WorldWideScience

Sample records for type explain distribution

  1. Climate and soil type together explain the distribution of microendemic species in a biodiversity hotspot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Nattier

    Full Text Available The grasshopper genus Caledonula, endemic to New Caledonia, was studied to understand the evolution of species distributions in relation to climate and soil types. Based on a comprehensive sampling of 80 locations throughout the island, the genus was represented by five species, four of which are new to science, of which three are described here. All the species have limited distributions in New Caledonia. Bioclimatic niche modelling shows that all the species were found in association with a wet climate and reduced seasonality, explaining their restriction to the southern half of the island. The results suggest that the genus was ancestrally constrained by seasonality. A molecular phylogeny was reconstructed using two mitochondrial and two nuclear markers. The partially resolved tree showed monophyly of the species found on metalliferous soils, and molecular dating indicated a rather recent origin for the genus. Adaptation to metalliferous soils is suggested by both morphological changes and radiation on these soils. The genus Caledonula is therefore a good model to understand the origin of microendemism in the context of recent and mixed influences of climate and soil type.

  2. Localized bedrock aquifer distribution explains discharge from a headwater catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosugi, Ken'ichirou; Fujimoto, Masamitsu; Katsura, Shin'ya; Kato, Hiroyuki; Sando, Yoshiki; Mizuyama, Takahisa

    2011-07-01

    Understanding a discharge hydrograph is one of the leading interests in catchment hydrology. Recent research has provided credible information on the importance of bedrock groundwater on discharge hydrographs from headwater catchments. However, intensive monitoring of bedrock groundwater is rare in mountains with steep topography. Hence, how bedrock groundwater controls discharge from a steep headwater catchment is in dispute. In this study, we conducted long-term hydrological observations using densely located bedrock wells in a headwater catchment underlain by granitic bedrock. The catchment has steep topography affected by diastrophic activities. Results showed a fairly regionalized distribution of bedrock aquifers within a scale of tens of meters, consisting of upper, middle, and lower aquifers, instead of a gradual and continuous decline in water level from ridge to valley bottom. This was presumably attributable to the unique bedrock structure; fault lines developed in the watershed worked to form divides between the bedrock aquifers. Spatial expanse of each aquifer and the interaction among aquifers were key factors to explain gentle and considerable variations in the base flow discharge and triple-peak discharge responses of the observed hydrograph. A simple model was developed to simulate the discharge hydrograph, which computed each of the contributions from the soil mantle groundwater, from the lower aquifer, and from the middle aquifer to the discharge. The modeling results generally succeeded in reproducing the observed hydrograph. Thus, this study demonstrated that understanding regionalized bedrock aquifer distribution is pivotal for explaining discharge hydrograph from headwater catchments that have been affected by diastrophic activities.

  3. Temperature Effects Explain Continental Scale Distribution of Cyanobacterial Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evanthia Mantzouki

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Insight into how environmental change determines the production and distribution of cyanobacterial toxins is necessary for risk assessment. Management guidelines currently focus on hepatotoxins (microcystins. Increasing attention is given to other classes, such as neurotoxins (e.g., anatoxin-a and cytotoxins (e.g., cylindrospermopsin due to their potency. Most studies examine the relationship between individual toxin variants and environmental factors, such as nutrients, temperature and light. In summer 2015, we collected samples across Europe to investigate the effect of nutrient and temperature gradients on the variability of toxin production at a continental scale. Direct and indirect effects of temperature were the main drivers of the spatial distribution in the toxins produced by the cyanobacterial community, the toxin concentrations and toxin quota. Generalized linear models showed that a Toxin Diversity Index (TDI increased with latitude, while it decreased with water stability. Increases in TDI were explained through a significant increase in toxin variants such as MC-YR, anatoxin and cylindrospermopsin, accompanied by a decreasing presence of MC-LR. While global warming continues, the direct and indirect effects of increased lake temperatures will drive changes in the distribution of cyanobacterial toxins in Europe, potentially promoting selection of a few highly toxic species or strains.

  4. Moment Distributions of Phase Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2011-01-01

    Moment distributions of phase-type and matrix-exponential distributions are shown to remain within their respective classes. We provide a probabilistic phase-type representation for the former case and an alternative representation, with an analytically appealing form, for the latter. First order...... moment distributions are of special interest in areas like demography and economics, and we calculate explicit formulas for the Lorenz curve and Gini index used in these disciplines....

  5. Explaining the inefficiency of electrical distribution companies. Peruvian firms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Reyes, Raul [Organismo Supervisor de la Inversion en Energia y Mineria, OSINERGMIN (Peru); Tovar, Beatriz [Infrastructure and Transport Research Group (EIT), Department of Applied Economics, University of Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    This paper investigates the extent to which the structural reform of the Peruvian electricity market, implemented in the 1990s, has improved the efficiency of the distribution companies; and it evaluates the influence on efficiency of firm specific explanatory variables. To do this, we rely on data from 14 distribution companies between 1996 and 2006. The results indicate that the incentives generated by the reform process led to the firms becoming more efficient. Moreover, the time trend and private management of the distribution companies are variables that positively affect the levels of efficiency, whereas the lower network densities are then the greater the inefficiency. (author)

  6. Explaining the inefficiency of electrical distribution companies. Peruvian firms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Reyes, Raul; Tovar, Beatriz

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent to which the structural reform of the Peruvian electricity market, implemented in the 1990s, has improved the efficiency of the distribution companies; and it evaluates the influence on efficiency of firm specific explanatory variables. To do this, we rely on data from 14 distribution companies between 1996 and 2006. The results indicate that the incentives generated by the reform process led to the firms becoming more efficient. Moreover, the time trend and private management of the distribution companies are variables that positively affect the levels of efficiency, whereas the lower network densities are then the greater the inefficiency. (author)

  7. Distributed Cognition in Sports Teams: Explaining Successful and Expert Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Kellie; Cox, Rochelle

    2014-01-01

    In this article we use a hybrid methodology to better understand the skilful performance of sports teams as an exemplar of distributed cognition. We highlight key differences between a team of individual experts (an aggregate system) and an expert team (an emergent system), and outline the kinds of shared characteristics likely to be found in an…

  8. Explaining Couple Cohesion in Different Types of Gay Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eeden-Moorefield, Brad; Pasley, Kay; Crosbie-Burnett, Margaret; King, Erin

    2012-01-01

    This Internet-based study used data from a convenience sample of 176 gay men in current partnerships to examine differences in outness, cohesion, and relationship quality between three types of gay male couples: first cohabiting partnerships, repartnerships, and gay stepfamilies. Also, we tested whether relationship quality mediated the link…

  9. Simulating the Cinema Market : How cross-cultural differences in social influence explain box office distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuizen, T.L.J.; Delre, S.A.; Torres, A.

    This paper uses a mixed method approach to show how cross-cultural differences in social influences can explain differences in distributions of market shares in different markets. First, we develop a realistic agent-based model that mimics the behavior of movie visitors and incorporates the social

  10. Moment distributions of phase-type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2012-01-01

    -normal, Pareto and gamma distributions. We provide explicit representations for both the matrix-exponential class and for the phase-type distributions, where the latter class may also use the former representations, but for various reasons it is desirable to establish a phase-type representation when dealing......Both matrix-exponential and phase-type distributions have a number of important closure properties. Among those are the distributions of the age and residual life-time of a stationary renewal process with inter-arrivals of either type. In this talk we show that the spread, which is the sum...... of the age an residual life-time, is also phase-type distributed. Moreover, we give some explicit representations. The spread is known to have a first order moment distribution. If X is a positive random variable and ?i is its i'th moment, then the function fi(x) = xif(x)/?i is a density function...

  11. Explaining the differential distribution of Clean Development Mechanism projects across host countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkelman, Andrew G.; Moore, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol represents an opportunity to involve all developing countries in the effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions while also promoting sustainable development. To date, however, the majority of CDM projects have gone to emerging markets such as China, India, Brazil, and Mexico, while very few least developed countries have hosted projects. This paper investigates the differential distribution of CDM activities across countries. We develop a conceptual model for project profitability, which helps to identify potential country-level determinants of CDM activity. These potential determinants are employed as explanatory variables in regression analysis to explain the actual distribution of projects. Human capital and greenhouse gas emission levels influenced which countries have hosted projects and the amount of certified emission reductions (CER) created. Countries that offered growing markets for CDM co-products, such as electricity, were more likely to be CDM hosts, while economies with higher carbon intensity levels had greater CER production. These findings work against the least developed countries and help to explain their lack of CDM activity. - Research Highlights: → Regression models are used to explain the inter-country distribution of CDM projects. → Emissions and human capital are significant for hosting projects and CER creation. → An economy's emissions intensity is significant in determining CERs created. → Capacity building and electricity sector growth are significant in hosting projects. → The experience level for host countries in the CDM is significant for CER creation.

  12. Regional distribution shifts help explain local changes in wintering raptor abundance: implications for interpreting population trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprocki, Neil; Heath, Julie A; Novak, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Studies of multiple taxa across broad-scales suggest that species distributions are shifting poleward in response to global climate change. Recognizing the influence of distribution shifts on population indices will be an important part of interpreting trends within management units because current practice often assumes that changes in local populations reflect local habitat conditions. However, the individual- and population-level processes that drive distribution shifts may occur across a large, regional scale and have little to do with the habitats within the management unit. We examined the latitudinal center of abundance for the winter distributions of six western North America raptor species using Christmas Bird Counts from 1975-2011. Also, we considered whether population indices within western North America Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs) were explained by distribution shifts. All six raptors had significant poleward shifts in their wintering distributions over time. Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus) and Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) showed the fastest rate of change, with 8.41 km yr(-1) and 7.74 km yr(-1) shifts, respectively. Raptors may be particularly responsive to warming winters because of variable migration tendencies, intraspecific competition for nesting sites that drives males to winter farther north, or both. Overall, 40% of BCR population trend models were improved by incorporating information about wintering distributions; however, support for the effect of distribution on BCR indices varied by species with Rough-legged Hawks showing the most evidence. These results emphasize the importance of understanding how regional distribution shifts influence local-scale population indices. If global climate change is altering distribution patterns, then trends within some management units may not reflect changes in local habitat conditions. The methods used to monitor and manage bird populations within local BCRs will fundamentally change as

  13. Regional Distribution Shifts Help Explain Local Changes in Wintering Raptor Abundance: Implications for Interpreting Population Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprocki, Neil; Heath, Julie A.; Novak, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of multiple taxa across broad-scales suggest that species distributions are shifting poleward in response to global climate change. Recognizing the influence of distribution shifts on population indices will be an important part of interpreting trends within management units because current practice often assumes that changes in local populations reflect local habitat conditions. However, the individual- and population-level processes that drive distribution shifts may occur across a large, regional scale and have little to do with the habitats within the management unit. We examined the latitudinal center of abundance for the winter distributions of six western North America raptor species using Christmas Bird Counts from 1975–2011. Also, we considered whether population indices within western North America Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs) were explained by distribution shifts. All six raptors had significant poleward shifts in their wintering distributions over time. Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus) and Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) showed the fastest rate of change, with 8.41 km yr−1 and 7.74 km yr−1 shifts, respectively. Raptors may be particularly responsive to warming winters because of variable migration tendencies, intraspecific competition for nesting sites that drives males to winter farther north, or both. Overall, 40% of BCR population trend models were improved by incorporating information about wintering distributions; however, support for the effect of distribution on BCR indices varied by species with Rough-legged Hawks showing the most evidence. These results emphasize the importance of understanding how regional distribution shifts influence local-scale population indices. If global climate change is altering distribution patterns, then trends within some management units may not reflect changes in local habitat conditions. The methods used to monitor and manage bird populations within local BCRs will fundamentally change as

  14. Distribution of Cenozoic plant relicts in China explained by drought in dry season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongjiang; Jacques, Frédéric M B; Su, Tao; Ferguson, David K; Tang, Hui; Chen, Wenyun; Zhou, Zhekun

    2015-09-15

    Cenozoic plant relicts are those groups that were once widespread in the Northern Hemisphere but are now restricted to some small isolated areas as a result of drastic climatic changes. They are good proxies to study how plants respond to climatic changes since their modern climatic requirements are known. Herein we look at the modern distribution of 65 palaeoendemic genera in China and compare it with the Chinese climatic pattern, in order to find a link between the plant distribution and climate. Central China and Taiwan Island are shown to be diversity centres of Cenozoic relict genera, consistent with the fact that these two regions have a shorter dry season with comparatively humid autumn and spring in China. Species distribution models indicate that the precipitation parameters are the most important variables to explain the distribution of relict genera. The Cenozoic wide-scale distribution of relict plants in the Northern Hemisphere is therefore considered to be linked to the widespread humid climate at that time, and the subsequent contraction of their distributional ranges was probably caused by the drying trend along with global cooling.

  15. The Distribution of the Product Explains Normal Theory Mediation Confidence Interval Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin; MacKinnon, David P; Miočević, Milica

    2014-05-01

    The distribution of the product has several useful applications. One of these applications is its use to form confidence intervals for the indirect effect as the product of 2 regression coefficients. The purpose of this article is to investigate how the moments of the distribution of the product explain normal theory mediation confidence interval coverage and imbalance. Values of the critical ratio for each random variable are used to demonstrate how the moments of the distribution of the product change across values of the critical ratio observed in research studies. Results of the simulation study showed that as skewness in absolute value increases, coverage decreases. And as skewness in absolute value and kurtosis increases, imbalance increases. The difference between testing the significance of the indirect effect using the normal theory versus the asymmetric distribution of the product is further illustrated with a real data example. This article is the first study to show the direct link between the distribution of the product and indirect effect confidence intervals and clarifies the results of previous simulation studies by showing why normal theory confidence intervals for indirect effects are often less accurate than those obtained from the asymmetric distribution of the product or from resampling methods.

  16. Multiple factors and thresholds explaining fish species distributions in lowland streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Trigal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate restoration and conservation measures require a good understanding of the factors limiting the distribution of species, the presence of steep changes in the distribution along environmental gradients and the effect of environmental interactions on species distribution. We used 12 environmental variables describing connectivity, hydrology, climate and stream morphology, to model the distributions of 17 fish species from 2005 Swedish stream sites that were sampled between 2000 and 2011. Modeling was performed using boosted regression trees and random forest, two machine learning techniques to assess the relationship between species distributions and their environment. Temperature, width and connectivity (minimum distance to lake or the sea and water discharge, were the most important variables explaining changes in species distribution at large spatial scales. Response curves of fitted occurrence probabilities along predictors often showed abrupt changes, however, clear threshold effects were difficult to detect. Our results show also differences across species and even in the outcomes of the two algorithms, implying that a simultaneous assessment of multiple species may provide a better signal of ecosystem change than the use of surrogate species.

  17. On the Pareto Type III distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Bottazzi, Giulio

    2009-01-01

    This short note analyzes the distributional properties of Pareto Type III random variables. We introduce a three parameters version of the orignal two parameters distribution proposed by Pareto and derive both the density and the characteristic function. The analytic expression of the inverse distribution function is also obtained, together with a simple series expansion of its moments of any order. Finally, we propose a simple statistical exercise designed to show the increased reliability o...

  18. Biological traits explain the distribution and colonisation ability of the invasive shore crab Hemigrapsus takanoi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothland, M.; Dauvin, J. C.; Denis, L.; Dufossé, F.; Jobert, S.; Ovaert, J.; Pezy, J. P.; Tous Rius, A.; Spilmont, N.

    2014-04-01

    Comprehending marine invasions requires a better knowledge of the biological traits of invasive species, and the future spread of invasive species may be predicted through comprehensive overviews of their distribution. This study thus presents the current distribution of a non-indigenous species, the Asian shore crab Hemigrapsus takanoi, as well as the species population characteristics (size distribution and cohorts), based on a five-year survey (2008-2012) along the French coast of the English Channel. Two large populations were found near harbours: one on the Opal Coast (where density reached 61 ± 22 ind.m-2, mean ± s.d., in Dunkirk harbour) and one on the Calvados coast (density up to 26 ± 6 ind.m-2, mean ± s.d, in Honfleur harbour). H. takanoi exhibited a short life cycle, a rapid growth, an early sexual maturity and a high adult mortality. These features, combined with previously described high fecundity and high dispersal ability, endow this species with an 'r-selected strategy'. This strategy, which usually characterises species with a high colonisation ability, would explain the success of H. takanoi for colonising the French coast of the Channel. However, the species was found only in harbours and their vicinity; H. takanoi thus exhibited a discontinuous distribution along the 700 km of coastline. These results are discussed regarding sediment preference and potential introduction vectors. Hemigrapsus takanoi is now considered as established on the French coast and further studies are needed to evaluate the consequences of its introduction on the structure and functioning of the impacted shores.

  19. Why Compositional Convection Cannot Explain Substellar Objects’ Sharp Spectral-type Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leconte, Jérémy

    2018-02-01

    As brown dwarfs and young giant planets cool down, they are known to experience various chemical transitions—for example, from {CO} rich L-dwarfs to methane rich T-dwarfs. Those chemical transitions are accompanied by spectral transitions with sharpness that cannot be explained by chemistry alone. In a series of articles, Tremblin et al. proposed that some of the yet-unexplained features associated with these transitions could be explained by a reduction of the thermal gradient near the photosphere. To explain, in turn, this more isothermal profile, they invoke the presence of an instability analogous to fingering convection—compositional convection—triggered by the change in mean molecular weight of the gas due to the chemical transitions mentioned above. In this Letter, we use existing arguments to demonstrate that any turbulent transport, if present, would in fact increase the thermal gradient. This misinterpretation comes from the fact that turbulence mixes/homogenizes entropy (potential temperature) instead of temperature. So, while increasing transport, turbulence in an initially stratified atmosphere actually carries energy downward, whether it is due to fingering or any other type of compositional convection. These processes therefore cannot explain the features observed along the aforementioned transitions by reducing the thermal gradient in the atmosphere of substellar objects. Understanding the microphysical and dynamical properties of clouds at these transitions thus probably remains our best way forward.

  20. Automatically explaining machine learning prediction results: a demonstration on type 2 diabetes risk prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Predictive modeling is a key component of solutions to many healthcare problems. Among all predictive modeling approaches, machine learning methods often achieve the highest prediction accuracy, but suffer from a long-standing open problem precluding their widespread use in healthcare. Most machine learning models give no explanation for their prediction results, whereas interpretability is essential for a predictive model to be adopted in typical healthcare settings. This paper presents the first complete method for automatically explaining results for any machine learning predictive model without degrading accuracy. We did a computer coding implementation of the method. Using the electronic medical record data set from the Practice Fusion diabetes classification competition containing patient records from all 50 states in the United States, we demonstrated the method on predicting type 2 diabetes diagnosis within the next year. For the champion machine learning model of the competition, our method explained prediction results for 87.4 % of patients who were correctly predicted by the model to have type 2 diabetes diagnosis within the next year. Our demonstration showed the feasibility of automatically explaining results for any machine learning predictive model without degrading accuracy.

  1. Land use explains the distribution of threatened New World amphibians better than climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brum, Fernanda Thiesen; Gonçalves, Larissa Oliveira; Cappelatti, Laura; Carlucci, Marcos Bergmann; Debastiani, Vanderlei Júlio; Salengue, Elisa Viana; dos Santos Seger, Guilherme Dubal; Both, Camila; Bernardo-Silva, Jorge Sebastião; Loyola, Rafael Dias; da Silva Duarte, Leandro

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the direct and indirect influence of climate, land use, phylogenetic structure, species richness and endemism on the distribution of New World threatened amphibians. We used the WWF's New World ecoregions, the WWFs amphibian distributional data and the IUCN Red List Categories to obtain the number of threatened species per ecoregion. We analyzed three different scenarios urgent, moderate, and the most inclusive scenario. Using path analysis we evaluated the direct and indirect effects of climate, type of land use, phylogenetic structure, richness and endemism on the number of threatened amphibians in New World ecoregions. In all scenarios we found strong support for direct influences of endemism, the cover of villages and species richness on the number of threatened species in each ecoregion. The proportion of wild area had indirect effects in the moderate and the most inclusive scenario. Phylogenetic composition was important in determining the species richness and endemism in each ecoregion. Climate variables had complex and indirect effects on the number of threatened species. Land use has a more direct influence than climate in determining the distribution of New World threatened amphibians. Independently of the scenario analyzed, the main variables influencing the distribution of threatened amphibians were consistent, with endemism having the largest magnitude path coefficient. The importance of phylogenetic composition could indicate that some clades may be more threatened than others, and their presence increases the number of threatened species. Our results highlight the importance of man-made land transformation, which is a local variable, as a critical factor underlying the distribution of threatened amphibians at a biogeographic scale.

  2. On free and classical type G distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arizmendi, Octavio; Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Pérez-Abreu, Víctor

    2010-01-01

    of classical type G distributions is given first and the class of type A classical infinitely divisible distributions is introduced. The corresponding free type A distributions are studied and the role of a special symmetric beta distribution is shown as a building block for free type A distributions...

  3. Community-level plant-soil feedbacks explain landscape distribution of native and non-native plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulmatiski, Andrew

    2018-02-01

    Plant-soil feedbacks (PSFs) have gained attention for their potential role in explaining plant growth and invasion. While promising, most PSF research has measured plant monoculture growth on different soils in short-term, greenhouse experiments. Here, five soil types were conditioned by growing one native species, three non-native species, or a mixed plant community in different plots in a common-garden experiment. After 4 years, plants were removed and one native and one non-native plant community were planted into replicate plots of each soil type. After three additional years, the percentage cover of each of the three target species in each community was measured. These data were used to parameterize a plant community growth model. Model predictions were compared to native and non-native abundance on the landscape. Native community cover was lowest on soil conditioned by the dominant non-native, Centaurea diffusa , and non-native community cover was lowest on soil cultivated by the dominant native, Pseudoroegneria spicata . Consistent with plant growth on the landscape, the plant growth model predicted that the positive PSFs observed in the common-garden experiment would result in two distinct communities on the landscape: a native plant community on native soils and a non-native plant community on non-native soils. In contrast, when PSF effects were removed, the model predicted that non-native plants would dominate all soils, which was not consistent with plant growth on the landscape. Results provide an example where PSF effects were large enough to change the rank-order abundance of native and non-native plant communities and to explain plant distributions on the landscape. The positive PSFs that contributed to this effect reflected the ability of the two dominant plant species to suppress each other's growth. Results suggest that plant dominance, at least in this system, reflects the ability of a species to suppress the growth of dominant competitors

  4. Trait modality distribution of aquatic macrofauna communities as explained by pesticides and water chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieromina, O; Musters, C J M; Bodegom, P M; Peijnenburg, W J G M; Vijver, M G

    2016-08-01

    Analyzing functional species' characteristics (species traits) that represent physiological, life history and morphological characteristics of species help understanding the impacts of various stressors on aquatic communities at field conditions. This research aimed to study the combined effects of pesticides and other environmental factors (temperature, dissolved oxygen, dissolved organic carbon, floating macrophytes cover, phosphate, nitrite, and nitrate) on the trait modality distribution of aquatic macrofauna communities. To this purpose, a field inventory was performed in a flower bulb growing area of the Netherlands with significant variation in pesticides pressures. Macrofauna community composition, water chemistry parameters and pesticide concentrations in ditches next to flower bulb fields were determined. Trait modalities of nine traits (feeding mode, respiration mode, locomotion type, resistance form, reproduction mode, life stage, voltinism, saprobity, maximum body size) likely to indicate pesticides impacts were analyzed. According to a redundancy analysis, phosphate -and not pesticides- constituted the main factor structuring the trait modality distribution of aquatic macrofauna. The functional composition could be ascribed for 2-4 % to pesticides, and for 3-11 % to phosphate. The lack of trait responses to pesticides may indicate that species may have used alternative strategies to adapt to ambient pesticides stress. Biomass of animals exhibiting trait modalities related to feeding by predation and grazing, presence of diapause form or dormancy, reproduction by free clutches and ovoviviparity, life stage of larvae and pupa, was negatively correlated to the concentration of phosphate. Hence, despite the high pesticide pollution in the area, variation in nutrient-related stressors seems to be the dominant driver of the functional composition of aquatic macrofauna assembly in agricultural ditches.

  5. On Generalized Type 1 Logistic Distribution | Ahsanullah | Afrika ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some distributional properties of the generalized type 1 logistic distribution are given. Based on these distributional property a characterization of this distribution is presented. Key words: Conditional Expectation; Reversed Hazard Rate; Characterization.

  6. Explaining dark matter and neutrino mass in the light of TYPE-II seesaw model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Anirban; Shaw, Avirup

    2018-02-01

    With the motivation of simultaneously explaining dark matter and neutrino masses, mixing angles, we have invoked the Type-II seesaw model extended by an extra SU(2) doublet Φ. Moreover, we have imposed a Z2 parity on Φ which remains unbroken as the vacuum expectation value of Φ is zero. Consequently, the lightest neutral component of Φ becomes naturally stable and can be a viable dark matter candidate. On the other hand, light Majorana masses for neutrinos have been generated following usual Type-II seesaw mechanism. Further in this framework, for the first time we have derived the full set of vacuum stability and unitarity conditions, which must be satisfied to obtain a stable vacuum as well as to preserve the unitarity of the model respectively. Thereafter, we have performed extensive phenomenological studies of both dark matter and neutrino sectors considering all possible theoretical and current experimental constraints. Finally, we have also discussed a qualitative collider signatures of dark matter and associated odd particles at the 13 TeV Large Hadron Collider.

  7. Directional reflectance factor distributions for cover types of Northern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimes, D. S.; Newcomb, W. W.; Tucker, C. J.; Zonneveld, I. S.; Van Wijngaarden, W.

    1985-01-01

    Directional reflectance factors that spanned the entire exitance hemisphere were collected on the ground throughout the morning period for common cover types in Tunisia, Africa. NOAA 7/8 AVHRR bands 1(0.58-0.68 micron) and 2 (0.7301.1 micron) were used in data collection. The cover types reported were a plowed field, annual grassland, steppe grassland, hard wheat, salt plain, and irrigated wheat. Several of these cover types had geometric structures that are extreme as compared to those reported in the literature. Comparisons were made between the dynamics of the observed reflectance distributions and those reported in the literature. It was found that the dynamics of the measured data could be explained by a combination of soil and vegetation scattering components. The data and analysis further validated physical principles that cause the reflectance distribution dynamics as proposed by field and simulation studies in the literature. Finally, the normalized difference transformation (Band 2 - Band 1)/(Band 1 + Band 2), which is useful in monitoring vegetation cover, generally decreased the variation in signal with changing view angle. However, several exceptions were noted.

  8. Multivariate phase type distributions - Applications and parameter estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meisch, David

    and statistical inference, is the multivariate normal distribution. Unfortunately only little is known about the general class of multivariate phase type distribution. Considering the results concerning parameter estimation and inference theory of univariate phase type distributions, the class of multivariate......The best known univariate probability distribution is the normal distribution. It is used throughout the literature in a broad field of applications. In cases where it is not sensible to use the normal distribution alternative distributions are at hand and well understood, many of these belonging...... to the class of phase type distributions. Phase type distributions have several advantages. They are versatile in the sense that they can be used to approximate any given probability distribution on the positive reals. There exist general probabilistic results for the entire class of phase type distributions...

  9. DISTRIBUTED FLAMES IN TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspden, A. J.; Bell, J. B.; Woosley, S. E.

    2010-01-01

    At a density near a few x10 7 g cm -3 , the subsonic burning in a Type Ia supernova (SN) enters the distributed regime (high Karlovitz number). In this regime, turbulence disrupts the internal structure of the flame, and so the idea of laminar burning propagated by conduction is no longer valid. The nature of the burning in this distributed regime depends on the turbulent Damkoehler number (Da T ), which steadily declines from much greater than one to less than one as the density decreases to a few x10 6 g cm -3 . Classical scaling arguments predict that the turbulent flame speed s T , normalized by the turbulent intensity u-check, follows s T /u-check = Da T 1/2 for Da T ∼ T ∼ 1, and the flame burns as a turbulently broadened effective unity Lewis number flame. This flame burns locally with speed s λ and width l λ , and we refer to this kind of flame as a λ-flame. The burning becomes a collection of λ-flames spread over a region approximately the size of the integral scale. While the total burning rate continues to have a well-defined average, s T ∼u-check, the burning is unsteady. We present a theoretical framework, supported by both one-dimensional and three-dimensional numerical simulations, for the burning in these two regimes. Our results indicate that the average value of s T can actually be roughly twice u-check for Da T ∼> 1, and that localized excursions to as much as 5 times u-check can occur. We also explore the properties of the individual flames, which could be sites for a transition to detonation when Da T ∼ 1. The λ-flame speed and width can be predicted based on the turbulence in the star (specifically the energy dissipation rate ε*) and the turbulent nuclear burning timescale of the fuel τ T nuc . We propose a practical method for measuring s λ and l λ based on the scaling relations and small-scale computationally inexpensive simulations. This suggests that a simple turbulent flame model can be easily constructed suitable for

  10. Species selection under long-term experimental warming and drought explained by climatic distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Daijun; Peñuelas, Josep; Ogaya, Romà; Estiarte, Marc; Tielbörger, Katja; Slowik, Fabian; Yang, Xiaohong; Bilton, Mark C

    2018-03-01

    Global warming and reduced precipitation may trigger large-scale species losses and vegetation shifts in ecosystems around the world. However, currently lacking are practical ways to quantify the sensitivity of species and community composition to these often-confounded climatic forces. Here we conducted long-term (16 yr) nocturnal-warming (+0.6°C) and reduced precipitation (-20% soil moisture) experiments in a Mediterranean shrubland. Climatic niche groups (CNGs) - species ranked or classified by similar temperature or precipitation distributions - informatively described community responses under experimental manipulations. Under warming, CNGs revealed that only those species distributed in cooler regions decreased. Correspondingly, under reduced precipitation, a U-shaped treatment effect observed in the total community was the result of an abrupt decrease in wet-distributed species, followed by a delayed increase in dry-distributed species. Notably, while partially correlated, CNG explanations of community response were stronger for their respective climate parameter, suggesting some species possess specific adaptations to either warming or drought that may lead to independent selection to the two climatic variables. Our findings indicate that when climatic distributions are combined with experiments, the resulting incorporation of local plant evolutionary strategies and their changing dynamics over time leads to predictable and informative shifts in community structure under independent climate change scenarios. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Planning of different types of distributed generation with seasonal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The comparison of different types of distributed generation (DG) may help for appropriate selection of type of DG for distributed generation planning (DGP) in distribution system for various load scenario. The load on each bus of distribution system may be, in practice, the composition of industrial, residential, and commercial ...

  12. Biotic and abiotic variables show little redundancy in explaining tree species distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Elaine S.; Kienast, Felix; Pearman, Peter B.

    2010-01-01

    Abiotic factors such as climate and soil determine the species fundamental niche, which is further constrained by biotic interactions such as interspecific competition. To parameterize this realized niche, species distribution models (SDMs) most often relate species occurrence data to abiotic var...

  13. Modeled channel distributions explain extracellular recordings from cultured neurons sealed to microelectrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitenweg, Jan R.; Rutten, Wim; Marani, Enrico

    2002-01-01

    Amplitudes and shapes of extracellular recordings from single neurons cultured on a substrate embedded microelectrode depend not only on the volume conducting properties of the neuron-electrode interface, but might also depend on the distribution of voltage-sensitive channels over the neuronal

  14. Kaplan-Meier type distributions for linear contact distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, M.B.; Gill, R.D.; Baddeley, A.

    1996-01-01

    The linear contact distribution function is shown to be continuously dierentiable for any stationary random closed set which implies the existence of a continuous density and hazard rate Moreover it is proved that the density is monotone decreasing When the linear contact distribution function is

  15. The Kumaraswamy G Exponentiated Gumbel type-2 distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution due to Okorie et al. (2016) is further extended to a wider family of distribution called the Kumaraswamy Generalized Exponentiated Gumbel type-2 distribution. Twenty two distributions are identified as sub-models of the new distribution. Some of its important statistical properties are explicitly derived and the ...

  16. How can individual differences in autobiographical memory distributions of older adults be explained?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Tabea; Zimprich, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    The reminiscence bump phenomenon has frequently been reported for the recall of autobiographical memories. The present study complements previous research by examining individual differences in the distribution of word-cued autobiographical memories. More importantly, we introduce predictor variables that might account for individual differences in the mean (location) and the standard deviation (scale) of individual memory distributions. All variables were derived from different theoretical accounts for the reminiscence bump phenomenon. We used a mixed location-scale logitnormal model, to analyse the 4602 autobiographical memories reported by 118 older participants. Results show reliable individual differences in the location and the scale. After controlling for age and gender, individual proportions of first-time experiences and individual proportions of positive memories, as well as the ratings on Openness to new Experiences and Self-Concept Clarity accounted for 29% of individual differences in location and 42% of individual differences in scale of autobiographical memory distributions. Results dovetail with a life-story account for the reminiscence bump which integrates central components of previous accounts.

  17. Size Evolution and Stochastic Models: Explaining Ostracod Size through Probabilistic Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, M.; Decker, S.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2014-12-01

    The biovolume of animals has functioned as an important benchmark for measuring evolution throughout geologic time. In our project, we examined the observed average body size of ostracods over time in order to understand the mechanism of size evolution in these marine organisms. The body size of ostracods has varied since the beginning of the Ordovician, where the first true ostracods appeared. We created a stochastic branching model to create possible evolutionary trees of ostracod size. Using stratigraphic ranges for ostracods compiled from over 750 genera in the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, we calculated overall speciation and extinction rates for our model. At each timestep in our model, new lineages can evolve or existing lineages can become extinct. Newly evolved lineages are assigned sizes based on their parent genera. We parameterized our model to generate neutral and directional changes in ostracod size to compare with the observed data. New sizes were chosen via a normal distribution, and the neutral model selected new sizes differentials centered on zero, allowing for an equal chance of larger or smaller ostracods at each speciation. Conversely, the directional model centered the distribution on a negative value, giving a larger chance of smaller ostracods. Our data strongly suggests that the overall direction of ostracod evolution has been following a model that directionally pushes mean ostracod size down, shying away from a neutral model. Our model was able to match the magnitude of size decrease. Our models had a constant linear decrease while the actual data had a much more rapid initial rate followed by a constant size. The nuance of the observed trends ultimately suggests a more complex method of size evolution. In conclusion, probabilistic methods can provide valuable insight into possible evolutionary mechanisms determining size evolution in ostracods.

  18. Perilous proximity: Does the Janzen-Connell hypothesis explain the distribution of giant barrel sponges on a Florida coral reef?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deignan, Lindsey K.; Pawlik, Joseph R.

    2015-06-01

    One popular concept used to explain the high biodiversity of some ecosystems is the Janzen-Connell hypothesis, which states that the distribution of conspecifics is controlled by species-specific pathogens or predators that are attracted to adults or to their reproductive output. The distribution of the affected species would then display a distinct pattern, with survivorship increasing at greater distance from the conspecific adult (negative density dependence), leaving a vacant area around the adult where other species can survive. The giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta, is an abundant and long-lived sponge on Caribbean coral reefs that is actively grazed by sponge-eating fishes and is susceptible to disease. We tested the Janzen-Connell hypothesis on barrel sponges on Conch Reef, Florida, by examining their distribution as a function of size using spatial point pattern analyses. Clark and Evans tests and a series of Ripley's K function analyses revealed no consistent distribution pattern, with most analyses resulting in a random pattern of sponge distribution. While predation by sponge-eating fishes has recently been discovered to structure sponge communities on reefs across the Caribbean, these top-down effects do not translate to spatial distributions of X. muta that support Janzen-Connell predictions.

  19. Explaining emotional exhaustion and work engagement : The role of job demands-resources and Type D personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Tooren, M.; Rutte, C.G.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to show that Type D personality—a personality trait characterized by high levels of negative affectivity and high levels of social inhibition—can explain a significant amount of variance in emotional exhaustion and work engagement above and beyond the variance

  20. Explaining the adjustment of adolescents with type 1 diabetes: Role of diabetes-specific and psychosocial factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malik, J.A.; Koot, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - The aim of this study was to explain adjustment (diabetes-related quality of life, general well-being, and psychopathology) in adolescents with type 1 diabetes by testing the direct, mediating, and moderating effects of diabetes-specific and psychosocial factors, using an adapted version

  1. Types and distribution of mucous cells of the abalone Haliotis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The types and distribution of mucous cells of Haliotis diversicolorwere observed and analyzed using the alcian blue and periodic acid schiffs (AB-PAS) reaction and histological procedures. According to the color of the mucous cells, they were divided into four types: Type I, pure red; type II, pure blue; type III, purple reddish; ...

  2. Maximum likelihood estimation of phase-type distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esparza, Luz Judith R

    for both univariate and multivariate cases. Methods like the EM algorithm and Markov chain Monte Carlo are applied for this purpose. Furthermore, this thesis provides explicit formulae for computing the Fisher information matrix for discrete and continuous phase-type distributions, which is needed to find......This work is concerned with the statistical inference of phase-type distributions and the analysis of distributions with rational Laplace transform, known as matrix-exponential distributions. The thesis is focused on the estimation of the maximum likelihood parameters of phase-type distributions...... confidence regions for their estimated parameters. Finally, a new general class of distributions, called bilateral matrix-exponential distributions, is defined. These distributions have the entire real line as domain and can be used, for instance, for modelling. In addition, this class of distributions...

  3. Differences in U root-to-shoot translocation between plant species explained by U distribution in roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straczek, Anne; Duquene, Lise [Belgium Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN), Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Wegrzynek, Dariusz [IAEA, Seibersdorf Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Chinea-Cano, Ernesto [IAEA, Seibersdorf Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Wannijn, Jean [Belgium Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN), Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Navez, Jacques [Royal Museum of Africa, Department of Geology, Leuvensesteenweg 13, 3080 Tervuren (Belgium); Vandenhove, Hildegarde, E-mail: hvandenh@sckcen.b [Belgium Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN), Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2010-03-15

    Accumulation and distribution of uranium in roots and shoots of four plants species differing in their cation exchange capacity of roots (CECR) was investigated. After exposure in hydroponics for seven days to 100 mumol U L{sup -1}, distribution of uranium in roots was investigated through chemical extraction of roots. Higher U concentrations were measured in roots of dicots which showed a higher CECR than monocot species. Chemical extractions indicated that uranium is mostly located in the apoplasm of roots of monocots but that it is predominantly located in the symplasm of roots of dicots. Translocation of U to shoot was not significantly affected by the CECR or distribution of U between symplasm and apoplasm. Distribution of uranium in roots was investigated through chemical extraction of roots for all species. Additionally, longitudinal and radial distribution of U in roots of maize and Indian mustard, respectively showing the lowest and the highest translocation, was studied following X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis of specific root sections. Chemical analysis and XRF analysis of roots of maize and Indian mustard clearly indicated a higher longitudinal and radial transport of uranium in roots of Indian mustard than in roots of maize, where uranium mostly accumulated in root tips. These results showed that even if CECR could partly explain U accumulation in roots, other mechanisms like radial and longitudinal transport are implied in the translocation of U to the shoot.

  4. Differences in U root-to-shoot translocation between plant species explained by U distribution in roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straczek, Anne; Duquene, Lise; Wegrzynek, Dariusz; Chinea-Cano, Ernesto; Wannijn, Jean; Navez, Jacques; Vandenhove, Hildegarde

    2010-01-01

    Accumulation and distribution of uranium in roots and shoots of four plants species differing in their cation exchange capacity of roots (CECR) was investigated. After exposure in hydroponics for seven days to 100 μmol U L -1 , distribution of uranium in roots was investigated through chemical extraction of roots. Higher U concentrations were measured in roots of dicots which showed a higher CECR than monocot species. Chemical extractions indicated that uranium is mostly located in the apoplasm of roots of monocots but that it is predominantly located in the symplasm of roots of dicots. Translocation of U to shoot was not significantly affected by the CECR or distribution of U between symplasm and apoplasm. Distribution of uranium in roots was investigated through chemical extraction of roots for all species. Additionally, longitudinal and radial distribution of U in roots of maize and Indian mustard, respectively showing the lowest and the highest translocation, was studied following X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis of specific root sections. Chemical analysis and XRF analysis of roots of maize and Indian mustard clearly indicated a higher longitudinal and radial transport of uranium in roots of Indian mustard than in roots of maize, where uranium mostly accumulated in root tips. These results showed that even if CECR could partly explain U accumulation in roots, other mechanisms like radial and longitudinal transport are implied in the translocation of U to the shoot.

  5. The power of hard-sphere models: explaining side-chain dihedral angle distributions of Thr and Val.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Alice Qinhua; O'Hern, Corey S; Regan, Lynne

    2012-05-16

    The energy functions used to predict protein structures typically include both molecular-mechanics and knowledge-based terms. In contrast, our approach is to develop robust physics- and geometry-based methods. Here, we investigate to what extent simple hard-sphere models can be used to predict side-chain conformations. The distributions of the side-chain dihedral angle χ(1) of Val and Thr in proteins of known structure show distinctive features: Val side chains predominantly adopt χ(1) = 180°, whereas Thr side chains typically adopt χ(1) = 60° and 300° (i.e., χ(1) = ±60° or g- and g(+) configurations). Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain these differences, including interresidue steric clashes and hydrogen-bonding interactions. In contrast, we show that the observed side-chain dihedral angle distributions for both Val and Thr can be explained using only local steric interactions in a dipeptide mimetic. Our results emphasize the power of simple physical approaches and their importance for future advances in protein engineering and design. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Human Papillomavirus types distribution among women with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among females in Angola and human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main risk factor for the development of pre-cancerous squamous intraepithelial lesions. The diversity and frequency of HPV types in Angola has yet to be reported. Aim: to determine the ...

  7. Explaining the Decline in Early Mortality in Men and Women With Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Judith; Latinovic, Radoslav; Gulliford, Martin C.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that changing utilization of lipid-lowering, antihypertensive, and oral hypoglycemic drugs may be associated with trends in all-cause mortality in men and women with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—This was a cohort study in 197 general practices in the U.K. General Practice Research Database including 48,579 subjects with type 2 diabetes first diagnosed between 1996 and 2006. Measures included all-cause mortality and prescription of hypoglycemic, lipid-lowering, and antihypertensive drugs. RESULTS—From 1996 to 2006, incidence of type 2 diabetes increased and the mean age at diagnosis declined in women. Prescription of statins within 12 months of diagnosis increased (1996, women 4.9%, men 5.1%; 2005, women 63.5%, men 71.0%), as did drugs acting on the renin-angiotensin system (1996, women 19.4%, men 21.5%; 2005, women 45.5%, men 54.6%) and metformin (1996, women 19.1%, men 15.8%; 2005, women 45.5%, men 42.8%), whereas prescription of sulfonylureas declined. All-cause mortality in the first 24 months after diabetes diagnosis declined in men from 47.9 per 1,000 person-years for subjects with diabetes diagnosed in 1996 to 25.2 for subjects with diabetes diagnosed in 2006 and in women from 37.4 in 1996 to 27.6 in 2006. In a multiple regression model adjusting for age and comorbidity, prescription of statins before or after diagnosis, renin-angiotensin system drugs before or after diagnosis, and metformin after diagnosis were associated with lower mortality. CONCLUSIONS—Widespread implementation of more effective prescribing to control lipids, blood glucose, and blood pressure may have contributed to recent declines in early mortality in men and women with type 2 diabetes. PMID:18509209

  8. Stand Dynamics, Humus Type and Water Balance Explain Aspen Long Term Productivity across Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth A. Anyomi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relative importance of soil, stand development and climate hypotheses in driving productivity for a species that is widely distributed in North America. Inventory plots, 3548 of such, either dominated by aspen or made up of species mixture of which aspen occurs in dominant canopy position were sampled along a longitudinal gradient from Quebec to British Columbia. Site index (SI, was used as a measure of productivity, and soil, climate and stand attributes were correlated with site index in order to determine their effects on productivity. Results show a decline in productivity with high moisture deficit. Soil humus correlates significantly with SI but does not sufficiently capture differential rates of litter deposition and decomposition effects over the long-term. Consequently, aspen composition, stand ageing, and stand structural changes dominate variability in productivity. Within the context where deciduous cover has being increasing, there are implications for forest productivity.

  9. Are cattle surrogate wildlife? Savanna plant community composition explained by total herbivory more than herbivore type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veblen, Kari E; Porensky, Lauren M; Riginos, Corinna; Young, Truman P

    2016-09-01

    The widespread replacement of wild ungulate herbivores by domestic livestock in African savannas is composed of two interrelated phenomena: (1) loss or reduction in numbers of individual wildlife species or guilds and (2) addition of livestock to the system. Each can have important implications for plant community dynamics. Yet very few studies have experimentally addressed the individual, combined, and potentially interactive effects of wild vs. domestic herbivore species on herbaceous plant communities within a single system. Additionally, there is little information about whether, and in which contexts, livestock might functionally replace native herbivore wildlife or, alternatively, have fundamentally different effects on plant species composition. The Kenya Long-term Exclosure Experiment, which has been running since 1995, is composed of six treatment combinations of mega-herbivores, meso-herbivore ungulate wildlife, and cattle. We sampled herbaceous vegetation 25 times between 1999 and 2013. We used partial redundancy analysis and linear mixed models to assess effects of herbivore treatments on overall plant community composition and key plant species. Plant communities in the six different herbivore treatments shifted directionally over time and diverged from each other substantially by 2013. Plant community composition was strongly related (R 2  = 0.92) to residual plant biomass, a measure of herbivore utilization. Addition of any single herbivore type (cattle, wildlife, or mega-herbivores) caused a shift in plant community composition that was proportional to its removal of plant biomass. These results suggest that overall herbivory pressure, rather than herbivore type or complex interactions among different herbivore types, was the main driver of changes in plant community composition. Individual plant species, however, did respond most strongly to either wild ungulates or cattle. Although these results suggest considerable functional similarity between

  10. Explaining psychological insulin resistance in adults with non-insulin-treated type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes-Truscott, E.; Skinner, T. C.; Pouwer, F.

    2016-01-01

    significantly to the model. Conclusions Psychological insulin resistance may reflect broader distress about diabetes and concerns about its treatment but not general beliefs about medicines, depression or anxiety. Reducing diabetes distress and current treatment concerns may improve attitudes towards insulin......Aims To investigate the contribution of general and diabetes-specific emotional wellbeing and beliefs about medicines in the prediction of insulin therapy appraisals in adults with non-insulin-treated type 2 diabetes. Methods The sample included Diabetes MILES-Australia cross-sectional survey......' of current diabetes medications (BMQ Specific); negative insulin therapy appraisals (ITAS); depression (PHQ-9); anxiety (GAD-7), and diabetes distress (DDS-17). Factors associated with ITAS Negative scores were examined using hierarchical multiple regressions. Results Twenty-two percent of the variance...

  11. Distributing Knight. Using Type-Based Publish/Subscribe for Building Distributed Collaboration Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Christian Heide; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2002-01-01

    more important. We present Distributed Knight, an extension to the Knight tool, for distributed, collaborative, and gesture-based object-oriented modelling. Distributed Knight was built using the type-based publish/subscribe paradigm. Based on this case, we argue that type-based publish......Distributed applications are hard to understand, build, and evolve. The need for decoupling, flexibility, and heterogeneity in distributed collaboration tools present particular problems; for such applications, having the right abstractions and primitives for distributed communication becomes even...

  12. Building flexible, distributed collaboration tools using type-based publish/subscribe - The Distributed Knight case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Damm, Christian Heide

    2004-01-01

    for flexible, distributed collaboration. We intro duce the Distributed Knight tool that provides flexible and lightweight support for distributed collaboration in object oriented modelling. The Distributed Knight implementa tion builds crucially on the type-based publish/subscribe distributed communication......Distributed collaboration is becoming increasingly impor tant also in software development. Combined with an in creasing interest in experimental and agile approaches to software development, this poses challenges to tool sup port for software development. Specifically, tool support is needed...... paradigm, which provides an effective and natural abstraction for developing distributed collaboration tools....

  13. Stepping-stone expansion and habitat loss explain a peculiar genetic structure and distribution of a forest insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassel-Lundhagen, Anna; Ronnås, Cecilia; Battisti, Andrea; Wallén, Johan; Larsson, Stig

    2013-06-01

    It is challenging to unravel the history of organisms with highly scattered populations. Such species may have fragmented distributions because extant populations are remnants of a previously more continuous range, or because the species has narrow habitat requirements in combination with good dispersal capacity (naturally or vector borne). The northern pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pinivora has a scattered distribution with fragmented populations in two separate regions, northern and south-western Europe. The aims of this study were to explore the glacial and postglacial history of T. pinivora, and add to the understanding of its current distribution and level of contemporary gene flow. We surveyed published records of its occurrence and analysed individuals from a representative subset of populations across the range. A 633 bp long fragment of the mtDNA COI gene was sequenced and nine polymorphic microsatellite loci were genotyped. Only nine nucleotide sites were polymorphic in the COI gene and 90% of the individuals from across its whole range shared the same haplotype. The microsatellite diversity gradually declined towards the north, and unique alleles were found in only three of the northern and three of southern sites. Genetic structuring did not indicate complete isolation among regions, but an increase of genetic isolation by geographic distance. Approximate Bayesian model choice suggested recent divergence during the postglacial period, but glacial refugia remain unidentified. The progressive reduction of suitable habitats is suggested to explain the genetic structure of the populations and we suggest that T. pinivora is a cold-tolerant relict species, with situation-dependent dispersal. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Clinical and pathophysiological observations in migraine and tension-type headache explained by integration of vascular, supraspinal and myofascial inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, J

    1991-08-01

    A vascular-supraspinal-myogenic (VSM) model for pain in migraine based on our previous clinical and pathophysiological observations is proposed. According to the model, perceived pain (headache) intensity is determined by the sum of nociception from cephalic arteries and pericranial myofascial tissues converging upon the same neurons and integrated with supraspinal effects (usually facilitating). Vascular input predominates over myofascial input in migraine, whereas significance of supraspinal facilitation is difficult to estimate. The importance of these 3 effects may vary between patients and in the same individual with time. The model is in accordance with recent experimental studies showing convergence of somatovisceral afferents upon n. caudalis neurons. Also, long term potentiation due to nociceptive activation and sensitization of neurons to input from wider areas and non-nociceptive stimuli are relevant to our model. In tension-type headache, nociception is primarily myofascial, but vascular input cannot be disregarded. Supraspinal facilitation probably plays a large, sometimes dominant role (the MSV model). The model explains much of the complexity of the clinical picture of these disorders as well as their tendency to overlap and to change into one another. Also, a number of pathophysiological observations such as why muscles are tender during migraine, why trigger-point injection may cure migraine attacks and why chronic tension-type headache is often associated with episodes of pulsating pain, can be explained. The model gives a rational explanation of empirically developed, internationally accepted, multimodal treatment strategies for migraine and tension-type headache. It may thus serve a useful purpose in explaining the disorder to patients. Finally, the model points to several avenues of future research in animals and man.

  15. Confidence limits for Neyman type A-distributed events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morand, J.; Deperas-Standylo, J.; Urbanik, W.; Moss, R.; Hachem, S.; Sauerwein, W.; Wojcik, A.

    2008-01-01

    The Neyman type A distribution, a generalised, 'contagious' Poisson distribution, finds application in a number of disciplines such as biology, physics and economy. In radiation biology, it best describes the distribution of chromosomal aberrations in cells that were exposed to neutrons, alpha radiations or heavy ions. Intriguingly, no method has been developed for the calculation of confidence limits (CLs) of Neyman type A-distributed events. Here, an algorithm to calculate the 95% CL of Neyman type A-distributed events is presented. Although it has been developed in response to the requirements of radiation biology, it can find application in other fields of research. The algorithm has been implemented in a PC-based computer program that can be downloaded, free of charge, from www.pu.kielce.pl/ibiol/neta. (authors)

  16. Increased accuracy of starch granule type quantification using mixture distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Emi; Ral, Jean-Phillippe F; Li, Sean; Gaire, Raj; Cavanagh, Colin R; Cullis, Brian R; Whan, Alex

    2017-01-01

    The proportion of granule types in wheat starch is an important characteristic that can affect its functionality. It is widely accepted that granule types are either large, disc-shaped A-type granules or small, spherical B-type granules. Additionally, there are some reports of the tiny C-type granules. The differences between these granule types are due to its carbohydrate composition and crystallinity which is highly, but not perfectly, correlated with the granule size. A majority of the studies that have considered granule types analyse them based on a size threshold rather than chemical composition. This is understandable due to the expense of separating starch into different types. While the use of a size threshold to classify granule type is a low-cost measure, this results in misclassification. We present an alternative, statistical method to quantify the proportion of granule types by a fit of the mixture distribution, along with an R package, a web based app and a video tutorial for how to use the web app to enable its straightforward application. Our results show that the reliability of the genotypic effects increase approximately 60% using the proportions of the A-type and B-type granule estimated by the mixture distribution over the standard size-threshold measure. Although there was a marginal drop in reliability for C-type granules. The latter is likely due to the low observed genetic variance for C-type granules. The determination of the proportion of granule types from size-distribution is better achieved by using the mixing probabilities from the fit of the mixture distribution rather than using a size-threshold.

  17. Word frequencies: A comparison of Pareto type distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Martin; Nadarajah, Saralees; Si, Yuancheng

    2018-03-01

    Mehri and Jamaati (2017) [18] used Zipf's law to model word frequencies in Holy Bible translations for one hundred live languages. We compare the fit of Zipf's law to a number of Pareto type distributions. The latter distributions are shown to provide the best fit, as judged by a number of comparative plots and error measures. The fit of Zipf's law appears generally poor.

  18. Photosynthetic Light Responses May Explain Vertical Distribution of Hymenophyllaceae Species in a Temperate Rainforest of Southern Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Parra

    Full Text Available Some epiphytic Hymenophyllaceae are restricted to lower parts of the host ( 1000 μmol photons m(-2 s(-1. Our aim was to study the photosynthetic light responses of two Hymenophyllaceae species in relation to their contrasting distribution. We determined light tolerance of Hymenoglossum cruentum and Hymenophyllum dentatum by measuring gas exchange, PSI and PSII light energy partitioning, NPQ components, and pigment contents. H. dentatum showed lower maximum photosynthesis rates (A max than H. cruentum, but the former species kept its net rates (An near Amax across a wide light range. In contrast, in the latter one, An declined at PPFDs > 60 μmol photons m(-2 s(-1. H. cruentum, the shadiest plant, showed higher chlorophyll contents than H. dentatum. Differences in energy partitioning at PSI and PSII were consistent with gas exchange results. H. dentatum exhibited a higher light compensation point of the partitioning of absorbed energy between photochemical Y(PSII and non-photochemical Y(NPQ processes. Hence, both species allocated energy mainly toward photochemistry instead of heat dissipation at their light saturation points. Above saturation, H. cruentum had higher heat dissipation than H. dentatum. PSI yield (YPSI remained higher in H. dentatum than H. cruentum in a wider light range. In both species, the main cause of heat dissipation at PSI was a donor side limitation. An early dynamic photo-inhibition of PSII may have caused an over reduction of the Qa+ pool decreasing the efficiency of electron donation to PSI. In H. dentatum, a slight increase in heat dissipation due to acceptor side limitation of PSI was observed above 300 μmol photons m(-2s(-1. Differences in photosynthetic responses to light suggest that light tolerance and species plasticity could explain their contrasting vertical distribution.

  19. The mass distribution in early type disk galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordermeer, E; van der Hulst, T; Sancisi, R; Swaters, R; Ryder, SD; Pisano, DJ; Walker, MA; Freeman, KC

    2004-01-01

    We are studying the mass distribution in a sample of 50 early type spiral galaxies, with morphological type betweens SO and Sab and absolute magnitudes M-B between -18 and -22; they form the massive and high-surface brightness extreme of the disk galaxy population. Our study is designed to

  20. The mass distribution in early type disk galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordermeer, E.; Hulst, J. M. van der; Sancisi, R.; Swaters, R. A.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: We are studying the mass distribution in a sample of 50 early type spiral galaxies, with morphological type betweens S0 and Sab and absolute magnitudes M_B between -18 and -22; they form the massive and high-surface brightness extreme of the disk galaxy population. Our study is designed to

  1. Three types magnetic moment distribution of nonlinear excitations in a Heisenberg helimagnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Jian-Wen [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory for Theoretical Physics Frontiers, Xi' an 710069 (China); Li, Zai-Dong [Department of Applied Physics, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300401 (China); Yang, Zhan-Ying, E-mail: zyyang@nwu.edu.cn [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory for Theoretical Physics Frontiers, Xi' an 710069 (China); Yang, Wen-Li [Shaanxi Key Laboratory for Theoretical Physics Frontiers, Xi' an 710069 (China); Institute of Modern Physics, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Three different types of soliton excitations under the spin-wave background are demonstrated in spin chain system. • The magnetic moment distributions corresponding to these solitons are characterized in detail. • The formation mechanisms of those excitations are explained by the magnon density distribution. - Abstract: We study the nonlinear spin dynamics of an anisotropic Heisenberg helimagnet in a fourth-order integrable nonlinear Schrödinger equation. We demonstrate that there are three types of nonlinear spin excitations on a spin-wave background in the Heisenberg helimagnet, notably including anti-dark soliton, W-shaped soliton, and multi-peak soliton. The magnetic moment distribution that corresponds to each of these are characterized in detail. Additionally, the formation mechanism is clarified by the magnon density distribution.

  2. Can a one-layer optical skin model including melanin and inhomogeneously distributed blood explain spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectra?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Hanna; Pettersson, Anders; Larsson, Marcus; Strömberg, Tomas

    2011-02-01

    Model based analysis of calibrated diffuse reflectance spectroscopy can be used for determining oxygenation and concentration of skin chromophores. This study aimed at assessing the effect of including melanin in addition to hemoglobin (Hb) as chromophores and compensating for inhomogeneously distributed blood (vessel packaging), in a single-layer skin model. Spectra from four humans were collected during different provocations using a twochannel fiber optic probe with source-detector separations 0.4 and 1.2 mm. Absolute calibrated spectra using data from either a single distance or both distances were analyzed using inverse Monte Carlo for light transport and Levenberg-Marquardt for non-linear fitting. The model fitting was excellent using a single distance. However, the estimated model failed to explain spectra from the other distance. The two-distance model did not fit the data well at either distance. Model fitting was significantly improved including melanin and vessel packaging. The most prominent effect when fitting data from the larger separation compared to the smaller separation was a different light scattering decay with wavelength, while the tissue fraction of Hb and saturation were similar. For modeling spectra at both distances, we propose using either a multi-layer skin model or a more advanced model for the scattering phase function.

  3. CMPH: a multivariate phase-type aggregate loss distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Jiandong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a compound multivariate distribution designed for modeling insurance losses arising from different risk sources in insurance companies. The distribution is based on a discrete-time Markov Chain and generalizes the multivariate compound negative binomial distribution, which is widely used for modeling insurance losses.We derive fundamental properties of the distribution and discuss computational aspects facilitating calculations of risk measures of the aggregate loss, as well as allocations of the aggregate loss to individual types of risk sources. Explicit formulas for the joint moment generating function and the joint moments of different loss types are derived, and recursive formulas for calculating the joint distributions given. Several special cases of particular interest are analyzed. An illustrative numerical example is provided.

  4. Type systems for distributed programs components and sessions

    CERN Document Server

    Dardha, Ornela

    2016-01-01

    In this book we develop powerful techniques based on formal methods for the verification of correctness, consistency and safety properties related to dynamic reconfiguration and communication in complex distributed systems. In particular, static analysis techniques based on types and type systems are an adequate methodology considering their success in guaranteeing not only basic safety properties, but also more sophisticated ones like deadlock or lock freedom in concurrent settings. The main contributions of this book are twofold. i) We design a type system for a concurrent object-oriented calculus to statically ensure consistency of dynamic reconfigurations. ii) We define an encoding of the session pi-calculus, which models communication in distributed systems, into the standard typed pi-calculus. We use this encoding to derive properties like type safety and progress in the session pi-calculus by exploiting the corresponding properties in the standard typed pi-calculus.

  5. Method of controlling power distribution in FBR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Shusaku; Kaneto, Kunikazu.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To attain the power distribution flattening with ease by obtaining a radial power distribution substantially in a constant configuration not depending on the burn-up cycle. Method: As the fuel burning proceeds, the radial power distribution is effected by the accumulation of fission products in the inner blancket fuel assemblies which varies the effect thereof as the neutron absorbing substances. Taking notice of the above fact, the power distribution is controlled in a heterogeneous FBR type reactor by varying the core residence period of the inner blancket assemblies in accordance with the charging density of the inner blancket assemblies in the reactor core. (Kawakami, Y.)

  6. Note: Reflection-type micro multipoint laser Doppler velocimeter for measuring velocity distributions in blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, H; Kobayashi, D; Shirakawa, H; Andoh, T; Akiguchi, S; Wakisaka, T; Ishizuka, M; Hachiga, T

    2011-07-01

    We have developed a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) for measuring velocity distributions in blood vessels. We converted a transmission-based LDV into a reflection-based LDV to make it suitable for clinical applications. The velocity distribution image of a serpentine flow channel obtained could be qualitatively explained by the numerical results. Finally, we evaluated the system by using it to measure injection of blood into a glass tube by a syringe pump. The results obtained demonstrate that erythrocytes can be used as seeding particles for the reflection-type micro multipoint LDV. The results obtained are useful as basic data for clinical applications.

  7. Distribution of MN blood group types in local populations in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [Arcellana A. E. S., Guzman R. M. S. and Fontanilla I. K. C. 2011 Distribution of MN blood group types in local populations in Philippines. J. Genet. 90, e90–e93. Online only: http://www.ias.ac.in/jgenet/OnlineResources/90/e90.pdf]. The classification of MN system of human blood type is based on the presence of either ...

  8. Human papillomavirus distribution in invasive cervical carcinoma in sub-Saharan Africa: could HIV explain the differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, Cathy; Alemany, Laia; Ndiaye, Nafissatou; Kamaté, Bakarou; Diop, Yankhoba; Odida, Michael; Banjo, Kunbi; Tous, Sara; Klaustermeier, Jo Ellen; Clavero, Omar; Castellsagué, Xavier; Bosch, F Xavier; Trottier, Helen; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2012-12-01

    To describe human papillomavirus (HPV) distribution in invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC) from Mali and Senegal and to compare type-specific relative contribution among sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. A multicentric study was conducted to collect paraffin-embedded blocks of ICC. Polymerase chain reaction, DNA enzyme immunoassay and line probe assay were performed for HPV detection and genotyping. Data from SSA (Mozambique, Nigeria and Uganda) and 35 other countries were compared. One hundred and sixty-four ICC cases from Mali and Senegal were tested from which 138 were positive (adjusted prevalence = 86.8%; 95% CI = 79.7-91.7%). HPV16 and HPV18 accounted for 57.2% of infections and HPV45 for 16.7%. In SSA countries, HPV16 was less frequent than in the rest of the world (49.4%vs. 62.6%; P < 0.0001) but HPV18 and HPV45 were two times more frequent (19.3%vs. 9.4%; P < 0.0001 and 10.3%vs. 5.6%; P < 0.0001, respectively). There was an ecological correlation between HIV prevalence and the increase of HPV18 and the decrease of HPV45 in ICC in SSA (P = 0.037 for both). HPV16/18/45 accounted for two-thirds of the HPV types found in invasive cervical cancer in Mali and Senegal. Our results suggest that HIV may play a role in the underlying HPV18 and HPV45 contribution to cervical cancer, but further studies are needed to confirm this correlation. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Fisher information and statistical inference for phase-type distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Esparza, Luz Judith R; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with statistical inference for both continuous and discrete phase-type distributions. We consider maximum likelihood estimation, where traditionally the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm has been employed. Certain numerical aspects of this method are revised and we...... and Newton--Raphson approach. The inverse of the Fisher information matrix provides the variances and covariances of the estimated parameters....

