FamilyHealth Strategy. Methods: observational, cross-sectional study with quantitative approach accomplished with 50 nursingprofessionals from urban and rural areas. Participants answered a questionnaire of socio-demographic and professionalcharacterization, the Work Context Assessment Scale and WHOQOL-brief. Data were submitted to exploratory and bivariateanalysis. Results: predominance of women, married, belonging to economic classes C/D and with only one employmentbond. The factor Work Organization and the Social domain had higher mean scores, while Socio-professional relations andthe Environmental domain, lower scores. Descriptively, there was a negative correlation between all the factors of the workcontext and the Physical, Psychological and Social domains. Conclusion: inadequate conditions to work practice, lack oforganization and the difficulty in social relationships negatively impact the quality of life of nursing professionals.

  1. Rural Women Family Physicians: Strategies for Successful Work-Life Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Julie; Hustedde, Carol; Bjorkman, Sarah; Prasad, Rupa; Sola, Orlando; Wendling, Andrea; Bjorkman, Kurt; Paladine, Heather

    2016-05-01

    Women family physicians experience challenges in maintaining work-life balance while practicing in rural communities. We sought to better understand the personal and professional strategies that enable women in rural family medicine to balance work and personal demands and achieve long-term career satisfaction. Women family physicians practicing in rural communities in the United States were interviewed using a semistructured format. Interviews were recorded, professionally transcribed, and analyzed using an immersion and crystallization approach, followed by detailed coding of emergent themes. The 25 participants described a set of strategies that facilitated successful work-life balance. First, they used reduced or flexible work hours to help achieve balance with personal roles. Second, many had supportive relationships with spouses and partners, parents, or other members of the community, which facilitated their ability to be readily available to their patients. Third, participants maintained clear boundaries around their work lives, which helped them to have adequate time for parenting, recreation, and rest. Women family physicians can build successful careers in rural communities, but supportive employers, relationships, and patient approaches provide a foundation for this success. Educators, employers, communities, and policymakers can adapt their practices to help women family physicians thrive in rural communities. © 2016 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  2. Deliberating A Contract Type Based Risk Mitigation Strategy For South African Defense Acquisitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    cash flow may lead to cost overruns and schedule slippage. Table 1 shows the description, schedule and cost performance status for two SA DOD...possibility of applying a contract-type based strategy to manage acquisition program costs and schedule risks for the South African (SA) Department of...deviations between technical, cost and schedule performance. 14. SUBJECT TERMS acquisition process, defense acquisition, contract-type, risk

  3. Ergonomics strategies and actions for achieving productive use of an ageing work-force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumashiro, M

    2000-07-01

    In this report, a basic ERGOMA (Ergonomics in Industrial Management) strategy is proposed as a policy for corporate production and employment in countries where ageing populations and reduced birth rates are imminent, and a strategy related to this is proposed. Specifically, as a strategy at the company level, the results of survey studies aimed at the development of methods for determining job capacity, to enable effective use of the labour of ageing workers, were summarized. A number of the insights gained here are steps in the development of a foundational methodology for practical use, and in actual practice a number of these insights must be subjected to measurements. However, the theory and newly developed methodology described here are thought to represent significant changes from the approaches to job capacity diagnosis and assessment published in the past and from the stance towards utilization of an ageing work-force. The author is confident that this represents new progress in one of the ergonomics approach to dealing with the working environment of ageing workers and an ageing work-force in general.

  4. Self-employed individuals performing different types of work have different occupational safety and health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungsun; Han, Boyoung; Kim, Yangho

    2018-05-22

    We assessed the occupational safety and health (OSH) issues of self-employed individuals in Korea. The working conditions and OSH issues in three groups were analyzed using the Korean Working Conditions Survey of 2014. Among self-employed individuals, "Physical work" was more common among males, whereas "Emotional work" was more common among females. Self-employed individuals performing "Mental work" had more education, higher incomes, and the lowest exposure to physical/chemical and ergonomic hazards in the workplace. In contrast, those performing "Physical work" were older, had less education, lower incomes, greater exposure to physical/chemical and ergonomic hazards in the workplace, and more health problems. Individuals performing "Physical work" were most vulnerable to OSH problems. The self-employed are a heterogeneous group of individuals. We suggest development of specific strategies that focus on workers performing "Physical work" to improve the health and safety of self-employed workers in Korea. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The characteristics of walking strategy in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Pan

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: It highlights to put forward the walking strategy according to the abnormal COP trajectory. Due to the elderly diabetics with high risks of falling, the rehabilitation nursing should be strengthened mainly including the training of enhancing proprioception to prevent the elderly patients with type2 diabetes from falling.

  6. Elementary school students’ strategic learning and quality of strategy use: Does task type matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malmberg, Jonna; Järvelä, Sanna; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated what types of learning patterns and strategies elementary school students use to carry out ill- and- well-structured tasks. Specifically, it was investigated which and when learning patterns actually emerge with respect to students’ task solutions. The present study uses

  7. The Role of Book Familiarity and Book Type on Mothers' Reading Strategies and Toddlers' Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Kathryn L.; Finch, W. Holmes

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine how maternal reading strategies and book type would impact on toddlers' responsiveness as they became familiar with three books. Eleven mothers and their 2- to 3-year-olds were recorded reading the same set of three different books (i.e. word book, narrative book and no narrative book) on four…

  8. Learning about the Types of Plastic Wastes: Effectiveness of Inquiry Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Wing-Mui Winnie; Cheng, Nga-Yee Irene; Chow, Cheuk-Fai; Zhan, Ying

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the impacts of the inquiry learning strategies employed in a "Plastic Education Project" on primary students' knowledge, beliefs and intended behaviour in Hong Kong. Student questionnaires and a test on plastic types were adopted for data collection. Results reveal that the inquiry learning strategies…

  9. Work family-life balance and social investment strategies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses and discusses the options and possibilities of combining work and family life in a universal welfare state, e. g. Denmark. Related to the ability to combine work and family life is the welfare states investment in affordable and high quality day care and a perspective...... on caring for elderly citizens. The theoretical underpinnings of universal welfare states is given and also the reason why it has been important to ensure and be able to combine work and family life. The article shows how Denmark, Sweden and Finland compare with countries from other and different types...

  10. Dental work force strategies during a period of change and uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L J

    2001-12-01

    Both supply and demand influence the ability of the dental work force to adequately and efficiently provide dental care to a U.S. population growing in size and diversity. Major changes are occurring on both sides of the dental care market. Among factors shaping the demand for dental care are changing disease patterns, shifting population demographics, the extent and features of third-party payment, and growth of the economy and the population. The capacity of the dental work force to provide care is influenced by enhancements of productivity and numbers of dental health personnel, as well as their demographic and practice characteristics. The full impact of these changes is difficult to predict. The dentist-to-population ratio does not reflect all the factors that must be considered to develop an effective dental work force policy. Nationally, the dental work force is likely to be adequate for the next several years, but regional work force imbalances appear to exist and may get worse. Against this backdrop of change and uncertainty, future dental work force strategies should strive for short-term responsiveness while avoiding long-term inflexibility. Trends in the work force must be continually monitored. Thorough analysis is required, and action should be taken when necessary.

  11. The Relationship between Personality Types and Self-Regulated Learning Strategies of Language Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Ghyasi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between personality traits, as measured by the NEO Five Factor Inventory, and different learning strategies, measured by the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ, that foreign language student may employ to help them learn the language.  A sample of 231 undergraduate students of English in Iran was administered the Inventory and the MSLQ.  This study is the first to connect learners’ personality traits with general learning strategies, which can be specifically applied to foreign language learning.  Analyzing the data using multiple regressions, the authors found that personality type was able to predict the tendency to use different learning strategies.  Specifically, students who scored high on “conscientiousness” were more likely to use all strategies, particularly managing time and study environment.  Students high on extraversion were more likely to use peer learning and help seeking strategies.  The authors conclude that language teachers could benefit from assessing their students’ personalities and matching strategies to their students’ tendencies.

  12. Science laboratory behavior strategies of students relative to performance in and attitude to laboratory work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okebukola, Peter Akinsola

    The relationship between science laboratory behavior strategies of students and performance in and attitude to laboratory work was investigated in an observational study of 160 laboratory sessions involving 600 class five (eleventh grade) biology students. Zero-order correlations between the behavior strategies and outcome measures reveal a set of low to strong relationships. Transmitting information, listening and nonlesson related behaviors exhibited low correlations with practical skills and the attitude measure. The correlations between manipulating apparatus and observation with practical skills measures were found to be strong. Multiple correlation analysis revealed that the behaviors of students in the laboratories observed accounted for a large percentage of the variance in the scores on manipulative skills and a low percentage on interpretation of data, responsibility, initiative, and work habits. One significant canonical correlation emerged. The loadings on this canonical variate indicate that the practical skills measures, i.e., planning and design, manipulative skills and conduct of experiments, observation and recording of data, and attitude to laboratory work made primary contributions to the canonical relationship. Suggestions as to how students can be encouraged to go beyond cookbook-like laboratories and develop a more favorable attitude to laboratory work are made.

  13. Features of burnout syndrome development in healthcare workers with different types of work motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vezhnovets T.A.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of researches of peculiarities of burnout syndrome formation in healthcare workers with different types of work motivation. It is discovered that the syndrome is formed for each motivational type as mechanism of psychological protection against the action of certain stressful factors, namely: for instrumental type – an excessive concentration on obtaining material rewards; for professional type – an excessive control of emotions in substantial professional communications and high psycho-emotional overload; for patriotic type – high level of dependence on social approval, a high level of communicative activity, a high level of psycho-emotional overload, for economical type – distrust, for lumpenized – any labor. Prevention of burnout syndrome in healthcare workers has to be realized taking into account peculiarities of psycho-traumatic factors depending on the type of work motivation.

  14. Does Cognitive Strategy Training on Word Problems Compensate for Working Memory Capacity in Children with Math Difficulties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, H. Lee

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive strategies are important tools for children with math difficulties (MD) in learning to solve word problems. The effectiveness of strategy training, however, depends on working memory capacity (WMC). Thus, children with MD but with relatively higher WMC are more likely to benefit from strategy training, whereas children with lower WMC may…

  15. Distinct work-related, clinical and psychological factors predict return to work following treatment in four different cancer types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Alethea F; Hankins, Matthew; Rixon, Lorna; Eaton, Emma; Grunfeld, Elizabeth A

    2013-03-01

    Many factors influence return to work (RTW) following cancer treatment. However specific factors affecting RTW across different cancer types are unclear. This study examined the role of clinical, sociodemographic, work and psychological factors in RTW following treatment for breast, gynaecological, head and neck, and urological cancer. A 12-month prospective questionnaire study was conducted with 290 patients. Cox regression analyses were conducted to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for time to RTW. Between 89-94% of cancer survivors returned to work. Breast cancer survivors took the longest to return (median 30 weeks), and urology cancer survivors returned the soonest (median 5 weeks). Earlier return among breast cancer survivors was predicted by a greater sense of control over their cancer at work (HR 1.2; 95% CI: 1.09-1.37) and by full-time work (HR 2.1; CI: 1.24-3.4). Predictive of a longer return among gynaecological cancer survivors was a belief that cancer treatment may impair ability to work (HR 0.75; CI: 0.62-0.91). Among urological cancer survivors constipation was predictive of longer RTW (HR 0.99; CI: 0.97-1.00), whereas undertaking flexible working was predictive of returning sooner (HR 1.70; CI: 1.07-2.7). Head and neck cancer survivors who perceived greater negative consequences of their cancer took longer to return (HR 0.27; CI: 0.11-0.68). Those reporting better physical functioning returned sooner (HR1.04; CI: 1.01-1.08). A different profile of predictive factors emerged for the four cancer types. In addition to optimal symptom management and workplace adaptations, the findings suggest that eliciting and challenging specific cancer and treatment-related perceptions may facilitate RTW. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Disclosing a disability: Do strategy type and onset controllability make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Brent J; Volpone, Sabrina D; Wessel, Jennifer L; Alonso, Natalya M

    2017-09-01

    In hiring contexts, individuals with concealable disabilities make decisions about how they should disclose their disability to overcome observers' biases. Previous research has investigated the effectiveness of binary disclosure decisions-that is, to disclose or conceal a disability-but we know little about how, why, or under what conditions different types of disclosure strategies impact observers' hiring intentions. In this article, we examine disability onset controllability (i.e., whether the applicant is seen as responsible for their disability onset) as a boundary condition for how disclosure strategy type influences the affective reactions (i.e., pity, admiration) that underlie observers' hiring intentions. Across 2 experiments, we found that when applicants are seen as responsible for their disability, strategies that de-emphasize the disability (rather than embrace it) lower observers' hiring intentions by elevating their pity reactions. Thus, the effectiveness of different types of disability disclosure strategies differs as a function of onset controllability. We discuss implications for theory and practice for individuals with disabilities and organizations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Evaluation of Three Hydration Strategies in Detection Dogs Working in a Hot Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia M. Otto

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity in hot environments can increase the risk of heat stress or heat stroke in dogs. Heat tolerance is influenced by acclimatization to the environment, physical fitness, and hydration state. Three common strategies to promote hydration in working dogs are free access to water (W, oral electrolyte solutions (OESs, and administration of subcutaneous fluids (SQs. None of these methods have been compared for safety or efficacy in a working environment. In a cross-over design, seven vehicle-screening canines were randomly assigned to each of the three hydration strategies during working shifts at the Sarita, TX checkpoint. Physical, behavioral, and biochemical parameters were collected before, during, and after a work shift (mean 5.7 ± 0.8 h. Dogs were given 10 mL/kg oral W, 10 mL/kg chicken flavored OES, or 15 mL/kg of SQs initially followed by controlled access to W or OES. The dogs drank 15.61 ± 4.47 mL/kg/h of W and OES when in the OES group, compared to 7.04 ± 3.42 and 5.56 ± 4.40 mL of W, for the W and SQ groups, respectively. The median environmental temperature was 84.8°F (29.3°C. The median humidity was 70%. Based on mixed effects linear modeling, dogs in the OES and SQ groups had significantly higher total CO2, and lower packed cell volume and total plasma protein at the end of the day. Creatinine increased a small but significant amount in the SQ group and decreased in the OES group. Searching behaviors were independent of hydration strategy but highly related to the dog specific factors of sex, breed, and activity level. Under conditions of controlled activity in moderate heat and humidity, dogs accustomed to the work and the environment were more likely to increase fluid consumption and hydration when provided a flavored OES. Potential benefits of OES and SQ were indirect and no adverse effects were documented for any of the hydration strategies tested.

  18. Cognitive Work Analysis: Preliminary Data for a Model of Problem Solving Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothmayer, Mark; Blue, Jennifer

    2007-10-01

    Investigations into problem solving strategies are part of the field of physics education research where investigators seek to improve physics instruction by conducting basic research of problem solving abilities among students, differences in knowledge representations between experts and novices, and how to transfer knowledge structures more effectively onto novices. We developed a new conceptual research tool in our laboratory, where we could potentially map the step by step flow of problem solving strategies among experts and novices. This model is derived from the theory of Cognitive Work Analysis, which is grounded in ecological psychology, and as far as we know it has never been applied to a knowledge domain like physics. We collected survey data from 140 undergraduates enrolled in an algebra based introductory physics course at Miami University as part of a larger study aimed to test the validity of the model. Preliminary data will be presented and discussed.

  19. A micromachined inline type microwave power sensor with working state transfer switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Lei

    2011-01-01

    A wideband 8-12 GHz inline type microwave power sensor, which has both working and non-working states, is presented. The power sensor measures the microwave power coupled from a CPW line by a MEMS membrane. In order to reduce microwave losses during the non-working state, a new structure of working state transfer switches is proposed to realize the two working states. The fabrication of the power sensor with two working states is compatible with the GaAs MMIC (monolithic microwave integrated circuit) process. The experimental results show that the power sensor has an insertion loss of 0.18 dB during the non-working state and 0.24 dB during the working state at a frequency of 10 GHz. This means that no microwave power has been coupled from the CPW line during the non-working state. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  20. Involvement of stakeholders in the work of Technical Support Organisation: a strategy to learn together a new way of working

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollinger, Francois; Petitfrere, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Society's concerns have led to changes in the legal framework towards a greater requirement for public information and participation in decision-making processes. International organisations such as the OECD/NEA and the IAEA have also made similar changes. Moving towards expertise sharing is a development that demands a real change of culture on the part of all players, putting technical issues as part of a broader process of evaluation and decision-making. Which evolutions are necessary to the way Technical Support Organisations work to introduce a fourth player the population representatives in controlling radiological and nuclear risk? Developing experimental expert assessment processes involving parts of civil society that both sides can learn from one another is the core of IRSN's strategy for opening its expertise to civil society. In this perspective a dedicated team is responsible for carrying out actions in consultation with stakeholders from civil society. Two pluralistic assessment groups have been set up on radiological protection issues, and their innovative method of operation is worth highlighting. Another participative action is the development jointly with the Local Committees in the Loire Valley of methods of collecting environmental monitoring data. An internal network dedicated to stakeholder involvement has also been set up to accompany and promote this new approach internally. IRSN is currently elaborating a charter which will make public its commitments to the society related to stakeholder's involvement. Finally IRSN also intends to take advantage of existing experiences elsewhere and has been working for three years with four other assessments agencies in France in the frame of health and environmental risks about this new challenge: involving civil society in the assessments preceding the decision-making. (author)

  1. Scaffolding and working together: a qualitative exploration of strategies for everyday life with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Louise; Robertson, Jane; Kelly, Fiona

    2018-03-01

    living with dementia has been described as a process of continual change and adjustment, with people with dementia and their families adopting informal strategies to help manage everyday life. As dementia progresses, families increasingly rely on help from the wider community and formal support. this article reports on a secondary analysis of qualitative data from focus groups and individual interviews with people with dementia and their carers in the North of England. In total, 65 people with dementia and 82 carers took part in the research: 26 in interviews and 121 in focus groups. Focus group and interview audio recordings were transcribed verbatim. A qualitative, inductive, thematic approach was taken for data analysis. the article applies the metaphor of scaffolding to deepen understanding of the strategies used by families. Processes of scaffolding were evident across the data where families, communities, professionals and services worked together to support everyday life for people with dementia. Within this broad theme of scaffolding were three sub-themes characterising the experiences of families living with dementia: doing things together; evolving strategies; and fragility and fear of the future. families with dementia are resourceful but do need increasing support (scaffolding) to continue to live as well as possible as dementia progresses. More integrated, proactive work is required from services that recognises existing scaffolds and provides appropriate support before informal strategies become unsustainable; thus enabling people with dementia to live well for longer. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  2. Perceptions and Educational Strategies of Louisiana Agricultural Education Teachers When Working with Students with Special Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin S. Stair

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A teacher’s willingness to accept inclusion has been identified as an indicator of the quality of experience that a student with special needs will have in the classroom The purpose of this exploratory study was twofold: (1 to describe the overall perceptions of working with students with special needs and (2 to determine how teachers in Louisiana are currently working with students with special needs.  A total of 152 teachers attended the Louisiana agricultural education teacher’s summer conference with 43% completing a three part survey instrument.  Data analysis indicated that teachers are confident in their ability to work with students with special needs and they agree that they can incorporate various areas of inclusion within their programs. However, they disagreed that they have received adequate in-service opportunities related to special education.  Regarding educational strategies, teachers in this study identified all of the given inclusion strategies as being used regularly in their programs with the exception of tutoring after school.  They also identified these educational practices as being highly effective within their programs. Due to the exploratory nature of this study, additional research is recommended to further investigate the in-service and training needs of teachers in Louisiana.

  3. Strategies to overcome type 1 diabetes-related social stigma in the Iranian society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, Mehri Doosti; Abdoli, Samereh; Bijan, Iraj; Parvizy, Soroor; Fatemi, Naimeh Seyed; Amini, Massoud

    2014-09-01

    This study explored the strategies to overcome diabetes-related social stigma in Iran. This paper is part of an action research study which was designed in Iran in 2012 to plan and implement a program for overcoming diabetes-related stigma. Participants were people with type 1 diabetes, their family members, people without diabetes, and care providers in a diabetes center. Data collection was done through unstructured in-depth interviews, focus groups, e-mail, Short Message Service (SMS), and telephone interview. Data were analyzed using inductive content analysis approach. Participants believed that it is impossible to overcome the stigma without community-based strategies. Community-based strategies include education, advocacy, contact, and protest. The anti-stigma strategies obtained in the study are based on the cultural context in Iran. They are extracted from statements of a wide range of people (with and without diabetes). However, during planning for stigma reduction, it is necessary to note that the effectiveness of social strategies varies in different studies and in different stigmatizing conditions and many factors are involved. These strategies should be implemented simultaneously at different levels to produce structural and social changes. It should be accepted that research on reducing health-related stigma has shown that it is very difficult to change beliefs and behavior. Evidence suggests that individuals and their families should be involved in all aspects of the program, and plans should be made according to the local conditions.

  4. How can context affect what strategies are effective in improving the working environment in small companies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonsson, Ann-Beth; Hasle, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Small companies include many different sectors and types of organisations. Additionally the small companies are affected by clients, authorities and other stakeholders. Some of these contextual factors have been proven to be of relevance to and affect the work environment management, e.......g. in cleaning companies, where many aspects of the working environment is decided by the client company, whose premises is cleaned by the cleaning company. Aim To discuss what factors in small companies´ context may affect the outcome of work environment interventions as a theoretical basis for evaluation...... of what factors that may have affected the outcome of work environment interventions and programs in small companies. Discussion The context is a convenient and simple term covering a multitude of factors and complex relations. It is unavoidable to discuss context when aiming at understanding small...

  5. What Marketing Strategy for Sacred Geometry Discoveries to Make Archaeotourism Work?

    OpenAIRE

    Mulaj, Isa

    2015-01-01

    Archaeotourism can take place in two main forms: i) on site or locations of discoveries; and ii) assembling the discoveries into museums or exhibitions. Given that the first option in Kosovo has not proven viable, a marketing strategy went on to be explored for the latter in broad terms by taking into account Bronze Age artifacts with engravings from the sacred geometry discovered by the Author of this paper during 2013-14, which were the work of ancient Illyrians. Yet, the results suggest a ...

  6. Autonomy and career management skills in the context of lifelong learning : cognitive coping strategies of the teachers and effects in work burnout and work engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto, M.; Bermejo, L.; Hernández, V.; Cagigal, V.; García-Mina, A.; Gismero, E.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is analysing cognitive coping strategies used by a sample of 385 teachers from Madrid (Spain) to face three different stressful situations: role conflict and role ambiguity, students challenging behaviours and work overload. Moreover, it has been studied the relationships between those personal coping resources and two teachers´ well-being measures: work burnout and work engagement. The assessment was carried out through Brief COPE and another items designed ad hoc. The M...

  7. A thesis on fire : Studies of work engagement, Type A behavior and burnout

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson Hallberg, Ulrika

    2005-01-01

    The overall address of the present thesis is the relationship between being ‘on fire’ and burning out. More specifically, the thesis focused largely on two representations of involvement in work (work engagement and Type A behavior) and their respective relationships to burnout. Another pervasive theme was construct validity in assessing burnout and work engagement. These themes were addressed in four empirical studies, conducted in a sample of health-care workers (Study I) and a sample of in...

  8. The impact of environmental stressors and types of work contract on occupational stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Ana Paula; Ferreira, Maria Cristina

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of seven environmental stressors (role conflict, work overload, interpersonal difficulties, work-family conflict, work instability, lack of autonomy and pressure of responsibility) and the nature of the employment contract (permanent or atypical) on three psychological reactions to occupational stress (job satisfaction, positive emotions, and negative emotions at work). 305 Brazilian workers from both sexes participated in this research, distributed between permanent and atypical workers. The results showed that the role conflict and the work overload had a negative impact on job satisfaction. The role conflict had a negative impact on the positive emotions at work, while the pressure of responsibility interfered positively in it. The work overload interfered positively in the negative emotions at work, while the pressure of responsibility interfered negatively in it. The type of contract did not affect significantly any one of the dependent variables. The implications of the results for future research are discussed.

  9. Assessment of Model Predictive and Adaptive Glucose Control Strategies for People with Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiroux, Dimitri; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine; Schmidt, Signe

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses overnight blood glucose stabilization in people with type 1 diabetes using a Model Predictive Controller (MPC). We use a control strategy based on an adaptive ARMAX model in which we use a Recursive Extended Least Squares (RELS) method to estimate parameters of the stochastic...... and reduce the risk of hypoglycemia. We test our control strategies on a virtual clinic of 100 randomly generated patients with a representative inter-subject variability. This virtual clinic is based on the Hovorka model. We consider the case where only half of the meal bolus is administered at mealtime......, and the case where the insulin sensitivity varies during the night. The simulation results demonstrate that the adaptive control strategy can reduce the risks of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia during the night....

  10. How high-performance work systems drive health care value: an examination of leading process improvement strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Julie; Garman, Andrew N; Song, Paula H; McAlearney, Ann Scheck

    2012-01-01

    As hospitals focus on increasing health care value, process improvement strategies have proliferated, seemingly faster than the evidence base supporting them. Yet, most process improvement strategies are associated with work practices for which solid evidence does exist. Evaluating improvement strategies in the context of evidence-based work practices can provide guidance about which strategies would work best for a given health care organization. We combined a literature review with analysis of key informant interview data collected from 5 case studies of high-performance work practices (HPWPs) in health care organizations. We explored the link between an evidence-based framework for HPWP use and 3 process improvement strategies: Hardwiring Excellence, Lean/Six Sigma, and Baldrige. We found that each of these process improvement strategies has not only strengths but also important gaps with respect to incorporating HPWPs involving engaging staff, aligning leaders, acquiring and developing talent, and empowering the front line. Given differences among these strategies, our analyses suggest that some may work better than others for individual health care organizations, depending on the organizations' current management systems. In practice, most organizations implementing improvement strategies would benefit from including evidence-based HPWPs to maximize the potential for process improvement strategies to increase value in health care.

  11. Enhancing Self-Awareness: A Practical Strategy to Train Culturally Responsive Social Work Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini J. Negi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A primary goal of social justice educators is to engage students in a process of self-discovery, with the goal of helping them recognize their own biases, develop empathy, and become better prepared for culturally responsive practice. While social work educators are mandated with the important task of training future social workers in culturally responsive practice with diverse populations, practical strategies on how to do so are scant. This article introduces a teaching exercise, the Ethnic Roots Assignment, which has been shown qualitatively to aid students in developing self-awareness, a key component of culturally competent social work practice. Practical suggestions for classroom utilization, common challenges, and past student responses to participating in the exercise are provided. The dissemination of such a teaching exercise can increase the field’s resources for addressing the important goal of cultural competence training.

  12. [Examination of work-related stress and coping strategies among ambulance- and air-ambulance workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiszler, Bence; Karamánné Pakai, Annamária; Szabó, Zoltán; Raposa, László Bence; Pónusz, Róbert; Radnai, Balázs; Endrei, Dóra

    2016-11-01

    Among Hungary's health sector workers the presence of a high level of stress is known, which can affect the individual. The aim of the authors was to uncover major risk factors causing work-related stress, as well as its extent, and positive and negative coping strategies among ground and aerial rescue workers. From June until October 2015, a national survey was conducted among Hungarian rescue workers. An own questionnaire and Rahe Stress and coping validated short questionnaire online form were used. A total of 141 persons took part in the survey. As compared to air-ambulance workers, ground rescue workers were exposed to higher work-related stress effects (pStress and Coping Index effective coping mechanisms were observed among air rescue workers (pstress reduction. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(45), 1802-1808.

  13. Digital health for the End TB Strategy: developing priority products and making them work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzon, Dennis; Timimi, Hazim; Kurosinski, Pascal; Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Van Gemert, Wayne; Denkinger, Claudia; Isaacs, Chris; Story, Alistair; Garfein, Richard S; do Valle Bastos, Luis Gustavo; Yassin, Mohammed A; Rusovich, Valiantsin; Skrahina, Alena; Van Hoi, Le; Broger, Tobias; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Hayward, Andrew; Thomas, Bruce V; Temesgen, Zelalem; Quraishi, Subhi; von Delft, Dalene; Jaramillo, Ernesto; Weyer, Karin; Raviglione, Mario C

    2016-07-01

    In 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed the End TB Strategy in response to a World Health Assembly Resolution requesting Member States to end the worldwide epidemic of tuberculosis (TB) by 2035. For the strategy's objectives to be realised, the next 20 years will need novel solutions to address the challenges posed by TB to health professionals, and to affected people and communities. Information and communication technology presents opportunities for innovative approaches to support TB efforts in patient care, surveillance, programme management and electronic learning. The effective application of digital health products at a large scale and their continued development need the engagement of TB patients and their caregivers, innovators, funders, policy-makers, advocacy groups, and affected communities.In April 2015, WHO established its Global Task Force on Digital Health for TB to advocate and support the development of digital health innovations in global efforts to improve TB care and prevention. We outline the group's approach to stewarding this process in alignment with the three pillars of the End TB Strategy. The supplementary material of this article includes target product profiles, as developed by early 2016, defining nine priority digital health concepts and products that are strategically positioned to enhance TB action at the country level. The content of this work is ©the authors or their employers. Design and branding are ©ERS 2016.

  14. Novel Control Strategy for VSI and CSI Active Filters and Comparing These Two Types of Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza Arab

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently to eliminate the harmonics and improve the power factor of the power networks, much attention has been attracted to active filters. The advantages of these filters are lower volume and their better compensating characteristics than the passive filters. In conventional sliding mode controllers, the source current waveform is fluctuated in near to zero values. In this paper, using a new sliding technique, lower Total Harmonic Distortion (THD in source current is obtained and the current waveform is improved. As well as, two novel control strategies for two types of active filters, VSI and CSI is proposed and then these two types of filters are compared to reduce THD value of source current.The proposed controlled strategies are simulated by MATLAB/Simulink. The Simulation results confirm that the proposed strategies reduce the THD of source current more than other strategies, and active filter based on CSI has a better performance than active filter based on VSI with a dead time area (for avoiding short circuit of the source in high powers.

  15. Type D personality, stress coping strategies and self-efficacy as predictors of Facebook intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błachnio, Agata; Przepiorka, Aneta; Czuczwar, Stanisław Jerzy

    2017-07-01

    Recently, Facebook has become one of the most popular social networking sites. People use it more and more often. A number of studies have recently addressed the issue of excessive Facebook use, showing this phenomenon to be a spreading problem. The main aim of the present study was to examine whether Type D personality, self-efficacy and coping strategies are related to Facebook intrusion. The participants were 882 students of Polish universities, all of them Facebook users (72% women, mean age: 22.25 years, SD =2.06). We used the Facebook Intrusion Questionnaire, the Facebook Intensity Scale, the General Self-Efficacy Scale, the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, and the Type D Scale. We applied the pen-and-paper procedure. Our results indicate that emotion-oriented and avoidance-oriented strategies of coping in stressful situations are predictors of Facebook intrusion and Facebook intensity. The relations between both Facebook intrusion and intensity and social inhibition are significant only when emotion-oriented coping strategy is controlled. The knowledge of whether coping strategies in stressful situations, such as focus on emotions or avoidance, are related to Facebook intrusion might be useful for clinical purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Crisis Response Strategy and Crisis Types Suitability: A Preliminary Study on MH370

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Ashari Noratikah; Abang Ahmad Dayang Aizza Maisha; Samani Mus Chairil

    2017-01-01

    In time of crisis, the organisation’s tactic in responding to the crisis according to its type/s may significantly affect the organisation’s effort to survive its reputational damages. The study of crisis response strategy (CRS) requires further exploration within the Malaysian context, moreso with the greater and apparent use of social media as a platform for the organisation in crisis to reach out to its stakeholders. This preliminary paper studies the MH370 crisis in light of Coombs [1] Si...

  17. Robust remediation strategies at gas-work sites: a case of source recognition and source characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, P.O. de

    2005-01-01

    In The Netherlands there have been gasworks at about 260 to 270 locations. Most of these locations are or were heavily polluted with tar, ashes and cyanides and many of them belong to the locations where remediation actions have already been executed. It seems however that many of them also belong to the locations where remediation actions were not quite as successful as was expected. So, for many gas-work sites that were already 'remedied' in the 80's and early 90's of the foregoing century, new programs for site remediation are planned. Of course the mistakes from the past should now be avoided. The current remediation strategy in The Netherlands for gas-work sites can be comprised in four steps: 1 - removing spots in the top soil, 2 - removing spots with mobile components in the shallow subsoil, 3 - controlling spots with mobile components in the deep subsoil, 4 - creating a 'steady endpoint situation' in the plume. At many former gas-work sites real sources, i.e. in a physico-chemical sense, are not very well known. This can easily lead to insufficient removal of some or part of these sources and cause a longer delivery of contaminants to the groundwater plume, with higher endpoint concentrations, higher costs and more restrictions for future use. The higher concentrations and longer deliveries originating from not recognized or not localized sources are often not sufficiently compensated by the proposed plume management in current remediation strategies. Remediation results can be improved by using knowledge about the processes that determine the delivery of contaminants to the groundwater, the materials that cause these delivery and the locations at the site where these are most likely found. When sources are present in the deep subsoil or the exact localization of sources is uncertain, robust remediation strategies should be chosen and wishful thinking about removing sources with in situ techniques should be avoided. Robust strategies are probably less

  18. Violence as psychosocial risk in the work of psychiatric nurses and management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Santos Scozzafave

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the presence of violence as psychosocial risk from the perception of nurses in a psychiatric hospital, as well as the management strategies implemented to address this risk. Methods: Qualitative study with 25 nurses working in a psychiatric hospital. Data collection was carried out from November 2014 to January 2015 through semi-structured interviews. The data were analyzed and organized into thematic categories following three stages: pre-analysis, exploration of the material and treatment of the results obtained. Participants were identified by the letter "E" and received sequential Arabic numeral numbers, thus guaranteeing the anonymity of the speeches. Thus, they were referenced from E1 to E25. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the University of São Paulo at Ribeirão Preto College of Nursing, Brazil. Results: Violence exists in the everyday routine of psychiatric nurses, with the presence of scratches, pinches, kicks, pushes, squeezes against the wall, biting, aggression with the use of objects, among others, and the management strategies consist in appeals to the family, the cinema, music, reading, exercise, therapy, religion. Conclusion: It is important that preventive measures be adopted aimed at promoting safety in the workplace. The discussion on actions to improve the training and practices of nurses working in the mental health area are also important. Keywords: Violence; psychotherapy; emotion; occupational psychiatry; others psychosocial techniques/treatments

  19. Meta-analysis on shift work and risks of specific obesity types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, M; Feng, W; Wang, F; Li, P; Li, Z; Li, M; Tse, G; Vlaanderen, J; Vermeulen, R; Tse, L A

    2018-01-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the associations between shift work patterns and risks of specific types of obesity. PubMed was searched until March 2017 for observational studies that examined the relationships between shift work patterns and obesity. Odds ratio for obesity was extracted using a fixed-effects or random-effects model. Subgroup meta-analyses were carried out for study design, specific obesity types and characteristics of shift work pattern. A total of 28 studies were included in this meta-analysis. The overall odds ratio of night shift work was 1.23 (95% confidence interval = 1.17-1.29) for risk of obesity/overweight. Cross-sectional studies showed a higher risk of 1.26 than those with the cohort design (risk ratio = 1.10). Shift workers had a higher frequency of developing abdominal obesity (odds ratio = 1.35) than other obesity types. Permanent night workers demonstrated a 29% higher risk than rotating shift workers (odds ratio 1.43 vs. 1.14). This meta-analysis confirmed the risks of night shift work for the development of overweight and obesity with a potential gradient association suggested, especially for abdominal obesity. Modification of working schedules is recommended, particularly for prolonged permanent night work. More accurate and detailed measurements on shift work patterns should be conducted in future research. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  20. Fine-grained versus categorical: Pupil size differentiates between strategies for spatial working memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starc, Martina; Anticevic, Alan; Repovš, Grega

    2017-05-01

    Pupillometry provides an accessible option to track working memory processes with high temporal resolution. Several studies showed that pupil size increases with the number of items held in working memory; however, no study has explored whether pupil size also reflects the quality of working memory representations. To address this question, we used a spatial working memory task to investigate the relationship of pupil size with spatial precision of responses and indicators of reliance on generalized spatial categories. We asked 30 participants (15 female, aged 19-31) to remember the position of targets presented at various locations along a hidden radial grid. After a delay, participants indicated the remembered location with a high-precision joystick providing a parametric measure of trial-to-trial accuracy. We recorded participants' pupil dilations continuously during task performance. Results showed a significant relation between pupil dilation during preparation/early encoding and the precision of responses, possibly reflecting the attentional resources devoted to memory encoding. In contrast, pupil dilation at late maintenance and response predicted larger shifts of responses toward prototypical locations, possibly reflecting larger reliance on categorical representation. On an intraindividual level, smaller pupil dilations during encoding predicted larger dilations during late maintenance and response. On an interindividual level, participants relying more on categorical representation also produced larger precision errors. The results confirm the link between pupil size and the quality of spatial working memory representation. They suggest compensatory strategies of spatial working memory performance-loss of precise spatial representation likely increases reliance on generalized spatial categories. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  1. Crisis Response Strategy and Crisis Types Suitability: A Preliminary Study on MH370

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ashari Noratikah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In time of crisis, the organisation’s tactic in responding to the crisis according to its type/s may significantly affect the organisation’s effort to survive its reputational damages. The study of crisis response strategy (CRS requires further exploration within the Malaysian context, moreso with the greater and apparent use of social media as a platform for the organisation in crisis to reach out to its stakeholders. This preliminary paper studies the MH370 crisis in light of Coombs [1] Situational Crisis Communication Theory (SCCT. It aims to discuss the suitability of the CRS applied by Malaysia Airlines System (MAS with the crisis type/s that was/were experienced by the organisation. Hence, the need for this paper to investigate the crisis type/s of MH370 and examines the CRS applied by MAS by content analysing media statements that were disseminated directly to the organisation’s stakeholders on Facebook during the first day of the crisis. Results ultimately show an interesting analysis to the crisis type of MH370, and the suitability of the CRS applied by MAS for that matter.