  10. Mass distributions in early-type galaxy halos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romanowsky, AJ; Douglas, NG; Kuijken, K; Merrifield, MR; Arnaboldi, M; Freeman, KC; Taylor, K; Bender, T; Renzini, A

    2003-01-01

    One of the most promising avenues for determining the distribution of mass in the outer parts of early-type galaxies is through the kinematics of planetary nebulae (PNe). We have used new techniques and instrumentation on the WHT and the VLT to obtain velocities for hundreds of PNe around several

  11. Numerical simulation for i - ii type of distribution header throttle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuheng, Feng; Wenjun, Hu; Xuedong, Qiao; Zhifeng, Hou

    2009-01-01

    In the simulation of distribution header throttle structure, using the computational fluid dynamic code-CFX, compared with experiment, the reasons of error is discussed and the reliability of this simulation is proved. Authors have checked same types of calculations, particularly introduced the relationship between CFD and experiment. The results will be theoretic base and reference

  12. An impaired metabolic response to hydrostatic pressure explains Alcanivorax borkumensis recorded distribution in the deep marine water column

    KAUST Repository

    Scoma, Alberto

    2016-08-12

    Alcanivorax borkumensis is an ubiquitous model organism for hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria, which dominates polluted surface waters. Its negligible presence in oil-contaminated deep waters (as observed during the Deepwater Horizon accident) raises the hypothesis that it may lack adaptive mechanisms to hydrostatic pressure (HP). The type strain SK2 was tested under 0.1, 5 and 10 MPa (corresponding to surface water, 500 and 1000 m depth, respectively). While 5 MPa essentially inactivated SK2, further increase to 10 MPa triggered some resistance mechanism, as indicated by higher total and intact cell numbers. Under 10 MPa, SK2 upregulated the synthetic pathway of the osmolyte ectoine, whose concentration increased from 0.45 to 4.71 fmoles cell-1. Central biosynthetic pathways such as cell replication, glyoxylate and Krebs cycles, amino acids metabolism and fatty acids biosynthesis, but not β-oxidation, were upregulated or unaffected at 10 MPa, although total cell number was remarkably lower with respect to 0.1 MPa. Concomitantly, expression of more than 50% of SK2 genes was downregulated, including genes related to ATP generation, respiration and protein translation. Thus, A. borkumensis lacks proper adaptation to HP but activates resistance mechanisms. These consist in poorly efficient biosynthetic rather than energy-yielding degradation-related pathways, and suggest that HP does represent a major driver for its distribution at deep-sea.

  13. Fire-mediated disruptive selection can explain the reseeder-resprouter dichotomy in Mediterranean-type vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altwegg, Res; De Klerk, Helen M; Midgley, Guy F

    2015-02-01

    Crown fire is a key selective pressure in Mediterranean-type plant communities. Adaptive responses to fire regimes involve trade-offs between investment for persistence (fire survival and resprouting) and reproduction (fire mortality, fast growth to reproductive maturity, and reseeding) as investments that enhance adult survival lower growth and reproductive rates. Southern hemisphere Mediterranean-type ecosystems are dominated by species with either endogenous regeneration from adult resprouting or fire-triggered seedling recruitment. Specifically, on nutrient-poor soils, these are either resprouting or reseeding life histories, with few intermediate forms, despite the fact that the transition between strategies is evolutionarily labile. How did this strong dichotomy evolve? We address this question by developing a stochastic demographic model to assess determinants of relative fitness of reseeders, resprouters and hypothetical intermediate forms. The model was parameterised using published demographic data from South African protea species and run over various relevant fire regime parameters facets. At intermediate fire return intervals, trade-offs between investment in growth versus fire resilience can cause fitness to peak at either of the extremes of the reseeder-resprouter continuum, especially when assuming realistic non-linear shapes for these trade-offs. Under these circumstances, the fitness landscape exhibits a saddle which could lead to disruptive selection. The fitness gradient between the peaks was shallow, which may explain why this life-history trait is phylogenetically labile. Resprouters had maximum fitness at shorter fire-return intervals than reseeders. The model suggests that a strong dichotomy in fire survival strategy depends on a non-linear trade-off between growth and fire persistence traits.

  14. Analysis of flow distribution in plate-type core affected by uneven inlet temperature distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, G.L.; Su, G.H.; Peng, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Flow and power distribution of plate-type core are studied using RELAP5-3D code. • Effect of uneven inlet temperature on flow distribution can be considered. • Reactor power peaking factor shifts to low inlet temperature region. • Flow peaking factor shifts to high inlet temperature region. • Effect of uneven inlet temperature on flow distribution is much greater than power. - Abstract: The flow and power distribution characteristics of plate-type fuel reactor core have been investigated in the present study. A reactor core thermal-hydraulic and neutronics coupled model was established using RELAP5-3D codes. The coupled modeling method was used to establish the thermo-hydraulic model, and the phenomenon of two-phase flow instability in a parallel two-channel system was used to verify the reliability of the method. Besides, the influence on power and flow distributions of uneven core inlet temperature was also studied by the application of coupled three-dimensional neutron-kinetics and thermal-hydraulics. The results show that, the coupled modeling method is reliable and can be used to establish the thermo-hydraulic model of a reactor core. By this method, both the effects of heating power and inlet temperature on flow distribution have been studied. The flow and power distributions of reactor core are inseparable and have a great effect on each other under the strong coupling of thermal-hydraulic and neutronics, but the non-uniformity of power distribution is greater than flow distribution. When reactor core inlet temperature distribution is uneven, reactor power peaking factor shifts to the low inlet temperature region, and flow peaking factor shifts to the high inlet temperature region. The effect of uneven core inlet temperature on flow distribution has a far greater impact than reactor power.

  15. Spatial and temporal arrival patterns of Madagascar's vertebrate fauna explained by distance, ocean currents, and ancestor type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samonds, Karen E.; Godfrey, Laurie R.; Ali, Jason R.; Goodman, Steven M.; Vences, Miguel; Sutherland, Michael R.; Irwin, Mitchell T.; Krause, David W.

    2012-01-01

    How, when, and from where Madagascar's vertebrates arrived on the island is poorly known, and a comprehensive explanation for the distribution of its organisms has yet to emerge. We begin to break that impasse by analyzing vertebrate arrival patterns implied by currently existing taxa. For each of 81 clades, we compiled arrival date, source, and ancestor type (obligate freshwater, terrestrial, facultative swimmer, or volant). We analyzed changes in arrival rates, with and without adjusting for clade extinction. Probability of successful transoceanic dispersal is negatively correlated with distance traveled and influenced by ocean currents and ancestor type. Obligate rafters show a decrease in probability of successful transoceanic dispersal from the Paleocene onward, reaching the lowest levels after the mid-Miocene. This finding is consistent with a paleoceanographic model [Ali JR, Huber M (2010) Nature 463:653–656] that predicts Early Cenozoic surface currents periodically conducive to rafting or swimming from Africa, followed by a reconfiguration to present-day flow 15–20 million years ago that significantly diminished the ability for transoceanic dispersal to Madagascar from the adjacent mainland. PMID:22431643

  16. The Application of Phase Type Distributions for Modelling Queuing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EIMUTIS VALAKEVICIUS

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Queuing models are important tools for studying the performance of complex systems, but despite the substantial queuing theory literature, it is often necessary to use approximations in the case the system is nonmarkovian. Phase type distribution is by now indispensable tool in creation of queuing system models. The purpose of this paper is to suggest a method and software for evaluating queuing approximations. A numerical queuing model with priorities is used to explore the behaviour of exponential phase-type approximation of service-time distribution. The performance of queuing systems described in the event language is used for generating the set of states and transition matrix between them. Two examples of numerical models are presented – a queuing system model with priorities and a queuing system model with quality control.

  17. Maximum Likelihood Estimates of Parameters in Various Types of Distribution Fitted to Important Data Cases.

    OpenAIRE

    HIROSE,Hideo

    1998-01-01

    TYPES OF THE DISTRIBUTION:13;Normal distribution (2-parameter)13;Uniform distribution (2-parameter)13;Exponential distribution ( 2-parameter)13;Weibull distribution (2-parameter)13;Gumbel Distribution (2-parameter)13;Weibull/Frechet Distribution (3-parameter)13;Generalized extreme-value distribution (3-parameter)13;Gamma distribution (3-parameter)13;Extended Gamma distribution (3-parameter)13;Log-normal distribution (3-parameter)13;Extended Log-normal distribution (3-parameter)13;Generalized ...

  18. Skew-Type I Generalized Logistic Distribution and its Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Mohamed Abdelfattah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Generalized logistic distributions are very versatile and give useful representations of many physical situations. Skew-symmetric densities recently received much attention in the literature. In this paper, we introduce a new class of skew-symmetric distributions which are formulated based on cumulative distributions of skew-symmetric densities. We derive, the probability density function (pdf and cumulative distribution function (CDF of the skew type I generalized logistic distribution denoted by S'GLD . The general statistical properties of the S'GLD such as: the moment generating function (mgf, characteristic function (chf, Laplace and Fourier transformations are obtained in explicit form. Expressions for the nth moment, skewness and kurtosis are discussed. Mean deviation about the mean and about the median, Renye entropy and the order statistics are also given. We consider the general case by inclusion of location and scale parameters. The results of Nadarajah (2009 are obtained as special cases. Graphical illustration of some results has been represented. Further we present a numerical example to illustrate some results of this paper.

  19. LUMINOUS SATELLITES OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES. I. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nierenberg, A. M.; Auger, M. W.; Treu, T.; Marshall, P. J.; Fassnacht, C. D.

    2011-01-01

    We study the spatial distribution of faint satellites of intermediate redshift (0.1 s = 1.7 +0.9 -0.8 ) that is comparable to the number of Milky Way satellites with similar host-satellite contrast. The average projected radial profile of the satellite distribution is isothermal (γ p = -1.0 +0.3 -0.4 ), which is consistent with the observed central mass density profile of massive early-type galaxies. Furthermore, the satellite distribution is highly anisotropic (isotropy is ruled out at a >99.99% confidence level). Defining φ to be the offset between the major axis of the satellite spatial distribution and the major axis of the host light profile, we find a maximum posterior probability of φ = 0 and |φ| less than 42 0 at the 68% confidence level. The alignment of the satellite distribution with the light of the host is consistent with simulations, assuming that light traces mass for the host galaxy as observed for lens galaxies. The anisotropy of the satellite population enhances its ability to produce the flux ratio anomalies observed in gravitationally lensed quasars.

  20. Does Glycosylation as a modifier of Original Antigenic Sin explain the case age distribution and unusual toxicity in pandemic novel H1N1 influenza?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishiura Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    until the early 1940s. Later H1N1 viruses progressively added new glycosylation sites likely to shield antigenic epitopes, while T-cell epitopes were relatively unchanged. Conclusions In this evolutionary context, Original Antigenic Sin exposure should produce an immune response increasingly mismatched to novel H1N1 in progressively younger persons. We suggest that it is this mismatch that produces both the gradation in susceptibility and the unusual toxicity. Several murine studies suggest specific cell types as a likely basis of the unusual toxicity. These studies also point to widely available pharmaceutical agents as plausible candidates for mitigating the toxic effects. The principle of Original Antigenic Sin modified by glycosylation appears to explain both the case age distribution and the unusual toxicity pattern of the novel H1N1 pandemic. In addition, it suggests pharmaceutical agents for immediate investigation for mitigation potential, and provides strategic guidance for the distribution of pandemic mitigation resources of all types.

  1. Gender and General Strain Theory: A Comparison of Strains, Mediating, and Moderating Effects Explaining Three Types of Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Byongook; Morash, Merry

    2017-01-01

    The present study of 659 Korean adolescents tests General Strain Theory's (GST) utility in explaining gender differences in delinquency causation. It models the effects of key strains, negative emotions, and a composite measure of several conditioning factors separately for boys and girls and for delinquency. Consistent with the theory, males and…

  2. Can differences in phosphorus uptake kinetics explain the distribution of cattail and sawgrass in the Florida Everglades?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKee Karen L

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cattail (Typha domingensis has been spreading in phosphorus (P enriched areas of the oligotrophic Florida Everglades at the expense of sawgrass (Cladium mariscus spp. jamaicense. Abundant evidence in the literature explains how the opportunistic features of Typha might lead to a complete dominance in P-enriched areas. Less clear is how Typha can grow and acquire P at extremely low P levels, which prevail in the unimpacted areas of the Everglades. Results Apparent P uptake kinetics were measured for intact plants of Cladium and Typha acclimated to low and high P at two levels of oxygen in hydroponic culture. The saturated rate of P uptake was higher in Typha than in Cladium and higher in low-P acclimated plants than in high-P acclimated plants. The affinity for P uptake was two-fold higher in Typha than in Cladium, and two- to three-fold higher for low-P acclimated plants compared to high-P acclimated plants. As Cladium had a greater proportion of its biomass allocated to roots, the overall uptake capacity of the two species at high P did not differ. At low P availability, Typha increased biomass allocation to roots more than Cladium. Both species also adjusted their P uptake kinetics, but Typha more so than Cladium. The adjustment of the P uptake system and increased biomass allocation to roots resulted in a five-fold higher uptake per plant for Cladium and a ten-fold higher uptake for Typha. Conclusions Both Cladium and Typha adjust P uptake kinetics in relation to plant demand when P availability is high. When P concentrations are low, however, Typha adjusts P uptake kinetics and also increases allocation to roots more so than Cladium, thereby improving both efficiency and capacity of P uptake. Cladium has less need to adjust P uptake kinetics because it is already efficient at acquiring P from peat soils (e.g., through secretion of phosphatases, symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, nutrient conservation growth

  3. Manganese distribution and speciation help to explain the effects of silicate and phosphate on manganese toxicity in four crop species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blamey, F Pax C; McKenna, Brigid A; Li, Cui; Cheng, Miaomiao; Tang, Caixian; Jiang, Haibo; Howard, Daryl L; Paterson, David J; Kappen, Peter; Wang, Peng; Menzies, Neal W; Kopittke, Peter M

    2018-02-01

    Soil acidity and waterlogging increase manganese (Mn) in leaf tissues to potentially toxic concentrations, an effect reportedly alleviated by increased silicon (Si) and phosphorus (P) supply. Effects of Si and P on Mn toxicity were studied in four plant species using synchrotron-based micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) to determine Mn distribution in leaf tissues and using synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to measure Mn speciation in leaves, stems and roots. A concentration of 30 μM Mn in solution was toxic to cowpea and soybean, with 400 μM Mn toxic to sunflower but not white lupin. Unexpectedly, μ-XRF analysis revealed that 1.4 mM Si in solution decreased Mn toxicity symptoms through increased Mn localization in leaf tissues. NanoSIMS showed Mn and Si co-localized in the apoplast of soybean epidermal cells and basal cells of sunflower trichomes. Concomitantly, added Si decreased oxidation of Mn(II) to Mn(III) and Mn(IV). An increase from 5 to 50 μM P in solution changed some Mn toxicity symptoms but had little effect on Mn distribution or speciation. We conclude that Si increases localized apoplastic sorption of Mn in cowpea, soybean and sunflower leaves thereby decreasing free Mn 2+ accumulation in the apoplast or cytoplasm. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Complexity explained

    CERN Document Server

    Erdi, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This book explains why complex systems research is important in understanding the structure, function and dynamics of complex natural and social phenomena. Readers will learn the basic concepts and methods of complex system research.

  5. Power flow control strategy in distribution network for dc type distributed energy resource at load bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, A.; Choudhry, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This research work presents a feed forward power flow control strategy in the secondary distribution network working in parallel with a DC type distributed energy resource (DER) unit with SPWM-IGBT Voltage Source Converter (VSC). The developed control strategy enables the VSC to be used as power flow controller at the load bus in the presence of utility supply. Due to the investigated control strategy, power flow control from distributed energy resource (DER) to common load bus is such that power flows to the load without facing any power quality problem. The technique has an added advantage of controlling power flow without having a dedicated power flow controller. The SPWM-IGBT VSC is serving the purpose of dc-ac converter as well as power flow controller. Simulations for a test system using proposed power flow control strategy are carried out using SimPower Systems toolbox of MATLAB at the rate and Simulink at the rate. The results show that a reliable, effective and efficient operation of DC type DER unit in coordination with main utility network can be achieved. (author)

  6. Leaf Gas Exchange and Nutrient Use Efficiency Help Explain the Distribution of Two Neotropical Mangroves under Contrasting Flooding and Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Cardona-Olarte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa cooccur along many intertidal floodplains in the Neotropics. Their patterns of dominance shift along various gradients, coincident with salinity, soil fertility, and tidal flooding. We used leaf gas exchange metrics to investigate the strategies of these two species in mixed culture to simulate competition under different salinity concentrations and hydroperiods. Semidiurnal tidal and permanent flooding hydroperiods at two constant salinity regimes (10 g L−1 and 40 g L−1 were simulated over 10 months. Assimilation (A, stomatal conductance (gw, intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci, instantaneous photosynthetic water use efficiency (PWUE, and photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE were determined at the leaf level for both species over two time periods. Rhizophora mangle had significantly higher PWUE than did L. racemosa seedlings at low salinities; however, L. racemosa had higher PNUE and gw and, accordingly, had greater intercellular CO2 (calculated during measurements. Both species maintained similar capacities for A at 10 and 40 g L−1 salinity and during both permanent and tidal hydroperiod treatments. Hydroperiod alone had no detectable effect on leaf gas exchange. However, PWUE increased and PNUE decreased for both species at 40 g L−1 salinity compared to 10 g L−1. At 40 g L−1 salinity, PNUE was higher for L. racemosa than R. mangle with tidal flooding. These treatments indicated that salinity influences gas exchange efficiency, might affect how gases are apportioned intercellularly, and accentuates different strategies for distributing leaf nitrogen to photosynthesis for these two species while growing competitively.

  7. Leaf gas exchange and nutrient use efficiency help explain the distribution of two Neotropical mangroves under contrasting flooding and salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona-Olarte, Pablo; Krauss, Ken W.; Twilley, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa co-occur along many intertidal floodplains in the Neotropics. Their patterns of dominance shift along various gradients, coincident with salinity, soil fertility, and tidal flooding. We used leaf gas exchange metrics to investigate the strategies of these two species in mixed culture to simulate competition under different salinity concentrations and hydroperiods. Semidiurnal tidal and permanent flooding hydroperiods at two constant salinity regimes (10 g L−1 and 40 g L−1) were simulated over 10 months. Assimilation (A), stomatal conductance (gw), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), instantaneous photosynthetic water use efficiency (PWUE), and photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE) were determined at the leaf level for both species over two time periods. Rhizophora mangle had significantly higher PWUE than did L. racemosa seedlings at low salinities; however, L. racemosa had higher PNUE and stomatal conductance and gw, accordingly, had greater intercellular CO2 (calculated) during measurements. Both species maintained similar capacities for assimilation at 10 and 40 g L−1 salinity and during both permanent and tidal hydroperiod treatments. Hydroperiod alone had no detectable effect on leaf gas exchange. However, PWUE increased and PNUE decreased for both species at 40 g L−1 salinity compared to 10 g L−1. At 40 g L−1 salinity, PNUE was higher for L. racemosa than R. mangle with tidal flooding. These treatments indicated that salinity influences gas exchange efficiency, might affect how gases are apportioned intercellularly, and accentuates different strategies for distributing leaf nitrogen to photosynthesis for these two species while growing competitively.

  8. Distribution of Heparan Sulfate Oligosaccharides in Murine Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IIIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerryn Mason

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Heparan sulfate (HS catabolism begins with endo-degradation of the polysaccharide to smaller HS oligosaccharides, followed by the sequential action of exo-enzymes to reduce these oligosaccharides to monosaccharides and inorganic sulfate. In mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA (MPS IIIA the exo-enzyme, N-sulfoglucosamine sulfohydrolase, is deficient resulting in an inability to hydrolyze non-reducing end glucosamine N-sulfate esters. Consequently, partially degraded HS oligosaccharides with non-reducing end glucosamine sulfate esters accumulate. We investigated the distribution of these HS oligosaccharides in tissues of a mouse model of MPS IIIA using high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Oligosaccharide levels were compared to total uronic acid (UA, which was used as a measure of total glycosaminoglycan. Ten oligosaccharides, ranging in size from di- to hexasaccharides, were present in all the tissues examined including brain, spleen, lung, heart, liver, kidney and urine. However, the relative levels varied up to 10-fold, suggesting different levels of HS turnover and storage. The relationship between the di- and tetrasaccharides and total UA was tissue specific with spleen and kidney showing a different disaccharide:total UA ratio than the other tissues. The hexasaccharides showed a stronger correlation with total UA in all tissue types suggesting that hexasaccharides may more accurately reflect the storage burden in these tissues.

  9. A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in the FADS1 Gene is Associated with Plasma Fatty Acid and Lipid Profiles and Might Explain Gender Difference in Body Fat Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huilan; Zhang, Lichao; Zhu, Chaonan; Yang, Fei; Wang, Shanshan; Zhu, Shankuan; Ma, Xiaoguang

    2017-03-31

    Genotyping of the rs174547 polymorphism in the fatty acid desaturase 1 gene (FADS1) shows that it is associated with the FA composition of plasma phospholipids and lipid metabolic indices among several ethnic groups. However, this association requires further confirmation in the Chinese population, and little is known about the effect of polymorphisms in fatty acid-related genes on body fat distribution. Anthropometric measurements of 951 Chinese adults aged 18-79 were obtained and body fat distribution was estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The FA composition of plasma phospholipids was measured by gas chromatography. Multiple linear regression assessed whether the rs174547 genotype was associated with FA composition, body fat distribution, and metabolic traits in additive, dominant, and recessive models. The rs174547 C minor allele was associated with a higher proportion of linoleic acid, lower arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, as well as lower delta-6-desaturase and delta-5-desaturase activity. Female C allele carriers had lower android fat percentages and lower levels of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, while male C allele carriers had lower gynoid fat percentages and higher triglyceride after adjusting for age, income, BMI, behavioral risk factors, and regional fat percentages. An association of FADS1 rs174547 with the FA composition of plasma phospholipids was identified among this Chinese adult population. The association with body fat distribution and lipid metabolic indices differed between men and women, which might explain sexual differences in body fat distribution and lipid metabolism.

  10. Red cell distribution width in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada AM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aml Mohamed Nada Department of Internal Medicine, Unit of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Objective: To study the indices of some elements of the complete blood count, in type 2 diabetic patients, in comparison with nondiabetic healthy controls; and to find out the effects of glycemic control and different medications on these indices. To the best of our knowledge, this study is novel in our environment and will serve as a foundation for other researchers in this field. Methods: This retrospective study included 260 type 2 diabetic patients on treatment and 44 healthy control subjects. Sex, age, weight, height, blood pressure, complete blood count, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, and lipid profile data, were available for all of the study population. For diabetic patients, data on duration of diabetes and all medications were also available. Results: Red cell distribution width (RDW was significantly higher in diabetic patients than in control subjects (P=0.008. It was also higher in patients with uncontrolled glycemia (HbA1c >7% than those with good control (HbA1c ≤7%; P=0.035. Mean platelet volume (MPV was comparable in both diabetic patients and healthy controls (P=0.238. RDW and MPV did not significantly correlate with fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, or duration of diabetes. Both aspirin and clopidogrel did not show a significant effect on MPV. Both insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents did not show a significant effect on RDW, mean corpuscular volume, MPV, platelet count, or white blood cell count. Diabetic patients treated with indapamide or the combined thiazides and angiotensin receptor blockers showed no significant difference in RDW when compared with the control subjects. Conclusion: RDW, which is recently considered as an inflammatory marker with a significant predictive value of mortality in diseased and healthy populations, is significantly higher in

  11. Chromatin extrusion explains key features of loop and domain formation in wild-type and engineered genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanborn, Adrian L; Rao, Suhas S P; Huang, Su-Chen; Durand, Neva C; Huntley, Miriam H; Jewett, Andrew I; Bochkov, Ivan D; Chinnappan, Dharmaraj; Cutkosky, Ashok; Li, Jian; Geeting, Kristopher P; Gnirke, Andreas; Melnikov, Alexandre; McKenna, Doug; Stamenova, Elena K; Lander, Eric S; Aiden, Erez Lieberman

    2015-11-24

    We recently used in situ Hi-C to create kilobase-resolution 3D maps of mammalian genomes. Here, we combine these maps with new Hi-C, microscopy, and genome-editing experiments to study the physical structure of chromatin fibers, domains, and loops. We find that the observed contact domains are inconsistent with the equilibrium state for an ordinary condensed polymer. Combining Hi-C data and novel mathematical theorems, we show that contact domains are also not consistent with a fractal globule. Instead, we use physical simulations to study two models of genome folding. In one, intermonomer attraction during polymer condensation leads to formation of an anisotropic "tension globule." In the other, CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) and cohesin act together to extrude unknotted loops during interphase. Both models are consistent with the observed contact domains and with the observation that contact domains tend to form inside loops. However, the extrusion model explains a far wider array of observations, such as why loops tend not to overlap and why the CTCF-binding motifs at pairs of loop anchors lie in the convergent orientation. Finally, we perform 13 genome-editing experiments examining the effect of altering CTCF-binding sites on chromatin folding. The convergent rule correctly predicts the affected loops in every case. Moreover, the extrusion model accurately predicts in silico the 3D maps resulting from each experiment using only the location of CTCF-binding sites in the WT. Thus, we show that it is possible to disrupt, restore, and move loops and domains using targeted mutations as small as a single base pair.

  12. The biological properties of different Epstein-Barr virus strains explain their association with various types of cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Han; Lin, Xiaochen; Shumilov, Anatoliy; Bernhardt, Katharina; Feederle, Regina; Poirey, Remy; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Pereira, Bruno; Almeida, Raquel; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques

    2017-02-07

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is etiologically associated with the development of multiple types of tumors, but it is unclear whether this diversity is due to infection with different EBV strains. We report a comparative characterization of SNU719, GP202, and YCCEL1, three EBV strains that were isolated from gastric carcinomas, M81, a virus isolated in a nasopharyngeal carcinoma and several well-characterized laboratory type A strains. We found that B95-8, Akata and GP202 induced cell growth more efficiently than YCCEL1, SNU719 and M81 and this correlated positively with the expression levels of the viral BHRF1 miRNAs. In infected B cells, all strains except Akata and B95-8 induced lytic replication, a risk factor for carcinoma development, although less efficiently than M81. The panel of viruses induced tumors in immunocompromised mice with variable speed and efficacy that did not strictly mirror their in vitro characteristics, suggesting that additional parameters play an important role. We found that YCCEL1 and M81 infected primary epithelial cells, gastric carcinoma cells and gastric spheroids more efficiently than Akata or B95-8. Reciprocally, Akata and B95-8 had a stronger tropism for B cells than YCCEL1 or M81. These data suggest that different EBV strains will induce the development of lymphoid tumors with variable efficacy in immunocompromised patients and that there is a parallel between the cell tropism of the viral strains and the lineage of the tumors they induce. Thus, EBV strains can be endowed with properties that will influence their transforming abilities and the type of tumor they induce.

  13. Increased accuracy of starch granule type quantification using mixture distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Emi; Ral, Jean-Phillippe F.; Li, Sean; Gaire, Raj; Cavanagh, Colin R.; Cullis, Brian R.; Whan, Alex

    2017-01-01

    Background The proportion of granule types in wheat starch is an important characteristic that can affect its functionality. It is widely accepted that granule types are either large, disc-shaped A-type granules or small, spherical B-type granules. Additionally, there are some reports of the tiny C-type granules. The differences between these granule types are due to its carbohydrate composition and crystallinity which is highly, but not perfectly, correlated with the granule size. A majority...

  14. Can the helium-enriched main-sequence donor scenario hide enough hydrogen to explain Type Ia supernovae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng-Wei; Stancliffe, Richard J.

    2017-09-01

    Hydrodynamical simulations predict that a large amount of hydrogen (≳0.1 M⊙) is removed from a hydrogen-rich companion star by the SN explosion in the single-degenerate scenario of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). However, non-detection of hydrogen-rich material in the late-time spectra of SNe Ia suggests that the hydrogen mass stripped from the progenitor system is ≲0.001-0.058 M⊙. In this Letter, we include thermohaline mixing into self-consistent binary evolution calculations for the helium-enriched main-sequence (HEMS) donor channel of SNe Ia for the first time. We find that the swept-up hydrogen masses expected in this channel are around 0.10-0.17 M⊙, which is higher than the observational limits, although the companion star is strongly helium-enriched when the SN explodes. This presents a serious challenge to the HEMS donor channel.

  15. SPSS explained

    CERN Document Server

    Hinton, Perry R; Brownlow, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    SPSS Explained provides the student with all that they need to undertake statistical analysis using SPSS. It combines a step-by-step approach to each procedure with easy to follow screenshots at each stage of the process. A number of other helpful features are provided: regular advice boxes with tips specific to each test explanations divided into 'essential' and 'advanced' sections to suit readers at different levels frequently asked questions at the end of each chapter. The first edition of this popular book has been fully updated for IBM SPSS version 21 and also includes: chapters that expl

  16. Red cell distribution width in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nada, Aml Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    To study the indices of some elements of the complete blood count, in type 2 diabetic patients, in comparison with nondiabetic healthy controls; and to find out the effects of glycemic control and different medications on these indices. To the best of our knowledge, this study is novel in our environment and will serve as a foundation for other researchers in this field. This retrospective study included 260 type 2 diabetic patients on treatment and 44 healthy control subjects. Sex, age, weight, height, blood pressure, complete blood count, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and lipid profile data, were available for all of the study population. For diabetic patients, data on duration of diabetes and all medications were also available. Red cell distribution width (RDW) was significantly higher in diabetic patients than in control subjects (P=0.008). It was also higher in patients with uncontrolled glycemia (HbA1c >7%) than those with good control (HbA1c ≤7%; P=0.035). Mean platelet volume (MPV) was comparable in both diabetic patients and healthy controls (P=0.238). RDW and MPV did not significantly correlate with fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, or duration of diabetes. Both aspirin and clopidogrel did not show a significant effect on MPV. Both insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents did not show a significant effect on RDW, mean corpuscular volume, MPV, platelet count, or white blood cell count. Diabetic patients treated with indapamide or the combined thiazides and angiotensin receptor blockers showed no significant difference in RDW when compared with the control subjects. RDW, which is recently considered as an inflammatory marker with a significant predictive value of mortality in diseased and healthy populations, is significantly higher in diabetic patients than healthy subjects and is particularly higher in uncontrolled glycemia. None of the studied hypoglycemic agents showed a significant effect on RDW. Diabetic hypertensive patients receiving

  17. Astronomy Explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Gerald

    Every year large numbers of people take up the study of astronomy, mostly at amateur level. There are plenty of elementary books on the market, full of colourful photographs, but lacking in proper explanations of how and why things are as they are. Many people eventually wish to go beyond the 'coffee-table book' stage and study this fascinating subject in greater depth. This book is written for them. In addition, many people sit for public examinations in this subject each year and this book is also intended to be of use to them. All the topics from the GCSE syllabus are covered here, with sample questions at the end of each chapter. Astronomy Explained provides a comprehensive treatment of the subject in more depth than is usually found in elementary works, and will be of interest to both amateur astronomers and students of astronomy.

  18. WAP explained

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, M.J.; Pulsipher, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    The Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) is a federal block grant program administered by all 50 states and the District of Columbia through community action agencies, state energy offices, local government, and other nonprofit organizations to provide weatherization services to eligible households. The WAP was established in 1976 to increase the energy efficiency, reduce the energy expenditures, and improve the health and safety of low-income households, especially those households that are particularly vulnerable such as families with children, persons with disabilities, and the elderly. The manner in which WAP funds have been allocated to states, however, has been a contentious issue since the inception of the program. Southern states have argued that too much of the federal funding goes to cold-climate and rural states. Northern states disagree. In 1990, Congress amended the Energy Conservation and Production Act and required the Department of Energy to develop a new funding formula. The Department of Energy currently uses a three-factor formula developed in 1995 in conjunction with a two-factor formula developed in 1977 and a hold-harmless provision to allocate WAP funding. The purpose of this paper is to explain the WAP allocation mechanism and the assumptions associated with the 1977 and the 1995 funding formula. The factors that compose each funding formula are critically assessed and various implementation issues are reviewed, including the selection of the trigger point and program capacity levels. It is not possible to define the need for weatherization assistance objectively and in a unique manner, and this ambiguity is the main reason why the WAP allocation mechanism is expected to remain a lively topic of debate and contention

  19. Perspectives on distributed computing : thirty people, four user types, and the distributed computing user experience.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childers, L.; Liming, L.; Foster, I.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Chicago

    2008-10-15

    ; (2) A method for characterizing users according to their technology interactions, and identification of four user types among the interviewees using the method; (3) Four profiles that highlight points of commonality and diversity in each user type; (4) Recommendations for technology developers and future studies; (5) A description of the interview protocol and overall study methodology; (6) An anonymized list of the interviewees; and (7) Interview writeups and summary data. The interview summaries in Section 3 and transcripts in Appendix D illustrate the value of distributed computing software--and Globus in particular--to scientific enterprises. They also document opportunities to make these tools still more useful both to current users and to new communities. We aim our recommendations at developers who intend their software to be used and reused in many applications. (This kind of software is often referred to as 'middleware.') Our two core recommendations are as follows. First, it is essential for middleware developers to understand and explicitly manage the multiple user products in which their software components are used. We must avoid making assumptions about the commonality of these products and, instead, study and account for their diversity. Second, middleware developers should engage in different ways with different kinds of users. Having identified four general user types in Section 4, we provide specific ideas for how to engage them in Section 5.

  20. Meiofauna Occurrence and Distribution in Different Substrate Types ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The meiobenthic community of different sediment types was studied for 12 months between January and December 1997 in the Bnny estuarine environment. Five replicates core samples were collected from three sediment types (Muddy, Sandy and Chikoko sediments). Meiofaunal densities in order of magnitude are ...

  1. Types and distribution of mucous cells of the abalone Haliotis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-05-08

    May 8, 2012 ... physical stress and predation (Davies and Hawkins,. 1998). On occasions, such products from several different types of mucocyte combine to produce multifunctional mucus (Shirbhate and Cook, 1987). The mucocyte is a type of gland cell, which has many physiological func- tions. Mucous cells secrete ...

  2. Factors that could explain the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes among adults in a Canadian province: a critical review and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Thibault

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of diabetes has increased since the last decade in New Brunswick. Identifying factors contributing to the increase in diabetes prevalence will help inform an action plan to manage the condition. The objective was to describe factors that could explain the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes in New Brunswick since 2001. Methods A critical literature review was conducted to identify factors potentially responsible for an increase in prevalence of diabetes. Data from various sources were obtained to draw a repeated cross-sectional (2001–2014 description of these factors concurrently with changes in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in New Brunswick. Linear regressions, Poisson regressions and Cochran Armitage analysis were used to describe relationships between these factors and time. Results Factors identified in the review were summarized in five categories: individual-level risk factors, environmental risk factors, evolution of the disease, detection effect and global changes. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes has increased by 120% between 2001 and 2014. The prevalence of obesity, hypertension, prediabetes, alcohol consumption, immigration and urbanization increased during the study period and the consumption of fruits and vegetables decreased which could represent potential factors of the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Physical activity, smoking, socioeconomic status and education did not present trends that could explain the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes. During the study period, the mortality rate and the conversion rate from prediabetes to diabetes decreased and the incidence rate increased. Suggestion of a detection effect was also present as the number of people tested increased while the HbA1c and the age at detection decreased. Period and birth cohort effect were also noted through a rise in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes across all age groups, but greater increases were

  3. Global marine plankton functional type biomass distributions : Phaeocystis spp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, M.; O'Brien, C.; Peloquin, J.; Schoemann, V.; Breton, E.; Estrada, M.; Gibson, J.; Karentz, D.; van Leeuwe, M. A.; Stefels, J.; Widdicombe, C.; Peperzak, L.

    2012-01-01

    The planktonic haptophyte Phaeocystis has been suggested to play a fundamental role in the global biogeochemical cycling of carbon and sulphur, but little is known about its global biomass distribution. We have collected global microscopy data of the genus Phaeocystis and converted abundance data to

  4. Influence of soil type differences on the distribution of DTPA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined the effects of the application of industrial liquid waste from a textile factory on the distribution of DTPA extractable metals in a Pelli-Eutric Vertisol and an Eutric Fluvisol at Akaki in Ethiopia, classified according to the FAO-UNESCO Soil Classification System. The Fluvisol is slightly basic on the surface ...

  5. The Nickel Mass Distribution of Normal Type II Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Tomás; Prieto, José L.; Pejcha, Ondřej; Clocchiatti, Alejandro

    2017-06-01

    Core-collapse supernova (SN) explosions expose the structure and environment of massive stars at the moment of their death. We use the global fitting technique of Pejcha & Prieto to estimate a set of physical parameters of 19 normal SNe II, such as their distance moduli, reddenings, 56Ni masses {M}{Ni}, and explosion energies {E}\\exp from multicolor light curves and photospheric velocity curves. We confirm and characterize known correlations between {M}{Ni} and bolometric luminosity at 50 days after the explosion, and between {M}{Ni} and {E}\\exp . We pay special attention to the observed distribution of {M}{Ni} coming from a joint sample of 38 SNe II, which can be described as a skewed-Gaussian-like distribution between 0.005 {M}⊙ and 0.280 {M}⊙ , with a median of 0.031 {M}⊙ , mean of 0.046 {M}⊙ , standard deviation of 0.048 {M}⊙ , and skewness of 3.050. We use a two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and two-sample Anderson-Darling test to compare the observed distribution of {M}{Ni} to results from theoretical hydrodynamical codes of core-collapse explosions with the neutrino mechanism presented in the literature. Our results show that the theoretical distributions obtained from the codes tested in this work, KEPLER and Prometheus Hot Bubble, are compatible with the observations irrespective of different pre-SN calibrations and different maximum mass of the progenitors.

  6. Can clusters based on caries experience and medical status explain the distribution of overhanging dental restorations and recurrent caries? A cross-sectional study in Madinah - Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghulam, Omar A; Fadel, Hani T

    2018-02-01

    Overhanging dental restorations (ODRs) and secondary caries lesions (SCLs) are of high prevalence and jeopardize the fate of the restoration. To assess the relationship between ODRs, SCLs and certain caries contributory factors. A total of 502 radiographic records of dental patients with proximal fillings (mean age 38 ± 13 years, 50% females) were screened for ODRs and SCLs. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used. In addition, two-step cluster analysis was performed in an attempt to explain trends in ODR and SCL distribution. A p value of ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. More than 30% of the individuals had ODRs and SCLs. No differences between genders were observed ( p  > 0.05). Individuals with medical conditions had more ODRs than those without (49% vs. 34%, p  ≤ 0.05), while those with high caries experience had more SCLs (49%, p  ≤ 0.05). The cluster analysis grouped the participants in five clusters, with the cluster involving individuals with no medical conditions and low caries experience demonstrating the lowest prevalence of ODRs and SCLs. Within the study limits, more than one third of the sample of dental patients had ODRs and SCLs. The medical condition was associated with ODRs, while the past caries experience was associated with SCLs.

  7. blood type distribution in students admitted into Moshood Abiola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    intakes of 2006/2007 academic session) comprising of 1058 females and 942 males were screened for ABO and Rhesus 'D' blood type. The analysis of the results shows O+ (49.75%), A+ (20.30%), B+ (19.60%), AB+ (3.70%), O-.

  8. The types, incidence and demographic distribution of benign oral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: In this retrospective study, data on histological results of lesions of the oral and maxillofacial region were retrieved from the archives at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of Muhimbili National Hospital were analysed. The tumour type, age, sex, file number and histopathological diagnosis of the ...

  9. Sediment Size Distribution at Three Rivers with Different Types of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    reach and lower reach as well as to compare between three rivers with different type of land use. The three rivers are Dengar River representing palm oil plantation land use, Mengkibol River representing urban area and Madek River representing logging area. Rivers with a depth of about 200 meter were chosen for the ...

  10. Type 1,1-operators on spaces of temperate distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Jon

    This paper is a follow-up on the author’s general definition of pseudo-differential operators of type 1,1, in Hörmander’s sense. It is shown that such operators are always defined on the smooth functions that are temperate; and moreover are defined and continuous on the space of temperate...

  11. Phosphodiesterase type 2 distribution in the guinea pig urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnama'i, M S; Hohnen, R; Van Kerrebroeck, Ph E V; van Koeveringe, G A

    2015-10-01

    Nitric oxide-stimulated cGMP synthesis represents an important signalling pathway in the urinary bladder. Inhibitors of the PDE1 and PDE5 enzyme have been studied to treat storage and voiding disorders in clinical settings. The distribution of PDE2 in the bladder is unknown. This study focuses on the distribution and site of action of PDE2 within the guinea pig urinary bladder wall. Six male guinea pig bladders were dissected and treated in 2 ml Krebs' solution and 10 µM of the specific PDE2 inhibitor, Bay 60-7550 at 36 °C for 30 min. After stimulating tissues with 100 µM of diethylamine-NONOate for 10 min, the tissues were snap frozen and cut in 10 µm sections which were examined for cGMP immune-reactivity, co-stained with either vimentin, synaptic vesicle protein 2, calcitonin gene-related protein and protein gene product 9.5. PDE2 inhibitor Bay 60-7550 inhibits cGMP breakdown the most in the urothelial and suburothelial layers, as well as on the nerve fibres. After inhibition by Bay 60-7550, cGMP was mainly expressed in the intermuscle interstitial cells and the nerve fibres of the outer muscle layers of lateral wall, indicating the presence of PDE2 activity. Our study is the first to show the distribution of PDE2 in the bladder which was shown to be present in the urothelium, mainly umbrella cells, the interstitial cells of the suburothelium and the outer muscle, as well as in nerve fibres.

  12. Energy distributions of Bianchi type-VIh Universe in general relativity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have found exactly the same results for Einstein, Bergmann–Thomson and Landau–Lifshitz energy–momentum distributions in Bianchi type- V I h metric for different gravitation theories. The energy–momentum distributions of the Bianchi type- V I h metric are found to be zero for h = −1 in GR and TG. However, our ...

  13. Foliar pH as a new plant trait: can it explain variation in foliar chemistry and carbon cycling processes among subarctic plant species and types?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, J H C; Quested, H M; van Logtestijn, R S P; Pérez-Harguindeguy, N; Gwynn-Jones, D; Díaz, S; Callaghan, T V; Press, M C; Aerts, R

    2006-03-01

    Plant traits have become popular as predictors of interspecific variation in important ecosystem properties and processes. Here we introduce foliar pH as a possible new plant trait, and tested whether (1) green leaf pH or leaf litter pH correlates with biochemical and structural foliar traits that are linked to biogeochemical cycling; (2) there is consistent variation in green leaf pH or leaf litter pH among plant types as defined by nutrient uptake mode and higher taxonomy; (3) green leaf pH can predict a significant proportion of variation in leaf digestibility among plant species and types; (4) leaf litter pH can predict a significant proportion of variation in leaf litter decomposability among plant species and types. We found some evidence in support of all four hypotheses for a wide range of species in a subarctic flora, although cryptogams (fern allies and a moss) tended to weaken the patterns by showing relatively poor leaf digestibility or litter decomposability at a given pH. Among seed plant species, green leaf pH itself explained only up to a third of the interspecific variation in leaf digestibility and leaf litter up to a quarter of the interspecific variation in leaf litter decomposability. However, foliar pH substantially improved the power of foliar lignin and/or cellulose concentrations as predictors of these processes when added to regression models as a second variable. When species were aggregated into plant types as defined by higher taxonomy and nutrient uptake mode, green-specific leaf area was a more powerful predictor of digestibility or decomposability than any of the biochemical traits including pH. The usefulness of foliar pH as a new predictive trait, whether or not in combination with other traits, remains to be tested across more plant species, types and biomes, and also in relation to other plant or ecosystem traits and processes.

  14. On the spatial distribution of the M spectral type stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevanishvili, G.T.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution of M stars with known radial velocities is studied on the base of the Wilson catalogue data. M stars have turned out to show a trend to clustering. The analysis of distances between these grouping stars as well as of their radial velocities, proper motions and other physical characteristics has allowed to keep 24 such groupings. Data concerning the grouping configurations and different physical characteristics of group stars are given. The stars belonging to one group are mostly giants. As a rule each grouping has one or two emission stars, but sometimes all the stars of a grouping are emission ones. It is possible that these groupings are the physical ones and the stars contained in them are of a common origin

  15. Distribution of magnetic field in type II superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, J.L. de.

    1986-09-01

    The magnetie field penetration profile, in type II superconductor, has studied in specially designed cylindrical samples. The samples consist of alternated thick layers ( > 30 μm ) of niobium and copper deposited, by electron-beam evaporation or electro-chemical deposition, on cylindric core of either niobium or copper. The magnetization curves, the magnetic susceptibility and the differential susceptibility for small hysteresis loop ( H c1 c2 ) were measured for all the samples between 4. 2 and 9.5 K. These measurements, done with flux pinned and without, show some peculiar descontinuities and inflections which seems to resemble the samples shape. A simple phenonenological extension of Bean's critical state model was applied to these results, giving a resonable qualitative agreement. Also, a more elaborated theoretical model was improve which could give more quantitative fitting. (author) [pt

  16. Small-scale volcanoes on Mars: distribution and types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broz, Petr; Hauber, Ernst

    2015-04-01

    Volcanoes differ in sizes, as does the amount of magma which ascends to a planetary surface. On Earth, the size of volcanoes is anti-correlated with their frequency, i.e. small volcanoes are much more numerous than large ones. The most common terrestrial volcanoes are scoria cones (Nepenthes/Amenthes region, Arena Colles and inside Lederberg crater), and alternative interpretations (mud volcanoes) seem possible. Other relatively rare volcanoes seem to be lava domes, reported only from two regions (Acracida Planitia and Terra Sirenum). On the other hand, small shields and rootless cones (which are not primary volcanic landforms) represent widely spread phenomena recognized in Tharsis and Elysium. Based on these new observations, the distribution of small volcanoes on Mars seems to be much more widespread than anticipated a decade ago. There are sometimes significant differences in the final morphologies between Martian hypothesized and possible terrestrial analogs, despite fact that the physical processes behind volcano formation should be similar on both planets. For example, Martian scoria cones are ~2.6 times wider than terrestrial analogues, as lower gravity and atmospheric pressure enable wider dispersion of pyroclasts from the vent. In addition, exit velocities of ejected particles should be increased on Mars because the lower atmospheric pressure favors more rapid exsolution of dissolved gases from the magma, which also favors a wider dispersion of ejected particles. Therefore, care must be taken when applying terrestrial morphometric relationships to the interpretation of hypothesized volcanic features on Mars and other terrestrial bodies. As on Earth, small-scale volcanoes on Mars display diverse shapes and hence provide insight into diverse volcanic processes responsible for such variations. Those diverse processes may point to various mechanisms of magma ascent and eruption styles in dependency on magma properties (e.g., amount of volatiles) and the paleo

  17. Programme frequency, type, time and duration do not explain the effects of balance exercise in older adults: a systematic review with a meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farlie, Melanie K; Robins, Lauren; Haas, Romi; Keating, Jennifer L; Molloy, Elizabeth; Haines, Terry P

    2018-01-25

    The objective of this systematic review was to examine the effects of different balance exercise interventions compared with non-balance exercise controls on balance task performance in older adults. Systematic review. Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, EMBASE, Scopus and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched until July 2017. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of randomised trials of balance exercise interventions for older adults were identified for extraction of eligible randomised trials. Eligibility criteria for inclusion of randomised trials in meta-analyses were comparison of a balance exercise intervention with a control group that did not perform balance exercises, report of at least one end-intervention balance outcome measurement that was consistent with the five subgroups of balance exercise identified, and full-text article available in English. Ninety-five trials were included in meta-analyses and 80 in meta-regressions. For four balance exercise types (control centre of mass, multidimensional, mobility and reaching), significant effects for balance exercise interventions were found in meta-analyses (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.31-0.50), however with considerable heterogeneity in observed effects (I 2 : 50.4%-80.6%). Risk of bias assessments (Physiotherapy Evidence Database score and funnel plots) did not explain heterogeneity. One significant relationship identified in the meta-regressions of SMD and balance exercise frequency, time and duration explained 2.1% of variance for the control centre of mass subgroup. Limitations to this study included the variability in design of balance interventions, incomplete reporting of data and statistical heterogeneity. The design of balance exercise programmes provides inadequate explanation of the observed benefits of these interventions. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights

  18. Investigating The Neutron Flux Distribution Of The Miniature Neutron Source Reactor MNSR Type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Hoang Hai; Do Quang Binh

    2011-01-01

    Neutron flux distribution is the important characteristic of nuclear reactor. In this article, four energy group neutron flux distributions of the miniature neutron source reactor MNSR type versus radial and axial directions are investigated in case the control rod is fully withdrawn. In addition, the effect of control rod positions on the thermal neutron flux distribution is also studied. The group constants for all reactor components are generated by the WIMSD code, and the neutron flux distributions are calculated by the CITATION code. The results show that the control rod positions only affect in the planning area for distribution in the region around the control rod. (author)

  19. Young-type interference effect on angular distribution of secondary electrons emitted from H2 in collisions with fast electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Shyamal; Misra, D.; Kelkar, A. H.; Tribedi, Lokesh C.; Stia, C. R.; Fojón, O. A.; Rivarola, R. D.

    2008-11-01

    The Young-type interference arising due to the spatial coherence has been investigated in the electron emission spectrum from fast electron impact ionization of the inversion symmetric homonuclear diatomic molecule H2 . The evidence of the interference effect in the angular distribution of the double differential spectrum of the secondary electron is found. The signature of constructive interferences has been identified in the soft-collision regions as well as in binary encounters. The observed oscillation in the forward-backward asymmetry parameter is explained in terms of the Cohen-Fano-type interference coupled with the angular dependence of oscillation frequency. A comparative study indicates a marked difference between the angular asymmetry in the case of fast heavy ion (F9+) and electron collisions with H2 at a similar velocity.

  20. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution in cervical glandular neoplasias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holl, Katsiaryna; Nowakowski, Andrzej M; Powell, Ned

    2015-01-01

    Cervical glandular neoplasias (CGN) present a challenge for cervical cancer prevention due to their complex histopathology and difficulties in detecting preinvasive stages with current screening practices. Reports of human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and type-distribution in CGN vary, providi...

  1. Distribution of the Determinant of the Sample Correlation Matrix: Monte Carlo Type One Error Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddon, John R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Computer sampling from a multivariate normal spherical population was used to evaluate the type one error rates for a test of sphericity based on the distribution of the determinant of the sample correlation matrix. (Author/LMO)

  2. The Roles of Three Types of Knowledge and Perceived Uncertainty in Explaining Risk Perception, Acceptability, and Self-Protective Response-A Case Study on Endocrine Disrupting Surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hien; Watanabe, Tsunemi

    2018-02-08

    The ubiquitous surfactants nonylphenol (NP) and its ethoxylates (NPEOs), which are known as endocrine disrupters, have appeared in the lists of restricted chemical substances, monitoring programs, and environmental quality standards of many countries due to their adverse effects. Recent studies have reported alarming levels of NP, as the final metabolite of NPEOs, in Vietnamese urban waters, whilst response to this issue is negligible. With the aim of addressing how the public perceives and expects to avoid the risk of endocrine disrupting surfactants (EDSs), the study tested the hypothesized roles of specific knowledge, general knowledge, and perceived uncertainty using structural equation modelling. The findings revealed that different types of knowledge played certain roles in explaining risk perception, risk acceptability, and self-protective response, which are distinguished by experience amongst the public. Evidence of the mediating role that perceived uncertainty may play in the decrease of risk perception and the increase of risk unacceptance has been provided. The insights gained from the study may help answer why the public are in favor of taking non-diet-related self-protective measures rather than changing their dietary habits, which illustrates a comparison with the basis of health belief model. The needs for building cognitive capacity amongst the public, particularly pregnant women and young mothers, and risk communication concerning endocrine disrupting contamination linked to reproductive health are highlighted.

  3. Bianchi type-V anisotropic cosmological models in certain theories of gravitation with perfect fluid distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, V. U. M.; Vinutha, T.; Vijaya Shanthi, M.; Sree Devi Kumari, G.

    2008-09-01

    Exact Bianchi type-V cosmological models are presented in Einstein’s theory of gravitation with cosmological constant Λ in case of perfect fluid distribution. Also obtained Bianchi type-V cosmological models in a scalar-tensor theory of gravitation proposed by Saez and Ballester (1986) in case of perfect fluid distribution using and without using negative constant deceleration parameter. Some physical and geometrical properties of the models are also discussed.

  4. Rate of WD-WD head-on collisions in isolated triples is too low to explain standard type Ia supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toonen, S.; Perets, H. B.; Hamers, A. S.

    2018-02-01

    Context.Type Ia supernovae (Ia-SNe) are thought to arise from the thermonuclear explosions of white dwarfs (WDs). The progenitors of such explosions are still highly debated; in particular the conditions leading to detonations in WDs are not well understood in most of the suggested progenitor models. Nevertheless, direct head-on collisions of two WDs were shown to give rise to detonations and produce Ia-SNe - like explosions, and were suggested as possible progenitors. Aims.The rates of such collisions in dense globular clusters are far below the observed rates of type Ia SNe, but it was suggested that quasi-secular evolution of hierarchical triples could produce a high rate of such collisions. With regular secular evolution, the expected Ia-SNe rate from isolated triples is orders of magnitude below the observed rate. Here we aim to test if the rate of WD collisions in triples can be significantly enhanced if quasi-secular evolution is taken into account. Methods.We used detailed triple stellar evolution populations synthesis models coupled with dynamical secular evolution to calculate the rates of WD-WD collisions in triples and their properties. We explored a range of models with different realistic initial conditions and derived the expected SNe total mass, mass-ratio and delay time distributions for each of the models. Results.We find that the SNe rate from WD-WD collisions is of the order of 0.1% of the observed Ia-SNe rate across all our models, and the delay-time distribution is almost uniform in time, and is inconsistent with observations. Conclusions.We conclude that SNe from WD-WD collisions in isolated triples can at most provide for a small fraction of Ia-SNe, and can not serve as the main progenitors of such explosions.

  5. Land Use Types In Relation To Microbial Distribution in a Degraded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil samples were subjected to routine laboratory analysis. Mean statistic was used to analyze generated data. Soil properties differed among land use types and this influenced distribution of soil microbes. Soils of the petrol dumpsite had the least Ca: Mg ratio but dominated in the content and distribution of Pseudomonas.

  6. Two Types of Distributed CFAR Detection Based on Weighting Functions in Fusion Center for Weibull Clutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Zaimbashi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two types of distributed constant false alarm rate (CFAR detection using binary and fuzzy weighting functions in fusion center are developed. In the two types of distributed detectors, it was assumed that the clutter parameters at the local sensors are unknown and each local detector performs CFAR processing based on ML and OS CFAR processors before transmitting data to the fusion center. At the fusion center, received data is weighted either by a binary or a fuzzy weighting functions and combined according to deterministic rules, constructing global test statistics. Moreover, for the Weibull clutter, the expression of the weighting functions, based on ML and OS CFAR processors in local detectors, is obtained. In the binary type, we analyzed various distributed detection schemes based on maximum, minimum, and summation rules in fusion center. In the fuzzy type, we consider the various distributed detectors based on algebraic product, algebraic sum, probabilistic OR, and Lukasiewicz t-conorm fuzzy rules in fusion center. The performance of the two types of distributed detectors is analyzed and compared in the homogenous and nonhomogenous situations, multiple targets, or clutter edge. The simulation results indicate the superiority and robust performance of fuzzy type in homogenous and non homogenous situations.

  7. Niche segregation in two closely related species of stickleback along a physiological axis: explaining multidecadel changes in fish distribution from iron-induced respiratory impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberk, W.C.E.P.; Munckhof, van den P.J.J.; Pollux, B.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Acute exposure to iron can be lethal to fish, but long-term sublethal impacts of iron require further study. Here we investigated whether the spatial and temporal distribution (1967–2004) of two closely related species of stickleback matched the spatial distribution of iron concentrations in the

  8. Distribution and photobiology of Symbiodinium types in different light environments for three colour morphs of the coral Madracis pharensis: is there more to it than total irradiance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frade, P. R.; Englebert, N.; Faria, J.; Visser, P. M.; Bak, R. P. M.

    2008-12-01

    The role of symbiont variation in the photobiology of reef corals was addressed by investigating the links among symbiont genetic diversity, function and ecological distribution in a single host species, Madracis pharensis. Symbiont distribution was studied for two depths (10 and 25 m), two different light habitats (exposed and shaded) and three host colour morphs (brown, purple and green). Two Symbiodinium genotypes were present, as defined by nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 ribosomal DNA (ITS2-rDNA) variation. Symbiont distribution was depth- and colour morph-dependent. Type B15 occurred predominantly on the deeper reef and in green and purple colonies, while type B7 was present in shallow environments and brown colonies. Different light microhabitats at fixed depths had no effect on symbiont presence. This ecological distribution suggests that symbiont presence is potentially driven by light spectral niches. A reciprocal depth transplantation experiment indicated steady symbiont populations under environment change. Functional parameters such as pigment composition, chlorophyll a fluorescence and cell densities were measured for 25 m and included in multivariate analyses. Most functional variation was explained by two photobiological assemblages that relate to either symbiont identity or light microhabitat, suggesting adaptation and acclimation, respectively. Type B15 occurs with lower cell densities and larger sizes, higher cellular pigment concentrations and higher peridinin to chlorophyll a ratio than type B7. Type B7 relates to a larger xanthophyll-pool size. These unambiguous differences between symbionts can explain their distributional patterns, with type B15 being potentially more adapted to darker or deeper environments than B7. Symbiont cell size may play a central role in the adaptation of coral holobionts to the deeper reef. The existence of functional differences between B-types shows that the clade classification does not necessarily

  9. Shrub type dominates the vertical distribution of leaf C : N : P stoichiometry across an extensive altitudinal gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenqiang; Reich, Peter B.; Yu, Qiannan; Zhao, Ning; Yin, Chunying; Zhao, Chunzhang; Li, Dandan; Hu, Jun; Li, Ting; Yin, Huajun; Liu, Qing

    2018-04-01

    Understanding leaf stoichiometric patterns is crucial for improving predictions of plant responses to environmental changes. Leaf stoichiometry of terrestrial ecosystems has been widely investigated along latitudinal and longitudinal gradients. However, very little is known about the vertical distribution of leaf C : N : P and the relative effects of environmental parameters, especially for shrubs. Here, we analyzed the shrub leaf C, N and P patterns in 125 mountainous sites over an extensive altitudinal gradient (523-4685 m) on the Tibetan Plateau. Results showed that the shrub leaf C and C : N were 7.3-47.5 % higher than those of other regional and global flora, whereas the leaf N and N : P were 10.2-75.8 % lower. Leaf C increased with rising altitude and decreasing temperature, supporting the physiological acclimation mechanism that high leaf C (e.g., alpine or evergreen shrub) could balance the cell osmotic pressure and resist freezing. The largest leaf N and high leaf P occurred in valley region (altitude 1500 m), likely due to the large nutrient leaching from higher elevations, faster litter decomposition and nutrient resorption ability of deciduous broadleaf shrub. Leaf N : P ratio further indicated increasing N limitation at higher altitudes. Interestingly, drought severity was the only climatic factor positively correlated with leaf N and P, which was more appropriate for evaluating the impact of water status than precipitation. Among the shrub ecosystem and functional types (alpine, subalpine, montane, valley, evergreen, deciduous, broadleaf, and conifer), their leaf element contents and responses to environments were remarkably different. Shrub type was the largest contributor to the total variations in leaf stoichiometry, while climate indirectly affected the leaf C : N : P via its interactive effects on shrub type or soil. Collectively, the large heterogeneity in shrub type was the most important factor explaining the overall leaf C : N : P variations

  10. Bimodal score distributions and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: fact or artifact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, Tammy L; Harvey, Robert J

    2002-02-01

    We examined Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) score distributions computed using item response theory (IRT) to assess the generalizability of earlier bimodality reports that have been cited in support of the "type" versus "trait" view of personality. Using the BILOG IRT program to score a sample of approximately 12,000 individuals who participated in leadership development programs, theta score distributions for the 4 dimensions of the MBTI computed using 10 (the BILOG default) versus 50 quadrature points were compared. Results indicated that past reports of bimodality were artifacts caused by BILOG's default use of a small number of quadrature points; when larger numbers of points were used, score distributions became strongly center-weighted. Although our findings are not supportive of the "type"-based hypothesis, the extremely high correlations between theta scores (rs > .996) suggest that no practical differences would be expected as a function of the number-of-quadrature-points decision.

  11. Grain-size distributions and grain boundaries of chalcopyrite-type thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Ras, D.; Schorr, S.; Schock, H.W.

    2007-01-01

    CuInSe 2 , CuGaSe 2 , Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 and CuInS 2 thin-film solar absorbers in completed solar cells were studied in cross section by means of electronbackscatter diffraction. From the data acquired, grain-size distributions were extracted, and also the most frequent grain boundaries were determined. The grain-size distributions of all chalcopyrite-type thin films studied can be described well by lognormal distribution functions. The most frequent grainboundary types in these thin films are 60 - left angle 221 right angle tet and 71 - left angle 110 right angle tet (near) Σ3 twin boundaries. These results can be related directly to the importance of {112} tet planes during the topotactical growth of chalcopyrite-type thin films. Based on energetic considerations, it is assumed that the most frequent twin boundaries exhibit a 180 - left angle 221 right angle tet constellation. (orig.)