  2. The Impact of Instructor's Group Management Strategies on Students' Attitudes to Group Work and Generic Skill Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natoli, Riccardo; Jackling, Beverley; Seelanatha, Lalith

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of two distinct group work management strategies on finance students' attitudes towards group work and their perceptions of generic skill development. Using quantitative and qualitative data, comparisons are made between students who experienced a supportive group work environment and students who experienced an…

  3. A novel analysis strategy for HLA typing using a sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, D I

    2017-11-01

    The technique of reverse sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes (SSOPs) is commonly used in human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing. In the conventional method for data analysis (exact pattern matching, EPM), the larger is the number of mismatched probes, the longer the time for final typing assignment. A novel strategy, filtering and scoring (FnS), has been developed to easily assign the best-fit allele pair. In the FnS method, candidate alleles and allele pairs were filtered based on (1) subject's ethnicity, and (2) the measured partial reaction pattern with only definitely negative or positive probes. Then, the complete reaction pattern for all probes (CRPoAPs) were compared between the raw sample and expected residual allele pairs to obtain mismatch scores. To compare the FnS and EPM methods, each analysis time (minutes:seconds) for reverse SSOP HLA typing with intermediate resolution (n = 507) was measured. The analysis time with FnS method was shorter than that of the EPM method [00:21 (00:08-01:47) and 01:04 (00:15-23:45), respectively, P typing in a comprehensive and quantitative comparison between measured and expected CRPoAPs of candidate allele pairs. Therefore, this analysis strategy might be useful in a clinical setting. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Sources and types of information on self-care symptom management strategies for HIV and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regis R. Marie Modeste

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been reported that South Africa has the highest number of people living with HIV worldwide, with more women being infected than men. Women living with HIV have been documented as experiencing various symptoms related to HIV and use various strategies to manage these symptoms. Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the sources and types of information regarding self-care symptom management strategies received by women living with HIV. Method: The study was conducted at an HIV clinic in an urban area of KwaZulu-Natal. Individual in-depth interviews were completed with 11 women who were living with HIV,exploring the sources of information received on how they manage the HIV- (and/or AIDS- related symptoms they experienced as well as the types of information received. The collecteddata were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results: The participants identified various sources, which mainly included groups of people who provided them with information on how to manage their HIV-related symptoms, namely healthcare providers, their personal networks and the community. The different sources offered different types of information, including the use of medication, complementary treatments and self-comforting activities. Conclusion: The study highlights that participants used multiple sources to get information about how to manage the experienced symptoms related to HIV, namely, healthcare providers, family and friends as well as themselves. It is to be noted that each source provided a preferred type of information.

  5. Willingness to pay for flexible working conditions for people with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexø, Mette Andersen; Cleal, Bryan; Willaing, Ingrid

    Background The increasing number of people with chronic diseases challenges work force capacity. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) can have work related consequences such as increased risk of sickness absence and early retirement. Laws and guidelines of most high income countries, including Denmark, require...... implementation. Aim To examine Danish workers' willingness to pay (WTP) for five workplace initiatives that help individuals with type 2 diabetes manage their diabetes at work and to examine how background characteristics influence the WTP. Method Employed participants between 25 and 67 years from an online......’ and ‘without pay’. The WTP in Euro=€ for the five workplace initiatives was estimated by conditional logits models. Bootstrapping was used to estimate p- values examining significant differences (p type...

  6. A study on work stress, stress coping strategies and health promoting lifestyle among district hospital nurses in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wei-Lun; Tsai, Shieunt-Han; Tsai, Chao-Wen; Lee, Chia-Ying

    2011-01-01

    To determine work stress, and stress-coping strategies, and to analyze their the relationships in order to improve health-promoting lifestyle of nurses in Taiwan. Three hundred eighty-five nurses who had work experience for more than 6 mo, were selected from four district hospitals in Kaohsiung and Ping Tung. We used a stratified cluster random sampling method for the selection. The nurses answered a self-report questionnaire, which was categorized into four sections: personal background data, work stress, stress-coping strategies, and health-promoting lifestyle. The findings indicate work stress and the health promoting lifestyle of nurses are at a higher level, with stress-coping strategies being at a medium level. Work stress and stress-coping strategies were significantly and positively correlated. Professional relationships, managerial role, personal responsibility, and recognition of work stress and the responsibilities of a health-promoting lifestyle were negatively correlated. Managerial role, personal responsibility, and organizational atmosphere of work stress as well as realization, an item of health-promoting lifestyle, were negatively correlated. Recognition of work stress and stress management, items of health-promoting lifestyle, were negatively correlated. Health responsibility, and self-actualization, items of health-promoting lifestyle, as well as stress-coping strategies were negatively correlated. Nutrition, an item of health-promoting lifestyle, and the support stress-coping strategy was negatively correlated. Nurses have greater work pressure and better work stress-coping strategies, but worse health responsibility and realization of a health-promoting lifestyle. We suggest hospitals build good relationships and appropriately increase employment of nurses through a good work atmosphere to achieve nurses' realization of a health-promoting lifestyle.

  7. Work related musculoskeletal disorders amongst therapists in physically demanding roles: qualitative analysis of risk factors and strategies for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passier, Leanne; McPhail, Steven

    2011-01-25

    Physiotherapy and occupational therapy are two professions at high risk of work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMD). This investigation aimed to identify risk factors for WRMD as perceived by the health professionals working in these roles (Aim 1), as well as current and future strategies they perceive will allow them to continue to work in physically demanding clinical roles (Aim 2). A two phase exploratory investigation was undertaken. The first phase included a survey administered via a web based platform with qualitative open response items. The second phase involved four focus group sessions which explored topics obtained from the survey. Thematic analysis of qualitative data from the survey and focus groups was undertaken. Overall 112 (34.3%) of invited health professionals completed the survey; 66 (58.9%) were physiotherapists and 46 (41.1%) were occupational therapists. Twenty-four health professionals participated in one of four focus groups. The risk factors most frequently perceived by health professionals included: work postures and movements, lifting or carrying, patient related factors and repetitive tasks. The six primary themes for strategies to allow therapists to continue to work in physically demanding clinical roles included: organisational strategies, workload or work allocation, work practices, work environment and equipment, physical condition and capacity, and education and training. Risk factors as well as current and potential strategies for reducing WRMD amongst these health professionals working in clinically demanding roles have been identified and discussed. Further investigation regarding the relative effectiveness of these strategies is warranted.

  8. Performance of V-type Stirling-cycle refrigerator for different working fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tekin, Yusuf; Ataer, Omer Ercan [Erciyes University, Engineering Faculty, Mechanical Engineering Department, Melikgazi, 38 039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2010-01-15

    The thermodynamic analysis of a V-type Stirling-cycle Refrigerator (VSR) is performed for air, hydrogen and helium as the working fluid and the performance of the VSR is investigated. The V-type Stirling-cycle refrigerator consists of expansion and compression spaces, cooler, heater and regenerator, and it is assumed that the control volumes are subjected to a periodic mass flow. The basic equations of the VSR are derived for per unit crank angle, so time does not appear in the equations. A computer program is prepared in FORTRAN, and the basic equations are solved iteratively. The mass, temperature and density of working fluid in each control volume are calculated for different charge pressures, engine speeds, and for fixed heater and cooler surface temperatures. The work, instantaneous pressure and the COP of the VSR are calculated. The results are obtained for different working fluids, and given by diagrams. (author)

  9. Relationship of type of work with health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Yuri; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Kikuchi, Sayuri; Suzukamo, Yoshimi; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Tanaka, Taichiro; Takebayashi, Toru; Okayama, Akira; Miura, Katsuyuki; Okamura, Tomonori; Fukuhara, Shunichi; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2015-12-01

    To examine the relation of work type with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in healthy workers. We cross-sectionally examined 4427 (3605 men and 822 women) healthy workers in Japan, aged 19-69 years. We assessed HRQoL based on scores for five scales of the SF-36. Multiple regression was applied to examine the relation of work type (nighttime, shift, day to night, and daytime) with the five HRQoL norm-based scores, lower scores of which indicate poorer health status, adjusted for confounding factors, including sleeping duration. Shiftwork was inversely related to role physical [regression estimate (β) = -2.12, 95 % confidence intervals (CI) -2.94, -1.30, P work was inversely related to all the five HRQoL subscales (Ps 0.012 to work was significantly inversely related to all five HRQoL, independent of demographic and lifestyle factors.

  10. Thermal Recovery from Cold-Working in Type K Bare-Wire Thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenen, A. D.; Webster, E. S.

    2017-12-01

    Cold-working of most thermocouples has a significant, direct impact on the Seebeck coefficient which can lead to regions of thermoelectric inhomogeneity and accelerated drift. Cold-working can occur during the wire swaging process, when winding the wire onto a bobbin, or during handling by the end user—either accidentally or deliberately. Swaging-induced cold-work in thermocouples, if uniformly applied, may result in a high level of homogeneity. However, on exposure to elevated temperatures, the subsequent recovery process from the cold-working can then result in significant drift, and this can in turn lead to erroneous temperature measurements, often in excess of the specified manufacturer tolerances. Several studies have investigated the effects of cold-work in Type K thermocouples usually by bending, or swaging. However, the amount of cold-work applied to the thermocouple is often difficult to quantify, as the mechanisms for applying the strains are typically nonlinear when applied in this fashion. A repeatable level of cold-working is applied to the different wires using a tensional loading apparatus to apply a known yield displacement to the thermoelements. The effects of thermal recovery from cold-working can then be accurately quantified as a function of temperature, using a linear gradient furnace and a high-resolution homogeneity scanner. Variation in these effects due to differing alloy compositions in Type K wire is also explored, which is obtained by sourcing wire from a selection of manufacturers. The information gathered in this way will inform users of Type K thermocouples about the potential consequences of varying levels of cold-working and its impact on the Seebeck coefficient at a range of temperatures between ˜ 70°C and 600° C. This study will also guide users on the temperatures required to rapidly alleviate the effects of cold-working using thermal annealing treatments.

  11. Storage and Processing Working Memory Functions in Alzheimer-Type Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Vecchi, T.; Saveriano, V.; Paciaroni, L.

    1999-01-01

    A selective deterioration of working memory functions has been suggested as an explanation of the cognitive decay occurring in normal ageing as well as in Alzheimer-type dementia. Recent studies have highlighted that elderly people’s limitations in working memory functions may be better interpreted when analysing the specific characteristics of the cognitive process (i.e., passive storage or active manipulation of information). In the present study, we have adapted a procedure used to investi...

  12. Working paper on monitoring strategies in the United Kingdom, Federal Republic of Germany and United States of America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buring, E.; Lanting, R.

    1989-01-01

    This study is a working paper on monitoring strategies used in the U.K., the FRG and the USA to assess exposure to airborne chemical substances. After a brief description of the basic philosophy on monitoring strategies, the requirements formonitoring from the different legal systems in the three

  13. Using a Problem-Solving Strategy to Prevent Work-Related Accidents Due to Unsafe Worker Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martella, Ronald C.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A two-stage problem-solving strategy involving cue cards and their gradual withdrawal was used to teach nine sheltered workshop employees how to prevent work-related accidents. Results indicated that participants used the strategy appropriately and generalized their skills to similar and dissimilar situations up to eight weeks after training.…

  14. Effective and ineffective coping strategies in a low-autonomy work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Thomas W; Crane, Monique; Hodson, Stephanie E; Adler, Amy B

    2016-04-01

    The authors examined the effectiveness of different coping strategies in buffering the negative effects of uncontrollable stressors and predicting mental health symptoms in a low-autonomy work environment using a longitudinal design. Soldiers in training indicated the extent to which they engaged in various coping strategies to deal with stressors related to the training environment at 4 different points in time. Factor analyses of soldiers in 2 different countries (i.e., United States and Australia) yielded 5 coping dimensions: active coping, acceptance of demands, seeking social support, humor, and denial/self-criticism. Among U.S. soldiers in basic training, acceptance of demands and denial/self-criticism interacted with the magnitude of basic-training stressors to predict mental health symptoms (depression and anxiety) at 3 different points during training while controlling for symptoms at the immediate prior time period. Acceptance buffered soldiers from the negative effects of the stressors, whereas denial/self-criticism exacerbated the effects of the stressors. The results of LGC models also indicated that the slopes of acceptance and active coping were negatively related to the slope of mental health symptoms across training, whereas the slope for denial/self-criticism was positively related to the slope of symptoms. Active coping was less predictive of functioning in the face of stressors and in the prediction of symptoms over time. The results demonstrated that in a low-autonomy occupational setting, acceptance coping was more effective in facilitating good mental health outcomes compared with other coping strategies considered important in prior research (e.g., active coping). (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Work Environment Characteristics and Teacher Well-Being: The Mediation of Emotion Regulation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hongbiao; Huang, Shenghua; Wang, Wenlan

    2016-01-01

    Based on an adjusted Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model that considers the mediation of personal resources, this study examined the relationships between two characteristics of teachers’ work environment (i.e., emotional job demands and trust in colleagues) and two indicators of teachers’ well-being (i.e., teaching satisfaction and emotional exhaustion). In particular, the study focused on how emotion regulation strategies (i.e., reappraisal and suppression) mediate these relationships. Data collected from a questionnaire survey of 1115 primary school teachers in Hong Kong was analyzed to test the hypothesized relationships. The results of structural equation modeling indicated that: (1) the emotional job demands of teaching were detrimental to teacher well-being, whereas trust in colleagues was beneficial; (2) both emotion regulation strategies mediated the relationships between both emotional job demands and trust in colleagues and teacher well-being; and (3) teachers who tend to use more reappraisal may be psychologically healthier than those tend to adopt more suppression. These findings support the applicability of the JD-R model to school settings and highlight the role of teachers’ emotion regulation in teachers’ well-being. Implications for the improvement of school environments and teachers’ well-being are identified. PMID:27649216

  16. Neural correlates of strategy use during auditory working memory in musicians and non-musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, K; Mueller, K; Koelsch, S

    2011-01-01

    Working memory (WM) performance in humans can be improved by structuring and organizing the material to be remembered. For visual and verbal information, this process of structuring has been associated with the involvement of a prefrontal-parietal network, but for non-verbal auditory material, the brain areas that facilitate WM for structured information have remained elusive. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, this study compared neural correlates underlying encoding and rehearsal of auditory WM for structured and unstructured material. Musicians and non-musicians performed a WM task on five-tone sequences that were either tonally structured (with all tones belonging to one tonal key) or tonally unstructured (atonal) sequences. Functional differences were observed for musicians (who are experts in the music domain), but not for non-musicians - The right pars orbitalis was activated more strongly in musicians during the encoding of unstructured (atonal) vs. structured (tonal) sequences. In addition, data for musicians showed that a lateral (pre)frontal-parietal network (including the right premotor cortex, right inferior precentral sulcus and left intraparietal sulcus) was activated during WM rehearsal of structured, as compared with unstructured, sequences. Our findings indicate that this network plays a role in strategy-based WM for non-verbal auditory information, corroborating previous results showing a similar network for strategy-based WM for visual and verbal information. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2010 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Work Environment Characteristics and Teacher Well-Being: The Mediation of Emotion Regulation Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hongbiao; Huang, Shenghua; Wang, Wenlan

    2016-09-13

    Based on an adjusted Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model that considers the mediation of personal resources, this study examined the relationships between two characteristics of teachers' work environment (i.e., emotional job demands and trust in colleagues) and two indicators of teachers' well-being (i.e., teaching satisfaction and emotional exhaustion). In particular, the study focused on how emotion regulation strategies (i.e., reappraisal and suppression) mediate these relationships. Data collected from a questionnaire survey of 1115 primary school teachers in Hong Kong was analyzed to test the hypothesized relationships. The results of structural equation modeling indicated that: (1) the emotional job demands of teaching were detrimental to teacher well-being, whereas trust in colleagues was beneficial; (2) both emotion regulation strategies mediated the relationships between both emotional job demands and trust in colleagues and teacher well-being; and (3) teachers who tend to use more reappraisal may be psychologically healthier than those tend to adopt more suppression. These findings support the applicability of the JD-R model to school settings and highlight the role of teachers' emotion regulation in teachers' well-being. Implications for the improvement of school environments and teachers' well-being are identified.

  18. Work Environment Characteristics and Teacher Well-Being: The Mediation of Emotion Regulation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbiao Yin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on an adjusted Job Demands-Resources (JD-R model that considers the mediation of personal resources, this study examined the relationships between two characteristics of teachers’ work environment (i.e., emotional job demands and trust in colleagues and two indicators of teachers’ well-being (i.e., teaching satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. In particular, the study focused on how emotion regulation strategies (i.e., reappraisal and suppression mediate these relationships. Data collected from a questionnaire survey of 1115 primary school teachers in Hong Kong was analyzed to test the hypothesized relationships. The results of structural equation modeling indicated that: (1 the emotional job demands of teaching were detrimental to teacher well-being, whereas trust in colleagues was beneficial; (2 both emotion regulation strategies mediated the relationships between both emotional job demands and trust in colleagues and teacher well-being; and (3 teachers who tend to use more reappraisal may be psychologically healthier than those tend to adopt more suppression. These findings support the applicability of the JD-R model to school settings and highlight the role of teachers’ emotion regulation in teachers’ well-being. Implications for the improvement of school environments and teachers’ well-being are identified.

  19. Different stage, different performance: the protective strategy of role play on emotional health in sex work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Gillian M

    2011-04-01

    This paper uses Arlie Hochschild's (1983) concept of emotion management and "surface" and "deep acting" to explore how sex workers separate and distance themselves from their public role. Experiences of stigmatisation prevail among sex workers and how stigma is resisted or managed has an impact on their health. In-depth interviews were carried out between August 2006 and April 2007 with 58 sex workers in five cities in New Zealand following decriminalisation of the sex industry. Most participants drew on ideas of professionalism in sustaining a psychological distance between their private and public lives. They utilised "deep acting", transmuting private experiences for use in the work environment, to accredit themselves as professional in their business practices. They also constructed different meanings for sex between public and private relationships with the condom providing an important symbol in separating the two. A few (mostly female street-based) participants were less adept at "deep acting" and relied on drugs to maintain a separation of roles. This paper argues that in an occupation which is highly stigmatised and in which depersonalisation as an aspect of burn-out has been reported as a common occurrence, the ability to draw on strategies which require "deep acting" provides a healthy estrangement between self and role and can be seen as protective. The separation of self from work identity is not damaging as many radical feminists would claim, but an effective strategy to manage emotions. Hochschild, A. (1983). The managed heart: Commercialization of human feeling. Berkeley: University of California Press. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The dynamics of a Beddington-type system with impulsive control strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhenqing; Wang Weiming; Wang Hailing

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, by using the theories and methods of ecology and ordinary differential equation, a prey-predator system with Beddington-type functional response and impulsive control strategy is established. Conditions for the system to be extinct are given by using the theories of impulsive equation and small amplitude perturbation skills. It is proved that the system is permanent via the method of comparison involving multiple Liapunov functions. Furthermore, by using the method of numerical simulation, the influence of the impulsive control strategy on the inherent oscillation are investigated, which shows rich dynamics, such as period doubling bifurcation, crises, symmetry-breaking pitchfork bifurcations, chaotic bands, quasi-periodic oscillation, narrow periodic window, wide periodic window, period-halving bifurcation, etc. That will be useful for study of the dynamic complexity of ecosystems

  1. UAS Conflict-Avoidance Using Multiagent RL with Abstract Strategy Type Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebhuhn, Carrie; Knudson, Matt; Tumer, Kagan

    2014-01-01

    The use of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) in the national airspace is of growing interest to the research community. Safety and scalability of control algorithms are key to the successful integration of autonomous system into a human-populated airspace. In order to ensure safety while still maintaining efficient paths of travel, these algorithms must also accommodate heterogeneity of path strategies of its neighbors. We show that, using multiagent RL, we can improve the speed with which conflicts are resolved in cases with up to 80 aircraft within a section of the airspace. In addition, we show that the introduction of abstract agent strategy types to partition the state space is helpful in resolving conflicts, particularly in high congestion.

  2. Announced Strategy Types in Multiagent RL for Conflict-Avoidance in the National Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebhuhn, Carrie; Knudson, Matthew D.; Tumer, Kagan

    2014-01-01

    The use of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) in the national airspace is of growing interest to the research community. Safety and scalability of control algorithms are key to the successful integration of autonomous system into a human-populated airspace. In order to ensure safety while still maintaining efficient paths of travel, these algorithms must also accommodate heterogeneity of path strategies of its neighbors. We show that, using multiagent RL, we can improve the speed with which conflicts are resolved in cases with up to 80 aircraft within a section of the airspace. In addition, we show that the introduction of abstract agent strategy types to partition the state space is helpful in resolving conflicts, particularly in high congestion.

  3. Multidisciplinary team working across different tumour types: analysis of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, B W; Sevdalis, N; Taylor, C; Vincent, C; Green, J S A

    2012-05-01

    Using data from a national survey, this study aimed to address whether the current model for multidisciplinary team (MDT) working is appropriate for all tumour types. Responses to the 2009 National Cancer Action Team national survey were analysed by tumour type. Differences indicate lack of consensus between MDT members in different tumour types. One thousand one hundred and forty-one respondents from breast, gynaecological, colorectal, upper gastrointestinal, urological, head and neck, haematological and lung MDTs were included. One hundred and sixteen of 136 statements demonstrated consensus between respondents in different tumour types. There were no differences regarding the infrastructure for meetings and team governance. Significant consensus was seen for team characteristics, and respondents disagreed regarding certain aspects of meeting organisations and logistics, and patient-centred decision making. Haematology MDT members were outliers in relation to the clinical decision-making process, and lung MDT members disagreed with other tumour types regarding treating patients with advanced disease. This analysis reveals strong consensus between MDT members from different tumour types, while also identifying areas that require a more tailored approach, such as the clinical decision-making process, and preparation for and the organisation of MDT meetings. Policymakers should remain sensitive to the needs of health care teams working in individual tumour types.

  4. The Work Compatibility Improvement Framework: theory and application of improvement action and intervention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genaidy, Ash M; Rinder, Magda M; Sequeira, Reynold; A-Rehim, Amal D

    2009-05-01

    Challenges facing management of manufacturing firms can be transformed into asset gains by giving careful consideration to the worker-work environment interface. The benefits of a 'healthy' interface may lead to sizable reductions in rising health care costs and retention of highly qualified workers. This paper presents a novel approach for the 'improve' phase of the Work Compatibility Improvement Framework. The work tasks of this research consisted of: (a) fundamentals of cognitive-based improvement action and intervention; (b) design concepts and process of improvement action/intervention generation; (c) assessment model of estimated gains in company's assets; (d) application demonstration in the manufacturing sector. The process of improvement action/intervention generation is described, preceded by a description of the fundamentals of cognitive-based improvement action and intervention and system architecture. This is followed by a documentation of estimated asset gains as a result of the improvement plan. The results showed that expert workers were, on average, 78% in agreement with the algorithm-identified improvement actions. Their knowledge was used to update the recommended actions as well as to detail the multiple strategies required to address the improvement actions. As a result, an integrated improvement plan was developed resulting in estimated asset gains of $1.6 million, which was validated by the general manager. The research reported herein documented the theory and application of the 'improve' phase of the Work Compatibility Improvement Framework. The economic assessment of the suggested improvement is also reported and this has proved to be an important driver to secure the firm collaboration of manufacturing enterprise management. An integrated improvement solution plan backed by a detailed economic assessment of suggested improvements is essential to demonstrate the full potential of workplace micro- and macro-ergonomic interventions.

  5. Production and robustness of a Cacao agroecosystem: effects of two contrasting types of management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatier, Rodolphe; Wiegand, Kerstin; Meyer, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Ecological intensification, i.e. relying on ecological processes to replace chemical inputs, is often presented as the ideal alternative to conventional farming based on an intensive use of chemicals. It is said to both maintain high yield and provide more robustness to the agroecosystem. However few studies compared the two types of management with respect to their consequences for production and robustness toward perturbation. In this study our aim is to assess productive performance and robustness toward diverse perturbations of a Cacao agroecosystem managed with two contrasting groups of strategies: one group of strategies relying on a high level of pesticides and a second relying on low levels of pesticides. We conducted this study using a dynamical model of a Cacao agroecosystem that includes Cacao production dynamics, and dynamics of three insects: a pest (the Cacao Pod Borer, Conopomorpha cramerella) and two characteristic but unspecified beneficial insects (a pollinator of Cacao and a parasitoid of the Cacao Pod Borer). Our results showed two opposite behaviors of the Cacao agroecosystem depending on its management, i.e. an agroecosystem relying on a high input of pesticides and showing low ecosystem functioning and an agroecosystem with low inputs, relying on a high functioning of the ecosystem. From the production point of view, no type of management clearly outclassed the other and their ranking depended on the type of pesticide used. From the robustness point of view, the two types of managements performed differently when subjected to different types of perturbations. Ecologically intensive systems were more robust to pest outbreaks and perturbations related to pesticide characteristics while chemically intensive systems were more robust to Cacao production and management-related perturbation.

  6. Effects of exhaust gas recirculation in diesel engines featuring late PCCI type combustion strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Ambrosio, S.; Ferrari, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects that a high EGR rate can have on PCCI type combustion strategies have been analyzed. • The dependence of engine emissions and combustion noise on EGR has been addressed. • The time histories of the main in-cylinder variables have been plotted for different EGR rates. - Abstract: The influence of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) has been analyzed considering experimental results obtained from a Euro 5 diesel engine calibrated with an optimized pilot-main double injection strategy. The engine features a late premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) type combustion mode. Different steady-state key-points that are representative of the engine application in a passenger car over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) have been studied. The engine was fully instrumented to obtain a complete overview of the most important variables. The pressure time history in the combustion chamber has been measured to perform calculations with single and three-zone combustion diagnostic models. These models allow the in-cylinder emissions and the temperature of the burned and unburned zones to be evaluated as functions of the crankshaft angle. The EGR mass fraction was experimentally varied within the 0–50% range. The results of the investigation have shown the influence that high EGR rates can have on intake and exhaust temperatures, in-cylinder pressure and heat release rate time histories, engine-out emissions (CO, HC, NO_x, soot), brake specific fuel consumption and combustion noise for a PCCI type combustion strategy. The outputs of the diagnostic models have been used to conduct a detailed analysis of the cause-and-effect relationships between the EGR rate variations and the engine performance. Finally, the effect of the EGR on the cycle-to-cycle variability of the engine torque has been experimentally investigated.

  7. What works? Flexibility as a Work-Participation Strategy for People with Addiction and Mental-Health Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Vold Hansen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available For many years the education and training of people with addictions and mental-health problems have been a key strategy to assist people to find ordinary jobs. This strategy is largely concerned with adapting people to the requirements of the workplace. An alternative strategy can also be envisaged, where the workplace adapts to the possibilities and resources of the people (Hansen, 2009. In this article, we raise the following question: how is it possible to adapt workplaces for people with addiction and mental-health problems? Here we highlight the experiences of a workplace that focuses on adapting to employees’ capabilities and resources. The data collection consists both of 12 interviews with managers and workers and of participant observation of the workplace. Our answer to our question is that this is possible because the workplace is flexible in the way that they adapt their demands to the workers’ resources.

  8. Pleiotropic effects of type 2 diabetes management strategies on renal risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskiet, Marcel H A; Tonneijck, Lennart; Smits, Mark M; Kramer, Mark H H; Heerspink, Hiddo J Lambers; van Raalte, Daniël H

    2015-05-01

    In parallel with the type 2 diabetes pandemic, diabetic kidney disease has become the leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide, and is associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. As established in landmark randomised trials and recommended in clinical guidelines, prevention and treatment of diabetic kidney disease focuses on control of the two main renal risk factors, hyperglycaemia and systemic hypertension. Treatment of systemic hypertension with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blockers is advocated because these drugs seem to exert specific renoprotective effects beyond blood pressure lowering. Emerging evidence shows that obesity, glomerular hyperfiltration, albuminuria, and dyslipidaemia might also adversely affect the kidney in diabetes. Control of these risk factors could have additional benefits on renal outcome in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, despite multifactorial treatment approaches, residual risk for the development and progression of diabetic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes remains, and novel strategies or therapies to treat the disease are urgently needed. Several drugs used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes are associated with pleiotropic effects that could favourably or unfavourably change patients' renal risk profile. We review the risk factors and treatment of diabetic kidney disease, and describe the pleiotropic effects of widely used drugs in type 2 diabetes management on renal outcomes, with special emphasis on antihyperglycaemic drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fuel assemblies for PWR type reactors: fuel rods, fuel plates. CEA work presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delafosse, Jacques.

    1976-01-01

    French work on PWR type reactors is reported: basic knowledge on Zr and its alloys and on uranium oxide; experience gained on other programs (fast neutron and heavy water reactors); zircaloy-2 or zircaloy-4 clad UO 2 fuel rods; fuel plates consisting of zircaloy-2 clad UO 2 squares of thickness varying between 2 and 4mm [fr

  10. Types of employment and their associations with work characteristics and health in Swedish women and men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samuelsson, A.; Houkes, I.; Verdonk, P.; Hammarstrom, A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether type of employment was related to work characteristics and health status at age 42 adjusted for health status at age 30 and whether gender moderates the associations. Methods: Questionnaire data was used from a 27-year follow-up study of school-leavers carried out in

  11. 48 CFR 215.404-71-3 - Contract type risk and working capital adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Cost-plus-incentive-free (4) 1.0 0 to 2. Cost-plus-fixed-fee (4) 0.5 0 to 1. Time-and-materials... considered cost-plus-fixed-fee contracts for the purposes of assigning profit values. They shall not receive... CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 215.404-71-3 Contract type risk and working capital adjustment. (a...

  12. Rapid nickel diffusion in cold-worked type 316 austenitic steel at 360-500 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arioka, Koji [Institute of Nuclear Safety Systems, Inc., Mihama (Japan); Iijima, Yoshiaki [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science; Miyamoto, Tomoki [Kobe Material Testing Laboratory Co. Ltd., Harima (Japan)

    2017-10-15

    The diffusion coefficient of nickel in cold-worked Type 316 austenitic steel was determined by the diffusion couple method in the temperature range between 360 and 500 C. A diffusion couple was prepared by electroless nickel plating on the surface of a 20 % cold-worked Type 316 austenitic steel specimen. The growth in width of the interdiffusion zone was proportional to the square root of diffusion time until 14 055 h. The diffusion coefficient of nickel (D{sub Ni}) in cold-worked Type 316 austenitic steel was determined by extrapolating the concentration-dependent interdiffusion coefficient to 11 at.% of nickel. The value of D{sub Ni} at 360 C was about 5 000 times higher than the lattice diffusion coefficient of nickel in Type 316 austenitic steel. The determined activation energy 117 kJ mol{sup -1} was 46.6 % of the activation energy 251 kJ mol{sup -1} for the lattice diffusion of nickel in Type 316 austenitic steel.

  13. Building America's Job Skills with Effective Workforce Programs: A Training Strategy to Raise Wages and Increase Work Opportunities. Strategy Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstone, Michael; Looney, Adam

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of effective training and workforce development programs as part of a broader strategy to increase the competitiveness of American workers. Although rapid technological change and increasing global competition have delivered great economic benefits to the U.S. economy overall, the development of new and more…

  14. LONG-TERM STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION FOR STUDENTS’ INDEPENDENT WORK IN A FOREIGN LANGUAGE AS AN EFFECTIVE MEANS OF FUTURE SPECIALIST’S PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mikhaylovna Galishnikova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the development and implementation of a long-term strategy of the organization of independent work of undergraduate and graduate students by means of a foreign language, which allows designing a vector for further professional and personal development of the future specialist. The proposed strategy is based on a four-step approach, providing for the integration of communication means of training and information technology, streamlining effective means and forms of implementation of the independent work and the control, strengthening the relationships between a student and a teacher, the principle of continuity and consistency. The methods of theoretical and empirical studies were used; there were described the stages of the approach, that is the basis of the strategy itself. Based on the stages, the sequence of the controlled independent work systematic elements was defined; its forms and types were grouped and specified. The mastery performance criteria for competence in the discipline “Foreign language” were defined and refined. The authors cite data of the experimental studies proving the positive impact of the implementation of the long-term strategy of the organization of independent work of students on formation of professional foreign language competence.

  15. Types of employment and their associations with work characteristics and health in Swedish women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsson, Åsa; Houkes, Inge; Verdonk, Petra; Hammarström, Anne

    2012-03-01

    To investigate whether type of employment was related to work characteristics and health status at age 42 adjusted for health status at age 30 and whether gender moderates the associations. Questionnaire data was used from a 27-year follow-up study of school-leavers carried out in Luleå in the north of Sweden (response rate 94%). The study population consisted of 877 (47.8% women) working respondents. Data were analysed by means of t-tests, ANOVAs, and multiple linear regression analyses. Men were more often self-employed, while more women had temporary types of employment. Moreover, men reported more control over work and less emotional exhaustion than women. Compared to permanently employed, self-employed (men and women) perceived more control over work and better health status (pemployed men also reported more demands and social support (pemployment, however, reported less job control, as well as lower health status (only men) (pemployment and health were found for women and men. However we find indications of an influence of type of employment on work and thereupon health, with job control playing an important role.

  16. Creep rupture properties of solution annealed and cold worked type 316 stainless steel cladding tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathew, M.D.; Latha, S.; Mannan, S.L.; Rodriguez, P.

    1990-01-01

    Austenitic stainless steels (mainly type 316 and its modifications) are used as fuel cladding materials in all current generation fast breeder reactors. For the Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) at Kalpakkam, modified type 316 stainless steel (SS) was chosen as the material for fuel cladding tubes. In order to evaluate the influence of cold work on the performance of the fuel element, the investigation was carried out on cladding tubes in three metallurgical conditions (solution annealed, ten percent cold worked and twenty percent cold worked). The results indicate that: (i) The creep strength of type 316 SS cladding tube increases with increasing cold work. (ii) The benificial effects of cold work are retained at almost all the test conditions investigated. (iii) The Larson Miller parameter analysis shows a two slope behaviour for 20PCW material suggesting that caution should be exercised in extrapolating the creep rupture life to stresses below 125 MPa. At very low stress levels, the LMP values fall below the values of the 10 PCW material. (author). 6 refs., 19 figs. , 10 tabs

  17. Laboratory results gained from cold worked type 316Ti under simulated PWR primary environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devrient, B.; Kilian, R.; Koenig, G.; Widera, M.; Wermelinger, T.

    2015-01-01

    Beginning in 2005, intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of barrel bolts made from cold worked type 316Ti (German Material No. 1.4571 K) was observed in several S/KWU type PWRs. This mechanism was so far less understood for PWR primary conditions. Therefore an extended joint research program was launched by AREVA GmbH and VGB e.V. to clarify the specific conditions which contributed to the observed findings on barrel bolts. In the frame of this research program beneath the evaluation of the operational experience also laboratory tests on the general cracking behavior of cold worked type 316Ti material, which followed the same production line as for barrel bolt manufacturing in the eighties, with different cold work levels covering up to 30 % were performed to determine whether there is a specific susceptibility of cold worked austenitic stainless steel specimens to suffer IGSCC under simulated PWR primary conditions. All these slow strain rate tests on tapered specimens and component specimens came to the results that first, much higher cold work levels than used for the existing barrel bolts are needed for IGSCC initiation. Secondly, additional high active plastic deformation is needed to generate and propagate intergranular cracking. And thirdly, all specimens finally showed ductile fracture at the applied strain rates. (authors)

  18. Strategies used by women workers to reconcile family responsibilities with atypical work schedules in the service sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthe, B; Messing, K; Abbas, L

    2011-01-01

    Workers' attempts to accommodate family needs may be considered illegitimate in the paid work sphere. Their attempts at work-family balancing (WFB) in that sphere can remain invisible, even when those attempts require considerable energy. Since identification of WFB strategies can potentially lead to suggestions to improve management practices, we report an attempt to find them in the work sphere. 14 care aides in a Québec residence for seniors and 2~schedule managers were recruited. Qualitative ergonomic analysis was employed. 24 hours observation; interviews of nursing and human resources staff; qualitative ergonomic analysis by two researchers; feedback collected from meetings with management and union. Strategies for schedule choice were compared between care aides with heavier vs. lighter family responsibilities. For workers with heavier family responsibilities, choice of work schedules was almost entirely conditioned by family considerations, leaving little leeway to manage workers' own health protection. Family constraints affected activity at work, and strategies for handling family constraints could potentially be affected by changes in work organization. Managers should encourage full discussion of work-family balancing strategies if they wish to adapt their working conditions to the workers, and ergonomists should include this balancing as a facet of work activity, despite possible negative consequences.

  19. Health, work, social trust, and financial situation in persons with Usher syndrome type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, Mattias; Wahlqvist, Moa; Danermark, Berth; Dahlström, Örjan; Möller, Claes

    2018-05-28

    Research has demonstrated that persons with Usher syndrome type 1 (USH1) have significantly poorer physical and psychological health compared to a reference group. To explore the relation between work, health, social trust, and financial situation in USH1 compared to a reference group. Sixty-six persons (18-65 y) from the Swedish Usher database received a questionnaire and 47 were included, 23 working and 24 non-working. The reference group comprised 3,049 working and 198 non-working persons. The Swedish Health on Equal Terms questionnaire was used and statistical analysis with multiple logistic regression was conducted. The USH1 non-work group had a higher Odds ratio (95% CI) in poor psychological and physical health, social trust, and financial situation compared to the USH1 work group and reference groups. Age, gender, hearing, and vision impairment did not explain the differences. The relation between the USH1 work and non-work groups showed the same pattern as the reference groups, but the magnitude of problems was significantly higher. Both disability and unemployment increased the risk of poor health, social trust and financial situation in persons with USH1, but having an employment seemed to counteract the risks related to disability.

  20. Willingness to pay for flexible working conditions of people with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexo, M A; Cleal, B; Hagelund, Lise

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increasing number of people with chronic diseases challenges workforce capacity. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) can have work-related consequences, such as early retirement. Laws of most high-income countries require workplaces to provide accommodations to enable people with chronic...... disabilities to manage their condition at work. A barrier to successful implementation of such accommodations can be lack of co-workers' willingness to support people with T2D. This study aimed to examine the willingness to pay (WTP) of people with and without T2D for five workplace initiatives that help...... individuals with type 2 diabetes manage their diabetes at work. METHODS: Three samples with employed Danish participants were drawn from existing online panels: a general population sample (n = 600), a T2D sample (n = 693), and a matched sample of people without diabetes (n = 539). Participants completed...

  1. Prevention of type 2 diabetes; a systematic review and meta-analysis of different intervention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlotti, C; Morabito, A; Pontiroli, A E

    2014-08-01

    Different intervention strategies can prevent type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effectiveness of different strategies. Studies were grouped into 15 different strategies: 1: diet plus physical activity; 2: physical activity; 3-6: anti-diabetic drugs [glitazones, metformin, beta-cell stimulating drugs (sulphanylureas, glinides), alfa-glucosidase inhibitors]; 7-8: cardiovascular drugs (ACE inhibitors, ARB, calcium antagonists); 9-14 [diets, lipid-affecting drugs (orlistat, bezafibrate), vitamins, micronutrients, estrogens, alcohol, coffee]; 15: bariatric surgery. Only controlled studies were included in the analysis, whether randomized, non-randomized, observational studies, whether primarily designed to assess incident cases of diabetes, or performed with other purposes, such as control of hypertension, of ischemic heart disease or prevention of cardiovascular events. Appropriate methodology [preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement] was used. Seventy-one studies (490 813 subjects), published as full papers, were analysed to identify predictors of new cases of T2DM, and were included in a meta-analysis (random-effects model) to study the effect of different strategies. Intervention effect (new cases of diabetes) was expressed as odds ratio (OR), with 95% confidence intervals (C.I.s). Publication bias was formally assessed. Body mass index was in the overweight range for 13 groups, obese or morbidly obese in lipid-affecting drugs and in bariatric surgery. Non-surgical strategies, except for beta-cell stimulating drugs, estrogens and vitamins, were able to prevent T2DM, with different effectiveness, from 0.37 (C.I. 0.26-0.52) to 0.85 (C.I. 0.77-0.93); the most effective strategy was bariatric surgery in morbidly obese subjects [0.16 (C.I. 0.11,0.24)]. At meta-regression analysis, age of subjects and amount of weight lost were associated with effectiveness of

  2. Strategy for acute type IIIb aortic dissection associated with abdominal-organ malperfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Masamichi; Uchida, Naomichi; Shibamura, Hidenori; Iwako, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate our results of treatment for acute type IIIb aortic dissection associated with malperfusion of abdominal organs, and to consider the therapeutic strategies. Between December 1997 and August 2005, 123 patients with acute type IIIb aortic dissection were treated at our hospital. Of those, 11 patients (8.9%) required emergency treatment for malperfusion of abdominal organ. In our hospital, the indication of emergency treatment for acute type IIIb aortic dissection was any symptom of acute abdomen plus insufficiency of visceral arterial circulation on computed tomography or angiography. All of the 11 patients (100%) had cul-de-sac of a false lumen, 8 (72.7%) had at least one symptom of acute abdomen, and 3 (27.3%) had metabolic acidosis before surgical treatment. In 7 patients of the ''true lumen stenosis type,'' 5 patients who were treated with open stent grafting are alive. The other two patients, who were treated with transluminally placed endovascular stent grafting (TPEG) or with superior mesenteric artery (SMA) bypass, died. Of the 2 ''visceral arterial dissection type'' patient, one was treated with transluminal stenting of the celiac artery and the other was treated with resection of the intestine and ileocolic artery bypass, and both are alive. Two ''mixed type'' patients who were treated with open stent grafting died. The mortality rate of this series was 36.4%. In conclusion, to improve the prognosis of acute type IIIb aortic dissection associated with malperfusion of abdominal organ, it is important that we obtain early diagnosis of organ ischemia caused by cul-de-sac of a false lumen and choose the correct treatment based on understanding of the mechanism of organ ischemia. (author)

  3. A study of job stress, stress coping strategies, and job satisfaction for nurses working in middle-level hospital operating rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chung-Kuang; Lin, Cecilia; Wang, Shu-Hui; Hou, Tung-Hsu

    2009-09-01

    Understanding the interactive relationships between demographics and work-related variables, job stress, job stress coping strategies, and job satisfaction for operating room (OR) nurses is important. The purpose of this study was to determine the stressors, the stress coping strategies, and the job satisfaction of nursing staff who worked in the OR and to evaluate influence of demographic characteristics on job stress, stress coping strategies, and job satisfaction. A cross-sectional research design was used to collect data. Participants included 121 nurses with more than 6 months of work experience at seven hospitals in Yunlin and Chiayi Counties. Data were collected from March through May 2008. One hundred twelve questionnaires were returned, giving a response rate of 92.56%. The questionnaire included four parts designed to gather data on demographics and work-related information, job stress, stress coping strategies, and job satisfaction. Major findings of this study were as follows: (a) stress level and frequency perception of OR nurses were significantly related to the type of hospital; (b) the most intense stressor perceived by OR nurses was patient safety; (c) the stressor most frequently perceived by OR nurses was administrative feedback; (d) although all job stressors were positively related to destructive stress coping strategies, professional status, patient safety, and OR environment were also positively related to constructive stress coping strategies; (e) factors including work rewards, OR environment, and administrative management of job satisfaction were inversely related to destructive stress coping strategies; and (f) factors including work rewards, OR environment, and administrative management of job satisfaction were inversely related to all job stressors. Major suggestions of this study include the following: (a) hospitals should ensure set standard operating procedures for the OR, strengthen the designed-in security of the OR working

  4. The effects of two types of sleep deprivation on visual working memory capacity and filtering efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P A Drummond

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation has adverse consequences for a variety of cognitive functions. The exact effects of sleep deprivation, though, are dependent upon the cognitive process examined. Within working memory, for example, some component processes are more vulnerable to sleep deprivation than others. Additionally, the differential impacts on cognition of different types of sleep deprivation have not been well studied. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of one night of total sleep deprivation and 4 nights of partial sleep deprivation (4 hours in bed/night on two components of visual working memory: capacity and filtering efficiency. Forty-four healthy young adults were randomly assigned to one of the two sleep deprivation conditions. All participants were studied: 1 in a well-rested condition (following 6 nights of 9 hours in bed/night; and 2 following sleep deprivation, in a counter-balanced order. Visual working memory testing consisted of two related tasks. The first measured visual working memory capacity and the second measured the ability to ignore distractor stimuli in a visual scene (filtering efficiency. Results showed neither type of sleep deprivation reduced visual working memory capacity. Partial sleep deprivation also generally did not change filtering efficiency. Total sleep deprivation, on the other hand, did impair performance in the filtering task. These results suggest components of visual working memory are differentially vulnerable to the effects of sleep deprivation, and different types of sleep deprivation impact visual working memory to different degrees. Such findings have implications for operational settings where individuals may need to perform with inadequate sleep and whose jobs involve receiving an array of visual information and discriminating the relevant from the irrelevant prior to making decisions or taking actions (e.g., baggage screeners, air traffic controllers, military personnel, health care

  5. The effects of two types of sleep deprivation on visual working memory capacity and filtering efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Sean P A; Anderson, Dane E; Straus, Laura D; Vogel, Edward K; Perez, Veronica B

    2012-01-01

    Sleep deprivation has adverse consequences for a variety of cognitive functions. The exact effects of sleep deprivation, though, are dependent upon the cognitive process examined. Within working memory, for example, some component processes are more vulnerable to sleep deprivation than others. Additionally, the differential impacts on cognition of different types of sleep deprivation have not been well studied. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of one night of total sleep deprivation and 4 nights of partial sleep deprivation (4 hours in bed/night) on two components of visual working memory: capacity and filtering efficiency. Forty-four healthy young adults were randomly assigned to one of the two sleep deprivation conditions. All participants were studied: 1) in a well-rested condition (following 6 nights of 9 hours in bed/night); and 2) following sleep deprivation, in a counter-balanced order. Visual working memory testing consisted of two related tasks. The first measured visual working memory capacity and the second measured the ability to ignore distractor stimuli in a visual scene (filtering efficiency). Results showed neither type of sleep deprivation reduced visual working memory capacity. Partial sleep deprivation also generally did not change filtering efficiency. Total sleep deprivation, on the other hand, did impair performance in the filtering task. These results suggest components of visual working memory are differentially vulnerable to the effects of sleep deprivation, and different types of sleep deprivation impact visual working memory to different degrees. Such findings have implications for operational settings where individuals may need to perform with inadequate sleep and whose jobs involve receiving an array of visual information and discriminating the relevant from the irrelevant prior to making decisions or taking actions (e.g., baggage screeners, air traffic controllers, military personnel, health care providers).

  6. Effectiveness of measures and implementation strategies in reducing physical work demands due to manual handling at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, Henk F.; Sluiter, Judith K.; Hulshof, Carel T. J.; Vink, Peter; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2005-01-01

    This review aimed at producing insight into the effectiveness of interventions to reduce the physical work demands associated with manual (materials) handling in the work situation and musculoskeletal symptoms in the longer term. A systematic electronic literature search between 1990 and February

  7. Responses to different types of inquiry prompts: college students' discourse, performance, and perceptions of group work in an engineering class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balgopal, Meena M.; Casper, Anne Marie A.; Atadero, Rebecca A.; Rambo-Hernandez, Karen E.

    2017-08-01

    Working in small groups to solve problems is an instructional strategy that allows university students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines the opportunity to practice interpersonal and professional skills while gaining and applying discipline-specific content knowledge. Previous research indicates that not all group work prompts result in the same experiences for students. In this study we posed two types of prompts (guided and open) to undergraduate engineering students in a statics course as they participated in group work projects. We measured student discourse, student performance, and perceptions of group work. We found that guided prompts were associated with higher-level discourse and higher performance (project scores) than open prompts. Students engaged in guided prompts were more likely to discuss distribution of labour and design/calculation details of their projects than when students responded to open prompts. We posit that guided prompts, which more clearly articulate expectations of students, help students determine how to divide tasks amongst themselves and, subsequently, jump to higher levels of discourse.

  8. Application of CFD in Investigation of Ventilation Strategies for Improvement of Working Environment in a Waste Incineration Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Svidt, Kjeld; Kragh, Hans

    In this study CFD was applied to investigate the ability of different ventilation systems and strategies to improve working conditions in a waste incineration plant. The plant, VS Amagerforbn:ending, had expanded to supply both district heating and power. Because of that too high temperatures were...... generated in the working zones and measures to reduce these levels had to be taken ....

  9. The moderating effects of job control and selection, optimization, and compensation strategies on the age-work ability relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weigl, Matthias; Mueller, Andreas; Hornung, Severin; Zacher, Hannes; Angerer, Peter

    Work ability describes employees' capability to carry out their work with respect to physical and psychological job demands. This study investigated direct and interactive effects of age, job control, and the use of successful aging strategies called selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC)

  10. Practitioner review: When parent training doesn't work: theory-driven clinical strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stephen; Dadds, Mark R

    2009-12-01

    Improving the parent-child relationship by using strategies based on social learning theory has become the cornerstone for the treatment of conduct problems in children. Over the past 40 years, interventions have expanded greatly from small, experimental procedures to substantial, systematic programmes that provide clear guidelines in detailed manuals on how practitioners should implement the standardised treatments. They are now widely disseminated and there is a great deal of empirical support that they are very effective for the majority of cases. However, evaluations of even the best of these evidence-based programmes show that a quarter to a third of families and their children do not benefit. What does the practitioner then do, when a standard social learning approach, diligently applied, doesn't work? We argue that under these circumstances, some of the major theories of child development, family functioning and individual psychology can help the skilled practitioner think his or her way through complex clinical situations. This paper describes a set of practical strategies that can then be flexibly applied, based on a systematic theoretical analysis. We hold that social learning theory remains the core of effective parent training interventions, but that ideas from attachment theory, structural family systems theory, cognitive-attribution theory, and shared empowerment/motivational interviewing can each, according to the nature of the difficulty, greatly enrich the practitioner's ability to help bring about change in families who are stuck. We summarise each of these models and present practical examples of when and how they may help the clinician plan treatment.

  11. In vivo tumor targeting of gold nanoparticles: effect of particle type and dosing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvanakrishnan, Priyaveena; Park, Jaesook; Chatterjee, Deyali; Krishnan, Sunil; Tunnell, James W

    2012-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have gained significant interest as nanovectors for combined imaging and photothermal therapy of tumors. Delivered systemically, GNPs preferentially accumulate at the tumor site via the enhanced permeability and retention effect, and when irradiated with near infrared light, produce sufficient heat to treat tumor tissue. The efficacy of this process strongly depends on the targeting ability of the GNPs, which is a function of the particle's geometric properties (eg, size) and dosing strategy (eg, number and amount of injections). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of GNP type and dosing strategy on in vivo tumor targeting. Specifically, we investigated the in vivo tumor-targeting efficiency of pegylated gold nanoshells (GNSs) and gold nanorods (GNRs) for single and multiple dosing. We used Swiss nu/nu mice with a subcutaneous tumor xenograft model that received intravenous administration for a single and multiple doses of GNS and GNR. We performed neutron activation analysis to quantify the gold present in the tumor and liver. We performed histology to determine if there was acute toxicity as a result of multiple dosing. Neutron activation analysis results showed that the smaller GNRs accumulated in higher concentrations in the tumor compared to the larger GNSs. We observed a significant increase in GNS and GNR accumulation in the liver for higher doses. However, multiple doses increased targeting efficiency with minimal effect beyond three doses of GNPs. These results suggest a significant effect of particle type and multiple doses on increasing particle accumulation and on tumor targeting ability.

  12. Mating type genes in the genus Neofusicoccum: Mating strategies and usefulness in species delimitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Anabela; Phillips, Alan J L; Alves, Artur

    2017-04-01

    The genus Neofusicoccum includes species with wide geographical and plant host distribution, some of them of economic importance. The genus currently comprises 27 species that are difficult to identify based on morphological features alone. Thus, species differentiation is based on phylogenetic species recognition using multigene genealogies. In this study, we characterised the mating type genes of Neofusicoccum species. Specific primers were designed to amplify and sequence MAT genes in several species and a PCR-based mating type diagnostic assay was developed. Homothallism was the predominant mating strategy among the species tested. Furthermore, the potential of mating type gene sequences for species delimitation was evaluated. Phylogenetic analyses were performed on both MAT genes and compared with multigene genealogies using sequences of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region, translation elongation factor 1-alpha and beta-tubulin. Phylogenies based on mating type genes could discriminate between the species analysed and are in concordance with the results obtained with the more conventional multilocus phylogenetic analysis approach. Thus, MAT genes represent a powerful tool to delimit cryptic species in the genus Neofusicoccum. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Different developmental trajectories across feature types support a dynamic field model of visual working memory development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmering, Vanessa R; Miller, Hilary E; Bohache, Kevin

    2015-05-01

    Research on visual working memory has focused on characterizing the nature of capacity limits as "slots" or "resources" based almost exclusively on adults' performance with little consideration for developmental change. Here we argue that understanding how visual working memory develops can shed new light onto the nature of representations. We present an alternative model, the Dynamic Field Theory (DFT), which can capture effects that have been previously attributed either to "slot" or "resource" explanations. The DFT includes a specific developmental mechanism to account for improvements in both resolution and capacity of visual working memory throughout childhood. Here we show how development in the DFT can account for different capacity estimates across feature types (i.e., color and shape). The current paper tests this account by comparing children's (3, 5, and 7 years of age) performance across different feature types. Results showed that capacity for colors increased faster over development than capacity for shapes. A second experiment confirmed this difference across feature types within subjects, but also showed that the difference can be attenuated by testing memory for less familiar colors. Model simulations demonstrate how developmental changes in connectivity within the model-purportedly arising through experience-can capture differences across feature types.

  14. Differences among Thai Agricultural Workers' Health, Working Conditions, and Pesticide Use by Farm Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongtip, Pornpimol; Nankongnab, Noppanun; Mahaboonpeeti, Redeerat; Bootsikeaw, Sasivimol; Batsungnoen, Kiattisak; Hanchenlaksh, Chalalai; Tipayamongkholgul, Mathuros; Woskie, Susan

    2018-02-13

    More than 11 million Thai people (38%) work in agriculture, but since most are in the informal sector, government enforcement and support are very limited. As a result, working conditions on Thai farms vary greatly, putting the health of many agricultural workers at risk. A cross-sectional study in three Thai provinces collected information on the work activities and conditions of 424 farmers representing five farm types: rice, vegetable, flower, rice/vegetable, and flower/vegetable. The agricultural workers were mainly women (60%); their average age was 53 but ranged from 18 to 87 years. More than 64% worked more than 5 days/week. Seventy-four percent of them had only primary school education. A number of the health and hazardous working conditions surveyed were significantly different by farm type. Rice farmers were found to have the highest prevalence of allergies, nasal congestion, wheezing, and acute symptoms after pesticide use, while flower farmers had the lowest prevalence of these health outcomes. Rice farmers reported the highest prevalence of hazardous working conditions including high noise levels, working on slippery surfaces, sitting or standing on a vibrating machine, spills of chemicals/pesticides, and sharp injuries. The lowest prevalence of these working conditions (except noise) was reported by flower farmers. Vegetable farmers reported the highest prevalence knee problems, while rice farmers had the lowest prevalence. Among these farmers, more than 27 different types of pesticides were reported in use during the past year, with the majority reporting use once a month. The flower/vegetable farming group reported the highest frequency of good exposure prevention practices during pesticide use. They were the most likely to report using cotton or rubber gloves or a disposable paper masks during insecticide spraying. Those farmers who only grew vegetables had the lowest frequency of good exposure prevention practices, including use of personal

  15. THE TYPES OF INDEPENDENT WORK OF STUDENTS OF ECONOMIC SPECIALTIES IN THE STUDY OF MATHEMATICAL DISCIPLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Horbach

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the types of independent work of students in higher school and determines the most appropriate ones for the students majoring in economics during their study of mathematical disciplines. There have been defined training and professional skills, which a future economist will gain in the process of self-study of mathematical disciplines. These skills have been proved to be the most determinative in formation of professional independence as a basic quality of a future economist. The scheme which reveals the relationship of classification bases of self work with its forms and types as well as educational skills which are formed in the course of its implementation to be transformed in the future into professional skills of economists has been worked out. It has been highlighted that the use of these types of self work will help create optimal conditions for efficient management of training and learning activities of students of economic specialties in the study of mathematical disciplines.

  16. Unipolar n-Type Black Phosphorus Transistors with Low Work Function Contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Hua; Incorvia, Jean Anne C; McClellan, Connor J; Yu, Andrew C; Mleczko, Michal J; Pop, Eric; Wong, H-S Philip

    2018-05-09

    Black phosphorus (BP) is a promising two-dimensional (2D) material for nanoscale transistors, due to its expected higher mobility than other 2D semiconductors. While most studies have reported ambipolar BP with a stronger p-type transport, it is important to fabricate both unipolar p- and n-type transistors for low-power digital circuits. Here, we report unipolar n-type BP transistors with low work function Sc and Er contacts, demonstrating a record high n-type current of 200 μA/μm in 6.5 nm thick BP. Intriguingly, the electrical transport of the as-fabricated, capped devices changes from ambipolar to n-type unipolar behavior after a month at room temperature. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of the contact cross-section reveals an intermixing layer consisting of partly oxidized metal at the interface. This intermixing layer results in a low n-type Schottky barrier between Sc and BP, leading to the unipolar behavior of the BP transistor. This unipolar transport with a suppressed p-type current is favorable for digital logic circuits to ensure a lower off-power consumption.

  17. Mass Media Strategies Targeting High Sensation Seekers: What Works and Why

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Michael T.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To examine strategies for using the mass media effectively in drug prevention campaigns targeting high sensation seekers. Methods: Both experimental lab and field studies were used to develop a comprehensive audience segmentation strategy targeting high sensation seekers. Results: A 4-pronged targeting strategy employed in an…

  18. A Secondary Working Memory Challenge Preserves Primary Place Strategies Despite Overtraining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Robert S.; Uttaro, Michael R.; Fleming, Samantha E.; Suarez, Daniel F.; Ascoli, Giorgio A.; Dumas, Theodore C.

    2013-01-01

    Learning by repetition engages distinct cognitive strategies whose contributions are adjusted with experience. Early in learning, performance relies upon flexible, attentive strategies. With extended practice, inflexible, automatic strategies emerge. This transition is thought fundamental to habit formation and applies to human and animal…

  19. Coping with stress and types of burnout: explanatory power of different coping strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Montero-Marin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Burnout occurs when professionals use ineffective coping strategies to try to protect themselves from work-related stress. The dimensions of 'overload', 'lack of development' and 'neglect', belonging to the 'frenetic', 'under-challenged' and 'worn-out' subtypes, respectively, comprise a brief typological definition of burnout. The aim of the present study was to estimate the explanatory power of the different coping strategies on the development of burnout subtypes. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey with a random sample of university employees, stratified by occupation (n = 429. Multivariate linear regression models were constructed between the 'Burnout Clinical Subtypes Questionnaire', with its three dimensions -overload, lack of development and neglect- as dependent variables, and the 'Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences', with its fifteen dimensions, as independent variables. Adjusted multiple determination coefficients and beta coefficients were calculated to evaluate and compare the explanatory capacity of the different coping strategies. RESULTS: The 'Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences' subscales together explained 15% of the 'overload' (p<0.001, 9% of the 'lack of development' (p<0.001, and 21% of the 'neglect' (p<0.001. 'Overload' was mainly explained by 'venting of emotions' (Beta = 0.34; p<0.001; 'lack of development' by 'cognitive avoidance' (Beta = 0.21; p<0.001; and 'neglect' by 'behavioural disengagement' (Beta = 0.40; p<0.001. Other interesting associations were observed. CONCLUSIONS: These findings further our understanding of the way in which the effectiveness of interventions for burnout may be improved, by influencing new treatments and preventive programmes using features of the strategies for handling stress in the workplace.

  20. Study on radon and thoron levels in different types of granitic work industries around Tumkur city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagabhushan, S.R.; Ujjinappa; Srilatha; Sannappa, J.

    2013-01-01

    Radon, Thoron and its progeny monitoring has become a global phenomenon due to its health hazards on human being. The concentration of radon, thoron and their progeny levels have been measured in different types of Granite and brick work industries around Tumkur city by using LR-115 type II Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs) have been used for the measurement of these gases. The higher concentration of radon, thoron and their progeny were observed in the dwellings near brick industries compared to Granite cutting and polishing industries. The inhalation dose due to Radon, Thoron and their progeny to the workers and public living near these industries have been estimated. (author)

  1. Strategies to reduce safety violations for working from heights in construction companies: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Henk F; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2014-05-31

    Safety measures should be applied to reduce work-related fatal and non-fatal fall injuries. However, according to the labor inspectorate, more than 80% of Dutch construction sites violate safety regulations for working from heights. To increase compliance with safety regulations, employers and workers have to select, implement and monitor safety measures. To facilitate this behavioral change, stimulating knowledge awareness and personalized feedback are frequently advocated behavior change techniques. For this study, two behavior change strategies have been developed in addition to the announcement of safety inspections by the labor inspectorate. These strategies consist of 1) face-to-face contacts with safety consultants and 2) direct mail with access to internet facilities. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of these two strategies on the safety violations for working from heights, the process and the cost measures. This study is a block randomized intervention trial in 27 cities to establish the effects of the face-to-face guidance strategy (N = 9), a direct mailing strategy (N = 9) and a control condition of no guidance (N = 9) on safety violations to record by labor inspectors after three months. A process evaluation for both strategies will be performed to determine program implementation (reach, dose delivered and dose received), satisfaction, knowledge and perceived safety behavior. A cost analysis will be performed to establish the financial costs for both strategies. The present study is in accordance with the CONSORT statement. This study increases insight into performing practice-based randomized controlled trials. The outcome will help to evaluate the effect of two guidance strategies on safety violations. If these strategies are effective, implementation of these strategies through the national institute of safety and health or labor inspectorate can take place to guide construction companies in complying with

  2. Land Disposal Restrictions Treatment Standards: Compliance Strategies for Four Types of Mixed Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortune, W.B.; Ranek, N.L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the unique challenges involved in achieving compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (Public Law 94-580) Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) treatment standards for four types of mixed wastes generated throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex: (1) radioactively contaminated lead acid batteries; (2) radioactively contaminated cadmium-, mercury-, and silver-containing batteries; (3) mercury-bearing mixed wastes; and (4) radioactive lead solids. For each of these mixed waste types, the paper identifies the strategy pursued by DOE's Office of Pollution Prevention and Resource Conservation Policy and Guidance (EH-43) in coordination with other DOE elements and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to meet the compliance challenge. Specifically, a regulatory interpretation was obtained from EPA agreeing that the LDR treatment standard for wastes in the D008 'Radioactive Lead Solids' sub-category applies to radioactively contaminated lead acid batteries. For cadmium-, mercury-, and silver-containing batteries, generically applicable treatability variances were obtained from EPA approving macro-encapsulation as the alternative LDR treatment standard for all three battery types. Joint DOE/EPA technology demonstrations were pursued for mercury-bearing mixed wastes in an effort to justify revising the LDR treatment standards, which focus on thermal recovery of mercury for reuse. Because the demonstrations failed to produce enough supporting data for a rulemaking, however, EPA has recommended site-specific treatability variances for particular mercury-bearing mixed waste streams. Finally, DOE has filed an application for a determination of equivalent treatment requesting approval of container-based macro-encapsulation technologies as an alternative LDR treatment standard for radioactive lead solids. Information is provided concerning the length of time required to implement each of these strategies, and suggestions for

  3. Assessing strategies to manage work and life balance of athletic trainers working in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Pitney, William A; Casa, Douglas J; Pagnotta, Kelly D

    2011-01-01

    Certified athletic trainers (ATs) working at the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I level experience challenges balancing their professional and personal lives. However, an understanding of the strategies ATs use to promote a balance between their professional and personal lives is lacking. To identify the strategies ATs employed in the Division I setting use to establish a balance between their professional and personal lives. Qualitative investigation using inductive content analysis. Athletic trainers employed at Division I schools from 5 National Athletic Trainers' Association districts. A total of 28 (15 women, 13 men) ATs aged 35 ± 9 years volunteered for the study. Asynchronous electronic interviews with follow-up phone interviews. Data were analyzed using inductive content analysis. Peer review, member checking, and data-source triangulation were conducted to establish trustworthiness. Three higher-order themes emerged from the analysis. The initial theme, antecedents of work-family conflict, focused on the demands of the profession, flexibility of work schedules, and staffing patterns as contributing to work-life conflict for this group of ATs. The other 2 emergent higher-order themes, professional factors and personal factors, describe the components of a balanced lifestyle. The second-order theme of constructing the professional factors included both organizational policies and individual strategies, whereas the second-order theme of personal factors was separation of work and life and a supportive personal network. Long work hours, lack of control over work schedules, and unbalanced athlete-to-AT ratios can facilitate conflicts. However, as demonstrated by our results, several organizational and personal strategies can be helpful in creating a balanced lifestyle.

  4. Assessment of the strategy countermeasures by the French farming working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cessac, B.; Reales, N.; Gallay, F.

    2004-01-01

    In France, for several years, the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has been working on technical solutions for the rehabilitation of rural, urban and industrial areas, contaminated by radioactivity. Then, the complexity of the radioactivity integration' s mechanisms into the environment and into the food chain, but also the important number of concerned actors and the inevitable incompatibilities between their respective expectations of the rehabilitation, make the post accidental management a challenging question for the responsible organisations at local, national and international levels. The involvement of persons in charge of agriculture in a collective reflection on the conditions and means of the post accidental situation's management seemed therefore necessary, in order to allow them to express the farmers point of view. On this basis, IRSN is deeply engaged in actions involving these other stakeholders, in particular in rural environment, in order to collect their appraisal and to obtain data and operational tools for the global evaluation of the countermeasures. The FARMING project, initiated in 2000 by the European Commission, constituted an interesting initiative in this direction. The French group has been constituted around the National Institute for Agronomy of Paris Grignon, which ensures its coordination. Within this framework, this group has notably been involved in the evaluation of a rural countermeasures compendium, at the request of STRATEGY, another European network on the post-accidental situation. With the support of a French farmers national association (FNSEA), the French FARMING group built up a working group composed of technical specialists of agriculture and radiation protection. All these actions facilitated the expression of the specific request for information, coming from the agricultural stakeholders, to the actors of radiation protection, and the design of new projects involving radiation

  5. Effectiveness of Integration and Re-Integration into Work Strategies for Persons with Chronic Conditions: A Systematic Review of European Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Sabariego

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to low employment rates associated to chronic conditions in Europe, it is essential to foster effective integration and re-integration into work strategies. The objective of this systematic review is to summarize the evidence on the effectiveness of strategies for integration and re-integration to work for persons with chronic diseases or with musculoskeletal disorders, implemented in Europe in the past five years. A systematic search was conducted in MedLine, PsycINFO, CDR-HTA, CDR-DARE and Cochrane Systematic Reviews. Overall, 32 relevant publications were identified. Of these, 21 were considered eligible after a methodological assessment and included. Positive changes in employment status, return to work and sick leave outcomes were achieved with graded sickness-absence certificates, part-time sick leave, early ergonomic interventions for back pain, disability evaluation followed by information and advice, and with multidisciplinary, coordinated and tailored return to work interventions. Additionally, a positive association between the co-existence of active labour market policies to promote employment and passive support measures (e.g., pensions or benefits and the probability of finding a job was observed. Research on the evaluation of the effectiveness of strategies targeting integration and re-integration into work for persons with chronic health conditions needs, however, to be improved and strengthened.