  12. Glucose intolerance in the West African Diaspora: a skeletal muscle fibre type distribution hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J; Christensen, D L

    2011-08-01

    In the United States, Black Americans are largely descendants of West African slaves; they have a higher relative proportion of obesity and experience a higher prevalence of diabetes than White Americans. However, obesity rates alone cannot explain the higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction. We hypothesize that the higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes in African Americans (as compared to White Americans) is facilitated by an inherited higher percentage of skeletal muscle fibre type II and a lower percentage of skeletal muscle fibre type I. Skeletal muscle fibre type II is less oxidative and more glycolytic than skeletal muscle fibre type I. Lower oxidative capacity is associated with lower fat oxidation and a higher disposal of lipids, which are stored as muscular adipose tissue in higher amounts in Black compared to White Americans. In physically active individuals, the influence of muscle fibre composition will not be as detrimental as in physically inactive individuals. This discrepancy is caused by the plasticity in the skeletal muscle fibre characteristics towards a higher activity of oxidative enzymes as a consequence of physical activity. We suggest that a higher percentage of skeletal muscle fibre type II combined with physical inactivity has an impact on insulin sensitivity and high prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Blacks of West African ancestry. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Physiologica © 2011 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  13. Comparison of the Performances of Three Different Types of Fault Current Limiter in the Distribution Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, A.; Bocchi, M.; Fabbri, M.; Martini, L.; Negrini, F.; Ribani, P. L.

    2006-06-01

    In this paper the comparison of three different types of SFCL, the resistive, the inductive and the rectifier type, with reference to a significant position in the distribution network, is carried out. The design of the SFCL devices is developed and size, losses and refrigeration power are evaluated. An equivalent circuit model of each device is then derived and implemented, along with the scheme of the considered distribution network, in the EMTP program. The limiting effect, joule integral, recovery time and influence of SFCL devices on the healthy part of the system are studied and compared.

  14. On the use of functional calculus for phase-type and related distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Campillo Navarro, Azucena; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    of matrices. Functional calculus, which is a branch of operator theory frequently associated with complex analysis, can be applied to phase-type and matrix-exponential distributions in a rather straightforward way. In this paper we provide a number of examples on how to execute the formal arguments.......The area of phase-type distributions is renowned for its ability to obtain closed form formulas or algorithmically exact solutions to many complex stochastic models. The method of functional calculus will provide an additional tool along these lines for establishing results in terms of functions...

  15. On the use of functional calculus for phase-type and related distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Navarro, Azucena Campillo; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2016-01-01

    The area of phase-type distributions is renowned for its ability to obtain closed form formulas or algorithmically exact solutions to many complex stochastic models. The method of functional calculus will provide an additional tool along these lines for establishing results in terms of functions...... of matrices. Functional calculus, which is a branch of operator theory frequently associated with complex analysis, can be applied to phase-type and matrix-exponential distributions in a rather straightforward way. In this article we provide a number of examples of how to execute the formal arguments....

  16. Two sample Bayesian prediction intervals for order statistics based on the inverse exponential-type distributions using right censored sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Mohie El-Din

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two sample Bayesian prediction intervals for order statistics (OS are obtained. This prediction is based on a certain class of the inverse exponential-type distributions using a right censored sample. A general class of prior density functions is used and the predictive cumulative function is obtained in the two samples case. The class of the inverse exponential-type distributions includes several important distributions such the inverse Weibull distribution, the inverse Burr distribution, the loglogistic distribution, the inverse Pareto distribution and the inverse paralogistic distribution. Special cases of the inverse Weibull model such as the inverse exponential model and the inverse Rayleigh model are considered.

  17. Stress distributions caused by three types of loading on a circular semimonocoque cylinder with flexible rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccomb, Harvey G , Jr

    1954-01-01

    Equations are derived for the stress distributions caused by three types of loading on infinitely long circular, semimonocoque cylinders with flexible rings. The results are given as formula for the stringer loads and shear flows in the shell due to each type of loading. For each loading case these formulas can be used to construct tables of influence coefficients giving stringer loads and shear flows in the neighborhood of the load due to a unit magnitude of the load. (author)

  18. A modified weighted function method for parameter estimation of Pearson type three distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhongmin; Hu, Yiming; Li, Binquan; Yu, Zhongbo

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, an unconventional method called Modified Weighted Function (MWF) is presented for the conventional moment estimation of a probability distribution function. The aim of MWF is to estimate the coefficient of variation (CV) and coefficient of skewness (CS) from the original higher moment computations to the first-order moment calculations. The estimators for CV and CS of Pearson type three distribution function (PE3) were derived by weighting the moments of the distribution with two weight functions, which were constructed by combining two negative exponential-type functions. The selection of these weight functions was based on two considerations: (1) to relate weight functions to sample size in order to reflect the relationship between the quantity of sample information and the role of weight function and (2) to allocate more weights to data close to medium-tail positions in a sample series ranked in an ascending order. A Monte-Carlo experiment was conducted to simulate a large number of samples upon which statistical properties of MWF were investigated. For the PE3 parent distribution, results of MWF were compared to those of the original Weighted Function (WF) and Linear Moments (L-M). The results indicate that MWF was superior to WF and slightly better than L-M, in terms of statistical unbiasness and effectiveness. In addition, the robustness of MWF, WF, and L-M were compared by designing the Monte-Carlo experiment that samples are obtained from Log-Pearson type three distribution (LPE3), three parameter Log-Normal distribution (LN3), and Generalized Extreme Value distribution (GEV), respectively, but all used as samples from the PE3 distribution. The results show that in terms of statistical unbiasness, no one method possesses the absolutely overwhelming advantage among MWF, WF, and L-M, while in terms of statistical effectiveness, the MWF is superior to WF and L-M.

  19. Distribution of blood types in a sample of 245 New Zealand non-purebred cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattin, R P

    2016-05-01

    To determine the distribution of feline blood types in a sample of non-pedigree, domestic cats in New Zealand, whether a difference exists in this distribution between domestic short haired and domestic long haired cats, and between the North and South Islands of New Zealand; and to calculate the risk of a random blood transfusion causing a severe transfusion reaction, and the risk of a random mating producing kittens susceptible to neonatal isoerythrolysis. The results of 245 blood typing tests in non-pedigree cats performed at the New Zealand Veterinary Pathology (NZVP) and Gribbles Veterinary Pathology laboratories between the beginning of 2009 and the end of 2014 were retrospectively collated and analysed. Cats that were identified as domestic short or long haired were included. For the cats tested at Gribbles Veterinary Pathology 62 were from the North Island, and 27 from the South Island. The blood type distribution differed between samples from the two laboratories (p=0.029), but not between domestic short and long haired cats (p=0.50), or between the North and South Islands (p=0.76). Of the 89 cats tested at Gribbles Veterinary Pathology, 70 (79%) were type A, 18 (20%) type B, and 1 (1%) type AB; for NZVP 139/156 (89.1%) cats were type A, 16 (10.3%) type B, and 1 (0.6%) type AB. It was estimated that 18.3-31.9% of random blood transfusions would be at risk of a transfusion reaction, and neonatal isoerythrolysis would be a risk in 9.2-16.1% of random matings between non-pedigree cats. The results from this study suggest that there is a high risk of complications for a random blood transfusion between non-purebred cats in New Zealand. Neonatal isoerythrolysis should be considered an important differential diagnosis in illness or mortality in kittens during the first days of life.

  20. distribution and types of artificial crown s and bridges prescribed at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    *0bjectives: To determine the types and dstribution of artificial crowns and fixed partial dentures, to analyse the age and gender distribution of patients receiving these prostheses and to compare results with studies elsewhere. ' Materials and methods: The present study consists ofpatients who received crowns and fixed ...

  1. Energy distributions of Bianchi type-VIh Universe in general relativity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-03-16

    Mar 16, 2017 ... Energy distributions of Bianchi type-VIh Universe in general relativity and teleparallel gravity. S. EREF ÖZKURT1 and SEZG˙IN AYGÜN2,3,∗. 1Institute for Natural and Applied Sciences, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, 17020, Çanakkale, Turkey. 2Astrophysics Research Center, Çanakkale Onsekiz ...

  2. Distribution of Campylobacter jejuni capsular types, 2007-2012, Philadelphia, PA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigan, Charles; Ettela, Abora; Poly, Frédéric; Guerry, Patricia; Nachamkin, Irving

    2014-11-01

    The distribution of Campylobacter jejuni capsular serotypes in the Philadelphia region from 2007 to 2012 was determined using molecular methods. Compared with the last U.S. survey in 1990, there does not appear to be a major shift in circulating capsular types. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Distribution and mechanism of Type I-E CRISPR-Cas systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staals, R.H.J.; Brouns, S.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Although the CRISPR type I system encompasses six different subtypes (I-A to I-F), only three subtypes have been studied in detail to date. This review includes an analysis of the distribution of CRISPR-Cas systems among the different bacterial and archaeal lineages, and will focus on our

  4. The distribution of early- and late-type galaxies in the Coma cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, M.; Fukugita, M.; Okamura, S.; Turner, E. L.

    1995-01-01

    The spatial distribution and the morohology-density relation of Coma cluster galaxies are studied using a new homogeneous photmetric sample of 450 galaxies down to B = 16.0 mag with quantitative morphology classification. The sample covers a wide area (10 deg X 10 deg), extending well beyond the Coma cluster. Morphological classifications into early- (E+SO) and late-(S) type galaxies are made by an automated algorithm using simple photometric parameters, with which the misclassification rate is expected to be approximately 10% with respect to early and late types given in the Third Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies. The flattened distribution of Coma cluster galaxies, as noted in previous studies, is most conspicuously seen if the early-type galaxies are selected. Early-type galaxies are distributed in a thick filament extended from the NE to the WSW direction that delineates a part of large-scale structure. Spiral galaxies show a distribution with a modest density gradient toward the cluster center; at least bright spiral galaxies are present close to the center of the Coma cluster. We also examine the morphology-density relation for the Coma cluster including its surrounding regions.

  5. Study on introduction of SN transition type FCL into looped distribution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameda, Hideyuki; Uemura, Satoshi; Ichinose, Ataru

    2012-01-01

    A large amount of distributed generations such as PV will be introduced into the future Japanese distribution systems. Although distribution systems are presently operated under radial configuration and are terminated with loads, the connection of the distributed generations may cause some problems such as the occurrence of reverse power, the sensitivity decrease of the protection relays, and the voltage rise at the ends. It is assumed that a distribution system is looped in a large city to aim at the improvement of the service reliability under the situation mentioned above. However, a countermeasure against the increase of short-circuit current may be necessary in a looped system. We think that the installation of the SN transition type superconducting fault current limiter (FCL) is effective as a measure against the increase of short-circuit capacity, so we have proposed an effective arrangement of the FCLs into a radial distribution system and the method of setting the parameters. In this paper, a new introduction of FCLs is proposed, that is the way to clear a short-circuit fault within a looped system by the protection relay and the loop switch (LS). To achieve this purpose, the FCL needs to reduce the current through the LS below the rated current of the LS. And we propose the best arrangement to achieve the purpose, and the method of setting the parameters of a SN transition type FCL. Our proposal may bring the flexibility of composing any system configuration.

  6. Modelling a reliability system governed by discrete phase-type distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Castro, Juan Eloy; Perez-Ocon, Rafael; Fernandez-Villodre, Gemma

    2008-01-01

    We present an n-system with one online unit and the others in cold standby. There is a repairman. When the online fails it goes to repair, and instantaneously a standby unit becomes the online one. The operational and repair times follow discrete phase-type distributions. Given that any discrete distribution defined on the positive integers is a discrete phase-type distribution, the system can be considered a general one. A model with unlimited number of units is considered for approximating a system with a great number of units. We show that the process that governs the system is a quasi-birth-and-death process. For this system, performance reliability measures; the up and down periods, and the involved costs are calculated in a matrix and algorithmic form. We show that the discrete case is not a trivial case of the continuous one. The results given in this paper have been implemented computationally with Matlab

  7. Modelling a reliability system governed by discrete phase-type distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Castro, Juan Eloy [Departamento de Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain)], E-mail: jeloy@ugr.es; Perez-Ocon, Rafael [Departamento de Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain)], E-mail: rperezo@ugr.es; Fernandez-Villodre, Gemma [Departamento de Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain)

    2008-11-15

    We present an n-system with one online unit and the others in cold standby. There is a repairman. When the online fails it goes to repair, and instantaneously a standby unit becomes the online one. The operational and repair times follow discrete phase-type distributions. Given that any discrete distribution defined on the positive integers is a discrete phase-type distribution, the system can be considered a general one. A model with unlimited number of units is considered for approximating a system with a great number of units. We show that the process that governs the system is a quasi-birth-and-death process. For this system, performance reliability measures; the up and down periods, and the involved costs are calculated in a matrix and algorithmic form. We show that the discrete case is not a trivial case of the continuous one. The results given in this paper have been implemented computationally with Matlab.

  8. Influence of prey type on nickel and thallium assimilation, subcellular distribution and effects in juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Dominique; Gentès, Sophie; Ponton, Dominic E; Hare, Landis; Couture, Patrice

    2009-11-15

    Because fish take up metals from prey, it is important to measure factors controlling metal transfer between these trophic levels so as to explain metal bioaccumulation and effects in fish. To achieve this, we exposed two types of invertebrates, an oligochaete (Tubifex tubifex) and a crustacean (Daphnia magna), to environmentally relevant concentrations of two important contaminants, nickel (Ni) and thallium (Tl), and fed these prey to juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). We then measured the assimilation efficiency (AE), subcellular distribution and effects of these metals in fish. Fish assimilated dietary Tl more efficiently from D. magna than from T. tubifex, and more efficiently than Ni, regardless of prey type. However, the proportion of metal bound to prey subcellular fractions that are likely to be trophically available (TAM) had no significant influence on the efficiency with which fish assimilated Ni or Tl. In fish, the majority of their Ni and Tl was bound to subcellular fractions that are purportedly detoxified, and prey type had a significant influence on the proportion of detoxified Ni and Tl in fish. We measured higher activities of cytochrome C oxidase and glutathione S-transferase in fish fed D. magna compared to fish fed T. tubifex, regardless of the presence or absence of Ni or Tl in prey. However, we measured decreased activities of glutathione S-transferase and nucleoside diphosphate kinase in fish fed Tl-contaminated D. magna compared to fish from the three other treatment levels.

  9. GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION AND INHERITANCE OF «A» TYPE SEED COAT IN BRASSICA RAPA L. POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Ignatov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Distribution and inheritance of «A» and «B» types of seed coat in populations of B. rapa originated from Europe, Central Asia, China and Japan was studied. «A» type seeds were found in Central Asian and Japanese populations represented by toria, Asian turnip and plants of «B». rapa ssp. nipposinica (L.H.Bailey Hanelt. In intraspecific crosses, «A» type of seed coat was controlled by two complementary dominant genes. 

  10. Allomorph distribution and granule structure of lotus rhizome C-type starch during gelatinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Canhui; Cai, Jinwen; Man, Jianmin; Yang, Yang; Wang, Zhifeng; Wei, Cunxu

    2014-01-01

    The allomorph distribution and granule structure of C-type starch from lotus rhizomes were investigated using a combination of techniques during gelatinization. The disruption of crystallinity during gelatinization began from the end distant from the eccentric hilum and then propagated into the center of granule. The periphery of hilum end was finally gelatinized, accompanied by high swelling. The crystallinity changed from C-type to A-type via CA-type during gelatinization, and finally became amorphous structure. The amylose content, crystal degree, helix content, ratio of 1045/1022cm(-1), and peak intensity of crystalline lamellae of gelatinizing starch significantly decreased after 70°C. The amorphous content and ratio of 1022/995cm(-1) increased after 70°C. This study elucidated that B-type allomorph was mainly arranged in the distal region of eccentric hilum, A-type allomorph was mainly located in the periphery of hilum end, and the center of granule was a mixed distribution of A- and B-type allomorphs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Explaining the evaporation paradox in Jiangxi Province of China: Spatial distribution and temporal trends in potential evapotranspiration of Jiangxi Province from 1961 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianghui Lu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Evaporation acts as an important component and a key control factor in land hydrological processes. In order to analyze the trend of change on potential evapotranspiration from 1961 to 2013 and to discuss the existence of the evaporation paradox in Jiangxi province, China, monthly meteorological data spanning the years 1961–2013 were analyzed in this study, where the data were collected from 15 national meteorological stations in Jiangxi Province. The Penman–Monteith equation was employed to compute the potential evapotranspiration (ET0. Spatial interpolation and data mining technology were used to analyze the spatial and temporal changes of ET0 and air temperature, with the effort to explain the evaporation paradox. By solving the total differential and the partial derivatives coefficients of the independent variables in Penman–Monteith equation, the cause of the paradox was quantitatively evaluated. The results showed that the annual ET0 had been decreasing significantly in Jiangxi Province since 1979, whereas the air temperature had been rising significantly, presenting the evaporation paradox. The decreases in sunshine duration and wind speed reduced ET0 by 0.207 mm and 0.060 mm, respectively, accounting for 92.3% and 26.7% of the total ET0, respectively. It is concluded that sunshine duration and wind speed are the main causes to the decrease in potential evapotranspiration in Jiangxi Province.

  12. The role of retinopathy distribution and other lesion types for the definition of examination intervals during screening for diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ometto, Giovanni; Erlandsen, Mogens; Hunter, Andrew; Bek, Toke

    2017-06-01

    It has previously been shown that the intervals between screening examinations for diabetic retinopathy can be optimized by including individual risk factors for the development of the disease in the risk assessment. However, in some cases, the risk model calculating the screening interval may recommend a different interval than an experienced clinician. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of factors unrelated to diabetic retinopathy and the distribution of lesions for discrepancies between decisions made by the clinician and the risk model. Therefore, fundus photographs from 90 screening examinations where the recommendations of the clinician and a risk model had been discrepant were evaluated. Forty features were defined to describe the type and location of the lesions, and classification and ranking techniques were used to assess whether the features could predict the discrepancy between the grader and the risk model. Suspicion of tumours, retinal degeneration and vascular diseases other than diabetic retinopathy could explain why the clinician recommended shorter examination intervals than the model. Additionally, the regional distribution of microaneurysms/dot haemorrhages was important for defining a photograph as belonging to the group where both the clinician and the risk model had recommended a short screening interval as opposed to the other decision alternatives. Features unrelated to diabetic retinopathy and the regional distribution of retinal lesions may affect the recommendation of the examination interval during screening for diabetic retinopathy. The development of automated computerized algorithms for extracting information about the type and location of retinal lesions could be expected to further optimize examination intervals during screening for diabetic retinopathy. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The neonatal heart has a relatively high content of total collagen and type I collagen, a condition that may explain the less compliant state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marijianowski, M. M.; van der Loos, C. M.; Mohrschladt, M. F.; Becker, A. E.

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluated the extent of the collagen network in neonatal heart muscle and whether the type I/type III collagen ratio is the same as in the adult heart. The functional integrity and the stress-strain relation of heart muscle depends largely on the extracellular collagen matrix. The

  14. Modeling of luminance distribution in CAVE-type virtual reality systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meironke, Michał; Mazikowski, Adam

    2017-08-01

    At present, one of the most advanced virtual reality systems are CAVE-type (Cave Automatic Virtual Environment) installations. Such systems are usually consisted of four, five or six projection screens and in case of six screens arranged in form of a cube. Providing the user with a high level of immersion feeling in such systems is largely dependent of optical properties of the system. The modeling of physical phenomena plays nowadays a huge role in the most fields of science and technology. It allows to simulate work of device without a need to make any changes in the physical constructions. In this paper distribution of luminance in CAVE-type virtual reality systems were modelled. Calculations were performed for the model of 6-walled CAVE-type installation, based on Immersive 3D Visualization Laboratory, situated at the Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics at the Gdańsk University of Technology. Tests have been carried out for two different scattering distribution of the screen material in order to check how these characteristicinfluence on the luminance distribution of the whole CAVE. The basis assumption and simplification of modeled CAVE-type installation and results were presented. The brief discussion about the results and usefulness of developed model were also carried out.

  15. Inference on the reliability of Weibull distribution with multiply Type-I censored data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Xiang; Wang, Dong; Jiang, Ping; Guo, Bo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the reliability of Weibull distribution under multiply Type-I censoring, which is a general form of Type-I censoring. In multiply Type-I censoring in this study, all units in the life testing experiment are terminated at different times. Reliability estimation with the maximum likelihood estimate of Weibull parameters is conducted. With the delta method and Fisher information, we propose a confidence interval for reliability and compare it with the bias-corrected and accelerated bootstrap confidence interval. Furthermore, a scenario involving a few expert judgments of reliability is considered. A method is developed to generate extended estimations of reliability according to the original judgments and transform them to estimations of Weibull parameters. With Bayes theory and the Monte Carlo Markov Chain method, a posterior sample is obtained to compute the Bayes estimate and credible interval for reliability. Monte Carlo simulation demonstrates that the proposed confidence interval outperforms the bootstrap one. The Bayes estimate and credible interval for reliability are both satisfactory. Finally, a real example is analyzed to illustrate the application of the proposed methods. - Highlights: • We focus on reliability of Weibull distribution under multiply Type-I censoring. • The proposed confidence interval for the reliability is superior after comparison. • The Bayes estimates with a few expert judgements on reliability are satisfactory. • We specify the cases where the MLEs do not exist and present methods to remedy it. • The distribution of estimate of reliability should be used for accurate estimate.

  16. Self-organization property of Kohonen's map with general type of stimuli distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Ali A.

    1998-12-01

    Here the self-organization property of one-dimensional Kohonen's algorithm in its 2k-neighbor setting with a general type of stimuli distribution and non-increasing learning rate is considered. A new definition of the winner is given, which coincides with the usual definition in implementations of the algorithm. We prove that the probability of self-organization for all initial weights of neurons is uniformly positive. For the special case of a constant learning rate, it implies that the algorithm self-organizes with probability one. The conditions imposed on the neighborhood function, stimuli distribution and learning rate are quite general.

  17. An Evaluation of Ad Hoc Presence-Only Data in Explaining Patterns of Distribution: Cetacean Sightings from Whale-Watching Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa K. Higby

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of presence-only data is a problem in determining species distributions and accurately determining population sizes. The collection of such data is common from unequal or nonrandomised effort surveys, such as those surveys conducted by citizen scientists. However, causative regression-based methods have been less well examined using presence-only data. In this study, we examine a range of predictive factors which might influence Cetacean sightings (specifically minke whale sightings from whale-watching vessels in Faxaflói Bay in Iceland. In this case, environmental variables were collected regularly regardless of whether sightings were recorded. Including absences as well as presence in the analysis resulted in a multiple-generalised linear regression model with significantly more explanatory power than when data were presence only. However, by including extra information on the sightings of the whales, in this case, their observed behaviour when the sighting occurred resulted in a significantly improved model over the presence-only data model. While there are limitations of conducting nonrandomised surveys for the use of predictive models such as regression, presence-only data should not be considered as worthless, and the scope of collection of these data by citizen scientists using modern technology should not be underestimated.

  18. Current distribution across type II superconducting films: a new vortex-free critical state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talantsev, E F; Pantoja, A E; Crump, W P; Tallon, J L

    2018-01-29

    The current distribution across the thickness of a current-carrying rectangular film in the Meissner state was established long ago by the London brothers. The distribution across the width is more complicated but was later shown to be highly non-uniform, diverging at the edges. Accordingly, the standard view for type II superconductors is that vortices enter at the edges and, with increasing current, are driven inwards until they self-annihilate at the centre, causing dissipation. This condition is presumed to define the critical current. However we have shown that, under self-field (no external field), the transport critical current is a London surface current where the surface current density equals the critical field divided by λ, across the entire width. The critical current distribution must therefore be uniform. Here we report studies of the current and field distribution across commercial YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 conductors and confirm the accepted non-uniform distribution at low current but demonstrate a radical crossover to a uniform distribution at critical current. This crossover ends discontinuously at a singularity and calculations quantitatively confirm these results in detail. The onset of self-field dissipation is, unexpectedly, thermodynamic in character and the implied vortex-free critical state seems to require new physics.

  19. CloudSat observations of cloud-type distribution over the Indian summer monsoon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Subrahmanyam

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional distribution of various cloud types over the Indian summer monsoon (ISM region using five years (2006–2010 of CloudSat observations during June-July-August-September months is discussed for the first time. As the radiative properties, latent heat released and microphysical properties of clouds differ largely depending on the cloud type, it becomes important to know what types of clouds occur over which region. In this regard, the present analysis establishes the three-dimensional distribution of frequency of occurrence of stratus (St, stratocumulus (Sc, nimbostratus (Ns, cumulus (Cu, altocumulus (Ac, altostratus (As, cirrus (Ci and deep convective (DC clouds over the ISM region. The results show that the various cloud types preferentially occur over some regions of the ISM, which are consistent during all the years of observations. It is found that the DC clouds frequently occur over northeast of Bay of Bengal (BoB, Ci clouds over a wide region of south BoB–Indian peninsula–equatorial Indian Ocean, and Sc clouds over the north Arabian Sea. Ac clouds preferentially occur over land, and a large amount of As clouds are found over BoB. The occurrence of both St and Ns clouds over the study region is much lower than all other cloud types.The interannual variability of all these clouds including their vertical distribution is discussed. It is envisaged that the present study opens up possibilities to quantify the feedback of individual cloud type in the maintenance of the ISM through radiative forcing and latent heat release.

  20. A study of the distribution of rare-metals in kuroko-type ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murao, S. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience]|[Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1996-12-31

    We have performed PIXE analysis of kuroko-type ore from the JADE hydrothermal site of the Okinawa Trough, Japan using the proton microprobe (PIXEPROBE). We analysed five kinds of ores dredged from the sea floor: (I) barite ore with small sulfide dissemination; (2) sphalerite-pyrite chimney; (3) pyrite ore; (4) sulfide veinlets in strongly altered rock; and (5) pyrite megacrystals in strongly altered rock. The analyses revealed that the trace element distribution is regulated by the occurrence mode of the ore, and within each ore, by the crystal structure. The distribution suggests that the hydrothermal system for kuroko ore formation is quite heterogeneous and its chemistry is controlled by local factors such as difference in temperature, and that in-situ PIXE analyses are essential for effective beneficiation strategy for the rare-metals from kuroko-type ore. (authors). 10 refs., 1 tab.

  1. A study of the distribution of rare-metals in kuroko-type ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murao, S.; Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    We have performed PIXE analysis of kuroko-type ore from the JADE hydrothermal site of the Okinawa Trough, Japan using the proton microprobe (PIXEPROBE). We analysed five kinds of ores dredged from the sea floor: (I) barite ore with small sulfide dissemination; (2) sphalerite-pyrite chimney; (3) pyrite ore; (4) sulfide veinlets in strongly altered rock; and (5) pyrite megacrystals in strongly altered rock. The analyses revealed that the trace element distribution is regulated by the occurrence mode of the ore, and within each ore, by the crystal structure. The distribution suggests that the hydrothermal system for kuroko ore formation is quite heterogeneous and its chemistry is controlled by local factors such as difference in temperature, and that in-situ PIXE analyses are essential for effective beneficiation strategy for the rare-metals from kuroko-type ore. (authors). 10 refs., 1 tab

  2. Multi-Objective Planning of Multi-Type Distributed Generation Considering Timing Characteristics and Environmental Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Gao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach to multi-type distributed generation (DG planning based on the analysis of investment and income brought by grid-connected DG. Firstly, the timing characteristics of loads and DG outputs, as well as the environmental benefits of DG are analyzed. Then, on the basis of the classification of daily load sequences, the typical daily load sequence and the typical daily output sequence of DG per unit capacity can be computed. The proposed planning model takes the location, capacity and types of DG into account as optimization variables. An improved adaptive genetic algorithm is proposed to solve the model. Case studies have been carried out on the IEEE 14-node distribution system to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method and model.

  3. Shor-Preskill-type security proof for quantum key distribution without public announcement of bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won-Young; Wang Xiangbin; Matsumoto, Keiji; Kim, Jaewan; Lee, Hai-Woong

    2003-01-01

    We give a Shor-Preskill-type security proof to quantum key distribution without public announcement of bases [W.Y. Hwang et al., Phys. Lett. A 244, 489 (1998)]. First, we modify the Lo-Chau protocol once more so that it finally reduces to the quantum key distribution without public announcement of bases. Then we show how we can estimate the error rate in the code bits based on that in the checked bits in the proposed protocol, which is the central point of the proof. We discuss the problem of imperfect sources and that of large deviation in the error rate distributions. We discuss when the bases sequence must be discarded

  4. Investigations on 3-dimensional temperature distribution in a FLATCON-type CPV module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesenfarth, Maike; Gamisch, Sebastian; Kraus, Harald; Bett, Andreas W.

    2013-09-01

    The thermal flow in a FLATCON®-type CPV module is investigated theoretically and experimentally. For the simulation a model in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software SolidWorks Flow Simulation was established. In order to verify the simulation results the calculated and measured temperatures were compared assuming the same operating conditions (wind speed and direction, direct normal irradiance (DNI) and ambient temperature). Therefore, an experimental module was manufactured and equipped with temperature sensors at defined positions. In addition, the temperature distribution on the back plate of the module was displayed by infrared images. The simulated absolute temperature and the distribution compare well with an average deviation of only 3.3 K to the sensor measurements. Finally, the validated model was used to investigate the influence of the back plate material on the temperature distribution by replacing the glass material by aluminum. The simulation showed that it is important to consider heat dissipation by radiation when designing a CPV module.

  5. Self-organization property of Kohonen's map with general type of stimuli distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeghi, Ali A.

    1997-01-01

    Here the self-organization property of one-dimensional Kohonen's algorithm in its 2k-neighbour setting with a general type of stimuli distribution and non-increasing learning rate is considered. We prove that the probability of self-organization for all initial values of neurons is uniformly positive. For the special case of a constant learning rate, it implies that the algorithm self-organizes with probability one.

  6. Impact of target site distribution for Type I restriction enzymes on the evolution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gareth A.; Houston, Patrick J.; White, John H.; Chen, Kai; Stephanou, Augoustinos S.; Cooper, Laurie P.; Dryden, David T.F.; Lindsay, Jodi A.

    2013-01-01

    A limited number of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clones are responsible for MRSA infections worldwide, and those of different lineages carry unique Type I restriction-modification (RM) variants. We have identified the specific DNA sequence targets for the dominant MRSA lineages CC1, CC5, CC8 and ST239. We experimentally demonstrate that this RM system is sufficient to block horizontal gene transfer between clinically important MRSA, confirming the bioinformatic evidence that each lineage is evolving independently. Target sites are distributed randomly in S. aureus genomes, except in a set of large conjugative plasmids encoding resistance genes that show evidence of spreading between two successful MRSA lineages. This analysis of the identification and distribution of target sites explains evolutionary patterns in a pathogenic bacterium. We show that a lack of specific target sites enables plasmids to evade the Type I RM system thereby contributing to the evolution of increasingly resistant community and hospital MRSA. PMID:23771140

  7. Impact of target site distribution for Type I restriction enzymes on the evolution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gareth A; Houston, Patrick J; White, John H; Chen, Kai; Stephanou, Augoustinos S; Cooper, Laurie P; Dryden, David T F; Lindsay, Jodi A

    2013-08-01

    A limited number of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clones are responsible for MRSA infections worldwide, and those of different lineages carry unique Type I restriction-modification (RM) variants. We have identified the specific DNA sequence targets for the dominant MRSA lineages CC1, CC5, CC8 and ST239. We experimentally demonstrate that this RM system is sufficient to block horizontal gene transfer between clinically important MRSA, confirming the bioinformatic evidence that each lineage is evolving independently. Target sites are distributed randomly in S. aureus genomes, except in a set of large conjugative plasmids encoding resistance genes that show evidence of spreading between two successful MRSA lineages. This analysis of the identification and distribution of target sites explains evolutionary patterns in a pathogenic bacterium. We show that a lack of specific target sites enables plasmids to evade the Type I RM system thereby contributing to the evolution of increasingly resistant community and hospital MRSA.

  8. Shrub type dominates the vertical distribution of leaf C : N : P stoichiometry across an extensive altitudinal gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Zhao

    2018-04-01

    important factor explaining the overall leaf C : N : P variations, despite the broad climate gradient on the plateau. Temperature and drought induced shifts in shrub type distribution will influence the nutrient accumulation in mountainous shrubs.

  9. Increased clearance explains lower plasma levels of tissue-type plasminogen activator by estradiol: Evidence for potently enhanced mannose receptor expression in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lansink, M.; Jong, M.; Bijsterbosch, M.; Bekkers, M.; Toet, K.; Havekes, L.; Emeis, J.; Kooistra, T.

    1999-01-01

    Several clinical studies have demonstrated an inverse relationship between circulating levels of estrogen and tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA). The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that estrogen lower plasma levels of t-PA by increasing its clearance from the bloodstream.

  10. Increased risk of type 2 diabetes with ascending social class in urban South Indians is explained by obesity: The Chennai urban rural epidemiology study (CURES-116).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skar, Mette; Villumsen, Anne Berg; Christensen, Dirk Lund; Petersen, Joergen Holm; Deepa, Mohan; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the factors responsible for differences in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in subjects of different social class in an urban South Indian population. Analyses were based on the cross-sectional data from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study of 1989 individuals, aged ≥20 years. Entered in the analyses were information obtained by self-report on (1) household income; (2) family history of diabetes; (3) physical activity; (4) smoking status; (5) alcohol consumption. Biochemical, clinical and anthropometrical measurements were performed and included in the analyses. Social class was classified based on income as low (Rs. social class, respectively (P social class (Intermediate class: Odds ratio [OR], 1.7 [confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.3]; High class: OR, 2.0 [CI-1.4-2.9]). The multivariable adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that the effect of social class on the risk of diabetes remained significant (P = 0.016) when age, family history of diabetes and blood pressure were included. However, with the inclusion of abdominal obesity in the model, the significant effect of social class disappeared (P = 0.087). An increased prevalence of DM was found in the higher social class in this urban South Indian population, which is explained by obesity.

  11. Distribution of types of microbial mats at the Ebro Delta, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, R; Urmeneta, J; Rampone, G

    1993-01-01

    The distribution and types of microbial mats of the Ebro Delta (Catalonia, Spain) are described. The studied area is La Banya spit, formed by a narrow sand bar and a peninsula, located south of the main body of the Ebro Delta. Sea water can penetrate into the back shore through channel inlets, cutting the steeper coastal barrier of the open sea side of the spit or through the complex drainage channel system of the low-energy beaches in the inner Alfacs Bay. Sea water can stay in the back shore almost permanently, trapped in isolated depressions and lagoons. The surface distribution of microbial mats in La Banya spit has been studied by means of a detailed interpretation of vertical aerial photographs and field work consisting of mapping and sampling. The observed different ratios of cyanobacteria, as well as the presence and thickness of the layers of anoxygenic sulfur phototrophic bacteria, depend on the moisture content, the system stability, and the age of the microbial mat. Lyngbya, Oscillatoria, and Spirulina are the first cyanobacteria able to colonize the bare sediment. Lyngbya dominates in young microbial mats and in mats exposed to frequent desiccation. Microcoleus is the second most important colonist in the microbial succession. In relation to water, the alternation of emergence and submergence is optimal for the maximal development of Microcoleus-dominated microbial mats. We classify the microbial mats of the Ebro Delta into five main types: (i) Lyngbya-dominated type, in which the anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are absent and the black layer of sulfate-reducers is very thin; (ii) Spirulina-dominated type; (iii) Oscillatoria-dominated type, which is found only at one site and covers a small area--this type, like the Spirulina-type mat, is not common in the Ebro Delta; (iv) Lyngbya/Microcoleus-transition type, in which Microcoleus and Lyngbya coexist in similar proportions--in the more developed mats of this group a layer of purple bacteria is usually

  12. Distribution patterns of infection with multiple types of human papillomaviruses and their association with risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Soto-De Leon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infection with multiple types of human papillomavirus (HPV is one of the main risk factors associated with the development of cervical lesions. In this study, cervical samples collected from 1,810 women with diverse sociocultural backgrounds, who attended to their cervical screening program in different geographical regions of Colombia, were examined for the presence of cervical lesions and HPV by Papanicolau testing and DNA PCR detection, respectively. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The negative binomial distribution model used in this study showed differences between the observed and expected values within some risk factor categories analyzed. Particularly in the case of single infection and coinfection with more than 4 HPV types, observed frequencies were smaller than expected, while the number of women infected with 2 to 4 viral types were higher than expected. Data analysis according to a negative binomial regression showed an increase in the risk of acquiring more HPV types in women who were of indigenous ethnicity (+37.8%, while this risk decreased in women who had given birth more than 4 times (-31.1%, or were of mestizo (-24.6% or black (-40.9% ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: According to a theoretical probability distribution, the observed number of women having either a single infection or more than 4 viral types was smaller than expected, while for those infected with 2-4 HPV types it was larger than expected. Taking into account that this study showed a higher HPV coinfection rate in the indigenous ethnicity, the role of underlying factors should be assessed in detail in future studies.

  13. Can simultaneous contact allergies to phenyl glycidyl ether and epoxy resins of the bisphenol A/F-types be explained by contamination of the epoxy resins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontén, Ann; Zimerson, Erik; Bruze, Magnus

    2008-11-01

    Simultaneous contact allergies to epoxy resins based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA-R) or epoxy resins of the bisphenol F-type and the reactive diluent phenyl glycidyl ether (PGE) have been reported. The reason might be cross-reactivity, exposure to an epoxy resin system with PGE as a component, or contamination by PGE in the epoxy resin. To study contamination by PGE, 20 commercial epoxy resins were analysed for the presence of PGE. To study contact allergy to PGE and its relation to epoxy resins by inserting PGE in the standard series. Among 2227 patients, 7 reacted to PGE. Of 23 (30%) patients, 7 with contact allergy to DGEBA-R and 7/19 (37%) with contact allergy to an epoxy resin of the bisphenol F-type reacted to PGE. All 7 patients with contact allergy to PGE reacted both to the DGEBA-R and to the epoxy resin of the bisphenol F-type. PGE was found in 90% of the investigated resins. The amounts of PGE ranged between 0.004% w/w and 0.18% w/w. Most probably, the presence of PGE as a contaminant in epoxy resins is of minor importance for the sensitization, but possibly the contamination of PGE might elicit contact dermatitis in individuals with a high reactivity to PGE.

  14. Increased risk of type 2 diabetes with ascending social class in urban South Indians is explained by obesity: The Chennai urban rural epidemiology study (CURES-116

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Skar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the factors responsible for differences in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM in subjects of different social class in an urban South Indian population. Materials and Methods: Analyses were based on the cross-sectional data from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study of 1989 individuals, aged ≥20 years. Entered in the analyses were information obtained by self-report on (1 household income; (2 family history of diabetes; (3 physical activity; (4 smoking status; (5 alcohol consumption. Biochemical, clinical and anthropometrical measurements were performed and included in the analyses. Social class was classified based on income as low (Rs. <2000 intermediate (Rs. 2000-5000` and high (Rs. 5000-20000. Results: The prevalence rates of DM were 12.0%, 18.4% and 21.7% in low, intermediate and high social class, respectively (P < 0.001. A significant increase in the risk of diabetes was found with ascending social class (Intermediate class: Odds ratio [OR], 1.7 [confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.3]; High class: OR, 2.0 [CI-1.4-2.9]. The multivariable adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that the effect of social class on the risk of diabetes remained significant (P = 0.016 when age, family history of diabetes and blood pressure were included. However, with the inclusion of abdominal obesity in the model, the significant effect of social class disappeared (P = 0.087. Conclusion: An increased prevalence of DM was found in the higher social class in this urban South Indian population, which is explained by obesity.

  15. Calorie restriction and not glucagon-like peptide-1 explains the acute improvement in glucose control after gastric bypass in Type 2 diabetes.

    OpenAIRE

    Steven, S.; Hollingsworth, K. G.; Small, P. K.; Woodcock, S. A.; Pucci, A.; Aribasala, B.; Al-Mrabeh, A.; Batterham, R. L.; Taylor, R.

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: To compare directly the impact of glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion on glucose metabolism in individuals with Type 2 diabetes listed for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, randomized to be studied before and 7 days after undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or after following a very-low-calorie diet. METHODS: A semi-solid meal test was used to investigate glucose, insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 response. Insulin secretion in response to intravenous glucose and arginine stimulus was m...

  16. Study on introduction of SN transition type FCL into distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameda, Hideyuki; Uemura, Satoshi; Ichinose, Ataru

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We describe the arrangement of SNFCL into a present and a future distribution system. •The FCLs near loop-switches can prevent a blackout against a fault within the loop. •The FCLs enable us to enhance the flexibility of the system configuration. -- Abstract: The suitable introduction method of SN transition type superconducting fault current limiter (SNFCL) into a typical 6.6-kVdistribution system in Japan is described. A present distribution system is operated in the radial configuration and aged equipment with the isolated neutral system. An introduction of the FCLs into this system could expect to become a countermeasure against a short-circuit when introducing distributed generations in a future looped distribution system, the entire system will go into a blackout without any countermeasures, when a fault occurs within the looped system. But the introduction of the FCLs is expected to localize a blackout and to enhance the flexibility of a system configuration. In order to achieve the above-mentioned purposes of the introduction of the FCLs, the setting method of the parameters which a user should set is proposed using the transient analysis model of the SNFCL which we have ever developed

  17. Optimizing Operation Indices Considering Different Types of Distributed Generation in Microgrid Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloofar Ghanbari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The need for independent power generation has increased in recent years, especially with the growing demand in microgrid systems. In a microgrid with several generations of different types and with all kinds of loads of variable nature, an optimal power balance in the system has to be achieved. This optimal objective, which results in minimal energy losses over a specific period of time, requires an optimal location and sizing of the distributed generations (DGs in a microgrid. This paper proposes a new optimization method in which both optimal location of the DGs and their generation profile according to the load demand profile as well as the type of DG are determined during the life time of the DGs. The types of DGs that are considered in this paper are diesel generators and wind turbine. The method is based on simultaneously minimizing the cost of the investment and operation of the DGs, the cost of power delivered by the the external grid as well as the cost of power losses in the network. The proposed method is tested on the IEEE standard radial distribution network considering time-varying loads and the wind speed every hour of a day.

  18. Stress distribution in roots restored with different types of post systems with composite resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Daizo; Miura, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Chikako; Komada, Wataru; Shin, Chiharu; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Masuoka, David

    2008-07-01

    Although composite resin core is used with various types of prefabricated posts, it remains unclear which kind of material is most suitable for the post. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of prefabricated posts on the stress distribution within the root by finite element analysis. Posts and cores were built up with composite resin and four types of prefabricated posts: two types of glass fiber posts (GFP1, GFP2) with low and high Young's moduli, a titanium post (TIP), and a stainless steel post (SSP). In all models, stress distribution during function was calculated. There were differences in stress concentration at the root around the end of posts. The magnitudes of stress for GFP1, GFP2, TIP, and STP were 8.7, 9.3, 11.7, and 13.9 MPa respectively. Given the results obtained, GFP1 was the most suitable material for post fabrication since this model showed a lower stress value. It would therefore mean a lower possibility of root fracture.

  19. Forest Type and Tree Characteristics Determine the Vertical Distribution of Epiphytic Lichen Biomass in Subtropical Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Epiphytic lichens are an important component in subtropical forests and contribute greatly to forest biodiversity and biomass. However, information on epiphytic lichens still remains scarce in forest conservation owing to the difficulty of accessing all canopy layers for direct observation. Here, epiphytic lichens were quantified on 73 whole trees in five forest types in Southwest China to clarify the vertical stratification of their biomass in subtropical forests. Lichen biomass was significantly influenced by forest type and host attributes, varying from 187.11 to 8.55 g∙tree−1 among forest types and from 289.81 to <0.01 g∙tree−1 among tree species. The vertical stratification of lichen biomass was also determined by forest type, which peaked at the top in primary Lithocarpus forest and middle-aged oak secondary forest and in the middle upper heights in other forests. Overall, the proportion of lichen biomass accounted for 73.17–100.00% of total lichen biomass on branches and 0.00–26.83% on trunks in five forests, and 64.53–100.00% and 0.00–35.47% on eight host species. Seven functional groups showed marked and various responses to tree height between and among forest types. This information improves our understanding of the distribution of epiphytic lichens in forest ecosystems and the promotion of forest management in subtropical China.

  20. Type and distribution of sensilla in the antennae of the red clover root borer, Hylastinus obscurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Rubén; Mutis, Ana; Isaacs, Rufus; Quiroz, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine the type, distribution, and structures of sensilla, the antennae of the red clover root borer, Hylastinus obscurus Marsham (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), were examined by light and electron microscopy (both scanning and transmission). Four different types of sensilla were identified in the club, and one type of chaetica was found in the scape and funicle of both male and female individuals. Chaetica and basiconica were the most abundant sensilla types in the club. They were present in the three sensory bands described, totaling approximately 80% of sensilla in the antennal club of H. obscurus. Chaetica were predominantly mechanoreceptors, although gustatory function could not be excluded. Basiconica forms showed characteristics typical of olfactory sensilla. Trichoidea were not found in the proximal sensory band, and they exhibited abundant pores, suggesting olfactory function. Styloconica were the least abundant sensillum type, and their shape was similar to that reported as having hygro- and thermoreceptor functions. There was no difference in the relative abundance of antennal sensilla between males and females. Finally, the sensillar configuration and abundance of receptors in the H. obscurus antennae suggest that these sensilla have chemoreceptive and other functions.

  1. Cervical HPV type-specific pre-vaccination prevalence and age distribution in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabol, Ivan; Milutin Gašperov, Nina; Matovina, Mihaela; Božinović, Ksenija; Grubišić, Goran; Fistonić, Ivan; Belci, Dragan; Alemany, Laia; Džebro, Sonja; Dominis, Mara; Šekerija, Mario; Tous, Sara; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Grce, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    The main etiological factor of precancerous lesion and invasive cervical cancer are oncogenic human papillomaviruses types (HPVs). The objective of this study was to establish the distribution of the most common HPVs in different cervical lesions and cancer prior to the implementation of organized population-based cervical screening and HPV vaccination in Croatia. In this study, 4,432 cervical specimens, collected through a 16-year period, were tested for the presence of HPV-DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with three sets of broad-spectrum primers and type-specific primers for most common low-risk (LR) types (HPV-6, 11) and the most common high-risk (HR) types (HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58). Additional 35 archival formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissue of cervical cancer specimens were analyzed using LiPA25 assay. The highest age-specific HPV-prevalence was in the group 18-24 years, which decreased continuously with age (Ptypes significantly increased (Ptype found with a prevalence (with or without another HPV-type) of 6.9% in normal cytology, 15.5% in atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, 14.4% in low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, 33.3% in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and 60.9% in cervical cancer specimens (Ptypes among Croatian women, which will enable to predict and to monitor the impact of HPV-vaccination and to design effective screening strategies in Croatia.

  2. The design and research of distributed cooling type high concentrated photovoltaic module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Mingchong; Yao, Shun; Chen, Bingzhen; Yang, Guanghui; Guo, Limin; Peng, Na; Shen, Du; Bao, Wei; Yang, Cuibai; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Zhiyong

    2015-10-01

    At present, the conversion efficiency of high concentrated photovoltaic modules is about 30%, most of the solar energy is converted into heat, which will result in solar cell temperature rise and subsequent module efficiency decrease. For existing module with large solar cell, the heat source is concentrated and additional cooling fins must be used, resulting in high system complexity and cost rise. In order to lower the cost of photovoltaic, we developed distributed cooling type module with simple structure. This paper depicts a distributed cooling design for high concentrated photovoltaic module, as well as the thermal simulation of this design with analysis software. Module prototype was also made to test the actual effect. The final outdoor results showed high consistency with the simulation results. The chip temperature can be lower than 45° and the module outdoor working efficiency is higher than 26% and lower temperature provide a guarantee of long-term reliability to module packaging material.

  3. Stress distribution in 450 Y-type fitting under internal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aono, Muneshige; Itoh, Kenji; Kikuchi, Masatoshi; Iezawa, Tohru.

    1983-01-01

    The stress distribution in 45 0 Y-type fitting under internal pressure was obtained by strain gauge method and FEM. The results of the stress distribution on the outer surface obtained by the both methods are in good agreement. From the FEM analysis, the stress concentration zones of this fitting are situated on the outer surface of the side of this fitting where mother and branch pipes cross and the inner surface of the both crotches of the fitting, and there a large amount of tensile stresses are generated. However, the maximum principal stress value occuring under the designed internal pressure is approximately 2.9 kgf/mm 2 and allowable stress of this material (SUS 304) is 1.28 kgf/mm 2 , and therefore it is found that the safety factor of this fitting is above 4. (author)

  4. Novel superstructure of the rocksalt type and element distribution in germanium tin antimony tellurides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, Tobias [Department of Chemistry, Ludwig Maximilian University, Butenandtstraße 5-13, 81377 Munich (Germany); Welzmiller, Simon [Institute for Mineralogy, Crystallography and Materials Science, Leipzig University, Scharnhorststraße 20, 04275 Leipzig (Germany); Neudert, Lukas [Department of Chemistry, Ludwig Maximilian University, Butenandtstraße 5-13, 81377 Munich (Germany); Urban, Philipp [Institute for Mineralogy, Crystallography and Materials Science, Leipzig University, Scharnhorststraße 20, 04275 Leipzig (Germany); Fitch, Andy [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, CS40220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Oeckler, Oliver, E-mail: oliver.oeckler@gmx.de [Institute for Mineralogy, Crystallography and Materials Science, Leipzig University, Scharnhorststraße 20, 04275 Leipzig (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    A superstructure of the rocksalt-type observed in quenched CVT-grown single crystals of Ge{sub 3.25(7)}Sn{sub 1.10(3)}Sb{sub 1.10(3)}Te{sub 6} was elucidated by X-ray diffraction using fourfold twinned crystals (space group P3{sup ¯}m1, a=4.280(1) Å, c=20.966(3) Å). The structure is built up of distorted rocksalt-type building blocks typical for long-range ordered GST materials and substitution variants thereof. In contrast to those phases, an exclusive ABC-type cubic stacking sequence of the Te-atom layers is present. High-resolution electron microscopy reveals spheroidal domains with this structure (average diameter 25 nm) whose stacking direction is perpendicular to the 〈1 1 1〉 directions of the basic rocksalt-type structure. Additional slab-like domains with a lateral extension up to 1 µm occasionally result in a hierarchical structure motif. Due to the similar electron counts of the elements involved, resonant diffraction was used in order to elucidate the element distribution in rocksalt-type building blocks of the stable layered compound 39R-Ge{sub 3}SnSb{sub 2}Te{sub 7} (R3{sup ¯}m, a=4.24990(4) Å, c=73.4677(9) Å). Sb tends to occupy the atom site close to the van der Waals gaps while Ge concentrates in the center of the building blocks. - Graphical abstract: High-resolution transmission electron micrograph, SAED pattern and reciprocal lattice section of X-ray single crystal data of Ge{sub 3.25}Sn{sub 1.1}Sb{sub 1.1}Te{sub 6} with an 11P-type superstructure of the rocksalt type. - Highlights: • A novel superstructure of the rocksalt-type in the system Ge–Sn–Sb–Te is elucidated. • It combines the cubic stacking of the HT phase with building blocks of the RT phase. • It indicates the ordering mechanism during the phase transition of GST materials. • A hierarchical structure motif is promising with respect to the reduction of κ{sub L}. • Resonant diffraction reveals the element distribution in 39R-Ge{sub 3}SnSb{sub 2}Te{sub 7}.

  5. The human cerebral cortex is neither one nor many: neuronal distribution reveals two quantitatively different zones in the gray matter, three in the white matter, and explains local variations in cortical folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Pedro F. M.; Ventura-Antunes, Lissa; Gabi, Mariana; Mota, Bruno; Grinberg, Lea T.; Farfel, José M.; Ferretti-Rebustini, Renata E. L.; Leite, Renata E. P.; Filho, Wilson J.; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2013-01-01

    The human prefrontal cortex has been considered different in several aspects and relatively enlarged compared to the rest of the cortical areas. Here we determine whether the white and gray matter of the prefrontal portion of the human cerebral cortex have similar or different cellular compositions relative to the rest of the cortical regions by applying the Isotropic Fractionator to analyze the distribution of neurons along the entire anteroposterior axis of the cortex, and its relationship with the degree of gyrification, number of neurons under the cortical surface, and other parameters. The prefrontal region shares with the remainder of the cerebral cortex (except for occipital cortex) the same relationship between cortical volume and number of neurons. In contrast, both occipital and prefrontal areas vary from other cortical areas in their connectivity through the white matter, with a systematic reduction of cortical connectivity through the white matter and an increase of the mean axon caliber along the anteroposterior axis. These two parameters explain local differences in the distribution of neurons underneath the cortical surface. We also show that local variations in cortical folding are neither a function of local numbers of neurons nor of cortical thickness, but correlate with properties of the white matter, and are best explained by the folding of the white matter surface. Our results suggest that the human cerebral cortex is divided in two zones (occipital and non-occipital) that differ in how neurons are distributed across their gray matter volume and in three zones (prefrontal, occipital, and non-occipital) that differ in how neurons are connected through the white matter. Thus, the human prefrontal cortex has the largest fraction of neuronal connectivity through the white matter and the smallest average axonal caliber in the white matter within the cortex, although its neuronal composition fits the pattern found for other, non-occipital areas. PMID

  6. The human cerebral cortex is neither one nor many: Neuronal distribution reveals two quantitatively different zones in the grey matter, three in the white matter, and explains local variations in cortical folding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro F. M. Ribeiro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The human prefrontal cortex has been considered different in several aspects and relatively enlarged compared to the rest of the cortical areas. Here we determine whether the white and gray matter of the prefrontal portion of the human cerebral cortex have similar or different cellular compositions relative to the rest of the cortical regions by applying the Isotropic Fractionator to analyze the distribution of neurons along the entire anteroposterior axis of the cortex, and its relationship with the degree of gyrification, number of neurons under the cortical surface, and other parameters. The prefrontal region shares with the remainder of the cerebral cortex (except for occipital cortex the same relationship between cortical volume and number of neurons. In contrast, both occipital and prefrontal areas vary from other cortical areas in their connectivity through the white matter, with a systematic reduction of cortical connectivity through the white matter and an increase of the mean axon caliber along the anteroposterior axis. These two parameters explain local differences in the distribution of neurons underneath the cortical surface. We also show that local variations in cortical folding are neither a function of local numbers of neurons nor of cortical thickness, but correlate with properties of the white matter, and are best explained by the folding of the white matter surface. Our results suggest that the human cerebral cortex is divided in two zones (occipital and non-occipital that differ in how neurons distributed across their grey matter volume and in three zones (prefrontal, occipital, and non-occipital that differ in how neurons are connected through the white matter. Thus, the human prefrontal cortex has the largest fraction of neuronal connectivity through the white matter and the smallest average axonal caliber in the white matter within the cortex, although its neuronal composition fits the pattern found for other, non

  7. Association between expression of random gene sets and survival is evident in multiple cancer types and may be explained by sub-classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    One of the goals of cancer research is to identify a set of genes that cause or control disease progression. However, although multiple such gene sets were published, these are usually in very poor agreement with each other, and very few of the genes proved to be functional therapeutic targets. Furthermore, recent findings from a breast cancer gene-expression cohort showed that sets of genes selected randomly can be used to predict survival with a much higher probability than expected. These results imply that many of the genes identified in breast cancer gene expression analysis may not be causal of cancer progression, even though they can still be highly predictive of prognosis. We performed a similar analysis on all the cancer types available in the cancer genome atlas (TCGA), namely, estimating the predictive power of random gene sets for survival. Our work shows that most cancer types exhibit the property that random selections of genes are more predictive of survival than expected. In contrast to previous work, this property is not removed by using a proliferation signature, which implies that proliferation may not always be the confounder that drives this property. We suggest one possible solution in the form of data-driven sub-classification to reduce this property significantly. Our results suggest that the predictive power of random gene sets may be used to identify the existence of sub-classes in the data, and thus may allow better understanding of patient stratification. Furthermore, by reducing the observed bias this may allow more direct identification of biologically relevant, and potentially causal, genes. PMID:29470520

  8. Fundamental distribution of stress corrosion crack depth on Type 316L stainless steels induced by creviced bent beam test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Yuichi; Miura, Yasufumi; Kako, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    The creviced bent beam (CBB) test has been applied for many materials such as nickel base alloys and low carbon austenitic stainless steels. For sensitized austenitic stainless steels, fundamental distribution of crack depth induced by CBB tests was evaluated to establish SCC initiation model and lifetime prediction method. On the other hand, there are a few studies about distribution of crack depth on low carbon austenitic stainless steels. In this study, statistical analysis of crack depth was conducted in Type 316L stainless steels after CBB tests. The results are summarized as follows, (1) Distribution of grain boundary depth designated as distance from surface to triple point of grain boundary fit lognormal probability distribution and exponential probability distribution. (2) Distribution of crack depth approaches lognormal or exponential probability distribution with passage of test duration. Distribution of plastic strain on the specimen surface is not affect to type of crack depth distribution. (3) Inflection or bent point appears on the probability plot at depth of the median of grain boundary depth distribution. (4) Less than median of grain boundary depth, distribution of crack depth is identical to grain boundary depth distribution. More than median + standard deviation of grain boundary depth, crack depth distribution is described by the exponential distribution. (author)

  9. Comparison of regional index flood estimation procedures based on the extreme value type I distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Thomas Rodding; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2002-01-01

    A comparison of different methods for estimating T-year events is presented, all based on the Extreme Value Type I distribution. Series of annual maximum flood from ten gauging stations at the New Zealand South island have been used. Different methods of predicting the 100-year event...... considered applying either a log-linear relationship between at-site mean annual flood and catchment characteristics or a direct log-linear relationship between 100-year events and catchment characteristics. Comparison of the results shows that the existence of at-site measurements significantly diminishes...

  10. Soil type-depending effect of paddy management: composition and distribution of soil organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanski, Livia; Kölbl, Angelika; Lehndorff, Eva; Houtermans, Miriam; Schad, Peter; Zhang, Gang-Lin; Rahayu Utami, Sri; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2016-04-01

    significantly higher VSC values compared to their parent soil types. However, the higher organic carbon concentrations in Andosol and Alisol (China)-derived paddy soils compared to their parent soil types, could not be explained by an enrichment of lignin-derived phenols. It seems that site specific incorporation of crop residues and properties of the parent soil types are likely more important for organic carbon contents and soil organic matter composition than the effect of paddy management itself.

  11. Cell type specificity of signaling: view from membrane receptors distribution and their downstream transduction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ying; Yu, Zhonghao; Ge, Dongya; Wang-Sattler, Rui; Thiesen, Hans-Jürgen; Xie, Lu; Li, Yixue

    2012-09-01

    Studies on cell signaling pay more attention to spatial dynamics and how such diverse organization can relate to high order of cellular capabilities. To overview the specificity of cell signaling, we integrated human receptome data with proteome spatial expression profiles to systematically investigate the specificity of receptors and receptor-triggered transduction networks across 62 normal cell types and 14 cancer types. Six percent receptors showed cell-type-specific expression, and 4% signaling networks presented enriched cell-specific proteins induced by the receptors. We introduced a concept of "response context" to annotate the cell-type dependent signaling networks. We found that most cells respond similarly to the same stimulus, as the "response contexts" presented high functional similarity. Despite this, the subtle spatial diversity can be observed from the difference in network architectures. The architecture of the signaling networks in nerve cells displayed less completeness than that in glandular cells, which indicated cellular-context dependent signaling patterns are elaborately spatially organized. Likewise, in cancer cells most signaling networks were generally dysfunctional and less complete than that in normal cells. However, glioma emerged hyper-activated transduction mechanism in malignant state. Receptor ATP6AP2 and TNFRSF21 induced rennin-angiotensin and apoptosis signaling were found likely to explain the glioma-specific mechanism. This work represents an effort to decipher context-specific signaling network from spatial dimension. Our results indicated that although a majority of cells engage general signaling response with subtle differences, the spatial dynamics of cell signaling can not only deepen our insights into different signaling mechanisms, but also help understand cell signaling in disease.

  12. A deteriorating two-system with two repair modes and sojourn times phase-type distributed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoro-Cazorla, Delia; Perez-Ocon, Rafael

    2006-01-01

    We study a two-unit cold standby system in steady-state. The online unit goes through a finite number of stages of successive degradation preceding the failure. The units are reparable, there is a repairman and two types of maintenance are considered, preventive and corrective. The preventive repair aims to improve the degradation of a unit being operative. The corrective repair is necessary when the unit fails. We will assume that the preventive repair will be interrupted in favour of a corrective repair in order to increase the availability of the system. The random operational and repair times follow phase-type distributions. For this system, the stationary probability vector, the replacement times, and the involved costs are calculated. An optimisation problem is illustrated by a numerical example. In this, the optimal degradation stage for the preventive repair of the online unit is determined by taking into account the system availability and the incurred costs

  13. Control of a maintenance system when failure and repair times have phase type distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decassiamenesesrodrigues, Rita

    1990-09-01

    In the model of machine repair discussed there are M + R identical machines, M operating, and R spares. All machines are independent of one another. When an operating machine fails, it is sent to a single server repair station and immediately replaced by a spare machine, if one is available. The server has two available service types to choose from. There are waiting costs, repair costs, lost production costs, and switch-over costs. The following decision problem is treated: to obtain a stationary policy which determines the service type as a function of the state of the system in order to minimize the long-run average cost when failure and repair times have second-order Coxian distribution. This control problem is represented by a semi-Markov decision process. The policy-iteration algorithm and the value-iteration algorithm are used to obtain the optimal policy. Numerical results are given for these two optimization methods.

  14. Lexicographical structuring: the number and types of fields, data distribution, searching and data presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Pedersen, Heidi Agerbo

    2015-01-01

    dictionaries. However, only by producing monofunctional dictionaries is it possible to avoid the type of information overload, which makes polyfunctional dictionaries close to useless on electronic devices such as tablets and smartphones. In the case of monofunctional dictionaries, lexicographical structuring......This contribution will not describe the structure in existing dictionaries. Instead, it will focus on the decisions that lexicographers make when they draw up the concept for and carry out the production of one or more new dictionaries, or when they consider making changes in the data presentation...... in an existing dictionary. This part of the lexicographical work is what we call structuring, which encompasses a number of various lexicographical decisions. One of these is choosing the fields that a database should contain. Typically, for some of these field types, it will be easy to distribute data...

  15. Wild-type minimal inhibitory concentration distributions in bacteria of animal origin in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia L Pantozzi

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance profiles of indicator bacteria isolated from domestic animal feces. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined by agar dilution. Interpretative criteria on the basis of wild-type MIC distributions and epidemiological cutoff values (ECOFF or ECV were used according to the 'European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing' (EUCAST data. Results from 237 isolates of Escherichia coli showed reduced susceptibility for ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline, the antimicrobials commonly used in intensive breeding of pigs and hens. Regarding all the species of the genus Enterococcus spp., there are only ECOFF or ECV for vancomycin. Of the 173 Enterococcus spp. isolated, only one showed reduced susceptibility to vancomycin and was classified as 'non-wild-type' (NWT population. This is the first report in Argentina showing data of epidemiological cutoff values in animal bacteria.

  16. [Frequency, nature and distribution of school sport injuries at different types of schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greier, K; Riechelmann, H

    2012-12-01

    A high percentage of all sports injuries occur during school sports. It was analysed whether there are differences in frequency, nature and distribution of school sport injuries at two different types of schools. School sport injuries of all secondary modern schools (n = 106) and in lower classes of grammar Schools (n = 17) in the federal state of Tyrol, Austria, from the ten school years 2001/02 to 2010/11 were analysed. All physical injuries occurring during school sports and resulting in the consultation of a medical doctor and therefore being reported to the general accident department (Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt [AUVA]) were assessed. During the evaluation period an average number of 32,935 (±1584) school children attended the two types of schools in Tyrol per year. The average incidence of school sports injuries in this ten-year period in both types of schools was 36.4/1,000 (mean) with a standard deviation of 4.4/1,000 per school child per year. The incidence increased from 30.3 in the school year 2001/02 to 40.4 in the school year 2010/11 (r = 0.91; b = 1.34; p sport injuries at secondary modern schools (37.4 ± 4.9 per 1,000 school children per year) was higher than at the lower classes of grammar schools (32.9 ± 4.0 per 1,000 school children per year; relative risk 1.138; 95% CI = 1.09-1.19; p = 1.8 × 10-8). In addition, the sports injuries of the school year 2010/11 were analysed in detail and a comparison was made between the two types of schools. The distribution pattern of school sports injuries did not show any significant differences between both school types. At the secondary modern schools, as well as in the lower classes of grammar schools, injuries to the upper extremities prevailed (>50%). Ball sports were responsible for every second injury. Secondary modern school pupils had a significantly higher risk of suffering a school sports injury than pupils in the lower classes of grammar schools. The injury pattern did not show

  17. Human Papillomavirus Prevalence and Type Distribution Among 968 Women in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Kyeong A; Hong, Jin Hwa; Lee, Jae Kwan

    2016-06-01

    Geographic variation in the prevalence of carcinogenic types and human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution is closely associated with the impact of HPV prophylactic vaccines. We determined the prevalence and distribution of HPV genotypes among healthy women in Korea. This study included 968 healthy women who were examined at a health promotion center of the Korea University Guro Hospital between January and June 2013. Each participant had a Pap test and a HPV DNA test using the Anyplex™ II HPV 28 Detection system, which detects 19 high-risk HPVs (HR HPVs) and 9 low-risk HPVs (LR HPVs). Women with abnormal cytology and/or positivity for HR HPVs were referred to colposcopic biopsy. Overall HR HPV prevalence based on the assay was 33.7%. Among them, 225 women had single infection and 101 women had multiple infection. The most frequently occurring HR HPV types were 53 (6.5%), 52 (6.1%), 58 (4.8%), 16 (4.5%), and 68 (4.2%). The most frequently occurring LR HPV types were 54 (5.4%), 70 (3.8%), 42 (3.6%), 61 (3.4%), and 44 (3.1%). The prevalence of HPV 16 was highest (17.6%) among women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and HPV 16 was strongly associated with a diagnosis of CIN2/3 (odds ratio = 20.5; 95% confidence interval: 3.9-107.1; P women. HPV16 was the most common type in high-grade CIN lesions, as shown in most studies worldwide. The results might be useful information for cervical cancer prevention in South Korea.

  18. Restricted distribution of Streptococcus milleri carbohydrate type antigens amongst other viridans streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, M; Matsunoshita, N; Yakushiji, T

    1992-09-01

    The distribution of oral Streptococcus milleri carbohydrate type antigens in other viridans streptococcus species was examined. Rantz-Randall extracts of cells of the test strains grown in broth containing glucose were allowed to react with typing or grouping antisera for S. milleri serotypes a-k, or Lancefield groups A-G and K. Of 93 strains comprising more than 12 streptococcal species that included S. mutans and S. sanguis complexes, only 15 S. salivarius strains and one S. mitis strain were immunologically related to S. milleri serotype f. Unlike S. milleri strains, S. salivarius type f strains belonged to Lancefield group K, whereas the S. mitis strain was closely related to S. milleri serotype f but did not react with any of the Lancefield grouping antisera tested. Results suggest that oral S. milleri strains can be distinguished serologically from other oral viridans streptococci and that the typing antisera used in our researches might differentiate S. milleri isolates from the mouth from those associated with systemic purulent infections.

  19. Grain-boundary type and distribution in silicon carbide coatings and wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancino-Trejo, Felix; López-Honorato, Eddie; Walker, Ross C.; Ferrer, Romelia Salomon

    2018-03-01

    Silicon carbide is the main diffusion barrier against metallic fission products in TRISO (tristructural isotropic) coated fuel particles. The explanation of the accelerated diffusion of silver through SiC has remained a challenge for more than four decades. Although, it is now well accepted that silver diffuse through SiC by grain boundary diffusion, little is known about the characteristics of the grain boundaries in SiC and how these change depending on the type of sample. In this work five different types (coatings and wafers) of SiC produced by chemical vapor deposition were characterized by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The SiC in TRISO particles had a higher concentration of high angle grain boundaries (aprox. 70%) compared to SiC wafers, which ranged between 30 and 60%. Similarly, SiC wafers had a higher concentration of low angle grain boundaries ranging between 15 and 30%, whereas TRISO particles only reached values of around 7%. The same trend remained when comparing the content of coincidence site lattice (CSL) boundaries, since SiC wafers showed a concentration of more than 30%, whilst TRISO particles had contents of around 20%. In all samples the largest fractions of CSL boundaries (3 ≤ Σ ≤ 17) were the Σ3 boundaries. We show that there are important differences between the SiC in TRISO particles and SiC wafers which could explain some of the differences observed in diffusion experiments in the literature.

  20. Distribution of extended-spectrum β-lactamase types in a Brazilian tertiary hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keite da Silva Nogueira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological data on the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs are scarce in Brazil despite the fact that these data are essential for empirical treatment and control measures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of different ESBLs by type and distribution in a tertiary hospital in southern Brazil. METHODS: We evaluated 1,827 enterobacterial isolates between August 2003 and March 2008 isolated from patients at a tertiary hospital. Samples were identified using a Vitek automated system and were confirmed by biochemical testing. The identified ESBL strains were characterized by phenotypic methods, polymerase chain reaction (PCR, and sequencing. Genetic similarities were evaluated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. RESULTS: It was 390 (21.3% ESBL-producing strains, which expressed the ESBLs CTX-M (292, SHV (84, CTX and SHV (10, TEM (2, and PER (2. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of ESBL-expressing strains was high, especially in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter spp. CTX-M was the predominant type of ESBL observed, and its genetic variability indicates a polyclonal distribution.

  1. Genetic Variability and Distribution of Mating Type Alleles in Field Populations of Leptosphaeria maculans from France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gout, Lilian; Eckert, Maria; Rouxel, Thierry; Balesdent, Marie-Hélène

    2006-01-01

    Leptosphaeria maculans is the most ubiquitous fungal pathogen of Brassica crops and causes the devastating stem canker disease of oilseed rape worldwide. We used minisatellite markers to determine the genetic structure of L. maculans in four field populations from France. Isolates were collected at three different spatial scales (leaf, 2-m2 field plot, and field) enabling the evaluation of spatial distribution of the mating type alleles and of genetic variability within and among field populations. Within each field population, no gametic disequilibrium between the minisatellite loci was detected and the mating type alleles were present at equal frequencies. Both sexual and asexual reproduction occur in the field, but the genetic structure of these populations is consistent with annual cycles of randomly mating sexual reproduction. All L. maculans field populations had a high level of gene diversity (H = 0.68 to 0.75) and genotypic diversity. Within each field population, the number of genotypes often was very close to the number of isolates. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that >99.5% of the total genetic variability was distributed at a small spatial scale, i.e., within 2-m2 field plots. Population differentiation among the four field populations was low (GST < 0.02), suggesting a high degree of gene exchange between these populations. The high gene flow evidenced here in French populations of L. maculans suggests a rapid countrywide diffusion of novel virulence alleles whenever novel resistance sources are used. PMID:16391041

  2. Using raindrop size distributions from different types of disdrometer to establish weather radar algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldini, Luca; Adirosi, Elisa; Roberto, Nicoletta; Vulpiani, Gianfranco; Russo, Fabio; Napolitano, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Radar precipitation retrieval uses several relationships that parameterize precipitation properties (like rainfall rate and liquid water content and attenuation (in case of radars at attenuated frequencies such as those at C- and X- band) as a function of combinations of radar measurements. The uncertainty in such relations highly affects the uncertainty precipitation and attenuation estimates. A commonly used method to derive such relationships is to apply regression methods to precipitation measurements and radar observables simulated from datasets of drop size distributions (DSD) using microphysical and electromagnetic assumptions. DSD datasets are determined both by theoretical considerations (i.e. based on the assumption that the radar always samples raindrops whose sizes follow a gamma distribution) or from experimental measurements collected throughout the years by disdrometers. In principle, using long-term disdrometer measurements provide parameterizations more representative of a specific climatology. However, instrumental errors, specific of a disdrometer, can affect the results. In this study, different weather radar algorithms resulting from DSDs collected by diverse types of disdrometers, namely 2D video disdrometer, first and second generation of OTT Parsivel laser disdrometer, and Thies Clima laser disdrometer, in the area of Rome (Italy) are presented and discussed to establish at what extent dual-polarization radar algorithms derived from experimental DSD datasets are influenced by the different error structure of the different type of disdrometers used to collect the data.

  3. Prediction for the flow distribution and the pressure drop of a plate type fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Hark; Jo, Dea Sung; Chae, Hee Taek; Lee, Byung Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    A plate type fuel assembly widely used in many research reactors does not allow the coolant to mix with neighboring fuel channels due to the completely separated flow channels. If there is a serious inequality of coolant distribution among channels, it can reduce thermal-hydraulic safety margin, as well as it can cause a deformation of fuel plates by the pressure difference between neighboring channels, thus the flow uniformity in the fuel assembly should be confirmed. When designing a primary cooling system (PCS), the pressure drop through a reactor core is a dominant value to determine the PCS pump size. The major portion of reactor core pressure drop is caused by the fuel assemblies. However it is not easy to get a reasonable estimation of pressure drop due to the geometric complexity of the fuel assembly and the thin gaps between fuel assemblies. The flow rate through the gap is important part to determine the total flow rate of PCS, so it should be estimated as reasonable as possible. It requires complex and difficult jobs to get useful data. In this study CFD analysis to predict the flow distribution and the pressure drop were conducted on the plate type fuel assembly, which results would be used to be preliminary data to determine the PCS flow rate and to improve the design of a fuel assembly

  4. Experimental results of current distribution in Rutherford-type LHC cables

    CERN Document Server

    Verweij, A P

    2000-01-01

    Current distribution among the wires of multi-strand superconducting cables is an important item for accelerator magnets. A non-uniform distribution could cause additional field distortions in the magnet bore and can as well be one of the reasons of premature quenching. Since two years electrical measurements on superconducting Rutherford-type cables are performed at CERN as part of the reception tests for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Cable samples of 2.4 m length are tested at currents up to 32 kA, temperatures around 1.9 and 4.3 K, and fields up to 10 T, applied perpendicularly as well as parallel to the broad face of the cable. Last year, an array of 24 Hall probes was installed in the test set-up in order to measure the self-field of the cable samples along one cable pitch. Each of the probes measures the local field generated by the current in the strands close by, and the results of the all probes reflect therefore the distribution of the strand currents. Experiments are done varying the applied fie...

  5. Effect of dosimeter type for commissioning small photon beams on calculated dose distribution in stereotactic radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Garduño, O. A., E-mail: oagarciag@innn.edu.mx, E-mail: amanda.garcia.g@gmail.com [Laboratorio de Física Médica, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía, Mexico City 14269, México and Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Unidad Legaria, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Legaria 694, México City 11500, México (Mexico); Rodríguez-Ponce, M. [Departamento de Biofísica, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Mexico City 14080, México (Mexico); Gamboa-deBuen, I. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico City 04510 (Mexico); Rodríguez-Villafuerte, M. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico City 04510 (Mexico); Galván de la Cruz, O. O. [Laboratorio de Física Médica, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía, Mexico City 14269, México (Mexico); and others

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: To assess the impact of the detector used to commission small photon beams on the calculated dose distribution in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods: In this study, six types of detectors were used to characterize small photon beams: three diodes [a silicon stereotactic field diode SFD, a silicon diode SRS, and a silicon diode E], an ionization chamber CC01, and two types of radiochromic film models EBT and EBT2. These detectors were used to characterize circular collimated beams that were generated by a Novalis linear accelerator. This study was conducted in two parts. First, the following dosimetric data, which are of particular interest in SRS, were compared for the different detectors: the total scatter factor (TSF), the tissue phantom ratios (TPRs), and the off-axis ratios (OARs). Second, the commissioned data sets were incorporated into the treatment planning system (TPS) to compare the calculated dose distributions and the dose volume histograms (DVHs) that were obtained using the different detectors. Results: The TSFs data measured by all of the detectors were in good agreement with each other within the respective statistical uncertainties: two exceptions, where the data were systematically below those obtained for the other detectors, were the CC01 results for all of the circular collimators and the EBT2 film results for circular collimators with diameters below 10.0 mm. The OAR results obtained for all of the detectors were in excellent agreement for all of the circular collimators. This observation was supported by the gamma-index test. The largest difference in the TPR data was found for the 4.0 mm circular collimator, followed by the 10.0 and 20.0 mm circular collimators. The results for the calculated dose distributions showed that all of the detectors passed the gamma-index test at 100% for the 3 mm/3% criteria. The aforementioned observation was true regardless of the size of the calculation grid for all of the circular collimators

  6. Revisiting the peculiar regional distribution of muscle fiber types in rat Sternomastoid Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Ravara

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The sternomastoid (SM muscle in rodents is known to have a peculiar distribution of fiber types with a steep gradient from surface to deep region. We here further characterize this peculiar regional distribution by quantitative histochemical morphometrys. In Hematoxylin-Eosin (H-E stained transverse cryosections harvested in the medial portion of the muscle we counted around 10.000 myofibers with a mean diameter of 51.3±12.6 (μm. Cryisections of the SM stained by SDH reaction clearly show two distinct regions, toward the deep surface of the muscle a 40% area that contains packed SDH-positive myofibers, while the remaining area of the SM toward the external surface presents a more checker-board appearance. On the other hand, in the deep region of SM type 1 (slow contracting muscle fibers, caracterized by positive acidic ATPase pH 4.35 reaction, are only the 24.5% of the fibers in the deep area of SM muscles, being restricted to the deepest region. The 75.5% of the myofibers in the deep region are of the fast contracting types (either 48.4% 2A, SDH –positive fibers or 27.1% 2B, SDH-negative fibers, respectively. As expected the 2B muscle fibers, acidic ATPase pH 4.3-negative and SDH-negative, present the largest size, while Type 1 fibers, acidic ATPase pH 4.3-positive and SDH-positive, present the smallest size in rat SM muscle. Based on present and previous observations, comparison of change in absolute number and/or percentage of the fiber types in any experimental model of muscle atrophy/hypertrophy/plasticity/pathology /recovery in the rat SM, and possibly of all mammals, will ask for morphometry of the whole muscle cross-sections, muscle sampling by bioptic approches will provide only comparable data on the size of the different types of muscle fibers.

  7. Calorie restriction and not glucagon-like peptide-1 explains the acute improvement in glucose control after gastric bypass in Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, S; Hollingsworth, K G; Small, P K; Woodcock, S A; Pucci, A; Aribasala, B; Al-Mrabeh, A; Batterham, R L; Taylor, R

    2016-12-01

    To compare directly the impact of glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion on glucose metabolism in individuals with Type 2 diabetes listed for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, randomized to be studied before and 7 days after undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or after following a very-low-calorie diet. A semi-solid meal test was used to investigate glucose, insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 response. Insulin secretion in response to intravenous glucose and arginine stimulus was measured. Hepatic and pancreatic fat content was quantified using magnetic resonance imaging. The decrease in fat mass was almost identical in the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and the very-low-calorie diet groups (3.0±0.3 and 3.0±0.7kg). The early rise in plasma glucose level and in acute insulin secretion were greater after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass than after a very-low-calorie diet; however, the early rise in glucagon-like peptide-1 was disproportionately greater (sevenfold) after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass than after a very-low-calorie diet. This did not translate into a greater improvement in fasting glucose level or area under the curve for glucose. The reduction in liver fat was greater after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (29.8±3.7 vs 18.6±4.0%) and the relationships between weight loss and reduction in liver fat differed between the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass group and the very-low-calorie diet group. This study shows that gastroenterostomy increases the rate of nutrient absorption, bringing about a commensurately rapid rise in insulin level; however, there was no association with the large post-meal rise in glucagon-like peptide-1, and post-meal glucose homeostasis was similar in the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and very-low-calorie diet groups. (Clinical trials registry number: ISRCTN11969319.). © 2016 Diabetes UK.

  8. Plagiarism explainer for students

    OpenAIRE

    Barba, Lorena A.

    2016-01-01

    A slide deck to serve as an explainer of plagiarism in academic settings, with a personal viewpoint. For my students.Also on SpeakerDeck:https://speakerdeck.com/labarba/plagiarism-explainer-for-students(The slide viewer on SpeakerDeck is much nicer.)

  9. Comparative analysis of the stress distribution in five anatomical types of maxillary central incisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Wu, Xifeng; Li, Yang; Lin, Zhenyan; Xu, Duoling; Lin, Xuan; Gao, Yongbo

    2017-07-20

    The maxillary central incisor is one of the most important anatomical indicators in esthetics, and stress distribution may vary among its five anatomical views (labial, palatal, mesial, distal, and incisal). To compare stress distribution among the five anatomical views of the maxillary central incisor under loading force at five angles and to observe and analyze the stress distribution in the dentin and periodontal ligament. We established three-dimensional finite element models of the five different views, which simulated the bite force with a static load force at 0∘, 30∘, 45∘, 60∘, and 90∘. The stress and displacement values for the cementoenamel junction (CEJ)-apical labial, palatal, mesial, and distal and the equivalent stress values on the periodontal ligament of the maxillary central incisor were calculated. As the angle increased, the equivalent stress on the periodontal ligament, overall tooth displacement, equivalent stress, and displacement over the four views increased. The peaks of equivalent stress over the four views appeared within 0.8-17 mm below the CEJ, although all equivalent stress values decreased while approaching the peak. Within 1-19 mm below the CEJ, the equivalent stress over the M1 and P1 views of the maxillary central incisor decreased substantially. The peaks of the equivalent stress over the M1 and P1 views of the maxillary central incisor and their stress distribution were lower than those of the other three types. Our findings provided theoretical data on the biomechanics of this esthetically important tooth, which may be useful during implantation of missing maxillary central incisors.

  10. THE DISTRIBUTION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF DIABETES IN CHILDHOOD: A SINGLE CENTER EXPERIENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haliloğlu, Belma; Abali, Saygın; Buğrul, Fuat; Çelik, Enes; Baş, Serpil; Atay, Zeynep; Güran, Tülay; Turan, Serap; Bereket, Abdullah

    2017-11-24

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is the most common cause of diabetes in childhood but type 2 diabetes (T2D) and maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) are emerging and noteworthy causes of diabetes in youths. The aim of the study is to determine the distribution, trends and clinical features of the different types of diabetes in childhood in a tertiary single-center. Children and adolescents aged 0-18 years who were diagnosed "diabetes/persistent hyperglycemia" between January 1999 and December 2016, were reviewed. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of the patients at the diagnosis and type of diabetes were recorded. The mean age of 835 patients (48.7% females) at diagnosis was 8.8±4.4 years. Eighty-four percent of the patients were diagnosed with T1D, 5.7% with T2D, 5.3% with clinical MODY and 5% with other types of diabetes. The frequency of all DKA and severe DKA in T1D were 48.4% and 11.6%, respectively. Fourteen patients (29.2%) with T2D presented with ketosis and 2 of them (4.2%) had DKA at diagnosis. Antibody positivity was 83.1% in T1D and 14.8% in T2D. A statistically significant increase in the frequency of T2D has clearly been demonstrated in recent years with a frequency of 1.9%, 2.4% and 7.9% in 1999-2004, 2005-2010 and 2011-2016, respectively (pchildhood, a trend towards increase in the frequency of T2D in recent years is notable in our population.

  11. Metabolism and tissue distribution of sulforaphane in Nrf2 knockout and wild-type mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, John D; Hsu, Anna; Williams, David E; Dashwood, Roderick H; Stevens, Jan F; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Ho, Emily

    2011-12-01

    To determine the metabolism and tissue distribution of the dietary chemoprotective agent sulforaphane following oral administration to wild-type and Nrf2 knockout (Nrf2(-/-)) mice. Male and female wild-type and Nrf2(-/-) mice were given sulforaphane (5 or 20 μmoles) by oral gavage; plasma, liver, kidney, small intestine, colon, lung, brain and prostate were collected at 2, 6 and 24 h (h). The five major metabolites of sulforaphane were measured in tissues by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Sulforaphane metabolites were detected in all tissues at 2 and 6 h post gavage, with the highest concentrations in the small intestine, prostate, kidney and lung. A dose-dependent increase in sulforaphane concentrations was observed in all tissues except prostate. At 5 μmole, Nrf2(-/-) genotype had no effect on sulforaphane metabolism. Only Nrf2(-/-) females given 20 μmoles sulforaphane for 6 h exhibited a marked increase in tissue sulforaphane metabolite concentrations. The relative abundance of each metabolite was not strikingly different between genders and genotypes. Sulforaphane is metabolized and reaches target tissues in wild-type and Nrf2(-/-) mice. These data provide further evidence that sulforaphane is bioavailable and may be an effective dietary chemoprevention agent for several tissue sites.

  12. How important are determinants of obesity measured at the individual level for explaining geographic variation in body mass index distributions? Observational evidence from Canada using Quantile Regression and Blinder-Oaxaca Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Daniel J; McLaren, Lindsay

    2016-04-01

    Obesity prevalence varies between geographic regions in Canada. The reasons for this variation are unclear but most likely implicate both individual-level and population-level factors. The objective of this study was to examine whether equalising correlates of body mass index (BMI) across these geographic regions could be reasonably expected to reduce differences in BMI distributions between regions. Using data from three cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) 2001, 2003 and 2007 for males and females, we modelled between-region BMI cross-sectionally using quantile regression and Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition of the quantile regression results. We show that while individual-level variables (ie, age, income, education, physical activity level, fruit and vegetable consumption, smoking status, drinking status, family doctor status, rural status, employment in the past 12 months and marital status) may be Caucasian important correlates of BMI within geographic regions, those variables are not capable of explaining variation in BMI between regions. Equalisation of common correlates of BMI between regions cannot be reasonably expected to reduce differences in the BMI distributions between regions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Type-Specific Human Papillomavirus Distribution in Invasive Squamous Cervical Carcinomas in Tunisia and Vaccine Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennaifer, Emna; Salhi, Faten; Laassili, Thalja; Fehri, Emna; Ben Alaya, Nissaf; Guizani, Ikram; Boubaker, Samir

    2015-01-01

    High risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the leading cause of cervical cancer (CC) and Pap smear screening has not been successful in preventing CC in Tunisia. HPV vaccination that targets HPV16 and 18 offers a new efficient prevention tool. Identification of HPV types in CC is thus essential to determine the impact of HPV vaccine implementation. The aim of this study is to provide specific data from Tunisia. A total of 89 histological confirmed paraffin embedded samples isolated from patients with CC diagnosed between 2001 and 2011 were collected from five medical centres from Northern and Southern Tunisia. HPV DNA was detected using a nested PCR (MY09/MY11-GP5+/GP6+) and genotyping was assessed using a reverse blot line hybridisation assay that enables the detection of 32 HPV types. HPV DNA was detected in all samples. Twelve high risk types were detected; HPV16 and/or 18 were predominant, accounting together for 92.1% of all the CC cases (HPV16: 83.1%). Single infections accounted for 48.8% of the cases and were mostly linked to HPV 16 (32.6%) and less frequently to HPV 18 (2.4%). The other high risk HPV single infections were linked to HPV 35 (4.6%), 45 (4.6%), 58 (2.3%) and 59 (2.3%). Multiple infections with mixing of 2 to 4 genotypes predominately featrued HPV16 and/or 18 with HPV 35 and 45 (96.6 %) and less frequently with HPV 59, 40, 66, 73 and 58. There was no statistically significant variation in the relative distribution of HPV types with age. These results strongly indicate that prophylactic HPV vaccines can have a major impact in preventing CC in Tunisia.

  14. Exercise and type 2 diabetes mellitus: changes in tissue-specific fat distribution and cardiac function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Jacqueline T; de Mol, Pieter; de Vries, Suzanna T; Widya, Ralph L; Hammer, Sebastiaan; van Schinkel, Linda D; van der Meer, Rutger W; Gans, Rijk O B; Webb, Andrew G; Kan, Hermien E; de Koning, Eelco J P; Bilo, Henk J G; Lamb, Hildo J

    2013-11-01

    To prospectively assess the effects of an exercise intervention on organ-specific fat accumulation and cardiac function in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants, and the study protocol was approved by the medical ethics committee. The study followed 12 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (seven men; mean age, 46 years ± 2 [standard error]) before and after 6 months of moderate-intensity exercise, followed by a high-altitude trekking expedition with exercise of long duration. Abdominal, epicardial, and paracardial fat volume were measured by using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Cardiac function was quantified with cardiac MR, and images were analyzed by a researcher who was supervised by a senior researcher (4 and 21 years of respective experience in cardiac MR). Hepatic, myocardial, and intramyocellular triglyceride (TG) content relative to water were measured with proton MR spectroscopy at 1.5 and 7 T. Two-tailed paired t tests were used for statistical analysis. Exercise reduced visceral abdominal fat volume from 348 mL ± 57 to 219 mL ± 33 (P Exercise decreased hepatic TG content from 6.8% ± 2.3 to 4.6% ± 1.6 (P Exercise did not change epicardial fat volume (P = .9), myocardial TG content (P = .9), intramyocellular lipid content (P = .3), or cardiac function (P = .5). A 6-month exercise intervention in type 2 diabetes mellitus decreased hepatic TG content and visceral abdominal and paracardial fat volume, which are associated with increased cardiovascular risk, but cardiac function was unaffected. Tissue-specific exercise-induced changes in body fat distribution in type 2 diabetes mellitus were demonstrated in this study. RSNA, 2013

  15. Magnetic flux distribution in a ferromagnetic material magnetized by U-shaped electromagnets of different geometric dimensions types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Povolotskaya Anna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A model experiment has been carried out on studying the type of changes in the magnetic induction in a homogeneous isotropic sample that is locally magnetized with attached U-type electromagnets of different geometrical dimensions. The study was aimed at finding out magnetic flux distribution at different locations within the sample and determining the effect that the geometry of attached electromagnets has on this distribution.

  16. Statistical inferences with jointly type-II censored samples from two Pareto distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Zinadah, Hanaa H.

    2017-08-01

    In the several fields of industries the product comes from more than one production line, which is required to work the comparative life tests. This problem requires sampling of the different production lines, then the joint censoring scheme is appeared. In this article we consider the life time Pareto distribution with jointly type-II censoring scheme. The maximum likelihood estimators (MLE) and the corresponding approximate confidence intervals as well as the bootstrap confidence intervals of the model parameters are obtained. Also Bayesian point and credible intervals of the model parameters are presented. The life time data set is analyzed for illustrative purposes. Monte Carlo results from simulation studies are presented to assess the performance of our proposed method.

  17. Pulsed floating-type Langmuir probe for measurements of electron energy distribution function in plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ikjin; Kim, Aram; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2017-01-01

    A floating type Langmuir probe was studied to measure the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in plasmas. This method measures the current (I)-voltage (V) curve with rising and falling variations based on a floating potential by using charge-discharge characteristics of the series capacitor when a square-pulse voltage is applied. In addition, this method measures the EEDF by using the alternating current (ac) superposition method. The measured EEDFs were in good agreement with results from a conventional single Langmuir probe. This technique could be applied as a plasma diagnostic method in the capacitively coupled plasma where the plasma potential is extremely high or the processing plasma where the deposition gas is used.

  18. Bose-type distribution and primary cosmic ray nucleon spectrum from sea-level muon spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, D P; Roychowdhury, R K

    1976-01-01

    The recent CERN Intersecting Storage Ring cross section data on the p +p to pi /sup +or-/+X inclusive reactions have been analysed using the Bose-type distribution of the form E(d/sup 3/ sigma )/(d/sup 3/p)=(Axs /sup 1/2/)/(exp( epsilon ( lambda )/T)-1) proposed by Hoang (1973). This formula has been used to derive the cosmic ray primary nucleon spectrum from the sea-level muon spectrum. It is found that the primary spectrum obeys the following relation: N(E/sub p/)dE/sub p /=2.06E/sub p//sup -2.64/dE/sub p/. The result has been compared with the recent experimental data and theoretical predictions given by different authors. (11 refs).

  19. Reporting explained variance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Ron; Fletcher, Harold J.

    The importance of reporting explained variance (sometimes referred to as magnitude of effects) in ANOVA designs is discussed in this paper. Explained variance is an estimate of the strength of the relationship between treatment (or other factors such as sex, grade level, etc.) and dependent variables of interest to the researcher(s). Three methods that can be used to obtain estimates of explained variance in ANOVA designs are described and applied to 16 studies that were reported in recent volumes of this journal. The results show that, while in most studies the treatment accounts for a relatively small proportion of the variance in dependent variable scores., in., some studies the magnitude of the treatment effect is respectable. The authors recommend that researchers in science education report explained variance in addition to the commonly reported tests of significance, since the latter are inadequate as the sole basis for making decisions about the practical importance of factors of interest to science education researchers.

  20. Somatodendritic and excitatory postsynaptic distribution of neuron-type dystrophin isoform, Dp40, in hippocampal neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Takahiro; Itoh, Kyoko, E-mail: kxi14@koto.kpu-m.ac.jp; Yaoi, Takeshi; Fushiki, Shinji

    2014-09-12

    Highlights: • Identification of dystrophin (Dp) shortest isoform, Dp40, is a neuron-type Dp. • Dp40 expression is temporally and differentially regulated in comparison to Dp71. • Somatodendritic and nuclear localization of Dp40. • Dp40 is localized to excitatory postsynapses. • Dp40 might play roles in dendritic and synaptic functions. - Abstract: The Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene produces multiple dystrophin (Dp) products due to the presence of several promoters. We previously reported the existence of a novel short isoform of Dp, Dp40, in adult mouse brain. However, the exact biochemical expression profile and cytological distribution of the Dp40 protein remain unknown. In this study, we generated a polyclonal antibody against the NH{sub 2}-terminal region of the Dp40 and identified the expression profile of Dp40 in the mouse brain. Through an analysis using embryonic and postnatal mouse cerebrums, we found that Dp40 emerged from the early neonatal stages until adulthood, whereas Dp71, an another Dp short isoform, was highly detected in both prenatal and postnatal cerebrums. Intriguingly, relative expressions of Dp40 and Dp71 were prominent in cultured dissociated neurons and non-neuronal cells derived from mouse hippocampus, respectively. Furthermore, the immunocytological distribution of Dp40 was analyzed in dissociated cultured neurons, revealing that Dp40 is detected in the soma and its dendrites, but not in the axon. It is worthy to note that Dp40 is localized along the subplasmalemmal region of the dendritic shafts, as well as at excitatory postsynaptic sites. Thus, Dp40 was identified as a neuron-type Dp possibly involving dendritic and synaptic functions.

  1. Somatodendritic and excitatory postsynaptic distribution of neuron-type dystrophin isoform, Dp40, in hippocampal neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Takahiro; Itoh, Kyoko; Yaoi, Takeshi; Fushiki, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Identification of dystrophin (Dp) shortest isoform, Dp40, is a neuron-type Dp. • Dp40 expression is temporally and differentially regulated in comparison to Dp71. • Somatodendritic and nuclear localization of Dp40. • Dp40 is localized to excitatory postsynapses. • Dp40 might play roles in dendritic and synaptic functions. - Abstract: The Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene produces multiple dystrophin (Dp) products due to the presence of several promoters. We previously reported the existence of a novel short isoform of Dp, Dp40, in adult mouse brain. However, the exact biochemical expression profile and cytological distribution of the Dp40 protein remain unknown. In this study, we generated a polyclonal antibody against the NH 2 -terminal region of the Dp40 and identified the expression profile of Dp40 in the mouse brain. Through an analysis using embryonic and postnatal mouse cerebrums, we found that Dp40 emerged from the early neonatal stages until adulthood, whereas Dp71, an another Dp short isoform, was highly detected in both prenatal and postnatal cerebrums. Intriguingly, relative expressions of Dp40 and Dp71 were prominent in cultured dissociated neurons and non-neuronal cells derived from mouse hippocampus, respectively. Furthermore, the immunocytological distribution of Dp40 was analyzed in dissociated cultured neurons, revealing that Dp40 is detected in the soma and its dendrites, but not in the axon. It is worthy to note that Dp40 is localized along the subplasmalemmal region of the dendritic shafts, as well as at excitatory postsynaptic sites. Thus, Dp40 was identified as a neuron-type Dp possibly involving dendritic and synaptic functions

  2. TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA COLORS AND EJECTA VELOCITIES: HIERARCHICAL BAYESIAN REGRESSION WITH NON-GAUSSIAN DISTRIBUTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandel, Kaisey S.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Foley, Ryan J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the statistical dependence of the peak intrinsic colors of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) on their expansion velocities at maximum light, measured from the Si II λ6355 spectral feature. We construct a new hierarchical Bayesian regression model, accounting for the random effects of intrinsic scatter, measurement error, and reddening by host galaxy dust, and implement a Gibbs sampler and deviance information criteria to estimate the correlation. The method is applied to the apparent colors from BVRI light curves and Si II velocity data for 79 nearby SNe Ia. The apparent color distributions of high-velocity (HV) and normal velocity (NV) supernovae exhibit significant discrepancies for B – V and B – R, but not other colors. Hence, they are likely due to intrinsic color differences originating in the B band, rather than dust reddening. The mean intrinsic B – V and B – R color differences between HV and NV groups are 0.06 ± 0.02 and 0.09 ± 0.02 mag, respectively. A linear model finds significant slopes of –0.021 ± 0.006 and –0.030 ± 0.009 mag (10 3 km s –1 ) –1 for intrinsic B – V and B – R colors versus velocity, respectively. Because the ejecta velocity distribution is skewed toward high velocities, these effects imply non-Gaussian intrinsic color distributions with skewness up to +0.3. Accounting for the intrinsic-color-velocity correlation results in corrections to A V extinction estimates as large as –0.12 mag for HV SNe Ia and +0.06 mag for NV events. Velocity measurements from SN Ia spectra have the potential to diminish systematic errors from the confounding of intrinsic colors and dust reddening affecting supernova distances

  3. Somatodendritic and excitatory postsynaptic distribution of neuron-type dystrophin isoform, Dp40, in hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Takahiro; Itoh, Kyoko; Yaoi, Takeshi; Fushiki, Shinji

    2014-09-12

    The Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene produces multiple dystrophin (Dp) products due to the presence of several promoters. We previously reported the existence of a novel short isoform of Dp, Dp40, in adult mouse brain. However, the exact biochemical expression profile and cytological distribution of the Dp40 protein remain unknown. In this study, we generated a polyclonal antibody against the NH2-terminal region of the Dp40 and identified the expression profile of Dp40 in the mouse brain. Through an analysis using embryonic and postnatal mouse cerebrums, we found that Dp40 emerged from the early neonatal stages until adulthood, whereas Dp71, an another Dp short isoform, was highly detected in both prenatal and postnatal cerebrums. Intriguingly, relative expressions of Dp40 and Dp71 were prominent in cultured dissociated neurons and non-neuronal cells derived from mouse hippocampus, respectively. Furthermore, the immunocytological distribution of Dp40 was analyzed in dissociated cultured neurons, revealing that Dp40 is detected in the soma and its dendrites, but not in the axon. It is worthy to note that Dp40 is localized along the subplasmalemmal region of the dendritic shafts, as well as at excitatory postsynaptic sites. Thus, Dp40 was identified as a neuron-type Dp possibly involving dendritic and synaptic functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Distribution and molecular type ofSalmonellafrom external environment in Henan province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Y J; Zhang, B F; Zhao, J Y; Wang, Z Q; Xia, S L; Huang, X Y; Xu, B L

    2016-10-10

    Objective: To understand the distribution of Salmonella in external environment in Henan province, and explore the distribution of different serotypes of the Salmonella and their homology. Methods: A total of 4 488 samples were collected form animal dung, meat products and kitchen utensils, and identified by biochemical tests and serotyped by serum agglutination reaction. The predominant serotypes were further typed by PFGE. Results: A total of 324 Salmonella strains were detected in these samples, the detection rate was 7.21 % . The 324 Salmonella isolates belonged to 39 serotypes, S. enteritidis (24.07 %, 78/324) and S. derby (20.37 %, 66/324) were predominant. Forty six strains of S. enteritidis and 30 strains of S. derby were divided into 12 and 17 molecular patterns by digestion with Xba Ⅰ , while chicken and swine were the predominant animal hosts. Conclusions: Serotyping of external environment Salmonella were phenotypically diverse and the serotype of Salmonella from different sources were different. The same clone was prevalent in same area. It is necessary to strengthen supervision and surveillance to ensure food safety.

  5. Probing Young-type interference effect on angular distributions of e-DDCS using fast electrons as projectile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, S; Tribedi, L C [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Stia, C R; Fojon, O A; Rivarola, R D, E-mail: lokesh@tifr.res.i [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (CONICET-UNR) and Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, IngenierIa y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Av. Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina)

    2009-11-15

    The energy and angular distributions of electron double differential cross sections (DDCS) of H{sub 2} and He are measured for fast electron collision.The measured data are compared with recently developed theoretical calculations. The observed distributions of H{sub 2} are explained in terms of interference effect by comparing with single center He and atomic hydrogen. We show experimentally by comparing with He, that partial constructive interference exists in soft and binary collision regions of H{sub 2} spectra.

  6. Spatial carrier distribution in InP/GaAs type II quantum dots and quantum posts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iikawa, F.; Donchev, V.; Ivanov, Ts; Dias, G. O.; Tizei, L. H. G.; Lang, R.; Heredia, E.; Gomes, P. F.; Brasil, M. J. S. P.; Cotta, M. A.; Ugarte, D.; Martinez Pastor, J. P.; de Lima, M. M., Jr.; Cantarero, A.

    2011-02-01

    We performed a detailed investigation of the structural and optical properties of multi-layers of InP/GaAs quantum dots, which present a type II interface arrangement. Transmission electronic microscopy analysis has revealed relatively large dots that coalesce forming so-called quantum posts when the GaAs layer between the InP layers is thin. We observed that the structural properties and morphology affect the resulting radiative lifetime of the carriers in our systems. The carrier lifetimes are relatively long, as expected for type II systems, as compared to those observed for single layer InP/GaAs quantum dots. The interface intermixing effect has been pointed out as a limiting factor for obtaining an effective spatial separation of electrons and holes in the case of single layer InP/GaAs quantum-dot samples. In the present case this effect seems to be less critical due to the particular carrier wavefunction distribution along the structures.

  7. Spatial carrier distribution in InP/GaAs type II quantum dots and quantum posts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iikawa, F; Donchev, V; Dias, G O; Tizei, L H G; Lang, R; Gomes, P F; Brasil, M J S P; Cotta, M A; Ugarte, D; Ivanov, Ts; Heredia, E; Martinez Pastor, J P; De Lima, M M Jr; Cantarero, A

    2011-01-01

    We performed a detailed investigation of the structural and optical properties of multi-layers of InP/GaAs quantum dots, which present a type II interface arrangement. Transmission electronic microscopy analysis has revealed relatively large dots that coalesce forming so-called quantum posts when the GaAs layer between the InP layers is thin. We observed that the structural properties and morphology affect the resulting radiative lifetime of the carriers in our systems. The carrier lifetimes are relatively long, as expected for type II systems, as compared to those observed for single layer InP/GaAs quantum dots. The interface intermixing effect has been pointed out as a limiting factor for obtaining an effective spatial separation of electrons and holes in the case of single layer InP/GaAs quantum-dot samples. In the present case this effect seems to be less critical due to the particular carrier wavefunction distribution along the structures.

  8. Spatial carrier distribution in InP/GaAs type II quantum dots and quantum posts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iikawa, F; Donchev, V; Dias, G O; Tizei, L H G; Lang, R; Gomes, P F; Brasil, M J S P; Cotta, M A; Ugarte, D [Instituto de Fisica ' Gleb Wataghin' , Unicamp, CP-6165, 13083-970, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Ivanov, Ts [Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, 5, Boulevard J.Bourchier, Sofia-1164 (Bulgaria); Heredia, E [Laboratorio Associado de Sensores e Materiais, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, CP 515, 12245-970, Sao Jose dos Campos-SP (Brazil); Martinez Pastor, J P; De Lima, M M Jr; Cantarero, A, E-mail: iikawa@ifi.unicamp.br [Materials Science Institute, University of Valencia, PO Box 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2011-02-11

    We performed a detailed investigation of the structural and optical properties of multi-layers of InP/GaAs quantum dots, which present a type II interface arrangement. Transmission electronic microscopy analysis has revealed relatively large dots that coalesce forming so-called quantum posts when the GaAs layer between the InP layers is thin. We observed that the structural properties and morphology affect the resulting radiative lifetime of the carriers in our systems. The carrier lifetimes are relatively long, as expected for type II systems, as compared to those observed for single layer InP/GaAs quantum dots. The interface intermixing effect has been pointed out as a limiting factor for obtaining an effective spatial separation of electrons and holes in the case of single layer InP/GaAs quantum-dot samples. In the present case this effect seems to be less critical due to the particular carrier wavefunction distribution along the structures.

  9. Forest fire occurrence increases the distribution of a scarce forest type in the Mediterranean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnan, Xavier; Quevedo, Lídia; Rodrigo, Anselm

    2013-01-01

    Here we report how fire recurrence increases the distribution of a scarce forest type in NE Spain that is dominated by the resprouter tree species Arbutus unedo. We used a combination of GIS and field surveys to determine the effect of fire and pre-fire vegetation on the appearance of A. unedo forests. In the field, we also analyzed the factors that promote fire and lead to the appearance of A. unedo forests. Our results reveal an increased occurrence of A. unedo forests in NE Spain in recent years; this phenomenon was strongly related to fire recurrence and the vegetation type present prior to fire. Most Pinus halepensis forests that burned more than once gave rise to A. unedo forests. Our results indicate that these conversions were related to a reduction in pine density coupled with increases in the density and size of A. unedo trees due to recurrent fires. Given that fires are increasing in number and magnitude in the Mediterranean, we predict a major change in landscape structure and composition at the regional scale.

  10. 137Cs concentration distribution in among feeds and various soil types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csupka, S.

    1980-01-01

    The distribution of 137 Cs in four types of arable land and soil with grass cover (chernozem, serozem, gely soddy soil and meadow calcareous soil) is different. In arable land the penetration of 137 Cs into greater depths is higher than under the grasscover, where the main proportion of 137 Cs is retained by the upper layers in the depth of 0 to 5 cm. The only exception is gley soddy soil, where the upper layers allow the passage of radionuclides into greater depths. In the soil horizon to a depth of 50 cm out or the total content of 137 Cs from 16 to 47% is bound in exchangeable form and from 53 to 84% in a form available to plants according to the soil type. The relationship between exchangeable 137 Cs and that available to plants in soils is given by the coefficient of desorption and the relation between the 137 Cs content in the plant and in the soil is given by the coefficient of concentration. Their value varies within the range of 0.1 to 2.6. (author)

  11. Sensitivity of the climate simulations to update of Plant Functional Type distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgievski, Goran; Hagemann, Stefan; Khlystova, Iryna

    2015-04-01

    In the frame of the European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initiative (CCI), a new global land cover (LC) data set is produced. Land cover is classified as one of Essential Climate Variables (ECV), and defined as the physical material at the surface of the earth (for example: trees, grass, bare soil, water). The ESA-CCI-LC product complies with the United Nations Land Cover Classification Scheme (UNLCCS). However, the UNLCCS set of rules is not suitable for climate modelling. Therefore, ESA-CCI-LC categorical classes need to be converted to model specific plant functional types (PFT) distributions. Here we present a conversion method of ESA-CCI-LC classes to PFT fractions and the impact of the new PFT distributions to climate simulations using the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) and its land surface component (JSBACH). The main features of the updated PFT distributions are less trees and more herbaceous types. We conducted SST driven climate simulations with MPI-ESM and offline JSBACH simulations driven by WATCH forcing data based on ERA-Interim (WFDEI) at T63 resolution. These simulations are evaluated for the 1981-2010 period. Sensitivities of the hydrological, energy and carbon cycles are investigated. The following variables are compared between simulations with the new ESA-CCI-LC and the old reference PFT distributions: (i) evapotranspiration and runoff as an indicator of changes in hydrological cycle, (ii) temperature and albedo as an indicator of energy cycle and (iii) gross primary production (GPP) as an indicator of carbon cycle sensitivity. First results indicate increased annual mean albedo in northern extra tropical latitudes and therefore cooling at those latitudes. Furthermore, the annual cycle of albedo is in better agreement with satellite observation (GLOBALBEDO-DHR and GLOBALBEDO-BHR). GPP is slightly decreased in the annual mean, while evapotranspiration shows slight increase in southern tropical latitudes

  12. Distribution and sub-types of afferent fibre in the mouse urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnama'i, M S; Biallosterski, B T; Van Kerrebroeck, Ph E V; van Koeveringe, G A; Gillespie, J I; de Wachter, S G

    2017-01-01

    Increased afferent fibre activity contributes to pathological conditions such as the overactive bladder syndrome. Nerve fibres running near the urothelium are considered to be afferent as no efferent system has yet been described. The aim of this study was to identify sub-types of afferent nerve fibres in the mouse bladder wall based on morphological criteria and analyse regional differences. 27 bladders of six month old C57BL/6 mice were removed and tissues were processed for immunohistochemistry. Cryostat sections were cut and stained for Protein Gene Product 9.5 (PGP), calcitonin gene related polypeptide (CGRP), neurofilament (NF), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). In the sub-urothelium, different types of afferent nerve fibre were found, i.e. immunoreactive (IR) to; CGRP, NF, VAChT, and/or nNOS. At the bladder base, the sub-urothelium was more densely innervated by CGRP-IR and VAChT-IR nerve fibres, then at the lateral wall. NF- and nNOS nerves were sparsely distributed in the sub-urothelium throughout the bladder. At the lateral wall the inner muscle is densely innervated by CGRP-IR nerve fibres. NF, VAChT and nNOS nerves were evenly distributed in the different muscle layers throughout the bladder. Nerve fibre terminals expressing CGRP and NF were found within the extra-mural ganglia at the bladder base. Different types of afferent nerve fibres were identified in the sub-urothelium of the mouse bladder. At the bladder base the sub-urothelium is more densely innervated than the lateral wall by CGRP-IR and VAChT-IR afferent nerve fibres. CGRP and NF afferent nerve fibres in the muscle layer probably relay afferent input to external ganglia located near the bladder base. The identification of different afferent nerves in the sub-urothelium suggests a functional heterogeneity of the afferent nerve fibres in the urinary bladder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type distribution among women attending routine gynecological examinations in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlObaid, Abdulaziz; Al-Badawi, Ismail A; Al-Kadri, Hanan; Gopala, Kusuma; Kandeil, Walid; Quint, Wim; Al-Aker, Murad; DeAntonio, Rodrigo

    2014-12-14

    Cervical cancer (CC) is caused by persistent infection with high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) types. In Saudi Arabia which has a population of 6.5 million women over the age of 15 years, approximately 152 new cases of CC are diagnosed and 55 women die from the disease annually. Nevertheless current epidemiological data for HPV in this population are limited. This study evaluated the prevalence and type distribution of HPV and documented the awareness of HPV infection and health-related behavior among Saudi and non-Saudi women attending routine examination. This was an observational, epidemiological cross-sectional study conducted between April 2010 and December 2011 at three hospitals in Saudi Arabia. Cervical samples from women aged ≥15 years, who were attending routine gynecological examinations were collected and tested for HPV-DNA by polymerase chain reaction and typed using the SPF10 DEIA/LiPA25 system. Two questionnaires on health-related behavior and awareness of HPV infection were completed. A total of 417 women, mean age (standard deviation) 41.9 (±10.4) years, were included in the final analysis, of whom 77% (321/417) were Saudi nationals. HPV-DNA was detected in 9.8% women (41/417, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.1-13.1). The prevalence of any HR-HPV by age was: 25-34 years: 3.0%; 35-44 years: 4.5%; 45-54 years: 3.2%; >55 years: 10.9%. The most prevalent HR-HPV-types were: HPV-68/73 (5 cases); HPV-18 (4 cases); HPV-16 (3 cases). The most prevalent low risk (LR) types were HPV-6 (4 cases); HPV-42, HPV-53 and HPV-54 (2 cases each). The prevalence of HPV was higher among non-Saudi nationals vs. Saudi nationals (16.7% vs. 7.8%, P = 0.0234). No statistically significant risk factors were identified: 32.2% (101/314) women were aware of HPV and 89.9% (285/317) showed an interest in HPV vaccination. The overall prevalence of HPV was 9.8% in Saudi Arabia, but was higher in women over 55 years, as well as in non-Saudi nationals. These data provide a

  14. Comparison between performances of three types of manual wheelchairs often distributed in low-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispin, Karen; Wee, Joy

    2015-07-01

    This study was conducted to compare the performance of three types of chairs in a low-resource setting. The larger goal was to provide information which will enable more effective use of limited funds by wheelchair manufacturers and suppliers in low-resource settings. The Motivation Rough Terrain and Whirlwind Rough Rider were compared in six skills tests which participants completed in one wheelchair type and then a day later in the other. A hospital-style folding transport wheelchair was also included in one test. For all skills, participants rated the ease or difficulty on a visual analogue scale. For all tracks, distance traveled and the physiological cost index were recorded. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance. The Motivation wheelchair outperformed Whirlwind wheelchair on rough and smooth tracks, and in some metrics on the tight spaces track. Motivation and Whirlwind wheelchairs significantly outperformed the hospital transport wheelchair in all metrics on the rough track skills test. This comparative study provides data that are valuable for manufacturers and for those who provide wheelchairs to users. The comparison with the hospital-style transport chair confirms the cost to users of inappropriate wheelchair provision. Implications for Rehabilitation For those with compromised lower limb function, wheelchairs are essential to enable full participation and improved quality of life. Therefore, provision of wheelchairs which effectively enable mobility in the cultures and environments in which people with disabilities live is crucial. This includes low-resource settings where the need for appropriate seating is especially urgent. A repeated measures study to measure wheelchair performances in everyday skills in the setting where wheelchairs are used gives information on the quality of mobility provided by those wheelchairs. This study highlights differences in the performance of three types of wheelchairs often distributed in low

  15. Prevalence and Type Distribution of Human Papillomavirus Among 1813 Men in Tanzania and the Relationship to HIV Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Tina Bech; Iftner, Thomas; Mwaiselage, Julius

    2013-01-01

    Infection with high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with penile cancer in men, cervical cancer in women, and anal cancer and certain types of head and neck cancers in both sexes. Few studies have assessed the prevalence and type distribution of HPV among men in sub-Saharan Africa...

  16. ESTIMATION OF THE SCALE PARAMETER FROM THE RAYLEIGH DISTRIBUTION FROM TYPE II SINGLY AND DOUBLY CENSORED DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Saeed Akhter

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As common as the normal distribution is the Rayleigh distribution which occurs in works on radar, properties of sine wave plus-noise, etc. Rayleigh (1880 derived it from the amplitude of sound resulting from many important sources. The Rayleigh distribution is widely used in communication engineering, reliability analysis and applied statistics. Since the Rayleigh distribution has linearly increasing rate, it is appropriate for components which might not have manufacturing defects but age rapidly with time. Several types of electro-vacum devices have this feature. It is connected with one dimension and two dimensions random walk and is some times referred to as a random walk frequency distribution. It is a special case of Weibull distribution (1951 of wide applicability. It can be easily derived from the bivariate normal distribution with and p = 0. For further application of Rayleigh distribution, we refer to Johnson and Kotz (1994. Adatia (1995 has obtained the best linear unbiased estimator of the Rayleigh scale parameter based on fairly large censored samples. Dyer and Whisend (1973 obtained the BLUE of scale parameter based on type II censored samples for small N = 2(15. With the advance of computer technology it is now possible to obtain BLUE for large samples. Hirai (1978 obtained the estimate of the scale parameter from the Rayleigh distribution singly type II censored from the left side and right side and variances of the scale parameter. In this paper, we estimate the scale parameter of type II singly and doubly censored data from the Rayleigh distribution using Blom’s (1958 unbiased nearly best estimates and compare the efficiency of this estimate with BLUE and MLE.

  17. Computer jargon explained

    CERN Document Server

    Enticknap, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Computer Jargon Explained is a feature in Computer Weekly publications that discusses 68 of the most commonly used technical computing terms. The book explains what the terms mean and why the terms are important to computer professionals. The text also discusses how the terms relate to the trends and developments that are driving the information technology industry. Computer jargon irritates non-computer people and in turn causes problems for computer people. The technology and the industry are changing so rapidly; it is very hard even for professionals to keep updated. Computer people do not

  18. The blue anbd visual absolute magnitude distributions of Type IA supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Thomas E.; Branch, David; Miller, Douglas L.; Perlmutter, Saul

    1995-02-01

    Tully-Fisher (TF), surface brightness fluctuation (SBF), and Hubble law distances to the parent galaxies of Type Ia supernovae (SNs Ia) are used in order to study the SN Ia blue and visual peak absolute magnitude (MB and MV) distributions. We propose two objective cuts, each of which produces a subsample with small intrinsic dispersion in M. One cut, which can be applied to either band, distinguishes between a subsample of bright events and a smaller subsample of dim events, some of which were extinquished in the parent galaxy and some of which were intrinsically subluminous. The bright events are found to be distributed with an observed dispersions of 0.3 less than or approximately = Sigmaobs less than or approximately = 0.4 about a mean absolut magnitude (M-barB or M-barV). Each of the dim SNs was spectroscopically peculiar and/or had a red B-V color; this motivates the adoption of an alternative cut that is based on B-V rather than on M. To wit, SNs Ia that are both known to have -0.25 less than B-V less than + 0.25 and not known to be spectroscopically peculiar show observational dispersion of only Sigmaobs(MB) = Sigmaobs(MV) = 0.3. Because characteristics observational errors produce Sigmaerr(M) greater than 0.2,the intrinsic dispersion among such SNs Ia is Sigmaint(M) less than or approximately = 0.2. The small observational dispersion indicates that SNs Ia, the TF relation, and SBFs all good relative distances to those galaxies that produce SNs Ia. The conflict between those who use SNs Ia in order to determine the value of the Hubble constant (H0) and those who use TF and SBF distances to determine H0 results from discrepant calibrations.

  19. Occurrence and distribution of different bed types of seagrass Posidonia oceanica around the Maltese Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. BORG

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The small-scale distribution of Posidonia oceanica bed types were mapped at four locations off the northern coast of the Maltese Islands, using aerial photography supplemented by surveys using SCUBA diving. Results showed a similar pattern of occurrence of the seagrass at all locations surveyed. In shallow waters (2 m – 4 m, P. oceanicaoccurred as patches of variable size on a rocky and/or sandy substratum. In deeper waters (5 m – 10 m, the patches of seagrass were often replaced by reticulate beds consisting of P. oceanicainterspersed with areas of bare sand. Deeper still (11 m – 13 m, a transition from reticulate to continuous beds occurred. Continuous beds extended to depths of around 25 - 30 m and eventually became reticulate or patchy in deeper waters (>25 m. Values of total seagrass percentage cover increased, while the ratio of fragmented:continuous bed cover decreased for the four study locations on moving southwards (Ramla Bay to St Thomas Bay, indicating that P. oceanica habitat was more abundant and less fragmented in the south-eastern parts of the Maltese Islands. However, values calculated using an exposure index did not did indicate a relationship between exposure and the observed decease in fragmentation of seagrass beds on moving northwest to southwest along the north-eastern coast. Data from the four sites surveyed, together with data from other surveys, were used to show the large-scale distribution of P. oceanica beds around the Maltese Islands. The implications of the study findings for the conservation and management of P. oceanica habitat around the Maltese Islands are discussed.

  20. Distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi discrete typing units in Bolivian migrants in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Molina, José A; Poveda, Cristina; Martinez-Perez, Angela; Guhl, Felipe; Monge-Maillo, Begoña; Fresno, Manuel; López-Velez, Rogelio; Ramírez, Juan D; Girones, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. This parasite is transmitted to humans mainly through the faeces of infected triatomine "kissing" bugs, by blood transfusions or organ donation from infected donors, and can be transmitted from mother to child. This disease is endemic in the Americas, where Bolivia has up to 28.8% prevalence in general population. Increased migration to Europe has made it emerge in countries where it was previously unknown, being Spain the second country in number of patients after the United States. T. cruzi is an organism with a rich genetic diversity, what has been grouped into six discrete typing units (DTUs). Some authors have linked these DTUs either to specific geographical distribution or to the different clinical presentations. Nevertheless little is known about its distribution in migrant populations. Our aim was to describe the T. cruzi strains isolated from a population of chronically infected Bolivian patients attending our clinic in Madrid. Thirty-three consecutive patients meeting this condition were selected for the study. Molecular characterization was performed by an algorithm that combines PCR of the intergenic region of the mini exon-gene, the 24Sα and 18S regions of rDNA and the variable region of the satellite DNA. A descriptive analysis was performed and associations between epidemiological/clinical data and the different DTUs were tested. Twenty-seven out of thirty-three patients had their DTU detected. Mean age was 36 years (IQR 31-43.3) and 23 were women (76.7%). The median time since arrival to Spain was 60 months (IQR 43-81). The most common DTU were TcV, TcIV and TcI. Four patients had cardiac involvement: 2 had TcV and 2 could not have their DTU determined. TcIII was not isolated from any patient. DTUs distribution in migrant population seems to be similar to that observed in the patients' countries of origin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The wireless internet explained

    CERN Document Server

    Rhoton, John

    2001-01-01

    The Wireless Internet Explained covers the full spectrum of wireless technologies from a wide range of vendors, including initiatives by Microsoft and Compaq. The Wireless Internet Explained takes a practical look at wireless technology. Rhoton explains the concepts behind the physics, and provides an overview that clarifies the convoluted set of standards heaped together under the umbrella of wireless. It then expands on these technical foundations to give a panorama of the increasingly crowded landscape of wireless product offerings. When it comes to actual implementation the book gives abundant down-to-earth advice on topics ranging from the selection and deployment of mobile devices to the extremely sensitive subject of security.Written by an expert on Internet messaging, the author of Digital Press''s successful Programmer''s Guide to Internet Mail and X.400 and SMTP: Battle of the E-mail Protocols, The Wireless Internet Explained describes and evaluates the current state of the fast-growing and crucial...

  2. Distribution of natural occurring radionuclide in some industral residues used in new type wall materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yingmin; Li Fusheng; Xu Jiaang; Deng Daping; Yuan Ming; Ma Shi; Chen Yue

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the natural radioactive nuclide distribution characteristic of fly ash, gangue and various kinds of slag used in the new-type wall material and offer scientific basis for reducing the radiation dosage that the public suffers. Methods: The activity concentrations of the contents of natural radioactive nuclides of different industral waste residues have been determined by HPGe gamma-ray spectrometry. Results: The mean Raeq is successively fly ash (279.13 Bq kg -1 ), slag (225.69 Bq kg -1 ), gangue (141.26 Bq kg -1 ) from high to low and all of the samples is lower than the limit set in the OECD. The arithmetic mean activities of 236 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K in fly-ash samples are 127.88, 93.83, 221.75 Bq kg -1 ; for coal slag samples are 73.89, 97.13, 283.44 Bq kg -1 and for coal gangue samples are 47.85, 45.21, 413.56 Bq kg -1 . For the same power plant, the radioactive nuclide activity of the fly ash gathered in different time may have very great differences, the maximum can reach more than 2 times of the minimum. Conclusion: the fly ash and slag should be controlled strictly on rational proportion, which should not exceed 70% of the total mass. The mixing of the average radioactive level of the gangue is nearly equal that of to clay, it can be unrestricted in the mixing proportion in process of production. The manufacturer of new-type wall materials should often measure the radioactive level of the industrial waste residue in production. Make the content of radioactive nuclide in the products reach the rational level as low as possible. (authors)

  3. A master-follower type distributed scheme for reactor inlet temperature control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, H.E.; Dean, E.M.; Vilim, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a computer-based controller for regulating reactor inlet temperature in a pool-type power plant. The elements of the control system are organized in a master-follower hierarchical architecture that takes advantage of existing in-plant hardware and software to minimize the need for plant modifications. Low level control algorithms are executed on existing local digital controllers (followers) with the high level algorithms executed on a new plant supervisory computer (master). A distributed computing strategy provides integration of the existing and additional computer platforms. The control system operates by having the master controller first estimate the secondary sodium flow needed to achieve a given reactor inlet temperature. The estimated flow is then used as a setpoint by the follower controller to regulate sodium flow using a motor-generator pump set. The control system has been implemented in a Hardware-In-the-Loop (FM) setup and qualified for operation in the Experimental Breader reactor 11 of Argonne National Laboratory. Some HIL results are provided

  4. Pressure distribution under three different types of harnesses used for guide dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peham, C; Limbeck, S; Galla, K; Bockstahler, B

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the pressure distribution under three different types of harnesses used for guide dogs (designated H1, H2 and H3). The dogs (n = 8) led a trainer through a course including a range of exercises (straight line, curve left, curve right, upstairs and downstairs). All dogs were clinically sound and showed no sign of lameness. The pressures beneath the harnesses were determined by sensor strips and related to the gait. In all harnesses, the highest pressures were found in the right sternal region (H1 2.02 ± 0.6N/cm(2); H2 1.76 ± 0.4N/cm(2); H3 1.14 ± 0.5 N/cm(2)). In all other regions, the pressures were in the range of 0-1.32 N/cm(2). The right and left sternal regions were almost constantly loaded. Contrary to previous assumptions, the back regions had minimal loading. This investigation demonstrated that there were significant differences among the harnesses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Current distribution inside Rutherford-type superconducting cables and impact on performance of LHC dipoles

    CERN Document Server

    Schreiner, T

    2002-01-01

    The windings of high--field superconducting accelerator magnets are usually made of Rutherford--type cables. The magnetic field distribution along the axis of such magnets exhibits a periodic modulation with a wavelength equal to the twist pitch length of the cable used in the winding. Such a Periodic Field Pattern (PFP) has already been observed in number of superconducting accelerator magnets. Additional unbalanced currents in individual strands of the cable appear to be causing this effect. The present thesis describes the investigation of the PFPs performed with a Hall probes array inserted inside the aperture of the LHC superconducting dipoles, both in the small--scale model magnets with a length of one meter and in full--scale prototypes and pre--series magnets with fifteen meters of length. The amplitude and the time dependence of this periodic field oscillation have been studied as a function of the magnet current history. One of the main parameters influencing the properties of the PFP is the cross--...