  6. Effectiveness of Integration and Re-Integration into Work Strategies for Persons with Chronic Conditions: A Systematic Review of European Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabariego, Carla; Coenen, Michaela; Ito, Elizabeth; Fheodoroff, Klemens; Scaratti, Chiara; Leonardi, Matilde; Vlachou, Anastasia; Stavroussi, Panayiota; Brecelj, Valentina; Kovačič, Dare S; Esteban, Eva

    2018-03-19

    Due to low employment rates associated to chronic conditions in Europe, it is essential to foster effective integration and re-integration into work strategies. The objective of this systematic review is to summarize the evidence on the effectiveness of strategies for integration and re-integration to work for persons with chronic diseases or with musculoskeletal disorders, implemented in Europe in the past five years. A systematic search was conducted in MedLine, PsycINFO, CDR-HTA, CDR-DARE and Cochrane Systematic Reviews. Overall, 32 relevant publications were identified. Of these, 21 were considered eligible after a methodological assessment and included. Positive changes in employment status, return to work and sick leave outcomes were achieved with graded sickness-absence certificates, part-time sick leave, early ergonomic interventions for back pain, disability evaluation followed by information and advice, and with multidisciplinary, coordinated and tailored return to work interventions. Additionally, a positive association between the co-existence of active labour market policies to promote employment and passive support measures (e.g., pensions or benefits) and the probability of finding a job was observed. Research on the evaluation of the effectiveness of strategies targeting integration and re-integration into work for persons with chronic health conditions needs, however, to be improved and strengthened.

  7. Structure and strategies in children's educational television: the roles of program type and learning strategies in children's learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linebarger, Deborah L; Piotrowski, Jessica Taylor

    2010-01-01

    Educational TV has been consistently linked to children's learning. In this research, educational TV characteristics were identified, coded, and tested for their influence on children's program-specific comprehension and vocabulary outcomes. Study 1 details a content analysis of TV features including a program's macrostructure (i.e., narrative or expository) and learning strategies embedded in the macrostructure that support learning in print-based contexts. In Study 2, regression analyses were used to predict outcomes involving 71 second and third graders (average age=7.63 years). Strategies were categorized as organizing, rehearsing, elaborating, or affective in function. Outcomes were uniformly higher for narrative macrostructures. Strategies used in narratives predicted relatively homogenous relations across outcomes, whereas strategies in expositories predicted quite heterogeneous relations across outcomes. © 2010 The Authors. Child Development © 2010 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  8. Streamlining the process: A strategy for making NEPA work better and cost less

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, R.P.; Hansen, J.D. [Hansen Environmental Consultants, Englewood, CO (United States); Wolff, T.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-05-01

    When the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was enacted in 1969, neither Congress nor the Federal Agencies affected anticipated that implementation of the NEPA process would result in the intolerable delays, inefficiencies, duplication of effort, commitments of excessive financial and personnel resources, and bureaucratic gridlock that have become institutionalized. The 1975 Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations, which were intended to make the NEPA process more efficient and more useful to decision makers and the public, have either been largely ignored or unintentionally subverted. Agency policy mandates, like those of former Secretary of Energy Hazel R. O`Leary, to ``make NEPA work better and cost less`` have, so far, been disappointingly ineffectual. Federal Agencies have reached the point where almost every constituent of the NEPA process must be subjected to crisis management. This paper focuses on a ten-point strategy for streamlining the NEPA process in order to achieve the Act`s objectives while easing the considerable burden on agencies, the public, and the judicial system. How the ten points are timed and implemented is critical to any successful streamlining.

  9. Positive Psychology and Disaster Mental Health: Strategies for Working with Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernberg, Eric M; Hambrick, Erin P; Cho, Bridget; Hendrickson, Michelle L

    2016-12-01

    Positive psychology concepts and principles can be incorporated into preparedness, crisis response, and recovery phases of disaster mental health efforts to address the needs of children, adolescents, and families. This article articulates general developmental considerations for applying positive psychology in disaster mental health contexts and discusses how 5 essential elements of immediate and midterm mass trauma intervention identified by Hobfoll et al. (2007) may be infused in applications of positive psychology for children and adolescents. Specific strategies for working with children, adolescents, and their families in home, community, and school contexts are drawn in part from disaster mental health resources developed jointly by the National Child Traumatic Stress Network and National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, including the Psychological First Aid Field Operations Guide (Brymer et al., 2006), the Skills for Psychological Recovery Field Operations Guide (Berkowitz et al., 2010), and the Psychological First Aid for Schools Field Operations Manual (Brymer et al., 2012). Two case examples illustrate the use of positive psychology principles. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Neurocognition and PET: strategies for data analysis in activation studies on working memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautzel, H.; Mottaghy, F.M.; Schmidt, D.; Mueller, H.-W.; Krause, B. J.

    2003-01-01

    Aim: In cognitive neuroscience regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) imaging with positron-emission-tomography (PET) is a powerful tool to characterize different aspects of cognitive processes by using different data analysis approaches. By use of an n-back verbal working memory task (varied from 0- to 3-back) we present cognitive subtraction analysis as basic strategy as well as parametric and covariance analyses and discuss the results. Methods: Correlation analyses were performed using the individual performance rate as an external covariate, computing inter-regional correlations, an as network analysis applying structural equation modelling to evaluate the effective connectivity between the involved brain regions. Results: Subtraction analyses revealed a fronto-parietal neuronal network also including the anterior cingulate cortex and the cerebellum. With higher memory load the parametric analysis evidenced linear rCBF increases in prefrontal, pre-motor and inferior parietal areas including the precuneus as well as in the anterior cingulate cortex. The rCBF correlation with the individual performance as external covariate depicted negative correlations in bilateral prefrontal and inferior parietal regions, in the precuneus and the anterior cingulate cortex. The network analysis demonstrated mainly occipito-frontally directed interactions which were predominantly left-hemispheric. Additionally, strong linkages were found between extrastriate and parietal regions as well as within the parietal cortex. Conclusion: The data analysis approaches presented here contribute to an extended and more elaborated understanding of cognitive processes and their different sub-aspects. (orig.) [de

  11. A Central Consciousness at Work Beneath the Surface Artlessness: Narrative Strategies in “Tristram Shandy”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfang Xu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ‘The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman’ (hereafter shortened to “Tristram Shandy” is a unique novel written by British author Laurence Sterne in the eighteenth century. While Sterne’s contemporary readers may have conflicting viewpoints about the artistic value of “Tristram Shandy” because of its surface artlessness and chaos, readers today in the contexts of such twentieth-century critical theories as postmodernism, existentialism, and deconstruction, find it congenial and more intriguing. I argue that despite the apparent chaos of this novel, the author-narrator Tristram is a central consciousness that holds the whole work together. And I believe Sterne narrates his story in such a peculiar way in conformity to his own perception of the outside world. Specifically, this paper aims to explore the inventive narrative strategies employed in Sterne’s “Tristram Shandy” in the three aspects of narrative structure, time-shifting technique and self-conscious narrator. Amazingly, “Tristram Shandy” presents a wholly new notion of creative writing, one that goes beyond its time, and has unbreakable connection with twentieth-century literature.

  12. Night-shift work is associated with poorer glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manodpitipong, Areesa; Saetung, Sunee; Nimitphong, Hataikarn; Siwasaranond, Nantaporn; Wongphan, Thanawat; Sornsiriwong, Chotima; Luckanajantachote, Pranee; Mangjit, Prasitchai; Keesukphan, Prasit; Crowley, Stephanie J; Hood, Megan M; Reutrakul, Sirimon

    2017-12-01

    The circadian system plays a role in regulating metabolism. Night-shift work, a form of circadian misalignment, is associated with increased type 2 diabetes risk. This study aimed to determine if night-shift workers with type 2 diabetes experience poorer glycaemic control than non-shift workers. Patients with type 2 diabetes (104 unemployed, 85 day workers and 60 night-shift workers) participated. Sleep duration, sleep quality, morningness-eveningness preference, depressive symptoms and dietary intake were assessed using standardized questionnaires. Haemoglobin A1c levels were measured. Night-shift workers had significantly higher haemoglobin A1c levels compared with others, while there were no differences between day workers and unemployed participants (median 7.86% versus 7.24% versus 7.09%, respectively). Additionally, night-shift workers were younger, had a higher body mass index, and consumed more daily calories than others. Among night-shift workers, there were no significant differences in haemoglobin A1c levels between those performing rotating versus non-rotating shifts (P = 0.856), or those with clockwise versus counterclockwise shift rotation (P = 0.833). After adjusting for age, body mass index, insulin use, sleep duration, morningness-eveningness preference and percentage of daily intake from carbohydrates, night-shift work, compared with day work, was associated with significantly higher haemoglobin A1c (B = 0.059, P = 0.044), while there were no differences between unemployed participants and day workers (B = 0.016, P = 0.572). In summary, night-shift work is associated with poorer glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. © The Authors. Journal of Sleep Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Sleep Research Society.

  13. The Effects of Two Types of Sleep Deprivation on Visual Working Memory Capacity and Filtering Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Drummond, Sean P. A.; Anderson, Dane E.; Straus, Laura D.; Vogel, Edward K.; Perez, Veronica B.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep deprivation has adverse consequences for a variety of cognitive functions. The exact effects of sleep deprivation, though, are dependent upon the cognitive process examined. Within working memory, for example, some component processes are more vulnerable to sleep deprivation than others. Additionally, the differential impacts on cognition of different types of sleep deprivation have not been well studied. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of one night of total sleep depri...

  14. [Burnout Syndrome, Family and Work Related Variables on General Practitioners in Bogota. A Strategy of Work Quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre Roldán, Adriana María; Quijano Barriga, Ana María

    2015-01-01

    The burnout syndrome is a set of work-related symptoms related to weariness and exhaustion, in response to the emotional stress at work and its consequences. The aim of the study was to measure the frequency of burnout in General Practitioners (GPs) from 3 private institutions in Bogotá, Colombia and to determine the associated factors according to the variables taken into account. It is a descriptive cross-sectional study which was used to analyse the Questionnaire for Burnout Syndrome (CESQT). The population was 106 GPs. The level of burnout was at a critical level in 6.6% of the GP population. The variables showed that having a stable partner and children are a protective factor. By contrast, work in emergency rooms is a risk factor. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. Do Working Hours and Type of Work Affect Obesity in South Korean Female Workers? Analysis of the Korean Community Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Chang-Gyo; Kang, Mo-Yeol; Bae, Kyu-Jung; Yoon, Jin-Ha

    2016-02-01

    The prevalence of obesity and the female labor participation rate have been rapidly increasing in South Korea. To examine the relationship between these factors, we investigated the association between timing and type of work and obesity in the Korean female working population. Data collected by the 2008 Community Health Survey (CHS) were analyzed using a complex, stratified, multistage, probability cluster sampling method. Descriptive analysis of relevant variables was performed using the chi-square test, and work-related variables by work type were identified using multivariate logistic regression. The relationship between long working hours, night/shift work, and body-mass index in female workers and explanatory, stratifying, and dependent variables and covariates was analyzed using multiple logistic regression models. A total of 42,234 CHS participants were eligible for study inclusion. Among both manual and nonmanual workers, working less than 40 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-1.31 and aOR 1.29; 95% CI 1.09-0.52, respectively) or more than 60 (aOR 1.18, 95% CI 1.06-1.30 and aOR 1.28, 95% CI 1.04-1.57, respectively) hours per week was significantly associated with obesity after controlling for covariates. However, working type (day or night/shift) was significantly associated with obesity only in nonmanual workers (aOR 1.20, 95% CI 1.01-1.42). When we controlled working type in the model, manual workers who work more than 60 hours show higher likelihood of being obese (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.02-1.18). Working fewer (60) hours per week is significantly associated with obesity in the Korean female working population, regardless of the type of work. The type of work (day vs. night/shift work) was significantly associated with obesity only in only nonmanual workers.

  16. [Types of medical registries - definitions, methodological aspects and quality of the scientific work with registries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis-Edenhofer, Stefan; Piso, Brigitte

    2011-12-01

    This work presents a comprehensive list of registry definitions including broader and narrower definitions. Compared to each other different methodological issues can be identified. Some of these issues are common for all registry types; some can be assigned more easily to a specific registry type. Instruments for evaluating the quality of registers reflect many of the mentioned aspects. Generally, and especially at registers with a descriptive or exploratory research dimension it is important to consider their intended purpose and in about it was achieved. This includes, for instance, whether the purpose and the methodology are coordinated. From the start of registration an initiator should be - based on the purpose - aware of the methodological dimension of the registry. This helps to apply the correct type of the registry, the appropriate guidance and, ultimately, the arguments for the effort (cost-benefit ratio).

  17. Effect of ventilation type on radon concentration at places of work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oksanen, E.

    1994-01-01

    Indoor radon ( 222 Rn) concentrations were measured at 76 child care facilities and 36 schools in southern Finland. The buildings had three different types of ventilation systems: mechanical air supply and exhaust, mechanical exhaust, and natural ventilation, the first being most common. The effect of the ventilation type on the long-term radon concentration was studied in child care facilities. The radon concentrations were highest in the naturally ventilated buildings. The mechanical air supply and exhaust system maintained the lowest values in cold wintertime. In school buildings both the long-term radon concentration and short-term radon and daughter concentrations were measured. The correlation of the ventilation type and the radon concentration was not obvious in this group of measurements, but the radon concentrations and the equilibrium factors were highest in buildings with natural ventilation. Radon concentrations were generally lower during the working hours than during the one-month period, as expected. (author)

  18. Realization of N-Type Semiconducting of Phosphorene through Surface Metal Doping and Work Function Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haocheng Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorene becomes an important member of the layered nanomaterials since its discovery for the fabrication of nanodevices. In the experiments, pristine phosphorene shows p-type semiconducting with no exception. To reach its full capability, n-type semiconducting is a necessity. Here, we report the electronic structure engineering of phosphorene by surface metal atom doping. Five metal elements, Cu, Ag, Au, Li, and Na, have been considered which could form stable adsorption on phosphorene. These elements show patterns in their electron configuration with one valence electron in their outermost s-orbital. Among three group 11 elements, Cu can induce n-type degenerate semiconducting, while Ag and Au can only introduce localized impurity states. The distinct ability of Cu, compared to Ag and Au, is mainly attributed to the electronegativity. Cu has smaller electronegativity and thus denotes its electron to phosphorene, upshifting the Fermi level towards conduction band, resulting in n-type semiconducting. Ag and Au have larger electronegativity and hardly transfer electrons to phosphorene. Parallel studies of Li and Na doping support these findings. In addition, Cu doping effectively regulates the work function of phosphorene, which gradually decreases upon increasing Cu concentration. It is also interesting that Au can hardly change the work function of phosphorene.

  19. Detroit Works Long-Term Planning Project: Engagement Strategies for Blending Community and Technical Expertise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni L. Griffin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In January 2013, civic leaders, community stakeholders, and residents came together to release Detroit Future City: 2012 Detroit Strategic Framework Plan, a guiding blueprint for transforming Detroit from its current state of population loss and excessive vacancy into a model for the reinvention of post-industrial American cities. Three years prior, the U.S. Census had reported that the city had lost 24% of its population over the last decade and had experienced a 20% increase in vacant and abandoned property, bringing total vacancy to roughly the size of Manhattan. In addition to physical and economic challenges, Detroiters had also acknowledged significant barriers to effective civic engagement. Foremost among these barriers were a profound sense of immobilization, planning fatigue, and a general perception of cynicism about planning and engagement efforts. These challenges were compounded by historic racial dynamics and tension. This case study elaborates on the comprehensive and innovative civic engagement executed in a citywide planning process called the Detroit Works Project, which took place from late 2010 through late 2012. For the citywide planning process to be successful and sustainable, civic leaders and project funders committed to a planning initiative that would be different from previous efforts, in large part because the “owners” of the process would be diverse and inclusive across all community sectors. The case study, written by three of the key consultants from the project, describes four key civic engagement strategies deployed in the creation of the strategic framework: (1 addressing profound challenges of culture, race, and politics by deliberately building trust; (2 elevating community expertise by fostering a sense of ownership of the process; (3 blending technical and community expertise; and (4 viewing civic engagement as an ongoing two-way conversation rather than a series of large-scale episodic events. This

  20. Effect of cold works on creep-rupture life of type 316LN stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W. G.; Han, C. H.; Ryu, W. S.

    2003-01-01

    Effect of cold works on creep-rupture life of the cold-worked type 316LN stainless steels, which are fabricated with the various reductions ; 0%(solution annealing), 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50%, was investigated. The creep-rupture time increased gradually up to 30% reduction, but it decreased inversely over 30% reduction. The longest rupture time exhibited at cold-worked reduction of 30%. The reason for this is that fine carbide precipitates are uniformly generated in grain boundary and the dislocations are pinned in the precipitates and the dislocations are sustained for a long time at high temperature. However, it is assumed that the higher cold-work reductions over 30% lead to excessive generation of deformation faults. The SEM fractrographs of the cold-worked specimens showed dense fracture micrographs, and they did not show intergranular structures in creep fracture mode. From this result, it is believed that the cold-worked specimens were superior in creep-rupture time to solution annealed ones

  1. Walking the Tightrope between Work and Non-Work Life: Strategies Employed by British and Chinese Academics and Their Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaoni; Caudle, Darren

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on in-depth interviews with 30 academics from various disciplines in both UK and Chinese universities, this comparative study aims to offer new insights into how academics in British and Chinese universities maintained work-life balance and the similarities and differences experienced between academics of both countries. This study finds…

  2. Long working hours, socioeconomic status, and the risk of incident type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivimäki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Working long hours might have adverse health effects, but whether this is true for all socioeconomic status groups is unclear. In this meta-analysis stratified by socioeconomic status, we investigated the role of long working hours as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We...... open-access data archives. Effect estimates from published and unpublished data from 222 120 men and women from the USA, Europe, Japan, and Australia were pooled with random-effects meta-analysis. FINDINGS: During 1·7 million person-years at risk, 4963 individuals developed diabetes (incidence 29 per......; and relative risks, odds ratios, or hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs, or sufficient information to calculate these estimates. Additionally, we used unpublished individual-level data from 19 cohort studies from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working-Populations Consortium and international...

  3. A cost-controlling treatment strategy of adding liraglutide to insulin in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, H M; Vervoort, G M M; de Galan, B E; Tack, C J

    2017-09-01

    Addition of the GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide to insulin can reverse insulin-associated weight gain, improve HbA1c and decrease the need for insulin, but is expensive. From a cost perspective, such treatment should be discontinued when it is clear that treatment targets will not be achieved. Our aim was to find the best cost-controlling treatment strategy: the shortest possible trial period needed to discriminate successfully treated patients from those failing to achieve predefined targets of treatment success. We used data from the 'Effect of Liraglutide on insulin-associated wEight GAiN in patients with Type 2 diabetes' (ELEGANT) trial, comparing additional liraglutide (n = 47) and standard insulin therapy (n = 24) during 26 weeks, to calculate the costs associated with different trial periods. Treatment success after 26 weeks was defined by having achieved ≥ 2 of the following: ≥ 4% weight loss, HbA1c ≤ 53 mmol/mol (7%), and/or discontinuation of insulin. The additional direct costs of adding liraglutide for 26 weeks were € 699 per patient, or € 137 per 1 kg weight loss, compared with standard therapy. The best cost-controlling treatment strategy (identifying 21 of 23 responders, treating four non-responders) was to continue treatment in patients showing ≥ 3% weight loss or ≥ 60% decrease in insulin dose at 8 weeks, with a total cost of € 246 for this t rial period, saving € 453 in case of early discontinuation. An 8-week trial period of adding liraglutide to insulin in patients with insulin-associated weight gain is an effective cost-controlling treatment strategy if the liraglutide is discontinued in patients not showing an early response regarding weight loss or insulin reduction.

  4. Acceptability and feasibility of potential intervention strategies for influencing sedentary time at work: focus group interviews in executives and employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cocker, Katrien; Veldeman, Charlene; De Bacquer, Dirk; Braeckman, Lutgart; Owen, Neville; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2015-02-18

    Occupational sitting can be the largest contributor to overall daily sitting time in white-collar workers. With adverse health effects in adults, intervention strategies to influence sedentary time on a working day are needed. Therefore, the present aim was to examine employees' and executives' reflections on occupational sitting and to examine the potential acceptability and feasibility of intervention strategies to reduce and interrupt sedentary time on a working day. Seven focus groups (four among employees, n = 34; three among executives, n = 21) were conducted in a convenience sample of three different companies in Flanders (Belgium), using a semi-structured questioning route in five themes [personal sitting patterns; intervention strategies during working hours, (lunch) breaks, commuting; and intervention approach]. The audiotaped interviews were verbatim transcribed, followed by a qualitative inductive content analysis in NVivo 10. The majority of participants recognized they spend their working day mostly sitting and associated this mainly with musculoskeletal health problems. Participants suggested a variety of possible strategies, primarily for working hours (standing during phone calls/meetings, PC reminders, increasing bathroom use by drinking more water, active sitting furniture, standing desks, rearranging the office) and (lunch) breaks (physical activity, movement breaks, standing tables). However, several barriers were reported, including productivity concerns, impracticality, awkwardness of standing, and the habitual nature of sitting. Facilitating factors were raising awareness, providing alternatives for simply standing, making some strategies obligatory and workers taking some personal responsibility. There are some strategies targeting sedentary time on a working day that are perceived to be realistic and useful. However several barriers emerged, which future trials and practical initiatives should take into account.

  5. Work-relatedness of lung cancer by smoking and histologic type in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Il; Lee, Sang-Gil; Kang, Dong-Mug; Kim, Jong-Eun; Kim, Young-Ki; Leem, Jong-Han; Kim, Hwan-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the distribution of causative agents related to occupational lung cancer, their relationships with work, and associations between work-relatedness and the histologic type of lung cancer. We used data from the occupational surveillance system in Korea in 2013. In addition, data from 1,404 participants diagnosed with lung cancer were collected through interviews. We included the patients' longest-held job in the analysis. Work-relatedness was categorized as "definite," "probable," "possible," "suspicious," "none," or "undetermined." Among the subjects, 69.3% were men and 30.7% were women. Regarding smoking status, current smokers were the most prevalent (35.5%), followed by non-smokers (32.3%), ex-smokers (32.2%). Regarding the causative agents of lung cancer, asbestos (1.0%) and crystalline silica (0.9%) were the most common in definite work-related cases, while non-arsenical insecticide (2.8%) was the most common in probable cases followed by diesel engine exhaust (1.9%) and asbestos (1.0%). Regarding histologic type, adenocarcinoma was the most common (41.7%), followed by squamous cell carcinoma (21.2%). Among current smokers, squamous cell carcinoma was the most common among definite and probable cases (13.4%), while non-small cell lung cancer was the least common (7.1%). Among non-smokers, squamous cell carcinoma was the most common (21.4%), while the least common was adenocarcinoma (1.6%). Approximately, 9.5% of all lung cancer cases in Korea are occupational-related lung cancer. Well-known substances associated with lung cancer, such as crystalline silica, asbestos, and diesel engine exhaust, are of particular concern. However, the histologic types of lung cancer related to smoking were inconsistent with previous studies when work-relatedness was taken into account. Future studies are required to clarify the incidence of occupational lung cancer in agricultural workers exposed to non-arsenical insecticides and the associations between

  6. Assessing Strategies to Manage Work and Life Balance of Athletic Trainers Working in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Pitney, William A.; Casa, Douglas J.; Pagnotta, Kelly D.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Context: Certified athletic trainers (ATs) working at the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I level experience challenges balancing their professional and personal lives. However, an understanding of the strategies ATs use to promote a balance between their professional and personal lives is lacking. Objective: To identify the strategies ATs employed in the Division I setting use to establish a balance between their professional and personal lives. Design: Qualitative investigation using inductive content analysis. Setting: Athletic trainers employed at Division I schools from 5 National Athletic Trainers' Association districts. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 28 (15 women, 13 men) ATs aged 35 ± 9 years volunteered for the study. Data Collection and Analysis: Asynchronous electronic interviews with follow-up phone interviews. Data were analyzed using inductive content analysis. Peer review, member checking, and data-source triangulation were conducted to establish trustworthiness. Results: Three higher-order themes emerged from the analysis. The initial theme, antecedents of work–family conflict, focused on the demands of the profession, flexibility of work schedules, and staffing patterns as contributing to work–life conflict for this group of ATs. The other 2 emergent higher-order themes, professional factors and personal factors, describe the components of a balanced lifestyle. The second-order theme of constructing the professional factors included both organizational policies and individual strategies, whereas the second-order theme of personal factors was separation of work and life and a supportive personal network. Conclusions: Long work hours, lack of control over work schedules, and unbalanced athlete-to-AT ratios can facilitate conflicts. However, as demonstrated by our results, several organizational and personal strategies can be helpful in creating a balanced lifestyle. PMID:21391805

  7. Derived flood frequency analysis using different model calibration strategies based on various types of rainfall-runoff data - a comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberlandt, U.; Radtke, I.

    2013-08-01

    Derived flood frequency analysis allows to estimate design floods with hydrological modelling for poorly observed basins considering change and taking into account flood protection measures. There are several possible choices about precipitation input, discharge output and consequently regarding the calibration of the model. The objective of this study is to compare different calibration strategies for a hydrological model considering various types of rainfall input and runoff output data sets. Event based and continuous observed hourly rainfall data as well as disaggregated daily rainfall and stochastically generated hourly rainfall data are used as input for the model. As output short hourly and longer daily continuous flow time series as well as probability distributions of annual maximum peak flow series are employed. The performance of the strategies is evaluated using the obtained different model parameter sets for continuous simulation of discharge in an independent validation period and by comparing the model derived flood frequency distributions with the observed one. The investigations are carried out for three mesoscale catchments in Northern Germany with the hydrological model HEC-HMS. The results show that: (i) the same type of precipitation input data should be used for calibration and application of the hydrological model, (ii) a model calibrated using a small sample of extreme values works quite well for the simulation of continuous time series with moderate length but not vice versa, (iii) the best performance with small uncertainty is obtained when stochastic precipitation data and the observed probability distribution of peak flows are used for model calibration. This outcome suggests to calibrate a hydrological model directly on probability distributions of observed peak flows using stochastic rainfall as input if its purpose is the application for derived flood frequency analysis.

  8. Investigating learning strategies in a dispositional learning analytics context: the case of worked examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tempelaar, Dirk; Rienties, Bart; Nguyen, Quan

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to contribute to recent developments in empirical studies on students’ learning strategies, whereby the use of trace data is combined with self-report data to distinguish profiles of learning strategy use [3–5]. We do so in the context of an application of dispositional learning

  9. Protein Homeostasis Defects of Alanine-Glyoxylate Aminotransferase: New Therapeutic Strategies in Primary Hyperoxaluria Type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel L. Pey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase catalyzes the transamination between L-alanine and glyoxylate to produce pyruvate and glycine using pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP as cofactor. Human alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase is a peroxisomal enzyme expressed in the hepatocytes, the main site of glyoxylate detoxification. Its deficit causes primary hyperoxaluria type I, a rare but severe inborn error of metabolism. Single amino acid changes are the main type of mutation causing this disease, and considerable effort has been dedicated to the understanding of the molecular consequences of such missense mutations. In this review, we summarize the role of protein homeostasis in the basic mechanisms of primary hyperoxaluria. Intrinsic physicochemical properties of polypeptide chains such as thermodynamic stability, folding, unfolding, and misfolding rates as well as the interaction of different folding states with protein homeostasis networks are essential to understand this disease. The view presented has important implications for the development of new therapeutic strategies based on targeting specific elements of alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase homeostasis.

  10. Novel Naphthalene Based Lariat-Type Crown Ethers Using Direct Single Electron Transfer Photochemical Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hea Jung; Sung, Nam Kyung; Kim, Su Rhan; Kim, Su Rhan; Ahn, So Hyun; Yoon, Ung Chan; Cho, Dae Won; Mariano, Patrick S.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored a direct SET-photochemical strategy to construct a new family of thioene conjugated-naphthalamide fluorophore based lariat-crown ethers which show strong binding properties towards heavy metal ions. Irradiations of designed nitrogen branched (trimethylsilyl)methylthio-terminated polyethylenoxy-tethered naphthalimides in acidic methanol solutions have led to highly efficient photocyclization reactions to generate naphthalamide based lariat type thiadiazacrown ethers directly in chemo- and regio-selective manners which undergo very facile secondary dehydration reactions during separation processes to produce their corresponding amidoenethio ether cyclic products tethered with electron donating diethyleneoxy- and diethyenethio-side arm chains. Fluorescence and metal cation binding properties of the lariat type enamidothio products were examined. The photocyclized amidoenethio products, thioene conjugated naphthalamide fluorophore containing lariat-thiadiazacrowns exhibited strong fluorescence emissions in region of 330-450 nm along with intramolecular exciplex emissions in region of 450-560 nm with their maxima at 508 nm. Divalent cation Hg 2+ and Pb 2+ showed strong binding to sulfur atom(s) in side arm chain and atoms in enethiadiazacrown ether rings which led to significant enhancement of fluorescence from its chromophore singlet excited state and concomitant quenching of exciplex emission. The dual fluorescence emission responses towards divalent cations might provide a new guide for design and development of fluorescence sensors for detecting those metals

  11. Novel Naphthalene Based Lariat-Type Crown Ethers Using Direct Single Electron Transfer Photochemical Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hea Jung; Sung, Nam Kyung; Kim, Su Rhan; Kim, Su Rhan; Ahn, So Hyun; Yoon, Ung Chan [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Dae Won [Yeungnam Univ., Geoungsan (Korea, Republic of); Mariano, Patrick S. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque (United States)

    2013-12-15

    This study explored a direct SET-photochemical strategy to construct a new family of thioene conjugated-naphthalamide fluorophore based lariat-crown ethers which show strong binding properties towards heavy metal ions. Irradiations of designed nitrogen branched (trimethylsilyl)methylthio-terminated polyethylenoxy-tethered naphthalimides in acidic methanol solutions have led to highly efficient photocyclization reactions to generate naphthalamide based lariat type thiadiazacrown ethers directly in chemo- and regio-selective manners which undergo very facile secondary dehydration reactions during separation processes to produce their corresponding amidoenethio ether cyclic products tethered with electron donating diethyleneoxy- and diethyenethio-side arm chains. Fluorescence and metal cation binding properties of the lariat type enamidothio products were examined. The photocyclized amidoenethio products, thioene conjugated naphthalamide fluorophore containing lariat-thiadiazacrowns exhibited strong fluorescence emissions in region of 330-450 nm along with intramolecular exciplex emissions in region of 450-560 nm with their maxima at 508 nm. Divalent cation Hg{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} showed strong binding to sulfur atom(s) in side arm chain and atoms in enethiadiazacrown ether rings which led to significant enhancement of fluorescence from its chromophore singlet excited state and concomitant quenching of exciplex emission. The dual fluorescence emission responses towards divalent cations might provide a new guide for design and development of fluorescence sensors for detecting those metals.

  12. The precipitation response of 20%-cold-worked type 316 stainless steel to simulated fusion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maziasz, P.J.

    1979-01-01

    The precipitation response of 20%-cold-worked type 316 stainless steel has been examined after irradiation in HFIR at 380-600 0 C, after irradiation in EBR-II at 500 0 C, and after thermal aging at 600 to 750 0 C. Eta phase forms during exposure to all environments. It constitutes a major portion of the precipitation response, and is rich in Ni, Si and Mo relative to M 23 C 6 after thermal aging. It is not normally reported in 20%-cold-worked type 316 stainless steel. The eta, M 23 C 6 , Laves, sigma, and chi precipitate phases appear at similar temperatures after HFIR, EBR-II, or thermal exposure. There are, however, some differences in relative amounts, size, and distribution of phases among the various environments. Eta phase is the only carbide-type phase observed after irradiation in HFIR from 380-550 0 C. The large cavities associated with it at 380 0 C contribute significantly to swelling. Re-solution of fine M 23 C 6 , eta, and Laves particles and re-precipitation of massive particles of sigma, M 23 C 6 and chi are observed after recrystallization in HFIR. (orig.)

  13. New Work Demands in Higher Education. A Study of the Relationship between Excessive Workload, Coping Strategies and Subsequent Health among Academic Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Marika; Astvik, Wanja; Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the work conditions in higher education work settings, the academic staff's strategies for handling excessive workload and impact on well-being and work-life balance. The results show that there is a risk that staff in academic work places will start using compensatory coping strategies to deal with…

  14. Back to work: vocational issues and strategies for Canadians living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Fred; Gahagan, Jacqueline; Gibson, Elaine

    2005-01-01

    Much has been written since the first appearance of HIV/AIDS in 1981 about its effects on the Canadian health care and social services systems. However, researchers have given limited attention to issues of entry or re-entry to the competitive job market for HIV positive individuals. The emergence of highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) has allowed a significant number of persons who are HIV positive to experience a major recovery in health and energy. This increase in physical health has in turn led to a re-examination of the possibility of returning to former types and levels of activity, including the prospect of going back to work or entering the competitive workforce for the first time. The purpose of this paper is to outline some of the issues and concerns that impact HIV positive individuals' attempts to return to or enter the competitive workforce, particularly those relating to disability policies and public insurance. Data from in-depth interviews with a sample of people living with HIV/AIDS (PHAs) are used to help illustrate the disconnect between these policies and the lived experiences of PHAs. Also discussed are the opportunities for Canadian policies and practices to employ a functional definition of disability and a philosophy of early intervention in vocational rehabilitation.

  15. A biomimetic strategy to form calcium phosphate crystals on type I collagen substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Zhang [Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, National University of Singapore, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Road 119074, Singapore (Singapore); Neoh, Koon Gee [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, Kent Ridge 119260, Singapore (Singapore); Kishen, Anil, E-mail: anil.kishen@utoronto.ca [Discipline of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, 124 Edward Street, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-20

    Objective: The aim of this study is to induce mineralization of collagen by introducing phosphate groups onto type I collagen from eggshell membrane (ESM) by treating with sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP). This strategy is based on the hypothesis that phosphate groups introduced on collagen can mimic the nucleating role of phosphorylated non-collagenous proteins bound to collagen for inducing mineralization in natural hard tissue. Method: The collagen membrane was phosphorylated by treating it with a solution of STMP and saturated calcium hydroxide. The phosphorylated collagen was subsequently exposed to a mineralization solution and the pattern of mineralization on the surface of phosphorylated collagen substrate was analyzed. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and microhardness test were used to characterize the collagen substrate and the pattern of minerals formed on the collagen surface. Results: The FTIR and EDX results indicated that the phosphate groups were incorporated onto the collagen surface by treatment with STMP. During the mineralization process, the plate-like mineral, octacalcium phosphate (OCP), which was initially formed on the surface of ESM, was later transformed into needle-like hydroxyapatite (HAP) as indicated by the SEM, FESEM, EDX and XRD findings. The microhardness test displayed significant increase in the Knoop hardness number of the mineralized collagen. Conclusions: Phosphate groups can be introduced onto type I collagen surface by treating it with STMP and such phosphorylated collagen can induce the mineralization of type I collagen.