  6. Distribution of distances between dislocations in different types of dislocation substructures in deformed Cu-Al alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trishkina, L., E-mail: trishkina.53@mail.ru; Zboykova, N.; Koneva, N., E-mail: koneva@tsuab.ru; Kozlov, E. [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2 Solyanaya St., Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); Cherkasova, T. [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2 Solyanaya St., Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 50 Lenin Ave., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The aim of the investigation was the determination of the statistic description of dislocation distribution in each dislocation substructures component forming after different deformation degrees in the Cu-Al alloys. The dislocation structures were investigated by the transmission diffraction electron microscopy method. In the work the statistic description of distance distribution between the dislocations, dislocation barriers and dislocation tangles in the deformed Cu-Al alloys with different concentration of Al and test temperature at the grain size of 100 µm was carried out. It was established that the above parameters influence the dislocation distribution in different types of the dislocation substructures (DSS): dislocation chaos, dislocation networks without disorientation, nondisoriented and disoriented cells, in the walls and inside the cells. The distributions of the distances between dislocations in the investigated alloys for each DSS type formed at certain deformation degrees and various test temperatures were plotted.

  7. Distribution of distances between dislocations in different types of dislocation substructures in deformed Cu-Al alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trishkina, L.; Cherkasova, T.; Zboykova, N.; Koneva, N.; Kozlov, E.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was the determination of the statistic description of dislocation distribution in each dislocation substructures component forming after different deformation degrees in the Cu-Al alloys. The dislocation structures were investigated by the transmission diffraction electron microscopy method. In the work the statistic description of distance distribution between the dislocations, dislocation barriers and dislocation tangles in the deformed Cu-Al alloys with different concentration of Al and test temperature at the grain size of 100 µm was carried out. It was established that the above parameters influence the dislocation distribution in different types of the dislocation substructures (DSS): dislocation chaos, dislocation networks without disorientation, nondisoriented and disoriented cells, in the walls and inside the cells. The distributions of the distances between dislocations in the investigated alloys for each DSS type formed at certain deformation degrees and various test temperatures were plotted.

  8. Dark matter distributions in early-type galaxies from strong gravitational lensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichner, Thomas Martin

    2013-01-01

    Dark matter constitutes a large fraction of the mass of early-type galaxies. However, the exact amount and spatial distribution of the dark matter, especially in the galaxies' center is still unclear. Furthermore, galaxies in dense environments such as the centers of galaxy clusters shrink in size, since parts of their outer dark matter halo is stripped away. The aim of this thesis is to measure the dark matter content in the centers and outskirts of elliptical galaxies by analyzing the strong gravitational lensing effect they produce. Gravitational lensing is well-suited for investigating dark matter, since it is sensitive to all forms of matter, regardless of its dynamical or evolutionary state. We present gravitational lensing studies of the exceptional strong lensing systems SDSS J1538+5817 and SDSS J1430+4105, identified by the Sloan Lens ACS survey. The lenses are elliptical galaxies at z l =0.143 and z l =0.285, respectively. For SDSS J1538+5817 we show that both multiple imaged sources are located at the same redshift z s =0.531. Its multiple images span a range from 1 to 4 kpc in the plane of the lens. For SDSS J1430+4105, the source at redshift z s =0.575 is imaged into a broad Einstein ring, covering radii from 4 kpc to 10 kpc in the plane of the lens. In both cases, the lensed images can be accurately and consistently reproduced with different modeling approaches. We get projected total masses of 8.11 +0.27 -0.59 x 10 10 M s un within the Einstein radius of 2.5 kpc for SDSS J1538+5817 and 5.37±0.06 x 10 11 M s un within 6.5 kpc for SDSS J1430+4105. The luminous and dark matter were traced separately, resulting in dark matter fractions within the Einstein radius of 0.1 +0.2 -0.1 and 0.40 +0.14 -0.10 for SDSS J1538+5817 and SDSS J1430+4105, respectively. We assume a de Vaucouleurs profile to trace the light distribution of both galaxies. From the stellar mass associated with this light, we can explicitly derive a stellar mass-to-light ratio of (M de

  9. [Evaluation of the stress distribution in tooth implant-supported fixed partial prostheses on different bone types under dynamic loads].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Xiaonan; Xu, Ling

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to evaluate the influence of different bone types on the stress distribution in tooth implant-supported fixed partial prostheses by using finite element (FE) analysis. Four FE models of mandibular arch containing one implant splinted to the mandibular second premolar were built according to bone types I, II, III, and IV. Dynamic loads of 250 N were applied to the buccal and lingual cusps of the prostheses in different directions to simulate the masticatory cycle. The maximum Von Mises stresses were calculated using the FE analysis software. The maximum Von Mises stresses of the cortical bones were 89.229, 91.860, 125.840, and 158.420 MPa, increasing from type I to type IV, respectively. The maximum Von Mises stresses of the trabecular bone were 58.584, 43.645, 21.688, and 18.249 MPa, decreasing from type I to type IV, respectively. During the process of dynamic loading, the maximum Von Mises stresses of the cortical and trabecular bones followed the order buccal to tongue loading>tongue to buccal loading>vertical loading. The results showed that bone type significantly influenced the stress distribution in bones, and that for tooth implant-supported fixed partial prostheses, bone types I and II were a better choice than bone types III and IV. More caution should be exercised when restoring missing teeth using tooth implant-supported fixed partial prostheses in softer bone regions.

  10. Some evidence for skewed mating type distribution in Iranian populations of Rhynchosporium commune, the cause of barley scald disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzanlou Mahdi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Rhynchosporium commune (formerly known as Rhynchosporium secalis, the causal agent of scald disease on barley, is known to spread asexually by splash dispersed conidia. However, there are multiple lines of evidence for the possibility of a clandestine sexual cycle occurrence in this species including extensive genotypic diversity, equal distribution of mating type alleles across the world and expression of mating type genes. In the current study, the potential for the occurrence of a sexual cycle amongst the Iranian population of R. commune was assessed by analyzing distribution and frequency of the mating type alleles at both micro and macro-spatial scales. A total of 95 single-conidial R. commune isolates were obtained from different barley fields in Kurdistan province. Previously designed primers were applied in a multiplex PCR assay to study distribution and frequency of the mating type alleles within and between populations. Totally, 67 isolates were determined as MAT1-1 and the remaining 28 isolates as MAT1-2 throughout the sampling counties. The results obtained at a macro-spatial scale revealed that unlike Kamyaran county (both MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 at an equal ratio, an unequal distribution of mating type genes was dominant among R. commune isolates in both Mariwan and Dehgolan counties. Our findings support a predominantly asexual reproduction for Mariwan and Dehgolan counties and the possibility of sexual stage occurrence in Kamyarna county.

  11. Types and Distribution of Payments From Industry to Physicians in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tringale, Kathryn R; Marshall, Deborah; Mackey, Tim K; Connor, Michael; Murphy, James D; Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona A

    2017-05-02

    Given scrutiny over financial conflicts of interest in health care, it is important to understand the types and distribution of industry-related payments to physicians. To determine the types and distribution of industry-related payments to physicians in 2015 and the association of physician specialty and sex with receipt of payments from industry. Observational, retrospective, population-based study of licensed US physicians (per National Plan & Provider Enumeration System) linked to 2015 Open Payments reports of industry payments. A total of 933 295 allopathic and osteopathic physicians. Outcomes were compared across specialties (surgery, primary care, specialists, interventionalists) and between 620 166 male (66.4%) and 313 129 female (33.6%) physicians using regression models adjusting for geographic Medicare-spending region and sole proprietorship. Physician specialty and sex. Reported physician payment from industry (including nature, number, and value), categorized as general payments (including consulting fees and food and beverage), ownership interests (including stock options, partnership shares), royalty or license payments, and research payments. Associations between physician characteristics and reported receipt of payment. In 2015, 449 864 of 933 295 physicians (133 842 [29.8%] women), representing approximately 48% of all US physicians were reported to have received $2.4 billion in industry payments, including approximately $1.8 billion for general payments, $544 million for ownership interests, and $75 million for research payments. Compared with 47.7% of primary care physicians (205 830 of 431 819), 61.0% of surgeons (110 604 of 181 372) were reported as receiving general payments (absolute difference, 13.3%; 95% CI, 13.1-13.6; odds ratio [OR], 1.72; P sole proprietorship, men within each specialty had a higher odds of receiving general payments than did women: surgery, 62.5% vs 56.5% (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.26-1.31); primary

  12. Explorers Presentation: Explaining the Tides to Children

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2015-01-01

    Explaining the tides to children Presentation includes information about: Orbits of the Earth, Moon and Sun; Moon phases and the lunar cycle; Gravity; Gravity and the tide; Types of tides; The tides and me!; Tide tables; Extra insight

  13. Geographical distribution of complement receptor type 1 variants and their associated disease risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaisa Lucas Sandri

    Full Text Available Pathogens exert selective pressure which may lead to substantial changes in host immune responses. The human complement receptor type 1 (CR1 is an innate immune recognition glycoprotein that regulates the activation of the complement pathway and removes opsonized immune complexes. CR1 genetic variants in exon 29 have been associated with expression levels, C1q or C3b binding and increased susceptibility to several infectious diseases. Five distinct CR1 nucleotide substitutions determine the Knops blood group phenotypes, namely Kna/b, McCa/b, Sl1/Sl2, Sl4/Sl5 and KCAM+/-.CR1 variants were genotyped by direct sequencing in a cohort of 441 healthy individuals from Brazil, Vietnam, India, Republic of Congo and Ghana.The distribution of the CR1 alleles, genotypes and haplotypes differed significantly among geographical settings (p≤0.001. CR1 variants rs17047660A/G (McCa/b and rs17047661A/G (Sl1/Sl2 were exclusively observed to be polymorphic in African populations compared to the groups from Asia and South-America, strongly suggesting that these two SNPs may be subjected to selection. This is further substantiated by a high linkage disequilibrium between the two variants in the Congolese and Ghanaian populations. A total of nine CR1 haplotypes were observed. The CR1*AGAATA haplotype was found more frequently among the Brazilian and Vietnamese study groups; the CR1*AGAATG haplotype was frequent in the Indian and Vietnamese populations, while the CR1*AGAGTG haplotype was frequent among Congolese and Ghanaian individuals.The African populations included in this study might have a selective advantage conferred to immune genes involved in pathogen recognition and signaling, possibly contributing to disease susceptibility or resistance.

  14. MAGMADIM: Young Explainers Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paltiel, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text:Physics teachers and educators constantly face the problem of inspiring their students to major in physics. On the other hand, science museums are designed to provide a pleasant environment which will stimulate and encourage a science associated experience to the general public. Typically, there is no intention to teach science as such in science museums. One may, however, use the science museum to teach and inspire certain groups of students in a much deeper sense. In fact they may actually enthusiastically learn much of the school physics curriculum at the museum. This report discusses the Magmadim program through which 10th graders are trained to be young explainers at the Weizmann Institutes Clore Garden of Science. To this end they study the physics underlying its exhibits in an after-school course. The ultimate goal is for the 'magmadim' to become the best possible explainers and be able to face all sorts of museum visitors. Along with learning how to instruct visitors, they must learn the physics behind the exhibits to give a full explanation of the exhibit and be able to answer any question that may arise. Our 5 year experience with the program shows that its self-selected participants not only study a lot of science, but also like it and learn how to explain the content to other people. This program, along with similar programs at the Bloomfield Science Museum and the Madatzim (young physics tutors) program of Ort, help in promoting the interest in science in general and physics in particular among school students. Various ways to expand the programs will also be discussed

  15. Linear Algebra Thoroughly Explained

    CERN Document Server

    Vujičić, Milan

    2008-01-01

    Linear Algebra Thoroughly Explained provides a comprehensive introduction to the subject suitable for adoption as a self-contained text for courses at undergraduate and postgraduate level. The clear and comprehensive presentation of the basic theory is illustrated throughout with an abundance of worked examples. The book is written for teachers and students of linear algebra at all levels and across mathematics and the applied sciences, particularly physics and engineering. It will also be an invaluable addition to research libraries as a comprehensive resource book for the subject.

  16. From spatial ecology to spatial epidemiology: modeling spatial distributions of different cancer types with principal coordinates of neighbor matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voutilainen, Ari; Tolppanen, Anna-Maija; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri; Sherwood, Paula R

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiology and ecology share many fundamental research questions. Here we describe how principal coordinates of neighbor matrices (PCNM), a method from spatial ecology, can be applied to spatial epidemiology. PCNM is based on geographical distances among sites and can be applied to any set of sites providing a good coverage of a study area. In the present study, PCNM eigenvectors corresponding to positive autocorrelation were used as explanatory variables in linear regressions to model incidences of eight most common cancer types in Finnish municipalities (n = 320). The dataset was provided by the Finnish Cancer Registry and it included altogether 615,839 cases between 1953 and 2010. PCNM resulted in 165 vectors with a positive eigenvalue. The first PCNM vector corresponded to the wavelength of hundreds of kilometers as it contrasted two main subareas so that municipalities located in southwestern Finland had the highest positive site scores and those located in midwestern Finland had the highest negative scores in that vector. Correspondingly, the 165(th) PCNM vector indicated variation mainly between the two small municipalities located in South Finland. The vectors explained 13 - 58% of the spatial variation in cancer incidences. The number of outliers having standardized residual > |3| was very low, one to six per model, and even lower, zero to two per model, according to Chauvenet's criterion. The spatial variation of prostate cancer was best captured (adjusted r (2) = 0.579). PCNM can act as a complementary method to causal modeling to achieve a better understanding of the spatial structure of both the response and explanatory variables, and to assess the spatial importance of unmeasured explanatory factors. PCNM vectors can be used as proxies for demographics and causative agents to deal with autocorrelation, multicollinearity, and confounding variables. PCNM may help to extend spatial epidemiology to areas with limited availability of

  17. Distribution of Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec Types and correlation with comorbidity and infection type in patients with MRSA bacteremia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiun-Ling Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Molecular epidemiological definitions that are based on staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec typing and phylogenetic analysis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA isolates are considered a reliable way to distinguish between healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA and community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA. However, there is little information regarding the clinical features and outcomes of bacteremia patients with MRSA carrying different SCCmec types. METHODS: From January 1 through December 31, 2006, we recorded the demographic data and outcomes of 159 consecutive adult MRSA bacteremia patients from whom isolates for SCCmec analysis were collected. All participants were patients at a tertiary care center in Taiwan. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The following SCCmec types were identified in MRSA isolates: 30 SCCmec II (18.9%, 87 SCCmec III (54.7%, 22 SCCmec IV (13.8%, and 20 SCCmec V (12.6%. The time from admission to the first MRSA-positive blood culture for patients infected with isolates with the SCCmec III element (mean/median, 50.7/26 days was significantly longer than for patients infected with isolates carrying SCCmec IV or V (mean/median, 6.7/3 days for SCCmec IV; 11.1/10.5 days for SCCmec V (P<0.05. In univariate analysis, community onset, soft tissue infection, and deep-seated infection were predictors for SCCmec IV/V. In multivariate analysis, length of stay before index culture, diabetes mellitus, and being bedridden were independent risk factors associated with SCCmec II/III. CONCLUSIONS: These findings are in agreement with previous studies of the genetic characteristics of CA-MRSA. MRSA bacteremia with SCCmec II/III isolates occurred more among patients with serious comorbidities and prolonged hospitalization. Community onset, skin and soft tissue infection, and deep-seated infection best predicted SCCmec IV/V MRSA bacteremia.

  18. On the Stability of Distributions of the Type Described by Trueswell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantor, Paul B.

    1980-01-01

    Library collection weeding criteria based upon unequal distribution of demand require that distribution remain stable over time. A mathematical expression is derived that tests that stability. Verification is not inordinately time consuming and is facilitated by the use of automated circulation systems. (Author/RAA)

  19. Application of an additive-type mixed probability distribution to the analysis of radiation from a mixture of radioactive sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolićanin-Đekić Diana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the possibility of distinguishing between the effects of radiation coming from two or more radioactive isotopes, by using methods of statistical mathematics. The procedure uses a mixed distribution of an additive type. Mathematical treatment is demonstrated herein on an example of analysis of composite radiation from two radioactive sources.

  20. Development of an evaluation system for foot arch types in the elderly using foot pressure distribution data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Kazuya; Iwakami, Yumi; Yamashita, Kazuhiko; Hiejima, Yoshimitsu

    2012-01-01

    The foot arch serves important functions related to shock absorption and the action of walking. Simple and quantitative classifications of foot arch types, such as flat feet and high arches, help to provide health support services for the elderly. To develop an evaluation system for foot arch types using foot pressure distribution data, discriminant analyses were conducted using data from healthy elderly persons. The midfoot pressure ratio was selected and discriminants were derived. For evaluating the performance of the classification method, the derived discriminants were applied to the data from the other group of healthy elderly persons. Results indicate that both sensitivity and specificity of the classified foot arch types were sufficiently high.

  1. Explaining wartime rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschall, Jonathan

    2004-05-01

    In the years since the first reports of mass rapes in the Yugoslavian wars of secession and the genocidal massacres in Rwanda, feminist activists and scholars, human rights organizations, journalists, and social scientists have dedicated unprecedented efforts to document, explain, and seek solutions for the phenomenon of wartime rape. While contributors to this literature agree on much, there is no consensus on causal factors. This paper provides a brief overview of the literature on wartime rape in historical and ethnographical societies and a critical analysis of the four leading explanations for its root causes: the feminist theory, the cultural pathology theory, the strategic rape theory, and the biosocial theory. The paper concludes that the biosocial theory is the only one capable of bringing all the phenomena associated with wartime rape into a single explanatory context.

  2. Explaining moral religions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumard, Nicolas; Boyer, Pascal

    2013-06-01

    Moralizing religions, unlike religions with morally indifferent gods or spirits, appeared only recently in some (but not all) large-scale human societies. A crucial feature of these new religions is their emphasis on proportionality (between deeds and supernatural rewards, between sins and penance, and in the formulation of the Golden Rule, according to which one should treat others as one would like others to treat oneself). Cognitive science models that account for many properties of religion can be extended to these religions. Recent models of evolved dispositions for fairness in cooperation suggest that proportionality-based morality is highly intuitive to human beings. The cultural success of moralizing movements, secular or religious, could be explained based on proportionality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Matlab for engineers explained

    CERN Document Server

    Gustafsson, Fredrik

    2003-01-01

    This book is written for students at bachelor and master programs and has four different purposes, which split the book into four parts: 1. To teach first or early year undergraduate engineering students basic knowledge in technical computations and programming using MATLAB. The first part starts from first principles and is therefore well suited both for readers with prior exposure to MATLAB but lacking a solid foundational knowledge of the capabilities of the system and readers not having any previous experience with MATLAB. The foundational knowledge gained from these interactive guided tours of the system will hopefully be sufficient for an effective utilization of MATLAB in the engineering profession, in education and in research. 2. To explain the foundations of more advanced use of MATLAB using the facilities added the last couple of years, such as extended data structures, object orientation and advanced graphics. 3. To give an introduction to the use of MATLAB in typical undergraduate courses in elec...

  4. Using radio frequency and ultrasonic antennas for inspecting pin-type insulators on medium-voltage overhead distribution lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero Lefort Borges

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarises the activities undertaken when using antennas (ultrasound and radiofrequency for identifying insulators in pre-failure state by detecting the noise emitted by the distribution line and correlating this with these insulators (porcelain pin type dielectric breakdown. This has led to developing low-cost maintenance procedures and providing support and criteria for engineer-ing decisions regarding replacing these insulators. The technique used two detectors; a radio frequency detector was used in a first investigation of a particular distribution line, set to 40 MHz and installed on the roof of a moving vehicle. The ultrasound detector was used for inspecting (phases A, B, C each structure (pole selected. Atmospheric conditions had no influence on defining pre-failure insulators (pin type based on the noise detection technique. Pin type insulators emitting noise should be replaced since measurement was made from the ground and near the base of the post.

  5. Distributed Adaptive Synchronization for Complex Dynamical Networks with Uncertain Nonlinear Neutral-Type Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Miao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed adaptive synchronization control for complex dynamical networks with nonlinear derivative coupling is proposed. The distributed adaptive strategies are constituted by directed connections among nodes. By means of the parameters separation, the nonlinear functions can be transformed into the linearly form. Then effective distributed adaptive techniques are designed to eliminate the effect of time-varying parameters and made the considered network synchronize a given trajectory in the sense of square error norm. Furthermore, the coupling matrix is not assumed to be symmetric or irreducible. An example shows the applicability and feasibility of the approach.

  6. Shape of Growth Rate Distribution Determines the Type of Non-Gibrat's Property

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, Atushi; Fujimoto, Shouji; Mizuno, Takayuki

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors examine exhaustive business data on Japanese firms, which cover nearly all companies in the mid- and large-scale ranges in terms of firm size, to reach several key findings on profits/sales distribution and business growth trends. First, detailed balance is observed not only in profits data but also in sales data. Furthermore, the growth-rate distribution of sales has wider tails than the linear growth-rate distribution of profits in log-log scale. On the one hand, ...

  7. Uranium distribution and fixation in main types of climatic and stational pedogenesis on crystalline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueniot, B.

    1983-11-01

    An experimental and analytical study of uranium behavior in soils and of its distribution was carried out for bioclimatic pedogenesis on crystalline rocks, generally granites. Uranium distribution, and sometimes thorium) is compared to the distribution of tracers of pedogenesis (C, Fe, Al, Si, alkalis, clays). Uranium and thorium behavior is dependent of pedogenesis and can be leached or concentrated. Various fractions of soil alteration complexes and associated uranium can be isolated by chemical and physical fractionation and fixation sites for U are evidenced, efficiency is tested in situ. Adsorption is low onclays, fixation is frequent on oxyhydroxides, organic compounds are active for uranium complexation [fr

  8. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution in cervical glandular neoplasias: Results from a European multinational epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holl, Katsiaryna; Nowakowski, Andrzej M; Powell, Ned; McCluggage, W Glenn; Pirog, Edyta C; Collas De Souza, Sabrina; Tjalma, Wiebren A; Rosenlund, Mats; Fiander, Alison; Castro Sánchez, Maria; Damaskou, Vasileia; Joura, Elmar A; Kirschner, Benny; Koiss, Robert; O'Leary, John; Quint, Wim; Reich, Olaf; Torné, Aureli; Wells, Michael; Rob, Lukas; Kolomiets, Larisa; Molijn, Anco; Savicheva, Alevtina; Shipitsyna, Elena; Rosillon, Dominique; Jenkins, David

    2015-12-15

    Cervical glandular neoplasias (CGN) present a challenge for cervical cancer prevention due to their complex histopathology and difficulties in detecting preinvasive stages with current screening practices. Reports of human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and type-distribution in CGN vary, providing uncertain evidence to support prophylactic vaccination and HPV screening. This study [108288/108290] assessed HPV prevalence and type-distribution in women diagnosed with cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS, N = 49), adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC, N = 104), and various adenocarcinoma subtypes (ADC, N = 461) from 17 European countries, using centralised pathology review and sensitive HPV testing. The highest HPV-positivity rates were observed in AIS (93.9%), ASC (85.6%), and usual-type ADC (90.4%), with much lower rates in rarer ADC subtypes (clear-cell: 27.6%; serous: 30.4%; endometrioid: 12.9%; gastric-type: 0%). The most common HPV types were restricted to HPV16/18/45, accounting for 98.3% of all HPV-positive ADC. There were variations in HPV prevalence and ADC type-distribution by country. Age at diagnosis differed by ADC subtype, with usual-type diagnosed in younger women (median: 43 years) compared to rarer subtypes (medians between 57 and 66 years). Moreover, HPV-positive ADC cases were younger than HPV-negative ADC. The six years difference in median age for women with AIS compared to those with usual-type ADC suggests that cytological screening for AIS may be suboptimal. Since the great majority of CGN are HPV16/18/45-positive, the incorporation of prophylactic vaccination and HPV testing in cervical cancer screening are important prevention strategies. Our results suggest that special attention should be given to certain rarer ADC subtypes as most appear to be unrelated to HPV. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of UICC.

  9. Quantitative determination of uranium distribution homogeneity in material test reactor (MTR) fuel type plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrufino, F.B.J.; Durazzo, M.

    2010-01-01

    IPEN-CNEN/SP produces the fuel to supply its nuclear research reactor IEA-R1. The fuel is assembled from fuel plates containing a core of U 3 Si 2 -Al composite. A good homogeneity in the distribution of uranium in the core of the fuel plate is important from the standpoint of performance under irradiation. Considering the low power reactor IEA-R1, currently the distribution of uranium in the fuel plate is evaluated only by visual inspection of radiographs. However, in view of the possibility of IPEN manufacture the fuel for the new Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor, which has high power, it became urgent to develop a methodology to determine quantitatively the distribution of uranium into the fuel. This paper presents a methodology based on X-ray attenuation, quantifying the distribution of the uranium concentration in the core of the fuel plate by using optical densities of radiographs and comparison with standards. (author)

  10. Landscape distribution of desert cattle: effects of diet and vegetation type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livestock with heritage genetics may increase chances for simultaneously achieving conservation and agricultural production goals in the American Southwest. Past research shows that compared with conventional Angus x Hereford crossbreds (AH), heritage Raramuri Criollo (RC) typically distribute thems...

  11. Determination of Hot-Carrier Distribution Functions in Uniaxially Stressed p-Type Germanium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ove

    1973-01-01

    This paper gives a description of an experimental determination of distribution functions in k→ space of hot holes in uniaxially compressed germanium. The hot-carrier studies were made at 85°K at fields up to 1000 V/cm and uniaxial stresses up to 11 800 kg/cm2. The field and stress were always...... in the 〈111〉 direction. For the highest stresses, the maximum fields were close to the threshold for current oscillations. The distribution functions were obtained from experimental modulation of intervalence-band absorption of infrared radiation. In order to interpret the results, a parametrized distribution...... function has been assumed. The parameters of the distribution function are then fitted to the experimental modulation. The calculation of absorption was performed numerically, using a four-band k→·p→ model. This model was checked for consistency by comparing with piezoabsorption measurements performed...

  12. Changes in histoanatomical distribution of types I, III and V collagen promote adaptative remodeling in posterior tibial tendon rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Satomi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is a common cause of adult flat foot deformity, and its etiology is unknown. PURPOSE: In this study, we characterized the morphologic pattern and distribution of types I, III and V collagen in posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. METHOD: Tendon samples from patients with and without posterior tibial tendon dysfunction were stained by immunofluorescence using antibodies against types I, III and V collagen. RESULTS: Control samples showed that type V deposited near the vessels only, while surgically obtained specimens displayed type V collagen surrounding other types of collagen fibers in thicker adventitial layers. Type III collagen levels were also increased in pathological specimens. On the other hand, amounts of collagen type I, which represents 95% of the total collagen amount in normal tendon, were decreased in pathological specimens. CONCLUSION: Fibrillogenesis in posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is altered due to higher expression of types III and V collagen and a decreased amount of collagen type I, which renders the originating fibrils structurally less resistant to mechanical forces.

  13. Relating species abundance distributions to species-area curves in two Mediterranean-type shrublands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2003-01-01

    Based on both theoretical and empirical studies there is evidence that different species abundance distributions underlie different species-area relationships. Here I show that Australian and Californian shrubland communities (at the scale from 1 to 1000 m2) exhibit different species-area relationships and different species abundance patterns. The species-area relationship in Australian heathlands best fits an exponential model and species abundance (based on both density and cover) follows a narrow log normal distribution. In contrast, the species-area relationship in Californian shrublands is best fit with the power model and, although species abundance appears to fit a log normal distribution, the distribution is much broader than in Australian heathlands. I hypothesize that the primary driver of these differences is the abundance of small-stature annual species in California and the lack of annuals in Australian heathlands. Species-area is best fit by an exponential model in Australian heathlands because the bulk of the species are common and thus the species-area curves initially rise rapidly between 1 and 100 m2. Annuals in Californian shrublands generate very broad species abundance distributions with many uncommon or rare species. The power function is a better model in these communities because richness increases slowly from 1 to 100 m2 but more rapidly between 100 and 1000 m2due to the abundance of rare or uncommon species that are more likely to be encountered at coarser spatial scales. The implications of this study are that both the exponential and power function models are legitimate representations of species-area relationships in different plant communities. Also, structural differences in community organization, arising from different species abundance distributions, may lead to different species-area curves, and this may be tied to patterns of life form distribution.

  14. Evidence for Different Disk Mass Distributions between Early- and Late-type Be Stars in the BeSOS Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcos, C.; Kanaan, S.; Curé, M.; Jones, C. E.; Sigut, T. A. A.

    2017-01-01

    The circumstellar disk density distributions for a sample of 63 Be southern stars from the BeSOS survey were found by modeling their H α emission line profiles. These disk densities were used to compute disk masses and disk angular momenta for the sample. Average values for the disk mass are 3.4 × 10"−"9 and 9.5 × 10"−"1"0 M _⋆ for early (B0–B3) and late (B4–B9) spectral types, respectively. We also find that the range of disk angular momentum relative to the star is (150–200) J _⋆/ M _⋆ and (100–150) J _⋆/ M _⋆, again for early- and late-type Be stars, respectively. The distributions of the disk mass and disk angular momentum are different between early- and late-type Be stars at a 1% level of significance. Finally, we construct the disk mass distribution for the BeSOS sample as a function of spectral type and compare it to the predictions of stellar evolutionary models with rapid rotation. The observed disk masses are typically larger than the theoretical predictions, although the observed spread in disk masses is typically large.

  15. Evidence for Different Disk Mass Distributions between Early- and Late-type Be Stars in the BeSOS Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcos, C.; Kanaan, S.; Curé, M. [Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaíso. Av. Gran Bretana 1111, Valparaíso (Chile); Jones, C. E.; Sigut, T. A. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2017-06-10

    The circumstellar disk density distributions for a sample of 63 Be southern stars from the BeSOS survey were found by modeling their H α emission line profiles. These disk densities were used to compute disk masses and disk angular momenta for the sample. Average values for the disk mass are 3.4 × 10{sup −9} and 9.5 × 10{sup −10} M {sub ⋆} for early (B0–B3) and late (B4–B9) spectral types, respectively. We also find that the range of disk angular momentum relative to the star is (150–200) J {sub ⋆}/ M {sub ⋆} and (100–150) J {sub ⋆}/ M {sub ⋆}, again for early- and late-type Be stars, respectively. The distributions of the disk mass and disk angular momentum are different between early- and late-type Be stars at a 1% level of significance. Finally, we construct the disk mass distribution for the BeSOS sample as a function of spectral type and compare it to the predictions of stellar evolutionary models with rapid rotation. The observed disk masses are typically larger than the theoretical predictions, although the observed spread in disk masses is typically large.

  16. Explaining gender segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Robert M; Browne, Jude; Brooks, Bradley; Jarman, Jennifer

    2002-12-01

    Occupational gender segregation--the tendency for women and men to work in different occupations--is an important feature of all societies, and particularly the wealthy industrialized ones. To understand this segregation, and to explain its significance, we need to distinguish between vertical segregation entailing inequality and horizontal segregation representing difference without inequality, with overall segregation being the resultant of these components. Three major theoretical approaches to understanding occupational gender segregation are examined: human capital/rational choice, patriarchy, and preference theories. All are found to be inadequate; they tend to confuse overall segregation with its vertical component, and each entails a number of other faults. It is generally assumed or implied that greater empowerment of women would reduce gender segregation. This is the reverse of what actually happens; in countries where the degree of women's empowerment is greater, the level of gender segregation is also greater. An alternative theoretical approach based on processes of social reproduction is shown to be more useful.

  17. Stress Distribution of Bolted Joints With Different Lay-Up Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A parametric study of the stress distribution in the composite plates is undertaken to show the effect of different lay-ups. Full 3-D elastic properties are required in the modelling. These properties are calculated using equations taken from the literature and derivation from simple Classical Laminate Plate Theory (CLPT. In previous experimental work, it was shown that tensile failure involved the development of a damage zone at the edge of the hole. In a double-lap joint, it is assumed that uniform stresses are exhibited throughout the plate thickness. Different lay-ups system give different tangential stress distributions and insignificant variation in the radial stress distribution along the hole boundary.

  18. Shape of growth-rate distribution determines the type of Non-Gibrat’s Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Atushi; Fujimoto, Shouji; Mizuno, Takayuki

    2011-11-01

    In this study, the authors examine exhaustive business data on Japanese firms, which cover nearly all companies in the mid- and large-scale ranges in terms of firm size, to reach several key findings on profits/sales distribution and business growth trends. Here, profits denote net profits. First, detailed balance is observed not only in profits data but also in sales data. Furthermore, the growth-rate distribution of sales has wider tails than the linear growth-rate distribution of profits in log-log scale. On the one hand, in the mid-scale range of profits, the probability of positive growth decreases and the probability of negative growth increases symmetrically as the initial value increases. This is called Non-Gibrat’s First Property. On the other hand, in the mid-scale range of sales, the probability of positive growth decreases as the initial value increases, while the probability of negative growth hardly changes. This is called Non-Gibrat’s Second Property. Under detailed balance, Non-Gibrat’s First and Second Properties are analytically derived from the linear and quadratic growth-rate distributions in log-log scale, respectively. In both cases, the log-normal distribution is inferred from Non-Gibrat’s Properties and detailed balance. These analytic results are verified by empirical data. Consequently, this clarifies the notion that the difference in shapes between growth-rate distributions of sales and profits is closely related to the difference between the two Non-Gibrat’s Properties in the mid-scale range.

  19. Explaining Synthesized Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBaalen, Jeffrey; Robinson, Peter; Lowry, Michael; Pressburger, Thomas; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Motivated by NASA's need for high-assurance software, NASA Ames' Amphion project has developed a generic program generation system based on deductive synthesis. Amphion has a number of advantages, such as the ability to develop a new synthesis system simply by writing a declarative domain theory. However, as a practical matter, the validation of the domain theory for such a system is problematic because the link between generated programs and the domain theory is complex. As a result, when generated programs do not behave as expected, it is difficult to isolate the cause, whether it be an incorrect problem specification or an error in the domain theory. This paper describes a tool we are developing that provides formal traceability between specifications and generated code for deductive synthesis systems. It is based on extensive instrumentation of the refutation-based theorem prover used to synthesize programs. It takes augmented proof structures and abstracts them to provide explanations of the relation between a specification, a domain theory, and synthesized code. In generating these explanations, the tool exploits the structure of Amphion domain theories, so the end user is not confronted with the intricacies of raw proof traces. This tool is crucial for the validation of domain theories as well as being important in everyday use of the code synthesis system. It plays an important role in validation because when generated programs exhibit incorrect behavior, it provides the links that can be traced to identify errors in specifications or domain theory. It plays an important role in the everyday use of the synthesis system by explaining to users what parts of a specification or of the domain theory contribute to what pieces of a generated program. Comments are inserted into the synthesized code that document these explanations.

  20. Responses of Cloud Type Distributions to the Large-Scale Dynamical Circulation: Water Budget-Related Dynamical Phase Space and Dynamical Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Sun; Del Genio, Anthony; Wang, Tao; Kahn, Brian; Fetzer, Eric J.; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.

    2015-01-01

    Goals: Water budget-related dynamical phase space; Connect large-scale dynamical conditions to atmospheric water budget (including precipitation); Connect atmospheric water budget to cloud type distributions.

  1. Effects of soil type and depth on carbon distribution within soil macroaggregates from temperate grassland systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres-Sallan, Gemma; Creamer, Rachel E.; Lanigan, Gary J.; Reidy, Brian; Byrne, Kenneth A.

    2018-01-01

    Grassland soils have been highlighted as a global soil carbon (C) sink, and have the potential to sequester additional C. Sequestration of C can occur through incorporation of soil organic carbon (SOC) within microaggregates and the silt and clay fractions. The distribution of SOC within

  2. Tracing fingerprints of young type interferences in angular distributions of ejected electrons from molecular targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stia, C R; Fojon, O A; Rivarola, R D [Instituto de Fisica Rosario, CONICET and Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Av. Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Chatterjee, S; Misra, D; Tribedi, L C, E-mail: rivarola@fceia.unr.edu.a [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005 (India)

    2010-02-01

    Interference patterns in angular distributions of ionized electrons due to coherent emission from the proximities of the nuclei of molecular hydrogen are investigated in (e,2e) collisions. It is shown that double and single differential cross sections show signatures of this effect.

  3. Metallicity and the spectral energy distribution and spectral types of dwarf O-stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokiem, M.R.; Martín-Hernández, N.L.; Lenorzer, A.; de Koter, A.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.

    2004-01-01

    We present a systematic study of the effect of metallicity on the stellar spectral energy distribution (SED) of O main sequence (dwarf) stars, focussing on the hydrogen and helium ionizing continua, and on the optical and near-IR lines used for spectral classification. The spectra are based on

  4. Quantitative determination of uranium distribution homogeneity in MTR fuel type plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrufino, Felipe Bonito Jaldin

    2011-01-01

    IPEN/CNEN-SP produces the fuel to supply its nuclear research reactor IEA-R1. The fuel is assembled with fuel plates containing an U 3 Si 2 -Al composite meat. A good homogeneity in the uranium distribution inside the fuel plate meat is important from the standpoint of irradiation performance. Considering the lower power of reactor IEA-R1, the uranium distribution in the fuel plate has been evaluated only by visual inspection of radiographs. However, with the possibility of IPEN to manufacture the fuel for the new Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB), with higher power, it urges to develop a methodology to determine quantitatively the uranium distribution into the fuel. This paper presents a methodology based on X-ray attenuation, in order to quantify the uranium concentration distribution in the meat of the fuel plate by using optical densities in radiographs and comparison with standards. The results demonstrated the inapplicability of the method, considering the current specification for the fuel plates due to the high intrinsic error to the method. However, the study of the errors involved in the methodology, seeking to increase their accuracy and precision, can enable the application of the method to qualify the final product. (author)

  5. Normal forms for sub-Lorentzian metrics supported on Engel type distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochowski, Marek

    2014-06-01

    We construct normal forms for Lorentzian metrics on Engel distributions under the assumption that abnormal curves are timelike future directed Hamiltonian geodesics. Then we indicate some cases in which the abnormal timelike future directed curve initiating at the origin is geometrically optimal. We also give certain estimates for reachable sets from a point.

  6. Function, Type, and Distribution of Teacher Questions in Dual-Language Preschool Read Alouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gort, Mileidis; Pontier, Ryan W.; Sembiante, Sabrina F.

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the nature and distribution of dual-language preschool teachers' questions across parallel Spanish- and English-medium read-aloud activities. The notions of comprehensible input (Krashen, 1985) and language output (Swain, 1985), along with a reciprocal interaction model of teaching (Cummins, 2000), guided our…

  7. Criteria for Optimum Mixture - Ratio Distribution Using Several Types of Impinging-Stream Injector Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elverum, G. W., Jr.; Morey, T. F.

    1959-01-01

    Empirical correlations are given relating the mixture-ratio distributions produced by various configurations of impinging-stream injectors and the ratios of density, velocity, and orifice cross-sectional area of the two fluids being mixed. Injector-element designs studied are two-on-one, two-on-two, and four-on-one.

  8. Tree canopy types constrain plant distributions in ponderosa pine-Gambel oak forests, northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott R. Abella

    2009-01-01

    Trees in many forests affect the soils and plants below their canopies. In current high-density southwestern ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests, managers have opportunities to enhance multiple ecosystem values by manipulating tree density, distribution, and canopy cover through tree thinning. I performed a study in northern Arizona ponderosa...

  9. Global Robust Stability of Switched Interval Neural Networks with Discrete and Distributed Time-Varying Delays of Neural Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaiqin Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available By combing the theories of the switched systems and the interval neural networks, the mathematics model of the switched interval neural networks with discrete and distributed time-varying delays of neural type is presented. A set of the interval parameter uncertainty neural networks with discrete and distributed time-varying delays of neural type are used as the individual subsystem, and an arbitrary switching rule is assumed to coordinate the switching between these networks. By applying the augmented Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional approach and linear matrix inequality (LMI techniques, a delay-dependent criterion is achieved to ensure to such switched interval neural networks to be globally asymptotically robustly stable in terms of LMIs. The unknown gain matrix is determined by solving this delay-dependent LMIs. Finally, an illustrative example is given to demonstrate the validity of the theoretical results.

  10. Explaining (Missing) Regulator Paradigm Shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigger, Angela; Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    The global financial and economic crisis has prompted some scholars to suggest that a fundamental regulatory shift away from neoliberalism will take place – both in general and in the field of EU competition regulation. This paper shows that so far no radical break with the neoliberal type...... of competition regulation is heaving into sight. It sets out to explain this from the vantage point of a critical political economy perspective, which identifies the circumstances under which a crisis can result in a regulatory paradigm shift. Contrasting the current situation with the shift in EC/EU competition...... regulation after the crisis in the 1970s, the paper argues that the preconditions for a fundamental shift in this issue area are not present this time around. Several reasons account for this: the current crisis has been construed by economic and political elites as a crisis within and not of neoliberal...

  11. Gaps in the spectrum of a periodic quantum graph with periodically distributed delta '-type interactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barseghyan, Diana; Khrabustovskyi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 25 (2015), s. 255201 ISSN 1751-8113 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : periodic quantum graphs * delta'-type interactions * spectral gaps Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.933, year: 2015

  12. Human Papillomavirus types distribution among women with cervical preneoplastic, lesions and cancer in Luanda, Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damião, Paciência de Almeida; Oliveira-Silva, Michelle; Moreira, Miguel Ângelo; Poliakova, Natalia; de Lima, Maria Emilia Rt; Chiovo, José; Nicol, Alcina Frederica

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among females in Angola and human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main risk factor for the development of pre-cancerous squamous intraepithelial lesions. The diversity and frequency of HPV types in Angola has yet to be reported. To determine the frequency of HPV among women with squamous intraepithelial lesions from women in Luanda, Angola. Study participants included women diagnosed with cytological abnormalities that voluntarily provided Pap smears (n = 64). Genomic DNA was extracted from the samples for use as templates in the PCR amplification of HPV sequences. PCR products were sequenced to determine HPV type. HPV DNA was detected in 71.9% (46/64) in the samples. A higher diversity of HPV types was found in the cytological lesions, such as ASCUS and LSIL (HPV16, 6, 18, 31, 58, 66, 70 and 82, in order of frequency) than that detected for HSIL and SSC (HPV16, 18, 6 and 33). The most prevalent HPV type were: HPV16, HPV6 and HPV18. This is the first report on HPV type diversity and frequency in woman of Angola. The results suggest that large-scale studies across Africa would improve our understanding of interrelationship between HPV infections and cervical cancer. More directly, the identification of the HPV types most prevalent suggests that women in Angola would benefit from currently available HPV vaccines.

  13. Distribution of Virulence Genes in spa Types of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Patients in Intensive Care Units

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Taeksoo; Yi, Jongyoun; Hong, Ki Ho; Park, Jeong-Su; Kim, Eui-Chong

    2011-01-01

    Background Various virulence factors and superantigens are encoded by mobile genetic elements. The relationship between clonal background and virulence factors differs in different geographic regions. We compared the distribution and relationship of spa types and virulence genes among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains isolated from a tertiary hospital in 2000-01 and 2007-08. Methods In 2000-01 and 2007-08, 94 MRSA strains were collected from 3 intensive care units at ...

  14. Acoustic Estimates of Distribution and Biomass of Different Acoustic Scattering Types Between the New England Shelf Break and Slope Waters

    KAUST Repository

    McLaren, Alexander

    2011-11-01

    Due to their great ecological significance, mesopelagic fishes are attracting a wider audience on account of the large biomass they represent. Data from the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) provided the opportunity to explore an unknown region of the North-West Atlantic, adjacent to one of the most productive fisheries in the world. Acoustic data collected during the cruise required the identification of acoustically distinct scattering types to make inferences on the migrations, distributions and biomass of mesopelagic scattering layers. Six scattering types were identified by the proposed method in our data and traces their migrations and distributions in the top 200m of the water column. This method was able to detect and trace the movements of three scattering types to 1000m depth, two of which can be further subdivided. This process of identification enabled the development of three physically-derived target-strength models adapted to traceable acoustic scattering types for the analysis of biomass and length distribution to 1000m depth. The abundance and distribution of acoustic targets varied closely in relation to varying physical environments associated with a warm core ring in the New England continental Shelf break region. The continental shelf break produces biomass density estimates that are twice as high as the warm core ring and the surrounding continental slope waters are an order of magnitude lower than either estimate. Biomass associated with distinct layers is assessed and any benefits brought about by upwelling at the edge of the warm core ring are shown not to result in higher abundance of deepwater species. Finally, asymmetric diurnal migrations in shelf break waters contrasts markedly with the symmetry of migrating layers within the warm ring, both in structure and density estimates, supporting a theory of predatorial and nutritional constraints to migrating pelagic species.

  15. Core Genome Multilocus Sequence Typing for Identification of Globally Distributed Clonal Groups and Differentiation of Outbreak Strains of Listeria monocytogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yi; Gonzalez-Escalona, Narjol; Hammack, Thomas S.; Allard, Marc W.; Strain, Errol A.; Brown, Eric W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many listeriosis outbreaks are caused by a few globally distributed clonal groups, designated clonal complexes or epidemic clones, of Listeria monocytogenes, several of which have been defined by classic multilocus sequence typing (MLST) schemes targeting 6 to 8 housekeeping or virulence genes. We have developed and evaluated core genome MLST (cgMLST) schemes and applied them to isolates from multiple clonal groups, including those associated with 39 listeriosis outbreaks. The cgMLST...

  16. Reliability models for a nonrepairable system with heterogeneous components having a phase-type time-to-failure distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heungseob; Kim, Pansoo

    2017-01-01

    This research paper presents practical stochastic models for designing and analyzing the time-dependent reliability of nonrepairable systems. The models are formulated for nonrepairable systems with heterogeneous components having phase-type time-to-failure distributions by a structured continuous time Markov chain (CTMC). The versatility of the phase-type distributions enhances the flexibility and practicality of the systems. By virtue of these benefits, studies in reliability engineering can be more advanced than the previous studies. This study attempts to solve a redundancy allocation problem (RAP) by using these new models. The implications of mixing components, redundancy levels, and redundancy strategies are simultaneously considered to maximize the reliability of a system. An imperfect switching case in a standby redundant system is also considered. Furthermore, the experimental results for a well-known RAP benchmark problem are presented to demonstrate the approximating error of the previous reliability function for a standby redundant system and the usefulness of the current research. - Highlights: • Phase-type time-to-failure distribution is used for components. • Reliability model for nonrepairable system is developed using Markov chain. • System is composed of heterogeneous components. • Model provides the real value of standby system reliability not an approximation. • Redundancy allocation problem is used to show usefulness of this model.

  17. Input modeling with phase-type distributions and Markov models theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Buchholz, Peter; Felko, Iryna

    2014-01-01

    Containing a summary of several recent results on Markov-based input modeling in a coherent notation, this book introduces and compares algorithms for parameter fitting and gives an overview of available software tools in the area. Due to progress made in recent years with respect to new algorithms to generate PH distributions and Markovian arrival processes from measured data, the models outlined are useful alternatives to other distributions or stochastic processes used for input modeling. Graduate students and researchers in applied probability, operations research and computer science along with practitioners using simulation or analytical models for performance analysis and capacity planning will find the unified notation and up-to-date results presented useful. Input modeling is the key step in model based system analysis to adequately describe the load of a system using stochastic models. The goal of input modeling is to find a stochastic model to describe a sequence of measurements from a real system...

  18. The influence of sediment type on the distribution of the lesser sandeel, Ammodytes marinus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, P.J.; Jensen, Henrik; Tuck, I.

    2000-01-01

    The lesser sandeel Ammodytes marinus (Raitt, 1934) is an important component of the North Sea ecosystem and the subject of the largest single species fishery in this region. However, little is known about the distribution of this species outside the areas where they are fished. This study examines...... between fractions from 2 to 10%. The apparent dislike for fine sediments was examined further by means of sediment choice experiments. These experiments confirmed the importance of the fine particle fraction in limiting distribution and indicated that sandeels would not be expected to inhabit such areas....... Given the constraints of sediment requirements, densities of sandeels in benthic samples appeared to be influenced by water depth. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  19. Thermal effects in Yb-doped double-cladding Distributed Modal Filtering rod-type fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coscelli, Enrico; Poli, Federica; Jørgensen, Mette Marie

    2012-01-01

    The effects of thermally-induced refractive index change in Yb-doped Distributed Modal Filtering (DMF) photonic crystal fibers are investigated, where high-order mode suppression is obtained by resonant coupling with high index elements in the cladding. The temperature distribution on the fiber...... element method. A DMF fiber design, which is single-mode in the 1030 nm–1064 nm region, is considered, and the effects of thermal load on the transmission characteristics are evaluated. Results show a blue-shift of the single-mode window and the single-mode bandwidth narrowing as the absorbed pump power...... cross-section is calculated with an analytical model, for different pump power values. The consequent refractive index change, due to the thermo-optical effect, is applied to the cross-section of the DMF fiber, whose guiding properties are studied with a full-vector modal solver based on the finite...

  20. Spatial and energy distributions of satellite-speed helium atoms reflected from satellite-type surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, S.M.; Rodgers, W.E.; Knuth, E.L.

    1977-01-01

    Interactions of satellite-speed helium atoms (accelerated in an expansion from an arc-heated supersonic-molecular-beam source) with practical satellite surfaces have been investigated experimentally. The density and energy distributions of the scattered atoms were measured using a detection system developed for this study. This detection system includes (a) a target positioning mechanism, (b) a detector rotating mechanism, and (c) a mass spectrometer and/or a retarding-field energy analyzer. (Auth.)

  1. Coolant distribution device on reactor core side of HTGR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuba, Yoshitaka.

    1993-01-01

    The coolant distribution device comprises an annular main body and a pressure loss source member having a plurality of blow ports perforated at positions equally dividing the circumference of the main body. The coolant distribution device is disposed to the outer circumference of a plurality of support columns disposed between the reactor core support plate and a rectification plate at a reactor floor portion. Coolants uprising in the reactor core and flowing under heating to a reactor floor portion are blown out from main cooling system pipelines and auxiliary cooling system pipelines, passed through the gap of the reactor core support plate and the rectification plate and sealed by the pressure loss source member. Since the difference of a speed head caused by geometrical shape in the circumferential direction of a flow channel is reduced as a pressure loss, the pressure in the pressure loss source member is kept uniform. Accordingly, a uniform amount of coolants is distributed from the blow ports of the pressure loss source member to the side of the reactor core of the reactor floor portion, to cool the outer circumference of the reactor core uniformly. (I.N.)

  2. Prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus in squamous cell carcinoma and intraepithelial neoplasia of the vulva

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Mette T; Sand, Freja Lærke; Albieri, Vanna

    2017-01-01

    In this updated systematic review and meta-analysis, we estimate the pooled prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA and HPV type distribution in squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva (vulvar cancer) and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN). PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases were...... samples. Thus, HPV vaccination targeting these HPV types may prevent a substantial number of vulvar lesions.......In this updated systematic review and meta-analysis, we estimate the pooled prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA and HPV type distribution in squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva (vulvar cancer) and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN). PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases were......-study heterogeneity was observed (vulvar cancer: I2 = 88.4%; VIN: I2 = 90.7%) with the largest variation between geographical regions. Among HPV-positive cases, the predominant high-risk HPV type was HPV16, followed by HPV33 and HPV18. HPV6 was detected as a single infection in a small subset of VIN and vulvar cancer...

  3. Type I fitting of copper tubes from a water distribution system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fernandes, PJL

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available to pitting whilst in service were subjected to a detailed failure investigation. Analysis of the tubes showed that failure was a result of Type I pitting attack. While the exact cause of pitting was unknown, it was hypothesized that it could have been due...

  4. The Sensitivity of AOD Retrieval to Aerosol Type and Vertical Distribution over Land with MODIS Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Y.; de Graaf, M.; Menenti, M.

    2016-01-01

    This study is to evaluate the sensitivity of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD τ) to aerosol vertical profile and type, using the Moderate

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, emm type distribution and genetic diversity of Streptococcus pyogenes recovered in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauber P Arêas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes is responsible for a variety of infectious diseases and immunological complications. In this study, 91 isolates of S. pyogenes recovered from oropharynx secretions were submitted to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, emm typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE analysis. All isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, penicillin G and vancomycin. Resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin was 15.4%, which is higher than previous reports from this area, while 20.9% of the isolates were not susceptible to tetracycline. The macrolide resistance phenotypes were cMLSB (10 and iMLSB (4. The ermB gene was predominant, followed by the ermA gene. Thirty-two emm types and subtypes were found, but five (emm1, emm4, emm12, emm22, emm81 were detected in 48% of the isolates. Three new emm subtypes were identified (emm1.74, emm58.14, emm76.7. There was a strong association between emm type and PFGE clustering. A variety of PFGE profiles as well as emm types were found among tetracycline and erythromycin-resistant isolates, demonstrating that antimicrobial resistant strains do not result from the expansion of one or a few clones. This study provides epidemiological data that contribute to the development of suitable strategies for the prevention and treatment of such infections in a poorly studied area.

  6. Volume distribution in saw-timber types in the ponderosa pine region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen N. Wyckoff

    1939-01-01

    The forest survey, a Nation-wide project authorized by Congress in 1928, consists of a complete and detailed investigation of the country's present and future forest resources in five major parts: (1) an inventory of the country's existing forest resources in terms of areas occupied by forest-cover types and of timber volumes, by species, in board feet and...

  7. Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus : Changes in Tissue-specific Fat Distribution and Cardiac Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Jacqueline T.; de Mol, Pieter; de Vries, Suzanna T.; Widya, Ralph L.; Hammer, Sebastiaan; van Schinkel, Linda D.; van der Meer, Rutger W.; Gans, Rijk O. B.; Webb, Andrew G.; Kan, Hermien E.; de Koning, Eelco J. P.; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Lamb, Hildo J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively assess the effects of an exercise intervention on organ-specific fat accumulation and cardiac function in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: Written informed consent was obtained from all participants, and the study protocol was approved by the medical ethics

  8. Investigation of the type, frequency, and sex distribution of fistulas in Crohn's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulke, H.; Kasper, H.; Auer, I.

    1987-01-01

    Various types of fistula development are described in a population of 206 patients with a pravious diagnosis of Crohn's disease. In addition, the frequency of occurence of Crohn's disease in a population and the frequency of Crohn's reoccurrence for a given patient is reported. Furthermore a subdivision of patients with respect to sex is possible. (orig.) [de

  9. Differentiation and distribution of three types of exfoliative toxin produced by Staphylococcus hyicus from pigs with exudative epidermitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Lars Ole

    1998-01-01

    were antigenically distinct. The three toxins were designated ExhA, ExhB and ExhC. From 60 diseased pigs, each representing an outbreak of exudative epidermitis, a total of 584 isolates of S. hl icus were phage typed and tested for production of exfoliative toxin. ExhA-, ExhB- and ExhC-producing S....... hyicus isolates were found in 12 (20%), 20 (33%) and 11 (18%); respectively, of the 60 pig herds investigated. Production of the different types of exfoliative toxin was predominantly associated with certain phage groups. However. toxin production was found in all of the six phage groups defined...... by the phage typing system. Some changes in the distribution of isolates between phage groups were observed when the results of this study were compared to previous investigations. In this study two new antigenically distinct exfoliative toxins were isolated and tools for in vitro detection of toxin producing...

  10. The hELENa project - II. Abundance distribution trends of early-type galaxies: from dwarfs to giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sybilska, A.; Kuntschner, H.; van de Ven, G.; Vazdekis, A.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Peletier, R. F.; Lisker, T.

    2018-02-01

    In this second paper of The role of Environment in shaping Low-mass Early-type Nearby galaxies (hELENa) series we study [Mg/Fe] abundance distribution trends of early-type galaxies observed with the SAURON integral field unit, spanning a wide range in mass and local environment densities: 20 low-mass early-types (dEs) of Sybilska et al. (2017) and 258 massive early types (ETGs) of the ATLAS3D project, all homogeneously reduced and analyzed. We show that the [Mg/Fe] ratios scale with velocity dispersion (σ) at fixed [Fe/H] and that they evolve with [Fe/H] along similar paths for all early-types, grouped in bins of increasing local and global σ, as well as the second velocity moment Vrms, indicating a common inside-out formation pattern. We then place our dEs on the [Mg/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] diagram of Local Group galaxies and show that dEs occupy the same region and show a similar trend line slope in the diagram as the high-metallicity stars of the Milky Way and the Large Magellanic Cloud. This finding extends the similar trend found for dwarf spheroidal vs. dwarf irregular galaxies and supports the notion that dEs have evolved from late-type galaxies that have lost their gas at a point of their evolution, which likely coincided with them entering denser environments.

  11. spa type distribution in Staphylococcus aureus originating from pigs, cattle and poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasman, Henrik; Moodley, A.; Guardabassi, L.

    2010-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) of clonal complex 398 (CC398) is emerging globally among production animals such as cattle, pigs and poultry as well as among humans. However, little is known about the prevalence of CC398 among methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) or the relative clonal...... distribution of S. aureus isolated from these three animal reservoirs. To study this, we have analyzed a random sample of S. aureus consisting of 296 epidemiologically unrelated isolates from infections and colonisation of pigs, cattle and poultry. These were examined and compared by spa and multi...

  12. Distribution of Cs-137 in the forest litter taken from different forest types of Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riekstina, D.; Mednis, I.; Veveris, O.; Zalitis, P.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: The radioactive pollution of the environment from the Chernobyl catastrophe has only slightly touched Latvian territory. Nevertheless it has changed the usual radioactive background. After the decay of the short and medium - lived radionuclides, the radioactivity background due to that is mainly created by radionuclide Cs-137. Measurements of this radionuclide in soil, moss and mushrooms show rather different results in various areas of Latvia. That is explained by various meteorological conditions in Latvia at the time of the catastrophe. For our study of the radioactive pollution we chose forest litter. This choice was made because the greatest accumulation of the products of radioactive fission from atmosphere is discernible in forest. We chose two areas where we could expect different levels of radioactive pollution: Rucava and Taurene. Samples were gathered at various depths (5 levels: from 0 to 25 cm) and under various tree species (pine, spruce, birch), as well as in forest openings. Samples were dried and then homogenized in ''runner mill''. Radioactivity was determined using gamma spectrometer with 70 cm 3 Ge detector. Measurements were made shielded by lead, thus minimizing background radioactivity. Results are shown in a table. The statistical error measurements does not exceed 20% of Taurene and 10% Rucava samples. Cs-137 content in soils of Latvia is 5.4-19.6 Bk/kg, which is several times lower than that found in forest litter. We can conclude that determine radioactive pollution forest litter should be used, preferably that found under spruce trees

  13. Heterogeneous distribution of pectin epitopes and calcium in different pit types of four angiosperm species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavcová, Lenka; Hacke, Uwe G

    2011-12-01

    Intervessel pits act as safety valves that prevent the spread of xylem embolism. Pectin-calcium crosslinks within the pit membrane have been proposed to affect xylem vulnerability to cavitation. However, as the chemical composition of pit membranes is poorly understood, this hypothesis has not been verified. Using electron microscopy, immunolabeling, an antimonate precipitation technique, and ruthenium red staining, we studied the distribution of selected polysaccharides and calcium in the pit membranes of four angiosperm tree species. We tested whether shifts in xylem vulnerability resulting from perfusion of stems with a calcium chelating agent corresponded with the distribution of pectic homogalacturonans (HG) and/or calcium within interconduit pit membranes. No HG were detected in the main part of intervessel pit membranes, but were consistently found in the marginal membrane region known as the annulus. Calcium colocalized with HG in the annulus. In contrast to intervessel pits, the membrane of vessel-ray pits showed a high pectin content. The presence of two distinct chemical domains, the annulus and the actual pit membrane, can have substantial implications for pit membrane functioning. We propose that the annulus could affect the observed shift in xylem vulnerability after calcium removal by allowing increased pit membrane deflection. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Improved characterization of reservoir behavior by integration of reservoir performances data and rock type distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, D.K.; Vessell, R.K. [David K. Davies & Associates, Kingwood, TX (United States); Doublet, L.E. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    An integrated geological/petrophysical and reservoir engineering study was performed for a large, mature waterflood project (>250 wells, {approximately}80% water cut) at the North Robertson (Clear Fork) Unit, Gaines County, Texas. The primary goal of the study was to develop an integrated reservoir description for {open_quotes}targeted{close_quotes} (economic) 10-acre (4-hectare) infill drilling and future recovery operations in a low permeability, carbonate (dolomite) reservoir. Integration of the results from geological/petrophysical studies and reservoir performance analyses provide a rapid and effective method for developing a comprehensive reservoir description. This reservoir description can be used for reservoir flow simulation, performance prediction, infill targeting, waterflood management, and for optimizing well developments (patterns, completions, and stimulations). The following analyses were performed as part of this study: (1) Geological/petrophysical analyses: (core and well log data) - {open_quotes}Rock typing{close_quotes} based on qualitative and quantitative visualization of pore-scale features. Reservoir layering based on {open_quotes}rock typing {close_quotes} and hydraulic flow units. Development of a {open_quotes}core-log{close_quotes} model to estimate permeability using porosity and other properties derived from well logs. The core-log model is based on {open_quotes}rock types.{close_quotes} (2) Engineering analyses: (production and injection history, well tests) Material balance decline type curve analyses to estimate total reservoir volume, formation flow characteristics (flow capacity, skin factor, and fracture half-length), and indications of well/boundary interference. Estimated ultimate recovery analyses to yield movable oil (or injectable water) volumes, as well as indications of well and boundary interference.

  15. Small plastic debris in sediments from the Central Adriatic Sea: Types, occurrence and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistri, Michele; Infantini, Vanessa; Scoponi, Marco; Granata, Tommaso; Moruzzi, Letizia; Massara, Francesca; De Donati, Miriam; Munari, Cristina

    2017-11-15

    This is the first survey to investigate the occurrence and extent of microplastic contamination in sediments collected along a coast-open sea 140km-long transect in the Central Adriatic Sea. Plastic debris extracted from 64 samples of sediments were counted, weighted and identified by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Several types of plastic particles were observed in 100% of the stations. Plastic particles ranged from 1 to 30mm in length. The primary shape types by number were filaments (69.3%), followed by fragments (16.4%), and film (14.3%). Microplastics (1-5mm) accounted for 65.1% of debris, mesoplastics (5-20mm) made up 30.3% of total amount, while macro debris (>20mm) accounted for 4.6% of total plastics collected. Identification through FT-IR spectroscopy evidenced the presence of 6 polymer types: the majority of plastic debris were nylon, polyethylene and ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer. Our data are a baseline for microplastic research in the Adriatic Sea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Empagliflozin reduces body weight and indices of adipose distribution in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeland, Ian J; McGuire, Darren K; Chilton, Robert; Crowe, Susanne; Lund, Søren S; Woerle, Hans J; Broedl, Uli C; Johansen, Odd Erik

    2016-03-01

    To determine the effects of empagliflozin on adiposity indices among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Changes in weight, waist circumference, estimated total body fat, index of central obesity and visceral adiposity index were assessed using analysis of covariance and testing of treatment by strata for age, sex and baseline waist circumference in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus randomized to blinded treatment with empagliflozin versus placebo in clinical trials of 12 weeks (cohort 1) or 24 weeks (cohort 2) duration. This study comprised 3300 patients (cohort 1, N = 823; cohort 2, N = 2477). Empagliflozin reduced weight, waist circumference and adiposity indices versus placebo in both cohorts. Adjusted mean (95% confidence interval) change from baseline in empagliflozin versus placebo was -1.7 kg (-2.1 to -1.4 kg) and -1.9 kg (-2.1 to -1.7 kg) for body weight (p Empagliflozin significantly reduced weight and adiposity indices with the potential to improve cardiometabolic risk among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. [Stress distribution of surgically assisted tooth-borne rapid maxillary expansion via three different types of osteotomies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen-hui; Wang, Xu-dong; Wang, Dong-mei

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the stress distribution of craniofacial bones during surgically assisted tooth-borne rapid maxillary expansion (SARME) via three different osteotomies. Three-dimensional finite element model of craniofacial bones with a tooth-borne appliance was generated. According to the different osteotomies, the models were categorized as three groups: Type I-isolated midpalatal osteotomy, Type II-Le Fort I and midpalatal osteotomies, Type III-Le Fort I and midpalatal osteotomies and bilateral pterygomaxillary disjunction. In all three models, with 4 different displacements, von-Mises stress was measured and analysed at 11 anatomical structures of the craniofacial bones. An obvious reduction of the stress was observed followed by the larger extent of the surgery. The maximum stress of the bones was only noticed in Type I model. Stress on lamina of the pterygoid acutely increased in the Type II model compared with the Type I model. In Type III model, after separation of the pterygomaxillary junctions, stress on lamina of the pterygoid decreased rapidly and meanwhile stressed on the majority of the midfacial bones also decreased. In Type III osteotomies, anatomical structures of the upper craniofacial bones suffered from an increase of the stress. Surgical procedures would be of great help to reduce the stress on the craniofacial region in the rapid maxillary expansion postoperatively. Fractures of the cranial base may occur at a greater chance because of stress focusing on lamina of the pterygoid. So, separation of the pterygomaxillary junctions during the operation is suggested. Increasing stress on the upper craniofacial bones can be observed after separation of the pterygomaxillary junctions due to changes of stress transduction pathways.

  18. A New View on an Old Debate: Type of Cue-Conflict Manipulation and Availability of Stars Can Explain the Discrepancies between Cue-Calibration Experiments with Migratory Songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöberg, Sissel; Muheim, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    horizon at sunrise or sunset, the birds temporarily transfer the previously calibrated magnetic compass information to the available celestial compasses. We conclude that the type of cue-conflict manipulation and the availability of stars can explain the discrepancies between studies.

  19. Investigation of real field application issues for resistive type SFCLs for distribution electric power networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, S.B. [School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon-shi, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, B.W., E-mail: bangwook@hanyang.ac.k [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Hanyang University, Ansan-shi, Gyeonggi-do 426-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-01

    Conventional electric power networks were designed and operated not considering fault current limiting devices. Therefore, the performance and characteristics of resistive superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) should be reviewed considering the coordination with other electric circuit protecting devices. In this paper, real field application issues of resistive SFCL were investigated considering utilities' demands and coordination with other protection devices. Pure resistive SFCL and hybrid resistive SFCL were compared in order to determine suitable solutions for electric power systems. SFCLs were modeled and analyzed using electro-magnetic transients program (EMTP) and their performances were compared to identify the adaptability to the conventional power networks. Consequently, Simulation results showed that hybrid resistive SFCL have more advantages than pure resistive SFCL considering the requirements and specification for the distribution networks.

  20. Investigation of real field application issues for resistive type SFCLs for distribution electric power networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, S. B.; Lee, B. W.

    2010-11-01

    Conventional electric power networks were designed and operated not considering fault current limiting devices. Therefore, the performance and characteristics of resistive superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) should be reviewed considering the coordination with other electric circuit protecting devices. In this paper, real field application issues of resistive SFCL were investigated considering utilities' demands and coordination with other protection devices. Pure resistive SFCL and hybrid resistive SFCL were compared in order to determine suitable solutions for electric power systems. SFCLs were modeled and analyzed using electro-magnetic transients program (EMTP) and their performances were compared to identify the adaptability to the conventional power networks. Consequently, Simulation results showed that hybrid resistive SFCL have more advantages than pure resistive SFCL considering the requirements and specification for the distribution networks.

  1. Stationary Random Metrics on Hierarchical Graphs Via {(min,+)}-type Recursive Distributional Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khristoforov, Mikhail; Kleptsyn, Victor; Triestino, Michele

    2016-07-01

    This paper is inspired by the problem of understanding in a mathematical sense the Liouville quantum gravity on surfaces. Here we show how to define a stationary random metric on self-similar spaces which are the limit of nice finite graphs: these are the so-called hierarchical graphs. They possess a well-defined level structure and any level is built using a simple recursion. Stopping the construction at any finite level, we have a discrete random metric space when we set the edges to have random length (using a multiplicative cascade with fixed law {m}). We introduce a tool, the cut-off process, by means of which one finds that renormalizing the sequence of metrics by an exponential factor, they converge in law to a non-trivial metric on the limit space. Such limit law is stationary, in the sense that glueing together a certain number of copies of the random limit space, according to the combinatorics of the brick graph, the obtained random metric has the same law when rescaled by a random factor of law {m} . In other words, the stationary random metric is the solution of a distributional equation. When the measure m has continuous positive density on {mathbf{R}+}, the stationary law is unique up to rescaling and any other distribution tends to a rescaled stationary law under the iterations of the hierarchical transformation. We also investigate topological and geometric properties of the random space when m is log-normal, detecting a phase transition influenced by the branching random walk associated to the multiplicative cascade.

  2. Life Cycle Cost Analysis of Three Types of Power Lines in 10 kV Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Zhu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There are three types of power lines in the 10 kV distribution network in China, i.e., copper power cables, overhead power conductors and aluminum alloy power cables. It is necessary to give a comprehensive evaluation to choose the type of power line in some delicate practical engineering. This paper presents a life cycle cost (LCC-based analysis method for the three types of power lines. An LCC model of the power line in the 10 kV distribution network is established, which considers four parts: investment cost, operation and maintenance cost, failure cost and discard cost. A detailed calculation model for the four parts is presented, and to calculate the failure cost, the Monte Carlo algorithm is employed to simulate the values of expected energy not supplied (EENS. Two practical 10 kV power line projects in Fujian Province in China were analyzed based on the proposed LLC model and corresponding developed software, which has helped the power company select the appropriate power line successfully.

  3. Impact of variety type and particle size distribution on starch enzymatic hydrolysis and functional properties of tef flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Workineh; Collar, Concha; Ronda, Felicidad

    2015-01-22

    Tef grain is becoming very attractive in the Western countries since it is a gluten-free grain with appreciated nutritional advantages. However there is little information of its functional properties and starch digestibility and how they are affected by variety type and particle size distribution. This work evaluates the effect of the grain variety and the mill used on tef flour physico-chemical and functional properties, mainly derived from starch behavior. In vitro starch digestibility of the flours by Englyst method was assessed. Two types of mills were used to obtain whole flours of different granulation. Rice and wheat flours were analyzed as references. Protein molecular weight distribution and flour structure by SEM were also analyzed to justify some of the differences found among the cereals studied. Tef cultivar and mill type exhibited important effect on granulation, bulking density and starch damage, affecting the processing performance of the flours and determining the hydration and pasting properties. The color was darker although one of the white varieties had a lightness near the reference flours. Different granulation of tef flour induced different in vitro starch digestibility. The disc attrition mill led to higher starch digestibility rate index and rapidly available glucose, probably as consequence of a higher damaged starch content. The results confirm the adequacy of tef flour as ingredient in the formulation of new cereal based foods and the importance of the variety and the mill on its functional properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Frequency, distribution and time trends of types of leisure-time physical activity in Brazil, 2006-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sa, Thiago Herick; Garcia, Leandro Martin Totaro; Claro, Rafael Moreira

    2014-12-01

    To describe the frequency and the distribution of the main types of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) practiced by Brazilian adults in 2012 and to observe their time trends from 2006 to 2012. Cross-sectional data from the Brazilian surveillance system of risk and protective factors for non-transmissible chronic diseases from 2006 to 2012 (around 54,000 adults aged 18 years or older in all Brazilian State capitals interviewed yearly). Participants were asked whether they had practiced any type of exercise or sport in the last 3 months, and if so which type. Linear regression was used to identify trends of the five most cited LTPA. In 2012, walking was reported as the main LTPA (18.1 %), followed by strength training/gymnastics (11.2 %) and football (7.2 %). Time-trend analysis showed reduction in football (9.1-7.2 %; p = 0.004, β = -0.25, R(2) = 0.79) and increase in strength training/gymnastics (7.9-11.2 %; p = 0.02, β = 0.50, R(2) = 0.62) and running (1.7-3.1 %; p < 0.001, β = 0.22, R(2) = 0.93). Walking was the main type of LTPA. Patterns of LTPA types remained relatively stable over the last 7 years.

  5. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean Sea: Types, occurrence and distribution along Adriatic shorelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munari, Cristina; Scoponi, Marco; Mistri, Michele

    2017-09-01

    Small plastic debris in sediments from five beaches were investigated to evaluate their occurrence and abundance in the Northern Adriatic coast for the first time. Plastic debris extracted from sediments were counted, weighted and identified by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). A total of 1345 items of debris (13.491g) were recorded, with a mean density of 12.1 items kg -1 d.w. and 0.12gkg -1 d.w. Fragments were the most frequent type of small plastics debris detected. In terms of abundance, microplastics (emergent and priority contaminant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Residential Distributed-Generating System with Photovoltaic Cells and Hydrogen-Storage Type Fuel Cells and its Operational Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Yuuki; Funabiki, Shigeyuki

    Output power in photovoltaic systems changes steeply with the change of the solar irradiance and overall PV temperature. The change of output power has influence on the electric power quality of the system. This paper proposes a novel operational scheme of the residential distributed power generation system using solar cells and hydrogen-storage type fuel cells. In order to level the output power which changes steeply the fuel cells are connected to the PV system in parallel. Thus the generated power of all the system can be leveled. However, the hydrogen is required in order to generate electricity by the fuel cells. Therefore, the electrolyzer which is hydrogen manufacturing equipment is installed in the system. It is confirmed by the simulation that the distributed power generation system operates according to the proposed operational scheme and its system is available for residential supplies.

  7. Probing Young-type interference effect on angular distributions of e-DDCS using fast electrons as projectile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, S.; Kelkar, A. H.; Stia, C. R.; Fojón, O. A.; Rivarola, R. D.; Tribedi, L. C.

    2009-11-01

    We have studied Young-type interference in the energy and angular distributions of double differential cross sections (DDCS) of electrons emitted in single-ionization of H2, induced by 8 keV electron impact. The first-order interference is derived from the energy distribution of DDCS and the resulting ratio-spectra (H2-to-2H) exhibit oscillating behaviour. The signature of first-order interference is also demonstrated in the DDCS-spectra as a function of emission angle. We have shown that the constructive interference prevails in soft- and binary-collision regions. The single differential cross sections obtained by integrating the DDCSs over energy and solid angle also preserve the information on interference.

  8. Delay-dependent exponential state estimators for stochastic neural networks of neutral type with both discrete and distributed delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong; Ding, Yongsheng; Zhang, Lei; Hao, Kuangrong

    2015-03-01

    This paper considered the state estimation for stochastic neural networks of neutral type with discrete and distributed delays. By using available output measurements, the state estimator can approximate the neuron states, and the asymptotic property of the state error is mean square exponential stable and also almost surely exponential stable in the presence of discrete and distributed delays. Under the Lipschitz assumptions for the activation functions and the measurement nonlinearity, a delay-dependent linear matrix inequality (LMI) criterion is proposed to guarantee the existence of the desired estimators by constructing an appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii function. It is shown that the existence conditions and the explicit expression of the state estimator can be parameterised in terms of the solution to a LMI. Finally, two numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the validity of the theoretical results and show that the theorem can provide less conservative conditions.

  9. Fault type predictions from stress distributions on planetary surfaces - Importance of fault initiation depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M. P.

    1985-01-01

    The prediction of fault type on planetary surfaces from model stresses calculated at depth is discussed. These fault-type predictions yield different faults than those predicted using the surface criteria commonly employed in geophysical models. For elastic-plate flexure models of mascon loading on the moon, stresses calculated at the surface predict the occurrence of strike-slip faulting at the radial distance where grabens are found. Normal faults bounding lunar grabens and thrust faults responsible for wrinkle ridges are analyzed. It is found that the former initiate at the mechanical discontinuity that separates the breccia of the megaregolith from in situ fractured rock and that the latter initiate at the mechanical discontinuity between basalt layers and the underlying basin floor. The difference between elastic constants for the outer few kilometers of brecciated megaregolith and the underlying lunar lithosphere are evaluated. Superposing nonisotropic stresses resulting from the weight of overburden to the depth of the relevant mechanical discontinuity yield stresses that predict wrinkle ridges in the basin centers and grabens outside the basin margin, and eliminate the predicted zone of strike-slip faults.

  10. Understanding reliance on automation: effects of error type, error distribution, age and experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Julian; Rogers, Wendy A.; Fisk, Arthur D.; Rovira, Ericka

    2015-01-01

    An obstacle detection task supported by “imperfect” automation was used with the goal of understanding the effects of automation error types and age on automation reliance. Sixty younger and sixty older adults interacted with a multi-task simulation of an agricultural vehicle (i.e. a virtual harvesting combine). The simulator included an obstacle detection task and a fully manual tracking task. A micro-level analysis provided insight into the way reliance patterns change over time. The results indicated that there are distinct patterns of reliance that develop as a function of error type. A prevalence of automation false alarms led participants to under-rely on the automation during alarm states while over relying on it during non-alarms states. Conversely, a prevalence of automation misses led participants to over-rely on automated alarms and under-rely on the automation during non-alarm states. Older adults adjusted their behavior according to the characteristics of the automation similarly to younger adults, although it took them longer to do so. The results of this study suggest the relationship between automation reliability and reliance depends on the prevalence of specific errors and on the state of the system. Understanding the effects of automation detection criterion settings on human-automation interaction can help designers of automated systems make predictions about human behavior and system performance as a function of the characteristics of the automation. PMID:25642142

  11. Frequency Distribution of Edentulous Posterior Mandibular Ridge Types using Cone Beam Computed Tomography in an Iranian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The existing bone is regarded as an important criteria in dental implants. In this regard, the radiographic modality is of great significance in quantifying the remaining bone, and CBCT accurately represents height and width of the existing bone. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the frequency distribution of the edentulous posterior mandibular ridge types using cone beam computed tomography in an Iranian population. Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, CBCT scans of 127 patients with full edentulous mandible with an average age of 61.15 were evaluated who referred to a radiology clinic in Tehran. The images were analyzed applying OnDemand3D application and bone height and width of each area were determined. To analyze the collected data, SPSS software (ver,17 was employed applying Fisher's exact test. Results: The ridges were classified in 4 different groups (A,B+,B-w,C-w. The frequency of ridge types A and B + in male and ridge types B-w and C-w in females were demonstrated to be higher. An increase in age led to a reduction in the frequency of type A and a rise in the frequency of type C-w. The mean bone height was higher in males in all areas. In addition, the mean bone width was higher in males in all areas except for the first molar area. Conclusions:  The study results indicated that as the age increases, the height of edentulous mandible reduces, while no significant relationship was detected between the bone width and aging. As a result, with aging the evolution of bone was held to be from type A to type C-W.

  12. A VOLTAGE STABILIZER FOR A MICROGRID SYSTEM WITH TWO TYPES OF DISTRIBUTED GENERATION RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maedeh Mahzarnia

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Microgrids are used as controllable units connected to power grid, in which the electrical distances between reactive power sources and the loads that need the reactive compensation are not too much. Thus, a coordinated compensation of reactive sources has to be implemented in order to avoid a fast voltage collapse by proposing a Microgrid Voltage Stabilizer (MGVS. This stabilizer is desirable to improve the dynamic voltage profile and is tested at a 21-bus IEEE microgrid system. In order to verify the performance of this stabilizer, three distributed generation (DG resources are utilized in this microgrid (Two PV resources which are categorized as power-electronic converter based on DG and a diesel generator which is known as synchronous machine-based on DG. At first, the mentioned resources and all of their needed equipments are modeled. Then a control model of the stabilizer with appropriate parameters for the proposed microgrid is presented. Voltage deficiency of the system is the input of the stabilizer, and the output signal of the stabilizer, is divided between the DGs in order to provide required reactive power. The dynamic voltage profile of buses in the presence of MGVS and its absence has been compared by implying disturbances. Simulation results in MATLAB/SIMULINK show that the dynamic voltage profile of the buses improves satisfactorily with the addition of MGVS. ABSTRAK: Grid mikro digunakan sebagai unit kawalan yang disambungkan kepada grid kuasa, di mana jarak elektrikal antara sumber kuasa reaktif dan bebanan yang memerlukan kompensasi reaktif tidak terlalu besar.  Dengan itu, kompensasi yang selaras dengan sumber reaktif perlu diimplimentasikan untuk mengelak kegagalan voltan pantas dengan menggunakan Grid Mikro Penstabil Voltan (Microgrid Voltage Stabilizer - MGVS. Penstabil ini sesuai digunakan untuk meningkatkan profil voltan dinamik dan telah diuji ke atas sistem mikro grid 21-bus IEEE. Untuk memastikan

  13. Stress distributions in maxillary central incisors restored with various types of post materials and designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madfa, A A; Kadir, M R Abdul; Kashani, J; Saidin, S; Sulaiman, E; Marhazlinda, J; Rahbari, R; Abdullah, B J J; Abdullah, H; Abu Kasim, N H

    2014-07-01

    Different dental post designs and materials affect the stability of restoration of a tooth. This study aimed to analyse and compare the stability of two shapes of dental posts (parallel-sided and tapered) made of five different materials (titanium, zirconia, carbon fibre and glass fibre) by investigating their stress transfer through the finite element (FE) method. Ten three-dimensional (3D) FE models of a maxillary central incisor restored with two different designs and five different materials were constructed. An oblique loading of 100 N was applied to each 3D model. Analyses along the centre of the post, the crown-cement/core and the post-cement/dentine interfaces were computed, and the means were calculated. One-way ANOVAs followed by post hoc tests were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the post materials and designs (p=0.05). For post designs, the tapered posts introduced significantly higher stress compared with the parallel-sided post (pstress was found for stainless steel, followed by zirconia, titanium, glass fibre and carbon fibre posts (pstress distribution at the middle and apical part of the posts compared with the stainless steel, zirconia and titanium posts. The opposite results were observed at the crown-cement/core interface. Copyright © 2014 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Theoretical Elastic Stress Distributions Arising from Discontinuities and Edge Loads in Several Shell-Type Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Robert H.; Orange, Thomas W.

    1961-01-01

    The deformation and complete stress distribution are determined for each of the following edge loaded thin shells of revolution: (1) a right circular cylinder, (2) a frustum of a right circular cone, and (3) a portion of a sphere. The locations of the maximum circumferential and meridional stresses on both the inner and outer surfaces are also found. The basic equations for the above were selected from the published literature on the subject and expanded to produce to resultant-stress equations in closed from where practicable to do so. Equations are also developed for the discontinuity shear force and bending moment at each of the following junction: (1) axial change of thickness in a circular cylinder, (2) axial change of thickness in a cone, (3) change of thickness in a portion of a sphere, (4) a cylinder and a cone, (5) a cylinder and a portion of a sphere(6) a cylinder and a flat head, and (7) a cone and a portion of a sphere.

  15. Distribution of dengue vectors in neighborhoods with different urbanization types of Manaus, state of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia M Ríos-Velásquez

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are vectors of dengue viruses, which cause endemic disease in the city of Manaus, capital of the state of Amazonas, Brazil. More than 53 thousand cases have been registered in this city since the first epidemic in 1998. We evaluated the hypothesis that different ecological conditions result in different patterns of vector infestation in Manaus, by measuring the infestation level in four neighborhoods with different urbanization patterns, during the rainy (April, dry (August, and transitional (November seasons. Ae. aegypti predominated throughout the study areas and sampling periods, representing 86% of all specimens collected in oviposition traps. High frequencies of houses positive for both species were observed in all studied sites, with Ae. aegypti present in more than 84% of the houses in all seasons. Ae. albopictus, on the other hand, showed more spatial and temporal variation in abundance. We found no association between infestation level and house traits. This study highlights the homogeneity of dengue vector distribution in Manaus.

  16. TYPES AND DISTRIBUTION OF CORAL REEF ON THE KARIMATA COAST, WEST KALIMANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor C.D. Aryanto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The identification of quality and condition of the coral reef in the study areas will support the biological diversity and it frequently contains a valuable assortment of natural resources, conservation of marine biota. The environmental problem particularly on the coastal area needs a more comprehensive management due to the complexity of the rapidly growth. Karimata Archipelago geographically is located between 108o40' - 109o10' E and 1o25' - 1o50' S and administratively belongs to the Ketapang Regency (approximate 100 km west side of Ketapang. In the study area, the growth of coral reef is dominated by non-Acropora type arised between the depths 3-15m. The condition is somewhat good to good. Karimata Archipelago consist of two big islands they are Karimata Island (Studied area and Serutu Island and also some other isles, with the topography from low land to high land having the height of about 1030 meters from sea level.

  17. Polarized distribution of L-type calcium channels in early sea urchin embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, B; Yazaki, I; Tosti, E

    1997-09-01

    Using the whole cell clamp technique, we have measured calcium-dependent currents and steady-state conductance in early sea urchin blastomeres. The calcium currents in M phase decreased from 8.5 microA/cm2 at the four-cell stage to 5.4 microA/cm2 at the eight-cell stage. In 16-cell stage embryos, calcium currents were 7.4 microA/cm2 in the mesomeres, 2.3 microA/cm2 in the macromeres, and were not detected in the micromeres. In contrast, the micromeres had a two- to threefold higher steady-state conductance than the mesomeres or macromeres, which may be due to potassium ion conductivity. Nifedipine, an L-type channel antagonist, delays cleavage division at a concentration of 0.05-0.1 mM and causes developmental defects, such as poor skeletal differentiation in later sea urchin embryos.

  18. Altered insulin distribution and metabolism in type I diabetics assessed by [123I]insulin scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachiya, H.L.; Treves, S.T.; Kahn, C.R.; Sodoyez, J.C.; Sodoyez-Goffaux, F.

    1987-01-01

    Scintigraphic scanning with [ 123 I]insulin provides a direct and quantitative assessment of insulin uptake and disappearance at specific organ sites. Using this technique, the biodistribution and metabolism of insulin were studied in type 1 diabetic patients and normal subjects. The major organ of [ 123 I]insulin uptake in both diabetic and normal subjects was the liver. After iv injection in normal subjects, the uptake of [ 123 I]insulin by the liver was rapid, with peak activity at 7 min. Activity declined rapidly thereafter, consistent with rapid insulin degradation and clearance. Rapid uptake of [ 123 I]insulin also occurred in the kidneys, although the uptake of insulin by the kidneys was about 80% of that by liver. In type 1 diabetic patients, uptake of [ 123 I]insulin in these organ sites was lower than that in normal subjects; peak insulin uptakes in liver and kidneys were 21% and 40% lower than those in normal subjects, respectively. The kinetics of insulin clearance from the liver was comparable in diabetic and normal subjects, whereas clearance from the kidneys was decreased in diabetics. The plasma clearance of [ 123 I]insulin was decreased in diabetic patients, as was insulin degradation, assessed by trichloroacetic acid precipitability. Thirty minutes after injection, 70.9 +/- 3.8% (+/- SEM) of [ 123 I]insulin in the plasma of diabetics was trichloroacetic acid precipitable vs. only 53.9 +/- 4.0% in normal subjects. A positive correlation was present between the organ uptake of [123I]insulin in the liver or kidneys and insulin degradation (r = 0.74; P less than 0.001)

  19. The subcellular distribution of T-type Ca2+ channels in interneurons of the lateral geniculate nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allken, Vaneeda; Chepkoech, Joy-Loi; Einevoll, Gaute T; Halnes, Geir

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitory interneurons (INs) in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) provide both axonal and dendritic GABA output to thalamocortical relay cells (TCs). Distal parts of the IN dendrites often enter into complex arrangements known as triadic synapses, where the IN dendrite plays a dual role as postsynaptic to retinal input and presynaptic to TC dendrites. Dendritic GABA release can be triggered by retinal input, in a highly localized process that is functionally isolated from the soma, but can also be triggered by somatically elicited Ca(2+)-spikes and possibly by backpropagating action potentials. Ca(2+)-spikes in INs are predominantly mediated by T-type Ca(2+)-channels (T-channels). Due to the complex nature of the dendritic signalling, the function of the IN is likely to depend critically on how T-channels are distributed over the somatodendritic membrane (T-distribution). To study the relationship between the T-distribution and several IN response properties, we here run a series of simulations where we vary the T-distribution in a multicompartmental IN model with a realistic morphology. We find that the somatic response to somatic current injection is facilitated by a high T-channel density in the soma-region. Conversely, a high T-channel density in the distal dendritic region is found to facilitate dendritic signalling in both the outward direction (increases the response in distal dendrites to somatic input) and the inward direction (the soma responds stronger to distal synaptic input). The real T-distribution is likely to reflect a compromise between several neural functions, involving somatic response patterns and dendritic signalling.

  20. [Influence of attachment type on stress distribution of implant-supported removable partial dentures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue; Rong, Qi-guo; Yang, Ya-dong

    2015-02-18

    To compare influences of different retention attachments on stress among supporting structures. By 3-dimensional laser scanner and reverse engineering computer aided design (CAD) software, a basic partially edentulous digital model with mandibular premolar and molar missing was established. Implant attachment and removable partial dentures (RPD) were added into the basic model to build three kinds of models: RPD only, RPD + implant + Locator attachment, and RPD + implant + Magfit attachment. Vertical and inclined loads were put on artificial teeth unilaterally. By means of 3-dimensional finite element analysis, the stress distribution and displacement of the main supportive structures were compared. A complete 3-dimensional finite element model was established, which contained tooth structure, and periodontal structures. The displacement of the denture was smaller in Locator (9.38 μm vertically, 45.48 μm obliquely) and Magfit models (9.54 μm vertically, 39.45 μm obliquely) compared with non-implant RPD model (95.27 μm vertically, 155.70 μm obliquely). Compared with the two different attachments, cortical bone stress value was higher in Locator model (Locator model 10.850 MPa vertically, 43.760 MPa obliquely; Magfit model 7.100 MPa vertically, 19.260 MPa obliquely).The stress value of abutment periodontal ligamentin Magfit model (0.420 MPa vertically) was lower than that in Locator model (0.520 MPa vertically). The existence of implant could reduce maximum von Mises value of each supportive structure when Kennedy I partially edentulous mandible was restored. Comparing the structure of Magfit and Locator attachment, the contact of Magfit attachment was rigid, while Locator was resilient. Locator attachment could improve stability of the denture dramatically. Locator had stronger effect on defending horizontal movement of the denture.

  1. Occurrence, types and distribution of calcium oxalate crystals in leaves and stems of some species of poisonous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tütüncü Konyar, Sevil; Öztürk, Necla; Dane, Feruzan

    2014-12-01

    Calcium oxalate crystals, which are found in many organs of plants, have different morphological forms: as druses, prism, styloids, raphides and crystal sand. In this study, the distribution, type and specific location of calcium oxalate crystals in the leaves and stems of the eight species of poisonous plants and one species of nonpoisonous plant were investigated with light microscopy. During study special attention was given to the possible correlation between the presence and types of calcium oxalate crystals and toxic plant organs. The plants examined in this study were Hedera helix L. (Araliaceae), Aristolochia clematitis L. (Aristolochiaceae), Humulus lupulus L. (Cannabaceae), Saponaria officinalis L. (Caryophyllaceae), Chelidonium majus L. (Papaveraceae), Hypericum perforatum L. (Hypericaceae), Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae), Cynanchum acutum L. (Asclepiadaceae), and Nerium oleander L. (Apocynaceae). Three types of crystals: druses, prismatic crystals and crystal sands were observed. Druses were identified in the leaves and stems of six species of studied plants. In contrast to druses, crystal sands and prismatic crystals were rare. Prismatic crystals were observed in the leaf mesophlly cells of both Nerium oleander and Cynanchum acutum. However, crystal sands were observed only in the pith tissue of Humulus lupulus. On the other hand, leaves and stems of Chelidonium majus, Aristolochia clematitis and Hypericum perforatum were devoid of crystals. There is no absolute correlation between the presence and type of calcium oxalate crystals and toxic plant organs. However druse crystals may function as main irritant in toxic organs of the plants.

  2. A functional foot type classification with cluster analysis based on plantar pressure distribution during jogging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, A; Willems, T; Witvrouw, E; Vanrenterghem, J; De Clercq, D

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a reference dataset for peak pressures and pressure-time integrals during jogging, to compare this reference dataset with existing walking data and to develop a foot type classification, all based on plantar pressure data obtained from 215 healthy young adults. The subjects ran at 3.3 m s(-1) over a 16.5 m long running track, with a built-in pressure platform mounted on top of a force platform. Peak pressures, regional impulses and relative regional impulses were measured. These variables were found to be reliable (all intra class correlation coefficients above 0.75) and, except for the heel areas, gender and asymmetry effects could be neglected. Highest peak pressures were found under the heel due to large impact forces during initial contact phase (ICP). In the forefoot, the highest peak pressure was found under the second metatarsal (64.2 +/- 21.1 N cm(-2)). Compared to walking data, overall higher peak pressures and impulses and difference in hallux loading were found during barefoot jogging. Four pressure loading patterns were identified using a K-means cluster analysis, based on the relative regional impulses underneath the forefoot: medial M1 pattern, medial M2 pattern, central pattern and central-lateral pattern. These four pressure loading patterns could help in the functional interpretation of the foot behaviour during the stance phase in slow running.

  3. Distribution of yeast complexes in the profiles of different soil types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushakova, A. M.; Kachalkin, A. V.; Tiunov, A. V.; Chernov, I. Yu.

    2017-07-01

    The number and taxonomic structure of the yeast complexes were investigated in the full profiles of the soddy-podzolic soil (Central Forest State Nature Biosphere Reserve), dark gray forest soil (Kaluzhskie Zaseki Reserve), and chernozem (Privolzhskaya Forest-Steppe Reserve). In all these soils, the number of yeasts was maximal (104 CFU/g) directly under the litter; it drastically decreased with the depth. However, at the depth of 120-160 cm, the number of yeasts significantly increased in all the soils; their maximum was found in the illuvial horizon of the soddy-podzolic soil. Such a statistically significant increase in the number of yeasts at a considerable depth was found for the first time. Different groups of yeasts were present in the yeast communities of different soils. The species structure of yeast communities changed little in each soil: the same species were isolated both from the soil surface and from the depth of more than 2 m. The results showed that yeasts could be used for soil bioindication on the basis of specific yeast complexes in the profiles of different soil types rather than individual indicative species.

  4. Winds from Luminous Late-Type Stars: II. Broadband Frequency Distribution of Alfven Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airapetian, V.; Carpenter, K. G.; Ofman, L.

    2010-01-01

    We present the numerical simulations of winds from evolved giant stars using a fully non-linear, time dependent 2.5-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code. This study extends our previous fully non-linear MHD wind simulations to include a broadband frequency spectrum of Alfven waves that drive winds from red giant stars. We calculated four Alfven wind models that cover the whole range of Alfven wave frequency spectrum to characterize the role of freely propagated and reflected Alfven waves in the gravitationally stratified atmosphere of a late-type giant star. Our simulations demonstrate that, unlike linear Alfven wave-driven wind models, a stellar wind model based on plasma acceleration due to broadband non-linear Alfven waves, can consistently reproduce the wide range of observed radial velocity profiles of the winds, their terminal velocities and the observed mass loss rates. Comparison of the calculated mass loss rates with the empirically determined mass loss rate for alpha Tau suggests an anisotropic and time-dependent nature of stellar winds from evolved giants.

  5. SYVAC3 parameter distribution package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres, T.; Skeet, A.

    1995-01-01

    SYVAC3 (Systems Variability Analysis Code, generation 3) is a computer program that implements a method called systems variability analysis to analyze the behaviour of a system in the presence of uncertainty. This method is based on simulating the system many times to determine the variation in behaviour it can exhibit. SYVAC3 specializes in systems representing the transport of contaminants, and has several features to simplify the modelling of such systems. It provides a general tool for estimating environmental impacts from the dispersal of contaminants. This report describes a software object type (a generalization of a data type) called Parameter Distribution. This object type is used in SYVAC3, and can also be used independently. Parameter Distribution has the following subtypes: beta distribution; binomial distribution; constant distribution; lognormal distribution; loguniform distribution; normal distribution; piecewise uniform distribution; Triangular distribution; and uniform distribution. Some of these distributions can be altered by correlating two parameter distribution objects. This report provides complete specifications for parameter distributions, and also explains how to use them. It should meet the needs of casual users, reviewers, and programmers who wish to add their own subtypes. (author). 30 refs., 75 tabs., 56 figs

  6. [New type distributed optical fiber temperature sensor (DTS) based on Raman scattering and its' application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Feng; Liu, Hong-Lin; Zhang, Shu-Qin; Yu, Xiang-Dong; Sun, Zhong-Zhou; Jin, Shang-Zhong; Zhang, Zai-Xuan

    2013-04-01

    Basic principles, development trends and applications status of distributed optical fiber Raman temperature sensor (DTS) are introduced. Performance parameters of DTS system include the sensing optical fiber length, temperature measurement uncertainty, spatial resolution and measurement time. These parameters have a certain correlation and it is difficult to improve them at the same time by single technology. So a variety of key techniques such as Raman amplification, pulse coding technique, Raman related dual-wavelength self-correction technique and embedding optical switching technique are researched to improve the performance of the DTS system. A 1 467 nm continuous laser is used as pump laser and the light source of DTS system (1 550 nm pulse laser) is amplified. When the length of sensing optical fiber is 50 km the Raman gain is about 17 dB. Raman gain can partially compensate the transmission loss of optical fiber, so that the sensing length can reach 50 km. In DTS system using pulse coding technique, pulse laser is coded by 211 bits loop encoder and correlation calculation is used to demodulate temperature. The encoded laser signal is related, whereas the noise is not relevant. So that signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of DTS system can be improved significantly. The experiments are carried out in DTS system with single mode optical fiber and multimode optical fiber respectively. Temperature measurement uncertainty can all reach 1 degrees C. In DTS system using Raman related dual-wavelength self-correction technique, the wavelength difference of the two light sources must be one Raman frequency shift in optical fiber. For example, wavelength of the main laser is 1 550 nm and wavelength of the second laser must be 1 450 nm. Spatial resolution of DTS system is improved to 2 m by using dual-wavelength self-correction technique. Optical switch is embedded in DTS system, so that the temperature measurement channel multiply extended and the total length of the sensing

  7. SDSS-IV MaNGA: A Distinct Mass Distribution Explored in Slow-Rotating Early-type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Yu; Li, Hongyu; Wang, Jie; Gao, Liang; Li, Ran; Ge, Junqiang; Jing, Yingjie; Pan, Jun; Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Valenzuela, Octavio; Ortíz, Erik Aquino

    2018-03-01

    We study the radial acceleration relation (RAR) for early-type galaxies (ETGs) in the SDSS MaNGA MPL5 dataset. The complete ETG sample show a slightly offset RAR from the relation reported by McGaugh et al. (2016) at the low-acceleration end; we find that the deviation is due to the fact that the slow rotators show a systematically higher acceleration relation than the McGaugh's RAR, while the fast rotators show a consistent acceleration relation to McGaugh's RAR. There is a 1σ significant difference between the acceleration relations of the fast and slow rotators, suggesting that the acceleration relation correlates with the galactic spins, and that the slow rotators may have a different mass distribution compared with fast rotators and late-type galaxies. We suspect that the acceleration relation deviation of slow rotators may be attributed to more galaxy merger events, which would disrupt the original spins and correlated distributions of baryons and dark matter orbits in galaxies.

  8. Adenocarcinoma in situ and associated human papillomavirus type distribution observed in two clinical trials of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ault, Kevin A; Joura, Elmar A; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of this report is to describe the detection of adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and associated human papillomavirus (HPV) type distribution that was observed in the context of two phase 3 clinical trials of a quadrivalent HPV6/11/16/18 vaccine. In this intention-to-treat analysi...... HPV16/18-related, prophylactic HPV vaccination should reduce the incidence of invasive adenocarcinoma.......The primary objective of this report is to describe the detection of adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and associated human papillomavirus (HPV) type distribution that was observed in the context of two phase 3 clinical trials of a quadrivalent HPV6/11/16/18 vaccine. In this intention-to-treat analysis......, we include all women who had at least one follow-up visit postenrollment. Healthy women (17,622) aged 15-26 with no history of HPV disease and a lifetime number of less than five sex partners (average follow-up of 3.6 years) were randomized (1:1) to receive vaccine or placebo at day 1, months 2...

  9. Calcareous Bio-Concretions in the Northern Adriatic Sea: Habitat Types, Environmental Factors that Influence Habitat Distributions, and Predictive Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falace, Annalisa; Kaleb, Sara; Curiel, Daniele; Miotti, Chiara; Galli, Giovanni; Querin, Stefano; Ballesteros, Enric; Solidoro, Cosimo; Bandelj, Vinko

    2015-01-01

    Habitat classifications provide guidelines for mapping and comparing marine resources across geographic regions. Calcareous bio-concretions and their associated biota have not been exhaustively categorized. Furthermore, for management and conservation purposes, species and habitat mapping is critical. Recently, several developments have occurred in the field of predictive habitat modeling, and multiple methods are available. In this study, we defined the habitats constituting northern Adriatic biogenic reefs and created a predictive habitat distribution model. We used an updated dataset of the epibenthic assemblages to define the habitats, which we verified using the fuzzy k-means (FKM) clustering method. Redundancy analysis was employed to model the relationships between the environmental descriptors and the FKM membership grades. Predictive modelling was carried out to map habitats across the basin. Habitat A (opportunistic macroalgae, encrusting Porifera, bioeroders) characterizes reefs closest to the coastline, which are affected by coastal currents and river inputs. Habitat B is distinguished by massive Porifera, erect Tunicata, and non-calcareous encrusting algae (Peyssonnelia spp.). Habitat C (non-articulated coralline, Polycitor adriaticus) is predicted in deeper areas. The onshore-offshore gradient explains the variability of the assemblages because of the influence of coastal freshwater, which is the main driver of nutrient dynamics. This model supports the interpretation of Habitat A and C as the extremes of a gradient that characterizes the epibenthic assemblages, while Habitat B demonstrates intermediate characteristics. Areas of transition are a natural feature of the marine environment and may include a mixture of habitats and species. The habitats proposed are easy to identify in the field, are related to different environmental features, and may be suitable for application in studies focused on other geographic areas. The habitat model outputs

  10. Calcareous Bio-Concretions in the Northern Adriatic Sea: Habitat Types, Environmental Factors that Influence Habitat Distributions, and Predictive Modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Falace

    Full Text Available Habitat classifications provide guidelines for mapping and comparing marine resources across geographic regions. Calcareous bio-concretions and their associated biota have not been exhaustively categorized. Furthermore, for management and conservation purposes, species and habitat mapping is critical. Recently, several developments have occurred in the field of predictive habitat modeling, and multiple methods are available. In this study, we defined the habitats constituting northern Adriatic biogenic reefs and created a predictive habitat distribution model. We used an updated dataset of the epibenthic assemblages to define the habitats, which we verified using the fuzzy k-means (FKM clustering method. Redundancy analysis was employed to model the relationships between the environmental descriptors and the FKM membership grades. Predictive modelling was carried out to map habitats across the basin. Habitat A (opportunistic macroalgae, encrusting Porifera, bioeroders characterizes reefs closest to the coastline, which are affected by coastal currents and river inputs. Habitat B is distinguished by massive Porifera, erect Tunicata, and non-calcareous encrusting algae (Peyssonnelia spp.. Habitat C (non-articulated coralline, Polycitor adriaticus is predicted in deeper areas. The onshore-offshore gradient explains the variability of the assemblages because of the influence of coastal freshwater, which is the main driver of nutrient dynamics. This model supports the interpretation of Habitat A and C as the extremes of a gradient that characterizes the epibenthic assemblages, while Habitat B demonstrates intermediate characteristics. Areas of transition are a natural feature of the marine environment and may include a mixture of habitats and species. The habitats proposed are easy to identify in the field, are related to different environmental features, and may be suitable for application in studies focused on other geographic areas. The habitat

  11. Prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus infection in women from North Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marras Vincenzo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV has been associated with several disorders of the genital tract, skin and oropharynx. The aims of our study were to evaluate the prevalence of HPV infection in women between 15 and 54 years of age in North Sardinia, Italy, to identify the prevalence of High Risk - Human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV genotypes and to establish a correlation between molecular and cytological results. Methods From 2007 to 2009 we consecutively enrolled women aged 15-54 years admitted to public and private outpatient settings. All the participants filled in a questionnaire about the socio-cultural state, sexual activity and awareness about HPV. 323 cervical specimens were tested for HPV-DNA and HPV genotypes with INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping CE Amp kit. Samples showing positivity to some HPV genotypes were re-tested using "in house" quantitative Real-Time PCR assays. Results Overall HPV-DNA positivity was detected in 35.9% of the women. The prevalence of HR-HPV infection among HPV positive samples was 93.1% with a specific prevalence of HPV 16, 51, 31, 53 and 18 of 54.3%, 37.9%, 10.3%, 6.9% and 5.2%, respectively. Co-infection with any HPV, HR-HPV, LR-HPV and HR/LR-HPV type was 18.3%, 14.9%, 0.9% and 2.5%, respectively; HPV 16/51 co-infection was detected in 64.6% of the HR-HPV co-infection group. The most frequent HPV-genotypes detected were 16 (32.5% and 51 (22.7%. Among the 57 patients harboring mono-infection the most prevalent HPV genotypes were 16 (38.6% and 31(10.5%. A multivariate analysis identified a statistical significant association between HPV infection and age and between HPV infection and previous sexual transmitted diseases. A statistically significant association between cytological cervical lesions and generic HPV exposure was identified. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first survey evaluating the prevalence of HPV infection in Northern Sardinia and drawing attention to the unusual high proportion of

  12. Prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus infection in women from North Sardinia, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piana, Andrea; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Castiglia, Paolo; Pischedda, Stefania; Cocuzza, Clementina; Capobianco, Giampiero; Marras, Vincenzo; Dessole, Salvatore; Muresu, Elena

    2011-10-11

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been associated with several disorders of the genital tract, skin and oropharynx. The aims of our study were to evaluate the prevalence of HPV infection in women between 15 and 54 years of age in North Sardinia, Italy, to identify the prevalence of High Risk - Human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) genotypes and to establish a correlation between molecular and cytological results. From 2007 to 2009 we consecutively enrolled women aged 15-54 years admitted to public and private outpatient settings. All the participants filled in a questionnaire about the socio-cultural state, sexual activity and awareness about HPV. 323 cervical specimens were tested for HPV-DNA and HPV genotypes with INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping CE Amp kit. Samples showing positivity to some HPV genotypes were re-tested using "in house" quantitative Real-Time PCR assays. Overall HPV-DNA positivity was detected in 35.9% of the women. The prevalence of HR-HPV infection among HPV positive samples was 93.1% with a specific prevalence of HPV 16, 51, 31, 53 and 18 of 54.3%, 37.9%, 10.3%, 6.9% and 5.2%, respectively. Co-infection with any HPV, HR-HPV, LR-HPV and HR/LR-HPV type was 18.3%, 14.9%, 0.9% and 2.5%, respectively; HPV 16/51 co-infection was detected in 64.6% of the HR-HPV co-infection group. The most frequent HPV-genotypes detected were 16 (32.5%) and 51 (22.7%). Among the 57 patients harboring mono-infection the most prevalent HPV genotypes were 16 (38.6%) and 31(10.5%). A multivariate analysis identified a statistical significant association between HPV infection and age and between HPV infection and previous sexual transmitted diseases. A statistically significant association between cytological cervical lesions and generic HPV exposure was identified. To our knowledge, this is the first survey evaluating the prevalence of HPV infection in Northern Sardinia and drawing attention to the unusual high proportion of genotype HPV 51. Given the recent implementation of a

  13. Human papillomavirus types distribution in eastern Sicilian females with cervical lesions. A correlation with colposcopic and histological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Donne, Maria; Giuffrè, Giuseppe; Caruso, Carmela; Nicotina, Piero Antonio; Alibrandi, Angela; Scalisi, Rosalba; Simone, Angela; Chiofalo, Benito; Triolo, Onofrio

    2013-07-01

    To determine human papillomavirus (HPV) types distribution in cervical lesions in a Southern Italian female population in Messina and their relationship between HPV type and grade of colposcopic and histopathological abnormality, a total of 253 women aged 17-68 years, with previous cytological abnormalities, were included in this study. HPV-DNA testing, colposcopy and biopsy were performed. For each sample, cervical cells were collected by centrifugation and DNA was extracted, followed by a PCR-based HPV-DNA assay and reverse dot blot genotyping. HPV-16 was found the most common type (46.6 %) followed by HPV-31 (26.9 %), -6 (18.6 %), -58 (8.8 %), -18 (6.7 %), -66 (5.7 %), -52 and -53 (4.7 %). Out of 62 women with abnormal transformation zone (ATZ) area compatible with squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) or cervical cancer (CC), 64.5 % was found high risk (HR) HPV-positive. Moreover the severity of the colposcopic diagnosis was positively correlated with the higher HPV oncogenicity risk (HPV-16 P = 0.023; and HPV-53 P = 0.047). The HPV-16 was found the most prevalent type within each histological category: 66.7 %, 31.2 %, 44 % and 37.2 % of CC, high grade (H)SIL, low grade (L)SIL and chronic cervicitis respectively; followed by HPV-31 present in 25 %, 8 %, and 13.3 % of HSIL, LSIL and chronic cervicitis respectively. A higher HPV incidence than the rest of Italy was found, in agreement with that detected by other authors for the South of the country. These data provide further information about the types prevalence in women with cervical lesions living in Eastern Sicily, suggesting the introduction of new targeted vaccines against a wider spectrum of HPV.

  14. Comparison of androgenic alopecia distribution among type 2 diabetes and healthy women in Isfahan city: a brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Jafari

    2014-09-01

    Methods: This is a case-control study. Case and control groups were selected from type II diabetes and healthy women respectively that were refered to clinics of Alzahra, Noor and Amin Hospitals in Isfahan City, Iran in 2011. Participants were selected based on random sampling. Sample size was estimated 141 subjects in each group. Participants were visited by doctor and severity of androgenic alopecia was determined based on Ludwish criteria. Data were analyzed with SPSS software and 2 test. P<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Mean age and body mass index were 58.96±12.8 year and 25.6±4.15 kg/m2 respectively in whole population. Findings not show any significant association between type II diabetes and androgenic alopecia (P<0.05. Comparison of distribution of alopecia severity according to Ludwish criteria separately showed similar result. In addition to, there was not any significant relationship between diabetes and alopecia after adjusting with body mass index as confounding factor (P<0.05. Conclusion: In the present study, there was not any significant relationship between type II diabetes and androgenic alopecia among diabetes and healthy women. However, more researches need to investigate this relationship in both gender and assess insulin resistant indices as homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance and androgenic alopecia.

  15. Assessing the distribution and protection status of two types of cool environment to facilitate their conservation under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, John R; Ramp, Daniel; Ashcroft, Michael B

    2014-04-01

    Strategies to mitigate climate change can protect different types of cool environments. Two are receiving much attention: protection of ephemeral refuges (i.e., places with low maximum temperatures) and of stable refugia (i.e., places that are cool, have a stable environment, and are isolated). Problematically, they are often treated as equivalents. Careful delineation of their qualities is needed to prevent misdirected conservation initiatives; yet, no one has determined whether protecting one protects the other. We mapped both types of cool environments across a large (∼3.4M ha) mixed-use landscape with a geographic information system and conducted a patch analysis to compare their spatial distributions; examine relations between land use and their size and shape; and assess their current protection status. With a modest, but arbitrary, threshold for demarcating both types of cool environments (i.e., values below the 0.025 quantile) there were 146,523 ha of ephemeral refuge (62,208 ha) and stable refugia (62,319 ha). Ephemeral refuges were generally aggregated at high elevation, and more refuge area occurred in protected areas (55,184 ha) than in unprotected areas (7,024 ha). In contrast, stable refugia were scattered across the landscape, and more stable-refugium area occurred on unprotected (40,135 ha) than on protected land (22,184 ha). Although sensitivity analysis showed that varying the thresholds that define cool environments affected outcomes, it also exposed the challenge of choosing a threshold for strategies to address climate change; there is no single value that is appropriate for all of biodiversity. The degree of overlap between ephemeral refuges and stable refugia revealed that targeting only the former for protection on currently unprotected land would capture ∼17% of stable refugia. Targeting only stable refugia would capture ∼54% of ephemeral refuges. Thus, targeting one type of cool environment did not fully protect the other. © 2014

  16. Distribution of high and low risk HPV types by cytological status: a population based study from Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pini Maria T

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HPV type distribution by cytological status represents useful information to predict the impact of mass vaccination on screening programs. Methods women aged from 25 to 64 who attended cervical cancer screening in five different Italian regions were tested for HPV infection with Hybrid Capture II (HCII low and high risk probes. Women repeating Pap-test upon unsatisfactory or positive results, or as a post-treatment and post-colposcopy follow-up analysis, were excluded from our study. High risk (HR HPV positive samples were typed using GP5+/GP6+ primed PCR, followed by Reverse Line Blot for 18 high/intermediate risk HPV types, while low risk (LR HPV positive samples were tested with type specific primers for HPV6 and HPV11. Results 3410 women had a valid HCII and Pap-test. The prevalence of HR and LR infections was 7.0% and 3.6%, 29.1% and 13.7%, 68.1% and 31.9%, 60.0% and 0.0%, 65.0% and 12.0%, for negative, ASC-US, L-SIL, ASC-H and H-SIL cytology, respectively. The fraction of ASC-US+ cytology due to HPV 16 and 18 ranged from 11.2 (HPV 16/18 alone to 15.4% (including HPV 16/18 in co-infection with other virus strains, and that due to HPV 6 and 11 ranged from 0.2% (HPV 6/11 alone to 0.7% (including HPV 6/11 in co-infection with other LR virus strains. Conclusions mass vaccination with bivalent or quadrivalent HPV vaccine would modestly impact on prevalence of abnormal Pap-test in screening.

  17. Optimizing the field distribution of a Halbach type permanent magnet cylinder using the soft iron and superhard magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaonong; Lu, Dingwei; Xu, Xibin; Yu, Yang; Gu, Min

    2018-01-01

    When a conventional Halbach type Hollow Cylindrical Permanent Magnet Array (HCPMA) is used to generate magnetic induction over the magnitude of coercivity μ0Hc, some detrimental parasitic magnetic phenomena, such as the demagnetization, magnetization reversal, and vortexes of magnetization, can appear in the interior of the magnets. We present a self-consistent quantitative analysis of the magnetization and magnetic induction distributions inside the magnetic array by considering the anisotropic and nonlinear magnetization functions of the materials consisting of the array. These numeric simulations reveal novel magnetization structures resulted from the self-field of array. We demonstrate that both the field uniformity and magnetic flux in the pole gap can be modulated by partially substituting the magnets of high energy products with the soft irons and the superhard magnets. We also show how the optimized substitution parameters can be obtained for a HCPMA achieving the best field uniformity or the maximum magnetic flux.

  18. Distribution of phytoplankton functional types in high-nitrate low-chlorophyll waters in a new diagnostic ecological indicator model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacz, Artur; St. John, Michael; Brevin, R.J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Modeling and monitoring plankton functional types (PFTs) is challenged by insufficient amount of field measurements to ground-truth both plankton models and bio-optical algorithms. In this study, we combine remote sensing data and a dynamic plankton model to simulate an ecologically-sound spatial...... and temporal distribution of phyto-PFTs. We apply an innovative ecological indicator approach to modeling PFTs, and focus on resolving the question of diatom-coccolithophore co-existence in the subpolar high-nitrate and low-chlorophyll regions. We choose an artificial neural network as our modeling framework...... and remote sensing measurements, was so far not captured by state-of-the-art dynamic models which struggle to resolve this "paradox of the plankton". We conclude that an ecological indicator approach is useful for ecological modeling of phytoplankton and potentially higher trophic levels. Finally, we...

  19. Prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus infection among women with different degrees of cervical cytological abnormalities in Sicily (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta Franchina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPVs are etiological agents of cervical cancer. In the absence of Pap smear alterations, high-risk HPV DNA can be detected in cervical samples. The prevalence of papillomavirus infection and their genotype distribution varies greatly across populations. The aims of this study were: i to assess the prevalences of HPV genotypes in people living in Eastern Sicily (Italy and the frequency of HPV multiple infections; ii to evaluate the association between HPV genotypes and cervical lesions in order to improve the epidemiological knowledge useful for monitoring or treating infected women. Nested PCR and reverse dot/blot hybridization were used for the detection and typing of HPV DNA in 315 women who had had an abnormal PAP-smear. HPV DNA test was positive in 70.5% cases; the prevalence was 50% in atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS, 80.8% in low grade-, and 76.2% in high grade-squamous intraepithelial lesion (H-SIL. The genotype distribution showed a predominance of HPV-16 (56.7% followed by HPV-18 (12.2%, HPV-31 (9.5% and HPV-6 (9.5%. Multiple infections were detected in 35.1% of the infected patients. High frequency of positive results for HPV was confirmed and, even in case of ASCUS, patients should be taken into account for genotyping. Our data indicate that multiple infections are consistent in women with low-grade lesions while they are less frequent in women with H-SIL. This could reinforce the theory of the multi-stage cancer model, by which one HPV type becomes predominant along with the progression of cervical lesion severity.

  20. Testing projected wild bee distributions in agricultural habitats: predictive power depends on species traits and habitat type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Leon; Carvalheiro, Luísa G; Aguirre-Gutiérrez, Jesús; Bos, Merijn; de Groot, G Arjen; Kleijn, David; Potts, Simon G; Reemer, Menno; Roberts, Stuart; Scheper, Jeroen; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C

    2015-10-01

    Species distribution models (SDM) are increasingly used to understand the factors that regulate variation in biodiversity patterns and to help plan conservation strategies. However, these models are rarely validated with independently collected data and it is unclear whether SDM performance is maintained across distinct habitats and for species with different functional traits. Highly mobile species, such as bees, can be particularly challenging to model. Here, we use independent sets of occurrence data collected systematically in several agricultural habitats to test how the predictive performance of SDMs for wild bee species depends on species traits, habitat type, and sampling technique. We used a species distribution modeling approach parametrized for the Netherlands, with presence records from 1990 to 2010 for 193 Dutch wild bees. For each species, we built a Maxent model based on 13 climate and landscape variables. We tested the predictive performance of the SDMs with independent datasets collected from orchards and arable fields across the Netherlands from 2010 to 2013, using transect surveys or pan traps. Model predictive performance depended on species traits and habitat type. Occurrence of bee species specialized in habitat and diet was better predicted than generalist bees. Predictions of habitat suitability were also more precise for habitats that are temporally more stable (orchards) than for habitats that suffer regular alterations (arable), particularly for small, solitary bees. As a conservation tool, SDMs are best suited to modeling rarer, specialist species than more generalist and will work best in long-term stable habitats. The variability of complex, short-term habitats is difficult to capture in such models and historical land use generally has low thematic resolution. To improve SDMs' usefulness, models require explanatory variables and collection data that include detailed landscape characteristics, for example, variability of crops and

  1. Temperature/Stress Distributions in a Stress-Relief-Type Plate of Functionally Graded Materials under Thermal Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awaji, Hideo; Takenaka, Hiromitsu; Honda, Sawao; Nishikawa, Tadahiro

    This paper presents a numerical technique for analyzing one-dimensional transient temperature and stress distributions in a stress-relief-type plate of functionally graded ceramic-metal based materials (FGMs), in relation to both the temperature-dependent thermal properties and continuous and gradual variation of the thermo-mechanical properties of the FGM. The FGM plate is assumed to be initially in steady state of temperature gradient, suffering high temperature at the ceramic side and low temperature at the metallic side associated with its in-service performance. The FGM plate is then rapidly cooled at the ceramic side of the plate by a cold medium. The transient temperature and related thermal stresses in the FGM plate are analyzed numerically for a model alumina-nickel FGM system. The proposed analytical technique for determining the temperature distribution is quite simple and widely applicable for various boundary conditions of FGMs, compared with methods recently proposed by other researchers. The optimum composition of FGMs is also discussed to reduce the thermal stresses in the FGM plate, relating to the function of the volume fraction of the metal across the thickness.

  2. Theoretical and Experimental Evaluation of the Temperature Distribution in a Dry Type Air Core Smoothing Reactor of HVDC Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The outdoor ultra-high voltage (UHV dry-type air-core smoothing reactors (DASR of High Voltage Direct Current systems are equipped with a rain cover and an acoustic enclosure. To study the convective heat transfer between the DASR and the surrounding air, this paper presents a coupled model of the temperature and fluid field based on the structural features and cooling manner. The resistive losses of encapsulations calculated by finite element method (FEM were used as heat sources in the thermal analysis. The steady fluid and thermal field of the 3-D reactor model were solved by the finite volume method (FVM, and the temperature distribution characteristics of the reactor were obtained. Subsequently, the axial and radial temperature distributions of encapsulation were investigated separately. Finally, an optical fiber temperature measurement scheme was used for an UHV DASR under natural convection conditions. Comparative analysis showed that the simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental data, which verifies the rationality and accuracy of the numerical calculation. These results can serve as a reference for the optimal design and maintenance of UHV DASRs.

  3. The determination of electronic and interface state density distributions of Au/n-type GaAs Schottky barrier diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karatas, S. [Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Department of Physics, University of Kahramanmaras Suetcue Imam, 46100 Kahramanmaras (Turkey)]. E-mail: skaratas@ksu.edu.tr; Tueruet, A. [Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Department of Physics, Atatuerk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2006-05-31

    The electronic and interface state density distribution properties obtained from current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of Au/n-type GaAs Schottky barrier diode (SBD) at room temperature was investigated. SBD parameters such as ideality factor (n), series resistance (R {sub S}) and barrier height ({phi}{sub IV} ) were obtained from I-V and C-V measurements using Cheung's method. The diode parameters such as ideality factor, series resistance and barrier heights were found as 1.51-1.78, 7.597-8.167 {omega} and 0.88-1.14 eV, respectively. The diode shows non-ideal I-V behaviour with an ideality factor greater than unity. Furthermore, the energy distribution of interface state density was determined from the forward bias I-V characteristics by taking into account the bias dependence of the effective barrier height. The results show the presence of thin interfacial layer between the metal and semiconductor.

  4. Measurements of distribution coefficient for Sn, Pb and Th on sand stone and tuff in saline type groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Toshiyuki; Okada, Kenichi; Muroi, Masayuki; Shibata, Masahiro; Sasamoto, Hiroshi

    2004-02-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has developed the sorption database for bentonite and rocks in order to assess the retardation capacities of important radioactive elements in natural and engineered barriers in the H12 report. However, there are not enough distribution coefficient data for radioactive elements in saline type groundwater in the database. Sn (tin), Pb (lead) and Th(thorium) are important radioactive elements for performance assessment of high level radioactive waste disposal, thus we carried out the batch sorption experiments for these radioactive elements on sand stone and tuff. The experiments for each radioactive element were performed on the following conditions; Sn: Kd measurements using the solutions (distilled water or artificial sea water) reacted with sand stone. Pb: Kd measurements using solution (artificial sea water) reacted with sand stone or tuff. Th: Kd measurements using solution (artificial sea water) reacted with sand stone as a function of carbonate concentration. The results of experiment are summarized below; In the case of Sn, Kd were 0.4-1 m 3 /kg in distilled water type and approximately 1 m 3 /kg in artificial sea water type. And also, Kd was 0.3 m 3 /kg in artificial sea water adjusted Ph 12. In artificial sea water type, it was suggested that Kd decreased with pH. In the case of Pb, Kd were approximately 2 m 3 /kg on sand stone and 4-10 m 3 /kg on tuff in artificial sea water type. Kd on tuff was a little larger than that on sand stone. There were no distinctly differences depending on solid-liquid separation methods. In the case of Th, Kd was approximately 1-8 m 3 /kg in artificial sea water type. On the other hand, sorption of Th on sand stone was not observed (i.e., Kd = 0 m 3 /kg) in high carbonate solution. It was estimated that low Kd in high carbonate solution might be caused by speciation of because Th could form the anions in the solution such as hydroxo-carbonate complexes and carbonate complexes

  5. Using a semi-distributed physically-based hydrological model to explain diurnal to decadal scale ice velocity variations on Franz Josef Glacier (Ka Roimata o Hine Hukatere), New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, I. C.; Anderson, B. M.; Banwell, A. F.; Goodsell, B.; Owens, I. F.; Mackintosh, A. N.; Lawson, W.

    2011-12-01

    Franz Josef Glacier provides a rare opportunity to observe the dynamics of a fast-flowing, maritime glacier that differs significantly from many 'typical' alpine glaciers. In particular, Franz Josef Glacier tongue has limited ranges in both diurnal and seasonal temperature, significant volumes of melt and rainwater present year-round, and has been through a recent advance/retreat cycle. Previous studies indicate these factors have a significant influence on surface motion. This paper presents surface velocity measurements made over a ten year period between 2000 and 2010 at a variety of resolutions, notably hourly, daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly. A distributed degree-day based mass balance model is used to calculate spatial and temporal variations in snow / ice melt and rainfall across the glacier each day of the decade and these are used as input to a semi-distributed physically based model representing the englacial / subglacial drainage system. Key outputs are spatial and temporal variations in subglacial water pressure and discharge. Because the glacier is relatively thin and steep, subglacial conduits operate at atmospheric pressure over most of the glacier's length for most of the time. High pressure events are confined to specific places, generally at times of high melt or rain inputs. Daily to monthly ice velocity variations can be linked to corresponding fluctuations in subglacial water pressures. Year-to-year velocity variations are linked more to variations in glacier geometry and advance/retreat cycles. Short- to medium-term ice velocity variations reflect rapid changes in basal motion, whereas longer-term variations reflect changes in ice deformation and longitudinal stress gradients.