  16. Accounting and analysis of the real labour input for objects and types of works during NPP construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuvaev, P.P.

    1983-01-01

    A technique for determining the actual labour input for PP construction according to types of works, construction units and objects is considered. The data are presented on specific expenditures on civil engineering, heat and electric installation, insulation and anticorrosion works for construction of the Chernobylsk and Kursk NPPs. A conclusion is drawn about the necessity of computer utilization in calculating the labour input for different types of works, number of workers and planning works during the NPP construction

  17. The science of clergy work-related psychological health, stress, burnout and coping strategies : introduction to the special section

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Leslie J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this special section of Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion is to provide a forum for examples of current scientific research examining work-related psychological health, stress, burnout and coping strategies among clergy. The collection, comprising three qualitative studies and seven quantitative studies, draws on the work of four established research groups which are making a scientific impact in that area (two in the USA, one in the UK, and one in Australia)....

  18. Relationship between job stress level and coping strategies used by Hong Kong nurses working in an acute surgical unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenru; Kong, Amelia Wai Man; Chair, Sek Ying

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between job stress and coping strategies of Hong Kong nurses working in an acute surgical unit. This is a descriptive correlational study. Data were collected from 98 Hong Kong surgical nurses using the Nursing Stress Scale and the Jalowiec Coping Scale. Results showed that workload (M = 15.36), lack of support (M = 13.32), and inadequate preparation (M = 12.33) are the most common stressors for Hong Kong surgical nurses. The most frequent strategies used by nurses to cope with stress can be characterized as evasive (M = 19.23), confrontive (M = 17.46), and optimistic (M = 15.81), all of which are also rated as the most effective strategies in reducing stress levels. Only the confrontive, optimistic, supportant, and emotive coping strategies reveal significant correlations (p stress levels of nurses, whereas the evasive, fatalistic, palliative, and self-reliant strategies showed no significant correlation with stress levels (p > .05). Recognizing the impacts of job-related stress and making use of effective coping methods play a vital role in reducing nurse's stress. A change in leadership styles from the managerial level and reallocation of manpower may help reduce job stress. The use of confrontive and optimistic coping strategies in reducing job-related stress for surgical nurses should be advocated and promoted in their daily work. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Nurse managers' strategies for feeling less drained by their work: an action research and reflection project for developing emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bev; Roberts, Sue; Smyth, Therese; Tulloch, Moira

    2015-10-01

    To raise nurse managers' critical awareness of practice problems; uncover practice constraints and improve work effectiveness. Nurse management requires skills and knowledge, underscored by emotional intelligence. The research improved participants' practice and personal insights. Purposive sampling targeted nurse managers interested in improving their practice. Three experienced female nurse managers met fortnightly in a group, for 1 hour, for 10 meetings. The methods included: writing and sharing de-identified journal reflections; critically analysing practice stories; identifying a thematic concern; generating action strategies; and instituting and revising the action plan. Phase One resulted in the identification of the issue of 'being drained by the intensity of nurse managers' work'. The participants adopted five strategies: debriefing problematic situations; deflecting multiple requests; diffusing issues; naming dysfunctional behaviours; and regrouping. In Phase Two, participants implemented and revised the action plan strategies, which resulted in them feeling less drained by their work. Strategies can lessen nurse managers' sense of personal depletion. However, strategies cannot guarantee success every time because the emotional intelligence is integral to nurse management. Action research and reflection assist nurse managers to improve their practice and develop their emotional intelligence. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The commuter family as a geographical adaptive strategy for the work-family balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klis, M.; Karsten, L.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we raise the question of how commuter families create a work-family balance in a situation of incongruity of the geographical scales of work and family. Commuter families combine the work location of a commuting parent on the (inter)national scale, with the home-based parent's work

  1. National evaluation of strategies to reduce safety violations for working from heights in construction companies: results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Henk F; den Herder, Aalt; Warning, Jan; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2016-01-09

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a face-to-face strategy and a direct mail strategy on safety violations while working from heights among construction companies compared to a control condition. Construction companies with workers at risk for fall injuries were eligible for this three-armed randomized controlled trial. In total, 27 cities were randomly assigned to intervention groups-where eligible companies were given either a face-to-face guidance strategy or a direct mailing strategy with access to internet facilities-or to a control group. The primary outcomes were the number and type of safety violations recorded by labor inspectors after three months. A process evaluation for both strategies was performed to determine reach, program implementation, satisfaction, knowledge and perceived safety behavior. A cost analysis was performed to establish the financial costs for each intervention strategy. Analyses were done by intention to treat. In total, 41% (n = 88) of the companies eligible for the face-to-face intervention participated and 73% (n = 69) for direct mail. Intervention materials were delivered to 69 % (face-to-face group) and 100 % (direct mail group); completion of intervention activities within companies was low. Satisfaction, increase in knowledge, and safety behavior did not differ between the intervention groups. Costs for personal advice were 28% higher than for direct mail. Ultimately, nine intervention companies were captured in the 288 worksite measurements performed by the labor inspectorate. No statistical differences in mean number of safety violations (1.8-2.4) or penalties (72%-100%) were found between the intervention and control groups based on all worksite inspections. No conclusions about the effect of face-to-face and direct mail strategies on safety violations could be drawn due to the limited number of intervention companies captured in the primary outcome measurements. The costs for a face

  2. Willingness to pay for flexible working conditions of people with type 2 diabetes: discrete choice experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nexo, M A; Cleal, B; Hagelund, Lise; Willaing, I; Olesen, K

    2017-12-15

    The increasing number of people with chronic diseases challenges workforce capacity. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) can have work-related consequences, such as early retirement. Laws of most high-income countries require workplaces to provide accommodations to enable people with chronic disabilities to manage their condition at work. A barrier to successful implementation of such accommodations can be lack of co-workers' willingness to support people with T2D. This study aimed to examine the willingness to pay (WTP) of people with and without T2D for five workplace initiatives that help individuals with type 2 diabetes manage their diabetes at work. Three samples with employed Danish participants were drawn from existing online panels: a general population sample (n = 600), a T2D sample (n = 693), and a matched sample of people without diabetes (n = 539). Participants completed discrete choice experiments eliciting their WTP (reduction in monthly salary, €/month) for five hypothetical workplace initiatives: part-time job, customized work, extra breaks with pay, and time off for medical consultations with and without pay. WTP was estimated by conditional logits models. Bootstrapping was used to estimate confidence intervals for WTP. There was an overall WTP for all initiatives. Average WTP for all attributes was 34 €/month (95% confidence interval [CI]: 27-43] in the general population sample, 32 €/month (95% CI: 26-38) in the T2D sample, and 55 €/month (95% CI: 43-71) in the matched sample. WTP for additional breaks with pay was considerably lower than for the other initiatives in all samples. People with T2D had significantly lower WTP than people without diabetes for part-time work, customized work, and time off without pay, but not for extra breaks or time off with pay. For people with and without T2D, WTP was present for initiatives that could improve management of diabetes at the workplace. WTP was lowest among people with T2D. Implementation of these

  3. A Pilot Classroom-Based Study of Attention and Working Memory Strategies for Primary-Aged Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmar, Susan; Davis, Nash; Sheldon, Linda

    2016-01-01

    An exploratory applied study, using a set of attention and working memory strategies specifically developed for students and named Memory Mates, was completed with normally developing students attending a primary school. Students in one classroom received the intervention, while the other classroom functioned as a control group. The study was…

  4. Issues and Strategies for Establishing Work-Integrated Learning for Multidisciplinary Teams: A Focus on Degrees in Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robyn Fay

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify challenges and potential strategies to streamline work-integrated learning placements for multidisciplinary teams of students undertaking degrees in sustainability. Face-to-face interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire were conducted with 15 academics and senior university staff, from four universities…

  5. Effects of a Self-Monitoring Strategy on Independent Work Behavior of Students with Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Jennifer; McCoy, Kathleen M.; Kenzer, Amy; Mathur, Sarup R.; Zucker, Stanley H.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a self-monitoring strategy on independent work behavior. The three subjects were in first grade, seven years old, identified with mild intellectual disability (MID), and had an Individualized Education Plan (IEP) with targeted functional academic and behavior goals. The purpose of this study was to…

  6. Work-related psychosocial stress and the risk of type 2 diabetes in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, K-Y; Xu, W; Mangialasche, F; Fratiglioni, L; Wang, H-X

    2017-06-01

    Although work-related psychosocial stress and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been investigated, the association between lifelong work stress and T2DM in later life remains unclear. This study examined whether high work stress increased the risk of T2DM risk in later life, accounting also for other sources of stress outside work, such as burden from household chores. From the population-based prospective study SNAC-K, 2719 diabetes-free participants aged ≥60 years were identified and followed up for 6 years. T2DM was ascertained by glycated haemoglobin level, self-report, hypoglycaemic medication use and clinical records. Levels of job control and demands over the whole working life were assessed by a validated matrix. Household chores load was assessed by hours spent on such chores. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between job strain and T2DM. During the 6-year follow-up, 154 incident cases of T2DM were identified. High job strain was associated with T2DM occurrence amongst the 60-year-old cohort (OR = 3.14, 95% CI: 1.27-7.77), and only amongst women (OR = 6.18, 95% CI: 1.22-31.26), but not in men. When taking into account household chores load, a more pronounced risk of T2DM was associated with high job strain in combination with heavy household chores load in women aged 60 years at baseline (OR = 9.45, 95% CI: 1.17-76.53). Work-related psychosocial stress may increase the risk of T2DM only amongst women in their early 60s. The risk can be amplified by high household chores load. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  7. Heat Treatment Optimization and Properties Correlation for H11-Type Hot-Work Tool Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgornik, B.; Puš, G.; Žužek, B.; Leskovšek, V.; Godec, M.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the effect of vacuum-heat-treatment process parameters on the material properties and their correlations for low-Si-content AISI H11-type hot-work tool steel using a single Circumferentially Notched and fatigue Pre-cracked Tensile Bar (CNPTB) test specimen. The work was also focused on the potential of the proposed approach for designing advanced tempering diagrams and optimizing the vacuum heat treatment and design of forming tools. The results show that the CNPTB specimen allows a simultaneous determination and correlation of multiple properties for hot-work tool steels, with the compression and bending strength both increasing with hardness, and the strain-hardening exponent and bending strain increasing with the fracture toughness. On the other hand, the best machinability and surface quality of the hardened hot-work tool steel are obtained for hardness values between 46 and 50 HRC and a fracture toughness below 60 MPa√m.

  8. Shaping a Strategy for E-books: the JISC E-Books Working Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Edwards

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the strategy being developed for the growth of electronic books within the UK higher and further education sectors but the intention is that the broad strategic analysis will be of interest to all librarians.

  9. Types and Origins of Debris Found on Maui Shorelines: Implications for Mitigation Policies and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blickley, L.; Currie, J. J.; Kaufman, G. D.

    2016-02-01

    Marine debris is an identified concern for coastal areas and is known to accumulate in large quantities in the North Pacific Ocean. The proximity of the Main Hawaiian Islands to these "garbage patches" represents an ongoing concern with little understanding of debris origins or efficacy of current mitigation policies. Debris accumulation surveys were conducted monthly between October 2013 and August 2014 and daily during January 2015 at 3 beaches on Maui's coastline. Debris accumulation rates, loads, and sources varied between sites and were influenced by both environmental and anthropogenic factors. Debris accumulation was strongly influenced by the temporal scale of sampling, with daily surveys showing a significant increase in accumulation rate. Plastics were the most common debris item at each site ranging from local, land-based debris including cigarette butts, straws, and food wrappers, to foreign, ocean-based debris such as oyster spacer tubes and hagfish traps. The results of this study indicate that the passage of a tobacco free beaches bill on Maui has not significantly reduced the amount of tobacco related debris. Alternatively, a ban on plastic grocery bags has eliminated this type of debris from Maui's shorelines, with no bags found at any of the sampling sites. The wide spread origins of collected debris further suggests that mitigation strategies to reduce debris will need to take place across hundreds of local municipalities. The efficacy of marine debris policies furthermore depends on enforcement and implementation strategy, as current results suggest policy enforcement at the producer level affords more effective results than that at the consumer level. Local debris mitigation actions have nevertheless been shown to affect debris loads, and municipalities are therefore encouraged to adopt a holistic combination of policy, community-based debris removal programs, increased public awareness, and ongoing monitoring to address marine debris.

  10. Cognitive and Other Strategies to Mitigate the Effects of Fatigue. Lessons from Staff Physicians Working in Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Natalie; Ayas, Najib T; Stelfox, Henry T; Peets, Adam D

    2016-09-01

    Fatigue is common among physicians and adversely affects their performance. To identify strategies that attending physicians use when fatigued to maintain clinical performance in the intensive care unit (ICU). We conducted a qualitative study using focus groups and structured interviews of attending ICU physicians working in academic centers in Canada. In three focus group meetings, we engaged a total of 11 physicians to identify strategies used to prevent and cope with fatigue. In the focus groups, 21 cognitive strategies were identified and classified into 9 categories (minimizing number of tasks, using techniques to improve retention of details, using a structured approach to patient care, asking for help, improving opportunities for focusing, planning ahead, double-checking, adjusting expectations, and modulating alertness). In addition, various lifestyle strategies were mentioned as important in preventing fatigue (e.g., protecting sleep before call, adequate exercise, and limiting alcohol). Telephone interviews were then conducted (n = 15 physicians) with another group of intensivists. Structured questions were asked about the strategies identified in the focus groups that were most useful during ICU activities. In the interviews, the most useful and frequently used strategies were prioritizing tasks that need to be done immediately and postponing tasks that can wait, working systematically, using a structured approach, and avoiding distractions. ICU physicians reported using a variety of deliberate cognitive and lifestyle strategies to prevent and cope with fatigue. Given the low cost and intuitive nature of the majority of these strategies, further investigations should be done to better characterize their effectiveness in improving performance.

  11. Strategies to Position Behavior Analysis as the Contemporary Science of What Works in Behavior Change

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Julie M.

    2015-01-01

    The negative perception of behavior analysis by the public, and conveyed in mass media, is well-recognized by the professional community of behavior analysts. Several strategies for correcting this perception have been deployed in the field by organizational behavior management practitioners, in particular, with encouraging results. These strategies include (a) reframing behaviorism in a more resonant format, (b) pushing direct outcome comparisons between behavior analysis and its rivals, and...

  12. Work-family conflict and job-related wellbeing in UK police officers: the role of recovery strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Kinman, G; McDowall, A; Cropley, M

    2012-01-01

    Police officers have been found to experience high levels of operational and organisational stressors, and are at considerable risk of emotional exhaustion, psychological distress, burnout and PTSD. The demands inherent in police work can have a negative impact on family life, with police officers at high risk of marital dissatisfaction, divorce and domestic violence. Although police officers experience the type of work demands that have been associated with work-conflict in other occupationa...

  13. The critical role of conflict resolution in teams: a close look at the links between conflict type, conflict management strategies, and team outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behfar, Kristin J; Peterson, Randall S; Mannix, Elizabeth A; Trochim, William M K

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the linkages between strategies for managing different types of conflict and group performance and satisfaction. Results from a qualitative study of 57 autonomous teams suggest that groups that improve or maintain top performance over time share 3 conflict resolution tendencies: (a) focusing on the content of interpersonal interactions rather than delivery style, (b) explicitly discussing reasons behind any decisions reached in accepting and distributing work assignments, and (c) assigning work to members who have the relevant task expertise rather than assigning by other common means such as volunteering, default, or convenience. The authors' results also suggest that teams that are successful over time are likely to be both proactive in anticipating the need for conflict resolution and pluralistic in developing conflict resolution strategies that apply to all group members. 2008 APA

  14. Storage and Processing Working Memory Functions in Alzheimer-Type Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Vecchi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A selective deterioration of working memory functions has been suggested as an explanation of the cognitive decay occurring in normal ageing as well as in Alzheimer-type dementia. Recent studies have highlighted that elderly people’s limitations in working memory functions may be better interpreted when analysing the specific characteristics of the cognitive process (i.e., passive storage or active manipulation of information. In the present study, we have adapted a procedure used to investigate age-related memory modifications, involving both verbal and visuo-spatial material in tasks tapping passive and active processes, to investigate the deterioration associated with Alzheimer's disease. A group of Alzheimer patients in the early stages of the disease were matched to a control group of healthy elderly. Results show that Alzheimer patients performed less accurately than the control group in all tasks. However, the deficit was maximised in the case of active processes, regardless of the type of material used (verbal or visuo-spatial. These data highlight the importance of considering the amount of active processing as the key variable when interpreting the decay in cognitive functions in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease.

  15. A Meta-Analysis of Mathematics and Working Memory: Moderating Effects of Working Memory Domain, Type of Mathematics Skill, and Sample Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Peng; Namkung, Jessica; Barnes, Marcia; Sun, Congying

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine the relation between mathematics and working memory (WM) and to identify possible moderators of this relation including domains of WM, types of mathematics skills, and sample type. A meta-analysis of 110 studies with 829 effect sizes found a significant medium correlation of mathematics and WM, r…

  16. What Type of State Homeland Security Strategy Should the State of New Jersey Develop?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosell, Richard G

    2007-01-01

    The State of New Jersey does not have a written homeland security strategy. This thesis argues that New Jersey should have such a strategy, particularly since it risks losing federal homeland security funding if it does...

  17. Physical hazards (noise, heat, vibration, illumination) - control at work place, methods and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, M.; Srivastava, P.; Ganesh, G.

    2016-01-01

    The industrial work is getting modernized more day by day leading to more physical hazard. It is forcing the line management stressed upon in relation to the work place physical hazard. In order to keep the work place free from physical hazard it is required to use proper tool like work place assessment, measuring the parameters and analyze the end result which force us to take proper control measures to check and eliminate the physical hazard. (author)

  18. Problem-based Learning Strategies for Teaching Military Social Work Practice Behaviors: Review and Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    James D. Whitworth; Joseph R. Herzog; Diane L. Scott

    2012-01-01

    This article outlines and evaluates a military social work course as it has been taught by three social work faculty members at two universities in the southeastern US. The authors highlight why these courses are needed within social work undergraduate and graduate programs. They report how CSWE-identified military practice behaviors are addressed within the course. They also describe how practice-based learning approaches appear to be ideally suited for teaching military social work curricul...

  19. Work-Family Conflict And Coping Strategies Adopted By Women In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As employees attempt to balance work demands and family responsibilities, ... This study examined the kinds of work-family conflict experienced by female married ... issues related to the day-to-day experience of work and family roles were ...

  20. [Three types of brand name loyalty strategies set up by drug manufacturers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    PréMont, Marie-Claude; Gagnon, Marc-André

    2014-11-01

    The recent restructuring of the pharmaceutical industry has led to three new types of promotional strategies to build patient loyalty to brand name drugs: loyalty through rebates, patient support, and compassion programs. Loyalty through rebates seeks to keep patients on a brand name drug and prevent their switch to the generic equivalent. Loyalty through patient support provides aftersales services to help and support patients (by phone or home visits) in order to improve adherence to their treatments. Finally, compassion programs offer patients access to drugs still awaiting regulatory approval or reimbursement by insurers. When and if the approval process is successful, the manufacturer puts an end to the compassion program and benefits from a significant cohort of patients already taking a very expensive drug for which reimbursement is assured. The impact of these programs on public policies and patients' rights raises numerous concerns, among which the direct access to patients and their health information by drug manufacturers and upward pressure on costs for drug insurance plans.

  1. Sulfonylureas in the modern strategy of therapy of type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila Viktorovna Nedosugova

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2 is a chronic progressing disease associated with insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion insufficient toovercome insulin resistance that deteriorates as a result of glucose toxicity and beta-cell apoptosis. Combination of metformin and sulfonylureas (SU iscurrently regarded as an effective strategy of hypoglycemic therapy having effect not only on the main stages of pathogenesis but also on t dangerousrisk factors leading to adverse events (hypoglycemia, body weight increment, cardiovascular disorders. Amaryl, SU of the 3d generation, meets allcriteria of safety and efficacy for combined hypoglycemic therapy due to its high affinity to a specific subunit of SU receptors-1 on beta-cells coupled toshort-term stimulating action on insulin secretion. Moreover, it has a unique SU-unrelated extrapancreatic mechanism of action. The efficacy andsafety of Amaryl was confirmed in a number of clinical studies which gives reason to recommend it for inclusion in any modern hypoglycemic therapywith a minimal risk of hypoglycemia, lack of weight increment, positive effect on the cardiovascular system and progress of atherosclerosis

  2. Working to reduce the effects of discrimination: Identity management strategies in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Margaret; Young, Maia J; Bucher, Amy

    2013-04-01

    Despite efforts to dispel discrimination, workplace discrimination still occurs. We introduce two classes of identity management strategies individuals use to mitigate the negative consequences of discrimination: identity switching (i.e., deemphasizing target identities and recategorizing to a more positively valued identity) and identity redefinition (i.e., stereotype reassociation and regeneration). Organizations adopting a color-blind approach may make it more difficult for individuals to use identity switching because the policies deemphasize differences in social identities. In contrast, organizations adopting a multicultural approach may make it more difficult for individuals to use identity redefinition. Multicultural approaches, applied superficially, may celebrate group differences that might actually reinforce culturally dominant stereotypes. We explore the likelihood that individuals will adopt each strategy given these organizational approaches to diversity. We outline steps organizations can take to reduce the need for identity management strategies and to facilitate identity management when necessary.

  3. A Randomized Control Trial of Working Memory Training With and Without Strategy Instruction: Effects on Young Children's Working Memory and Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Peng; Fuchs, Douglas

    2017-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly interested in working memory (WM) training. However, it is unclear whether it strengthens comprehension in young children who are at risk for learning difficulties. We conducted a modest study of whether the training of verbal WM would improve verbal WM and passage listening comprehension and whether training effects differed between two approaches: training with and without strategy instruction. A total of 58 first-grade children were randomly assigned to three groups: WM training with a rehearsal strategy, WM training without strategy instruction, and controls. Each member of the two training groups received a one-to-one, 35-min session of verbal WM training on each of 10 consecutive school days, totaling 5.8 hr. Both training groups improved on trained verbal WM tasks, with the rehearsal group making greater gains. Without correction for multiple group comparisons, the rehearsal group made reliable improvements over controls on an untrained verbal WM task and on passage listening comprehension and listening retell measures. The no-strategy-instruction group outperformed controls on passage listening comprehension. When corrected for multiple contrasts, these group differences disappeared but were associated with moderate to large effect sizes. Findings suggest-however tentatively-that brief but intensive verbal WM training may strengthen the verbal WM and comprehension performance of young children at risk. Necessary caveats and possible implications for theory and future research are discussed. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2015.

  4. A Randomized Control Trial of Working Memory Training With and Without Strategy Instruction: Effects on Young Children’s Working Memory and Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly interested in working memory (WM) training. However, it is unclear whether it strengthens comprehension in young children who are at risk for learning difficulties. We conducted a modest study of whether the training of verbal WM would improve verbal WM and passage listening comprehension, and whether training effects differed between two approaches: training with and without strategy instruction. A total of 58 first-grade children were randomly assigned to 3 groups: WM training with a rehearsal strategy, WM training without strategy instruction, and controls. Every member of the 2 training groups received a one-to-one, 35-minute session of verbal WM training on each of 10 consecutive school days, totaling 5.8 hours. Both training groups improved on trained verbal WM tasks, with the rehearsal group making greater gains. Without correction for multiple group comparisons, the rehearsal group made reliable improvements over controls on an untrained verbal WM task and on passage listening comprehension and listening retell measures. The no-strategy- instruction group outperformed controls on passage listening comprehension. When corrected for multiple contrasts, these group differences disappeared, but were associated with moderate-to-large effect sizes. Findings suggest—however tentatively—that brief but intensive verbal WM training may strengthen the verbal WM and comprehension performance of young children at risk. Necessary caveats and possible implications for theory and future research are discussed. PMID:26156961

  5. Gender, aging, and work: aging workers' strategies to confront the demands of production in maquiladora plants in nogales, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adarga, Mireya Scarone; Becerril, Leonor Cedillo; Champion, Catalina Denman

    2010-01-01

    This work is part of a qualitative socio-cultural investigation with a group of men and women 40 years and older in the maquila export industry in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico. In 1994, as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement, maquila plants combined traditional intensive work methods with new "just in time" production norms that impacted work and health conditions, particularly in older, or aging, workers. The workers that were interviewed for this study show a reduction in their functional ability to work starting at 40 years of age. Work organization demands, general health conditions, and a decrease in physical abilities brings these 40-year-old workers to prematurely construct an image of themselves as aging workers and to develop coping strategies that vary by gender.

  6. Swedish Climate Strategy. A basis for the evaluation of Swedish climate work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-12-01

    The assignment of producing a basis for the evaluation of Sweden's climate policy is mainly focused on the national interim target for the 2008-2012 period. An assessment is to be made of the possibility of achieving the national interim target using current policy instruments and measures. Proposals for new or extended policy instruments, the consequences of which have been assessed, are to be submitted where necessary. The assignment also includes a study of the consequences of integrating the flexible mechanisms into the interim target. Our proposals for how the Swedish climate strategy could be reinforced have their roots in the above assignment, but we also wish to stress the following important points. Solving the climate problem requires a high degree of international collaboration. It is, for example, of great importance that the EU countries find joint ways of reducing emissions, thus enabling them to drive global developments forward. In the Swedish national strategy, there should be a stronger link to international and joint EU policy instruments. The proposals must also have a long-term perspective and not simply be based on the short-term achievement of targets in Sweden. We propose the following changes to policy instruments for sectors outside the trading sector (assuming an allocation of emissions allowances somewhat below the current forecast): introduction of CO{sub 2}-differentiated vehicle taxes for light vehicles; that the free-fuel benefit for company cars be valued at a factor of x1.8 market price, instead of the present 1.2; introduction of kilometre tax for trucks from 2008; continued and increased national funding support to local climate investment programmes during the period 2006-2008. The programmes should primarily give grants to long-term strategic measures; continued climate information campaign for 2006-2008; The EC Directive on the energy performance of buildings is implemented in a way that utilises the potential for greater

  7. Swedish Climate Strategy. A basis for the evaluation of Swedish climate work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    The assignment of producing a basis for the evaluation of Sweden's climate policy is mainly focused on the national interim target for the 2008-2012 period. An assessment is to be made of the possibility of achieving the national interim target using current policy instruments and measures. Proposals for new or extended policy instruments, the consequences of which have been assessed, are to be submitted where necessary. The assignment also includes a study of the consequences of integrating the flexible mechanisms into the interim target. Our proposals for how the Swedish climate strategy could be reinforced have their roots in the above assignment, but we also wish to stress the following important points. Solving the climate problem requires a high degree of international collaboration. It is, for example, of great importance that the EU countries find joint ways of reducing emissions, thus enabling them to drive global developments forward. In the Swedish national strategy, there should be a stronger link to international and joint EU policy instruments. The proposals must also have a long-term perspective and not simply be based on the short-term achievement of targets in Sweden. We propose the following changes to policy instruments for sectors outside the trading sector (assuming an allocation of emissions allowances somewhat below the current forecast): introduction of CO 2 -differentiated vehicle taxes for light vehicles; that the free-fuel benefit for company cars be valued at a factor of x1.8 market price, instead of the present 1.2; introduction of kilometre tax for trucks from 2008; continued and increased national funding support to local climate investment programmes during the period 2006-2008. The programmes should primarily give grants to long-term strategic measures; continued climate information campaign for 2006-2008; The EC Directive on the energy performance of buildings is implemented in a way that utilises the potential for greater energy

  8. Which Infidelity Type Makes You More Jealous? Decision Strategies in a Forced-Choice between Sexual and Emotional Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim Schützwohl

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the prediction derived from the evolutionary psychological analysis of jealousy that men and women selecting the adaptively primary infidelity type (i.e., female sexual and male emotional infidelity, respectively in a forced-choice response format need to engage in less elaborate decision strategies than men and women selecting the adaptively secondary infidelity type (i.e., male sexual and female emotional infidelity, respectively. Unknown to the participants, decision times were registered as an index of the elaborateness of their decision strategies. The results clearly support the prediction. Implications and limitations of the present findings are discussed.

  9. Manual therapy for tension-type headache related to quality of work life and work presenteeism: Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzani, Lucas; Espí-López, Gemma Victoria; Zurriaga, Rosario; Andersen, Lars L

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this research is to evaluate the efficacy of manual therapy for tension-type headache (TTH) in restoring workers quality of work life, and how work presenteeism affects this relation. This study is a secondary analysis of a factorial, randomized clinical trial on manual therapy interventions. Altogether, 80 patients (85% women) with TTH and without current symptoms of any other concomitant disease participated. An experienced therapist delivered the treatment: myofascial inhibitory technique (IT), articulatory technique (AT), combined technique (IT and AT), and control group (no treatment). In general, all treatments as compared to our control group had a large effect (f≥.69) in the improvement of participants' quality of work life. Work presenteeism interacted with TTH treatment type's efficacy on participant's quality of work life. The inhibitory technique lead to higher reports of quality of work life than other treatment options only for participants with very low frequency of work presenteeism. In turn, TTH articulatory treatment techniques resulted in higher reports of quality of work life for a high to very high work presenteeism frequency. Articulatory manipulation technique is the more efficient treatment to improve quality of work life when the frequency of work presenteeism is high. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. System approach to professionally-orientation work with applicants of higher educational establishments of athletic type in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khomko I.G.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The system is grounded to professionally-orientation work with the university entrants of higher educational establishments of athletic type of Ukraine. The idea of the system is represented. Organizational measures are exposed on improvement and increase of efficiency of leadthrough to professionally-orientation works. The structural elements of the system of professional orientation are certain. Rotined their expedience in relation to a general leadthrough to professionally-orientation working as higher educational establishments of athletic type in Ukraine.

  11. Discovering and explaining work-family strategies of parents in Luxembourg

    OpenAIRE

    Zhelyazkova, Nevena

    2014-01-01

    The presented analysis discovers and explains typical patterns of work-family reconciliation for parents who had a child in the same period (2003) and in the same country (Luxembourg), thus facing the same macroeconomic and institutional conditions. Work-family trajectories are reconstructed as sequences of states using administrative records, so that working hours and use of leave provisions or other social security benefits are taken into account. Next, a clustering algorithm is applied to ...

  12. Faculty Response to Department Leadership: Strategies for Creating More Supportive Academic Work Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael T.; Murry, John W., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Having a strong, positive departmental chair is critical to enhancing and assuring faculty performance and student learning. Poor leadership, however, can result in increased faculty turn over, poor teaching and research performance, and even the discouragement of students from enrolling. The current study explored response strategies by faculty…

  13. Strategies for the Communication and Collaborative Online Work by University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Porlán, Isabel; Román-García, Marimar; Sánchez-Vera, María-del-Mar

    2018-01-01

    The impact that Information and Communications Technologies have in the way today's young people communicate and interact is unquestionable. This impact also affects the educational field, which is required to respond to the needs of twenty first century students by training them in acquiring new skills and strategies to deal with a changing and…

  14. Children, Teachers, and Families Working Together to Prevent Childhood Obesity: Intervention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegelin, Dolores A.

    2008-01-01

    Obesity rates for children, adolescents, and adults continue to escalate in the United States and globally. Educators, health specialists, psychologists, and sociologists are studying the complex problems related to early obesity. Like other health problems, prevention and early detection are the most effective strategies. The causes and…

  15. Facing the Music: Creative and Experiential Group Strategies for Working with Addiction Related Grief and Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberstroh, Shane

    2005-01-01

    This article outlines how group practitioners can harness creative strategies to assist addicted clients in verbalizing and addressing the losses associated with addictive disorders. This article overviews the implementation of an experiential process that includes a warm up activity, a psychodrama, and utilization of empty chair techniques to…

  16. A Qualitative Study of Characteristics, Competencies, and Strategies of Transition Staff Working with Urban Latino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Lorenzo, Omayra

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore characteristics, competencies, and strategies of transition program employment representatives who attain successful employment outcomes for urban Latino/a youths with disabilities. This study employed in-depth interviewing as a method of data collection. The central research question guiding…

  17. Implicit strategies to improve work and well-being: the social dimensions of organizational excellence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.; Scheppingen, A.R. van

    2010-01-01

    Significant improvements in health and well-being can be created as implicit by-products of activities from agents other than health professionals, with each of these agents having their own prime (i.e. parallel) interests. For this reason, more relevant strategies and interventions for promoting

  18. Assessing Collaborative Work in a Higher Education Blended Learning Context: Strategies and Students' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pombo, Lucia; Loureiro, Maria Joao; Moreira, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    This study examines students' views on a blended learning module developed and offered at the University of Aveiro. The paper presents the module and the strategies, tools, activities and assessment. In order to examine the effectiveness of the module, data were collected from reflections, postings and questionnaires. Findings document students'…

  19. Multiple imputation strategies for zero-inflated cost data in economic evaluations : which method works best?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacNeil Vroomen, Janet; Eekhout, Iris; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G; van Hout, Hein; de Rooij, Sophia E; Heymans, Martijn W; Bosmans, Judith E

    2016-01-01

    Cost and effect data often have missing data because economic evaluations are frequently added onto clinical studies where cost data are rarely the primary outcome. The objective of this article was to investigate which multiple imputation strategy is most appropriate to use for missing

  20. Working to Reduce the Effects of Discrimination: Identity Management Strategies in Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Margaret; Young, Maia J.; Bucher, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Despite efforts to dispel discrimination, workplace discrimination still occurs. We introduce two classes of identity management strategies individuals use to mitigate the negative consequences of discrimination: identity switching (i.e., deemphasizing target identities and recategorizing to a more positively valued identity) and identity…

  1. Work and Disability: Issues and Strategies in Career Development and Job Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Edna Mora, Ed.; Parker, Randall M., Ed.

    This text presents the context, theories, resources, and strategies necessary to promote the employment of people with disabilities. The book is intended for rehabilitation professionals, special educators, psychologists, social workers, mental health counselors, vocational counselors, and vocational educators. The 12 chapters are based on a model…

  2. The psychosomatic disorders pertaining to dental practice with revised working type classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2014-01-01

    Psychosomatic disorders are defined as disorders characterized by physiological changes that originate partially from emotional factors. This article aims to discuss the psychosomatic disorders of the oral cavity with a revised working type classification. The author has added one more subset to the existing classification, i.e., disorders caused by altered perception of dentofacial form and function, which include body dysmorphic disorder. The author has also inserted delusional halitosis under the miscellaneous disorders classification of psychosomatic disorders and revised the already existing classification proposed for the psychosomatic disorders pertaining to dental practice. After the inclusion of the subset (disorders caused by altered perception of dentofacial form and function), the terminology "psychosomatic disorders of the oral cavity" is modified to "psychosomatic disorders pertaining to dental practice".