  6. Your Radiologist Explains CT Colonography

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    Full Text Available ... Radiology and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains CT Colonography (Virtual ... to allow for inflation with air while CT images are being taken. If you’re scheduled for ...

  7. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

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    Full Text Available ... Radiology and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript ... by a special camera and computer to create images of the inside of your body. If you’ ...

  8. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound Medical Imaging Costs Radiology and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/ ... Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello! I’m Dr. Ramji ...

  9. Your Radiologist Explains CT Colonography

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound Medical Imaging Costs Radiology and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/ ... Explains CT Colonography (Virtual colonoscopy) Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hi, I’m Dr. Elliot ...

  10. Your Radiologist Explains CT Colonography

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    Full Text Available ... and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains CT Colonography (Virtual colonoscopy) ... Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test Medical Imaging Costs Video: Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound Radiology and You ...

  11. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

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    Full Text Available ... and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome ... Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test Medical Imaging Costs Video: Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound Radiology and You ...

  12. Explaining variation in nascent entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van Stel (André); A.R.M. Wennekers (Sander); P. Reynolds (Paul); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper aims at explaining cross-country variation in nascent entrepreneurship. Regression analysis is applied using various explanatory variables derived from three different approaches. We make use of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor database, including nascent entrepreneurship

  13. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

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    Full Text Available ... Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org ... I’d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify ...

  14. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

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    Full Text Available ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello! ... d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify disease ...

  15. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello! ... I’d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify disease ...

  16. The tissue distribution of recombinant adiponectin in type 2 diabetic mice and diet-induced obesity mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yanan; Liu Jianfeng; Chu Liping; Wang Yan; Niu Huisheng; Li Huaifen; Zhao Minghui

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the tissue distribution of 125 I labeled adiponectin recombinant globular form ( 125 I-gAcrp) in Diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) mice and normal mice. 125 I-gAcrp was prepared and injected into different types of mice through the veins of tails, and then the radio-counts in brain, glandular angularis, heart, lung, liver, spleen, stomach, intestine, adipose tissue, kidney, muscle, testis, uterus and blood were measured at 0.5 and 2 h, respectively. The results showed that 125 I-gAcrp has a much higher uptake at 2 h in the liver of T2DM mice and in the glandular angularis of DIO mice than that of at 0.5 h, whilst it has a lower uptake in the liver of DIO mice at 2 h, and also the uptake of 125 I- gAcrp in the stomach, intestine and testis of DIO mice and in uterus of T2DM mice groups were increased. The result indicated that glandular angularis, testis and uterus probably play roles in the process of fat metabolism and blood glucose regulation of adiponectin in DIO and T2DM mice, besides liver and muscle. (authors)

  17. Analysis of the genetic distribution among members of Clostridium botulinum group I using a novel multilocus sequence typing (MLST) assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Jaran S; Scholz, Holger; Fillo, Silvia; Ramisse, Vincent; Lista, Florigio; Trømborg, Anette K; Aarskaug, Tone; Thrane, Ingjerd; Blatny, Janet M

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum is the etiological agent of botulism. Due to food-borne poisoning and the potential use of the extremely toxic botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) from C. botulinum in bioterror or biocrime related actions, reliable high resolution typing methods for discriminating C. botulinum strains are needed. Partial sequencing of the adk, atpH, gyrB, proC, rpoD and spo0A genes from 51 various C. botulinum/sporogenes isolates was performed, resulting in 37 different sequence types (STs). Analysis of the sequence data revealed a genetic distribution in five larger clusters with a loose correlation to the BoNT serotypes. The developed MLST assay had a slightly lower resolution ability when compared to the MLVA (multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis), but the two methods resulted in similar subclusters of the strains possessing the BoNT serotypes A, B and F. The current work presents the development of a novel MLST assay useful for genotyping C. botulinum related to basic phylogenetic research and trace-back analysis in microbial forensic studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Fractal Characteristics of Soil Retention Curve and Particle Size Distribution with Different Vegetation Types in Mountain Areas of Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiang; Gao, Peng; Wang, Bing; Liu, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Based on fractal theory, the fractal characteristics of soil particle size distribution (PSD) and soil water retention curve (WRC) under the five vegetation types were studied in the mountainous land of Northern China. Results showed that: (1) the fractal parameters of soil PSD and soil WRC varied greatly under each different vegetation type, with Quercus acutissima Carr. and Robina pseudoacacia Linn. mixed plantation (QRM) > Pinus thunbergii Parl. and Pistacia chinensis Bunge mixed plantation (PPM) > Pinus thunbergii Parl. (PTP) > Juglans rigia Linn. (JRL) > abandoned grassland (ABG); (2) the soil fractal dimensions of woodlands (QRM, PPM, PTP and JRL) were significantly higher than that in ABG, and mixed forests (QRM and PPM) were higher than that in pure forests (PTP and JRL); (3) the fractal dimension of soil was positively correlated with the silt and clay content but negatively correlated with the sand content; and (4) the fractal dimension of soil PSD was positively correlated with the soil WRC. These indicated that the fractal parameters of soil PSD and soil WRC could act as quantitative indices to reflect the physical properties of the soil, and could be used to describe the influences of the Return Farmland to Forests Projects on soil structure. PMID:26633458

  19. Fractal Characteristics of Soil Retention Curve and Particle Size Distribution with Different Vegetation Types in Mountain Areas of Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Niu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on fractal theory, the fractal characteristics of soil particle size distribution (PSD and soil water retention curve (WRC under the five vegetation types were studied in the mountainous land of Northern China. Results showed that: (1 the fractal parameters of soil PSD and soil WRC varied greatly under each different vegetation type, with Quercus acutissima Carr. and Robina pseudoacacia Linn. mixed plantation (QRM > Pinus thunbergii Parl. and Pistacia chinensis Bunge mixed plantation (PPM > Pinus thunbergii Parl. (PTP > Juglans rigia Linn. (JRL > abandoned grassland (ABG; (2 the soil fractal dimensions of woodlands (QRM, PPM, PTP and JRL were significantly higher than that in ABG, and mixed forests (QRM and PPM were higher than that in pure forests (PTP and JRL; (3 the fractal dimension of soil was positively correlated with the silt and clay content but negatively correlated with the sand content; and (4 the fractal dimension of soil PSD was positively correlated with the soil WRC. These indicated that the fractal parameters of soil PSD and soil WRC could act as quantitative indices to reflect the physical properties of the soil, and could be used to describe the influences of the Return Farmland to Forests Projects on soil structure.

  20. Biomass gasification in atmospheric and bubbling fluidized bed: effect of the type of gasifying agent on the product distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, J.; Aznar, M.P.; Caballero, M.A. [University of Saragossa (Spain). Chemical and Environmental Engineering Dept.; Corella, J. [University ' ' Complutense' ' of Madrid (Spain). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    1999-07-01

    The effect of the type of gasifying agent used in biomass gasification on product distribution (gas, char and tar yields) and gas quality (Contents in H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4},..., tars) is analyzed. Gasifying agents taken into account are: air, pure steam, and steam-O{sub 2} mixtures. Process considered is biomass gasification in atmospheric and bubbling fluidized bed. Previous results by Herguido et al. (Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 1992; 31(2): 1274-82), Gil et al. (Energy and Fuels 1997; 11(6): 1109-18) and Narvaez et al. (Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 1996; 35(7): 2110-20) are compared. Such authors carried their research on biomass gasification under similar conditions but varying the gasifying agent. Three different gasifying agent-to-biomass ratios are needed and used to compare results. The relationships between the H{sub 2}, CO,..., tar contents in the flue gas and the type and amount of gasifying agent used are shown after a careful analysis. (author)

  1. Fractal Characteristics of Soil Retention Curve and Particle Size Distribution with Different Vegetation Types in Mountain Areas of Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiang; Gao, Peng; Wang, Bing; Liu, Yu

    2015-12-03

    Based on fractal theory, the fractal characteristics of soil particle size distribution (PSD) and soil water retention curve (WRC) under the five vegetation types were studied in the mountainous land of Northern China. Results showed that: (1) the fractal parameters of soil PSD and soil WRC varied greatly under each different vegetation type, with Quercus acutissima Carr. and Robina pseudoacacia Linn. mixed plantation (QRM) > Pinus thunbergii Parl. and Pistacia chinensis Bunge mixed plantation (PPM) > Pinus thunbergii Parl. (PTP) > Juglans rigia Linn. (JRL) > abandoned grassland (ABG); (2) the soil fractal dimensions of woodlands (QRM, PPM, PTP and JRL) were significantly higher than that in ABG, and mixed forests (QRM and PPM) were higher than that in pure forests (PTP and JRL); (3) the fractal dimension of soil was positively correlated with the silt and clay content but negatively correlated with the sand content; and (4) the fractal dimension of soil PSD was positively correlated with the soil WRC. These indicated that the fractal parameters of soil PSD and soil WRC could act as quantitative indices to reflect the physical properties of the soil, and could be used to describe the influences of the Return Farmland to Forests Projects on soil structure.

  2. Adenocarcinoma in situ and associated human papillomavirus type distribution observed in two clinical trials of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ault, Kevin A; Joura, Elmar A; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of this report is to describe the detection of adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and associated human papillomavirus (HPV) type distribution that was observed in the context of two phase 3 clinical trials of a quadrivalent HPV6/11/16/18 vaccine. In this intention-to-treat analysis......, and 6. Women underwent colposcopy and biopsy according to a Papanicolaou triage algorithm. All tissue specimens were tested for 14 HPV types and were adjudicated by a pathology panel. During the trials, 22 women were diagnosed with AIS (six vaccine and 16 placebo). There were 25 AIS lesions in total......, we include all women who had at least one follow-up visit postenrollment. Healthy women (17,622) aged 15-26 with no history of HPV disease and a lifetime number of less than five sex partners (average follow-up of 3.6 years) were randomized (1:1) to receive vaccine or placebo at day 1, months 2...

  3. Adipocytokines, neuropeptide Y and insulin resistance in overweight women with gynoid and android type of adipose tissue distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbetzova, Maria M; Koleva, Daniela I; Mitkov, Mitko D; Atanassova, Iliana B; Nikolova, Julia G; Atanassova, Pepa K; Genchev, Gencho D

    2012-01-01

    The AIM of the study was to compare the levels of certain adipose tissue hormones in women with the two main morphological types of obesity - android and gynoid obesity. The study included 2 groups of age- and weight-matched women with android (n = 32) and gynoid (n = 27) type of obesity, and a group of age-matched healthy women (n = 24) with normal weight and body constitution. Leptin, resistin, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), neuropeptide Y (NPY), glucose and insulin were measured. HOMA index was calculated. Leptin levels in the women with gynoid obesity did not differ significantly from those in the controls and the women with android obesity. The controls had significantly lower leptin levels compared with the android obesity women. NPY was significantly higher in the control women compared to the women with android obesity and did not differ significantly between the two groups of obese women. TNFalpha levels in all groups were very similar. Resistin did not show significant differences between all groups but tended to have the lowest levels in the controls. In the women with android obesity, insulin was significantly higher than that in the women with gynoid obesity and the controls. Insulin resistance was found in the women with android obesity only. Basal insulin and HOMA index in the women with gynoid obesity did not differ significantly from the values in the control group. The results from this study contribute to understanding the association of adipose tissue hormones and insulin resistance in obesity. When adipose tissue is predominantly distributed in the abdominal area at similar amount and percentage of body fats, leptin production is higher and insulin resistance develops. In the gynoid type of adipose tissue predisposition, overt insulin resistance is not found, leptin levels does not differ significantly from those in the control group.

  4. The assessment of processes controlling the spatial distribution of hydrogeochemical groundwater types in Mali using multivariate statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keita, Souleymane; Zhonghua, Tang

    2017-10-01

    Sustainable management of groundwater resources is a major issue for developing countries, especially in Mali. The multiple uses of groundwater led countries to promote sound management policies for sustainable use of the groundwater resources. For this reason, each country needs data enabling it to monitor and predict the changes of the resources. Also given the importance of groundwater quality changes often marked by the recurrence of droughts; the potential impacts of regional and geological setting of groundwater resources requires careful study. Unfortunately, recent decades have seen a considerable reduction of national capacities to ensure the hydrogeological monitoring and production of qualit data for decision making. The purpose of this work is to use the groundwater data and translate into useful information that can improve water resources management capacity in Mali. In this paper, we used groundwater analytical data from accredited, laboratories in Mali to carry out a national scale assessment of the groundwater types and their distribution. We, adapted multivariate statistical methods to classify 2035 groundwater samples into seven main groundwater types and built a national scale map from the results. We used a two-level K-mean clustering technique to examine the hydro-geochemical records as percentages of the total concentrations of major ions, namely sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), chloride (Cl), bicarbonate (HCO3), and sulphate (SO4). The first step of clustering formed 20 groups, and these groups were then re-clustered to produce the final seven groundwater types. The results were verified and confirmed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and RockWare (Aq.QA) software. We found that HCO3 was the most dominant anion throughout the country and that Cl and SO4 were only important in some local zones. The dominant cations were Na and Mg. Also, major ion ratios changed with geographical location and geological, and climatic

  5. IEE wiring regulations explained and illustrated

    CERN Document Server

    Scaddan, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The IEE Wiring Regulations Explained and Illustrated, Second Edition discusses the recommendations of the IEE Regulations for the Electrical Equipment of Buildings for the safe selection or erection of wiring installations. The book emphasizes earthing, bonding, protection, and circuit design of electrical wirings. The text reviews the fundamental requirements for safety, earthing systems, the earth fault loop impedance, and supplementary bonding. The book also describes the different types of protection, such as protection against mechanical damage, overcurrent, under voltage (which prevents

  6. Optically pumped vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser at 374.9 nm with an electrically conducting n-type distributed Bragg reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuh-Shiuan; Saniul Haq, Abul Fazal Muhammad; Mehta, Karan; Kao, Tsung-Ting; Wang, Shuo; Xie, Hongen; Shen, Shyh-Chiang; Yoder, P. Douglas; Ponce, Fernando A.; Detchprohm, Theeradetch; Dupuis, Russell D.

    2016-11-01

    An optically pumped vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with an electrically conducting n-type distributed Bragg reflector was achieved at 374.9 nm. An epitaxially grown 40-pair n-type AlGaN/GaN distributed Bragg reflector was used as the bottom mirror, while the top mirror was formed by a dielectric distributed Bragg reflector composed of seven pairs of HfO2/SiO2. A numerical simulation for the optical mode clearly demonstrated that a high confinement factor was achieved and the threshold pumping power density at room temperature was measured as 1.64 MW/cm2. The achieved optically pumped laser demonstrates the potential of utilizing an n-type distributed Bragg reflector for surface-emitting optical devices.

  7. Dual matrilineal geographic distribution of Korean type 2 diabetes mellitus-associated -11,377 G adiponectin allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jee-Hye; Min, Na Young; Park, Sang Kil; Gavaachimed, Lkhagvasuren; Ko, Young Jong; Han, Sung Hoon; Kim, Kyung Yong; Kim, Kijung; Lee, Kwang Ho; Park, Ae Ja

    2014-12-01

    The present study was performed to identify the susceptible single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for the prediction of Korean type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and to clarify the matrilineal origin of Korean T2DM‑specific SNPs. Fourteen SNPs from the adiponectin (ADIPOQ), hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 and glucokinase genes in the Korean population were analyzed. Only one SNP, ‑11,377 C/G on the ADIPOQ gene, was finally determined to be responsible for the incidence of Korean T2DM (P=0.028). The G‑T‑T‑A haplotype at positions ‑11,377, +45, +276 and +349 on the ADIPOQ gene was also associated with a high incidence of Korean T2DM (P=0.023). In addition, the susceptibility of Korean individuals to T2DM appears to be affected by their matrilineal origin. Of note, the group of Southern origin, consisting of mitochondrial DNA macrohaplogroups F and R, was predisposed to T2DM, whereas the group of Northern origin, consisting of haplogroups A and Y, was resistant to T2DM. This implied that the differential genetics between the two groups, which were formed from the initial peopling of the proto‑Korean population via Southern and Northern routes to the present time, may explain their differing susceptibility to T2DM. In conclusion, from Southern Asia Northward, a matrilineal origin of Korean individuals appears to be responsible for the prevalence of Korean T2DM caused by the ‑11,377 G allele.

  8. Explaining the Allocation of Regional Structural Funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charron, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    What regional factors can explain the heterogeneity in Structural Funds distribution to European Union regions? Past studies have shown that aside from the level of economic development and rates of unemployment, other political, and economic factors systematically explain why certain European...... Union regions receive greater funding than others, in particular where there is room for bargaining. In this article, a novel theory is posited which argues that the determination of Structural Funds is based on an interaction between a region’s formal institutions (the level of a regional autonomy......) and informal institutions (its level of quality of government). In cases of low regional autonomy, member states and European Union level actors prefer to allocate greater levels of Funds to regions with lower quality of government in order to increase cohesion. Yet in cases of high regional autonomy, risks...

  9. Effect of different types of prosthetic platforms on stress-distribution in dental implant-supported prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minatel, Lurian; Verri, Fellippo Ramos; Kudo, Guilherme Abu Halawa; de Faria Almeida, Daniel Augusto; de Souza Batista, Victor Eduardo; Lemos, Cleidiel Aparecido Araujo; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza; Santiago, Joel Ferreira

    2017-02-01

    A biomechanical analysis of different types of implant connections is relevant to clinical practice because it may impact the longevity of the rehabilitation treatment. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the Morse taper connections and the stress distribution of structures associated with the platform switching (PSW) concept. It will do this by obtaining data on the biomechanical behavior of the main structure in relation to the dental implant using the 3-dimensional finite element methodology. Four models were simulated (with each containing a single prosthesis over the implant) in the molar region, with the following specifications: M1 and M2 is an external hexagonal implant on a regular platform; M3 is an external hexagonal implant using PSW concept; and M4 is a Morse taper implant. The modeling process involved the use of images from InVesalius CT (computed tomography) processing software, which were refined using Rhinoceros 4.0 and SolidWorks 2011 CAD software. The models were then exported into the finite element program (FEMAP 11.0) to configure the meshes. The models were processed using NeiNastram software. The main results are that M1 (regular diameter 4mm) had the highest stress concentration area and highest microstrain concentration for bone tissue, dental implants, and the retaining screw (Pstress concentrations in the retaining screw (Pstress distribution and that the PSW concept had higher stress concentrations in the retaining screw and the crown compared to the regular platform implant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of different types of prosthetic platforms on stress-distribution in dental implant-supported prostheses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minatel, Lurian; Verri, Fellippo Ramos; Kudo, Guilherme Abu Halawa; Faria Almeida, Daniel Augusto de; Souza Batista, Victor Eduardo de; Aparecido Araujo Lemos, Cleidiel; Piza Pellizzer, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    A biomechanical analysis of different types of implant connections is relevant to clinical practice because it may impact the longevity of the rehabilitation treatment. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the Morse taper connections and the stress distribution of structures associated with the platform switching (PSW) concept. It will do this by obtaining data on the biomechanical behavior of the main structure in relation to the dental implant using the 3-dimensional finite element methodology. Four models were simulated (with each containing a single prosthesis over the implant) in the molar region, with the following specifications: M1 and M2 is an external hexagonal implant on a regular platform; M3 is an external hexagonal implant using PSW concept; and M4 is a Morse taper implant. The modeling process involved the use of images from InVesalius CT (computed tomography) processing software, which were refined using Rhinoceros 4.0 and SolidWorks 2011 CAD software. The models were then exported into the finite element program (FEMAP 11.0) to configure the meshes. The models were processed using NeiNastram software. The main results are that M1 (regular diameter 4 mm) had the highest stress concentration area and highest microstrain concentration for bone tissue, dental implants, and the retaining screw (P < 0.05). Using the PSW concept increases the area of the stress concentrations in the retaining screw (P < 0.05) more than in the regular platform implant. It was concluded that the increase in diameter is beneficial for stress distribution and that the PSW concept had higher stress concentrations in the retaining screw and the crown compared to the regular platform implant. - Highlights: • The external hexagon implants was unfavorable biomechanical. • The Morse taper implant presented the best biomechanical result. • Platform switching concept increased stress in screw-retained prostheses.

  11. Distributed health literacy among people living with type 2 diabetes in Portugal: Defining levels of awareness and support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Liliana; Nunes, João Arriscado; Taylor, Peter; Silva, Susana

    2018-01-01

    This study embraces a patient-centred and narrative-oriented notion of health literacy, exploring how social networks and personal experiences constitute distributed health literacy (DHL) by mapping out health literacy mediators of each individual and how they enable self-management skills and knowledge of health conditions. Semi-structured interviews with 26 patients with type 2 diabetes were conducted in a Primary Care Center of Porto (Portugal) from October 2014 to December 2015. Data were collected based on McGill Illness Narrative Interview (MINI). Following the grounded theory, interviews were analysed as case-based and process-tracing-oriented. Three awareness narratives emerged: (i) a narrative of minimisation revealing minimal impact of diabetes in patients' lives and daily routines, resignation towards "inevitable" consequences of the diagnosis and dependence of a large network of health literacy mediators; (ii) a narrative of empathy, where patients tended to mention readjustments in their lives by following medical recommendations regarding medication without criticism and with few health literacy mediators; (iii) a narrative of disruption, with patients highlighting the huge impact of diabetes on their lives and their individual responsibility and autonomy with respect to the management of diabetes and the search for alternatives to medication, relying on a very restrictive network of mediators. Exploring meanings given to diagnosis, identifying health mediators and analysing the structure of social networks can contribute to understand the distributed nature of health literacy. Assessing DHL can assist health professionals and those providing care in the community in promoting health literacy and providing models for a more patient-centred health system. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Does a High Sugar High Fat Dietary Pattern Explain the Unequal Burden in Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes in a Multi-Ethnic Population in The Netherlands? The HELIUS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Merel J.; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S.; Vermeulen, Esther; Muilwijk, Mirthe; Snijder, Marieke B.; Nicolaou, Mary N.; van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.

    2018-01-01

    The risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in ethnic minorities in Europe is higher in comparison with their European host populations. The western dietary pattern, characterized by high amounts of sugar and saturated fat (HSHF dietary pattern), has been associated with a higher risk for T2D. Information on

  13. Does a high sugar high fat dietary pattern explain the unequal burden in prevalence of type 2 diabetes in a multi-ethnic population in the Netherlands? The HELIUS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Merel J.; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S.; Vermeulen, Esther; Muilwijk, Mirthe; Snijder, Marieke B.; Nicolaou, Mary N.; Valkengoed, Van Irene G.M.

    2018-01-01

    The risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in ethnic minorities in Europe is higher in comparison with their European host populations. The western dietary pattern, characterized by high amounts of sugar and saturated fat (HSHF dietary pattern), has been associated with a higher risk for T2D. Information on

  14. Does a high sugar high fat dietary pattern explain the unequal burden in prevalence of type 2 diabetes in a multi-ethnic population in the Netherlands? : The Helius study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Merel; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Vermeulen, Esther; Muilwijk, Mirthe; Snijder, Marieke; Nicolaou, Mary; Van Valkengoed, Irene

    2018-01-01

    The risk for type 2 diabetes (t2d) in ethnic minorities in europe is higher in comparison with their european host populations. The western dietary pattern, characterized by high amounts of sugar and saturated fat (hshf dietary pattern), has been associated with a higher risk for t2d. Information on

  15. Alternative tRNA priming of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcription explains sequence variation in the primer-binding site that has been attributed to APOBEC3G activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Atze T.; Vink, Monique; Berkhout, Ben

    2005-01-01

    It is generally assumed that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) uses exclusively the cellular tRNA(3)(Lys) molecule as a primer for reverse transcription. We demonstrate that HIV-1 uses not only tRNA(3)(Lys) but also an alternative tRNA primer. This tRNA was termed tRNA(5)(Lys), and the

  16. Gene distribution of ABO blood type system on the Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) patients in the working area of Puskesmas Bonto Bangun, District of Rilau Ale, Bulukumba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjafaraenan; Alvionita, D. N.; Agus, R.; Sabran, A.

    2018-03-01

    This research is about gene distribution of ABO blood type system on the Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) patients in the working area of Puskesmas Bonto Bangun, District of Rilau Ale, Bulukumba. This research aimed to determine the blood type which is most affected by DHF using ABO blood type system. In this research, there are 104 samples, 8 of them were attacked by DF and 96 were attacked by DHF. From the 96 patients of DHF, there were 38 patients with A-blood type, 17 patients with B-blood type, 36 patients with O-blood type and 5 patients of AB-blood type. The data were tested using genotype frequency test and the results showed that the percentage of A-homozygous blood type (IAIA) is 0:09%; A heterozygous blood type (IAIo) is 0:36%; B-homozygous blood type (IBIB) is 0.01%; B heterozygous blood type (IB Io) is 0.12%; AB blood type (IAIB) is 0.06% and O blood type (IoIo) is 12:36%. So the biggest frequency of genotype are IAIo (0.36%) and IoIo (0.36%). The results showed that O blood type gene is the most affected by DHF. Then continued by the regression test between blood type and DHF, it is obtained that the correlation value is 1 which indicated that there is a strong relationship.

  17. Baseline red blood cell distribution width predicts long-term glycemic remission in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lijuan; Wang, Liangjiao; Huang, Xinwei; Liu, Liehua; Ke, Weijian; He, Xiaoying; Huang, Zhimin; Liu, Juan; Wan, Xuesi; Cao, Xiaopei; Li, Yanbing

    2017-09-01

    We explored whether red blood cell distribution width (RDW), a routinely checked item of complete blood cell counts, was an indicator of long-term euglycemia remission in patients with type 2 diabetes after short-term continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). We analyzed the original data of patients enrolled in three randomized control trials from 2002 to 2014. CSII was administered to drug-naїve patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes to achieve and maintain euglycemia for 2weeks. A total of 185 patients were involved and 98 patients (52.97%) who achieved and maintained euglycemia for at least 12months were classified as the remission group, and the others as the non-remission group. Patients in remission group had a relatively lower value for baseline RDW (38.82±2.76vs 39.89±2.78fL, p=0.017) compared with those in non-remission group. A graded decrease of remission rate (67.50%, 55.00%, 53.66% and 30.77% for Quartile 1 to Quartile 4 respectively, P<0.05) was observed with the increasing of RDWs. The risk of hyperglycemic relapse was significantly increased for those in the highest quartile compared with the lowest (hazard ratio=2.68; 95% CI, 1.38-5.22). Those who achieved euglycemia within 7days or obtained a better fasting glucose after therapy had preferable remission rates. Patients with lower baseline RDWs are more likely to maintain a one-year euglycemia remission after short-term CSII. A faster normalization of glucose during treatment and a lower fasting glucose after therapy are correlated with a long-term glucose control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Can Marxism Explain America's Racism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willhelm, Sidney M.

    1980-01-01

    The Marxist interpretation of the Black experience in America has always had difficulty explaining various noneconomic aspects of racism. A perspective is needed that can blend racism as a variable in relationship with economic variables. To reach this perspective, the labor process within capitalism must be more fully understood. (Author/GC)

  19. Journalism and Explaining News Content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albæk, E.; Skovsgaard, M.; de Vreese, C.H.; Nussbaum, J.F.

    Three models are presented to explain variation in news content. In the first model the explanation is based on the individual journalist, in the second model on the professional journalist, and in the third model on the organized journalist. The individual journalist model focuses on how the

  20. Does market competition explain fairness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descioli, Peter

    2013-02-01

    The target article by Baumard et al. uses their previous model of bargaining with outside options to explain fairness and other features of human sociality. This theory implies that fairness judgments are determined by supply and demand but humans often perceive prices (divisions of surplus) in competitive markets to be unfair.

  1. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello! ... I’d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify disease ...

  2. Distribution of phytoplankton functional types in high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll waters in a new diagnostic ecological indicator model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Palacz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Modeling and monitoring plankton functional types (PFTs is challenged by the insufficient amount of field measurements of ground truths in both plankton models and bio-optical algorithms. In this study, we combine remote sensing data and a dynamic plankton model to simulate an ecologically sound spatial and temporal distribution of phyto-PFTs. We apply an innovative ecological indicator approach to modeling PFTs and focus on resolving the question of diatom–coccolithophore coexistence in the subpolar high-nitrate and low-chlorophyll regions. We choose an artificial neural network as our modeling framework because it has the potential to interpret complex nonlinear interactions governing complex adaptive systems, of which marine ecosystems are a prime example. Using ecological indicators that fulfill the criteria of measurability, sensitivity and specificity, we demonstrate that our diagnostic model correctly interprets some basic ecological rules similar to ones emerging from dynamic models. Our time series highlight a dynamic phyto-PFT community composition in all high-latitude areas and indicate seasonal coexistence of diatoms and coccolithophores. This observation, though consistent with in situ and remote sensing measurements, has so far not been captured by state-of-the-art dynamic models, which struggle to resolve this "paradox of the plankton". We conclude that an ecological indicator approach is useful for ecological modeling of phytoplankton and potentially higher trophic levels. Finally, we speculate that it could serve as a powerful tool in advancing ecosystem-based management of marine resources.

  3. Comparative analysis of HLA II allele and genotype frequency distribution in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and autoimmune thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Aleksandrovna Repina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare HLA II allele and genotype frequency distribution in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT with that in isolated T1DM.Materials and Methods. A total of 92 T1DM patients were subdivided into two groups. The first group comprised 54 patients with established AIT comorbidity or elevation of anti-thyroid autoantibodies (ATA. Patients with isolated T1DM (ATA-negative formed the second group. HLA-genotyping was performed by multiprimer PCR set for the three following genes: DRB1, DQA1 and DQВ1.Results. Prevalence of alleles DRB1*01, *03(017, *04, *07, *11 and genotypes 01/03, 01/04, 03/04 tends to be higher among patients with AIT comorbidity. The comorbidity group was also characterized by the trend towards higher prevalence of “marker/marker” and “marker/non-marker” combinations favouring the former variant. Conversely, ATA-negative patients exhibited trend for higher prevalence of “non-marker/non-marker” combination.Conclusion. Statistically insignificant difference between HLA II alleles and genotypes in the two studied groups suggests that primary genetic factors are common in these two diseases. Plausibly, genes other than DRB1, DQA1 and DQВ1 determine the localization of the autoimmune process.

  4. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum IL-2, SIL-2R, TNF-α contents and T-cell subgroup distribution type in patients with psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mou Xudong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum IL-2, SIL-2R, TNF-α contents and T-cell subgroup distribution type in patients with psoriasis. Methods: Serum IL-2 and TNF-α levels were measured with RIA, SIL-2R levels was measured with ELISA and T-cell subgroup distribution type was detected with monoclonal antibody in 40 patients with psoriasis and 35 controls. Results: The serum IL-2 levels and CD 4 /CD 8 values were significantly lower in the patients than those in controls (P<0.01), while the serum SIL-2R, TNF-α levels were significantly higher (P<0.01). Conclusion: Determination of serum IL-2, SIL-2R, TNF-α contents and T-cell subgroup distribution type is clinically useful for understanding the disturbances of immuno-modulation in these patients. (authors)

  5. Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) distribution in two differents soil types (Podzol and Andosol) under natural forest cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Romero, Marta; Papa, Stefania; Verstraeten, Arne; Cools, Nathalie; Lozano-García, Beatriz; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Coppola, Elio

    2017-04-01

    Andosols are young soils that shall know a successive evolution towards pedological types where the dominant pedogenetic processes are more evident. Vegetation and climate influence Andosols evolution to other order of soils. In cold and wet climates or on acid vulcanite under heavy leaching young Andosols could change into Podzols (Van Breemn and Buurman, 1998). Were investigated a Podzol soil (World References Base, 2014) at Zoniën (Belgium), were and an Andosol soil (World References Base, 2014) at Lago Laceno (Avellino, Italy). This study shows the data on the SOC (Soil Organic Carbon) fractionation in two profiles from two natural pine forest soils. Together with the conventional activities of sampling and analysis of soil profile were examined surveys meant to fractionation and characterization of SOC, in particular: Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and Total Extractable Carbon (TEC) soil contents were determined by Italian official method of soil analysis (Mi.P.A.F. (2000)). Different soil C fractions were also determined: Humic Acid Carbon (HAC), Fulvic Acid Carbon (FAC), Not Humic Carbon (NHC) and Humin Carbon (Huc) fractions were obtained by difference. In the whole profile, therefore, were also assayed cellulose and lignin contents. The aim of this work was to compare the distribution of different soil organic components in a podzol and a soil with andic properties. The data show great similarity, among the selected profiles, in the organic components distribution estudied. References: - Mi.P.A.F. - Ministero per le Politiche Agricole e Forestali - Osservatorio Nazionale Pedologico e per la Qualità del Suolo (2000): Metodi Ufficiali di Analisi Chimica del Suolo. In: Franco Angeli (Editor), Collana di metodi analitici per l'agricoltura diretta da Paolo Sequi, n. 1124.2, Milano, Italy. - Van Breemn N. and Buurman P. (1998) Chapter 12 Formation of Andisols. In: Soil formation. Kluwer Ed., Wageningen, The Netherlands, 271-289. -Ussiri D.A.N., Johnson C

  6. Can bootstrapping explain concept learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Susan Carey's account of Quinean bootstrapping has been heavily criticized. While it purports to explain how important new concepts are learned, many commentators complain that it is unclear just what bootstrapping is supposed to be or how it is supposed to work. Others allege that bootstrapping falls prey to the circularity challenge: it cannot explain how new concepts are learned without presupposing that learners already have those very concepts. Drawing on discussions of concept learning from the philosophical literature, this article develops a detailed interpretation of bootstrapping that can answer the circularity challenge. The key to this interpretation is the recognition of computational constraints, both internal and external to the mind, which can endow empty symbols with new conceptual roles and thus new contents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Explaining Disparities in Unemployment Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Karanassou, Marika; Snower, Dennis J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain disparities among the unemployment experiences of different OECD countries in terms of the `fragility' of the short-run unemployment equilibrium (the impact of labour market shocks on the short-run unemployment rate) and the lag structure of the employment determination, wage setting, and labour force participation decisions. The effects of this lag structure on unemployment dynamics are captured through two general measures of `unemployment persistence' (occurr...

  8. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type distribution in 3603 HIV-positive and HIV-negative women in the general population of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dartell, Myassa Arkam; Rasch, Vibeke; Kahesa, Crispin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the Prevention of Cervical Cancer in Tanzania (PROTECT) study is to assess the prevalence of oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) and to determine the type distribution among women in the general population according to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, in preparation for a po......The aim of the Prevention of Cervical Cancer in Tanzania (PROTECT) study is to assess the prevalence of oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) and to determine the type distribution among women in the general population according to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, in preparation...

  9. X-ray flourescence spectrometry (XRFS) analysis of aluminum cable types commonly used in electric power distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwaha, B. J.; Durodola, O. M.

    2011-01-01

    A comparative analysis of five different aluminium cable types tagged J 1 , J 2 , J 3 , J 4 and J 5 from five different cable manufacturing companies was carried out using two different test methods namely - X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRFS) and resistivity tests with the main objective of ascertaining why some cables of the same gauge fail under the same load levels. Purity levels, resistivity and conductivity checks were performed. Equal dimensions of the five cable brands were sampled and grounded to fine powder. The percentage purity of each sample was determined through XRFS test. One set of similar samples was subjected to resistivity test. XRFS results show that J 1 had purity of 99.3%, J 2 had 99.1 %, J 3 had 98.5%, J 4 had 99.2% and J 5 had 98.8%. J 1 had resistivity and conductivity values of 2.3 x 10 -9 Ωm and 430.3 x 10 6 Ωm -1 respectively. While J 2 had 3.9 x 10 -9 Ωm and 255.0 x 10 6 Ωm -1 . J 3 had 2.7 x 10 -9 Ωm and 371.9 x 10 6 Ωm -1 , J 4 had 2.6 x 10 -9 Ωm and 382.6 x 10 6 Ωm -1 , and J 5 had 2.9 x 10 -9 Ωm and 346.6 x 10 6 Ωm -1 . Comparing these values to the standard resistivity value of pure aluminium, which is 2.8 x 10 -8 m, these results are in agreement with theoretically computed values. The XRFS test used in this research could be used to test the purity of aluminum before stretching into cables. It can also be used to determine the standard of aluminum products. The electrical resistivity test could be used to determine and set a standard resistivity and conductivity requirements to be met by different cable brands and types used in electric power distribution so as to curb the menace of cable failure and electric hazards.

  10. Core Genome Multilocus Sequence Typing for Identification of Globally Distributed Clonal Groups and Differentiation of Outbreak Strains of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Gonzalez-Escalona, Narjol; Hammack, Thomas S; Allard, Marc W; Strain, Errol A; Brown, Eric W

    2016-10-15

    Many listeriosis outbreaks are caused by a few globally distributed clonal groups, designated clonal complexes or epidemic clones, of Listeria monocytogenes, several of which have been defined by classic multilocus sequence typing (MLST) schemes targeting 6 to 8 housekeeping or virulence genes. We have developed and evaluated core genome MLST (cgMLST) schemes and applied them to isolates from multiple clonal groups, including those associated with 39 listeriosis outbreaks. The cgMLST clusters were congruent with MLST-defined clonal groups, which had various degrees of diversity at the whole-genome level. Notably, cgMLST could distinguish among outbreak strains and epidemiologically unrelated strains of the same clonal group, which could not be achieved using classic MLST schemes. The precise selection of cgMLST gene targets may not be critical for the general identification of clonal groups and outbreak strains. cgMLST analyses further identified outbreak strains, including those associated with recent outbreaks linked to contaminated French-style cheese, Hispanic-style cheese, stone fruit, caramel apple, ice cream, and packaged leafy green salad, as belonging to major clonal groups. We further developed lineage-specific cgMLST schemes, which can include accessory genes when core genomes do not possess sufficient diversity, and this provided additional resolution over species-specific cgMLST. Analyses of isolates from different common-source listeriosis outbreaks revealed various degrees of diversity, indicating that the numbers of allelic differences should always be combined with cgMLST clustering and epidemiological evidence to define a listeriosis outbreak. Classic multilocus sequence typing (MLST) schemes targeting internal fragments of 6 to 8 genes that define clonal complexes or epidemic clones have been widely employed to study L. monocytogenes biodiversity and its relation to pathogenicity potential and epidemiology. We demonstrated that core genome MLST

  11. Comparative genomic analysis uncovers 3 novel loci encoding type six secretion systems differentially distributed in Salmonella serotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiviago Carlos A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recently described Type VI Secretion System (T6SS represents a new paradigm of protein secretion in bacteria. A number of bioinformatic studies have been conducted to identify T6SS gene clusters in the available bacterial genome sequences. According to these studies, Salmonella harbors a unique T6SS encoded in the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 6 (SPI-6. Since these studies only considered few Salmonella genomes, the present work aimed to identify novel T6SS loci by in silico analysis of every genome sequence of Salmonella available. Results The analysis of sequencing data from 44 completed or in progress Salmonella genome projects allowed the identification of 3 novel T6SS loci. These clusters are located in differentially-distributed genomic islands we designated SPI-19, SPI-20 and SPI-21, respectively. SPI-19 was identified in a subset of S. enterica serotypes including Dublin, Weltevreden, Agona, Gallinarum and Enteritidis. In the later, an internal deletion eliminated most of the island. On the other hand, SPI-20 and SPI-21 were restricted to S. enterica subspecies arizonae (IIIa serotype 62:z4,z23:-. Remarkably, SPI-21 encodes a VgrG protein containing a C-terminal extension similar to S-type pyocins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This is not only the first evolved VgrG described in Salmonella, but also the first evolved VgrG including a pyocin domain described so far in the literature. In addition, the data indicate that SPI-6 T6SS is widely distributed in S. enterica and absent in serotypes Enteritidis, Gallinarum, Agona, Javiana, Paratyphi B, Virchow, IIIa 62:z4,z23:- and IIIb 61:1,v:1,5,(7. Interestingly, while some serotypes harbor multiple T6SS (Dublin, Weltvreden and IIIa 62:z4,z23:- others do not encode for any (Enteritidis, Paratyphi B, Javiana, Virchow and IIIb 61:1,v:1,5,(7. Comparative and phylogenetic analyses indicate that the 4 T6SS loci in Salmonella have a distinct evolutionary history. Finally, we

  12. Comparative genomic analysis uncovers 3 novel loci encoding type six secretion systems differentially distributed in Salmonella serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondel, Carlos J; Jiménez, Juan C; Contreras, Inés; Santiviago, Carlos A

    2009-08-04

    The recently described Type VI Secretion System (T6SS) represents a new paradigm of protein secretion in bacteria. A number of bioinformatic studies have been conducted to identify T6SS gene clusters in the available bacterial genome sequences. According to these studies, Salmonella harbors a unique T6SS encoded in the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 6 (SPI-6). Since these studies only considered few Salmonella genomes, the present work aimed to identify novel T6SS loci by in silico analysis of every genome sequence of Salmonella available. The analysis of sequencing data from 44 completed or in progress Salmonella genome projects allowed the identification of 3 novel T6SS loci. These clusters are located in differentially-distributed genomic islands we designated SPI-19, SPI-20 and SPI-21, respectively. SPI-19 was identified in a subset of S. enterica serotypes including Dublin, Weltevreden, Agona, Gallinarum and Enteritidis. In the later, an internal deletion eliminated most of the island. On the other hand, SPI-20 and SPI-21 were restricted to S. enterica subspecies arizonae (IIIa) serotype 62:z4,z23:-. Remarkably, SPI-21 encodes a VgrG protein containing a C-terminal extension similar to S-type pyocins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This is not only the first evolved VgrG described in Salmonella, but also the first evolved VgrG including a pyocin domain described so far in the literature. In addition, the data indicate that SPI-6 T6SS is widely distributed in S. enterica and absent in serotypes Enteritidis, Gallinarum, Agona, Javiana, Paratyphi B, Virchow, IIIa 62:z4,z23:- and IIIb 61:1,v:1,5,(7). Interestingly, while some serotypes harbor multiple T6SS (Dublin, Weltvreden and IIIa 62:z4,z23:-) others do not encode for any (Enteritidis, Paratyphi B, Javiana, Virchow and IIIb 61:1,v:1,5,(7)). Comparative and phylogenetic analyses indicate that the 4 T6SS loci in Salmonella have a distinct evolutionary history. Finally, we identified an orphan Hcp-like protein

  13. Determination of distribution coefficients of some natural radionuclides (U, Ra, Pb, Po) between different types of Syrian soils and their solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Al-Hamwi, A.; Amin, Y.; Al-Akel, B.

    2009-11-01

    In this study, distribution coefficients of some natural radionuclides ( 226 Ra, U, 210 Pb and 210 Po) between different types of soils in Syria and their solutions were determined. The distribution coefficients values ranged from (164-1933, 280-1722, 350-4749 and 101-117) l kg - 1 for 226 Ra, U, 210 Pb and 210 Po, respectively at pH = 4.0. While, the distribution coefficients values ranged from (207-6706, 673-2397, 149-2147 and 103- 292) l kg - 1 for 226 Ra, U, 210 Pb and 210 Po, respectively at pH = 5.5. In addition, the distribution coefficients values ranged from (167-1707, 126- 1239, 44-1122 and 125-1475) l kg - 1 for 226 Ra, U, 210 Pb and 210 Po, respectively at pH = 7.0. Moreover, the results showed that 210 Po distribution coefficients had the maximum values at pH 7. While 210 Pb distribution coefficients had the minimum values at same pH. In addition to, U distribution coefficients had the maximum values at pH 5.5. On the other hand, the effect of soil mineral content, CEC, ECE, pH and soluble ions on the distribution coefficients were investigated. In general, the results showed that there are logarithmic relationships between studied radionuclide activity in the soil and their distribution coefficients in all soil types (R 2 ranged from 0.59 to 1.00 at pH 4.0). On the other hand, there were no relationships between the distribution coefficients and soil pH. (authors)

  14. Effect of tedizolid on clinical Enterococcus isolates: in vitro activity, distribution of virulence factor, resistance genes and multilocus sequence typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bing; Hu, Kaitao; Li, Hui; Yao, Weiming; Li, Duoyun; Chen, Zhong; Cheng, Hang; Zheng, Jinxin; Pan, Weiguang; Deng, Minggui; Liu, Xiaojun; Lin, Zhiwei; Deng, Qiwen; Yu, Zhijian

    2018-02-01

    Enterococcal infections have become one of the most challenging nosocomial problems. Tedizolid, the second oxazolidinone, is 4-fold to 8-fold more potent in vivo and in vitro than linezolid against enterococci. However, the characteristics of tedizolid related to enterococci isolates in China remain elusive. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro activity of tedizolid against enterococcal isolates from patients with infections at a teaching hospital in China and to investigate the correlations between in vitro tedizolid activity against enterococci and the distribution of multilocus sequence types (MLST), resistance genes and virulence factors. A total of 289 non-duplicate Enterococcus faecalis strains and 68 E. faecium strains were isolated. Tedizolid inhibited 95.24% of all enterococcal isolates with an MIC ≤ 0.5μg/ml. Seventeen E. faecalis strains had an MIC > 0.5 μg/ml, and all E. faecium were inhibited at MIC ≤ 0.5 μg/ml. The proportion of tedizolid non-susceptible E. faecalis strains with optrA genes was higher than that among tedizolid-susceptible strains. Tedizolid exhibited good in vitro activity against all E. faecium strains, including multidrug-resistant E. faecium carrying tet(M), tet(L), tet(U),erm(A), erm(B) and erm(C) genes. In summary, tedizolid has an advantage (higher sensitivity rate) compared to linezolid among enterococci, except for isolates expressing the plasmid-encoded optrA gene. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Explaining convergence of oecd welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, C.; Starke, Peter

    2011-01-01

    of conditional convergence helps to both better describe and explain the phenomenon. By applying error correction models, we examine conditional convergence of various types of social expenditure in 21 OECD countries between 1980 and 2005. Our empirical findings go beyond the existing literature in two respects....... First, we show that there is very strong evidence of convergence across all categories of social expenditure when conditional factors are taken into account. Second, we demonstrate that the speed of convergence is highly driven by globalization and European Union membership and shaped by existing...

  16. Uneven distribution of mating type alleles in Iranian populations of Cercospora beticola, the causal agent of Cercospora leaf spot disease of sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounes BAKHSHI

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false IT ZH-TW X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Cercospora beticola, the causal agent of Cercospora leaf spot disease on sugar beet, is thought to be exclusively asexual because no teleomorph has yet been found. The possibility of a clandestine sexual cycle in the Iranian population of Cercospora beticola was evaluated by analyzing the distribution and frequency of the mating type alleles on a microspatial and a macrogeographical scale. A total of 89 single-conidial Cercospora beticola isolates were obtained from sugar beet fields in the Moghan, the Talesh and the Khoy regions. The isolates were identifed using a Cercospora beticola-specifc primer set in a PCR assay. A multiplex PCR method using previously designed mating type primers was used to study the distribution and the frequency of the mating type alleles. All isolates showed either the 805-bp fragment or the 442-bp fragment of the MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 genes, but no isolate had both fragments. The distribution of the mating type genes in the sampled areas was uneven. From three sugar beet fields sampled in the Moghan region, two fields had only MAT1-1 isolates; while in the third field all isolates had only the MAT1-2 allele. In the Talesh region only MAT1-1 isolates occurred, and in the Khoy region the mating type alleles were uniformly distributed amongst the isolates. The skewed distribution of mating type alleles in Northwestern Iran was in line with the lack of a sexual cycle for this species and may also indicate that sugar fields in the Moghan region were infected by C. beticola populations of different origins. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE FA

  17. Explaining the Evolution of Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Hussain, Azhar; Jones, Edward Samuel

    2012-01-01

    We provide a comprehensive approach for analyzing the evolution of poverty using Mozambique as a case study. Bringing together data from disparate sources, we develop a novel “back-casting” framework that links a dynamic computable general equilibrium model to a micro-simulation poverty module....... This framework provides a new approach to explaining and decomposing the evolution of poverty, as well as to examining rigorously the coherence between poverty, economic growth, and inequality outcomes. Finally, various simple but useful and rarely-applied approaches to considering regional changes in poverty...

  18. A heavy-traffic theorem for the GI/G/1 queue with a Pareto-type service time distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Cohen

    1997-01-01

    textabstractFor the $GI/G/1$-queueing model with traffic load $a<1$, service time distribution $B(t)$ and interarrival time distribution $A(t)$ holds, whenever for $t rightarrow infty$: $$ quad 1-B(t) sim frac{c{(t/ beta)^nu + {rm O ( {rm e^{-delta t ), quad c>0, quad 1< nu < 2, quad delta >

  19. Pronounced limb and fibre type differences in subcellular lipid droplet content and distribution in elite skiers before and after exhaustive exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koh, Han-Chow E; Nielsen, Joachim; Saltin, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    Although the intramyocellular lipid pool is an important energy store during prolonged exercise, our knowledge concerning its metabolism is still incomplete. Here, quantitative electron microscopy was used to examine subcellular distribution of lipid droplets in type 1 and 2 fibres of the arm and...

  20. [Clinical study of area of Jiangsu province of polycystic ovarian syndrome correlation distribution of traditional Chinese medicine syndrome type and improper diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yu; Gao, Yue-Ping

    2014-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most popular diseases in obstetrics and gynecology research at internal and abroad at present, traditional Chinese medicine(TCM)in the clinical treatment of the disease have the advantage. Clinical epidemiological study of descriptive research method this research adopts investigation, observation of TCM syndromes and improper diet through 401 cases in Jiangsu Province confirmed PCOS patients, to explore the relationship between TCM syndrome type distribution and improper diet factors, and to provide the clinical basis for further etiology of this disease research. TCM syndrome type distribution of the disease is kidney deficiency, phlegm stagnation syndrome, qi stagnation and blood stasis syndrome, syndrome of dampness heat of liver channel and is composed of 4 basic syndromes and formed complex syndrome, and the composite and syndrome type (60.85%); combined with the analysis of traditional Chinese medicine dialectical, Pure empirical syndrome this disease (46.88%), followed by the actual card (45.39%), pure deficiency is rare. Improper diet factors associated with the disease, in which improper diet with different TCM syndrome type distribution significantly related. Stagnation of phlegm dampness syndrome is the main syndrome of the disease type, improper diet factors and every syndrome PCOS type distribution is as follows: the partial eclipse fatness greasy with basic syndromes of phlegm dampness stagnation of kidney deficiency syndrome, the nephrasthenia syndrome is less; eating spicy stimulation by basic syndromes of stagnation of Qi and blood stasis; eating cold people the basic certificate type of qi stagnation and blood stasis; The diet of patients are more prone to stagnation of phlegm dampness syndrome.

  1. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection, distribution of viral types and risk factors in cervical samples from human immunodeficiency virus-positive women attending three human immunodeficiency virus-acquired immune deficiency syndrome reference centres in northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Albert Eduardo Silva; Lucena-Silva, Norma; Garcia, Renan Gomes; Welkovic, Stefan; Barboza, Aureliana; Menezes, Maria Luiza Bezerra; Maruza, Magda; Tenório, Terezinha; Ximenes, Ricardo AA

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients have a greater prevalence of coinfection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is of high oncogenic risk. Indeed, the presence of the virus favours intraepithelial squamous cell lesion progression and may induce cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of HPV infection, distribution of HPV types and risk factors among HIV-positive patients. Cervical samples from 450 HIV-positive patients were analysed with regard to oncotic cytology, colposcopy and HPV presence and type by means of polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. The results were analysed by comparing demographic data and data relating to HPV and HIV infection. The prevalence of HPV was 47.5%. Among the HPV-positive samples, 59% included viral types of high oncogenic risk. Multivariate analysis showed an association between HPV infection and the presence of cytological alterations (p = 0.003), age greater than or equal to 35 years (p = 0.002), number of partners greater than three (p = 0.002), CD4+ lymphocyte count < 200/mm3 (p = 0.041) and alcohol abuse (p = 0.004). Although high-risk HPV was present in the majority of the lesions studied, the low frequency of HPV 16 (3.3%), low occurrence of cervical lesions and preserved immunological state in most of the HIV-positive patients were factors that may explain the low occurrence of precancerous cervical lesions in this population. PMID:25317701

  2. Explaining 'godfatherism ' in Nigerian Politics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In France, the term 'godfather of industry' is used to depict corporate titans, that is, businessmen with the .... Clientelism therefore is the very channel through which onejoins thedominant class and a practice which is then ... distribution of prebendal offices an individual or his kin have a reasonable chance of procuring one ...

  3. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site ...

  4. Distribution and drivers of costs in type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with oral hypoglycemic agents: a retrospective claims data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bron, Morgan; Guerin, Annie; Latremouille-Viau, Dominick; Ionescu-Ittu, Raluca; Viswanathan, Prabhakar; Lopez, Claudia; Wu, Eric Q

    2014-09-01

    To describe the distribution of costs and to identify the drivers of high costs among adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) receiving oral hypoglycemic agents. T2DM patients using oral hypoglycemic agents and having HbA1c test data were identified from the Truven MarketScan databases of Commercial and Medicare Supplemental insurance claims (2004-2010). All-cause and diabetes-related annual direct healthcare costs were measured and reported by cost components. The 25% most costly patients in the study sample were defined as high-cost patients. Drivers of high costs were identified in multivariate logistic regressions. Total 1-year all-cause costs for the 4104 study patients were $55,599,311 (mean cost per patient = $13,548). Diabetes-related costs accounted for 33.8% of all-cause costs (mean cost per patient = $4583). Medical service costs accounted for the majority of all-cause and diabetes-related total costs (63.7% and 59.5%, respectively), with a minority of patients incurring >80% of these costs (23.5% and 14.7%, respectively). Within the medical claims, inpatient admission for diabetes-complications was the strongest cost driver for both all-cause (OR = 13.5, 95% CI = 8.1-23.6) and diabetes-related costs (OR = 9.7, 95% CI = 6.3-15.1), with macrovascular complications accounting for most inpatient admissions. Other cost drivers included heavier hypoglycemic agent use, diabetes complications, and chronic diseases. The study reports a conservative estimate for the relative share of diabetes-related costs relative to total cost. The findings of this study apply mainly to T2DM patients under 65 years of age. Among the T2DM patients receiving oral hypoglycemic agents, 23.5% of patients incurred 80% of the all-cause healthcare costs, with these costs being driven by inpatient admissions, complications of diabetes, and chronic diseases. Interventions targeting inpatient admissions and/or complications of diabetes may contribute to the decrease of the

  5. No change in the distribution of types and antibiotic resistance in clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates from orthopaedic patients during a period of 12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamot, H V; Stavem, K; Skråmm, I

    2015-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is the most common cause of bone and joint infections. However, limited information is available on the distribution of S. aureus geno- and phenotypes causing orthopaedic infections. The aim of this study was to identify the dominating types causing infections in orthopaedic patients, investigate if the characteristics of these types changed over time and examine if different types were more often associated with surgical site infection (SSI) than primary infection (non-SSI). All clinical S. aureus isolates collected from orthopaedic patients from 2000 through 2011 at Akershus University Hospital, Norway, were characterised by S. aureus protein A (spa) typing and tested for antibiotic resistance. A total of 548 patients with orthopaedic S. aureus infections were included, of which 326 (59 %) had SSI and 222 (41 %) had non-SSI. The median age was 62 years [range 2-97 years] and 54 % were male. Among the 242 unique spa types, t084 was the most common (7 %). Penicillin resistance was identified in 75 % of the isolates, whereas the resistances to the other antibiotics tested were resistant to methicillin. There was no significant difference in the distribution of geno- and phenotypes over time and there was no difference in types between SSI and non-SSI. In this large collection of S. aureus from orthopaedic patients, the S. aureus infections, regardless of origin, were heterogeneous, mainly resistant to penicillin, stable over time and consisted of similar types as previously found in both carrier and other patient populations.

  6. A Quantitative Study of the Relationship between the Distribution of Different Types of Collagen and the Mechanical Behavior of Rabbit Medial Collateral Ligaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chao; Hao, Zhixiu; Wen, Shizhu; Leng, Huijie

    2014-01-01

    The mechanical properties of ligaments are key contributors to the stability and function of musculoskeletal joints. Ligaments are generally composed of ground substance, collagen (mainly type I and III collagen), and minimal elastin fibers. However, no consensus has been reached about whether the distribution of different types of collagen correlates with the mechanical behaviors of ligaments. The main objective of this study was to determine whether the collagen type distribution is correlated with the mechanical properties of ligaments. Using axial tensile tests and picrosirius red staining-polarization observations, the mechanical behaviors and the ratios of the various types of collagen were investigated for twenty-four rabbit medial collateral ligaments from twenty-four rabbits of different ages, respectively. One-way analysis of variance was used in the comparison of the Young's modulus in the linear region of the stress-strain curves and the ratios of type I and III collagen for the specimens (the mid-substance specimens of the ligaments) with different ages. A multiple linear regression was performed using the collagen contents (the ratios of type I and III collagen) and the Young's modulus of the specimens. During the maturation of the ligaments, the type I collagen content increased, and the type III collagen content decreased. A significant and strong correlation () was identified by multiple linear regression between the collagen contents (i.e., the ratios of type I and type III collagen) and the mechanical properties of the specimens. The collagen content of ligaments might provide a new perspective for evaluating the linear modulus of global stress-strain curves for ligaments and open a new door for studying the mechanical behaviors and functions of connective tissues. PMID:25062068

  7. High voltage systems (tube-type microwave)/low voltage system (solid-state microwave) power distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussberger, A. A.; Woodcock, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    SPS satellite power distribution systems are described. The reference Satellite Power System (SPS) concept utilizes high-voltage klystrons to convert the onboard satellite power from dc to RF for transmission to the ground receiving station. The solar array generates this required high voltage and the power is delivered to the klystrons through a power distribution subsystem. An array switching of solar cell submodules is used to maintain bus voltage regulation. Individual klystron dc voltage conversion is performed by centralized converters. The on-board data processing system performs the necessary switching of submodules to maintain voltage regulation. Electrical power output from the solar panels is fed via switch gears into feeder buses and then into main distribution buses to the antenna. Power also is distributed to batteries so that critical functions can be provided through solar eclipses.

  8. What explains consciousness? Or…What consciousness explains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulany, Donelson E

    2014-01-01

    In this invited commentary I focus on the topic addressed in three papers: De Sousa's (2013[1617]) Toward an Integrative Theory of Consciousness, a monograph with Parts 1 & 2, as well as commentaries by Pereira (2013a[59]) and Hirstein (2013[42]). All three are impressively scholarly and can stand-and shout-on their own. But theory of consciousness? My aim is to slice that topic into the two fundamentally different kinds of theories of consciousness, say what appears to be an ideology, out of behaviourism into cognitivism, now also influencing the quest for an "explanation of consciousness" in cognitive neuroscience. I will then say what can be expected given what we know of the complexity of brain structure, the richness of a conscious "vocabulary", and current technological limits of brain imaging. This will then turn to the strategy for examining "what consciousness explains"-metatheory, theories, mappings, and a methodology of competitive support, a methodology especially important where there are competing commitments. There are also increasingly common identifications of methodological bias in, along with failures to replicate, studies reporting unconscious controls in decision, social priming-as there have been in perception, learning, problem solving, etc. The literature critique has provided evidence taken as reducing, and in some cases eliminating, a role for conscious controls-a position consistent with that ideology out of behaviourism into cognitivism. It is an ideological position that fails to recognize the fundamental distinction between theoretical and metaphysical assertions.

  9. Disentangling vegetation diversity from climate–energy and habitat heterogeneity for explaining animal geographic patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Alfaro, Borja; Chytry, Milan; Mucina, Ladislav; Grace, James B.; Rejmanek, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Broad-scale animal diversity patterns have been traditionally explained by hypotheses focused on climate–energy and habitat heterogeneity, without considering the direct influence of vegetation structure and composition. However, integrating these factors when considering plant–animal correlates still poses a major challenge because plant communities are controlled by abiotic factors that may, at the same time, influence animal distributions. By testing whether the number and variation of plant community types in Europe explain country-level diversity in six animal groups, we propose a conceptual framework in which vegetation diversity represents a bridge between abiotic factors and animal diversity. We show that vegetation diversity explains variation in animal richness not accounted for by altitudinal range or potential evapotranspiration, being the best predictor for butterflies, beetles, and amphibians. Moreover, the dissimilarity of plant community types explains the highest proportion of variation in animal assemblages across the studied regions, an effect that outperforms the effect of climate and their shared contribution with pure spatial variation. Our results at the country level suggest that vegetation diversity, as estimated from broad-scale classifications of plant communities, may contribute to our understanding of animal richness and may be disentangled, at least to a degree, from climate–energy and abiotic habitat heterogeneity.

  10. Can molecular cell biology explain chromosome motions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagliardi L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitotic chromosome motions have recently been correlated with electrostatic forces, but a lingering "molecular cell biology" paradigm persists, proposing binding and release proteins or molecular geometries for force generation. Results Pole-facing kinetochore plates manifest positive charges and interact with negatively charged microtubule ends providing the motive force for poleward chromosome motions by classical electrostatics. This conceptual scheme explains dynamic tracking/coupling of kinetochores to microtubules and the simultaneous depolymerization of kinetochore microtubules as poleward force is generated. Conclusion We question here why cells would prefer complex molecular mechanisms to move chromosomes when direct electrostatic interactions between known bound charge distributions can accomplish the same task much more simply.

  11. Chemical composition based aerosol optical properties according to size distribution and mixture types during smog and Asian dust events in Seoul, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chang Hoon; Lee, Ji Yi; Um, Junshik; Lee, Seung Soo; Kim, Yong Pyo

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the optical properties of aerosols involved in different meteorological events, including smog and Asian dust days. Carbonaceous components and inorganic species were measured in Seoul, Korea between 25 and 31 March 2012. Based on the measurements, the optical properties of aerosols were calculated by considering composition, size distribution, and mixing state of aerosols. To represent polydisperse size distributions of aerosols, a lognormal size distribution with a wide range of geometric mean diameters and geometric standard deviations was used. For the optical property calculations, the Mie theory was used to compute single-scattering properties of aerosol particles with varying size and composition. Analysis of the sampled data showed that the water-soluble components of organic matter increased on smog days, whereas crustal elements increased on dust days. The water content significantly influenced the optical properties of aerosols during the smog days as a result of high relative humidity and an increase in the water-soluble component. The absorption coefficients depended on the aerosol mixture type and the aerosol size distributions. Therefore, to improve our knowledge on radiative impacts of aerosols, especially the regional impacts of aerosols in East Asia, accurate measurements of aerosols, such as size distribution, composition, and mixture type, under different meteorological conditions are required.