  3. Variable memory strategy use in children's adaptive intratask learning behavior: developmental changes and working memory influences in free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Martin; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2007-01-01

    Variability in strategy use within single trials in free recall was analyzed longitudinally from second to fourth grades (ages 8-10 years). To control for practice effects another sample of fourth graders was included (age 10 years). Video analyses revealed that children employed different strategies when preparing for free recall. A gradual shift from labeling to cumulative rehearsal was present both with increasing age and across different list positions. Whereas cumulative rehearsal was frequent at early list positions, labeling was dominant at later list portions. Working memory capacity predicted the extent of cumulative rehearsal usage, which became more efficient with increasing age. Results are discussed in the context of the adaptive strategy choice model.

  4. Discovering and explaining work-family strategies of parents in Luxembourg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhelyazkova, Nevena

    2014-01-01

    The presented analysis discovers and explains typical patterns of work-family reconciliation for parents who had a child in the same period (2003) and in the same country (Luxembourg), thus facing the same macroeconomic and institutional conditions. Work-family trajectories are reconstructed as

  5. Coping with Work Stressors in Nursing. Effects of Adaptive versus Maladaptive Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasuraman, Saroj; Hansen, Donna

    1987-01-01

    The effect of coping behaviors on nurses' affective reactions to work-generated stressors was assessed, using data gathered from 215 nurses in a medical center hospital in the Midwest. Adaptive coping, reflecting problem-solving behaviors, was found to moderate the relationships of work overload and resource inadequacy with felt stress. (Author/CH)

  6. Building Cultural Competence for Work with Diverse Families: Strategies from the Privileged Side.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewees, Marty

    2001-01-01

    A model of social work education for undergraduates from primarily privileged backgrounds links postmodern perspectives of cultural competence, diversity, social constructionism, and a generalist strengths-based orientation for work with families. Four steps for helping students recognize the role of culture in generating a worldview and develop a…

  7. Medical Team Training: Using Simulation as a Teaching Strategy for Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Michael R.; Brown, Rhonda Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Described is an innovative approach currently being used to inspire group work, specifically a medical team training model, referred to as The Simulation Model, which includes as its major components: (1) Prior Training in Group Work of Medical Team Members; (2) Simulation in Teams or Groups; (3) Multidisciplinary Teamwork; (4) Team Leader…

  8. 23 CFR 630.1108 - Work zone safety management measures and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... uniformed law enforcement officer and marked law enforcement vehicle in view of motorized traffic on a... and other contingencies. (e) Work Vehicles and Equipment. In addition to addressing risks to workers... contractor's choice of work scheduling and methodology; (6) For Lump Sum items, a contingency provision...

  9. Which Infidelity Type Makes You More Jealous? Decision Strategies in a Forced-Choice between Sexual and Emotional Infidelity

    OpenAIRE

    Achim Schützwohl

    2004-01-01

    This study tested the prediction derived from the evolutionary psychological analysis of jealousy that men and women selecting the adaptively primary infidelity type (i.e., female sexual and male emotional infidelity, respectively) in a forced-choice response format need to engage in less elaborate decision strategies than men and women selecting the adaptively secondary infidelity type (i.e., male sexual and female emotional infidelity, respectively). Unknown to the participants, decision ti...

  10. Dissociable Roles of Different Types of Working Memory Load in Visual Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinou, Nikos; Lavie, Nilli

    2013-01-01

    We contrasted the effects of different types of working memory (WM) load on detection. Considering the sensory-recruitment hypothesis of visual short-term memory (VSTM) within load theory (e.g., Lavie, 2010) led us to predict that VSTM load would reduce visual-representation capacity, thus leading to reduced detection sensitivity during maintenance, whereas load on WM cognitive control processes would reduce priority-based control, thus leading to enhanced detection sensitivity for a low-priority stimulus. During the retention interval of a WM task, participants performed a visual-search task while also asked to detect a masked stimulus in the periphery. Loading WM cognitive control processes (with the demand to maintain a random digit order [vs. fixed in conditions of low load]) led to enhanced detection sensitivity. In contrast, loading VSTM (with the demand to maintain the color and positions of six squares [vs. one in conditions of low load]) reduced detection sensitivity, an effect comparable with that found for manipulating perceptual load in the search task. The results confirmed our predictions and established a new functional dissociation between the roles of different types of WM load in the fundamental visual perception process of detection. PMID:23713796

  11. INNOVATION IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY PRACTICAL WORKS, USING PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING AS TEACHING STRATEGY

    OpenAIRE

    Miriam G. Acuña; Nora M. Sosa; Eusebia C. Valdez

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the teaching strategy known as problem-based learning as an innovation implemented in the practical experiences of the Organic Chemistry course (Bachelor of Genetics), Faculty of Exact, Chemical and Natural Sciences (Universidad Nacional de Misiones, Argentina). It reviews the results of the experience implemented with students, in groups of 7 selected according to their preferences. A problem that required skills in planning, decision making process, thinking, using of ap...

  12. The working mechanism of manual therapy in participants with chronic tension-type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castien, René; Blankenstein, Annette; van der Windt, Daniëlle; Heymans, Martijn W; Dekker, Joost

    2013-10-01

    Prospective longitudinal study. To explore the working mechanism of manual therapy, we investigated whether 3 cervical spine variables were mediators of the effect of manual therapy on headache frequency. Background Manual therapy has been shown to reduce headache frequency in participants with chronic tension-type headache (CTTH). To what extent specific elements of treatment contribute to the effectiveness of manual therapy in CTTH is unknown. One hundred eighty-two participants with CTTH participated in a prospective longitudinal study: 142 underwent manual therapy and 40 participants received usual care by their general practitioner. Regression analysis was performed according to the steps described by Baron and Kenny, and the proportion of mediated effect was estimated for 3 potential mediators: (1) cervical range of motion, (2) neck flexor endurance, and (3) forward head posture. Outcome was defined as a 50% or greater reduction in headache days. Neck flexor endurance mediated 24.5% of the effect of manual therapy. Cervical range of motion and forward head posture showed no mediated effect. Increased neck flexor endurance appears to be a working mechanism of manual therapy. This finding supports isometric training of neck flexors in participants with CTTH. Trial registered with Netherlands Trial Register (TR 1074).

  13. Incidental learning of probability information is differentially affected by the type of visual working memory representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lamsweerde, Amanda E; Beck, Melissa R

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the ability to learn probability information is affected by the type of representation held in visual working memory. Across 4 experiments, participants detected changes to displays of coloured shapes. While participants detected changes in 1 dimension (e.g., colour), a feature from a second, nonchanging dimension (e.g., shape) predicted which object was most likely to change. In Experiments 1 and 3, items could be grouped by similarity in the changing dimension across items (e.g., colours and shapes were repeated in the display), while in Experiments 2 and 4 items could not be grouped by similarity (all features were unique). Probability information from the predictive dimension was learned and used to increase performance, but only when all of the features within a display were unique (Experiments 2 and 4). When it was possible to group by feature similarity in the changing dimension (e.g., 2 blue objects appeared within an array), participants were unable to learn probability information and use it to improve performance (Experiments 1 and 3). The results suggest that probability information can be learned in a dimension that is not explicitly task-relevant, but only when the probability information is represented with the changing dimension in visual working memory. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Evaluation of a Sleep Knowledge Translation Strategy for Occupational Therapists Working with Persons who have Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura LeBerge

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sleep deficiency is a significant, largely overlooked issue for persons with dementia (PWD, and is associated with physical and mental health problems, increased caregiver burden, and increased likelihood of institutionalization. Despite the high prevalence of sleep deficiency in PWD, most health care professionals lack knowledge of the relationship between sleep problems and dementia. This project aimed to determine the feasibility of an archived online presentation, a knowledge translation (KT strategy to increase therapists’ understanding of the impact of blue-spectrum light on sleep in PWD. Method: Therapists who participated in a previous sleep and dementia survey were recruited via email. Participants completed a pre-knowledge test, accessed an online presentation regarding the relationship between sleep and light, and completed a post-test. Results: On average there was a 22% improvement in knowledge scores and participants were positive about the KT strategy being accessible, applicable, and evidence based. Conclusion: For a sample of therapists self-identified as specializing in geriatric rehabilitation, online audio-visual resources appear to be a feasible KT strategy to disseminate information and increase occupational therapists’ knowledge regarding the evidence-based relationship between blue-spectrum light and sleep in PWD. Further study is required to determine if this increased knowledge translates to practice settings.

  15. [Whooping cough in Spain. Current epidemiology, prevention and control strategies. Recommendations by the Pertussis Working Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campins, Magda; Moreno-Pérez, David; Gil-de Miguel, Angel; González-Romo, Fernando; Moraga-Llop, Fernando A; Arístegui-Fernández, Javier; Goncé-Mellgren, Anna; Bayas, José M; Salleras-Sanmartí, Lluís

    2013-04-01

    A large increase of pertussis incidence has been observed in recent years in countries with high vaccination coverage. Outbreaks of pertussis are increasingly being reported. The age presentation has a bipolar distribution: infants younger 6months that have not initiated or completed a vaccination schedule, and adolescents and adults, due to the lost of natural or vaccine immunity over time. These epidemiological changes justify the need to adopt new vaccination strategies in order to protect young infants and to reduce pertussis incidence in all age groups. Adolescents and adults immunization must be a priority. In the first group, strategy is easy to implement, and with a very low additional cost (to replace dT vaccine by dTap one). Adult vaccination may be more difficult to implement; dT vaccine decennial booster should be replaced by dTap. The immunization of household contacts of newborn infants (cocooning) is the strategy that has a most important impact on infant pertussis. Recently, pregnant women vaccination (after 20weeks of gestation) has been recommended in some countries as the most effective way to protect the newborn. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. The working lifetime of nuclear power plants and new types of power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bataille, Ch.; Birraux, C.

    2003-01-01

    The report on the working lifetime of nuclear power plants and new reactor types, by Mr Christian Bataille, deputy for the Nord, and Mr Claude Birraux, deputy for Haute-Savoie as well as President of the Office, supplements the studies carried out by the Parliamentary Office on the Safety of Nuclear Installations and Radioactive Wastes: it examines the remaining working life of the EDF nuclear power plants and the current status of projects that might, if circumstances were right, replace the reactors at present in service. The report investigates the different physical and other factors that influence the ageing of nuclear power plants and tackles the question of whether the design life of 40 years could be exceeded in practice. The whole issue of French nuclear power plant is put in perspective and compared with the situation of nuclear plants in Finland, Sweden, Germany and the United States, from the technical and regulatory standpoints. Believing that any attempt to optimise the working lifetime of the power plants currently in service must be accompanied by simultaneous moves aimed at their replacement, Messrs. Christian Bataille and Claude Birraux go on to review in detail the various light water reactor projects being proposed around the world for completion by 2015, as developments of existing models, in particular the EPR reactor of Framatome ANP, characterised by its competitiveness. They suggest that a first such reactor should be built as quickly as possible. Describing the other nuclear systems being investigated by research organisations not only in France but also in the United States and Sweden, Mrs. Christian Bataille and Claude Birraux review the objectives of these and the circumstances in which they might be developed, which would be unlikely to be before 2035 in view of the technological problems to be overcome and the industrial demonstration plants that would be needed

  17. Diagnosis and Tolerant Strategy of an Open-Switch Fault for T-type Three-Level Inverter Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Uimin; Lee, Kyo Beum; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new diagnosis method of an open-switch fault and fault-tolerant control strategy for T-type three-level inverter systems. The location of faulty switch can be identified by the average of normalized phase current and the change of the neutral-point voltage. The proposed fault......-tolerant strategy is explained by dividing into two cases: the faulty condition of half-bridge switches and the neutral-point switches. The performance of the T-type inverter system improves considerably by the proposed fault tolerant algorithm when a switch fails. The roposed method does not require additional...... components and complex calculations. Simulation and experimental results verify the feasibility of the proposed fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control strategy....

  18. A Strategy for O-Glycoproteomics of Enveloped Viruses-the O-Glycoproteome of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagdonaite, Ieva; Nordén, Rickard; Joshi, Hiren J

    2015-01-01

    present a novel proteome-wide discovery strategy for O-glycosylation sites on viral envelope proteins using herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) as a model. We identified 74 O-linked glycosylation sites on 8 out of the 12 HSV-1 envelope proteins. Two of the identified glycosites found in glycoprotein B...

  19. Addressing Underrepresentation in Sex Work Research: Reflections on Designing a Purposeful Sampling Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bungay, Vicky; Oliffe, John; Atchison, Chris

    2016-06-01

    Men, transgender people, and those working in off-street locales have historically been underrepresented in sex work health research. Failure to include all sections of sex worker populations precludes comprehensive understandings about a range of population health issues, including potential variations in the manifestation of such issues within and between population subgroups, which in turn can impede the development of effective services and interventions. In this article, we describe our attempts to define, determine, and recruit a purposeful sample for a qualitative study examining the interrelationships between sex workers' health and the working conditions in the Vancouver off-street sex industry. Detailed is our application of ethnographic mapping approaches to generate information about population diversity and work settings within distinct geographical boundaries. Bearing in mind the challenges and the overwhelming discrimination sex workers experience, we scope recommendations for safe and effective purposeful sampling inclusive of sex workers' heterogeneity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. 0173 Grouping strategies for exposure assessment of the psychosocial work environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willert, Morten Vejs; Schlünssen, Vivi; Basinas, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Individual response style, mood, expectations, and health status may affect reporting of the psychosocial work environment, and bias associations with outcomes. Reporting bias may be avoided by aggregating individual responses, ideally preserving exposure contrast. In this study, we e...

  1. Assessment of microbial contamination within working environments of different types of composting plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutarowska, Beata; Skóra, Justyna; Stępień, Łukasz; Szponar, Bogumiła; Otlewska, Anna; Pielech-Przybylska, Katarzyna

    2015-04-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the degree of microbiological contamination, type of microflora, bioaerosol particle size distribution, and concentration of endotoxins in dust in different types of composting plants. In addition, this study provides a list of indicator microorganisms that pose a biological threat in composting facilities, based on their prevalence within the workplace, source of isolation, and health hazards. We undertook microbiological analysis of the air, work surfaces, and compost, and assessed the particle size distribution of bioaerosols using a six-stage Andersen sampler. Endotoxins were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Microbial identification was undertaken both microscopically and using biochemical tests. The predominant bacterial and fungal species were identified using 16S rRNA and ITS1/2 analysis, respectively. The number of mesophilic microorganisms in composting plants amounted to 6.9×10(2)-2.5×10(4) CFU/m3 in the air, 2.9×10(2)-3.3×10(3) CFU/100 cm2 on surfaces, and 2.2×10(5)-2.4×10(7) CFU/g in compost. Qualitative analysis revealed 75 microbial strains in composting plants, with filamentous fungi being the largest group of microorganisms, accounting for as many as 38 isolates. The total amount of endotoxins was 0.0062-0.0140 nmol/mg of dust. The dust fraction with aerodynamic particle diameter of 0.65-1.1 μm accounted for 28-39% of bacterial aerosols and 4-13% of fungal aerosols. We propose the following strains as indicators of harmful biological agent contamination: Bacillus cereus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium cladosporioides, C. herbarum, Mucor hiemalis, and Rhizopus oryzae for both types of composting plants, and Bacillus pumilus, Mucor fragilis, Penicillium svalbardense, and P. crustosum for green waste composting plants. The biological hazards posed within these plants are due to the presence of potentially pathogenic microorganisms and the inhalation of respirable

  2. [Work integration of impaired workers in a type-B social cooperative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taino, G; Gazzoldi, T; Marandola, P; Fabris, F; Ferrari, M; Imbriani, M

    2008-01-01

    This research aims to evaluate job occupation results of impaired workers in a type-B social cooperative, taking into consideration not only specific occupational risks' analysis and assessment, but also organisational, relational and psycho-social matters essential for their stable job occupation. The impaired workers involved were all those hired by a type-B social cooperative from Jan 1999 until Dec 2007, ie. 16 workers (M 8, F 8), equal to 40% of employees' total number. Every impaired worker has been submitted to preventive health surveillance in order to evaluate the degree of disability and residual job ability in relation to the job tasks suitable for him/her. In order to find available tasks which can be performed by disadvantaged workers, the personnel chart has been analyzed, and 10 of the 16 workers (equal to 62.5%) have been considered fit for the specific task without limitations. The other 6 (37.5%) have been considered capable of the specific task with limitations and/or prescriptions, and for 2 of them (12.5%) a tutorial supervision prescription was also necessary. Among those 6 workers with limitations and/or prescriptions, 4 were psychologically impaired (67%) and 2 were physically impaired (37%). The situation of these 16 impaired workers has been periodically verified and followed up for 8 years. Not only have the fifteen workers continued to perform the task initially considered suitable for their health status, but for some of them (5 workers), an increase in job performance, in both complexity and shift duration, has been observed. Moreover, with the only exception of a psychologically impaired worker who did alternate between good comfort times and occasional disease acute phases, all other workers have shown good and stable gains in psychological and physical health conditions, performing requested tasks not only with efficiency, but also with commitment and motivation. All workers have shown a remarkable improvement in their ability to

  3. Effect of Changing Work Stressors and Coping Resources on the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: The OHSPIW Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yulong; Sun, Qing; Guan, Suzhen; Ge, Hua; Tao, Ning; Jiang, Yu; Zhang, YanXia; Ning, Li; Xiao, Jing; Liu, Jiwen

    2018-03-01

    Little is known about the relationship between changing psychosocial work conditions and type 2 diabetes. We determined whether changing work stressors and coping resources affect the risk of type 2 diabetes. In this prospective cohort (2003-2014) of 3,740 workers without diabetes (OHSPIW [Occupational Health Study of Petroleum Industry Workers]), participants completed an evaluation of work-related stress and coping resources and type 2 diabetes diagnosis at baseline and 12 years follow-up (two waves). The changes in work stressors and coping resources were measured with the Occupation Stress Inventory-Revised and the Instrument for Stress-Related Job Analysis (Version 6.0). Type 2 diabetes was diagnosed on the basis of an oral glucose tolerance test supplemented by physician report. Increased task stressors (relative risk [RR] 1.57 [95% CI 1.03-2.63]) and decreased coping resources (RR 1.68 [95% CI 1.02-2.83]) were associated with risk of type 2 diabetes. The main risk factors were increased role overload, increased role insufficiency, increased physical environment stressors, decreased self-care, and decreased rational coping. Increased coping resources also had a buffering effect on increased task stressors and type 2 diabetes. Changes in work stressors and coping resources have an influence on the risk for type 2 diabetes, highlighting the importance of preventive measures against adverse psychosocial work conditions and reduced coping resources for diabetes prevention in the workplace. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  4. The impact of shift work on eating patterns and self-care strategies utilised by experienced and inexperienced nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifkins, Jane; Johnston, Amy; Loudoun, Rebecca

    2018-05-08

    For nurses, shift work is a necessity, required to provide 24-h continuous care for patients. Research posits that fatigue amongst shift-working nurses is associated with inadequate and poorly timed sleep and also strongly influenced by the timing, quality and quantity of food consumed. The aim of this investigation was to examine differences and similarities in the food choices and eating patterns of nurses exposed to different lengths of time in shift work, as a means of understanding how nurses can adapt their eating patterns to better manage fatigue and sleep loss. Qualitative methodology was utilised to study and capture in-depth information about nurses' daily working lives. A case study approach allowed for the investigation of nurses with limited and extensive experience of shift work. Increased food craving, caffeine consumption and snacking behaviours during night shifts were described by both groups of nurses, as was the inability to drink enough fluids at work. Meal skipping at work, associated with high workload, was detailed more by experienced nurses. Experienced nurses described shopping and preparing home cooked meals in advance to manage food intake and associated fatigue, contrasting with patterns from inexperienced nurses. Experienced nurses recounted drinking alcohol as a way to rest and recover from shift work, unlike their less inexperienced colleagues. These findings indicate organisational and work place issues such as shift work and rostering influence the food choices and eating patterns of shift-working nurses. Experienced nurses, however, draw on a greater range of strategies around diet and eating patterns to minimise these impacts.

  5. Strategies to work with HLA data in human populations for histocompatibility, clinical transplantation, epidemiology and population genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez-Mazas, A; Vidan-Jeras, B; Nunes, J M

    2012-01-01

    QUESTIONNAIRE' has been finalized and is available for the whole HLA community. WG2 (HLA typing standards for population genetics analyses) recommends retaining maximal information when reporting HLA typing results. Rather than using the National Marrow Donor Program coding system, all ambiguities should...... and fundamental research. Such improvements involve finding consensual strategies to characterize human populations and samples and report HLA molecular typings and ambiguities; proposing user-friendly access to databases and computer tools and defining minimal requirements related to ethical aspects. The overall......-Weinberg equilibrium and selective neutrality on data containing any number and kind of ambiguities. WG4 (Ethical issues) proposes to adopt thorough general principles for any HLA population study to ensure that it conforms to (inter)national legislation or recommendations/guidelines. All HLA-NET guidelines and tools...

  6. Experimental Study of a Centralized Control Strategy of a DC Microgrid Working in Grid Connected Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Salas-Puente

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The results concerning the integration of a set of power management strategies and serial communications for the efficient coordination of the power converters composing an experimental DC microgrid is presented. The DC microgrid operates in grid connected mode by means of an interlinking converter. The overall control is carried out by means of a centralized microgrid controller implemented on a Texas Instruments TMS320F28335 DSP. The main objectives of the applied control strategies are to ensure the extract/inject power limits established by the grid operator as well as the renewable generation limits if it is required; to devise a realistic charging procedure of the energy storage batteries as a function of the microgrid status; to manage sudden changes of the available power from the photovoltaic energy sources, of the load power demand and of the power references established by the central controller; and to implement a load shedding functionality. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed power management methodology allows the control of the power dispatch inside the DC microgrid properly.

  7. Viewing or Visualising Which Concept Map Strategy Works Best on Problem-Solving Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngmin; Nelson, David W.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of two types of maps (generative vs. completed) and the amount of prior knowledge (high vs. low) on well-structured and ill-structured problem-solving performance. Forty-four undergraduates who were registered in an introductory instructional technology course participated in the study.…

  8. Quantifying Collaboration Using Himmelman's Strategies for Working Together: Findings from the Tennessee Coordinated School Health Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Megan A; Southerland, Jodi L.; Richards, Kasie; Slawson, Deborah L; Behringer, Bruce; Johns-Womack, Rebecca; Smith, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Coordinated school health programs (CSHPs), a type of health promoting school (HPS) program adopted by Canada and the USA, were developed to provide a comprehensive approach to school health in the USA. Community partnerships are central to CSHP and HPS efforts, yet the quality of collaboration efforts is rarely assessed. The purpose of…

  9. Time-usage strategies in the context of work-life balance : the survey results

    OpenAIRE

    Tubutienė, Vilma; Poškuvienė, Beatričė

    2007-01-01

    Work-Life-Balance has become a long-term subject. In an economy which brings people to the limits of their possibilities it depends more than ever on creating a well-balanced relation between professional requirements and personal wishes by suitable measures and conditions. But it is not simply about the reduction of work and rise of spare time-oriented life. It is about the creation of a wellharmonized balance which connects efficiency with personal well-being. This division cannot hide some...

  10. NASA Strategy to Safely Live and Work in the Space Radiation Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis; Wu, Honglu; Corbin, Barbara; Sulzman, Frank; Kreneck, Sam

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the radiation environment that is a significant potential hazard to NASA's goals for space exploration, of living and working in space. NASA has initiated a Peer reviewed research program that is charged with arriving at an understanding of the space radiation problem. To this end NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) was constructed to simulate the harsh cosmic and solar radiation found in space. Another piece of the work was to develop a risk modeling tool that integrates the results from research efforts into models of human risk to reduce uncertainties in predicting risk of carcinogenesis, central nervous system damage, degenerative tissue disease, and acute radiation effects acute radiation effects.

  11. The importance of organizational climate and implementation strategy at the introduction of a new working tool in primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlfjord, S; Andersson, A; Nilsen, P; Bendtsen, P; Lindberg, M

    2010-12-01

    The transmission of research findings into routine care is a slow and unpredictable process. Important factors predicting receptivity for innovations within organizations have been identified, but there is a need for further research in this area. The aim of this study was to describe contextual factors and evaluate if organizational climate and implementation strategy influenced outcome, when a computer-based concept for lifestyle intervention was introduced in primary health care (PHC). The study was conducted using a prospective intervention design. The computer-based concept was implemented at six PHC units. Contextual factors in terms of size, leadership, organizational climate and political environment at the units included in the study were assessed before implementation. Organizational climate was measured using the Creative Climate Questionnaire (CCQ). Two different implementation strategies were used: one explicit strategy, based on Rogers' theories about the innovation-decision process, and one implicit strategy. After 6 months, implementation outcome in terms of the proportion of patients who had been referred to the test, was measured. The CCQ questionnaire response rates among staff ranged from 67% to 91% at the six units. Organizational climate differed substantially between the units. Managers scored higher on CCQ than staff at the same unit. A combination of high CCQ scores and explicit implementation strategy was associated with a positive implementation outcome. Organizational climate varies substantially between different PHC units. High CCQ scores in combination with an explicit implementation strategy predict a positive implementation outcome when a new working tool is introduced in PHC. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Coworking as a Career Strategy: Implications for the Work and Family Lives of University Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Stephen; Moen, Phyllis

    2004-01-01

    This study of 276 couples compares coworking couples, which means both partners work for the same university, with noncoworking couples, those couples in which only one partner is employed at a university. Among the employees at the two universities studied, one in seven dual-earner couples cowork. These couples are more educated and are less…

  13. Challenges and Strategies of Working with Learners with Low Vision: Implications for Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalo, J. A.; Indoshi, F. C.; Agak, J. O.

    2012-01-01

    Learners with low vision can be trained to increase their visual functioning through a planned programme of visual experiences. Such a low vision training programme was introduced in Kenya in 1994. However, despite its implementation over the last 15 years, challenges still persist among teachers who work with such learners. The purpose of this…

  14. Queering the Social Work Classroom: Strategies for Increasing the Inclusion of LGBTQ Persons and Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagaman, M. Alex; Shelton, Jama; Carter, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    The inclusion of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) perspectives and experiences in the social work classroom is necessary to adequately include LGBTQ students and prepare graduates to practice effectively. Drawing from queer theory as a theoretical framework and the authors' experiences in practice and teaching/learning spaces…

  15. Advanced Outage and Control Center: Strategies for Nuclear Plant Outage Work Status Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Weatherby

    2012-05-01

    The research effort is a part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program. LWRS is a research and development program sponsored by the Department of Energy, performed in close collaboration with industry to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. The LWRS Program serves to help the US nuclear industry adopt new technologies and engineering solutions that facilitate the continued safe operation of the plants and extension of the current operating licenses. The Outage Control Center (OCC) Pilot Project was directed at carrying out the applied research for development and pilot of technology designed to enhance safe outage and maintenance operations, improve human performance and reliability, increase overall operational efficiency, and improve plant status control. Plant outage management is a high priority concern for the nuclear industry from cost and safety perspectives. Unfortunately, many of the underlying technologies supporting outage control are the same as those used in the 1980’s. They depend heavily upon large teams of staff, multiple work and coordination locations, and manual administrative actions that require large amounts of paper. Previous work in human reliability analysis suggests that many repetitive tasks, including paper work tasks, may have a failure rate of 1.0E-3 or higher (Gertman, 1996). With between 10,000 and 45,000 subtasks being performed during an outage (Gomes, 1996), the opportunity for human error of some consequence is a realistic concern. Although a number of factors exist that can make these errors recoverable, reducing and effectively coordinating the sheer number of tasks to be performed, particularly those that are error prone, has the potential to enhance outage efficiency and safety. Additionally, outage management requires precise coordination of work groups that do not always share similar objectives. Outage

  16. Types and frequency of use of strategies in the learning of English as a foreign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar FRANCO

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of learning strategies in foreign language teaching, seen as organized and potentially conscious and intentional activities that enable or facilitate communication and learning, has emerged as one of the most important goals for success in mastering a new language. This study describes the typology and frequency of use of strategies in English learning as a foreign language in the Distance University Language Centre of the UNED. Among the conclusions, we can highlight that the arithmetic means are rather close for all the strategies tested, although most students expressed a greater use of metacognitive and cognitive strategies than of the affective and social kind. Conse­quently, these results indicate the need for further promotion of the emotional and social aspects involved in the development of a foreign language through innovative experiences which encourage them using the new technologies as a resource.

  17. Contemporary Management Strategies for Chronic Type B Aortic Dissections: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnoud V Kamman

    Full Text Available Currently, the optimal management strategy for chronic type B aortic dissections (CBAD is unknown. Therefore, we systematically reviewed the literature to compare results of open surgical repair (OSR, standard thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR or branched and fenestrated TEVAR (BEVAR/FEVAR for CBAD.EMBASE and MEDLINE databases were searched for eligible studies between January 2000 and October 2015. Studies describing outcomes of OSR, TEVAR, B/FEVAR, or all, for CBAD patients initially treated with medical therapy, were included. Primary endpoints were early mortality, and one-year and five-year survival. Secondary endpoints included occurrence of complications. Furthermore, a Time until Treatment Equipoise (TUTE graph was constructed.Thirty-five articles were selected for systematic review. A total of 1081 OSR patients, 1397 TEVAR patients and 61 B/FEVAR patients were identified. Early mortality ranged from 5.6% to 21.0% for OSR, 0.0% to 13.7% for TEVAR, and 0.0% to 9.7% for B/FEVAR. For OSR, one-year and five-year survival ranged 72.0%-92.0% and 53.0%-86.7%, respectively. For TEVAR, one-year survival was 82.9%-100.0% and five-year survival 70.0%-88.9%. For B/FEVAR only one-year survival was available, ranging between 76.4% and 100.0%. Most common postoperative complications included stroke (OSR 0.0%-13.3%, TEVAR 0.0%-11.8%, spinal cord ischemia (OSR 0.0%-16.4%, TEVAR 0.0%-12.5%, B/FEVAR 0.0%-12.9% and acute renal failure (OSR 0.0%-33.3%, TEVAR 0.0%-34.4%, B/FEVAR 0.0%-3.2%. Most common long-term complications after OSR included aneurysm formation (5.8%-20.0% and new type A dissection (1.7-2.2%. Early complications after TEVAR included retrograde dissection (0.0%-7.1%, malperfusion (1.3%-9.4%, cardiac complications (0.0%-5.9% and rupture (0.5%-5.0%. Most common long-term complications after TEVAR were rupture (0.5%-7.1%, endoleaks (0.0%-15.8% and cardiac complications (5.9%-7.1%. No short-term aortic rupture or malperfusion was

  18. Contemporary Management Strategies for Chronic Type B Aortic Dissections: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamman, Arnoud V; de Beaufort, Hector W L; van Bogerijen, Guido H W; Nauta, Foeke J H; Heijmen, Robin H; Moll, Frans L; van Herwaarden, Joost A; Trimarchi, Santi

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the optimal management strategy for chronic type B aortic dissections (CBAD) is unknown. Therefore, we systematically reviewed the literature to compare results of open surgical repair (OSR), standard thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) or branched and fenestrated TEVAR (BEVAR/FEVAR) for CBAD. EMBASE and MEDLINE databases were searched for eligible studies between January 2000 and October 2015. Studies describing outcomes of OSR, TEVAR, B/FEVAR, or all, for CBAD patients initially treated with medical therapy, were included. Primary endpoints were early mortality, and one-year and five-year survival. Secondary endpoints included occurrence of complications. Furthermore, a Time until Treatment Equipoise (TUTE) graph was constructed. Thirty-five articles were selected for systematic review. A total of 1081 OSR patients, 1397 TEVAR patients and 61 B/FEVAR patients were identified. Early mortality ranged from 5.6% to 21.0% for OSR, 0.0% to 13.7% for TEVAR, and 0.0% to 9.7% for B/FEVAR. For OSR, one-year and five-year survival ranged 72.0%-92.0% and 53.0%-86.7%, respectively. For TEVAR, one-year survival was 82.9%-100.0% and five-year survival 70.0%-88.9%. For B/FEVAR only one-year survival was available, ranging between 76.4% and 100.0%. Most common postoperative complications included stroke (OSR 0.0%-13.3%, TEVAR 0.0%-11.8%), spinal cord ischemia (OSR 0.0%-16.4%, TEVAR 0.0%-12.5%, B/FEVAR 0.0%-12.9%) and acute renal failure (OSR 0.0%-33.3%, TEVAR 0.0%-34.4%, B/FEVAR 0.0%-3.2%). Most common long-term complications after OSR included aneurysm formation (5.8%-20.0%) and new type A dissection (1.7-2.2%). Early complications after TEVAR included retrograde dissection (0.0%-7.1%), malperfusion (1.3%-9.4%), cardiac complications (0.0%-5.9%) and rupture (0.5%-5.0%). Most common long-term complications after TEVAR were rupture (0.5%-7.1%), endoleaks (0.0%-15.8%) and cardiac complications (5.9%-7.1%). No short-term aortic rupture or malperfusion was observed

  19. Biotechnological strategies to improve production of microbial poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate): a review of recent research work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, C; Castillo, T; García, A; Millán, M; Segura, D

    2014-07-01

    Poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] is a polyester synthesized as a carbon and energy reserve material by a wide number of bacteria. This polymer is characterized by its thermo-plastic properties similar to plastics derived from petrochemical industry, such as polyethylene and polypropylene. Furthermore, P(3HB) is an inert, biocompatible and biodegradable material which has been proposed for several uses in medical and biomedical areas. Currently, only few bacterial species such as Cupriavidus necator, Azohydromonas lata and recombinant Escherichia coli have been successfully used for P(3HB) production at industrial level. Nevertheless, in recent years, several fermentation strategies using other microbial models such as Azotobacter vinelandii, A. chroococcum, as well as some methane-utilizing species, have been developed in order to improve the P(3HB) production and also its mean molecular weight. © 2014 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. DO INTERVENTION STRATEGIES OF WOMEN HEALTHY HEART PROJECT (WHHP IMPACT ON DIFFERENTLY ON WORKING AND HOUSEWIVES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Sadeghi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the possible difference of the impact of Women Healthy Heart Project on lifestyle, as well as physical/biochemical parameters of working women and housewives.    METHODS: This was a community-based intervention study conducted over 5 years (2002-2007 in the counties of Isfahan and Najafabad (intervention areas and Arak (control. Pre-study situation analysis of women was followed by 5 years of wide-ranging interventions (educational/environmental conducted by various organizations using different methodologies. The interventions were aimed at modifying/improving lifestyle by increasing physical activity, encouraging healthy eating, and tobacco use cessation. The organizations involved in performing the interventions included the local radio and television authority, health/treatment centers, the Red Crescent Society, Municipalities, the Relief Committee, the Center for Retirees’ Welfare, and the Literacy Campaign Organization. After 5 years, final phase same as first phase was planed. The subjects studied in all phases` the pre- and post-intervention phases consisted of 10586 women aged above 18 years. Demographic data, obesity index, smoking, physical activity and eating habit were assessed before and after the study. Data were analyzed using SPSS-15 using Student’s t-test, chi-square test, the general linear model of ANOVA, and logistic regression.    RESULTS: We studied 10586 women (6105 and 4481 women, pre- and post-intervention, respectively. Mean age of working women was 34.14 ± 10.09 and 34.08 ± 9.35 years before and after the study, respectively. Mean age of housewives before and after the study was 40.05 ± 14.61 and 40.36 ± 15.32 years, respectively. Interventions conducted during 5 years improved eating habits and decreased tobacco use in working women and housewives. In every phase of the study, there was a significant age difference between housewives and working women

  1. Type 1 Diabetes Modifies Brain Activation in Young Patients While Performing Visuospatial Working Memory Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geisa B. Gallardo-Moreno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the effects of Type 1 Diabetes (T1D on cognitive functions. T1D onset usually occurs during childhood, so it is possible that the brain could be affected during neurodevelopment. We selected young patients of normal intelligence with T1D onset during neurodevelopment, no complications from diabetes, and adequate glycemic control. The purpose of this study was to compare the neural BOLD activation pattern in a group of patients with T1D versus healthy control subjects while performing a visuospatial working memory task. Sixteen patients and 16 matched healthy control subjects participated. There was no significant statistical difference in behavioral performance between the groups, but, in accordance with our hypothesis, results showed distinct brain activation patterns. Control subjects presented the expected activations related to the task, whereas the patients had greater activation in the prefrontal inferior cortex, basal ganglia, posterior cerebellum, and substantia nigra. These different patterns could be due to compensation mechanisms that allow them to maintain a behavioral performance similar to that of control subjects.

  2. Shifting attention among working memory representations: testing cue type, awareness, and strategic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryhill, Marian E; Richmond, Lauren L; Shay, Cara S; Olson, Ingrid R

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that visual working memory (VWM) performance is modulated by attentional cues presented during encoding. Interestingly, retrospective cues presented after encoding, but prior to the test phase also improve performance. This improvement in performance is termed the retro-cue benefit. We investigated whether the retro-cue benefit is sensitive to cue type, whether participants were aware of their improvement in performance due to the retro-cue, and whether the effect was under strategic control. Experiment 1 compared the potential cueing benefits of abrupt onset retro-cues relying on bottom-up attention, number retro-cues relying on top-down attention, and arrow retro-cues, relying on a mixture of both. We found a significant retro-cue effect only for arrow retro-cues. In Experiment 2, we tested participants' awareness of their use of the informative retro-cue and found that they were aware of their improved performance. In Experiment 3, we asked whether participants have strategic control over the retro-cue. The retro-cue was difficult to ignore, suggesting that strategic control is low. The retro-cue effect appears to be within conscious awareness but not under full strategic control.

  3. Relationship between type of work and metabolic syndrome among the National

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Alfaro Fernández

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the relationship between public employees’ type of work and the development of metabolic syndrome. Materials and methods: Descriptive cross-sectional observational study. The sample consisted of employees of the National Electoral Board (JNE, Lima office, who underwent their 2013 occupational medical evaluation and were assessed according to the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP - III criteria, as amended in 2005. Data collection was obtained from the employees’ occupational medical records. Results: Three hundred twenty-two (322 employees were evaluated. The metabolic syndrome prevalence was 2.17%. The administrative sector was affected in 2.28% (p = 1.0 compared to the non-administrative sector which showed no cases. The highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome was found in 30 - 39 years old employees (3.7% (p=0.495. The study showed statistical significance in relation to male gender (p= 0.019. Conclusions: In administrative employees of the JNE, there was no relationship between the

  4. Model-based control strategies for systems with constraints of the program type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarzębowska, Elżbieta

    2006-08-01

    The paper presents a model-based tracking control strategy for constrained mechanical systems. Constraints we consider can be material and non-material ones referred to as program constraints. The program constraint equations represent tasks put upon system motions and they can be differential equations of orders higher than one or two, and be non-integrable. The tracking control strategy relies upon two dynamic models: a reference model, which is a dynamic model of a system with arbitrary order differential constraints and a dynamic control model. The reference model serves as a motion planner, which generates inputs to the dynamic control model. It is based upon a generalized program motion equations (GPME) method. The method enables to combine material and program constraints and merge them both into the motion equations. Lagrange's equations with multipliers are the peculiar case of the GPME, since they can be applied to systems with constraints of first orders. Our tracking strategy referred to as a model reference program motion tracking control strategy enables tracking of any program motion predefined by the program constraints. It extends the "trajectory tracking" to the "program motion tracking". We also demonstrate that our tracking strategy can be extended to a hybrid program motion/force tracking.

  5. Exploring organisational competences in Human Factors and UX project work: managing careers, project tactics and organisational strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furniss, Dominic; Curzon, Paul; Blandford, Ann

    2018-06-01

    Organisational competence in Human Factors and UX (user experience) has not been looked at before despite its relevance to project success. We define organisational competence as the collective competence of the individuals, bringing together their complementary abilities to deliver an outcome that is typically more than the sum of its parts. Twenty-two UX and Human Factors practitioners were interviewed about their project work in two contrasting domains: web design and safety-critical systems to explore organisational competences. Through doing a FRAM analysis, 29 functions and 6 main areas of competences were identified: the central project process; the process of learning about the problem; maintaining and developing client relations; staff development; evolving practices; and the management of documentation for audit and quality control. These dynamic and situated competences form a web of interactions. Managing competences is essential for project success. Implications for managing careers, project tactics and organisational strategy are discussed. Practitioner Summary: Organisational competences impact how routine and non-routine project work is performed, but these have received little attention in the literature. Six key areas of competences in Human Factors and UX project work were identified from practitioner interviews. Managing combinations of adaptive competences is important for developing careers, project tactics and organisational strategies.

  6. Social Support Strategies for Immigrants: The Context of Social Work Practice in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aistė Bartkevičienė

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Intensification of migration flows makes Lithuania one of the immigrants host countries which, like other European Union countries, faces the challenge of integration of immigrants and in this process an important role has a social worker. The aim of research was to reveal the social support strategies used by social workers in solving social problems of immigrants during the process of their integration. The qualitative research using semi-structured interview method and content analysis method was done. The survey results suggest that immigrants during the process of integration face these social problems: the search for housing, employment, legal, financial, lack of access to relevant information. The results revealed that social workers, solving the social problems of immigrants, evaluate their nature and level and then apply the appropriate level of intervention. Social workers apply these micro level interventions: information and consultancy of immigrants, mediation and emotional support, which include individual social assistance. Social workers, solving the social problems of immigrants, apply these mezzo level interventions: development of social network of immigrants, organization of socio-cultural events, organization and coordination of volunteer activities. Social workers providing social assistance to immigrants' integration process, use the following macro level interventions: dissemination of information onimmigrantissues, conduction and dissemination of researches based on immigrant integration issues, dissemination of best practice of social workers.

  7. Rumen bacteria at work: bioaugmentation strategies to enhance biogas production from cow manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbayram, E G; Akyol, Ç; Ince, B; Karakoç, C; Ince, O

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the effects of different bioaugmentation strategies for enhancing the biogas production from cow manure and evaluate microbial community patterns. Co-inoculation with cow rumen fluid and cow rumen-derived enriched microbial consortia was evaluated in anaerobic batch tests at 36°C and 41°C. Singular addition of both rumen fluid and enriched bioaugmentation culture had a promising enhancement on methane yields; however, the highest methane yield (311 ml CH 4 per gram VS at 41°C) was achieved when the anaerobic seed sludge was co-inoculated together with rumen fluid and enriched bioaugmentation culture. Bacterial community profiles were investigated by Ion PGM Platform, and specific lignocellulolytic bacteria dynamics in batch tests were assessed by qPCR. The temperature had minor effects on the abundance of bacterial community; in which Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the most abundant phyla in all digesters. Furthermore, Rikenellaceae, Clostridiaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, Bacteroidaceae and Ruminococcaceae played a crucial role during the anaerobic degradation of cow manure. There was an important impact of Firmicutes flavefaciens and Ruminococcus albus at 41°C, which in turn positively affected the methane production. The degree of enhancement in biogas production can be upgraded by the co-inoculation of rumen-derived bioaugmentation culture with anaerobic seed sludge with high methanogenic activity. A close look at the biotic interactions and their associations with abiotic factors might be valuable for evaluating rumen-related bioaugmentation applications. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Strategies to work with HLA data in human populations for histocompatibility, clinical transplantation, epidemiology and population genetics: HLA-NET methodological recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Mazas, A; Vidan-Jeras, B; Nunes, J M; Fischer, G; Little, A-M; Bekmane, U; Buhler, S; Buus, S; Claas, F H J; Dormoy, A; Dubois, V; Eglite, E; Eliaou, J F; Gonzalez-Galarza, F; Grubic, Z; Ivanova, M; Lie, B; Ligeiro, D; Lokki, M L; da Silva, B Martins; Martorell, J; Mendonça, D; Middleton, D; Voniatis, D Papioannou; Papasteriades, C; Poli, F; Riccio, M E; Vlachou, M Spyropoulou; Sulcebe, G; Tonks, S; Nevessignsky, M Toungouz; Vangenot, C; van Walraven, A-M; Tiercy, J-M

    2012-12-01

    HLA-NET (a European COST Action) aims at networking researchers working in bone marrow transplantation, epidemiology and population genetics to improve the molecular characterization of the HLA genetic diversity of human populations, with an expected strong impact on both public health and fundamental research. Such improvements involve finding consensual strategies to characterize human populations and samples and report HLA molecular typings and ambiguities; proposing user-friendly access to databases and computer tools and defining minimal requirements related to ethical aspects. The overall outcome is the provision of population genetic characterizations and comparisons in a standard way by all interested laboratories. This article reports the recommendations of four working groups (WG1-4) of the HLA-NET network at the mid-term of its activities. WG1 (Population definitions and sampling strategies for population genetics' analyses) recommends avoiding outdated racial classifications and population names (e.g. 'Caucasian') and using instead geographic and/or cultural (e.g. linguistic) criteria to describe human populations (e.g. 'pan-European'). A standard 'HLA-NET POPULATION DATA QUESTIONNAIRE' has been finalized and is available for the whole HLA community. WG2 (HLA typing standards for population genetics analyses) recommends retaining maximal information when reporting HLA typing results. Rather than using the National Marrow Donor Program coding system, all ambiguities should be provided by listing all allele pairs required to explain each genotype, according to the formats proposed in 'HLA-NET GUIDELINES FOR REPORTING HLA TYPINGS'. The group also suggests taking into account a preliminary list of alleles defined by polymorphisms outside the peptide-binding sites that may affect population genetic statistics because of significant frequencies. WG3 (Bioinformatic strategies for HLA population data storage and analysis) recommends the use of programs capable

  9. A modified strategy for sequence specific assignment of protein NMR spectra based on amino acid type selective experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, Mario; Labudde, Dirk; Leitner, Dietmar; Oschkinat, Hartmut; Schmieder, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The determination of the three-dimensional structure of a protein or the study of protein-ligand interactions requires the assignment of all relevant nuclei as an initial step. This is nowadays almost exclusively performed using triple-resonance experiments. The conventional strategy utilizes one or more pairs of three dimensional spectra to obtain redundant information and thus reliable assignments. Here, a modified strategy for obtaining sequence specific assignments based on two dimensional amino acid type selective triple-resonance experiments is proposed. These experiments can be recorded with good resolution in a relatively short time. They provide very specific and redundant information, in particular on sequential connectivities, that drastically increases the ease and reliability of the assignment procedure, done either manually or in an automated fashion. The new strategy is demonstrated with the protein domain PB1 from yeast CDC24p

  10. Morale, stress and coping strategies of staff working in the emergency department: A comparison of two different-sized departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Louisa J; Thom, Ogilvie; Greenslade, Jaimi H; Wallis, Marianne; Johnston, Amy Nb; Carlström, Eric; Mills, Donna; Crilly, Julia

    2018-06-01

    Clinical staff in EDs are subject to a range of stressors. The objective of this study was to describe and compare clinical staff perceptions of their ED's working environment across two different Australian EDs. This was a cross-sectional, descriptive, research design that included distribution of three survey tools to clinical staff in two Australian EDs in 2016. Descriptive statistics were reported to characterise workplace stressors, coping styles and the ED environment. These data were compared by hospital and the employee's clinical role (nurse or physician). In total, 146 ED nurses and doctors completed the survey (response rate: 67%). Despite geographical variation, the staff at the two locations had similar demographic profiles in terms of age, sex and years of experience. Staff reported moderate levels of workload and self-realisation but low levels of conflict or nervousness in the workplace. Nurses and physicians reported similar perceptions of the work environment, although nurses reported slightly higher median levels of workload. Staff rated the death or sexual abuse of a child as most stressful, followed by workplace violence and heavy workload. Staff used a large range of coping strategies, and these were similar across both sites. These findings are the first multi-site and multidisciplinary examinations of Australian ED staff perceptions, improving our understanding of staff stressors and coping strategies and highlighting similarities across different EDs. These data support the development and implementation of strategies to improve ED working environments to help ensure professional longevity of ED staff. © 2018 The Authors. Emergency Medicine Australasia published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  11. Characteristics associated with non‐disclosure of Type 2 diabetes at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kasper; Cleal, Bryan; Skinner, Timothy Charles

    2017-01-01

    Aim To explore factors associated with non‐disclosure of Type 2 diabetes to employers among Danish workers with Type 2 diabetes. Methods A total of 705 workers with Type 2 diabetes completed a Danish cross‐sectional survey. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations between...

  12. Pragmatism rules: the intervention and prevention strategies used by psychiatric nurses working with non-suicidal self-harming individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, A

    2007-02-01

    Self harm in the absence of expressed suicidal intent is an under explored area in psychiatric nursing research. This paper reports on findings of a study undertaken in two acute psychiatric inpatient units in Ireland. The purpose of the study was to gain an understanding of the practices of psychiatric nurses in relation to people who self harm, but who are not considered suicidal. Semi structured interviews were held with eight psychiatric nurses. Content analysis revealed several themes. For the purpose of this paper the prevention and intervention strategies psychiatric nurses engage in when working with non-suicidal self harming individuals are presented. Recommendations for further research are offered.

  13. Developing New Strategies for Coping with Weather: Work in Alaskan and Canadian Coastal Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, D. E.

    2014-12-01

    A changing climate is manifested at ground level through the day to day weather. For all Northern residents - community, industrial, operational and response - the need to think about the weather is ever present. Northern residents, and in particular, indigenous community residents, fully understand implications of the weather, however, a comment that has been heard more often is that old ways of knowing are not as reliable as they once were. Weather patterns seem less consistent and subject to more rapid fluctuations. Compromised traditional ways of knowing puts those who need to travel or hunt at greater risk. One response to adapt to this emerging reality is to make greater use of western sources of information, such as weather data and charts provided by NOAA's National Weather Service or Environment Canada. The federal weather agencies have very large and complex forecasting regions to cover, and so one problem is that it can be difficult to provide perfectly tailored forecasts, that cover all possible problems, right down to the very local scale in the communities. Only those affected have a complete feel for their own concerns. Thus, key to a strategy to improve the utility of available weather information is a linking of local-scale manifestations of problematic weather to the larger-scale weather patterns. This is done in two ways: by direct consultation with Northern residents, and by installation of equipment to measure parameters of interest to residents, which are not already being measured. This talk will overview projects in coastal Alaska and Canada targeting this objective. The challenge of designing and conducting interviews, and then of harvesting relevant information, will be visited using examples from the three major contexts: coastal community, industrial, and operational. Examples of how local comments can be married to weather products will be presented.

  14. Analysis and Design of Improved Weighted Average Current Control Strategy for LCL-Type Grid-Connected Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Yang; Li, Zipeng; Yang, Ping

    2017-01-01

    The LCL grid-connected inverter has the ability to attenuate the high-frequency current harmonics. However, the inherent resonance of the LCL filter affects the system stability significantly. To damp the resonance effect, the dual-loop current control can be used to stabilize the system. The grid...... Control Strategy for LCL-Type Grid-Connected Inverters. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/313734269_Analysis_and_Design_of_Improved_Weighted_Average_Current_Control_Strategy_for_LCL-Type_Grid-Connected_Inverters [accessed Apr 20, 2017]....... current plus capacitor current feedback system is widely used for its better transient response and high robustness against the grid impedance variations. While the weighted average current (WAC) feedback scheme is capable to provide a wider bandwidth at higher frequencies but show poor stability...

  15. O RGANIZATION OF WORK OF NURSING IN FAMILY HEALTH STRATEGIES OF THE CITY OF CÁCERES - MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Maria Barbosa Cunha

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary care team should be able to plan, organize, develop and evaluate actions that respondto community needs and articulate the various sectors involved in health promotion. Knowing theprofile of these professionals can take steps towards their qualification and performance, for a moreadequate assistance and quality of the population.Objective:Learn to Work OrganizationStrategies in Nursing Family Health Cáceres-MT.Methodology:This is a quantitative andqualitative research.Data collection occurred through questionnaires given to professional nursesand nursing technicians FHT the city of Cáceres, between the months of September and October2011.Result:We found that the relationship between professional community and currently is aprocess that is weakened. They state that almost always feel satisfied with their freedom andautonomy at work. Indicate the main impediments that hinder the work, such as inadequate physicalinfrastructure, lack of financial resources, materials, procedures, drug shortages, low pay.Conclusion:Work organization means not only reflect the way work is designed and ordered, butthink of all that makes up thiscontext and their social integration

  16. Early Reading Strategies in Irish and English: Evidence from Error Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Christine E.; Lyddy, Fiona

    2009-01-01

    For the majority of people in Ireland, Irish is a second language acquired primarily through the schooling system. This study examined the reading strategies children used in response to English and Irish words (presented in isolation), through an analysis of their oral reading errors. Children in their 4th year of schooling attending…

  17. A Study of Student Completion Strategies in a Likert-Type Course Evaluation Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Nick

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the motivations and strategies employed by respondents to a Likert-style course evaluation at a UK university. These attitude surveys, generating large amounts of quantitative data, are commonly used in quality assurance procedures across UK higher education institutions. Similar student survey results are now scrutinised…

  18. Inhibition of autophagy as a treatment strategy for p53 wild-type acute myeloid leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkerts, Hendrik; Hilgendorf, Susan; Wierenga, Albertus T J; Jaques, Jennifer; Mulder, André B; Coffer, Paul J; Schuringa, Jan Jacob; Vellenga, Edo

    2017-01-01

    Here we have explored whether inhibition of autophagy can be used as a treatment strategy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Steady-state autophagy was measured in leukemic cell lines and primary human CD34(+) AML cells with a large variability in basal autophagy between AMLs observed. The autophagy

  19. The Impacts of Different Types of Workload Allocation Models on Academic Satisfaction and Working Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardi, Iris

    2009-01-01

    Increasing demands on academic work have resulted in many academics working long hours and expressing dissatisfaction with their working life. These concerns have led to a number of faculties and universities adopting workload allocation models to improve satisfaction and better manage workloads. This paper reports on a study which examined the…

  20. Computers and types of control in relation to work stress and learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, K.O.; Dhondt, S.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Batenburg, R.S.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Taris, T.W.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional machine-paced work shows adverse effects on worker health and learning. It is hardly known whether technological pacing shows the same effects in computer work. Hypotheses on work stress and learning were formulated regarding the effects of technological pacing, in the context of

  1. Computers and types of control in relation to work stress and learning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, K.O.; Dhondt, S.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Batenburg, R.S.; Kompier, M.A.J:; Taris.T.W.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional machine-paced work shows adverse effects on worker health and learning. It is hardly known whether technological pacing shows the same effects in computer work. Hypotheses on work stress and learning were formulated regarding the effects of technological pacing, in the context of

  2. Discussion and group work design in O2O teaching of applied optics: questions, strategies and extending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaotong; Cen, Zhaofeng; Liu, Xiangdong; Zheng, Zhenrong

    2017-08-01

    Applied optics course in Zhejiang University is a National Excellent Resource Sharing Course in China, and the online to offline teaching strategies have been implemented and shared with dozens of universities and colleges in China. Discussion is an important activity in teaching. In this paper our main consideration is designing the discussion questions and group works so as to develop the students' critical thinking, cooperative and sharing spirits, and communication abilities in the cosmopolitan era. Typical questions that connect different chapters and help the students to understand the relationship between each sub-system in both field of view and aperture are given for discussion. We inspire the students to complete group works such as ray trace programming by cooperation and then make presentations. All of these create a circumstance for sharing thoughts and developing intelligence and knowledge. A poll shows that the students pay more attention to optical design than before and have made progress in conversation and cooperation.

  3. Main strategies of specialists’ team work on psychosocial support for women with alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Zhyvylko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In compliance with the principles of bioethics and deontology, during  2013-2017, acomprehensive examination of women with a diagnosis of «total alopecia» was conducted on the basis of the Center for Reconstructive and Restorative Medicine of the Clinic of theOdessaNationalMedicalUniversity. 233 women aged 22 - 45 years old were examined. 76 persons had passed outpatient comprehensive course of author therapy, and 62 persons received treatment in accordance with the «Clinical protocol» but did not receive comprehensive psychosocial assistance. The patients under examination had violations in  psycho-emotional, personal level, level of social functioning. A range of measures of psychosocial support, aimed at providing qualified transdisciplinary help to the patients and their families have been worked out. Their effectiveness is proved on the basis of evidence-based medicine. Within the framework of the research the peculiarities of the psychoemotional sphere of women with total alopecia are determined. Scientifically substantiated, developed and implemented in practice psychosocial support of women with total alopecia, which consisted of psycho-corrective measures using modern mobile e-health technologies. Approbation of measures of psychosocial support showed their effectiveness in 70,89% of cases (р≤0,05. Due to the allocation and systematization of predictors, provocative and supporting factors of diseases, the system of modular medical and social prevention of total alopecia in women was developed, which includes three modules: universal, indicative and selective prevention.

  4. Applying theories to better understand socio-political challenges in implementing evidence-based work disability prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ståhl, Christian; Costa-Black, Katia; Loisel, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    This article explores and applies theories for analyzing socio-political aspects of implementation of work disability prevention (WDP) strategies. For the analysis, theories from political science are explained and discussed in relation to case examples from three jurisdictions (Sweden, Brazil and Québec). Implementation of WDP strategies may be studied through a conceptual framework that targets: (1) the institutional system in which policy-makers and other stakeholders reside; (2) the ambiguity and conflicts regarding what to do and how to do it; (3) the bounded rationality, path dependency and social systems of different stakeholders; and (4) coalitions formed by different stakeholders and power relations between them. In the case examples, the design of social insurance systems, the access to and infrastructure of healthcare systems, labor market policies, employers' level of responsibility, the regulatory environment, and the general knowledge of WDP issues among stakeholders played different roles in the implementation of policies based on scientific evidence. Future research may involve participatory approaches focusing on building coalitions and communities of practice with policy-makers and stakeholders, in order to build trust, facilitate cooperation, and to better promote evidence utilization. Implications for Rehabilitation Implementation of work disability prevention policies are subject to contextual influences from the socio-political setting and from relationships between stakeholders Stakeholders involved in implementing strategies are bound to act based on their interests and previous courses of action To promote research uptake on the policy level, stakeholders and researchers need to engage in collaboration and translational activities Political stakeholders at the government and community levels need to be more directly involved as partners in the production and utilization of evidence.

  5. An Analysis of Organizational Performance Based on Hospital Specialization Level and Strategy Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han-Sung; Kim, Young-Hoon; Woo, Jung-Sik; Hyun, Sook-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Hospitals are studying the focused factory concept and attempting to increase their power in a competitive industry by becoming more specialized. This study uses the information theory index (ITI) and the Herfindahl-Hirschman index (HHI) to analyze the extent of specialization by Korean hospitals that receive national health insurance reimbursements. Hierarchical regression analysis is used to assess the impact of hospital specialization on the following four aspects of operational performance: productivity, profitability, efficiency and quality of care. The results show that a focused strategy (high HHI) improves the income and adjusted number of patients per specialist through the efficient utilization of human resources. However, a diversified strategy (high ITI) improves the hospital utilization ratio, income per bed and adjusted number of patients per bed (controlling for material resources such as beds). In addition, as the concentration index increases, case-mix mortality rates and referral rates decrease, indicating that specialization has a positive relationship with quality of care.

  6. Some Relationships Between Psychological Structure, Educational Beliefs, and Teaching Strategies in Three Types of Teacher Trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nier, Charles J.

    This study investigated systematic relationships among teacher personality types (Ambitious, Conscientious, and Indulgent), preservice educational beliefs, and intern classroom practices. The investigation traced the theoretical and empirical linkage from personality structure though educational ideology and finally to perceptions of teacher…

  7. Shift work: health, performance and safety problems, traditional countermeasures, and innovative management strategies to reduce circadian misalignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith MR

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mark R Smith, Charmane I EastmanBiological Rhythms Research Laboratory, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: There are three mechanisms that may contribute to the health, performance, and safety problems associated with night-shift work: (1 circadian misalignment between the internal circadian clock and activities such as work, sleep, and eating, (2 chronic, partial sleep deprivation, and (3 melatonin suppression by light at night. The typical countermeasures, such as caffeine, naps, and melatonin (for its sleep-promoting effect, along with education about sleep and circadian rhythms, are the components of most fatigue risk-management plans. We contend that these, while better than nothing, are not enough because they do not address the underlying cause of the problems, which is circadian misalignment. We explain how to reset (phase-shift the circadian clock to partially align with the night-work, day-sleep schedule, and thus reduce circadian misalignment while preserving sleep and functioning on days off. This involves controlling light and dark using outdoor light exposure, sunglasses, sleep in the dark, and a little bright light during night work. We present a diagram of a sleep-and-light schedule to reduce circadian misalignment in permanent night work, or a rotation between evenings and nights, and give practical advice on how to implement this type of plan.Keywords: circadian rhythms, night work, bright light, phase-shifting, sleep, melatonin

  8. Cholinergic blockade under working memory demands encountered by increased rehearsal strategies: evidence from fMRI in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Bianca; Thienel, Renate; Reske, Martina; Kellermann, Thilo; Sheldrick, Abigail J; Halfter, Sarah; Radenbach, Katrin; Shah, Nadim J; Habel, Ute; Kircher, Tilo T J

    2012-06-01

    The connection between cholinergic transmission and cognitive performance has been established in behavioural studies. The specific contribution of the muscarinic receptor system on cognitive performance and brain activation, however, has not been evaluated satisfyingly. To investigate the specific contribution of the muscarinic transmission on neural correlates of working memory, we examined the effects of scopolamine, an antagonist of the muscarinic receptors, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Fifteen healthy male, non-smoking subjects performed a fMRI scanning session following the application of scopolamine (0.4 mg, i.v.) or saline in a placebo-controlled, repeated measure, pseudo-randomized, single-blind design. Working memory was probed using an n-back task. Compared to placebo, challenging the cholinergic transmission with scopolamine resulted in hypoactivations in parietal, occipital and cerebellar areas and hyperactivations in frontal and prefrontal areas. These alterations are interpreted as compensatory strategies used to account for downregulation due to muscarinic acetylcholine blockade in parietal and cerebral storage systems by increased activation in frontal and prefrontal areas related to working memory rehearsal. Our results further underline the importance of cholinergic transmission to working memory performance and determine the specific contribution of muscarinic transmission on cerebral activation associated with executive functioning.

  9. Effects of message appeal and service type in CSR communication strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Andreu, Luisa; Casado-Díaz, Ana B.; Mattila, Anna S.

    2015-01-01

    Studies highlight the importance of corporate social responsibility (CSR) for companies' stakeholders. Consumers, however, are often unaware of such initiatives. Understanding how to effectively communicate socially responsible initiatives is an important challenge for both researchers and managers, who invest considerable resources in CSR initiatives. This study examines consumers' responses to two types of CSR initiatives (environment-related and employee-based) using two types of message a...

  10. Effect of conditions of air-lift type reactor work on cadmium adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipkowska, Urszula; Szymczyk, Paula Szymczyk; Kuczajowska-Zadrozna, Malgorzata; Joezwiak, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    We investigated cadmium sorption by activated sludge immobilized in 1.5% sodium alginate with 0.5% polyvinyl alcohol. Experiments were conducted in an air-lift type reactor at the constant concentration of biosorbent reaching 5 d.m./dm 3 , at three flow rates: 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 V/h, and at three concentrations of the inflowing cadmium solution: 10, 25 and 50mg/dm 3 . Analyses determined adsorption capacity of activated sludge immobilized in alginate as well as reactor's work time depending on flow rate and initial concentration of the solution. Results achieved were described with the use of Thomas model. The highest adsorption capacity of the sorbent (determined from the Thomas model), i.e., 200.2mg/g d.m. was obtained at inflowing solution concentration of 50mg/dm 3 and flow rate of 0.1V/h, whereas the lowest one reached 53.69mg/g d.m. at the respective values of 10mg/dm 3 and 0.1 V/h. Analyses were also carried out to determine the degree of biosorbent adsorption capacity utilization at the assumed effectiveness of cadmium removal - at the breakthrough point (C=0.05*C 0 ) and at adsorption capacity depletion point (C−0.9*C0). The study demonstrated that the effectiveness of adsorption capacity utilization was influenced by both the concentration and flow rate of the inflowing solution. The highest degree of sorbent capacity utilization was noted at inflowing solution concentration of 50mg/dm 3 and flow rate of 0.1 V/h, whereas the lowest one at the respective values of 10mg/dm 3 and 0.1 V/h. The course of the process under dynamic conditions was evaluated using coefficients of tangent inclination - a, at point C/C 0 =1/2. A distinct tendency was demonstrated in changes of tangent slope a as affected by the initial concentration of cadmium and flow rate of the solution. The highest values of a coefficient were achieved at the flow rate of 0.1 V/h and initial cadmium concentration of 50mg/dm 3 .

  11. Treatment of tension type headache: paracetamol and NSAIDs work: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P. Verhagen (Arianne); L. Damen (Léonie); M.Y. Berger (Marjolein); M.L.B. Lenssinck (Marie-Louise); J. Passchier (Jan); B.W. Kroes (Bart W)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: Tension-type headache (TTH), also known as tension headache or muscle contraction headache is the most commonly experienced type of headache. Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions in patients with TTH. METHOD: We performed a systematic review according to

  12. Does Age Matter in HR Decision Making? Four Types of Age Policies in Finnish Work Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pärnänen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The extension of work careers is one of the key targets of social policy in the EU as well as in Finnish national policy-making. But how is this objective of lengthened work life received at the workplace level? This study examines the aim of extending working careers at an organizational level. The data comprise interviews with human resources managers, shop stewards, and employees reaching the end of their working life, conducted in ten Finnish work organizations. Four different age policy lines can be distinguished from the data. First, the age policy practices of manufacturing enterprises are very much alike in that a clear turn has occurred from favoring the unemployment pension path in the case of dismissals to extending working careers. Second, the age policy of public sector organizations encourages investment in extending the working careers of older employees, though young people are clearly preferred in recruitment. The third line can be found in private service sector enterprises that utilize age segmentation based on the age of their customers – young waiters for young customers, for example – while the fourth can be described by the words ‘situation-specific’ and ‘passive’. No input is made into extending working careers and the unemployment route is used as the means of dismissal where needed. The study reveals that the organizations’ age policies are strategic in nature: longer working careers are supported and older people are hired only if it is strategically sound. It can be said that workplaces currently determine the boundaries of who and at what age people are fit for work and of ‘working age’.

  13. Dependence of Au- production upon the target work function in a plasma-sputter-type negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okabe, Yushirou; Sasao, Mamiko; Fujita, Junji; Yamaoka, Hitoshi; Wada, Motoi.

    1991-01-01

    A method to measure the work function of the target surface in a plasma-sputter-type negative ion source has been developed. The method can determine the work function by measuring the photoelectric current induced by two lasers (He-Ne, Ar + laser). The dependence of Au - production upon the work function of the target surface in the ion source was studied using this method. The time variation of the target work function and Au - production rate were measured during the cesium coverage decrease due to the plasma ion sputtering. The observed minimum work function of a cesiated gold surface in an Ar plasma was 1.3 eV. At the same time, the negative ion production rate (Au - current/target current) took the maximum value. The negative ion production rate indicated the same dependence on the incident ion energy as that of the sputtering rate when the work function was constant. (author)

  14. Framing of different types of information needs within simulated work task situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borlund, Pia

    2016-01-01

    to reflect verificative, conscious topical and muddled topical information needs of each group of test participants. The study shows that it is challenging to formulate verificative simulated work task situations and to incorporate curiosity in the muddled topical simulated work task situations. The results...

  15. The time course of working memory effects on visual attention differs depending on memory type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dombrowe, I.; Olivers, C.N.L.; Donk, M.

    2010-01-01

    Previous work has generated inconsistent results with regard to what extent working memory (WM) content guides visual attention. Some studies found effects of easy to verbalize stimuli, whereas others only found an influence of visual memory content. To resolve this, we compared the time courses of

  16. Different types of working memory binding in epilepsy patients with unilateral anterior temporal lobectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geldorp, B. van; Bouman, Z.; Hendriks, M.P.H.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2014-01-01

    The medial temporal lobe is an important structure for long-term memory formation, but its role in working memory is less clear. Recent studies have shown hippocampal involvement during working memory tasks requiring binding of information. It is yet unclear whether this is limited to tasks

  17. Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: Two Diseases with a Need for Combined Treatment Strategies - EASO Can Lead the Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah R. Leitner

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic metabolic disease affecting adults and children worldwide. It has become one of the leading causes of death, as obesity is known to be the main risk factor for a number of non-communicable diseases, in particular type 2 diabetes. This close relationship led to the connotation ‘diabesity', highlighting the fact that the majority of individuals with diabetes are overweight or obese. Until today the BMI is still used to classify overweight and obesity. Since reduced muscle mass is highly prevalent throughout the BMI range, the measurement of body composition is strongly recommended. Moreover, it is essential for monitoring the course of weight reduction, which is part of every effective anti-obesity treatment. Weight reduction can be achieved via different weight loss strategies, including lifestyle intervention (diet and exercise, pharmacotherapy, or bariatric surgery. However, not all of these strategies are suitable for all patients, and any further needs should be considered. Besides, attention should also be drawn to concomitant therapies. These therapies may promote additional weight gain and further trigger the deterioration of blood glucose control. Thus, therapeutic strategies are warranted, which can be easily used for the management of obese patients with type 2 diabetes to achieve their glycemic and weight loss goals.

  18. Comments on Georgeff's Transformation and Reduction Strategies for Typed Lambda Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    1986-01-01

    In his recent paper, Georgeff [1] considers the evaluation of lambda expres sions (with reducing reflexive types) on a variant of Landin's SECD machine. It is observed that for so-called simple expressions the SECD machine will construct stack-like environment structures, whereas, in general......, they are tree-like. Georgeff then explores the idea of transforming any (typed) lambda expression into simple form and then using the SECD machine for these expressions. However, such transformations might be undesirable if the language is going to be interpreted directly. This leads Georgeff to modify the SECD...