  12. Chemical Composition Based Aerosol Optical Properties According to Size Distribution and Mixture Types during Smog and Asian Dust Events in Seoul, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chang Hoon; Lee, Ji Yi; Um, Junshik; Lee, Seung Soo; Kim, Yong Pyo

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the optical properties of aerosols involved in different meteorological events, including smog and Asian dust days. Carbonaceous components and inorganic species were measured in Seoul, Korea between 25 and 31 March 2012. Based on the measurements, the optical properties of aerosols were calculated by considering composition, size distribution, and mixing state of aerosols. To represent polydisperse size distributions of aerosols, a lognormal size distribution with a wide range of geometric mean diameters and geometric standard deviations was used. For the optical property calculations, the Mie theory was used to compute single-scattering properties of aerosol particles with varying size and composition. Analysis of the sampled data showed that the water-soluble components of organic matter increased on smog days, whereas crustal elements increased on dust days. The water content significantly influenced the optical properties of aerosols during the smog days as a result of high relative humidity and an increase in the water-soluble component. The absorption coefficients depended on the aerosol mixture type and the aerosol size distributions. Therefore, to improve our knowledge on radiative impacts of aerosols, especially the regional impacts of aerosols in East Asia, accurate measurements of aerosols, such as size distribution, composition, and mixture type, under different meteorological conditions are required.

  13. DNA distribution and respiratory activity of Spodoptera frugiperda populations infected with wild-type and recombinant Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, B; Howaldt, M W; Bailey, J E

    1990-07-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda cells were infected with a wild-type Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus and with a recombinant Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus. The recombinant virus was derived from the wild-type virus and produced beta-galactosidase instead of polyhedrin. The changes in cell size, cell growth, viability, DNA distribution, and respiratory activity were followed through the time course of the infection. The DNA content as measured by flow cytometry of infected cells increased to approximately 1.8 times the value of uninfected cells and the distributions of single-cell DNA content of the infected cells were strongly deformed. Early in the infection the respiratory activity passed through a maximum. The mitochondrial activity based on Rhodamine 123 labelling of cells infected with the recombinant virus, as determined by flow cytometry, also passed through a maximum at 24 h post infection while the mitochondrial activity of cells infected with the wild-type virus continued to increase. Evolution of single-cell mitochondrial activity was different in uninfected populations and in populations infected with wild-type and with recombinant virus. In all experiments performed, the recombinant virus influenced cell behavior and the measured parameters earlier than the wild-type virus. The influence of the multiplicity of infection was stronger for the wild-type virus than for the recombinant virus.

  14. Your Radiologist Explains CT Colonography

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Spotlight Recently posted: How ...

  15. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Spotlight Recently posted: How ...

  16. Your Radiologist Explains CT Colonography

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Spotlight March is National ...

  17. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Spotlight March is National ...

  18. Your Radiologist Explains CT Colonography

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us ... likelihood of benefit from this exam to your health. While virtual colonoscopy does use radiation, the benefit ...

  19. Your Radiologist Explains CT Colonography

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... virtual colonoscopy. Virtual colonoscopy is a diagnostic imaging test that is used to screen the large intestine ...

  20. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... before abnormalities can be detected with other diagnostic tests. Nuclear medicine imaging procedures use small amounts of ...

  1. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Spotlight February is American ...

  2. Your Radiologist Explains CT Colonography

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Spotlight February is American ...

  3. Spear phishing in organisations explained

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullee, Jan-Willem; Montoya, Lorena; Junger, Marianne; Hartel, Pieter

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to explore how the opening phrase of a phishing email influences the action taken by the recipient. Design/methodology/approach - Two types of phishing emails were sent to 593 employees, who were asked to provide personally identifiable information (PII). A

  4. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos ... medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify disease in its earliest stage, often before symptoms occur ...

  5. An Approach to Distinguish between Plasticity and Non-random Distributions of Behavioral Types Along Urban Gradients in a Wild Passerine Bird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Sprau

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The impact of urbanization has been widely studied in the context of species diversity and life history evolution. Behavioral adaptation, by contrast, remains poorly understood because empirical studies rarely investigate the relative importance of two key mechanisms: plastic responses vs. non-random distributions of behavioral types. We propose here an approach that enables the simultaneous estimation of the respective roles of these distinct mechanisms. We investigated why risky behaviors are often associated with urbanization, using an urban nest box population of great tits (Parus major as a study system. We simultaneously and repeatedly quantified individual behavior (aggression and flight initiation distance as well as environmental factors characterizing level of urbanization (numbers of pedestrians, cars and cyclists. This enabled us to statistically distinguish plastic responses from patterns of non-random distributions of behavioral types. Data analyses revealed that individuals did not plastically adjust their behavior to the level of urbanization. Behavioral types were instead non-randomly distributed: bold birds occurred more frequently in areas with more cars and fewer pedestrians while shy individuals were predominantly found in areas with fewer cars and more pedestrians. These novel findings imply a major role for behavioral types in the evolutionary ecology of urban environments and call for the full integration of among- and within-individual variation in urban ecological studies.

  6. Magnetic form factor, field map and field distribution for a BCS type-II superconductor near its Bc2(T) phase boundary

    OpenAIRE

    Maisuradze, A.; Yaouanc, A.

    2013-01-01

    We review the magnetic form factor deduced by Delrieu from the Gorkov's equation for a Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) type-II superconductor near its Bc2 phase boundary, i.e. when its magnetization is small. A numerical study of the form factor, field map, and field distribution follows. The characteristics of the transition from the low-temperature BCS to the high-temperature Ginzburg-Landau vortex lattices is studied. The exotic shape of the component field distribution and the form factor...

  7. Distribution of feline AB blood types: a review of frequencies and its implications in the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Sandrina M; Ferreira, Rui R F; de Matos, Augusto Jf; Cardoso, Inês M; Graça, Rita M C; Soares, Ana Rpb; Blasi-Brugué, Carles; Sánchez, Ignacio M; Gopegui, Rafael R

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to document the prevalence of feline blood types in the Iberian Peninsula and to determine the potential risk of incompatibility-related transfusion reactions in unmatched transfusions and the potential risk of neonatal isoerythrolysis (NI) in kittens born to parents of unknown blood type. Blood samples were obtained from blood donors of the Animal Blood Bank (BSA-Banco de Sangue Animal). Blood typing was performed using a card method (RapidVet-H Feline Blood Typing; MDS). The studied population comprised 1070 purebred and non-purebred cats from Portugal and Spain aged between 1 and 8 years. Overall, frequencies of blood types A and B were 96.5% and 3.5%, respectively. No AB cats were found. Based on these data, the potential risks of NI and transfusion reactions in unmatched transfusions were calculated to be 6.8% and 2.8%, respectively. Unlike previous studies, no type AB cats were found in this study. Although the calculated potential risks of transfusion reaction in unmatched transfusions and neonatal isoerythrolysis were low, blood typing prior to blood transfusion and blood typing of cats for breeding purposes are highly recommended.

  8. Isotope distributions in primary heat transport and containment systems during a severe accident in CANDU type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, M.

    2005-01-01

    The paper is intended to analyse the distribution of the fission products (FPs) in CANDU Primary Heat Transport (PHT) and CANDU Containment Systems by using the ASTEC code. The complexity of the data required by ASTEC and the complexity both of CANDU PHT and Containment System were strong motivation to begin with a simplified model. The data related to the nodes' definitions, temperatures and pressure conditions were chosen as possible as real data from CANDU loss of coolant accident sequence (CATHENA code results). The source term of FPs introduced into the PHT was estimated by ORIGEN code. The FPs distribution in the nodes of the circuit and the FPs mass transfer per isotope and chemical species were obtained by using SOPHAEROS module. The distributions within the containment are obtained by the CPA module (thermalhydraulic calculations in the containment and FPs aerosol transport). The results consist of mass distributions in the nodes of the circuit and the transferred mass to the containment through the break for different species (FPs and chemical species) and mass distributions in the different parts of the containment and different hosts. (authors)

  9. Explain bioinformatics to your grandmother!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Bernard

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available What are you working on? You have certainly been asked that question many times, whether it be at a Saturday night party, during a discussion with your neighbors, or at a family gathering. Communicating with a lay audience about scientific subjects and making them attractive is a difficult task. But difficult or not, you will have to do it for many years, not only with your family and friends, but also with your colleagues and collaborators. So, better learn now! Although not usually taught, the ability to explain your work to others is an essential skill in science, where communication plays a key role. Using some examples of the French Regional Student Group activities, we discuss here (i why it is important to have such communication skills, (ii how you can get involved in these activities by using existing resources or working with people who have previous experience, and (iii what you get out of this amazing experience. We aim to motivate you and provide you with tips and ideas to get involved in promoting scientific activities while getting all the benefits.

  10. Inference for the Bivariate and Multivariate Hidden Truncated Pareto(type II) and Pareto(type IV) Distribution and Some Measures of Divergence Related to Incompatibility of Probability Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Indranil

    2011-01-01

    Consider a discrete bivariate random variable (X, Y) with possible values x[subscript 1], x[subscript 2],..., x[subscript I] for X and y[subscript 1], y[subscript 2],..., y[subscript J] for Y. Further suppose that the corresponding families of conditional distributions, for X given values of Y and of Y for given values of X are available. We…

  11. Shor-Preskill-type security proof for concatenated Bennett-Brassard 1984 quantum-key-distribution protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won-Young; Matsumoto, Keiji; Imai, Hiroshi; Kim, Jaewan; Lee, Hai-Woong

    2003-01-01

    We discuss a long code problem in the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) quantum-key-distribution protocol and describe how it can be overcome by concatenation of the protocol. Observing that concatenated modified Lo-Chau protocol finally reduces to the concatenated BB84 protocol, we give the unconditional security of the concatenated BB84 protocol

  12. Distribution of late gadolinium enhancement in various types of cardiomyopathies: Significance in differential diagnosis, clinical features and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hiroshi; Sano, Makoto; Suwa, Kenichiro; Saitoh, Takeji; Nobuhara, Mamoru; Saotome, Masao; Urushida, Tsuyoshi; Katoh, Hideki; Hayashi, Hideharu

    2014-07-26

    The recent development of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) techniques has allowed detailed analyses of cardiac function and tissue characterization with high spatial resolution. We review characteristic CMR features in ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathies (ICM and NICM), especially in terms of the location and distribution of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). CMR in ICM shows segmental wall motion abnormalities or wall thinning in a particular coronary arterial territory, and the subendocardial or transmural LGE. LGE in NICM generally does not correspond to any particular coronary artery distribution and is located mostly in the mid-wall to subepicardial layer. The analysis of LGE distribution is valuable to differentiate NICM with diffusely impaired systolic function, including dilated cardiomyopathy, end-stage hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), cardiac sarcoidosis, and myocarditis, and those with diffuse left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy including HCM, cardiac amyloidosis and Anderson-Fabry disease. A transient low signal intensity LGE in regions of severe LV dysfunction is a particular feature of stress cardiomyopathy. In arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia, an enhancement of right ventricular (RV) wall with functional and morphological changes of RV becomes apparent. Finally, the analyses of LGE distribution have potentials to predict cardiac outcomes and response to treatments.

  13. Testing projected wild bee distributions in agricultural habitats: predictive power depends on species traits and habitat type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marshall, L.; Carvalheiro, L.G.; Aguirre-Gutierrez, J.; Bos, M.; Groot, de G.A.; Kleijn, D.; Potts, S.G.; Reemer, M.; Roberts, S.P.M.; Scheper, J.A.; Biesmeijer, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDM) are increasingly used to understand the factors that regulate variation in biodiversity patterns and to help plan conservation strategies. However, these models are rarely validated with independently collected data and it is unclear whether SDM performance is

  14. Designing anti-sliding durable type of asphalt mixture based on the maximum peak of angular distribution rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Duan yi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to design a anti-sliding and durable asphalt mixture, we independently develop two sets of laboratory equipment: the Laser Contour Detector of Asphalt Pavement and the Accelerated Rub Tester, with which we collect the plate surface contour every two hours for 5 times in the first 8 hours in the rub test, and then we make contour curves and analyze the angular distribution statistics of surface contour and thus we propose characterizing the skid resistance performance and durability of the asphalt pavement based on the maximum peak of angular distribution rate, which has been proved to be reasonable. By designing different gradations of SMA-13 and GAC-13 asphalt mixture and using the maximum peak of angular distribution rate to evaluate the skid resistance performance of different degrees of kneading, the asphalt mixture with better skid resistance has been made. That provides a reference for engineering application. The laboratory research develops a method for designing a anti-sliding and durable asphalt mixture based on the maximum peak of angular distribution rate, which makes up for the defects of the current stage where there is no ways to test the skid resistance performance and durability while designing the asphalt mixture.

  15. Rotated sigmoid structures in managed uneven-aged northern hardwood stands: a look at the Burr Type III distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey H. Gove; Mark J. Ducey; William B. Leak; Lianjun Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Stand structures from a combined density manipulation and even- to uneven-aged conversion experiment on the Bartlett Experimental Forest (New Hampshire, USA) were examined 25 years after initial treatment for rotated sigmoidal diameter distributions. A comparison was made on these stands between two probability density functions for fitting these residual structures:...

  16. Influence of prosthesis type and material on the stress distribution in bone around implants: A 3-dimensional finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökçe Meriç

    2011-03-01

    Conclusions: Prosthesis design and materials affect the load-transmission mechanism. Although additional experimental and clinical studies are needed, FRC FPDs can be considered a suitable alternative treatment choice for implant-supported prostheses. Within the limitations of the study, the 3-unit FPD supported by 2 implants with a cantilevered extension revealed acceptable stress distributions.

  17. Effects of insulin therapy on weight gain and fat distribution in the HF/HS-STZ rat model of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsø, Søs; Damgaard, J; Fels, J J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Insulin therapy is required for many patients with the obesity-related disorder type 2 diabetes, but is also associated with weight gain. The specific location of adipose tissue location matters to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We investigated effects of exogenous...... insulin on fat distribution in the high-fat/high-sucrose fed rat treated with streptozotocin (HF/HS-STZ) rat model of type 2 diabetes. We also examined effects of insulin therapy on circulating CVD markers, including adiponectin, triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein....... SUBJECTS/METHODS: Male SD rats were HF/HS fed for 5 weeks followed by STZ treatment to mimic the hallmarks of human obesity-associated insulin resistance followed by hyperglycemia. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography were used to determine total fat, abdominal fat distribution and liver fat...

  18. GRS defective axonal distribution as a potential contributor to distal spinal muscular atrophy type V pathogenesis in a new model of GRS-associated neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ah Jung; Park, Byung Sun; Jung, Junyang

    2014-11-01

    Distal spinal muscular atrophy type V (dSMA-V), a hereditary axonal neuropathy, is a glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GRS)-associated neuropathy caused by a mutation in GRS. In this study, using an adenovirus vector system equipped with a neuron-specific promoter, we constructed a new GRS-associated neuropathy mouse model. We found that wild-type GRS (WT) is distributed in peripheral axons, dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cell bodies, central axon terminals and motor neuron cell bodies in the mouse model. In contrast, the L129P mutant GRS was localized in DRG and motor neuron cell bodies. Thus, we propose that the disease-causing L129P mutant is linked to a distribution defect in peripheral nerves in vivo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical significance of the changes of serum levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), endothelin (ET) and T cell subsets distribution type after treatment in patients with coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lin; Zhu Xuejun; Liu Sheguo

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the changes in serum SOD, ET levels and T-lymphocyte subsets distribution type after treatment in patients with coronary heart disease. Methods: The levels of serum SOD, ET were detected with RIA and T-lymphocyte subsets distribution type was detected with monoclonal antibody method in 42 cases of coronary heart disease both before and after a course of treatment and 35 controls. Results: before treatment, the levels of serum ET were significantly higher than those in controls (P 4 /CD 8 ratio were significantly lower than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Detection of serum SOD, ET and CD 4 /CD 8 ratio is valuable for the diagnosis and outcome prediction in patients with coronary heart disease. (authors)

  20. [The stress distribution of the temporomandibular joint under four types of inter-arch elastics--a three dimentional finite element model analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Min; Xiang, Ya-ning; Li, Hong; Guo, Ke-feng; Wang, Fang

    2010-04-01

    To analyze the influence of four types (class II long elastic, class II short elastic, class III long elastic, class III short elastic) of inter-arch elastics on the stress distribution and displacement of temporomandibular joint (TMJ). To reconstruct a three-dimensional element model of left craniofacial bones with TMJ, maxilla, mandible and dentition with MBT straight wire appliance by CT images, Mimics, Ansys software. The influence of four types elastic on the model was analyzed by simulating the clinical conditions. The stress distribution and displacement of TMJ under four types of elastics have been acquired. The stress distributed rule of condition 1 and 2 was similar, compression stress centred on the frontal surface of the condyle, while stretching stress centred on the posterior surface. The stress distributed rule of condition 3 and 4 was similar too, the frontal surface of the condyle was most stretching stress, while posterior surface was most compression stress. The displacement of the condyle of condition 1 and 2 was overall forward and downward with a clockwise rotation, the displacement of the condyle of condition 3 and 4 was overall backward and upward with a anticlockwise rotation. Class II long elastic and short elastic, class III long elastic and short elastic, the stress distributed rule was similar, the strength under short elastics was gentle under the same strength value. Overall displacement was downward and forward under class II elastics, the condyloid made a clockwise rotation. Overall displacement was upward and backward under class III elastics, the condyloid made a counterclockwise rotation.

  1. The reproducibility of different metabolic markers for muscle fiber type distributions investigated by functional {sup 31}P-MRS during dynamic exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rzanny, Reinhard; Hiepe, Patrick; Gussew, Alexander; Reichenbach, Juergen R. [Univ. Hospital Jena (Germany). Medical Physics Group, Inst. of Diagnostics and Interventional Radiology; Stutzig, Norman [Univ. of Stuttgart (Germany). Exercise Science, Inst. of Sport and Movement Science; Thorhauer, Hans-Alexander [Friedrich-Schiller-Univ. Jena (Germany). Exercise Science, Inst. of Sports Science

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the reproducibility of exercise induced pH-heterogeneity by splitting of the inorganic phosphate (Pi) signal in the corresponding {sup 31}P-MRS spectra and to compare results of this approach with other fiber-type related markers, like phosphocreatine/adenosine triphosphate (PCr/ATP) ratio, and PCr-recovery parameters. Subjects (N = 3) with different sportive background were tested in 10 test sessions separated by at least 3 days. A MR-compatible pedal ergometer was used to perform the exercise and to induce a pH-based splitting of the Pi-signal in {sup 31}P-MR spectra of the medial gastrocnemius muscle. The PCr recovery was analyzed using a non-negative least square algorithm (NNLS) and multi-exponential regression analysis to estimate the number of non-exponential components as well as their amplitude and time constant. The reproducibility of the estimated metabolic marker and the resulting fiber-type distributions between the 10 test sessions were compared. The reproducibility (standard deviation between measurements) based on (1) Pi components varied from 2% to 4%, (2) PCr recovery time components varied from 10% to 12% and (3) phosphate concentrations at rest varied from 8% to 11% between test sessions. Due to the sportive activity differences between the 3 subjects were expected in view of fiber type distribution. All estimated markers indicate the highest type I percentage for volunteer 3 medium for volunteer 2 and the lowest for volunteer 1. The relative high reproducibility of pH dependent Pi components during exercise indicates a high potential of this method to estimate muscle fiber-type distributions in vivo. To make this method usable not only to detect differences in muscle fiber distributions but also to determine individual fiber-type volume contents it is therefore recommended to validate this marker by histological methods and to reveal the effects of muscle fiber recruitments and fiber-type specific

  2. The reproducibility of different metabolic markers for muscle fiber type distributions investigated by functional 31P-MRS during dynamic exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzanny, Reinhard; Hiepe, Patrick; Gussew, Alexander; Reichenbach, Juergen R.; Stutzig, Norman; Thorhauer, Hans-Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the reproducibility of exercise induced pH-heterogeneity by splitting of the inorganic phosphate (Pi) signal in the corresponding 31 P-MRS spectra and to compare results of this approach with other fiber-type related markers, like phosphocreatine/adenosine triphosphate (PCr/ATP) ratio, and PCr-recovery parameters. Subjects (N = 3) with different sportive background were tested in 10 test sessions separated by at least 3 days. A MR-compatible pedal ergometer was used to perform the exercise and to induce a pH-based splitting of the Pi-signal in 31 P-MR spectra of the medial gastrocnemius muscle. The PCr recovery was analyzed using a non-negative least square algorithm (NNLS) and multi-exponential regression analysis to estimate the number of non-exponential components as well as their amplitude and time constant. The reproducibility of the estimated metabolic marker and the resulting fiber-type distributions between the 10 test sessions were compared. The reproducibility (standard deviation between measurements) based on (1) Pi components varied from 2% to 4%, (2) PCr recovery time components varied from 10% to 12% and (3) phosphate concentrations at rest varied from 8% to 11% between test sessions. Due to the sportive activity differences between the 3 subjects were expected in view of fiber type distribution. All estimated markers indicate the highest type I percentage for volunteer 3 medium for volunteer 2 and the lowest for volunteer 1. The relative high reproducibility of pH dependent Pi components during exercise indicates a high potential of this method to estimate muscle fiber-type distributions in vivo. To make this method usable not only to detect differences in muscle fiber distributions but also to determine individual fiber-type volume contents it is therefore recommended to validate this marker by histological methods and to reveal the effects of muscle fiber recruitments and fiber-type specific Pi

  3. Distribution of the Most Prevalent Spa Types among Clinical Isolates of Methicillin-Resistant and -Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus around the World: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadollahi, Parisa; Farahani, Narges Nodeh; Mirzaii, Mehdi; Khoramrooz, Seyed Sajjad; van Belkum, Alex; Asadollahi, Khairollah; Dadashi, Masoud; Darban-Sarokhalil, Davood

    2018-01-01

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus, a leading cause of community-acquired and nosocomial infections, remains a major health problem worldwide. Molecular typing methods, such as spa typing, are vital for the control and, when typing can be made more timely, prevention of S. aureus spread around healthcare settings. The current study aims to review the literature to report the most common clinical spa types around the world, which is important for epidemiological surveys and nosocomial infection control policies. Methods: A search via PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Embase, the Cochrane library, and Scopus was conducted for original articles reporting the most prevalent spa types among S. aureus isolates. The search terms were “Staphylococcus aureus, spa typing.” Results: The most prevalent spa types were t032, t008 and t002 in Europe; t037 and t002 in Asia; t008, t002, and t242 in America; t037, t084, and t064 in Africa; and t020 in Australia. In Europe, all the isolates related to spa type t032 were MRSA. In addition, spa type t037 in Africa and t037and t437 in Australia also consisted exclusively of MRSA isolates. Given the fact that more than 95% of the papers we studied originated in the past decade there was no option to study the dynamics of regional clone emergence. Conclusion: This review documents the presence of the most prevalent spa types in countries, continents and worldwide and shows big local differences in clonal distribution. PMID:29487578

  4. Distribution of the Most Prevalent Spa Types among Clinical Isolates of Methicillin-Resistant and -Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus around the World: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Asadollahi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background:Staphylococcus aureus, a leading cause of community-acquired and nosocomial infections, remains a major health problem worldwide. Molecular typing methods, such as spa typing, are vital for the control and, when typing can be made more timely, prevention of S. aureus spread around healthcare settings. The current study aims to review the literature to report the most common clinical spa types around the world, which is important for epidemiological surveys and nosocomial infection control policies.Methods: A search via PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Embase, the Cochrane library, and Scopus was conducted for original articles reporting the most prevalent spa types among S. aureus isolates. The search terms were “Staphylococcus aureus, spa typing.”Results: The most prevalent spa types were t032, t008 and t002 in Europe; t037 and t002 in Asia; t008, t002, and t242 in America; t037, t084, and t064 in Africa; and t020 in Australia. In Europe, all the isolates related to spa type t032 were MRSA. In addition, spa type t037 in Africa and t037and t437 in Australia also consisted exclusively of MRSA isolates. Given the fact that more than 95% of the papers we studied originated in the past decade there was no option to study the dynamics of regional clone emergence.Conclusion: This review documents the presence of the most prevalent spa types in countries, continents and worldwide and shows big local differences in clonal distribution.

  5. Distribution of late gadolinium enhancement in various types of cardiomyopathies: Significance in differential diagnosis, clinical features and prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Satoh, Hiroshi; Sano, Makoto; Suwa, Kenichiro; Saitoh, Takeji; Nobuhara, Mamoru; Saotome, Masao; Urushida, Tsuyoshi; Katoh, Hideki; Hayashi, Hideharu

    2014-01-01

    The recent development of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) techniques has allowed detailed analyses of cardiac function and tissue characterization with high spatial resolution. We review characteristic CMR features in ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathies (ICM and NICM), especially in terms of the location and distribution of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). CMR in ICM shows segmental wall motion abnormalities or wall thinning in a particular coronary arterial territory, and the suben...

  6. Comparison of Residence Time Distributions of Liquid for Different Types of Input Signal Using a Stimulus-Response Technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermáková, Jiřina; Siyakatshana, N.; Šilar, F.; Kudrna, V.; Jahoda, M.; Machoň, V.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 6 (2003), s. 427-431 ISSN 0366-6352. [International Conference of Slovak Society of Chemical Engineering /30./. Tatranské Matliare, 26.05.2003-30.05.2003] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : stirred tank * stimulus-response technique * residence time distribution Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.226, year: 2003

  7. Investigating the role of polymer type and dead end pores’ distribution on oil recovery efficiency during ASP flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Sedaghat

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding is proved to be efficient for oil recovery from petroleum reservoirs, effects of existence of dead end pores on this process need more discussions. In this work, several ASP flooding tests constituted from 4 polymers, 1 surfactant and 1 alkaline were performed on micromodels designed in four various dead end pore distributions initially saturated with crude oil. The results showed that although using ASP solution constituted from hydrolyzed polymers at high molecular weights significantly increases oil recovery factor due to increasing apparent viscosity of the solution, using sulfonated polymers in ASP solution increases oil recovery much more because of their capability to increase viscosity even in saline solutions. In addition, it was concluded that the number of dead end pores as well as their distribution with respect to the flow direction are two main characteristics that identify the efficiency of brine and ASP floods in dead end porous media. Moreover, although in ASP flooding, since the viscosity is higher and the front is flatter, the role of the number of dead ends on the recovery efficiency is more identifiable than the role of dead ends’ distribution, in waterflooding, since the mobility ratio is not low enough, the role of dead end direction with respect to the flow direction plays a more significant role in recovery process. So, considering the efficient direction of injection is too important during waterflooding and chemical EOR especially in reservoirs that have a remarkable percentage of dead end pores in their geological structure.

  8. Effects of different types of exercise on body composition and fat distribution in HIV-infected patients: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malita, Florin M; Karelis, Antony D; Toma, Emil; Rabasa-Lhoret, Remi

    2005-04-01

    HIV infection and its treatment is associated with unfavourable metabolic and morphological abnormalities. These metabolic abnormalities, particularly alterations in body composition and fat distribution, may increase the risk for cardiovascular and metabolic complications, as well as reduce functional independence and lower self-esteem. Thus there is an urgent need to develop interventions intended to manage secondary side effects of HIV or antiretroviral therapy-related complications. In poly-treated patients, nonpharmacological interventions are a logical first step. Exercise training in particular may help alleviate some of the metabolic adverse effects associated with antiretroviral therapy by favourably altering body composition and patterns of body fat distribution. Studies have shown that exercise training, particularly aerobic training, can help reduce total body and visceral fat, as well as normalizing lipid profiles in HIV-infected patients. The results for resistance training, however, are less conclusive. Knowledge of the use of resistance and aerobic training and its attendant effects on insulin resistance and adipocytokines may represent an effective nonpharmacologic means for treating metabolic complications of HIV-infected persons who are receiving appropriate antiretroviral therapy. In this brief review we examine the effects of aerobic and resistance training on body composition, body fat distribution, and selected metabolic outcomes.

  9. Differences in human papillomavirus type distribution in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cervical cancer in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjalma, Wiebren A; Fiander, Alison; Reich, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of differences in human papillomavirus (HPV)-type prevalence between high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-CIN) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is crucial for understanding the natural history of HPV-infected cervical lesions and the potential impact of HPV vaccination...... on cervical cancer prevention. More than 6,000 women diagnosed with HG-CIN or ICC from 17 European countries were enrolled in two parallel cross-sectional studies (108288/108290). Centralised histopathology review and standardised HPV-DNA typing were applied to formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical...... specimens dated 2001-2008. The pooled prevalence of individual HPV types was estimated using meta-analytic methods. A total of 3,103 women were diagnosed with HG-CIN and a total of 3,162 with ICC (median ages: 34 and 49 years, respectively), of which 98.5 and 91.8% were HPV-positive, respectively. The most...

  10. Statistical Approach for Determination of Compliance with Clearance Criteria Based upon Types of Radionuclide Distributions in a Very Low-Level Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Jae Hak

    2010-01-01

    A statistical evaluation methodology was developed to determine the compliance of candidate waste stream with clearance criteria based upon distribution of radionuclide in a waste stream at a certain confidence level. For the cases where any information on the radionuclide distribution is not available, the relation between arithmetic mean of radioactivity concentration and its acceptable maximum standard deviation was demonstrated by applying widely-known Markov Inequality and One-side Chebyshev Inequality. The relations between arithmetic mean and its acceptable maximum standard deviation were newly derived for normally or lognormally distributed radionuclide in a waste stream, using probability density function, cumulative density function, and other statistical relations. The evaluation methodology was tested for a representative case at 95% of confidence level and 100 Bq/g of clearance level of radioactivity concentration, and then the acceptable range of standard deviation at a given arithmetic mean was quantitatively shown and compared, by varying the type of radionuclide distribution. Furthermore, it was statistically demonstrated that the allowable range of clearance can be expanded, even at the same confidence level, if information on the radionuclide distribution is available.

  11. The analysis of coolant-velocity distribution in plat-typed fuel element using CFD method for RSG-GAS research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Subekti; Darwis Isnaini; Endiah Puji Hastuti

    2013-01-01

    The measurement experiment for coolant-velocity distribution in the subchannel of fuel element of RSG-GAS research reactor is difficult to be carried out due to too narrow channel and subchannel placed inside the fuel element. Hence, the calculation is required to predict the coolant-velocity distribution inside subchannel to confirm that the handle presence does not ruin the velocity distribution into every subchannel. This calculation utilizes CFD method, which respect to 3-dimension interior. Moreover, the calculation of coolant-velocity distribution inside subchannel was not ever carried out. The research object is to investigate the distribution of coolant-velocity in plat-typed fuel element using 3-dimension CFD method for RSG-GAS research reactor. This research is required as a part of the development of thermalhydraulic design of fuel element for innovative research reactor as well. The modeling uses ½ model in Gambit software and calculation uses turbulence equation in FLUENT 6.3 software. Calculation result of 3D coolant-velocity in subchannel using CFD method is lower about 4.06 % than 1D calculation result due to 1D calculation obeys handle availability. (author)

  12. Reporter mouse strain provides a novel look at angiotensin type-2 receptor distribution in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Kloet, Annette D; Wang, Lei; Ludin, Jacob A

    2016-01-01

    Angiotensin-II acts at its type-1 receptor (AT1R) in the brain to regulate body fluid homeostasis, sympathetic outflow and blood pressure. However, the role of the angiotensin type-2 receptor (AT2R) in the neural control of these processes has received far less attention, largely because of limited...... ability to effectively localize these receptors at a cellular level in the brain. The present studies combine the use of a bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic AT2R-enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) reporter mouse with recent advances in in situ hybridization (ISH) to circumvent...

  13. Evolution of biological sequences implies an extreme value distribution of type I for both global and local pairwise alignment scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maréchal Eric

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Confidence in pairwise alignments of biological sequences, obtained by various methods such as Blast or Smith-Waterman, is critical for automatic analyses of genomic data. Two statistical models have been proposed. In the asymptotic limit of long sequences, the Karlin-Altschul model is based on the computation of a P-value, assuming that the number of high scoring matching regions above a threshold is Poisson distributed. Alternatively, the Lipman-Pearson model is based on the computation of a Z-value from a random score distribution obtained by a Monte-Carlo simulation. Z-values allow the deduction of an upper bound of the P-value (1/Z-value2 following the TULIP theorem. Simulations of Z-value distribution is known to fit with a Gumbel law. This remarkable property was not demonstrated and had no obvious biological support. Results We built a model of evolution of sequences based on aging, as meant in Reliability Theory, using the fact that the amount of information shared between an initial sequence and the sequences in its lineage (i.e., mutual information in Information Theory is a decreasing function of time. This quantity is simply measured by a sequence alignment score. In systems aging, the failure rate is related to the systems longevity. The system can be a machine with structured components, or a living entity or population. "Reliability" refers to the ability to operate properly according to a standard. Here, the "reliability" of a sequence refers to the ability to conserve a sufficient functional level at the folded and maturated protein level (positive selection pressure. Homologous sequences were considered as systems 1 having a high redundancy of information reflected by the magnitude of their alignment scores, 2 which components are the amino acids that can independently be damaged by random DNA mutations. From these assumptions, we deduced that information shared at each amino acid position evolved with a

  14. MODELING PROTECTIVE DEVICES FOR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS WITH DISTRIBUTED GENERATION USING AN EMTP-TYPE TOOL REPRESENTACIÓN EN EMTP DE DISPOSITIVOS DE PROTECCIÓN DE REDES DE DISTRIBUCIÓN CON GENERACIÓN DISTRIBUIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A Martínez-Velasco

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the main features of a library of modules for representation of protective devices of distribution networks with distributed generation (DG. The impact of distributed generation in a distribution network depends, among other aspects, on the design of the protection system and the coordination between the different protective devices. The presence of distributed generation changes the radial nature of distribution systems and affects the performance of the protection system. This document discusses the present protection practices for distribution systems and DG interties, describes the implementation of protective devices (circuit breakers, relays, reclosers, fuses, sectionalizers in an EMTP-type tool, and presents some simulation results whose main goal is to analyze the impact of synchronous machine-based embedded generators on the coordination between the different types of protective devices.Este artículo presenta las características principales de una librería de módulos desarrollada para representar dispositivos de protección de una red de distribución de energía eléctrica con generación distribuida (GD. El impacto de la generación distribuida depende, entre otros aspectos, del diseño del sistema de protección, y de la coordinación entre los diferentes dispositivos de protección. La presencia de unidades generadoras altera el flujo radial inherente a un sistema de distribución y afecta al comportamiento del sistema de protección. Este trabajo presenta una introducción de los sistemas de protección de las redes de distribución y de la interconexión de unidades generadoras, describe la implantación de dispositivos de protección (interruptores, relés, reenganchadores, fusibles, seccionalizadores en un programa tipo EMTP, y presenta algunos resultados obtenidos mediante simulación, cuyo principal objetivo es ilustrar el impacto que la generación distribuida basada en generadores síncronos puede

  15. Explaining Choice and Share of Category Requirements of Biologic Meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Verhoef (Peter); K. Vlagsma-Brangule (Kristine)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we examine factors determining choice and consumption of biologic or organic meat. In our model explaining choice and share of category requirements, we consider economic/marketing variables (quality, price, and distribution), emotions (fear, empathy, andguilt), social

  16. Effects of trap type, placement and ash distribution on emerald ash borer captures in a low density site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah G. McCullough; Nathan W. Siegert; Therese M. Poland; Steven J. Pierce; Su Zie. Ahn

    2011-01-01

    Effective methods for early detection of newly established, low density emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) infestations are critically needed in North America. We assessed adult A. planipennis captures on four types of traps in a 16-ha site in central Michigan. The site was divided into 16 blocks, each comprised of...

  17. Geomorphology and Geology of the Southwestern Margaritifer Sinus and Argyre Regions of Mars. Part 3: Valley Types and Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, T. J.; Pieri, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Three major valley tapes were identified in the SW Margaritefer Sinus and Argyre regions. Two are restricted to specific geologic units while the third is independent of the geology. The first type (the small valley networks) are found within the channeled and subdued plains unit in the eastern half of the map, in the grooved and channeled plains unit north of Nirgal Vallis, and in scattered instances in the cratered plateau unit north of Argyre. The even smaller valleys just inside Argyre's rim and on the inner slopes of many large craters are not directly related to the processes which formed the small valleys but are a result, instead, of post-impact modification of the crater walls. The second type of valley network is represented by Nirgal Vallis and the similar, shorter continuation of it to the west. This type is found only in the smooth plains material west of Uzboi Vallis in the map area. The third type of valley network is that of the Uzbol-Holden-Ladon valles system. This system is related to catastrophic outflow from Argyre Basin and is topographically rather than geologically controlled.

  18. The mass distribution in early-type disc galaxies : declining rotation curves and correlations with optical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordermeer, E.; van der Hulst, J. M.; Sancisi, R.; Swaters, R. S.; van Albada, T. S.

    2007-01-01

    We present rotation curves for 19 early-type disc galaxies (S0-Sab). The galaxies span a B-band absolute magnitude range from -17.5 to -22, but the majority have a high luminosity with M-B <-20. Rotation velocities are measured from a combination of H I velocity fields and long-slit optical emission

  19. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Distributions of the Ankle-Brachial Index among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badaruddoza Doza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of present study is to observe the association between the levels of ankle-brachial index (ABI and cardiovascular risk factors among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus in north India. A cross-sectional study was carried out at a centre for heart and diabetic clinic in the state of Punjab on 1121 subjects (671 males and 450 females with type 2 diabetes mellitus. History of symptoms related to cardiovascular diseases was noted, and blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were recorded. Ankle-brachial index (ABI was measured using ultrasonic Doppler flow detector. Subjects with ABI ≤0.9 and ≥1.30 were classified as having low and high ABI, respectively. Females had a higher BMI and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (<0.001. Whereas, males had higher diastolic blood pressure and duration of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The differences of systolic blood pressure and ankle-brachial index were not found significant between the sexes. The prevalence of low ABI (<0.9 was 4.47% in men and 4.67% in women and high ABI (≥1.30 was prevalent in 14% of men and 10.45% of women. Age, BMI, baPWV, and blood pressures were significantly associated with ABI value in both sexes. The results suggested that the ABI might be used as a strong indicator for cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetic subjects.

  20. Immunohistochemical distribution of laminin-332 and collagen type IV in the basement membrane of normal horses and horses with induced laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, M B; Pollitt, C C

    2011-07-01

    The basement membrane (BM) is a thin layer of extracellular matrix that regulates cell functions as well as providing support to tissues of the body. Primary components of the BM of epithelial tissues are laminin-332 (Ln-332) and collagen type IV. Equine laminitis is a disease characterized by destruction and dislocation of the hoof lamellar BM. Immunohistochemistry was used to characterize the distribution of Ln-332 and collagen type IV in the organs of normal horses and these proteins were found to be widespread. Analysis of a panel of tissue samples from horses with experimentally-induced laminitis revealed that Ln-332 and collagen type IV degradation occurs in the skin and stomach in addition to the hoof lamellae. These findings suggest that BM degradation is common to many epithelial tissues during equine laminitis and suggests a role for systemic trigger factors in this disease. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Electron dose distributions caused by the contact-type metallic eye shield: Studies using Monte Carlo and pencil beam algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sei-Kwon; Yoon, Jai-Woong; Hwang, Taejin; Park, Soah; Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Jin Han, Tae; Kim, Haeyoung; Lee, Me-Yeon; Ju Kim, Kyoung, E-mail: kjkim@hallym.or.kr; Bae, Hoonsik

    2015-10-01

    A metallic contact eye shield has sometimes been used for eyelid treatment, but dose distribution has never been reported for a patient case. This study aimed to show the shield-incorporated CT-based dose distribution using the Pinnacle system and Monte Carlo (MC) calculation for 3 patient cases. For the artifact-free CT scan, an acrylic shield machined as the same size as that of the tungsten shield was used. For the MC calculation, BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc were used for the 6-MeV electron beam of the Varian 21EX, in which information for the tungsten, stainless steel, and aluminum material for the eye shield was used. The same plan was generated on the Pinnacle system and both were compared. The use of the acrylic shield produced clear CT images, enabling delineation of the regions of interest, and yielded CT-based dose calculation for the metallic shield. Both the MC and the Pinnacle systems showed a similar dose distribution downstream of the eye shield, reflecting the blocking effect of the metallic eye shield. The major difference between the MC and the Pinnacle results was the target eyelid dose upstream of the shield such that the Pinnacle system underestimated the dose by 19 to 28% and 11 to 18% for the maximum and the mean doses, respectively. The pattern of dose difference between the MC and the Pinnacle systems was similar to that in the previous phantom study. In conclusion, the metallic eye shield was successfully incorporated into the CT-based planning, and the accurate dose calculation requires MC simulation.

  2. Electron dose distributions caused by the contact-type metallic eye shield: Studies using Monte Carlo and pencil beam algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sei-Kwon; Yoon, Jai-Woong; Hwang, Taejin; Park, Soah; Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Han, Tae Jin; Kim, Haeyoung; Lee, Me-Yeon; Kim, Kyoung Ju; Bae, Hoonsik

    2015-01-01

    A metallic contact eye shield has sometimes been used for eyelid treatment, but dose distribution has never been reported for a patient case. This study aimed to show the shield-incorporated CT-based dose distribution using the Pinnacle system and Monte Carlo (MC) calculation for 3 patient cases. For the artifact-free CT scan, an acrylic shield machined as the same size as that of the tungsten shield was used. For the MC calculation, BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc were used for the 6-MeV electron beam of the Varian 21EX, in which information for the tungsten, stainless steel, and aluminum material for the eye shield was used. The same plan was generated on the Pinnacle system and both were compared. The use of the acrylic shield produced clear CT images, enabling delineation of the regions of interest, and yielded CT-based dose calculation for the metallic shield. Both the MC and the Pinnacle systems showed a similar dose distribution downstream of the eye shield, reflecting the blocking effect of the metallic eye shield. The major difference between the MC and the Pinnacle results was the target eyelid dose upstream of the shield such that the Pinnacle system underestimated the dose by 19 to 28% and 11 to 18% for the maximum and the mean doses, respectively. The pattern of dose difference between the MC and the Pinnacle systems was similar to that in the previous phantom study. In conclusion, the metallic eye shield was successfully incorporated into the CT-based planning, and the accurate dose calculation requires MC simulation. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Distribution of ABO and Rh types in voluntary Blood donors in Jharkhand area as a study conducted by RIMS, Ranchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anu; Srivastava, Ramesh Kumar; Deogharia, Kabita S; Singh, Kranti Kumar

    2016-01-01

    This study was done to know the distribution and frequencies of blood groups among blood donors attending voluntary blood donation camps organized by the Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS), Ranchi, Jharkhand so that demand and supply ratio of the four blood groups can be maintained so that no patient dies due to lack of a particular blood group. Up till now about 400 red cells antigen have been identified. The majority follow Mendelian inheritance. The ABO and Rhesus (Rh) blood group system are most important for blood transfusion purposes, parental testing, legal medicine, and in population genetic study. This study was conducted to determine and compare the frequency and distribution of ABO and Rh blood groups among voluntary blood donors attending blood donation camps in Jharkhand organized by RIMS. The aim is to know the demand and supply ratio of a particular blood group in light of their distribution in the society so that no patient dies due to the deficient supply of blood. It is a retrospective study carried out at blood bank. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted at Blood bank, RIMS, Ranchi, Jharkhand, over a period of 4 years from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2015. Blood group of the blood donors was determined by commercially available standard monoclonal antisera by test tube agglutination technique accompanied by reverse grouping. Out of 20,455 subjects, 18,717 (91.73%) were male and 1738 (8.27%) were female subjects. The ABO blood group present was B (35.15%) followed by O (34.73%), A (22.09%), and AB (8.03%) in blood donors while in Rh system, (96.46%) donors were Rh +ve and (3.54%) donors were Rh -ve. The study has a significant implication regarding the inventory management of blood bank and transfusion services for the indoor patients of RIMS and for emergency supply to other hospitals of Jharkhand in dire need of blood. The knowledge of distribution of blood group is very important for blood banks and transfusion services

  4. Distribution of ABO and Rh types in voluntary Blood donors in Jharkhand area as a study conducted by RIMS, Ranchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was done to know the distribution and frequencies of blood groups among blood donors attending voluntary blood donation camps organized by the Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS, Ranchi, Jharkhand so that demand and supply ratio of the four blood groups can be maintained so that no patient dies due to lack of a particular blood group. Context: Up till now about 400 red cells antigen have been identified. The majority follow Mendelian inheritance. The ABO and Rhesus (Rh blood group system are most important for blood transfusion purposes, parental testing, legal medicine, and in population genetic study. Aims: This study was conducted to determine and compare the frequency and distribution of ABO and Rh blood groups among voluntary blood donors attending blood donation camps in Jharkhand organized by RIMS. The aim is to know the demand and supply ratio of a particular blood group in light of their distribution in the society so that no patient dies due to the deficient supply of blood. Settings and Design: It is a retrospective study carried out at blood bank. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted at Blood bank, RIMS, Ranchi, Jharkhand, over a period of 4 years from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2015. Blood group of the blood donors was determined by commercially available standard monoclonal antisera by test tube agglutination technique accompanied by reverse grouping. Results: Out of 20,455 subjects, 18,717 (91.73% were male and 1738 (8.27% were female subjects. The ABO blood group present was B (35.15% followed by O (34.73%, A (22.09%, and AB (8.03% in blood donors while in Rh system, (96.46% donors were Rh +ve and (3.54% donors were Rh −ve. The study has a significant implication regarding the inventory management of blood bank and transfusion services for the indoor patients of RIMS and for emergency supply to other hospitals of Jharkhand in dire need of blood. Conclusions: The knowledge of

  5. The distribution of dragonfly larvae in a South Carolina stream: relationships with sediment type, body size, and the presence of other larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthen, Wade B; Horacek, Henry Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Dragonfly larvae were sampled in Little Creek, Greenville, SC. The distributions of five common species were described relative to sediment type, body size, and the presence of other larvae. In total, 337 quadrats (1 m by 0.5 m) were sampled by kick seine. For each quadrat, the substrate was classified as sand, sand-cobble mix, cobble, coarse, or rock, and water depth and distance from bank were measured. Larvae were identified to species, and the lengths of the body, head, and metafemur were measured. Species were distributed differently across sediment types: sanddragons, Progomphus obscurus (Rambur) (Odonata: Gomphidae), were common in sand; twin-spotted spiketails, Cordulegaster maculata Selys (Odonata: Cordulegastridae), preferred a sand-cobble mix; Maine snaketails, Ophiogomphus mainensis Packard (Odonata: Gomphidae), preferred cobble and coarse sediments; fawn darners, Boyeria vinosa (Say) (Odonata: Aeshnidae), preferred coarse sediments; and Eastern least clubtails, Stylogomphus albistylus (Hagen) (Odonata: Gomphidae), preferred coarse and rock sediments. P. obscurus and C. maculata co-occurred more frequently than expected by chance, as did O. mainensis, B. vinosa, and S. albistylus. Mean size varied among species, and species preferences contributed to differences in mean size across sediment types. There were significant negative associations among larval size classes: small larvae (15 mm) than expected by chance, and large larvae were alone in quadrats more frequently than other size classes. Species may select habitats at a large scale based on sediment type and their functional morphology, but small scale distributions are consistent with competitive displacement or intraguild predation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  6. The Spatial Distribution of Food Outlet Type and Quality around Schools in Differing Built Environment and Demographic Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Lawrence; Glanz, Karen; McCarron, Margaret; Sallis, James; Sealens, Brian; Chapman, James

    2006-01-01

    Safe and convenient access to healthy foods for all populations is a fundamental transportation and environmental justice concern. Emerging evidence suggests that residents of lower income communities have less access to healthy food choices than those in higher income areas. Most studies to date rely on an as- sumed level of food quality generalized across different types of food outlets (e.g., grocery versus convenience stores) mapped in space. The current study includes a detailed audit of...

  7. Distribution Characteristic of Soil Organic Carbon Fraction in Different Types of Wetland in Hongze Lake of China

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Yan; Xu, Hongwen

    2014-01-01

    Soil organic carbon fractions included microbial biomass carbon (MBC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and labile organic carbon (LOC), which was investigated over a 0–20 cm depth profile in three types of wetland in Hongze Lake of China. Their ecoenvironmental effect and the relationships with soil organic carbon (SOC) were analyzed in present experiment. The results showed that both active and SOC contents were in order reduced by estuarine wetland, flood plain, and out-of-lake wetland. Pea...

  8. Distribution of type XV collagen transcripts in human tissue and their production by muscle cells and fibroblasts.

    OpenAIRE

    Kivirikko, S.; Saarela, J.; Myers, J. C.; Autio-Harmainen, H.; Pihlajaniemi, T.

    1995-01-01

    Type XV collagen is a recently identified member of the diverse family of collagens, its structure being characterized by extensive interruptions in the collagenous sequences. A combination of Northern blot hybridization of fetal and adult human tissues and in situ hybridization analyses of a fetus with Down's syndrome, several placentas, and adult skin were used to localize expression of its mRNAs. Northern blot analysis revealed marked expression in heart, skeletal muscle, and placenta tiss...

  9. Distribution of prothioconazole and tebuconazole between wheat ears and flag leaves following fungicide spraying with different nozzle types at flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoczki-Krsjak, Szabolcs; Varga, Mónika; Mesterházy, Ákos

    2015-01-01

    Wheat ears are difficult targets from the aspect of fungicide spraying. Sideward-spraying nozzle types may enhance the ear coverage, which may possibly lead to higher effectiveness in the management of Fusarium head blight (FHB). On average, sideward-spraying Turbo TeeJet Duo nozzles resulted in 1.30 and 1.43 times higher prothioconazole-desthio and tebuconazole contents and Turbo FloodJet nozzles in 1.08 and 1.34 times higher prothioconazole-desthio and tebuconazole contents in wheat ears by comparison with those achieved with vertically-spraying XR TeeJet nozzles. In contrast, the vertically-spraying XR TeeJet nozzles resulted in 1.57 and 1.31 times higher prothioconazole-desthio and tebuconazole contents in the flag leaf blade. The degradation of the active ingredient (AI) depended on the year, the cultivar and the plant organ, but not on the spraying method. There was no clear relationship between the efficacy of a given nozzle type and the outcome of the FHB epidemic. The ear coverage and therefore the AI content have been improved with the two sideward-spraying nozzle types. There was no effective translocation of the AI content between the ears and flag leaf blades. Prothioconazole and tebuconazole proved to be highly effective in the management of FHB, but the FHB resistance of the cultivar was also decisive. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Distribution of strain type and antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolates causing meningitis in a large urban setting in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Hillary; Barberino, Maria Goreth; Moreira, Edson Duarte; Riley, Lee; Reis, Joice N

    2014-05-01

    The clinical management of meningitis caused by Escherichia coli is greatly complicated when the organism becomes resistant to broad-spectrum antibiotics. We sought to characterize the antimicrobial susceptibilities, sequence types (ST), and presence of known drug resistance genes of E. coli isolates that caused meningitis between 1996 and 2011 in Salvador, Brazil. We then compared these findings to those for E. coli isolates from community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTI) that occurred during the same time period and in the same city. We found that 19% of E. coli isolates from cases of meningitis and less than 1% of isolates from UTI were resistant to third-generation cephalosporins. The sequence types of E. coli isolates from cases of meningitis included ST131, ST69, ST405, and ST62, which were also found among isolates from UTI. Additionally, among the E. coli isolates that were resistant to third-generation cephalosporins, we found genes that encode the extended-spectrum beta-lactamases CTX-M-2, CTX-M-14, and CTX-M-15. These observations demonstrate that compared to E. coli strains isolated from cases of community-acquired UTI, those isolated from cases of meningitis are more resistant to third-generation cephalosporins, even though the same sequence types are shared between the two forms of extraintestinal infections.

  11. Relationship Study on Land Use Spatial Distribution Structure and Energy-Related Carbon Emission Intensity in Different Land Use Types of Guangdong, China, 1996–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Yang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    This study attempts to discuss the relationship between land use spatial distribution structure and energy-related carbon emission intensity in Guangdong during 1996–2008. We quantized the spatial distribution structure of five land use types including agricultural land, industrial land, residential and commercial land, traffic land, and other land through applying spatial Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient. Then the corresponding energy-related carbon emissions in each type of land were calculated in the study period. Through building the reasonable regression models, we found that the concentration degree of industrial land is negatively correlated with carbon emission intensity in the long term, whereas the concentration degree is positively correlated with carbon emission intensity in agricultural land, residential and commercial land, traffic land, and other land. The results also indicate that land use spatial distribution structure affects carbon emission intensity more intensively than energy efficiency and production efficiency do. These conclusions provide valuable reference to develop comprehensive policies for energy conservation and carbon emission reduction in a new perspective. PMID:23476128

  12. Relationship study on land use spatial distribution structure and energy-related carbon emission intensity in different land use types of Guangdong, China, 1996-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Xia, Bin; Yang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    This study attempts to discuss the relationship between land use spatial distribution structure and energy-related carbon emission intensity in Guangdong during 1996-2008. We quantized the spatial distribution structure of five land use types including agricultural land, industrial land, residential and commercial land, traffic land, and other land through applying spatial Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient. Then the corresponding energy-related carbon emissions in each type of land were calculated in the study period. Through building the reasonable regression models, we found that the concentration degree of industrial land is negatively correlated with carbon emission intensity in the long term, whereas the concentration degree is positively correlated with carbon emission intensity in agricultural land, residential and commercial land, traffic land, and other land. The results also indicate that land use spatial distribution structure affects carbon emission intensity more intensively than energy efficiency and production efficiency do. These conclusions provide valuable reference to develop comprehensive policies for energy conservation and carbon emission reduction in a new perspective.

  13. Star-dust geometries in galaxies: The effect of interstellar matter distributions on optical and infrared properties of late-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, J. M., Jr.; Thronson, H. A., Jr.; Witt, A. N.

    1993-01-01

    The presence of substantial amounts of interstellar dust in late-type galaxies affects observable parameters such as the optical surface brightness, the color, and the ratio of far-infrared to optical luminosity of these galaxies. We conducted radiative transfer calculations for late-type galaxy environments to examine two different scenarios: (1) the effects of increasing amounts of dust in two fixed geometries with different star distributions; and (2) the effects of an evolving dust-star geometry in which the total amount of dust is held constant, for three different star distributions. The calculations were done for ten photometric bands, ranging from the far-ultraviolet to the near-infrared (K), and scattered light was included in the galactic surface brightness at each wavelength. The energy absorbed throughout these ten photometric bands was assumed to re-emerge in the far-infrared as thermal dust emission. We also considered the evolutionary contraction of a constant amount of dust relative to pre-existing star distributions.

  14. Relationship Study on Land Use Spatial Distribution Structure and Energy-Related Carbon Emission Intensity in Different Land Use Types of Guangdong, China, 1996–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to discuss the relationship between land use spatial distribution structure and energy-related carbon emission intensity in Guangdong during 1996–2008. We quantized the spatial distribution structure of five land use types including agricultural land, industrial land, residential and commercial land, traffic land, and other land through applying spatial Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient. Then the corresponding energy-related carbon emissions in each type of land were calculated in the study period. Through building the reasonable regression models, we found that the concentration degree of industrial land is negatively correlated with carbon emission intensity in the long term, whereas the concentration degree is positively correlated with carbon emission intensity in agricultural land, residential and commercial land, traffic land, and other land. The results also indicate that land use spatial distribution structure affects carbon emission intensity more intensively than energy efficiency and production efficiency do. These conclusions provide valuable reference to develop comprehensive policies for energy conservation and carbon emission reduction in a new perspective.

  15. Serotonin storage pools in basophil leukemia and mast cells: characterization of two types of serotonin binding protein and radioautographic analysis of the intracellular distribution of [3H]serotonin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamir, H.; Theoharides, T.C.; Gershon, M.D.; Askenase, P.W.

    1982-01-01

    The binding of serotonin to protein(s) derived from rat basophil leukemia (RBL) cells and mast cells was studied. Two types of serotonin binding protein in RBL cells was found. These proteins differed from one another in molecular weight and eluted in separate peaks from sephadex G-200 columns. Peak I protein (KD = 1.9 x 10 -6 M) was a glycoprotein that bound to concanavalin A (Con A); Peak II protein (KD 1 = 4.5 x 10 - 8 M; KD 2 = 3.9 x 10 -6 M) did not bind to Con A. Moreover, binding of [ 3 H]serotonin to protein of Peak I was sensitive to inhibition by reserpine, while binding of [ 3 H]serotonin to protein of Peak II resisted inhibition by that drug. Other differences between the two types of binding protein were found, the most significant of which was the far more vigorous conditions of homogenization required to extract Peak I than Peak II protein. Electron microscope radioautographic analysis of the intracellular distribution of [ 3 H] serotonin taken up in vitro by RBL cells or in vivo by murine mast cells indicated that essentially all of the labeled amine was located in cytoplasmic granules.No evidence for a pool in the cytosol was found and all granules were capable of becoming labeled. The presence of two types of intracellular serotonin binding proteins in these cells may indicate that there are two intracellular storage compartments for the amine. Both may be intragranular, but Peak I protein may be associated with the granular membrane while Peak II protein may be more free within the granular core. Different storage proteins may help to explain the differential release of amines from mast cell granules

  16. [Nonuniform distribution and contribution of the P- and P/Q-type calcium channels to short-term inhibitory synaptic transmission in cultured hippocampal neurons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizerna, O P; Fedulova, S A; Veselovs'kyĭ, M S

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the sensitivity of GABAergic short-term plasticity to the selective P- and P/Q-type calcium channels blocker omega-agatoxin-IVA. To block the P-type channels we used 30 nM of this toxin and 200 nM of the toxin was used to block the P/Q channel types. The evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (eIPSC) were studied using patch-clamp technique in whole-cell configuration in postsynaptic neuron and local extracellular stimulation of single presynaptic axon by rectangular pulse. The present data show that the contribution of P- and P/Q-types channels to GABAergic synaptic transmission in cultured hippocampal neurons are 30% and 45%, respectively. It was shown that the mediate contribution of the P- and P/Q-types channels to the amplitudes of eIPSC is different to every discovered neuron. It means that distribution of these channels is non-uniform. To study the short-term plasticity of inhibitory synaptic transmission, axons of presynaptic neurons were paired-pulse stimulated with the interpulse interval of 150 ms. Neurons demonstrated both the depression and facilitation. The application of 30 nM and 200 nM of the blocker decreased the depression and increased facilitation to 8% and 11%, respectively. In addition, we found that the mediate contribution of the P- and P/Q-types channels to realization of synaptic transmission after the second stimuli is 4% less compared to that after the first one. Therefore, blocking of both P- and P/Q-types calcium channels can change the efficiency of synaptic transmission. In this instance it facilitates realization of the transmission via decreased depression or increased facilitation. These results confirm that the P- and P/Q-types calcium channels are involved in regulation of the short-term inhibitory synaptic plasticity in cultured hippocampal neurons.

  17. Land-Use Influences the Distribution and Activity of High Affinity CO-Oxidizing Bacteria Associated to type I-coxL Genotype in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana eQuiza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil carboxydovore bacteria are the biological sink of atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO. The initial oxidation of CO is catalyzed by a CO-dehydrogenase (CODH, and the gene coxL encodes the large subunit of the enzyme. Only a few carboxydovore isolates were shown to oxidize atmospheric CO and little is known about the potential impact of global change on the ecophysiology of this functional group. The main objective of this study was to assess the impact of land-use and soil properties on coxL gene diversity and identify molecular indicators for the soil uptake of atmospheric CO. Soil samples were collected in three neighboring sites encompassing different land-use types, namely deciduous forest, larch plantation and maize field. CO uptake activity was related to total carbon and nitrogen content in soil, with the highest activity observed in deciduous forest. An extensive coxL database was assembled to optimize a PCR detection assay targeting sequences belonging to functional type I-CODH and hypothetical type II-CODH. Fully replicated coxL gene libraries unveiled a unique molecular signature in deciduous forest soil, with enrichment of type I sequences. Genetic profiles of larch and maize monocultures were not statistically different and showed higher level of coxL gene richness than deciduous forest. Soil water content and CO uptake activity explained 38% of the variation of coxL gene profiles in a canonical ordination analysis, leading to the identification of sequences belonging to the δ-Proteobacteria cluster as indicator for high affinity CO uptake activity. Enrichment of type I and δ-Proteobacteria coxL sequences in deciduous forest were confirmed by qPCR in an independent soil survey. CO uptake activity in model carboxydovore bacteria suggested that a significant fraction of detected putative high affinity CO oxidizers were active in soil. Land-use was a driving force separating coxL diversity in deciduous forest from monocultures.

  18. Research on the internal pressure behavior of metal gas distribution pipelines with different types of tubing defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Stefan Mihai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to approach an important subject related to natural gas distribution networks which, depending on the expansion of the localities, are composed of intercommunicating pipes, pressure reducing stations and branch connections fittings. The urban networks are the most complex ones and the rural areas networks are the simplest. However, irrespective of their installation, they must meet the safety operating requirements as much as possible. According to standards, all these components must be tight and pressure resistant. In this regard, we intend to approach a very important issue related to the behavior of the tubular steel material showing corrosion and/or material defects, and to the internal stress caused by the gas pressure on the walls of the tubing material.

  19. Occurrence and Tissue Distribution of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Identified by Immunohistochemistry in Danish Finishing Pigs at Slaughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Sif; Pors, S. E.; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    2010-01-01

    or more tissues of 61% of the pigs were positive for PCV2 antigen. Up to 78% of the pigs had mild lymphoid depletion, indistinct lymphoid follicles and/or histiocytic Infiltration of the lymph nodes, but these lesions were not associated with PCV2. No association was found between the presence of lung...... in the early post-weaning period and are also recognized in finishing pigs of 12-19 weeks of I e. The aim of the present study was to assess Hie role of PCV2 infection in disease of finishing pigs. Accordingly, the occurrence and tissue distriubution of PCV2 was examined in Danish finishing pigs at the time...... common and localized to the centres of lymphoid follicles, Corresponding to the morphology and distribution of FDCs. This observation may be interpreted to suggest that PCV2 may Interact with FDCs to cause depletion of B lymphocytes. Alternatively, the FDCs may be a reservoir of infective PCV2...

  20. Analysis of Grain Size Distribution and Hydraulic Conductivity for a Variety of Sediment Types with Application to Wadi Sediments

    KAUST Repository

    Rosas Aguilar, Jorge

    2013-05-01

    Grain size distribution, porosity, and hydraulic conductivity from over 400 unlithified sediment samples were analized. The measured hydraulic conductivity values were then compared to values calculated using 20 different empirical equations commonly used to estimate hydraulic conductivity from grain size analyses. It was found that most of the hydraulic conductivity values estimated from the empirical equations correlated very poorly to the measured hydraulic conductivity values. Modifications of the empirical equations, including changes to special coefficients and statistical off sets, were made to produce modified equations that considerably improve the hydraulic conductivity estimates from grain size data for beach, dune, off shore marine, and wadi sediments. Expected hydraulic conductivity estimation errors were reduced. Correction factors were proposed for wadi sediments, taking mud percentage and the standard deviation (in phi units) into account.