  19. Shift work: health, performance and safety problems, traditional countermeasures, and innovative management strategies to reduce circadian misalignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark R; Eastman, Charmane I

    2012-01-01

    There are three mechanisms that may contribute to the health, performance, and safety problems associated with night-shift work: (1) circadian misalignment between the internal circadian clock and activities such as work, sleep, and eating, (2) chronic, partial sleep deprivation, and (3) melatonin suppression by light at night. The typical countermeasures, such as caffeine, naps, and melatonin (for its sleep-promoting effect), along with education about sleep and circadian rhythms, are the components of most fatigue risk-management plans. We contend that these, while better than nothing, are not enough because they do not address the underlying cause of the problems, which is circadian misalignment. We explain how to reset (phase-shift) the circadian clock to partially align with the night-work, day-sleep schedule, and thus reduce circadian misalignment while preserving sleep and functioning on days off. This involves controlling light and dark using outdoor light exposure, sunglasses, sleep in the dark, and a little bright light during night work. We present a diagram of a sleep-and-light schedule to reduce circadian misalignment in permanent night work, or a rotation between evenings and nights, and give practical advice on how to implement this type of plan. PMID:23620685

  20. An Analysis of Organizational Performance Based on Hospital Specialization Level and Strategy Type.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Sung Kim

    Full Text Available Hospitals are studying the focused factory concept and attempting to increase their power in a competitive industry by becoming more specialized.This study uses the information theory index (ITI and the Herfindahl-Hirschman index (HHI to analyze the extent of specialization by Korean hospitals that receive national health insurance reimbursements. Hierarchical regression analysis is used to assess the impact of hospital specialization on the following four aspects of operational performance: productivity, profitability, efficiency and quality of care.The results show that a focused strategy (high HHI improves the income and adjusted number of patients per specialist through the efficient utilization of human resources. However, a diversified strategy (high ITI improves the hospital utilization ratio, income per bed and adjusted number of patients per bed (controlling for material resources such as beds. In addition, as the concentration index increases, case-mix mortality rates and referral rates decrease, indicating that specialization has a positive relationship with quality of care.

  1. The global challenge of type 2 diabetes and the strategies for response in ethnic minority groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lirussi, Flavio

    2010-09-01

    Ethnic minorities living in high-income countries usually exhibit a greater risk of developing diabetes along with higher morbidity and mortality rates. We evaluated the effectiveness of interventions to improve glycaemic control in ethnic minority groups. Results of major controlled trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses were included in the review. Only 1/47 studies addressing diet and exercise interventions reported details on the ethnicity of the studied population. Self-management education was successful if associated with increased self-efficacy; delivered over a longer period; of high intensity; culturally tailored; and when using community educators. Strategies adopted in community-gathering places, family-based, multifaceted, and those tackling the social context were likely to be more effective. A positive relationship was found between social support and self-management behaviour as well as quality of life, but there is little evidence about the impact of organizational changes within health-care services on diabetes control. More research is needed to strengthen the evidence on effective strategies for response to diabetes in ethnic minorities. Also, there is a need to take into account diabetes beliefs and communication difficulties, as well as potential protective factors. Globally, many health-care systems are inadequately equipped to improve diabetes prevention and disease outcomes in these communities. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. A diversity-oriented synthesis strategy enabling the combinatorial-type variation of macrocyclic peptidomimetic scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidro-Llobet, Albert; Hadje Georgiou, Kathy; Galloway, Warren R J D; Giacomini, Elisa; Hansen, Mette R; Méndez-Abt, Gabriela; Tan, Yaw Sing; Carro, Laura; Sore, Hannah F; Spring, David R

    2015-04-21

    Macrocyclic peptidomimetics are associated with a broad range of biological activities. However, despite such potentially valuable properties, the macrocyclic peptidomimetic structural class is generally considered as being poorly explored within drug discovery. This has been attributed to the lack of general methods for producing collections of macrocyclic peptidomimetics with high levels of structural, and thus shape, diversity. In particular, there is a lack of scaffold diversity in current macrocyclic peptidomimetic libraries; indeed, the efficient construction of diverse molecular scaffolds presents a formidable general challenge to the synthetic chemist. Herein we describe a new, advanced strategy for the diversity-oriented synthesis (DOS) of macrocyclic peptidomimetics that enables the combinatorial variation of molecular scaffolds (core macrocyclic ring architectures). The generality and robustness of this DOS strategy is demonstrated by the step-efficient synthesis of a structurally diverse library of over 200 macrocyclic peptidomimetic compounds, each based around a distinct molecular scaffold and isolated in milligram quantities, from readily available building-blocks. To the best of our knowledge this represents an unprecedented level of scaffold diversity in a synthetically derived library of macrocyclic peptidomimetics. Cheminformatic analysis indicated that the library compounds access regions of chemical space that are distinct from those addressed by top-selling brand-name drugs and macrocyclic natural products, illustrating the value of our DOS approach to sample regions of chemical space underexploited in current drug discovery efforts. An analysis of three-dimensional molecular shapes illustrated that the DOS library has a relatively high level of shape diversity.

  3. The Identification of Financing Strategy for the Construction of NPP Type Opr-1000 at Muria Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moch-Djoko Birmano

    2006-01-01

    The study for identification of financing strategy for the construction of OPR-1000 at Muria Peninsula have been done. This study is continuation of previous study with title T he Economic and Financing Viability of the OPR-1000 Construction at Muria Peninsula . In the previous study have been the economic and financing viability of OPR-1000 construction. The economic viability was known by obtained the generation cost, electricity tariff and construction cost. The meanwhile, the financing viability was known by obtained Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR) and Payback Period (P) by using KEPCO Spread Sheet. From the calculation of economic and financing viability in base case, have been obtained the result of electricity tariff, IRR, FNPV and Payback Period for total investment is 6.640 cent/kWh (after Value Added Tax), 10.37%, US$ 90.52 million and 12.11 years, respectively. From this result of economic and financing viability in base case, have been carried out sensitivity analysis to technical parameter (capacity factor) and economic parameter (discount rate). The result of sensitivity analysis to be used for identifying financing strategy in order to obtain the best and optimal economic and financing viability. (author)

  4. Gait Strategy in Patients with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Hypermobility Type and Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoldi, Chiara; Galli, Manuela; Cimolin, Veronica; Camerota, Filippo; Celletti, Claudia; Tenore, Nunzio; Albertini, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    People suffering from Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) hypermobility type present a severe ligament laxity that results in difficulties in muscle force transmission. The same condition is present in people suffering from Down syndrome (DS) even if their clumsy movements are due to cerebral and cognitive impairments. The aim of this study was to…

  5. Pleiotropic effects of type 2 diabetes management strategies on renal risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muskiet, Marcel H. A.; Tonneijck, Lennart; Smits, Mark M.; Kramer, Mark H. H.; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo; van Raalte, Danil H.

    In parallel with the type 2 diabetes pandemic, diabetic kidney disease has become the leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide, and is associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. As established in landmark randomised trials and recommended in clinical guidelines,

  6. Cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: management strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.

    2005-01-01

    There is an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and morbidity in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus compared with the general population as shown by epidemiologic studies measuring cardiovascular endpoints, as well as by autopsy, angiographic, and coronary calcification

  7. Cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: Management Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.

    2005-01-01

    There is an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and morbidity in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus compared with the general population as shown by epidemiologic studies measuring cardiovascular endpoints, as well as by autopsy, angiographic, and coronary calcification

  8. The work-related stressors and coping strategies of group-employed rural health care practitioners: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbrouck, Melinda A; Waddimba, Anthony C

    2017-10-01

    Escalating demands on practitioners, stagnating/dwindling resources, and diminishing autonomy have heightened patient-care work-related stress. Using qualitative content/thematic analysis of responses to open-ended survey questions, plus spontaneous comments, we sought to identify rural clinicians' subjective perceptions of their workplace stressors and typical adaptive/coping strategies. Within a hybrid inductive-deductive approach, we framed empirical themes (derived by consensus, corroborated with text segments, and extant literature) into theory-based coding templates by which we analyzed the data. Of 308 (65.1% of) recipients completing questionnaires, 290 (94%) answered open-ended questions and/or provided comments. Categorizing stressors by socio-ecology, they cited four themes: Organizational, practitioner/staff-related, patient-related, and third party-induced stressors. Organizational stressors were referenced most conspicuously. How respondents described their coping fitted the Stress, Appraisal and Coping. [Lazarus and Folkman (1984): New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company, Inc] model. Emotion-focused were referenced more than problem-focused approaches. Themes scarcely differed by demographics, except for marital status. Findings highlight needs for resilience coaching, rekindling work meaningfulness, mentorship in work-home balance/limit-setting, supportive peer networks, and deeper teamwork. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Determining the efficacy of national strategies aimed at addressing the challenges facing health personnel working in rural areas in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Mburu

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: South Africa’s HRH strategy for the Health Sector 2012/13–2015/16 had highlighted the key challenges raised by respondents and identified strategies aimed at addressing these challenges. Implementation of these strategies is key to improving both living and working conditions, and providing health personnel with opportunities for further development will require inter-ministerial collaboration if the HRH 2030 objectives are to be realised.

  10. Different types of working memory binding in epilepsy patients with unilateral anterior temporal lobectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geldorp, Bonnie; Bouman, Zita; Hendriks, Marc P H; Kessels, Roy P C

    2014-03-01

    The medial temporal lobe is an important structure for long-term memory formation, but its role in working memory is less clear. Recent studies have shown hippocampal involvement during working memory tasks requiring binding of information. It is yet unclear whether this is limited to tasks containing spatial features. The present study contrasted three binding conditions and one single-item condition in patients with unilateral anterior temporal lobectomy. A group of 43 patients with temporal lobectomy (23 left; 20 right) and 20 matched controls were examined with a working memory task assessing spatial relational binding (object-location), non-spatial relational binding (object-object), conjunctive binding (object-colour) and working memory for single items. We varied the delay period (3 or 6s), as there is evidence showing that delay length may modulate working memory performance. The results indicate that performance was worse for patients than for controls in both relational binding conditions, whereas patients were unimpaired in conjunctive binding. Single-item memory was found to be marginally impaired, due to a deficit on long-delay trials only. In conclusion, working memory binding deficits are found in patients with unilateral anterior temporal lobectomy. The role of the medial temporal lobe in working memory is not limited to tasks containing spatial features. Rather, it seems to be involved in relational binding, but not in conjunctive binding. The medial temporal lobe gets involved when working memory capacity does not suffice, for example when relations have to be maintained or when the delay period is long. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Calculation of demands for nuclear fuels and fuel cycle services. Description of computer model and strategies developed by Working Group 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Working Group 1 examined a range of reactor deployment strategies and fuel cycle options, in oder to estimate the range of nuclear fuel requirements and fuel cycle service needs which would result. The computer model, its verification in comparison with other models, the strategies to be examined through use of the model, and the range of results obtained are described

  12. The Impact of Strategy Instruction and Timing of Estimates on Low and High Working-Memory Capacity Readers' Absolute Monitoring Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linderholm, Tracy; Zhao, Qin

    2008-01-01

    Working-memory capacity, strategy instruction, and timing of estimates were investigated for their effects on absolute monitoring accuracy, which is the difference between estimated and actual reading comprehension test performance. Participants read two expository texts under one of two randomly assigned reading strategy instruction conditions…

  13. National evaluation of strategies to reduce safety violations for working from heights in construction companies: results from a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, Henk F.; den Herder, Aalt; Warning, Jan; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a face-to-face strategy and a direct mail strategy on safety violations while working from heights among construction companies compared to a control condition. Construction companies with workers at risk for fall injuries were eligible

  14. Pulsed field magnetization strategies and the field poles composition in a bulk-type superconducting motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhen, E-mail: zhen.huang@sjtu.edu.cn [Academy of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Ruiz, H.S., E-mail: dr.harold.ruiz@le.ac.uk [Department of Engineering, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Coombs, T.A., E-mail: tac1000@cam.ac.uk [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Different compositions of the magnetic poles have been obtained depending on the relative orientation of the magnetizing coil and the surfaces of the columns of bulks that conform a magnetic pole. • Two bidimensional models accounting for the electromagnetic response of the top and lateral cross sections of three columns of HTS bulks subjected to multiple pulsed magnetic fields have been created. • An extended PFM strategy has been proposed by considering the magnetization of at least three successive columns of HTS bulks per pole. In the extended PFM strategy the area of each one of the poles can be seen increased by a factor of 200%-400% - Abstract: High temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks offer the potential of trapping and maintaining much higher magnetic loading level compared with the conventional permanent magnets used in rotary machines, although the effective magnetization of multiple HTS bulks with different relative orientations over the surface of cylindrical rotors creates new challenges. In this paper, we present the design and numerical validation of the Pulse Field Magnetization (PFM) strategy considered for the magnetization of the four-pole synchronous fully superconducting motor developed at the University of Cambridge. In a first instance, singular columns of up to five HTS bulks aligned over the height of the rotor were subjected to up to three magnetic pulses of 1.5 T peak, and the experimental results have been simulated by considering the electrical and thermal properties of the system in a 2D approach. The entire active surface of the rotor is covered by HTS bulks of approximately the same dimensions, resulting in an uneven distribution of pole areas with at least one of the poles formed by up to 3 columns of magnetized bulks, with relatively the same peaks of trapped magnetic field. Thus, in order to effectively use the entire area of the superconducting rotor, multiple pulsed fields per column have been applied

  15. Pulsed field magnetization strategies and the field poles composition in a bulk-type superconducting motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhen; Ruiz, H.S.; Coombs, T.A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Different compositions of the magnetic poles have been obtained depending on the relative orientation of the magnetizing coil and the surfaces of the columns of bulks that conform a magnetic pole. • Two bidimensional models accounting for the electromagnetic response of the top and lateral cross sections of three columns of HTS bulks subjected to multiple pulsed magnetic fields have been created. • An extended PFM strategy has been proposed by considering the magnetization of at least three successive columns of HTS bulks per pole. In the extended PFM strategy the area of each one of the poles can be seen increased by a factor of 200%-400% - Abstract: High temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks offer the potential of trapping and maintaining much higher magnetic loading level compared with the conventional permanent magnets used in rotary machines, although the effective magnetization of multiple HTS bulks with different relative orientations over the surface of cylindrical rotors creates new challenges. In this paper, we present the design and numerical validation of the Pulse Field Magnetization (PFM) strategy considered for the magnetization of the four-pole synchronous fully superconducting motor developed at the University of Cambridge. In a first instance, singular columns of up to five HTS bulks aligned over the height of the rotor were subjected to up to three magnetic pulses of 1.5 T peak, and the experimental results have been simulated by considering the electrical and thermal properties of the system in a 2D approach. The entire active surface of the rotor is covered by HTS bulks of approximately the same dimensions, resulting in an uneven distribution of pole areas with at least one of the poles formed by up to 3 columns of magnetized bulks, with relatively the same peaks of trapped magnetic field. Thus, in order to effectively use the entire area of the superconducting rotor, multiple pulsed fields per column have been applied

  16. TYPES OF ACADEMIC INTERNET-RESOURCES FOR IT STUDENTS’ INDIVIDUAL WORK MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Glazunova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Individual work is one of the main forms of organization of academic process for students of IT specialties. Main practical professionally oriented skills and abilities are retained only due to students’ hard individual work while doing tasks in programming, algorithmization, designing etc. development of effective academic resources will help students to work individually as well as comfortable ways of delivering such materials with the help of Internet guarantees enhancing the quality of studies. Information and educational resources for independent work of students today are one of the most effective means. The technique of creating and using these tools requires constant research through the rapid development of new information technologies. The present article describes the most effective tools and technologies for creating online resources for self-study of IT students, grounded methods of their use in the educational process. The most commonly used tools for formal and informal components of independent work are identified: professionally-oriented sites, massive open online courses, blogs programmers professionally groups on social networks, news sites, and so on. Studies show a significant improvement of independent work of students on the study material by using video tutorials.

  17. [The implementation of strategy of medicinal support in multi-type hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludupova, E Yu

    2016-01-01

    The article presents brief review of implementation of strategy of medicinal support of population of the Russian Federation and experience of application of at the level of regional hospital. The necessity and importance of implementation into practice of hospitals of methodology of pharmaco-economical management of medicinal care using modern technologies of XYZ-, ABC and VEN-analysis is demonstrated. The stages of development and implementation of process of medicinal support of multifield hospital applying principles of system of quality management (processing and systemic approaches, risk management) on the basis of standards ISO 9001 are described. The significance of monitoring of results ofprocess of medicinal support of the basis of implementation of priority target programs (prevention of venous thrombo-embolic complications, system od control of anti-bacterial therapy) are demonstrated in relation to multi-field hospital using technique of ATC/DDD-analysis for evaluating indices of effectiveness and efficiency.

  18. Newsworthiness, attribution and lexicogrammatical strategies in two types of news articles in English and Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elorza Izaskun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The contrastive analysis of two sets of newspaper articles has been carried out in order to observe how the reports of the same events are constructed in two different languages and cultures as represented by El País and The Guardian newspapers. The first set of texts consists of two science popularization articles dealing with the same scientific finding (Bee Texts, whereas the second set consists of all the articles covering the opening day of a world summit held in Rome (Summit Texts which were published in the online versions of El País and The Guardian respectively. Newsworthiness (Bell, 1991, attribution and lexicogrammatical strategies have been studied in order to show how ideological construction has been developed in these two different kinds of report, one dealing with a non-controversial event (as represented in the Bee Texts and the other with a controversial event (as represented in the Summit Texts.

  19. Empagliflozin as a new management strategy on outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Salukhov

    2016-12-01

    In this review, we present an analysis of the Empa-Reg Outcomes investigation, focussed on assessing the CV safety of empagliflozin, an inhibitor of SGLT2. We discuss the impressive results of trials that provide evidence on the cardiac and renal properties of empagliflozin. We present and analyse the current hypothesis on the mechanism of action of glucose-lowering medication, which has such a severe and complex impact on outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes at high CV risk.

  20. Self-care management strategies among individuals living with type 2 diabetes mellitus: nursing interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt CW

    2013-01-01

    Caralise W HuntAuburn University School of Nursing, Auburn, AL, USAAbstract: Nurses provide care for individuals living with diabetes in a variety of areas. Nursing interventions assist individuals living with diabetes to manage diabetes and can positively affect outcomes. This article describes an integrated literature review conducted to evaluate and summarize nursing interventions and research in self-management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and the Cochrane databa...

  1. Explaining emotional exhaustion and work engagement : The role of job demands-resources and Type D personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Tooren, M.; Rutte, C.G.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to show that Type D personality—a personality trait characterized by high levels of negative affectivity and high levels of social inhibition—can explain a significant amount of variance in emotional exhaustion and work engagement above and beyond the variance

  2. Void formation in cold-worked type 316 stainless steel irradiated with 1-MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefer, D.W.; Pard, A.G.

    1974-01-01

    Cold-worked Type 316 stainless steel was irradiated at 500 and 600 0 C with 1-MeV protons. The dependence of void formation on displacement damage, irradiation temperature, and microstructure was studied by transmission electron microscopy. Cold working delays the onset of swelling and reduces it, via a reduction in void size, at both irradiation temperatures. Inhomogeneity in the cold-worked microstructure leads to inhomogeneity in the disposition of voids. Swelling at 600 is greater than at 500 0 C; the voids are less numerous but larger at the higher temperature. No change in the cold-worked microstructure can be detected by transmission electron microscopy after 500 0 C irradiation to 23 displacements per atom. Irradiation to a comparable damage level at 600 0 C results in almost complete elimination of the cold-worked microstructure. Comparison of the results is made with data from reactor irradiation experiments

  3. Full- and part-time work: gender and welfare-type differences in European working conditions, job satisfaction, health status, and psychosocial issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoll, Xavier; Cortès, Imma; Artazcoz, Lucía

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the differences between full- and part-time employment (FTE and PTE) in terms of working conditions, on the one hand, and job satisfaction, health status, and work-related psychosocial problems according to gender and welfare state regime, on the other hand, and to analyze the role of working conditions in the association between PTE and FTE. This cross-sectional study was based on a sample of 7921 men and 8220 women from the European Working Conditions Survey aged 16-64 years, who were employed part-time (5-19 or 20-30 hours per week) or full-time (31-40 hours/week). Multiple logistic regression models were fitted separately for each gender and welfare state regime. PTE is associated with poorer working conditions than FTE for all national welfare types. Among women, only those in southern European countries experienced low job satisfaction [odds ratio after adjustment (OR adj) for sociodemographic variables, OR adj1.73, and 1.66, for those working 20-30 and 5-19 hours/week, respectively; reference group: FTE workers], but this association disappeared after further adjustment for working conditions. Low job satisfaction and poorer health status was more common among PTE men from continental (low job satisfaction, OR adj1.80 and 3.61, for 20-30 and 5-19 working hours/week, respectively), and southern European (OR adj, 2.98, for 5-19 working hours/week) countries. PTE tended to be associated with fewer psychosocial problems among women, but with more psychosocial problems among men in continental Europe and those those engaged in "mini-jobs" in southern European welfare regimes. The association between FTE and PTE and job satisfaction, health status, and psychosocial problems is partly driven by working conditions and differs between gender and welfare regime. This highlights the importance of promoting effective measures to ensure equal treatment between FTE and PTE workers and the role of the social norms that form part of

  4. Working with the Cold War: Types of Knowledge in Swedish and Australian History Textbook Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammert, Niklas; Sharp, Heather

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a comparative analysis of pupils' activities dealing with the Cold War in Swedish and Australian history textbooks. By focusing on textbook activities to which pupils respond in relation to their learning of a particular topic, this study identifies knowledge types included in a selection of history textbooks. The study also…

  5. Isotope-equipped electrostatic field meter, type RMEL-70, manufactured by the ''Polon'' Works, Cracow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szumska, B; Tomaszewski, W

    1973-01-01

    The authors describe the operating principle, design features and use of an isotope-equipped meter, type RMEL-70, for measuring electrostatic field intensity and surface charge density. Being a light, portable instrument, it permits to determine the degree of electrification of dielectrics, evaluate the hazard of charge being collected, and to check the effectiveness of deionizers installed in industrial plants.

  6. Effect of cold work on tensile behavior of irradiated type 316 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueh, R.L.; Maziasz, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    Tensile specimens were irradiated in ORR at 250, 290, 450, and 500 0 C to produce a displacement damage of approx.5 dpa and 40 at. ppM He. Irradiation at 250 and 290 0 C caused an increase in yield stress and ultimate tensile strength and a decrease in ductility relative to unaged and thermally aged controls. The changes were greatest for the 20%-cold-worked steel and lowest for the 50%-cold-worked steel. Irradiation at 450 0 C caused a slight relative decrease in strength for all cold-worked conditions. A large decrease was observed at 500 0 C, with the largest decrease occurring for the 50%-cold-worked specimen. No bubble, void, or precipitate formation was observed for specimens examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The irradiation hardening was correlated with Frank-loop and ''black-dot'' loop damage. A strength decrease at 500 0 C was correlated with dislocation network recovery. Comparison of tensile and TEM results from ORR-irradiated steel with those from steels irradiated in the High Flux Isotope Reactor and the Experimental Breeder Reactor indicated consistent strength and microstructure changes

  7. The working mechanism of manual therapy in participants with chronic tension-type headache

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castien, R.F.; Blankenstein, A.H.; van der Windt, D.; Heijmans, M.W.; Dekker, J.

    2013-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal study.OBJECTIVE: To explore the working mechanism of manual therapy, we investigated whether 3 cervical spine variables were mediators of the effect of manual therapy on headache frequency.BACKGROUND: Manual therapy has been shown to reduce headache frequency

  8. The impact of specific language impairment on working memory in children with ADHD combined type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jondottir, S.; Bouma, A.; Sergeant, J.A.; Scherder, E.J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the impact of comorbid specific language impairment (SLI) on verbal and spatial working memory in children with DSM-IV combined subtype Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD-C). Participants were a clinical sample of 81/2- to 121/2-year-old

  9. Engagement in Learning after Errors at Work: Enabling Conditions and Types of Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Johannes; Mulder, Regina H.

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses two research questions concerning nurses' engagement in social learning activities after errors at work. Firstly, we investigated how this engagement relates to nurses' interpretations of the error situation and perceptions of a safe team climate. The results indicate that the individual estimation of an error as relevant to…

  10. A Holling Type II Pest and Natural Enemy Model with Density Dependent IPM Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resource limitations and density dependent releasing of natural enemies during the pest control and integrated pest management will undoubtedly result in nonlinear impulsive control. In order to investigate the effects of those nonlinear control strategies on the successful pest control, we have proposed a pest-natural enemy system concerning integrated pest management with density dependent instant killing rate and releasing rate. In particular, the releasing rate depicts how the number of natural enemy populations released was guided by their current density at the fixed moment. The threshold condition which ensures the existence and global stability of pest-free periodic solution has been discussed first, and the effects of key parameters on the threshold condition reveal that reducing the pulse period does not always benefit pest control; that is, frequent releasing of natural enemies may not be beneficial to the eradication of pests when the density dependent releasing method has been implemented. Moreover, the forward and backward bifurcations could occur once the pest-free periodic solution becomes unstable, and the system could exist with very complex dynamics. All those results confirm that the control actions should be carefully designed once the nonlinear impulsive control measures have been taken for pest management.

  11. Therapy strategies for Usher syndrome Type 1C in the retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel-Wolfrum, Kerstin; Baasov, Timor; Wolfrum, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    The Usher syndrome (USH) is the most common form of inherited deaf-blindness with a prevalence of ~ 1/6,000. Three clinical subtypes (USH1-USH3) are defined according to the severity of the hearing impairment, the presence or absence of vestibular dysfunction and the age of onset of retinitis pigmentosa (RP). USH1 is the most severe subtype with congenital severe to profound hearing loss and onset of RP before puberty. Currently only the amelioration of the hearing deficiency is implemented, but no treatment of the senso-neuronal degeneration in the eye exists.In our studies we are focusing on the evaluation of gene-based therapies to cure the retinal degeneration of USH1C patients: (i) gene augmentation using recombinant adeno-associated virus, (ii) genome editing by homologous recombination mediated by zinc-finger nucleases and, (iii) read-through therapy using novel designer aminoglycosides and PTC124. Latter compounds target in-frame nonsense mutations which account for ~ 20 % of all USH cases.All analyzed gene-based therapy strategies lead to the restoration of USH protein expression. These adjustments may be sufficient to reduce the progression of retinal degeneration, which would greatly improve the life quality of USH patients.

  12. A Collaborative Strategy for a Three Echelon Supply Chain with Ramp Type Demand, Deterioration and Inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A supply chain system has been investigated in which a single manufacturer procures raw materials from a single supplier, processes them to produce finished products, and then delivers the products to a single retailer. The customer's demand rate is assumed to be time-sensitive in nature (ramp type that allows two-phase variation in the demand and production rate. Our adoption of ramp type demand reflects a real market demand for a newly launched product. Shortages are allowed with partial backlogging of demand (only for the retailer, i.e. the rest represent lost sales. The effects of inflation of the cost parameters and deterioration are also considered separately. We show that the total cost function is convex. Using this convexity, a simple algorithm is presented to determine the optimal order quantity and optimal cycle time for the total cost function. The results are discussed with numerical examples and particular cases of the model discussed briefly. A sensitivity analysis of the optimal solution with respect to the parameters of the system is carried out. (original abstract

  13. Chaotic behavior of a Watt-type predator-prey system with impulsive control strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaoqin; Wang Weiming; Lin Xiaolin

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, by using theories and methods of ecology and ODE, a predator-prey system with Watt-type functional response and impulsive perturbations on the predator is established. It proves that there exists a locally asymptotically stable prey-eradication periodic solution when the impulse period is less than some critical value, otherwise, the system can be permanent. Further, by using the method of computer simulation, the influences of the impulsive perturbations on the inherent oscillation are investigated, which shows the more complex dynamics of the system we considered, such as quasi-periodic oscillation, narrow periodic window, wide periodic window, chaotic bands, period doubling bifurcation, symmetry-breaking pitchfork bifurcation, period-halving bifurcation and crisis, etc. It will be useful for studying the dynamical complexity of ecosystems

  14. Interleukin-1 antagonists and other cytokine blockade strategies for type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines stimulate adaptive immunity and attenuate T cell regulation and tolerance induction. They also profoundly impair β-cell function, proliferation, and viability, activities of similar importance in the context of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Detailed knowledge of the molecular...... mechanisms of β-cell toxicity has been gathered within the last 2-3 decades. However, the efficacy of individual proinflammatory cytokine blockade in animal models of T1D has been inconsistent and generally modest, except in the context of islet transplantation. This suggests that the timing of the cytokine...... blockade relative to anti-β-cell immune activation is critical, and that combination therapy may be required. In randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trials of limited power, TNF-α (but not IL-1) blockade has yielded moderate but significant improvements in glycemia, insulin requirement, and β...

  15. 500 words, phrases, idioms for the TOEFL iBT plus typing strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Sterling, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    HOW IS THIS TOEFL BOOK DIFFERENT?. This TOEFL book is different because it uses an integrated vocabulary learning system called recycling. Recycling is simple. Each exercise is divided into four quizzes. Quiz 1, a multiple-choice vocabulary quiz, introduces ten new words. Next, you will do Quiz 2. Quiz 2 is a sentence-completion quiz based on the ten words in Quiz 1. Next, you will do Quiz 3, a spelling quiz. The speaker on the CD will say the same ten words in turn. You will then have ten seconds to spell each word by saying it and typing it. Finally, you will do Quiz 4. Quiz 4 is a 60-word t

  16. Digitization of uranium deposit information in basin. A new strategy of ISL sandstone-type uranium deposits exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Chenglong

    2006-01-01

    The discovered ISL sandstone-type uranium deposits in the entire world are mostly blind deposits, many of them occur in bleak desert, gobi desert, and semi-hilly land area. Exploration methods for these deposits mainly depend on great and systematic drilling. There are many large-medium size Meso-Cenozoic sedimentary basins in northern China, and over twenty of them are thick overburden basins which are mostly the virgin land for ISL sandstone-type uranium deposit. Due to the comprehensive national power, geological background, uranium exploration ability, great and systematic drilling is not favorable for prospecting ISL sandstone-type uranium deposit in China. According to the exploration and prospecting experiences for mineral ore bodies at home and abroad, uranium information mapping based on geochemical survey of the basins is a new strategy for ISL sandstone-type uranium deposits. It is an economic, practical, fast and effective method, and has been manifested by the performing information digitization for oil and gas resources, gold mineral resources in China and the mapping of uranium information for whole Europe continent. (authors)

  17. Assessment of sediment contamination at Great Lakes Areas of Concern: the ARCS Program Toxicity-Chemistry Work Group strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, P.E.; Burton, G.A.; Crecelius, E.A.; Filkins, J. C.; Giesy, J.P.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Landrum, P.F.; Mac, M.J.; Murphy, T.J.; Rathbun, J. E.; Smith, V. E.; Tatem, H. E.; Taylor, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    In response to a mandate in Section 118(c)(3) of the Water Quality Act of 1987, a program called Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments (ARCS) was established. Four technical work groups were formed. This paper details the research strategy of the Toxicity-Chemistry Work Group.The Work Group's general objectives are to develop survey methods and to map the degree of contamination and toxicity in bottom sediments at three study areas, which will serve as guidance for future surveys at other locations. A related objective is to use the data base that will be generated to calculate sediment quality concentrations by several methods. The information needed to achieve these goals will be collected in a series of field surveys at three areas: Saginaw Bay (MI), Grand Calumet River (IN), and Buffalo River (NY). Assessments of the extent of contamination and potential adverse effects of contaminants in sediment at each of these locations will be conducted by collecting samples for physical characterization, toxicity testing, mutagenicity testing, chemical analyses, and fish bioaccumulation assays. Fish populations will be assessed for tumors and external abnormalities, and benthic community structure will be analyzed. A mapping approach will use low-cost indicator parameters at a large number of stations, and will extrapolate by correlation from traditional chemical and biological studies at a smaller number of locations. Sediment toxicity testing includes elutriate, pore water and whole sediment bioassays in a three-tiered framework. In addition to the regular series of toxicity tests at primary mater stations, some stations are selected for a more extensive suite of tests.

  18. Specific characteristics of physical fitness at work anaerobic endurance type of rowers in canoe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penchen Guo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the effect of the reactive properties cardiorespiratory system to a special performance by canoe paddlers who specialize in the 200 m. Material : The study involved 22 paddler aged 18 - 29 years. Results : there were significant indicators of the reaction due to pulmonary performance and efficiency of anaerobic metabolism. The range of correlation coefficients (r was -0.54 - 0.77 (T 50 V E and 0,55-0,71 (V E. Conclusions : It was found that the optimization of the reactive properties of the cardiorespiratory system to realize the potential impact endurance rowers when using anaerobic nature. The greatest number of significant connections were indicators of efficiency and response of pulmonary ventilation. This allowed the evaluation of the functional improve information security work and increase specialized training sessions focus in the development of anaerobic endurance while working character in canoeing.

  19. Management of Type 2 diabetes in Ramadan: Low-ratio premix insulin working group practical advice

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Hassanein; Mohamed Belhadj; Khalifa Abdallah; Arpan D Bhattacharya; Awadhesh K Singh; Khaled Tayeb; Monira Al-Arouj; Awad Elghweiry; Hinde Iraqi; Mohamed Nazeer; Henda Jamoussi; Mouna Mnif; Abdulrazzaq Al-Madani; Hossam Al-Ali; Robert Ligthelm

    2014-01-01

    The challenge of insulin use during Ramadan could be minimized, if people with diabetes are metabolically stable and are provided with structured education for at least 2–3 months pre-Ramadan. Although, American diabetes association (ADA) recommendations 2010 and South Asian Consensus Guideline 2012 deal with management of diabetes in Ramadan and changes in insulin dosage, no specific guidance on widely prescribed low-ratio premix insulin is currently available. Hence, the working group for i...

  20. Understanding Challenges, Strategies, and the Role of Support Networks in Medication Self-management Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Gerda; Ose, Dominik; Baudendistel, Ines; Seidling, Hanna M; Stützle, Marion; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Wensing, Michel; Mahler, Cornelia

    2017-04-01

    Purpose The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the challenges and strategies of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) regarding daily management of their medication regimen focusing on the role of their support networks. Methods A purposeful sample of 25 patients with T2DM was recruited from local self-help groups, general practitioner practices, and a university hospital in southwestern Germany. Four semi-structured focus groups were conducted to identify the challenges patients experienced, the strategies they used, and their collaboration with support networks to assist them in self-managing their medication regimen. Sessions were audio- and video-recorded, fully transcribed, and subjected to computer-aided qualitative content analysis, guided by the Self- and Family Management Framework (SFMF). Results Patients with T2DM experienced numerous challenges affecting medication self-management arising from their personal situation, health status and resources, characteristics of their regimen, and how health care is currently organized. Patients' self-initiated strategies included activating health care, community, social, and online resources; taking ownership of medication-related needs; and integrating medication-taking into daily life. Patients drew on self-help groups, family, and friends to discuss concerns regarding medication safety and receive experience-based information and advice for navigating within the health care system as well as practical hands-on support with daily medication self-management. Conclusions Understanding the challenges and building on strategies patients with T2DM devised help diabetes educators to better address patients' needs and priorities and guide patient-centered interventions to support patients' self-management activities. Community and social support networks operating in patients' lives need to be engaged in the self-management support.